TITLE 31—MONEY AND FINANCE

This title was enacted by Pub. L. 97–258, §1, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877

Subtitle
Sec.
I.
General
101
II.
The Budget Process
1101
III.
Financial Management
3101
IV.
Money
5101
V.
General Assistance Administration
6101
VI.
Miscellaneous
9101

        

Table Showing Disposition of All Sections of Former Title 31
Title 31      Former Sections     Title 31         New Sections        
1 Rep.
2 701, 1101
11(a) 1105
11(b), (c) 1106
11(d)–(f) 1105
11(g) (1st–3d sentences) 1106
11(g) (last sentence)–(i) (1st sentence) 1105
11(i) (last sentence), (j) 1108
11(k)(1) 1105
11(k)(2) 1113
11 note 1105
11a 1109
11b. T. 2 §661
11c 1110
11d 1104
12 Rep.
13 1105
14 1107
15 1108
16 (1st sentence) 501
16 (2d, 3d sentences) 502
16 (last sentence related to preparation of budgets and appropriations) 1104
16 (last sentence related to appropriations request) 1108
16a 502
16b Rep.
16c 502
17(a) (related to employees) 521
17(a) (related to expenses) 522
17(b), (c) Rep.
18, 18a 1111
18b 1104
18c 1112
19 1105
20 1113
21 1104
22–24 1108
25 1105
26 Rep.
27 1103
28 1114
41 702
42(a) (1st sentence words before comma) 702
42(a) (1st sentence words after comma, last sentence), (b) 703
42a 703
43 (1st par.) 703
43 (2d par. 1st, 2d, 4th, last sentences) 772
43 (2d par. 3d sentence) 779
43 (3d par.) 772
43 (last par.) 775
43a 703
43b(a)–(c) 773
43b(d), (e) 774
43b(f) 776
43b(g) 771
43b(h) 778
43b(i), (j) (less last 13 words before colon) 775
43b(j) (last 13 words before colon) 776
43b(k) 775
43b(l), (m) 776
43b(n), (o) 774
43b(p) 771
43b(q) 773
43b(r) 779
43c 777
44 (1st sentence) 711, 731, 3301, 3323, 3324, 3521, 3522, 3526, 3529, 3531, 3541, 3702, (See §2(b) of Pub. L. 97–258)
44 (2d, last sentences) 3526
45 Rep.
46 704
46a to 48 Rep.
49 3511
49a 5120
50, 51 Rep.
51–1 702
51a, 52(a), (b) 731
52(c), (d) 711
52–1 (related to appointment, pay and assignment) 731
52–1 (related to direct) 711
52–2 732
52–3(a)–(d) 751
52–3(e)–(g) 752
52–3(h) 753
52–3(i) 754
52–3(j), (k) 753
52–3(l) 755
52–3(m) 753
52–4(a) 733
52–4(b) 731
52–5 732
52–6 735
52–7 736
52a Rep.
52b, 52c 731
53(a) (1st sentence words before 5th comma) 712
53(a) (1st sentence words after 5th comma, last sentence) 719
53(b) 712
53(c)–(e) 719
53(f) 718
54 716
55 Rep.
56 731
57, 58 Rep.
59, 60 (1st sentence) 712
60 (last sentence) 719
61 715
65(a)–(e) Rep.
65(f) 3511
65a 3501
65b 3521
66(a) 3511
66(b) (less Treasury Department) 3512
66(b) (related to Treasury Department) 3513
66(c) 3512
66a 3512
66b 3513
66c 3326
66d 3514
67(a)–(c) 3523
67(d)(1)–(3) 713
67(d)(4) 719
67(e)(1)–(5), (7) 714
67(e)(6)(A) 719
67(e)(6)(B) 718
67(f) 3524
68 9501
68a 9503
68b 9504
68c, 68d 9502
71 (related to accounts) 3526
71 (related to claims) 3702
71a 3702
72, 73 Rep.
74 (1st, 2d pars., last par. words after 4th comma) 3526
74 (last par. words before 4th comma) 3529
75 3521
76 (1st, last sentences) 3324
76 (2d, 3d sentences) 3323
77 3323
78 3522
79 Rep.
80–80c 3522
81 3522
82 3521
82a 3325
82a–1, 82a–2 3527
82b 3325
82b–1 3521
82c 3528
82d (words before semicolon) 3541
82d (words after semicolon) 3529
82e (related to 31:82b) 3325
82e (related to 31:82c) 3528
82e (related to 31:82d) 3529
82f (related to disbursing officers) 3325
82f (related to certifying officers) 3528
82g (related to disbursing officers) 3322
82g (related to certifying officers) 3528
82h T. 7 §1032a
82i 3526
82j to 82p Rep.
83, 84 Rep.
85 T. 48 §1469–1
86 3702
87, 88 Rep.
89–92 3531
93, 94 Rep.
95 T. 10 §4842
95a 3527
95b (related to Army, Navy, Air Force) T. 10 §2777
95b (related to State Department) T. 22 §2668
96–102 Rep.
103 T. 10 §2778
103a T. 10 §2773
103b T. 10 §2773
104 T. 10 §7861
105 Rep.
106 T. 10 §7862
107 3526
107a Rep.
108 T. 10 §7231
109–116 Rep.
117 711
118–121 Rep.
122 3702
123 (words before 1st proviso) 3329
123 (provisos) 3330
124 (1st par.) 3329
124 (last par.) 3330
125 (1st par.) 3329
125 (last par.) 3330
126 3329
127 321
128 3329
129–131 3712
132 3328
133 Rep.
134 3328
135 3525
141 301
142–146 Rep.
147 (less disbursement) 3301
147 (related to disbursement) 3323
148–154 Rep.
155 (See former 1003)
156 3333
157 327
161, 162 Rep.
163 329
164–166 Rep.
171 303
172, 173 Rep.
174 5144
175 5155
176 Rep.
177 5114
178, 179 Rep.
180 5141
181 5143
181 note 5142
181a 5142
181b, 181c 5141
181d, 181e Rep.
191, 192 3713
193 9309
194 Rep.
195 3715
196–199 Rep.
200(a) 1501
200(b), (c) 1108
200(d) 1502
200(e) 1501
201, 202 Rep.
203 3727
204–206 Rep.
207 3714
208–214 Rep.
215 3723
215a Rep.
216, 217 3723
218–224 Rep.
224a, 224a note 3725
224b, 224b note 3724 
224c to 226 Rep.
227 3728
228 Rep.
229 T. 2 §190l
230 T. 2 §190m
231 3729
232(A)–(E) 3730
232(F) 3731
233 3730
234 Rep.
235 3731
236, 237 3702
237a 3712
238, 238 note 3722
239 3727
240(1), (2), (4) 3701
240(3) 3721
241(a)–(d) 3721
241(e) Rep.
241(f) 3721
242–243a 3721
243a note 3721
244 3726
251 (1st sentence words after 1st comma) 5131
251 (less 1st sentence words after 1st comma) 304
252 Rep.
253 5132
254 Rep.
261 5131
262 Rep.
263 5131
264–271 Rep.
272 5111
273 (1st, 2d sentences) 5132
273 (last sentence) 5122
274 5121
275 5111
276 5112
277 5121
278, 279 5131
280 Rep.
281 5131
282 Rep.
283 (1st sentence) 5131
283 (2d, last sentences) 5133
284–286 Rep.
287 5131
291 Rep.
292 5131
293, 294 Rep.
301–304 Rep.
311–315a Rep.
315b 5118
316–316d Rep.
317(a), (b) 5112
317(c) Rep.
317a, 317b Rep.
317c 5120
317d to 317e–1 Rep.
317f 321
318–320 Rep.
321 5112
322 5111
323 Rep.
324 5112
324a 5114
324b to 324c 5112
324d, 324e Rep.
324f 5131
324g Rep.
324h 5111
324i Rep.
325 5121
326 Rep.
327–330 5121
331, 332 5122
333 Rep.
334 5122
335 5116
336–339 Rep.
340 5111
341 Rep.
342 5111
343, 344 5121
345 5111
346 5112
347 5121
348, 349 Rep.
350, 351 5113
352 Rep.
353 5111
354–356 5133
357, 358 5122
359 Rep.
360 5121
361 (1st sentence words before 1st comma) 5131
361 (1st sentence words after 1st comma, last sentence) 5132
362 5121
363 Rep.
364 5102
365 5133
366 Rep.
367, 368 5111
369 5132
370 Rep.
371 5101
372 5151
373–388o Rep.
391(a) 5111
391(b)–(d) 5112
392 5103
393(a) 5111
393(b) Rep.
394 5116
395, 396 5111
397 321
398(1)–(4), (6) 5112
398(5) 5113
399 5112
401, 402 5115
403 Rep.
404 5119
405, 405a Rep.
405a–1 5116
405a–2, 405a–3 5119
405b 5117
406–408 Rep.
408a (last proviso) 5117
408a (less last proviso) 5119
408b to 412 Rep.
413–416 5114
417 Rep.
418, 418a 5114
419 5114
420 5119
421, 422 5120
423 Rep.
424 5153
425, 426 5154
427 321
428–430 Rep.
440 Rep.
441 5117
442, 443 Rep.
444 (1st sentence words between 2d and 3d semicolons) 5119
444 (less 1st sentence words between 2d and 3d semicolons) Rep.
445, 446 Rep.
448–448e Rep.
449 Rep.
449a 5152
449b, 449c Rep.
451–455 Rep.
456 5103
457–462 Rep.
463, 463 note 5118
471 Rep.
472 302
473 3303
474–483 Rep.
483a 9701
483b T. 10 §1042
484 3302
485 Rep.
486 321
486a to 488 Rep.
488a T. 16 §580o–2
488b to 488b–2 Rep.
488b–3 T. 16 §580o
488b–4 T. 16 §580o–1
488b–5 T. 16 §580o–3
488b–6 T. 16 §580o–4
489 T. 40 §485a
489a T. 10 §2636
490 3302
491 Rep.
492(a) 3322
492(b)–(d) 3332
492 note 3332
492–1 3321
492–2 Rep.
492a–492c 3342
492d Rep.
493 T. 10 §4841
493a T. 10 §2776
493b, 494 Rep.
495 3302
495a Rep.
496, 497 3522
497a 3532
498 3522
499–504b Rep.
505 3545
506, 507 3541
508 3542
509 Rep.
510–513 3542
514 3541
516 3541
517–519 3543
520 3544
521 3302
522 3304
523, 524 Rep.
525 3302
526 3327
527 3328
528(a)–(c) 3331
528(d) 321
528(e) Rep.
528(f), (g) 3331
528(h) Rep.
529 3324
529a Rep.
529b T. 19 §2076
529c T. 19 §2077
529d T. 19 §2078
529e T. 19 §2079
529f T. 19 §2080
529g, 529h Rep.
529i, 529j T. 10 §2395
530 Rep.
530a, 530b 3324
531 T. 15 §196
532 T. 28 §571
533 Rep.
534 T. 16 §556d
535 T. 22 §268b
536, 537 T. 10 §2777
538 3526
539, 540 T. 10 §2777
541 3526
542, 543 Rep.
544 3341
545 3302
546 Rep.
547 T. 22 §2668a
547a 9702
548 3305
549 Rep.
550 T. 33 §877
551, 552 1345
553 T. 42 §3514
554 Rep.
555 T. 26 §4986 note
561–563a 3343
564 321
571 Rep.
581 1104
581 note 1303
581a 1104
581b 1108
581c 1531
581c–1 Rep.
581d 3530
582–622 Rep.
623 1104
624–626 Rep.
627, 628 1301
628–1 1532
628–2, 628–3 T. 10 §2779
628a 1534
629–638 Rep.
638a(a)–(c)(1) 1343
638a(c)(2) (1st, last sentences) 1344
638a(c)(2) (2d sentence) 1349
638a(d) Rep.
638a(e) 1343
638a–1 1343
638b T. 33 §576a
638c 1343 note
638d, 638e 1343
638f Elim.
639–649 Rep.
649a T. 10 §956 note
649b Rep.
649c T. 10 §2394
650 Rep.
650a T. 37 §406
650b to 660 Rep.
661 T. 33 §878
662 T. 16 §754a
663, 663a Rep.
664 Rep.
665(a) 1341
665(b) 1342
665(c) (less (1) (last sentence)) 1512
665(c)(1) (last sentence) 1511
665(d)(1), (2) (1st–4th sentences, 6th sentence 1st–22d words) 1513
665(d)(2) (5th sentence, 6th sentence less 1st–22d words) 1511
665(d)(2) (last sentence related to spending and obligations) 1341
665(d)(2) (last sentence related to voluntary services) 1342
665(d)(2) (last sentence related to price supports) 1511
665(e) 1515
665(f)(1) 1516
665(f)(2) 1511
665(g) (1st sentence) 1513
665(g) (less 1st sentence) 1514
665(h) 1517
665(i)(1) (words before semicolon related to (a), (b)) 1549
665(i)(1) (words after semicolon related to (a), (b)) 1550
665(i)(1) (words before semicolon related to (h)) 1518
665(i)(1) (words after semicolon related to (h)) 1519
665(i)(2) (related to (a), (b)) 1351
665(i)(2) (related to (h)) 1517
665a 1515
665b 1502
666 T. 10 §4541
667 Rep.
668 T. 41 §11a
668a 1308
669 (words before semicolon) 1513
669 (words after semicolon) 1341
670 1302
671 T. 2 §§68–2, 95a
671a Rep.
672, 673 1346
674–678 Rep.
679–680a 1348
681 Rep.
682 1307
683–685 Rep.
685a 1537
686(a) 1535
686(b) 1536
686(c) 1535
686–1 1535
686–2 3324
686a Rep.
686b(a), (b), (c) (related to 31:686, 686b) 1535
686b(c) (related to 31:686) 1536
686c to 688 Rep.
689 T. 40 §166a–1
690 Rep.
691 1346
692 T. 43 §1470
693 T. 43 §1471
693a T. 28 §524
694, 695 Rep.
696 1347
697 1533
698 T. 32 §107
698a T. 37 §1012
699 T. 42 §2459a
699a 1309
699b T. 5 §3101 note
700 T. 10 §1584 note
700a, 700b Elim.
700c Rep.
700d T. 38 §203
701(a), (b) 1552
701(c) (1st sentence) 1551
701(c) (last sentence), (d) 1552
702 1553
703(a) 1554
703(b) 1556
704 Rep.
705 1552
706 1555
707 1551
708 1557
711(1)–(3) 1305
711(4)–(11) Rep.
711(11a)–(23) 1305
712 Rep.
712a 1502
712b to 716 Rep.
717, 718 1301
719, 720 Rep.
721 1310
722 T. 2 §30
723, 723a T. 10 §2661a
724 1306
724a (1st sentence) 1304
724a (last sentence) T. 39 §409
725 Rep.
725a to 725d Elim.
725e Rep.
725f Elim.
725g Rep.
725h T. 24 §21b
725i to 725k Rep.
725l, 725m Elim.
725n, 725o Rep.
725p(a) (last sentence) 331
725p (less (a) (last sentence)) Rep.
725p note 1322
725p–1 1322
725q(a) (last sentence) 331
725q (less (a) (last sentence)) Rep.
725q–1 1322
725q–1a 1324
725q–2 T. 18 §3150a
725r 1323
725s (less (a) (last sentence last proviso)) 1321
725s(a) (last sentence last proviso) 1322
725s–1 T. 25 §385a
725s–2 T. 25 §385b
725s–3 T. 25 §385c
725s–4 T. 18 §4043
725t, 725u Rep.
725v(a) Rep.
725v(b) (related to marshals) T. 28 §572a
725v(b) (related to clerks) T. 28 §2043
725w 1503
725x to 725z Rep.
731–733 (words before semicolon) 3123
733 (words after semicolon), 734 5116
734a to 738 Rep.
738a 3125
739 3121
740 3127
741 Rep.
741a 324
742, 742a 3124
743–751 Rep.
752 (1st–4th pars. less 2d par. form of bonds) 3102
752 (2d par. related to form of bonds) 3121
752 (last par.) 3107
752a Rep.
753(a) (less form of notes, certificates of indebtedness, and Treasury bills) 3103
753(a) (related to form of notes, certificates of indebtedness, and Treasury bills) 3121
753(b) Rep.
753(c) 3103
753(d) (1st sentence) 3108
753(d) (2d sentence) 3123
753(d) (last sentence related to 31:771) 3122
753(d) (last sentence less related to 31:771) 3129
754(a) (less form of certificates of indebtedness and Treasury bills, finality) 3104
754(a) (related to form of certificates of indebtedness and Treasury bills, finality) 3121
754(b) Rep.
754(c) T. 12 §221
754(d) Rep.
754a 3111
754b 3121
755–757 Rep.
757a (See former 405b)
757b, 757b–1 3101
757b–2 Rep.
757c(a)–(d) (1st sentence) 3105
757c(d) (last sentence) 3108
757c(e) 3129
757c(f), (g) Rep.
757c(h) 3105
757c(i) (1st–6th sentences) 3126
757c(i) (last sentence) 331
757c(j) 3105
757c–1 Rep.
757c–2(a)–(c) (1st sentence) 3106
757c–2(c) (last sentence) 3108
757c–2(d) 3106
757c–3 3109
757c–4, 757c–5 3121
757d 3128
757e 3113
757f 331
758 3108
759–761 3129
761a to 765 Rep.
766 3123
767 3112
767a Rep.
767b 3112
768 (words before semicolon) 3123
768 (words after semicolon) 3121
769, 770 Rep.
771, 772 3122
772a 3121
773 Rep.
773a–773d 5118
774 Rep.
801–804 3110
804a to 809 Rep.
821 5301
822 5304
822a(a)–(c) 5302
822a(d) 325
822b 5117, 5119, 5304
823, 824 Rep.
841 Rep.
846 9101
847, 848 9103
849 9104
850 9105
851 9106
852 9109
856 9101
857 9105
858 9106
859 1105
866 9105
867 9107
868 (less (d) (1st sentence related to 31:867)) 9108
868(d) (1st sentence related to 31:867) 9107
869(a) 9102
869(b) Rep.
870 9107
871 Rep. See T. 40 §33a
901–904 3113
911 5119
912, 913 Rep.
914–917 5119
931–937 Rep.
938 5303
951 3701
952(a)–(d)(3) 3711
952(d)(4) 3701
952(e)(1) (1st to 3d sentences) 3717
952(e)(1) (last sentence) 3701
952(e)(2)–(7) 3717
952(e)(8) 3701
952(f) 3718
952 note 3711
953 3711 note
954(a)–(d) 3716
954(e) 3701
955 3719
971–973 Rep.
1001 301
1002 (less words between 4th and 5th semicolons) 321
1002 (words between 4th and 5th semicolons) 331
1003 329
1004–1005a 301
1006, 1007 301
1008 Rep.
1009 301
1010 (related to seal) 301
1010 (related to books, papers, and records) Rep.
1011 321
1012, 1013 Rep.
1014 328
1015 Rep.
1016 309
1017 321
1018 329
1019 Rep.
1020 1102
1020–1, 1020a Rep.
1021, 1022 Rep.
1023(a) 321
1023(b) 3302
1023(c) T. 18 §3059
1024 321
1025 Rep.
1026 330
1027 331
1028 Rep.
1029, 1030 331
1031, 1032 326
1033 322
1034 T. 21 §967
1035 T. 21 §968
1036 T. 21 §969
1037 T. 26 §7802
1038 323
1051 5311
1052(a)–(i) 5312
1052(j) 5319
1052(k) Rep.
1052(l) 5312
1053 321
1054(a), (b) (1st sentence) 5318
1054(b) (last sentence related to civil penalties) 5321
1054(b) (last sentence related to criminal penalties) 5322
1055 5318
1056 5321
1057 5320
1058, 1059 5322
1060 Rep.
1061 5319
1062 Rep.
1081–1083 5313
1101 5316
1102 5317
1103, 1104 5321
1105 5317
1121, 1122 5314
1141, 1142 5315
1143(a) 5321
1143(b) (words before last comma) 5320
1143(b) (words after last comma) 5321
1151, 1152(a), (b) 1112
1152(c)–(f) 1113
1153(a)–(c) 1113
1153(d) 1112
1154(a)–(c) 717
1154(d) (1st sentence) 702
1154(d) (last sentence) 731
1154(e) 719
1155(a) 702
1155(b) 719
1156 Rep.
1157 717, 719, 720, 1112
1171–1174 719
1175(a) 734
1175(b) 719
1175(c) 734
1176 720
1201 9302
1202 3530
1203, 1204 Rep.
1221 6702
1222, 1223 Rep.
1224(a)(1), (2) (related to trustee) 6703
1224(a)(2) (related to report) 6724
1224(b) Rep.
1224(c), (d), (e) 6703
1225(a), (b) 6707
1225(c) Rep.
1226(a)(1)(A) 6705
1226(a)(1)(B) 6707
1226(a)(2) 6705
1226(b) 6706
1226(c) Rep.
1227(a), (b)(1) 6708
1227(b)(2), (3) 6709
1227(b)(4) 6708
1227(b)(5) 6709
1227(b)(6), (7) 6712
1227(c) 6711
1227(d) 6701
1227(e) 6710
1228(a)(1) 6713
1228(a)(2) 6707
1228(a)(3) 6701
1228(a)(4) 6707
1228(a)(5) 6702
1228(a)(6) 6712
1228(a)(7) 6713
1228(b) 6707
1228(c)(1) 6707
1228(c)(2)(A) 6701
1228(c)(2)(B) 6707
1228(d) 6708
1228(e) 6709
1228(f)(1) 6707
1228(f)(2) 6708
1228(f)(3), (last sentence) 6709
1228(g) 6707
1228(h) 6713
1241(a) 6724
1241(b), (c) 6714
1241(d) 6724
1241(e) 6714, 6724
1241(f) 6724
1241(g) 6714
1242(a) 6716
1242(b)(1)–(3)(B) (1st sentence) 6717
1242(b)(3)(B) (2d sentence) 6718
1242(b)(3)(B) (last sentence) 6717
1242(b)(3)(C) 6718
1242(b)(3)(D), (E) 6717
1242(c)(1) 6701
1242(c)(2), (3) (related to proceedings) 6717
1242(c)(3) (related to suspensions and terminations) 6718
1242(c)(4) 6701
1242(d) 6719
1242(e), (f) 6718
1242(g) 6720
1242(h) 6716
1243(a), (b) 6704
1243(c) 6723
1243(d) 6715
1243 note 7301–7305
1244 6721
1245 6723
1261(a) 6703, 6724
1261(b)(1)–(7) Rep.
1261(b)(8) 6701
1261(c) 6701
1262(a) 321
1262(b) Rep.
1263 6722
1264 6713
1265 Rep.
1301 T. 2 §621
1302 T. 2 §622
1303 T. 2 §623
1321 T. 2 §631
1322 T. 2 §632
1323 T. 2 §633
1324 T. 2 §634
1325 T. 2 §635
1326 T. 2 §636
1327 T. 2 §637
1328 T. 2 §638
1329 T. 2 §639
1330 T. 2 §640
1331 T. 2 §641
1332 T. 2 §642
1351 T. 2 §651
1352 T. 2 §652
1353 T. 2 §653
1400 T. 2 §681
1401 T. 2 §682
1402 T. 2 §683
1403 T. 2 §684
1404 T. 2 §685
1405 T. 2 §686
1406 T. 2 §687
1407 T. 2 §688
1501–1510 Rep.
1521–1531 Elim.
1601 6902
1602 6903
1603 6904
1604 6903
1605 6902
1606 6901
1607 6906
1701 6101
1702 Rep.
1703 6102
1704(a)–(c) 6103
1704(d), (e) 6102
1705 6104
1706 Rep.
1707 6105
1801(a)(1) 3902
1801(a)(2) 3903
1801(b)–(d) 3902
1802 3904
1803 3906
1804 3905
1805–1806 3901

Enacting Clause

Section 1 of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877, provided in part that: “Certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to money and finance, are revised, codified, and enacted as title 31, United States Code, ‘Money and Finance’. . . .”

Legislative Purpose; Inconsistent Provisions

Section 4(a) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: “Sections 1–3 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before April 16, 1982, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after April 15, 1982, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.”

References to Other Laws

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: “A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–3 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.”

Outstanding Orders, Rules, and Regulations

Section 4(c) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: “An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–3 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.”

Savings Provision

Section 4(d) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: “An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–3 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.”

Legislative Construction

Section 4(e) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: “An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision.”

Severability

Section 4(f) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877, provided that: “If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Repeals

Section 6(a) of Pub. L. 98–216, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, provided that: “The repeal of a law enacted by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 98–216, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Feb. 14, 1984.

Section 4(a) of Pub. L. 97–452, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2479, provided that: “The repeal of a law enacted by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 97–452, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2480, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Jan. 12, 1983.

Section 5(a) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 5(b) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, repealed the sections or parts thereof of the Revised Statutes or Statutes at Large codified in this title, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Sept. 13, 1982.

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 98–216; Legislative Purpose; Inconsistent Provisions; Corresponding Provisions; Savings and Separability of Provisions

Pub. L. 98–216, §5, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, provided that:

“(a) Sections 1–4 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before April 1, 1983, that were replaced by those sections. Sections 1–4 may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after March 31, 1983, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision.

“(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 97–452; Legislative Purpose; Inconsistent Provisions; Corresponding Provisions; Savings and Separability of Provisions

Pub. L. 97–452, §3, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2479, provided that:

“(a) Sections 1 and 2 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before December 1, 1982, that were replaced by those sections. Sections 1 and 2 may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after November 30, 1982, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision.

“(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Title Referred to in Other Sections

This title is referred to in title 12 sections 93, 1464, 1722d, 1786, 1818; title 26 section 6050I; title 40 section 490b.

SUBTITLE I—GENERAL

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Definitions
101
3.
Department of the Treasury
301
5.
Office of Management and Budget
501
7.
General Accounting Office
701
9.
Agency Chief Financial Officers
901

        

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §205(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2845, added item for chapter 9.

CHAPTER 1—DEFINITIONS

Sec.
101.
Agency.
102.
Executive agency.
103.
United States.

        

§101. Agency

In this title, “agency” means a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
101 (no source).

The section is included to avoid the necessity for defining “agency” each time it is used in the revised title.

§102. Executive agency

In this title, “executive agency” means a department, agency, or instrumentality in the executive branch of the United States Government.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
102 (no source).

The section is included to avoid the necessity for defining “executive agency” each time it is used in the revised title.

§103. United States

In this title, “United States”, when used in a geographic sense, means the States of the United States and the District of Columbia.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
103 (no source).

The section is included to avoid the necessity for defining “United States” each time it is used in the revised title.

CHAPTER 3—DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

SUBCHAPTER I—ORGANIZATION

Sec.
301.
Department of the Treasury.
302.
Treasury of the United States.
303.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
304.
Bureau of the Mint.1

        

305.
Federal Financing Bank.
306.
Fiscal Service.
307.
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.
308.
United States Customs Service.
309.
Office of Thrift Supervision.
310.
Continuing in office.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

321.
General authority of the Secretary.
322.
Working capital fund.
323.
Investment of operating cash.
324.
Disposing and extending the maturity of obligations.
325.
International affairs authorization.
326.
Availability of appropriations for certain expenses.
327.
Advancements and reimbursements for services.
328.
Accounts and payments of former disbursing officials.
329.
Limitations on outside activities.
330.
Practice before the Department.
331.
Reports.
332.
Miscellaneous administrative authority.
333.
Prohibition of misuse of Department of the Treasury names, symbols, etc.

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–296, title III, §312(l)(2), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1530, added item 333.

1989—Pub. L. 101–73, title III, §307(a)(2), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 352, added item 309 and redesignated former item 309 as 310.

1984—Pub. L. 98–302, §3(b), May 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 218, added item 332.

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

SUBCHAPTER I—ORGANIZATION

§301. Department of the Treasury

(a) The Department of the Treasury is an executive department of the United States Government at the seat of the Government.

(b) The head of the Department is the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(c) The Department has a Deputy Secretary of the Treasury appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary; and

(2) the duties and powers of the Secretary when the Secretary is absent or unable to serve or when the office of Secretary is vacant.


(d) The Department has 2 Under Secretaries, an Under Secretary for Enforcement, 2 Deputy Under Secretaries, and a Treasurer of the United States, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Department also has a Fiscal Assistant Secretary appointed by the Secretary. They shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary. The President may designate one Under Secretary as Counselor. When appointing each Deputy Under Secretary, the President may designate the Deputy Under Secretary as an Assistant Secretary.

(e) The Department has 7 Assistant Secretaries appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Assistant Secretaries shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary. The Assistant Secretaries appointed under this subsection are in addition to the Assistant Secretaries appointed under subsection (d) of this section.

(f)(1) The Department has a General Counsel appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The General Counsel is the chief law officer of the Department. Without regard to those provisions of title 5 governing appointment in the competitive service, the Secretary may appoint not more than 5 Assistant General Counsels. The Secretary may designate one of the Assistant General Counsels to act as the General Counsel when the General Counsel is absent or unable to serve or when the office of General Counsel is vacant. The General Counsel and Assistant General Counsels shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) The President may appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, an Assistant General Counsel who shall be the Chief Counsel for the Internal Revenue Service. The Chief Counsel is the chief law officer for the Service and shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.

(g) The Department shall have a seal.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 878; Pub. L. 98–594, §1(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3129; Pub. L. 99–190, §141, Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1324; Pub. L. 103–211, title II, §2003(a), Feb. 12, 1994, 108 Stat. 24.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
301(a) 31:1001(words before 1st comma). R.S. §233.
301(b) 31:1001(words after 1st comma).
301(c) 31:1004(related to Deputy Secretary). Feb. 17, 1922, ch. 55(related to appointment and duties of Deputy and Under Secretaries), 42 Stat. 366; July 22, 1954, ch. 557, §3, 68 Stat. 496; restated May 18, 1972, Pub. L. 92–302, §1(a), 86 Stat. 148.
    Jan. 3, 1923, ch. 22(related to appointment and duties of Deputy and Under Secretaries), 42 Stat. 1087.
    Apr. 4, 1924, ch. 84(related to appointment and duties of Deputy and Under Secretaries), 43 Stat. 64.
  31:1005. Feb. 17, 1922, ch. 55(related to vacancy in office of Secretary of the Treasury), 42 Stat. 366; restated May 18, 1972, Pub. L. 92–302, §1(a), 86 Stat. 149.
    Jan. 3, 1923, ch. 22(related to vacancy in office of Secretary of the Treasury), 42 Stat. 1087.
    Apr. 4, 1924, ch. 84(related to vacancy in office of Secretary of the Treasury), 43 Stat. 64.
301(d) 31:141. R.S. §301.
  31:1004(related to Under Secretaries).
  31:1005a(1st–3d sentences). May 18, 1972, Pub. L. 92–302, §1(b), 86 Stat. 149.
  5 App. Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1940, eff. June 30, 1940, §1(a)(7)(1st sentence), 54 Stat. 1231.
301(e) 31:1005a(last sentence).
  31:1006. R.S. §234; July 11, 1890, ch. 667, §1(1st par. under heading “Treasury Department”), 26 Stat. 236; Mar. 3, 1917, ch. 163, §1(1st par. under heading “Treasury Department”), 39 Stat. 1083; Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1940, eff. June 30, 1940, §1(d), 54 Stat. 1232; restated July 22, 1954, ch. 557, §4, 68 Stat. 496; July 8, 1963, Pub. L. 88–58, 77 Stat. 76; May 18, 1972, Pub. L. 92–302, §1(c), 86 Stat. 149.
  31:1007. R.S. §245.
301(f)(1) 26:7801(b)(1), (2)(last sentence), (3). Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, §7801(b), 68A Stat. 915; restated Sept. 22, 1959, Pub. L. 86–368, §1, 73 Stat. 647; Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, §305(39), 78 Stat. 427; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(B), 90 Stat. 1834.
  31:1009. May 10, 1934, ch. 277, §512(a), (c), 48 Stat. 758, 759.
301(f)(2) 26:7801(b)(2)(1st, 2d sentences).
301(g) 31:1010(related to seal). R.S. §372(related to seal); May 10, 1934, ch. 277, §512(b), 48 Stat. 759.

In subsection (a), the words “of the United States Government” are added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words “The Secretary is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate” are added to conform with clause 2, section 2, of article II of the Constitution.

In subsection (c), the words “carry out” and “duties and powers” are substituted for “perform” and “duties”, respectively, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (1), the words “in the Office of the Secretary” in 31:1004 are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement and for consistency. Clause (2) is substituted for 31:1005 to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (d), the words “in accordance with the civil-service laws” in section 1(a)(7)(1st sentence) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1940 (eff. June 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1232) are omitted as unnecessary because of title 5. The words “and shall receive a salary at the rate of $15,000 per annum” are omitted as superseded by 5:5316. The words “carry out” and “duties and powers” are substituted for “perform” and “duties”, respectively, in 31:1004 and 1005a for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “in the Office of the Secretary” in 31:1004 are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement and for consistency. The words “of the Treasury” in 31:1005a are omitted for consistency with other titles of the Code and as being unnecessary.

In subsection (e), the words “of the Treasury” in 31:1006 and 1007 are omitted for consistency with other titles of the Code and as being unnecessary. The words “examine letters, contracts, and warrants prepared for the signature of the Secretary of the Treasury” and “by law” in 31:1007 are omitted as superseded by the source provisions restated in section 321 of the revised title. The words “carry out” and “duties and powers” are substituted for “perform” and “duties”, respectively, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (f), the words “carry out” and “duties and powers” are substituted for “perform” and “duties”, respectively, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The text of 26:7801(b)(3) is omitted as unnecessary because of 5:3101. The words “is absent or unable to serve or when the office of General Counsel is vacant” are substituted for “during the absence of” for clarity and consistency. The text of 31:1009(less (a)(6th sentence)) is omitted as superseded by 26:7801(b) as restated in this subsection.

In subsection (f)(1), the words “governing appointment in the competitive service” are substituted for “civil service laws” to conform to 5:2102.

In subsection (g), the words “The General Counsel . . . shall have charge” are omitted as superseded by the source provisions restated in subsection (b) of this section and section 321(c) of the revised title.

References in Text

The provisions of title 5 governing appointment in the competitive service, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), are classified generally to section 3301 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–211 inserted “an Under Secretary for Enforcement,” after “2 Under Secretaries,”.

1985—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–190 substituted “2 Under Secretaries” for “an Under Secretary, an Under Secretary for Monetary Affairs” and “The President may designate one Under Secretary as Counselor” for “When appointing the Under Secretary, the President may designate the Under Secretary as Counselor”.

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–594 substituted “7” for “5”.

Establishment of Office of the Undersecretary for Enforcement

Pub. L. 103–123, title I, §105, Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1234, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of the Treasury shall establish an Office of the Undersecretary for Enforcement within the Department of the Treasury by no later than February 15, 1994.”

Compensation and Emoluments of Secretary of the Treasury at Level in Effect on January 1, 1989; Actions Challenging Appointment on Constitutional Grounds

Pub. L. 103–2, Jan. 19, 1993, 107 Stat. 4, provided: “That (a) the compensation and other emoluments attached to the office of Secretary of the Treasury shall be those in effect January 1, 1989, notwithstanding any increase in such compensation or emoluments after that date under—

“(1) the Ethics Reform Act of 1989 (Public Law 101–194) [see Tables for classification] or any other provision of law amended by that Act; or

“(2) any other provision of law, or provision which has the force and effect of law, that is enacted or becomes effective during the period beginning at noon of January 3, 1989, and ending at noon of January 3, 1995.

“(b)(1) Any person aggrieved by an action of the Secretary of the Treasury may bring a civil action in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia to contest the constitutionality of the appointment and continuance in office of the Secretary of the Treasury on the ground that such appointment and continuance in office is in violation of article I, section 6, clause 2, of the Constitution. The United States District Court for the District of Columbia shall have exclusive jurisdiction over such a civil action, without regard to the sum or value of the matter in controversy.

“(2) Any claim challenging the constitutionality of the appointment and continuance in office of the Secretary of the Treasury on the ground that such appointment and continuance in office is in violation of article I, section 6, clause 2, of the Constitution, in an action brought under paragraph (1) shall be heard and determined by a panel of three judges in accordance with section 2284 of title 28, United States Code. It shall be the duty of the district court to advance on the docket and to expedite the disposition of any matter brought under this subsection.

“(3)(A) An appeal may be taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States from any interlocutory or final judgment, decree, or order upon the validity of the appointment and continuance in office of the Secretary of the Treasury under article I, section 6, clause 2, of the Constitution, entered in any action brought under this subsection. Any such appeal shall be taken by a notice of appeal filed within 20 days after such judgment, decree, or order is entered.

“(B) The Supreme Court shall, if it has not previously ruled on the question presented by an appeal taken pursuant to subparagraph (A), accept jurisdiction over the appeal, advance the appeal on the docket, and expedite the appeal.

“(c) This joint resolution shall become effective at 12:00 p.m., January 20, 1993.”

Duties and Functions of Department of the Treasury

Nothing in Pub. L. 101–576 [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 501 of this title] to be construed to interfere with exercise of functions, duties, and responsibilities of Department of the Treasury, as in effect immediately before Nov. 15, 1990, see section 204 of Pub. L. 101–576, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Designation of Officers To Act as Secretary of the Treasury

Designation of officers of Treasury Department to act as Secretary of Treasury, during any period when, by reason of absence, disability, or vacancy in office, either the Secretary of Treasury or his Deputy Secretary is not available to exercise the powers or perform the duties of the office of the Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 11822, Dec. 10, 1974, 39 F.R. 43275, set out as a note under section 3347 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Cross References

Classification and pay of employees, see sections 5101 et seq. and 5331 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Compensation of Secretary and other officers, see section 5312 et seq. of Title 5.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 306 of this title; title 12 sections 482, 1462a; title 26 section 7801.

§302. Treasury of the United States

The United States Government has a Treasury of the United States. The Treasury is in the Department of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 879.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
302 31:472. R.S. §3591.

The section is substituted for the source provisions to eliminate unnecessary words and because of subsequent laws and the restatement in the revised title about the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury and coins, currency, accounts, depositaries, and public debt of the United States Government.

§303. Bureau of Engraving and Printing

(a) The Bureau of Engraving and Printing is a bureau in the Department of the Treasury.

(b) The head of the Bureau is the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Director—

(1) shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary; and

(2) reports directly to the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 879.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
303 31:171. June 4, 1897, ch. 2, §1(4th proviso on p. 18), 30 Stat. 18.

In subsection (a), the words “a bureau in the Department of the Treasury” are added for clarity and consistency in chapter 3 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), the first sentence is substituted for the words before the first comma because of the source provisions restated in section 321(c) of the revised title. Clause (1) is substituted for “subject to the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “and be responsible” are omitted as being included in “reports directly to” and because of section 301 of the revised title.

§304. United States Mint

(a) The United States Mint is a bureau in the Department of the Treasury.

(b)(1) The head of the Mint is the Director of the Mint. The Director is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The term of the Director is 5 years. The President may remove the Director from office. On removal, the President shall send a message to the Senate giving the reasons for removal.

(2) The Director shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 879; Pub. L. 102–390, title II, §225(a), (b)(1), (2), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1629.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
304(a) 31:251(1st sentence less words after 1st comma). R.S. §343(less 1st sentence words after 1st comma).
304(b)(1) 31:251(2d sentence words before comma, last sentence).
304(b)(2) 31:251(2d sentence words after comma).

In subsection (b)(1), the word “head” is substituted for “chief officer” in 31:251 for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The word “is” is substituted for “shall be denominated” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “The Director shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury” are substituted for “and shall be under the general direction of the Secretary of the Treasury” for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–390, §225(b)(2), substituted “United States Mint” for “Bureau of the Mint” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–390, §225(a), substituted “United States Mint” for “Bureau of the Mint”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–390, §225(b)(1), substituted “head of the Mint” for “head of the Bureau”.

§305. Federal Financing Bank

The Federal Financing Bank, established under section 4 of the Federal Financing Bank Act of 1973 (12 U.S.C. 2283), is subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 879.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
305 (no source).

The section is included to provide in subchapter I of chapter 3 of the revised title a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Department of the Treasury or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury.

§306. Fiscal Service

(a) The Fiscal Service is a service in the Department of the Treasury.

(b) The head of the Fiscal Service is the Fiscal Assistant Secretary appointed under section 301(d) of this title.

(c) The Fiscal Service has a—

(1) Bureau of Government Financial Operations, having as its head a Commissioner of Government Financial Operations; and

(2) Bureau of the Public Debt, having as its head a Commissioner of the Public Debt.


(d) The Secretary of the Treasury may designate another officer of the Department to act as the Fiscal Assistant Secretary when the Fiscal Assistant Secretary is absent or unable to serve or when the office of Fiscal Assistant Secretary is vacant.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 879.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
306 5 App. Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1940, eff. June 30, 1940, §1(less (a)(7)(1st sentence), (d)), 54 Stat. 1231.

In subsection (a), the word “service” is substituted for “agency” in section 1(a)(1)(words before last comma) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1940 (eff. June 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1232) for consistency in the revised title. The words related to the organizational units being consolidated into the Fiscal Service are omitted as executed.

In subsection (b), the text of section 1(a)(7)(2d sentence) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1940 is omitted because of the source provisions restated in section 301(d) of the revised title.

In subsection (c), the words “Office of the Fiscal Assistant Secretary” in section 1(a)(2) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1940 are omitted as unnecessary and for consistency in chapter 3 of the revised title. The words “the Office of the Treasurer of the United States” are omitted because this office is no longer in the Fiscal Service. See Department of the Treasury Order 229 of January 14, 1974 (39 F.R. 2280). The words “Bureau of Government Financial Operations” are substituted for “Bureau of Accounts” because of Treasury Order 229 and appropriation Acts beginning with fiscal year 1975. The text of section 1(a)(2)(last sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because of section 301 of the revised title. The words “Commissioner of Government Financial Operations” are substituted for “Commissioner of Accounts and Deposits” in section 1(a)(3) of the Reorganization Plan because of Treasury Order 229 and appropriation Acts beginning with fiscal year 1975. The words before the last comma are omitted as executed. The words related to the organizational units, in section 1(a)(4) of the Reorganization Plan, that are being consolidated into the Bureau of the Public Debt are omitted as executed.

Subsection (d) is substituted for the text of section 1(a)(7)(last sentence) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1940 for consistency in the revised title. The text of section 1(a)(5) and (6), (b), and (c) is omitted as superseded by the source provisions restated in section 321 of the revised title.

Reimbursement of Financial Management Service From Social Security Trust Funds and by Internal Revenue Service and National Finance Center

Pub. L. 102–393, title I, §105, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1737, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, beginning October 1, 1992, and thereafter, the Financial Management Service (FMS) shall be reimbursed by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the Department of Agriculture, National Finance Center (NFC), for the postage costs the FMS incurs to make check payments on behalf of the IRS and the NFC.”

Pub. L. 101–136, title I, §104, Nov. 3, 1989, 103 Stat. 789, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, beginning October 1, 1990, and thereafter, the Financial Management Service shall be fully and directly reimbursed from the Social Security Trust Funds for the costs it incurs in the issuance of Social Security Trust Funds benefit payments, including all physical costs associated with payment preparation and postage costs. Such direct reimbursement shall also be made for all other trust and special funds which are the recipients of services performed by the Financial Management Service and which prior to enactment of this provision [Nov. 3, 1989] reimburse the General Fund of the Treasury for such services.”

§307. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency

The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, established under section 324 of the Revised Statutes (12 U.S.C. 1), is an office in the Department of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 880.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
307 (no source).

The section is included to provide in subchapter I of chapter 3 of the revised title a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Department of the Treasury or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury. The title “Office of the Comptroller of the Currency” and the word “office” are used to reflect the name that this organizational unit of the Department of the Treasury historically has been given.

§308. United States Customs Service

The United States Customs Service, established under section 1 of the Act of March 3, 1927 (19 U.S.C. 2071), is a service in the Department of the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 880.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
308 (no source).

The section is included to provide in subchapter I of chapter 3 of the revised title a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Department of the Treasury or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury.

Change of Name

Bureau of Customs redesignated United States Customs Service by Treasury Department Order 165–23, Apr. 4, 1973, eff. Aug. 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 13037.

§309. Office of Thrift Supervision

The Office of Thrift Supervision established under section 3(a) of the Home Owners’ Loan Act shall be an office in the Department of the Treasury.

(Added Pub. L. 101–73, title III, §307(a)(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 352; amended Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1361.)

References in Text

Section 3(a) of the Home Owners’ Loan Act, referred to in text, is classified to section 1462a(a) of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 309 was renumbered section 310 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “section 3(a)” for “section 2A(a)”.

§310. Continuing in office

When the term of office of an officer of the Department of the Treasury ends, the officer may continue to serve until a successor is appointed and qualified.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 880, §309; renumbered §310, Pub. L. 101–73, title III, §307(a)(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 352.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
309 31:1016. Mar. 2, 1895, ch. 187(1st par. under heading “Treasury Department”), 28 Stat. 844.

In the section, the words “When the term of office . . . ends” are substituted for “whose terms of office have expired or shall expire” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “may continue to serve” are substituted for “The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to pay”, “and who have been performing or shall perform the duties of their respective offices after the date of such expiration”, and “the salary, compensation, fees, or emoluments authorized or provided by law in each case for the respective incumbents of the offices” because of 25 Op. Atty. Gen. 636 (1906) and for consistency with other titles of the United States Code. The words “until a successor is appointed and qualified” are substituted for “before the appointment and qualification of their successors” and 31:1016(last sentence) for consistency with other titles of the Code.

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 renumbered section 309 of this title as this section.

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

§321. General authority of the Secretary

(a) The Secretary of the Treasury shall—

(1) prepare plans for improving and managing receipts of the United States Government and managing the public debt;

(2) carry out services related to finances that the Secretary is required to perform;

(3) issue warrants for money drawn on the Treasury consistent with appropriations;

(4) mint coins, engrave and print currency and security documents, and refine and assay bullion, and may strike medals;

(5) prescribe regulations that the Secretary considers best calculated to promote the public convenience and security, and to protect the Government and individuals from fraud and loss, that apply to anyone who may—

(A) receive for the Government, Treasury notes, United States notes, or other Government securities; or

(B) be engaged or employed in preparing and issuing those notes or securities;


(6) collect receipts;

(7) with a view to prosecuting persons, take steps to discover fraud and attempted fraud involving receipts and decide on ways to prevent and detect fraud; and

(8) maintain separate accounts of taxes received in each State, territory, and possession of the United States, and collection district, with each account listing—

(A) each kind of tax;

(B) the amount of each tax; and

(C) the money paid as pay and allowances to officers and employees of the Department collecting taxes in that State, territory, possession, or district.


(b) The Secretary may—

(1) prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers of the Secretary;

(2) delegate duties and powers of the Secretary to another officer or employee of the Department of the Treasury;

(3) transfer within the Department the records, property, officers, employees, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and amounts of the Department that the Secretary considers necessary to carry out a delegation made under clause (2) of this subsection;

(4) detail, in addition to details authorized under another law, not more than 6 officers and employees of the Department at any one time to enforce the laws related to the Department, except that of those 6 officers and employees not more than 4 officers and employees—

(A) paid from the appropriations for the collection of customs may be so detailed;

(B) paid from the appropriations for internal revenue may be so detailed; and

(C) paid from the appropriations for suppressing counterfeiting and other crimes may be so detailed;


(5) authorize, at rates and under conditions prescribed by the Secretary, the private use of telephone lines controlled by the Department when the use does not interfere with Department business;

(6) buy arms and ammunition required by officers and employees of the Department in carrying out their duties and powers; and

(7) notwithstanding any other provision of law, fulfill any requirement to issue a report on the financial condition of any fund on the books of the Treasury by including the required information in a consolidated report, except that information with respect to a specific fund shall be separately reported if the Secretary determines that the consolidation of such information would result in an unwarranted delay in the availability of such information.


(c) Duties and powers of officers and employees of the Department are vested in the Secretary except duties and powers—

(1) vested by subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 in administrative law judges employed by the Secretary;

(2) of the Comptroller of the Currency; and

(3) of the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision;


(d)(1) The Secretary of the Treasury may accept, hold, administer, and use gifts and bequests of property, both real and personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Department of the Treasury. Gifts and bequests of money and the proceeds from sales of other property received as gifts or bequests shall be deposited in the Treasury in a separate fund and shall be disbursed on order of the Secretary of the Treasury. Property accepted under this paragraph, and the proceeds thereof, shall be used as nearly as possible in accordance with the terms of the gift or bequest.

(2) For purposes of the Federal income, estate, and gift taxes, property accepted under paragraph (1) shall be considered as a gift or bequest to or for the use of the United States.

(3) The Secretary of the Treasury may invest and reinvest the fund in public debt securities with maturities suitable for the needs of the fund and bearing interest at rates determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities. Income accruing from the securities, and from any other property accepted under paragraph (1), shall be deposited to the credit of the fund, and shall be disbursed on order of the Secretary of the Treasury for purposes as nearly as possible in accordance with the terms of the gifts or bequests.

(4) The Secretary of the Treasury shall, not less frequently than annually, make a public disclosure of the amount (and sources) of the gifts and bequests received under this subsection, and the purposes for which amounts in the separate fund established under this subsection are expended.

(e) Certain Reorganization Prohibited.—The Secretary of the Treasury may not merge or consolidate the Office of Thrift Supervision, or any of the functions or responsibilities of the Office or the Director of such office, with the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency or the Comptroller of the Currency.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 880; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §445, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 816; Pub. L. 101–73, title III, §307(b), (d), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 353; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1132(b), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 725.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
321(a)(1)– (3) 31:1002(less words between 1st and 2d semicolons and between 4th and 5th semicolons). R.S. §248(less words between 4th and 5th semicolons).
321(a)(4) (no source).
321(a)(5) 31:427. R.S. §251(words after “Treasury” and before “shall prescribe forms of entries”).
321(a)(6) 31:1002(words between 1st and 2d semicolons).
321(a)(7) 31:1011. R.S. §376; May 10, 1934, ch. 277, §512(b), 48 Stat. 759.
321(a)(8) 31:1024. R.S. §§239, 261; Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1(3d complete par. on p. 317), 18 Stat. 317; Aug. 7, 1946, ch. 770, §1(48), 60 Stat. 870.
321(b)(1) 31:127. Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 796, §5, 54 Stat. 1087.
  31:317f. Dec. 18, 1942, ch. 767, §7, 56 Stat. 1066.
  31:397. July 23, 1965, Pub. L. 89–81, §107, 79 Stat. 255.
  31:528(d). R.S. §3646(d); July 8, 1937, ch. 444, §9, 50 Stat. 483; restated Dec. 3, 1945, ch. 515, §1, 59 Stat. 593.
  31:564. Nov. 21, 1941, ch. 489, §5, 55 Stat. 778; Dec. 22, 1974, Pub. L. 93–539, §1(a) (related to §4), 88 Stat. 1738.
  31:1053. Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–508, §204, 84 Stat. 1120.
  31:1262(a). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–512, §142(a), 86 Stat. 935.
321(b)(2), (3) 31:1001(note). Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, §§2, 4, 64 Stat. 1281.
321(b)(4) 31:1017. June 12, 1917, ch. 27, §1(4th par. under heading “Miscellaneous Objects, Treasury Department”), 40 Stat. 118; Mar. 4, 1921, ch. 161, §1(1st par. under heading “Miscellaneous Objects, Treasury Department”), 41 Stat. 1374.
321(b)(5) 31:486. Apr. 28, 1904, ch. 1762, §1(proviso immediately before heading “Revenue-Cutter Service”), 33 Stat. 460.
321(b)(6) 31:1023(a). June 1, 1955, ch. 119, §1(a), 69 Stat. 82.
321(c) 31:1001(note). Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, §1(a), (b), 64 Stat. 1280.

In subsection (a)(1)–(3), the words between the 2d and 3d semicolons are omitted as superseded by section 3512 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1), the word “digest” is omitted as being included in “prepare”. The word “receipts” is substituted for “revenue”, and the words “managing the public debt” are substituted for “for the support of the public credit”, for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “carry out” are substituted for “generally shall perform” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “that the Secretary is required” are substituted for “as he shall be directed” because of the restatement.

In subsection (a)(3), the word “issue” is substituted for “shall grant” for consistency. The words “under limitations herein established or to be provided” are omitted as unnecessary. The word “consistent” is substituted for “in pursuance of”, and the words “by law” are omitted, for consistency.

Subsection (a)(4) is included to reflect all the major duties of the Secretary of the Treasury. See chapter 51 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(5), before subclause (A), the words “prescribe regulations” are substituted for “make and issue from time to time such instructions and regulations” for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “applicable to anyone” are substituted for “to the several collectors, receivers, depositaries, officers, and others” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In subclause (A), the words “for the Government” are inserted because section 8 of the Act of June 30, 1864 (ch. 172, 13 Stat. 221), from which section 251 of the Revised Statutes is derived, used the phrase “in behalf of the United States”. In subclause (B), the words “those notes and securities” are substituted for “the same” for clarity.

In subsection (a)(6), the word “collect” is substituted for “superintend the collection” because of the source provisions restated in section 321(c) of the revised title. The word “receipts” is substituted for “revenue” for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(7), the words “Secretary of the Treasury” are substituted for “General Counsel of the Department of the Treasury, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury” because of the source provisions restated in subsection (c) of this section. The words “with a view to prosecuting persons” are substituted for “for the prosecution of persons charged with the commission thereof” for clarity. The words “take steps to discover fraud and attempted fraud” are substituted for “take cognizance of all frauds or attempted frauds” for clarity. The words “involving receipts” are substituted for “upon the revenue” for consistency in the revised title. The words “decide on ways to prevent and detect fraud” are substituted for “exercise a general supervision over the measures for their prevention and detection” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(8), before subclause (A), the word “maintain” is substituted for “shall be kept” for consistency. The words “all moneys” and “internal” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The words “duties or” are omitted as being included in “taxes”. The word “possession” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word “listing” is substituted for “so as to exhibit, as far as may be” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In subclause (A), the word “kind” is substituted for “species” for consistency. The words “that shall accrue” are omitted as surplus. In subclause (B), the words “each tax” are substituted for “each source of revenue” for clarity. In subclause (C), the word “pay” is substituted for “compensation” for consistency. The words “officers and employees” are substituted for “collectors and deputy collectors, inspectors, and other officers” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

Subsection (b)(1) is included as a general statement of the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury to prescribe regulations to avoid repeating each time specific authority of the Secretary to carry out certain provisions of law.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “make such provisions” in 31:1001(note) are omitted as unnecessary. The words “or by any agency” are omitted and the words “duties and powers” are substituted for “function”, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “including any function transferred to the Secretary by the provisions of this reorganization plan” are omitted as executed.

In subsection (b)(3), the word “effect ” is omitted as unnecessary. The words “(available or to be made available)” are omitted as surplus. The words “delegation made under clause (2) of this subsection” are substituted for “provisions of this reorganization plan” because the only provision of Reorganization Plan No. 26 of 1950 (eff. July 31, 1950, 64 Stat. 1281) that continues to have legal effect is section 2 that is restated in clause (2).

In subsection (b)(4), before subclause (A), the word “detail” is substituted for “to use for, and in connection with” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “in addition to details authorized under another law” are substituted for 31:1017(last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words and because subsequent laws would also provide additional authority to detail. The words “and the several branches of the public service under its control” are omitted as being included in “Department”. The words “officers and employees” are substituted for “persons” for clarity and consistency in the revised title. In subclause (B), the words “agents or from the appropriation for the foregoing purpose” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(5), the words “the proceeds thereof to be accounted for and paid into the Treasury of the United States” are omitted as unnecessary because of section 3302 of the revised title.

In subsection (b)(6), the word “buy” is substituted for “make expenditures” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “officers or employees” are substituted for “civilian employees”, and the words “in carrying out their duties and powers” are substituted for “in the performance of their official duties”, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 104–66 added par. (7).

1989—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–73, §307(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–73, §307(d), added subsec. (e).

1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (d).

Emergency Preparedness Functions

For assignment of certain emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see Parts 1, 2, and 15 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Use of Aircraft in Emergency Law Enforcement Support

Pub. L. 104–52, title I, §107, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 476, provided that: “The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized in fiscal year 1996 and hereafter, to use Treasury Department aircraft, with or without reimbursement, to assist bureaus within the Department of the Treasury or other Federal agencies, Departments or offices outside of the Department of the Treasury to provide emergency law enforcement support to protect human life, property, public health, or safety.”

§322. Working capital fund

(a) The Department of the Treasury has a working capital fund. Amounts in the fund are available for expenses of operating and maintaining common administrative services of the Department that the Secretary of the Treasury, with the approval of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, decides may be carried out more advantageously and more economically as central services.

(b) Amounts in the fund remain available until expended. Amounts may be appropriated to the fund.

(c) The fund consists of—

(1) amounts appropriated to the fund;

(2) to the extent transferred to the fund by the Secretary, the reasonable value of supply inventories, equipment, and other assets and inventories on order for providing services out of amounts in the fund, less related liabilities and unpaid obligations;

(3) amounts received from the sale or exchange of property; and

(4) payments received for loss or damage to property of the fund.


(d) The fund shall be reimbursed, or credited with advance payments, from amounts available to the Department or from other sources, for supplies and services at rates that will equal the expenses of operation, including accrual of annual leave and the depreciation of plant and equipment. Amounts the Secretary decides are in excess of the needs of the fund shall be deposited at the end of each fiscal year in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 881; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §442, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 816.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
322(a) 31:1033(1st sentence less words between 1st and 3d commas, 2d sentence 1st–9th words). Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–614, §401, 84 Stat. 1846.
322(b) 31:1033(1st sentence words between 1st and 3d commas, last sentence).
322(c) 31:1033(2d sentence less 1st–9th words, 4th sentence).
322(d) 31:1033(3d, 5th sentences).

In subsection (a), the words “Amounts in the fund are available” are added because of the restatement.

In subsection (b), the words “Amounts in the fund remain available until expended” are substituted for “shall be available, without fiscal year limitation” for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “amounts appropriated to the fund” are substituted for “any appropriations made for the purpose of providing capital” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (2), the word “reasonable” is substituted for “fair and reasonable” because it is inclusive.

In subsection (d), the words “other Federal agencies” are omitted because they are included in “other sources”.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369 struck out provision placing a $1,000,000 limitation on fund.

§323. Investment of operating cash

(a) To manage United States cash, the Secretary of the Treasury may invest any part of the operating cash of the Treasury for not more than 90 days. Investments may be made in obligations of—

(1) depositaries maintaining Treasury tax and loan accounts secured by pledged collateral acceptable to the Secretary; and

(2) the United States Government.


(b) Subsection (a) of this section does not—

(1) require the Secretary to invest a cash balance held in a particular account; or

(2) permit the Secretary to require the sale of obligations by a particular person, dealer, or financial institution.


(c) The Secretary shall consider the prevailing market in prescribing rates of interest for investments under subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 882.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
323(a) 31:1038(1st sentence less 1st, 2d provisos). Oct. 28, 1977, Pub. L. 95–147, §1, 91 Stat. 1227.
323(b) 31:1038(1st, 2d provisos).
323(c) 31:1038(last sentence).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “To manage United States cash” are substituted for “for cash management purposes” for clarity. In clause (1), the words “as security for tax and loan accounts” are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (2), the words “agencies of the United States” are omitted as being included in “the Government”.

In subsection (c), the words “Investments in obligations of depositaries maintaining such accounts” and “rates of interest” (the 2d time they appear) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

§324. Disposing and extending the maturity of obligations

(a) The Secretary of the Treasury may—

(1) dispose of obligations—

(A) acquired by the Secretary for the United States Government; or

(B) delivered by an executive agency; and


(2) make arrangements to extend the maturity of those obligations.


(b) The Secretary may dispose or extend the maturity of obligations under subsection (a) of this section in the way, in amounts, at prices (for cash, obligations, property, or a combination of cash, obligations, or property), and on conditions the Secretary considers advisable and in the public interest.

(c) The authority under this section is in addition to authority under another law.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 882; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §444, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 816.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
324(a) 31:741a(a)(1st sentence words before 9th comma). Apr. 3, 1945, ch. 51, §5, 59 Stat. 48.
324(b) 31:741a(a)(1st sentence words after 9th comma, last sentence).
324(c) 31:741a(b).

In the section, the words “sell, exchange” are omitted as being included in “dispose”. The word “obligations” is substituted for “bonds, notes, or other securities” for consistency in the revised title. The words “under judicial process or otherwise” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “Notwithstanding the provisions of section 302 of title 40” are omitted as unnecessary and because section 302 was repealed by section 1(95) of the Act of October 31, 1951 (ch. 654, 65 Stat. 705). In clause (2), the words “those obligations” are substituted for “thereof” for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words “The Secretary may dispose or extend the maturity of obligations under subsection (a) of this section” are added for clarity and because of the restatement. The words “combination of cash, obligations, or property” are substituted for “or any combination thereof” for clarity. The words “terms and conditions” are omitted as being included in “on conditions”. The words “under the authority of this section” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

Subsection (c) is substituted for 31:741a(b) to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369 struck out provision that the Secretary could not dispose of obligations of one issuer, held by the Secretary at one time, having on the date of disposal a total face or par value of more than $1,000,000 or, if no-par obligations, a stated or book value of more than $1,000,000.

§325. International affairs authorization

(a) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary may provide officers and employees of the Department of the Treasury carrying out international affairs duties and powers of the Department with allowances and benefits comparable to those provided under chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4081 et seq.).

(b) The following amounts may be appropriated to the Secretary for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982:

(1) not more than $22,896,000 to carry out the international affairs duties and powers of the Department (including amounts for official functions and reception and representation expenses).

(2) not more than $1,000,000 for increases in—

(A) pay, under section 5382(c) and subchapter I of chapter 53 of title 5 (except section 5305, or corresponding prior provision of such title), of officers and employees carrying out the duties and powers referred to in clause (1) of this subsection;

(B) departmental contributions attributable to those pay increases; and

(C) allowances and benefits, because of cost of living increases, provided under subsection (a) of this section.


(c) Necessary amounts may be appropriated to the Secretary for each fiscal year beginning after September 30, 1982—

(1) to carry out the international affairs duties and powers of the Department (including amounts for official functions and reception and representation expenses);

(2) for increases in—

(A) pay, under section 5382(c) and subchapter I of chapter 53 of title 5 (except section 5303), of officers and employees carrying out the duties and powers referred to in clause (1) of this subsection;

(B) departmental contributions attributable to those pay increases; and

(C) allowances and benefits, because of cost of living increases, provided under subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 882; Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §529 [title I, §101(b)(3)(D)], Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1427, 1439.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
325(a) 31:822a(d). Jan. 30, 1934, ch. 6, 48 Stat. 337, §10(d); added Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–612, §2, 92 Stat. 3091; Oct. 17, 1980, Pub. L. 96–465, §2206(f), 94 Stat. 2163.
325(b), (c) (uncodified). Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–612, §5, 92 Stat. 3092; Aug. 8, 1979, Pub. L. 96–47, 93 Stat. 344; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §382(a), 95 Stat. 432.

In the section, the words “international affairs duties and powers” are substituted for “international affairs functions” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “officers and employees” are substituted for “personnel” and “employees” as being more precise.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “fiscal year ending September 30, 1982” are substituted for “fiscal year 1982” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. In clause (2), the word “pay” is substituted for “salaries” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word “departmental” is substituted for “agency” because of the source provisions restated in section 321 of the revised title. The words “those pay increases” are substituted for “thereto” for clarity.

Subsection (c) is substituted for the words “and such sums as may be necessary for each fiscal year thereafter” both times they appear.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–509 substituted “(except section 5305, or corresponding prior provision of such title)” for “(except section 5303)”.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–509 effective on such date as the President shall determine, but not earlier than 90 days, and not later than 180 days, after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 529 [title III, §305] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out as a note under section 5301 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Study on Role of Gold in Domestic and International Monetary Systems; Establishment of Commission; Report to Congress; Availability of Appropriations

Pub. L. 96–389, §10, Oct. 7, 1980, 94 Stat. 1555, as amended Pub. L. 97–47, §2, Sept. 30, 1981, 95 Stat. 954, provided that the Secretary of the Treasury establish and chair a commission consisting of three members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, two members of the Council of Economic Advisors, and four private citizens with business, finance, or academic backgrounds, to be designated by the Secretary, and one majority and one minority member each from the Joint Economic Committee, the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the House Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs to be designated by the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate, respectively. The commission was to conduct a study to assess and make recommendations with regard to the policy of the United States Government concerning the role of gold in domestic and international monetary systems, and transmit to Congress a report containing its findings and recommendations not later than March 31, 1982. Sums appropriated pursuant to section 5 of Public Law 95–612 [Pub. L. 95–612, §5, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3092, which was not classified to the Code] were made available to the commission to carry out its functions.

§326. Availability of appropriations for certain expenses

(a) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, an appropriation for the Department of the Treasury available to pay travel expenses also is available to pay expenses to attend meetings of organizations related to the function or activity for which the appropriation is made.

(b) The Secretary may approve reimbursement to agents on protective missions for subsistence expenses authorized by law without regard to rates and amounts established under section 5702 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 883; Pub. L. 99–234, title I, §107(e), Jan. 2, 1986, 99 Stat. 1759.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. CodeSource (Statutes at Large)
326(a) 31:1031. June 1, 1955, ch. 113, §102, 69 Stat. 76.
326(b) 31:1032. Sept. 29, 1969, Pub. L. 91–74, §102(1st par.), 83 Stat. 118.

In subsection (a), the words “On and after June 1, 1955,” are omitted as executed.

In subsection (b), the words “On and after September 29, 1969,” are omitted as executed.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–234 substituted “rates and amounts” for “rates”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–234 effective (1) on the effective date of regulations to be promulgated not later than 150 days after Jan. 2, 1986, or (2) 180 days after Jan. 2, 1986, whichever occurs first, see section 301(a) of Pub. L. 99–234, set out as a note under section 5701 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§327. Advancements and reimbursements for services

(a) In this section, “service” includes service provided in—

(1) disbursing and receiving amounts.

(2) servicing bonds.

(3) making accounts.

(4) maintaining bank accounts.


(b) When the Secretary of the Treasury provides a service for an agency (except the Department of the Treasury) for which amounts have not been appropriated to the Department, the agency may advance for credit or reimburse the Department the amounts necessary to provide the service. Notwithstanding section 3302 of this title, amounts advanced or reimbursed may be credited to the appropriation of the Department that is current when the service is provided.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. CodeSource (Statutes at Large)
327(a) 31:157(c)(2). Aug. 14, 1950, ch. 705, 64 Stat. 440.
327(b) 31:157(a)–(c)(1).

In the section, the word “amounts” is substituted for “funds” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the words “shall not be limited to” are omitted as surplus. The words “disbursing and receiving” are substituted for “collection and disbursement”, the word “making” is substituted for “rendition of”, and the word “maintaining” is substituted for “keeping”, for consistency in the revised title. The word “checking” is omitted as being included in “bank”.

In subsection (b), the words “When the Secretary of the Treasury provides a service” are substituted for “When any service authorized by law and directed by the Secretary of the Treasury is performed or to be performed” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “by the Fiscal Service or the Office of the Treasurer of the United States of the Department of the Treasury” are omitted because of the source provisions restated in section 321 of the revised title. The words “agency (except the Department of the Treasury)” are substituted for 31:157(c)(1) for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word “reimburse” is substituted for “pay”, and the words “advanced or reimbursed” are substituted for “transferred”, for clarity and because of the restatement.

§328. Accounts and payments of former disbursing officials

(a) If a chief disbursing official or a director of a disbursing center of the Department of the Treasury dies, resigns, or leaves office, the deputy chief disbursing official or the deputy director of the disbursing center designated by the Secretary of the Treasury may continue the accounts and payments in the name of the former disbursing official or director through the last day of the 2d month after the month in which the death, resignation, or separation occurs. The accounts and payments shall be allowed, audited, and settled as provided by law. The Secretary shall honor checks signed in the name of the former disbursing official or director in the same way as if the former disbursing official or director had continued in office.

(b) Only the deputy chief or deputy director designated under subsection (a) of this section is liable for actions taken in the name of the former disbursing official under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. CodeSource (Statutes at Large)
328(a) 31:1014(1st, 2d sentences). Dec. 24, 1942, ch. 821, 56 Stat. 1086; restated Aug. 1, 1947, ch. 438, 61 Stat. 717; June 6, 1972, Pub. L. 92–310, §231(dd), 86 Stat. 213.
328(b) 31:1014(last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words “director of a disbursing center” are substituted for “any regional disbursing officer of the Fiscal Service, Treasury Department” to reflect the title of the position now presently authorized. The words “dies, resigns, or leaves office” are substituted for “In case of the death or of the resignation or separation from office” for consistency with other titles of the United States Code. The words “designated by an official of the Treasury Department authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury to make such designation” are omitted as unnecessary because of the source provisions restated in section 321 of the revised title. The word “through” is substituted for “for a period of time not to extend beyond” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “as provided by law” are substituted for “in the General Accounting Office”, for consistency with other titles of the Code. The word “Secretary” is substituted for “Treasurer of the United States” because of the source provisions restated in section 321 of the revised title.

Subsection (b) is substituted for 31:1014(last sentence) for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

§329. Limitations on outside activities

(a)(1) The Secretary of the Treasury and the Treasurer may not—

(A) be involved in trade or commerce;

(B) own any part of a vessel (except a pleasure vessel);

(C) buy or hold as a beneficiary in trust public property;

(D) be involved in buying or disposing of obligations of a State or the United States Government; and

(E) personally take or use a benefit gained from conducting business of the Department of the Treasury except as authorized by law.


(2) An officer violating this subsection shall be fined $3,000, removed from office, and thereafter may not hold an office of the Government.

(3) An individual (except prosecutors) giving information leading to the prosecution and conviction of an individual violating this subsection shall receive $1,500 of the fine when paid.

(b)(1) An officer or employee of the Department (except the Secretary or Treasurer) may not—

(A) carry on a trade or business in the funds, debts, or property of a State or the Government; and

(B) personally use a benefit gained from conducting business of the Department.


(2) An officer or employee violating this subsection shall be fined $500 and removed from office.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 884.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. CodeSource (Statutes at Large)
329(a) 31:163, 1003. R.S. §243.
329(b) 31:1018. R.S. §244.

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words “The Secretary of the Treasury and the Treasurer may not” are substituted for “No person appointed to the office of Secretary of the Treasury, or Treasurer, shall” because of the restatement and for consistency in the revised title. The words “or First Comptroller” (subsequently redesignated as the Comptroller of the Treasury by section 4 of the Act of July 31, 1894 (ch. 174, 28 Stat. 205)) and “or First Auditor” in section 243 of the Revised Statutes are omitted because the positions were abolished by sections 301 and 310 of the Act of June 10, 1921 (ch. 18, 42 Stat. 23, 25). The text of 31:163 is omitted because the position of Register was abolished by section 1(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1940 (eff. June 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1231). In clause (A), the words “directly or indirectly” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “be involved” are substituted for “be concerned or interested in carrying on the business of” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (B), the words “any part of a” are substituted for “in whole or in part” for consistency. The words “(except a pleasure vessel)” are added for consistency with 19:1599. In clause (C), the words “buy or hold as beneficiary in trust” are substituted for “purchase by himself, or another in trust for him” for clarity and consistency. The words “public land” are omitted as being included in “public property”. In clause (D), the words “involved in buying or disposing of obligations” are substituted for “be concerned in the purchase or disposal of any public securities” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title. In clause (E), the words “personally take or use a benefit gained from conducting business of the Department of the Treasury” are substituted for “take or apply to his own use any emolument or gain for negotiating or transacting any business in the Treasury Department” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “an officer” are substituted for “every person” as being more precise. The word “violating” is substituted for “who offends against any of the prohibitions of this section” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor” are omitted because of 18:1. The word “fined” is substituted for “forfeit to the United States the penalty” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “and shall upon conviction be” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a)(3), the words “giving information leading to the prosecution and conviction of an individual violating this subsection” are substituted for “shall give information of any such offense, upon which a prosecution and conviction shall be had” for clarity. The words “shall receive $1,500 of the fine when paid” are substituted for “one-half the aforesaid penalty of three thousand dollars, when recovered, shall be for the use of the person giving such information” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words “An officer or employee of the Department (except the Secretary or Treasurer)” are substituted for “Every clerk employed in the Treasury Department” because of the restatement and for consistency with subsection (a) of the section. In clause (A), the words “in any kind of public” are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (B), the words “personally use a benefit gained” are substituted for “who takes or applies to his own use any emolument or gain” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “conducting” is substituted for “negotiating or transacting” for consistency. The words “shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor” are omitted because of 18:1.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “An officer or employee violating this subsection” are added because of the restatement. The word “punished” is omitted as unnecessary.

§330. Practice before the Department

(a) Subject to section 500 of title 5, the Secretary of the Treasury may—

(1) regulate the practice of representatives of persons before the Department of the Treasury; and

(2) before admitting a representative to practice, require that the representative demonstrate—

(A) good character;

(B) good reputation;

(C) necessary qualifications to enable the representative to provide to persons valuable service; and

(D) competency to advise and assist persons in presenting their cases.


(b) After notice and opportunity for a proceeding, the Secretary may suspend or disbar from practice before the Department a representative who—

(1) is incompetent;

(2) is disreputable;

(3) violates regulations prescribed under this section; or

(4) with intent to defraud, willfully and knowingly misleads or threatens the person being represented or a prospective person to be represented.


(c) After notice and opportunity for a hearing to any appraiser with respect to whom a penalty has been assessed under section 6701(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the Secretary may—

(1) provide that appraisals by such appraiser shall not have any probative effect in any administrative proceeding before the Department of the Treasury or the Internal Revenue Service, and

(2) bar such appraiser from presenting evidence or testimony in any such proceeding.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 884; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §156(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. CodeSource (Statutes at Large)
330(a) 31:1026(1st sentence). July 7, 1884, ch. 334, §3(proviso and sentence immediately after proviso under heading “War Department”), 23 Stat. 258.
330(b) 31:1026(last sentence).

In the section, the words “representatives of persons” are substituted for “agents, attorneys, or other persons representing claimants before his department” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “Subject to section 500 of title 5” are added for clarity and to conform to title 5. In clause (1), the word “regulate” is substituted for “prescribe rules and regulations” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the practice” are substituted for “before being recognized” for consistency with other revised titles of the United States Code. In clause (2)(C), the words “possessed of the” are omitted because of the restatement.

In subsection (b), the word “proceeding” is substituted for “hearing” because of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5. In clause (3), the words “violates regulations prescribed under this section” are substituted for “who refuses to comply with said rules and regulations” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (4), the words “in any manner” are omitted as surplus. The word “deceive” is omitted as being included in the word “mislead”. The words “by word, circular, letter, or by advertisement” are omitted as unnecessary.

References in Text

Section 6701(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c), is classified to section 6701(a) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 156(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to penalties assessed after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 26 section 6103.

§331. Reports

(a) The Secretary of the Treasury shall submit to Congress each year an annual report. The report shall include—

(1) a statement of the public receipts and public expenditures for the prior fiscal year;

(2) estimates of public receipts and public expenditures for the current and next fiscal years;

(3) plans for improving and increasing public receipts to provide Congress with information on ways to raise amounts necessary to meet public expenditures;

(4) a statement of all contracts for supplies or services made by the Secretary during the prior fiscal year;

(5) a statement of appropriations expended to pay for miscellaneous claims not otherwise provided for;

(6) a statement on all payments made from the fund under section 3126 of this title for the prior fiscal year; and

(7) estimates of amounts for payment under section 1322(b) of this title.


(b)(1) On the first day of each regular session of Congress, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report for the prior fiscal year on—

(A) the total and individual amounts of contingent liabilities and unfunded liabilities of the United States Government;

(B) as far as practicable, trust fund liabilities, liabilities of Government corporations, indirect liabilities not included as a part of the public debt, and liabilities of insurance and annuity programs (including their actuarial status);

(C) collateral pledged and assets available (or to be realized) as security for the liabilities (separately noting Government obligations) and other assets specifically available to liquidate the liabilities of the Government; and

(D) the total amount in each category under clauses (A)–(C) of this paragraph for each agency.


(2) The report shall present the information required under paragraph (1) of this subsection in a concise way, with explanatory material (including an analysis of the significance of liabilities based on past experience and probable risk) the Secretary considers desirable.

(c) On the first day of each regular session of Congress, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report for the prior fiscal year on the total amount of public receipts and public expenditures listing receipts, when practicable, by ports, districts, and States and the expenditures by each appropriation.

(d) The Secretary shall report to either House of Congress in person or in writing, as required, on matters referred to the Secretary by that House of Congress.

(e)(1) Not later than March 31 of 1998 and each year thereafter, the Secretary of the Treasury, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, shall annually prepare and submit to the President and the Congress an audited financial statement for the preceding fiscal year, covering all accounts and associated activities of the executive branch of the United States Government. The financial statement shall reflect the overall financial position, including assets and liabilities, and results of operations of the executive branch of the United States Government, and shall be prepared in accordance with the form and content requirements set forth by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(2) The Comptroller General of the United States shall audit the financial statement required by this section.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 884; Pub. L. 103–356, title IV, §405(c), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3416.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. CodeSource (Statutes at Large)
331(a)(1)– (5) 31:1027. R.S. §257.
  31:1030. Feb. 26, 1907, ch. 1635, §1(2d par. under heading “Treasury Department”), 34 Stat. 949.
331(a)(6) 31:757c(i)(last sentence). Sept. 24, 1917, ch. 56, 40 Stat. 288, §22(i)(last sentence); added Apr. 11, 1943, ch. 52, §3, 57 Stat. 63; restated Apr. 3, 1945, ch. 51, §3, 59 Stat. 48.
331(a)(7) 31:725p(a)(last sentence). June 26, 1934, ch. 756, §§17(a)(last sentence), 18(a)(last sentence), 48 Stat. 1230, 1231.
  31:725q(a)(last sentence).
331(b) 31:757f. Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89–809, §402, 80 Stat. 1590; Apr. 21, 1976, Pub. L. 94–273, §2(17), 90 Stat. 375.
331(c) 31:1029. July 31, 1894, ch. 174, §15, 28 Stat. 210.
331(d) 31:1002(words between 4th and 5th semicolons) R.S. §248(words between 4th and 5th semicolons).

In subsections (a) and (c), the word “receipts” is substituted for “revenues” for consistency in the section and the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1), the words “public receipts and public expenditures” are substituted for “receipts and expenditures of the Government” in 31:1030 for consistency in the section. The word “completed” is omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words “First. A report on the subject of finance” in 31:1027 are omitted because of the restatement. The word “containing” is omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words “Second. A report containing” are omitted because of the restatement. The words “prior fiscal year” are substituted for “during the year preceding” for consistency. In clause (5), the words “paid at the Treasury” are omitted as unnecessary. The 3d paragraph of section 257 of the Revised Statutes, providing for a report on rules and regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury on imported goods, wares, and merchandise, is omitted as obsolete because section 252 of the Revised Statutes, authorizing those rules and regulations, was repealed by the Act of February 27, 1877 (ch. 69, 19 Stat. 241). The 4th paragraph of section 257, providing for a report on amounts of hospital taxes collected from sick and disabled seamen, is omitted as obsolete because section 15 of the Act of June 26, 1884 (ch. 121, 23 Stat. 57), repealed the tax. In clause (7), the words “the Commissioners of the District of Columbia” (subsequently changed to “the Mayor of the District of Columbia” by section 422 of the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganization Act (Pub. L. 93–198, 87 Stat. 790)) in 31:725p are omitted as unnecessary because of §448 of the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganization Act. The text of 31:725q(proviso) is omitted because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words “for the prior fiscal year” are substituted for “as of the close of the preceding September 30 (beginning with the report as of June 30, 1967)” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (C), the word “obligations” is substituted for “securities” for consistency in the revised title. Clause (D) is substituted for “and of each department, agency, and instrumentality thereof” for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words “a report for the prior fiscal year on the total amount of public receipts and public expenditures” are substituted for “an accurate combined statement of the receipts and expenditures during the last preceding fiscal year of all public moneys” because of the restatement. The words “including those of the United States Postal Service” are omitted as unnecessary and superseded by 39:410.

In subsection (d), the words “either House of Congress” are substituted for “either branch of the legislature” for clarity and consistency. The words “that House of Congress” are substituted for “the Senate or House of Representatives” for consistency and because of the restatement. The words “or which appertain to his office” are omitted as unnecessary because of subsections (a)–(c) of the section.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–356 added subsec. (e).

§332. Miscellaneous administrative authority

The Secretary of the Treasury may to the extent provided in advance by appropriation Acts—

(1) contract for the temporary or intermittent services of experts or consultants as authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, at rates not to exceed the per diem equivalent to the rate for GS–18;

(2) contract with and reimburse the Department of State for health and medical services for employees of the Department of the Treasury and their dependents serving in foreign countries;

(3) provide for official functions, and reception and representation activities;

(4) maintain, repair, and clean uniforms furnished by the Department of the Treasury to uniformed employees;

(5) provide athletic and related activities for students at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Glynco, Georgia;

(6) install and maintain fencing, lighting, guard booths, and other facilities as necessary for the performance of protective functions of the Department of the Treasury on property not owned by or under jurisdiction and control of the United States Government and, subsequently, to remove the facilities therefrom;

(7) enter into reciprocal assistance agreements with State and local law enforcement agencies and, in connection with the agreements and otherwise, train employees of those agencies, when necessary, with or without reimbursement;

(8) provide laboratory assistance to State and local law enforcement agencies, with or without reimbursement;

(9) obtain insurance for official motor vehicles operated in foreign countries; and

(10)(A) when necessary for the performance of official business—

(i) acquire in foreign countries real property by lease for periods not greater than 10 years and personal property for use in foreign countries by purchase, lease, or otherwise, and

(ii) manage, maintain, repair, improve, and insure by purchase of commercial insurance policies properties referred to in clause (i), and


(B) when appropriate, dispose of (by sale, rent, transfer, or otherwise) properties referred to in subparagraph (A)(i).

(Added Pub. L. 98–302, §3(a), May 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 217.)

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§333. Prohibition of misuse of Department of the Treasury names, symbols, etc.

(a) General Rule.—No person may use, in connection with, or as a part of, any advertisement, solicitation, business activity, or product, whether alone or with other words, letters, symbols, or emblems—

(1) the words “Department of the Treasury”, or the name of any service, bureau, office, or other subdivision of the Department of the Treasury,

(2) the titles “Secretary of the Treasury” or “Treasurer of the United States” or the title of any other officer or employee of the Department of the Treasury,

(3) the abbreviations or initials of any entity referred to in paragraph (1),

(4) the words “United States Savings Bond” or the name of any other obligation issued by the Department of the Treasury,

(5) any symbol or emblem of an entity referred to in paragraph (1) (including the design of any envelope or stationary used by such an entity), and

(6) any colorable imitation of any such words, titles, abbreviations, initials, symbols, or emblems,


in a manner which could reasonably be interpreted or construed as conveying the false impression that such advertisement, solicitation, business activity, or product is in any manner approved, endorsed, sponsored, or authorized by, or associated with, the Department of the Treasury or any entity referred to in paragraph (1) or any officer or employee thereof.

(b) Treatment of Disclaimers.—Any determination of whether a person has violated the provisions of subsection (a) shall be made without regard to any use of a disclaimer of affiliation with the United States Government or any particular agency or instrumentality thereof.

(c) Civil Penalty.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of the Treasury may impose a civil penalty on any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a).

(2) Amount of penalty.—The amount of the civil penalty imposed by paragraph (1) shall not exceed $5,000 for each use of any material in violation of subsection (a). If such use is in a broadcast or telecast, the preceding sentence shall be applied by substituting “$25,000” for “$5,000”.

(3) Time limitations.—

(A) Assessments.—The Secretary of the Treasury may assess any civil penalty under paragraph (1) at any time before the end of the 3-year period beginning on the date of the violation with respect to which such penalty is imposed.

(B) Civil action.—The Secretary of the Treasury may commence a civil action to recover any penalty imposed under this subsection at any time before the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date on which such penalty was assessed.


(4) Coordination with subsection (d).—No penalty may be assessed under this subsection with respect to any violation after a criminal proceeding with respect to such violation has been commenced under subsection (d).


(d) Criminal Penalty.—

(1) In general.—If any person knowingly violates subsection (a), such person shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $10,000 for each such use or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both. If such use is in a broadcast or telecast, the preceding sentence shall be applied by substituting “$50,000” for “$10,000”.

(2) Time limitations.—No person may be prosecuted, tried, or punished under paragraph (1) for any violation of subsection (a) unless the indictment is found or the information instituted during the 3-year period beginning on the date of the violation.

(3) Coordination with subsection (c).—No criminal proceeding may be commenced under this subsection with respect to any violation if a civil penalty has previously been assessed under subsection (c) with respect to such violation.

(Added Pub. L. 103–296, title III, §312(l)(1), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1528.)

Effective Date

Section 312(m) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 1320b–10 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply with respect to violations occurring after March 31, 1995.

“(2) Prohibition of misuse of department of the treasury names, symbols, etc.—Subsection (l)(3) [enacting provisions set out below] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994], and the amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (l) [enacting this section] shall apply with respect to violations occurring after such date.”

Report on Implementation of Section

Section 312(l)(3) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “Not later than May 1, 1996, the Secretary of the Treasury shall submit a report to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate on the implementation of the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 1320b–10 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare]. Such report shall include the number of cases in which the Secretary has notified persons of violations of section 333 of title 31, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)[(l)(1)]), the number of prosecutions commenced under such section, and the total amount of the penalties collected in such prosecutions.”

CHAPTER 5—OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET

SUBCHAPTER I—ORGANIZATION

Sec.
501.
Office of Management and Budget.
502.
Officers.
503.
Functions of Deputy Director for Management.
504.
Office of Federal Financial Management.
505.
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs.
506.
Office of Federal Procurement Policy.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

521.
Employees.
522.
Necessary expenditures.

        

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §203(c), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2841, added items 503 and 504 and redesignated former items 503 and 504 as 505 and 506, respectively.

1983—Pub. L. 97–452, §1(1)(B), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2467, added item 504.

SUBCHAPTER I—ORGANIZATION

§501. Office of Management and Budget

The Office of Management and Budget is an office in the Executive Office of the President.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 886.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. CodeSource (Statutes at Large)
501 31:16(1st sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §207(1st sentence), 42 Stat. 22; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085; restated Mar. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–250, §1, 88 Stat. 11.

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–576, title I, §101, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2838, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 503, 504, 901 to 903, and 3515 of this title, amending sections 502, 1105, 3512, 3521, 9105, and 9106 of this title, sections 5313 to 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 3533 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, renumbering sections 503 and 504 of this title as 505 and 506 of this title, respectively, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 901, 3511, 3515, and 3521 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 301 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits] may be cited as the ‘Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990’.”

Transfer of Functions

Pub. L. 104–53, title II, §211, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 535, provided that:

“(a) Effective June 30, 1996, the functions of the Comptroller General identified in subsection (b) are transferred to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, contingent upon the additional transfer to the Office of Management and Budget of such personnel, budget authority, records, and property of the General Accounting Office relating to such functions as the Comptroller General and the Director jointly determine to be necessary. The Director may delegate any such function, in whole or in part, to any other agency or agencies if the Director determines that such delegation would be cost-effective or otherwise in the public interest, and may transfer to such agency or agencies any personnel, budget authority, records, and property received by the Director pursuant to the preceding sentence that relate to the delegated functions. Personnel transferred pursuant to this provision shall not be separated or reduced in classification or compensation for one year after any such transfer, except for cause.

“(b) The following provisions of the United States Code contain the functions to be transferred pursuant to subsection (a): sections 5564 and 5583 of title 5; sections 2312, 2575, 2733, 2734, 2771, 4712, and 9712 of title 10; sections 1626 and 4195 of title 22; section 420 of title 24; sections 2414 and 2517 of title 28; sections 1304, 3702, 3726, and 3728 of title 31; sections 714 and 715 of title 32; section 554 of title 37; section 5122 of title 38; and section 256a of title 41.”

Emergency Preparedness Functions

For assignment of certain emergency preparedness functions to Director of the Office of Management and Budget, see Parts 1, 2, and 28 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Franchise Fund Pilot Programs

Pub. L. 103–356, title IV, §403, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3413, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—There is authorized to be established on a pilot program basis in each of six executive agencies a franchise fund. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, after consultation with the chairman and ranking members of the Committees on Appropriations and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, and the Committees on Appropriations and Government Operations [now Committee on Government Reform and Oversight] of the House of Representatives, shall designate the agencies.

“(b) Uses.—Each such fund may provide, consistent with guidelines established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, such common administrative support services to the agency and to other agencies as the head of such agency, with the concurrence of the Director, determines can be provided more efficiently through such a fund than by other means. To provide such services, each such fund is authorized to acquire the capital equipment, automated data processing systems, and financial management and management information systems needed. Services shall be provided by such funds on a competitive basis.

“(c) Funding.—(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the franchise fund of each agency designated under subsection (a) such funds as are necessary to carry out the purposes of the fund, to remain available until expended. To the extent that unexpended balances remain available in other accounts for the purposes to be carried out by the fund, the head of the agency may transfer such balances to the fund.

“(2) Fees for services shall be established by the head of the agency at a level to cover the total estimated costs of providing such services. Such fees shall be deposited in the agency's fund to remain available until expended, and may be used to carry out the purposes of the fund.

“(3) Existing inventories, including inventories on order, equipment, and other assets or liabilities pertaining to the purposes of the fund may be transferred to the fund.

“(d) Report on Pilot Programs.—Within 6 months after the end of fiscal year 1997, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall forward a report on the results of the pilot programs to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and of the House of Representatives, and to the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Government Operations [now Committee on Government Reform and Oversight] of the House of Representatives. The report shall contain the financial and program performance results of the pilot programs, including recommendations for—

“(1) the structure of the fund;

“(2) the composition of the funding mechanism;

“(3) the capacity of the fund to promote competition; and

“(4) the desirability of extending the application and implementation of franchise funds to other Federal agencies.

“(e) Procurement.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as relieving any agency of any duty under applicable procurement laws.

“(f) Termination.—The provisions of this section shall expire on October 1, 1999.”

Simplification of Management Reporting Process

Pub. L. 103–356, title IV, §404, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3414, provided that:

“(a) In General.—To improve the efficiency of executive branch performance in implementing statutory requirements for financial management reporting to the Congress and its committees, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget may adjust the frequency and due dates of or consolidate any statutorily required reports of agencies to the Office of Management and Budget or the President and of agencies or the Office of Management and Budget to the Congress under any laws for which the Office of Management and Budget has financial management responsibility, including—

“(1) chapters 5, 9, 11, 33, 35, 37, 39, 75, and 91 of title 31, United States Code;

“(2) the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note; Public Law 101–410; 104 Stat. 890).

“(b) Application.—The authority provided in subsection (a) shall apply only to reports of agencies to the Office of Management and Budget or the President and of agencies or the Office of Management and Budget to the Congress required by statute to be submitted between January 1, 1995, and September 30, 1997.

“(c) Adjustments in Reporting.—The Director may consolidate or adjust the frequency and due dates of any statutorily required reports under subsections (a) and (b) only after—

“(1) consultation with the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs and the Chairman of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Operations [now Committee on Government Reform and Oversight]; and

“(2) written notification to the Congress, no later than February 8 of each fiscal year covered under subsection (b) for those reports required to be submitted during that fiscal year.”

Findings and Purposes of Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990

Pub. L. 101–576, title I, §102, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2838, provided that:

“(a) Findings.—The Congress finds the following:

“(1) General management functions of the Office of Management and Budget need to be significantly enhanced to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Federal Government.

“(2) Financial management functions of the Office of Management and Budget need to be significantly enhanced to provide overall direction and leadership in the development of a modern Federal financial management structure and associated systems.

“(3) Billions of dollars are lost each year through fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement among the hundreds of programs in the Federal Government.

“(4) These losses could be significantly decreased by improved management, including improved central coordination of internal controls and financial accounting.

“(5) The Federal Government is in great need of fundamental reform in financial management requirements and practices as financial management systems are obsolete and inefficient, and do not provide complete, consistent, reliable, and timely information.

“(6) Current financial reporting practices of the Federal Government do not accurately disclose the current and probable future cost of operating and investment decisions, including the future need for cash or other resources, do not permit adequate comparison of actual costs among executive agencies, and do not provide the timely information required for efficient management of programs.

“(b) Purposes.—The purposes of this Act [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note above] are the following:

“(1) Bring more effective general and financial management practices to the Federal Government through statutory provisions which would establish in the Office of Management and Budget a Deputy Director for Management, establish an Office of Federal Financial Management headed by a Controller, and designate a Chief Financial Officer in each executive department and in each major executive agency in the Federal Government.

“(2) Provide for improvement, in each agency of the Federal Government, of systems of accounting, financial management, and internal controls to assure the issuance of reliable financial information and to deter fraud, waste, and abuse of Government resources.

“(3) Provide for the production of complete, reliable, timely, and consistent financial information for use by the executive branch of the Government and the Congress in the financing, management, and evaluation of Federal programs.”

Duties and Functions of Department of the Treasury

Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §204, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2842, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note above] shall be construed to interfere with the exercise of the functions, duties, and responsibilities of the Department of the Treasury, as in effect immediately before the enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990].”

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 2 OF 1970

Eff. July 1, 1970, 35 F.R. 7959, 84 Stat. 2085, as amended Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, 1085

Prepared by the President and Transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress Assembled March 12, 1970, Pursuant to the Provisions of Chapter 9 of Title 5 of the United States Code.

OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET; DOMESTIC COUNCIL

PART I. OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET

Section 101. Transfer of functions to the President

There are hereby transferred to the President of the United States all functions vested by law (including reorganization plan) in the Bureau of the Budget or the Director of the Bureau of the Budget.

Sec. 102. Office of Management and Budget

[Repealed. Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, 1085. Section designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget, provided for the officers and their duties, and provided for performance of the duties of the Director in the event of absence or disability or a vacancy in the office of Director.]

Sec. 103. Records, Property, Personnel, and Funds

[Repealed. Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, 1085. Section provided that the records, property, personnel, and unexpended balances etc., of the Bureau of the Budget shall become those of the Office of Management and Budget.]

PART II. DOMESTIC COUNCIL

Sec. 201. Establishment of the Council

(a) There is hereby established in the Executive Office of the President a Domestic Council, hereinafter referred to as the Council.

(b) The Council shall be composed of the following:

The President of the United States

The Vice President of the United States

The Attorney General

Secretary of Agriculture

Secretary of Commerce

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Secretary of the Interior

Secretary of Labor

Secretary of Transportation

Secretary of the Treasury

and such other officers of the Executive Branch as the President may from time to time direct.

(c) The President of the United States shall preside over meetings of the Council: Provided, That, in the event of his absence, he may designate a member of the Council to preside.

Sec. 202. Functions of the Council

The Council shall perform such functions as the President may from time to time delegate or assign thereto.

Sec. 203. Executive Director

The staff of the Council shall be headed by an Executive Director who shall be an assistant to the President designated by the President. The Executive Director shall perform such functions as the President may from time to time direct.

PART III. TAKING EFFECT

Sec. 301. Effective Date

The provisions of this reorganization plan shall take effect as provided by section 906(a) of title 5 of the United States Code, or on July 1, 1970, whichever is later.

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

We in government often are quick to call for reform in other institutions, but slow to reform ourselves. Yet nowhere today is modern management more needed than in government itself.

In 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed and the Congress accepted a reorganization plan that laid the groundwork for providing managerial assistance for a modern Presidency.

The plan placed the Bureau of the Budget within the Executive Office of the President. It made available to the President direct access to important new management instruments. The purpose of the plan was to improve the administration of the Government—to ensure that the Government could perform “promptly, effectively, without waste or lost motion.”

Fulfilling that purpose today is far more difficult—and more important—than it was 30 years ago.

Last April, I created a President's Advisory Council on Executive Organization and named to it a distinguished group of outstanding experts headed by Roy L. Ash. I gave the Council a broad charter to examine ways in which the Executive Branch could be better organized. I asked it to recommend specific organizational changes that would make the Executive Branch a more vigorous and more effective instrument for creating and carrying out the programs that are needed today. The Council quickly concluded that the place to begin was in the Executive Office of the President itself. I agree.

The past 30 years have seen enormous changes in the size, structure and functions of the Federal Government. The budget has grown from less than $10 billion to $200 billion. The number of civilian employees has risen from one million to more than two and a half million. Four new Cabinet departments have been created, along with more than a score of independent agencies. Domestic policy issues have become increasingly complex. The interrelationships among Government programs have become more intricate. Yet the organization of the President's policy and management arms has not kept pace.

Over three decades, the Executive Office of the President has mushroomed but not by conscious design. In many areas it does not provide the kind of staff assistance and support the President needs in order to deal with the problems of government in the 1970s. We confront the 1970s with a staff organization geared in large measure to the tasks of the 1940s and 1950s.

One result, over the years, has been a tendency to enlarge the immediate White House staff—that is, the President's personal staff, as distinct from the institutional structure—to assist with management functions for which the President is responsible. This has blurred the distinction between personal staff and management institutions; it has left key management functions to be performed only intermittently and some not at all. It has perpetuated outdated structures.

Another result has been, paradoxically, to inhibit the delegation of authority to Departments and agencies.

A President whose programs are carefully coordinated, whose information system keeps him adequately informed, and whose organizational assignments are plainly set out, can delegate authority with security and confidence. A President whose office is deficient in these respects will be inclined, instead, to retain close control of operating responsibilities which he cannot and should not handle.

Improving the management processes of the President's own office, therefore, is a key element in improving the management of the entire Executive Branch, and in strengthening the authority of its Departments and agencies. By providing the tools that are needed to reduce duplication, to monitor performance and to promote greater efficiency throughout the Executive Branch, this also will enable us to give the country not only more effective but also more economical government—which it deserves.

To provide the management tools and policy mechanisms needed for the 1970s, I am today transmitting to the Congress Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970, prepared in accordance with Chapter 9 of Title 5 of the United States Code.

This plan draws not only on the work of the Ash Council itself, but also on the work of others that preceded—including the pioneering Brownlow Committee of 1936, the two Hoover Commissions, the Rockefeller Committee, and other Presidential task forces.

Essentially, the plan recognizes that two closely connected but basically separate functions both center in the President's office: policy determination and executive management. This involves (1) what government should do, and (2) how it goes about doing it.

My proposed reorganization creates a new entity to deal with each of these functions:

—It establishes a Domestic Council, to coordinate policy formulation in the domestic area. This Cabinet group would be provided with an institutional staff, and to a considerable degree would be a domestic counterpart to the National Security Council.

—It establishes an Office of Management and Budget, which would be the President's principal arm for the exercise of his managerial functions.

The Domestic Council will be primarily concerned with what we do; the Office of Management and Budget will be primarily concerned with how we do it, and how well we do it.

DOMESTIC COUNCIL

The past year's experience with the Council for Urban Affairs has shown how immensely valuable a Cabinet-level council can be as a forum for both discussion and action on policy matters that cut across departmental jurisdictions.

The Domestic Council will be chaired by the President. Under the plan, its membership will include the Vice President, and the Secretaries of the Treasury, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health, Education and Welfare, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation, and the Attorney General. I also intend to designate as members the Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity and, while he remains a member of the Cabinet, the Postmaster General. (Although I continue to hope that the Congress will adopt my proposal to create, in place of the Post Office Department, a self-sufficient postal authority.) The President could add other Executive Branch officials at his discretion.

The Council will be supported by a staff under an Executive Director who will also be one of the President's assistants. Like the National Security Council staff, this staff will work in close coordination with the President's personal staff but will have its own institutional identity. By being established on a permanent, institutional basis, it will be designed to develop and employ the “institutional memory” so essential if continuity is to be maintained, and if experience is to play its proper role in the policy-making process.

There does not now exist an organized, institutionally-staffed group charged with advising the President on the total range of domestic policy. The Domestic Council will fill that need. Under the President's direction, it will also be charged with integrating the various aspects of domestic policy into a consistent whole.

Among the specific policy functions in which I intend the Domestic Council to take the lead are these:

—Assessing national needs, collecting information and developing forecasts, for the purpose of defining national goals and objectives.

—Identifying alternative ways of achieving these objectives, and recommending consistent, integrated sets of policy choices.

—Providing rapid response to Presidential needs for policy advice on pressing domestic issues.

—Coordinating the establishment of national priorities for the allocation of available resources.

—Maintaining a continuous review of the conduct of ongoing programs from a policy standpoint, and proposing reforms as needed.

Much of the Council's work will be accomplished by temporary, ad hoc project committees. These might take a variety of forms, such as task forces, planning groups or advisory bodies. They can be established with varying degrees of formality, and can be set up to deal either with broad program areas or with specific problems. The committees will draw for staff support on Department and agency experts, supplemented by the Council's own staff and that of the Office of Management and Budget.

Establishment of the Domestic Council draws on the experience gained during the past year with the Council for Urban Affairs, the Cabinet Committee on the Environment and the Council for Rural Affairs. The principal key to the operation of these Councils has been the effective functioning of their various subcommittees. The Councils themselves will be consolidated into the Domestic Council; Urban, Rural and Environment subcommittees of the Domestic Council will be strengthened, using access to the Domestic Council staff.

Overall, the Domestic Council will provide the President with a streamlined, consolidated domestic policy arm, adequately staffed, and highly flexible in its operation. It also will provide a structure through which departmental initiatives can be more fully considered, and expert advice from the Departments and agencies more fully utilized.

OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET

Under the reorganization plan, the technical and formal means by which the Office of Management and Budget is created is by re-designating the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget. The functions currently vested by law in the Bureau, or in its director, are transferred to the President, with the provision that he can then re-delegate them.

As soon as the reorganization plan takes effect, I intend to delegate those statutory functions to the Director of the new Office of Management and Budget, including those under section 212 of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 [31 U.S.C. 1113].

However, creation of the Office of Management and Budget represents far more than a mere change of name for the Bureau of the Budget. It represents a basic change in concept and emphasis, reflecting the broader management needs of the Office of the President.

The new Office will still perform the key function of assisting the President in the preparation of the annual Federal budget and overseeing its execution. It will draw upon the skills and experience of the extraordinarily able and dedicated career staff developed by the Bureau of the Budget. But preparation of the budget as such will no longer be its dominant, overriding concern.

While the budget function remains a vital tool of management, it will be strengthened by the greater emphasis the new office will place on fiscal analysis. The budget function is only one of several important management tools that the President must now have. He must also have a substantially enhanced institutional staff capability in other areas of executive management—particularly in program evaluation and coordination, improvement of Executive Branch organization, information and management systems, and development of executive talent. Under this plan, strengthened capability in these areas will be provided partly through internal reorganization, and it will also require additional staff resources.

The new Office of Management and Budget will place much greater emphasis on the evaluation of program performance: on assessing the extent to which programs are actually achieving their intended results, and delivering the intended services to the intended recipients. This is needed on a continuing basis, not as a one-time effort. Program evaluation will remain a function of the individual agencies as it is today. However, a single agency cannot fairly be expected to judge overall effectiveness in programs that cross agency lines—and the difference between agency and Presidential perspectives requires a capacity in the Executive Office to evaluate program performance whenever appropriate.

The new Office will expand efforts to improve interagency cooperation in the field. Washington-based coordinators will help work out interagency problems at the operating level, and assist in developing efficient coordinating mechanisms throughout the country. The success of these efforts depends on the experience, persuasion, and understanding of an Office which will be an expediter and catalyst. The Office will also respond to requests from State and local governments for assistance on intergovernmental programs. It will work closely with the Vice President and the Office of Intergovernmental Relations.

Improvement of Government organization, information and management systems will be a major function of the Office of Management and Budget. It will maintain a continuous review of the organizational structures and management processes of the Executive Branch, and recommend needed changes. It will take the lead in developing new information systems to provide the President with the performance and other data that he needs but does not now get. When new programs are launched, it will seek to ensure that they are not simply forced into or grafted onto existing organizational structures that may not be appropriate. Resistance to organizational change is one of the chief obstacles to effective government; the new Office will seek to ensure that organization keeps abreast of program needs.

The new Office will also take the lead in devising programs for the development of career executive talent throughout the Government. Not the least of the President's needs as Chief Executive is direct capability in the Executive Office for insuring that talented executives are used to the full extent of their abilities. Effective, coordinated efforts for executive manpower development have been hampered by the lack of a system for forecasting the needs for executive talent and appraising leadership potential. Both are crucial to the success of an enterprise—whether private or public.

The Office of Management and Budget will be charged with advising the President on the development of new programs to recruit, train, motivate, deploy, and evaluate the men and women who make up the top ranks of the civil service, in the broadest sense of that term. It will not deal with individuals, but will rely on the talented professionals of the Civil Service Commission and the Departments and agencies themselves to administer these programs. Under the leadership of the Office of Management and Budget there will be joint efforts to see to it that all executive talent is well utilized wherever it may be needed throughout the Executive Branch, and to assure that executive training and motivation meet not only today's needs but those of the years ahead.

Finally, the new Office will continue the Legislative Reference functions now performed by the Bureau of the Budget, drawing together agency reactions on all proposed legislation, and helping develop legislation to carry out the President's program. It also will continue the Bureau's work of improving and coordinating Federal statistical services.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CHANGES

The people deserve a more responsive and more effective Government. The times require it. These changes will help provide it.

Each reorganization included in the plan which accompanies this message is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in Section 901(a) of Title 5 of the United States Code. In particular, the plan is responsive to Section 901(a)(1), “to promote the better execution of the laws, the more effective management of the Executive Branch and of its agencies and functions, and the expeditious administration of the public business;” and Section 901(a)(3), “to increase the efficiency of the operations of the Government to the fullest extent practicable.”

The reorganizations provided for in this plan make necessary the appointment and compensation of new officers, as specified in Section 102(c) of the plan. The rates of compensation fixed for these officers are comparable to those fixed for other officers in the Executive Branch who have similar responsibilities.

While this plan will result in a modest increase in direct expenditures, its strengthening of the Executive Office of the President will bring significant indirect savings, and at the same time will help ensure that people actually receive the return they deserve for every dollar the Government spends. The savings will result from the improved efficiency these changes will provide throughout the Executive Branch—and also from curtailing the waste that results when programs simply fail to achieve their objectives. It is not practical, however, to itemize or aggregate these indirect expenditure reductions which will result from the reorganization.

I expect to follow with other reorganization plans, quite possibly including ones that will affect other activities of the Executive Office of the President. Our studies are continuing. But this by itself is a reorganization of major significance, and a key to the more effective functioning of the entire Executive Branch.

These changes would provide an improved system of policy making and coordination, a strengthened capacity to perform those functions that are now the central concerns of the Bureau of the Budget, and a more effective set of management tools for the performance of other functions that have been rapidly increasing in importance.

The reorganization will not only improve the staff resources available to the President, but will also strengthen the advisory roles of those members of the Cabinet principally concerned with domestic affairs. By providing a means of formulating integrated and systematic recommendations on major domestic policy issues, the plan serves not only the needs of the President but also the interests of the Congress.

This reorganization plan is of major importance to the functioning of modern government. The national interest requires it. I urge that the Congress allow it to become effective.

Richard Nixon.      

The White House, March 12, 1970.

Abolition of Domestic Council

Domestic Council, established by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, §201, eff. July 1, 1970, 35 F.R. 7959, 84 Stat. 2086, set out above, abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977, §3, 42 F.R. 56101, 91 Stat. 1633, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective on or before Apr. 1, 1978, at such time as specified by President. Section 5D of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977 transferred all functions vested in Domestic Council to President with power to delegate performance of such transferred functions within Executive Office of President.

Ex. Ord. No. 11541. Prescribing Duties of Office of Management and Budget and Domestic Council

Ex. Ord. No. 11541, July 1, 1970, 35 F.R. 10737, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12013, Oct. 7, 1977, 42 F.R. 54931; Ex. Ord. No. 12027, Dec. 5, 1977, 42 F.R. 61851; Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055; Ex. Ord. No. 12318, Aug. 21, 1981, 46 F.R. 42833, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (hereinafter referred to as “the Plan”) [set out as a note under this section], it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. (a) All functions transferred to the President of the United States by Part I of the Plan (including the function vested by section 102(f) of designating the officials of the Office of Management and Budget who shall act as Director during the absence or disability of the Deputy Director or in the event of a vacancy in the office of Deputy Director) are hereby delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget in the Executive Office of the President. Such functions shall be carried out by the Director under the direction of the President and pursuant to such further instructions as the President from time to time may issue.

(b) All outstanding delegations, rules, regulations, orders, circulars, bulletins, or other forms of Executive or administrative action issued or taken by or relating to the Bureau of the Budget or the Director of the Bureau of the Budget prior to the effective date of this order shall, until amended or revoked, remain in full force and effect as if issued or taken by or relating to the Office of Management and Budget or the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

(c) The delegation to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, pursuant to subsection (a) of this Section, of the functions vested in the Director of the Bureau of the Budget by Section 103 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 18b) [31 U.S.C. 1104(d)] and subsequently transferred to the President by Part I of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (5 U.S.C. App.), shall be implemented in accord with Section 3(a) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (94 Stat. 2825; 44 U.S.C. 3503 note), to the extent that provision is applicable.

(d) The delegation to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget of the following executive development and personnel functions (which have been transferred to the Office of Personnel Management) is terminated on December 4, 1977:

(1) Providing overall Executive Branch leadership, regulation, and guidance in executive personnel selection, development and management.

(2) Studying and reporting on issues relating to position classification and the compensation of Federal civilian employees, including linkages among pay systems, and providing reports on average grade levels, work-years and personnel costs of Federal civilian employees.

(3) Providing primary Executive Branch leadership in (i) developing and reviewing a program of policy guidance to departments and agencies for the organization of management responsibility under the Federal Labor Relations program; and (ii) monitoring issues and trends in labor management relations for referral to appropriate Executive Branch officials including the Federal Labor Relations Council.

Sec. 2. (a) Under the direction of the President and subject to such further instructions as the President from time to time may issue, the Domestic Council in the Executive Office of the President shall (1) receive and develop information necessary for assessing national domestic needs and defining national domestic goals, and develop for the President alternative proposals for reaching those goals; (2) collaborate with the Office of Management and Budget and others in the determination of national domestic priorities for the allocation of available resources; (3) collaborate with the Office of Management and Budget and others to assure a continuing review of ongoing programs from the standpoint of their relative contributions to national goals as compared with their use of available resources; and (4) provide policy advice to the President on domestic issues.

(b) The organizations listed herein are terminated and the functions heretofore assigned to them shall be performed by the Domestic Council:

Council for Urban Affairs (Executive Order No. 11452 of January 23, 1969)

Cabinet Committee on the Environment (Executive Order No. 11472 of May 29, 1969, as amended by Executive Order No. 11514 of March 5, 1970)

Council for Rural Affairs (Executive Order No. 11493 of November 13, 1969)

Sec. 3. This order shall be effective July 1, 1970.

Supersedure of Ex. Ord. No. 11541

Supersedure of Ex. Ord. No. 11541 to the extent that it is inconsistent with Ex. Ord. No. 11609, July 22, 1971, 36 F.R. 13747, see section 11(6) of Ex. Ord. No. 11609, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President; with Ex. Ord. No. 11713, Apr. 21, 1973, 38 F.R. 10069, see section 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 11713, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3; with Ex. Ord. No. 11717, May 9, 1973, 38 F.R. 12315, see section 5 of Ex. Ord. No. 11717, set out below.

Executive Order No. 11647

Ex. Ord. No. 11647, Feb. 10, 1972, 37 F.R. 3167, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11731, July 23, 1973, 38 F.R. 19903; Ex. Ord. No. 11892, Dec. 31, 1975, 41 F.R. 751; Ex. Ord. No. 12038, Feb. 3, 1978, 43 F.R. 4957, which established Federal Regional Councils, was revoked by section 1–307 of Ex. Ord. No. 12149, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43248.

Ex. Ord. No. 11717. Transfer of Certain Functions From Office of Management and Budget to General Services Administration and Department of Commerce

Ex. Ord. No. 11717, May 9, 1973, 38 F.R. 12315, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and Statutes of the United States, particularly by section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended, the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921, as amended, the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950, as amended, and Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 [set out as a note above], it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. There are hereby transferred to the Administrator of General Services all functions that were being performed in the Office of Management and Budget on April 13, 1973 by:

(1) The Financial Management Branch, the Procurement and Property Management Branch, and the Management Systems Branch of the Organization and Management Systems Division; and

(2) the Management Information and Computer Systems Division with respect to policy control over automatic data processing (except those functions relating to the establishment of Government-wide automatic data-processing standards).

Sec. 2. There are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Commerce all functions being performed on the date of this order in the Office of Management and Budget relating to the establishment of Government-wide automatic data processing standards, including the function of approving standards on behalf of the President pursuant to section 111(f)(2) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended [40 U.S.C. 759(f)(2)].

Sec. 3. (a) The functions transferred to the Administrator of the General Services Administration and to the Secretary of Commerce by this order do not include those performed in connection with the general oversight responsibilities of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, as the head of that agency and as Assistant to the President for executive management, and the functions transferred by this order shall be performed subject to such general oversight to the same extent that other functions of the General Services Administration and the Department of Commerce, respectively, are so performed.

(b) The functions vested in the President by the first sentence of section 111(g) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended [40 U.S.C. 759(g)], with respect to fiscal control of automatic data processing activities shall continue to be performed by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. No function vested by statute in the Director shall be deemed to be affected by the provisions of this order.

Sec. 4. So much of the personnel, property, records and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available, in connection with the functions transferred by this order as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the Department of Commerce and the General Services Administration, respectively, at such times as the Director shall specify.

Sec. 5. Executive Order No. 11541 of July 1, 1970, is hereby superseded to the extent that it is inconsistent with this order.

Sec. 6. This order shall be effective as of April 15, 1973.

Richard Nixon.      

Supersedure of Ex. Ord. No. 11717

Ex. Ord. No. 11717 superseded to the extent that it is inconsistent with Ex. Ord. No. 11893, Dec. 31, 1975, 41 F.R. 1040, see section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 11893, set out as a note under section 4252 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Executive Order No. 12013

Ex. Ord. No. 12013, Oct. 7, 1977, 42 F.R. 54931, which related to transfer of certain statistical functions and the establishment of the Statistical Policy Coordination Committee, was revoked by section 4(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12318, Aug. 21, 1981, 46 F.R. 42833, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12027. Transfer of Certain Executive Development and Other Personnel Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 12027, Dec. 5, 1977, 42 F.R. 61851, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (5 U.S.C. App.), Section 202 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c) [31 U.S.C. 1531], and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States of America, in order to transfer certain functions from the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to the Office of Personnel Management, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The following functions which heretofore have been performed by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, either alone or in conjunction with the Office of Personnel Management, are hereby reassigned and delegated to the Office of Personnel Management:

(a) Providing overall Executive Branch leadership, regulation, and guidance in executive personnel selection, development, and management including:

(1) Devising and establishing programs and encouraging agencies to devise and establish programs to forecast the need for career executive talent and to select, train, develop, motivate, deploy and evaluate the men and women who make up the top ranks of Federal civil service;

(2) Initiating and leading efforts to ensure that potential executive talent is identified, developed and well utilized throughout the Executive Branch and;

(3) Ensuring that executive training and motivation meet current and future needs.

(b) Studying and reporting on issues relating to position classification and the compensation of Federal civilian employees, including linkages among pay systems, and providing reports on average grade levels, work-years and personnel costs of Federal civilian employees.

(c) Providing primary Executive Branch leadership in (1) developing and reviewing a program of policy guidance to departments and agencies for the organization of management's responsibility under the Federal Labor Relations program; and (2) monitoring issues and trends in labor management relations for referral to appropriate Executive Branch officials including the Federal Labor Relations Council.

Sec. 2. Section 1 of Executive Order No. 11541, as amended [set out above], is further amended by adding thereto the following new subsection:

“(d) The delegation to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget of the following executive development and personnel functions (which have been transferred to the Office of Personnel Management) is terminated on December 4, 1977:

“(1) Providing overall Executive Branch leadership, regulation, and guidance in executive personnel selection, development and management.

“(2) Studying and reporting on issues relating to position classification and the compensation of Federal civilian employees, including linkages among pay systems, and providing reports on average grade levels, work-years and personnel costs of Federal civilian employees.

“(3) Providing primary Executive Branch leadership in (i) developing and reviewing a program of policy guidance to departments and agencies for the organization of management responsibility under the Federal Labor Relations program; and (ii) monitoring issues and trends in labor management relations for referral to appropriate Executive Branch officials including the Federal Labor Relations Council.”.

Sec. 3. Executive Order No. 11491, as amended [5 U.S.C. 7101 note], is further amended by amending Section 25(a) to read as follows:

“The Office of Personnel Management, in conjunction with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, shall establish and maintain a program for the policy guidance of agencies on labor-management relations in the Federal service and shall periodically review the implementation of these policies. The Office of Personnel Management shall be responsible for the day-to-day policy guidance under that program. The Office of Personnel Management also shall continuously review the operation of the Federal labor-management relations program to assist in assuring adherence to its provisions and merit system requirements; implement technical advice and information programs for the agencies; assist in the development of programs for training agency personnel and management officials in labor-management relations; and, from time to time, report to the Council on the state of the program with any recommendations for its improvement.”.

Sec. 4. Section 5(a) of Executive Order No. 11636 of December 17, 1971 [formerly set out as a note under 22 U.S.C. 801], establishing an Employee-Management Relations Commission as a committee of the Board of the Foreign Service, is amended by deleting: “The representative of the Office of Management and Budget shall be the Chairman of the Commission” and substituting therefor “The representative of the Office of Personnel Management shall be the Chairman of the Commission”.

Sec. 5. The records, property, personnel, and unexpended balances of appropriations, available or to be made available, which relate to the functions transferred or reassigned by this Order from the Office of Management and Budget to the Office of Personnel Management, are hereby transferred to the Office of Personnel Management.

Sec. 6. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make such determinations, issue such orders, and take all actions necessary or appropriate to effectuate the transfers or reassignments provided by this Order, including the transfer of funds, records, property, and personnel.

Sec. 7. This Order shall be effective December 4, 1977.

Jimmy Carter.      

Executive Order No. 12074

Ex. Ord. No. 12074, Aug. 16, 1978, 43 F.R. 36875, which related to urban and community impact analyses, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12350, Mar. 9, 1982, 47 F.R. 10503.

Executive Order No. 12149

Ex. Ord. No. 12149, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43247, which established Federal Regional Councils, was revoked by section 4(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12314, July 22, 1981, 46 F.R. 38330.

Executive Order No. 12301

Executive Order No. 12301, Mar. 26, 1981, 46 F.R. 19211, which established the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency in Federal programs, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12625, Jan. 27, 1988, 53 F.R. 2812, formerly set out below.

Executive Order No. 12314

Ex. Ord. No. 12314, July 22, 1981, 46 F.R. 38329, which established Federal Regional Councils, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12407, Feb. 22, 1983, 48 F.R. 7717.

Ex. Ord. No. 12318. Transfer of Certain Statistical Policy Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 12318, Aug. 21, 1981, 46 F.R. 42833, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (5 U.S.C. App.), Section 202 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c) [31 U.S.C. 1531], Section 3(a) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–511, 94 Stat. 2825, 44 U.S.C. 3503 note), and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and in order to transfer, redelegate, and reassign certain statistical policy functions from the Secretary of Commerce to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and to require redelegation of certain functions to the Administrator for the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Sec. 1(c) of Executive Order No. 11541 of July 1, 1970, as amended [set out as a note above], is amended by deleting the last phrase “is terminated on October 9, 1977” and substituting therefor “shall be implemented in accord with Section 3(a) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (94 Stat. 2825; 44 U.S.C. 3503 note), to the extent that provision is applicable”.

Sec. 2. Executive Order No. 10253 of July 11, 1951, as amended [31 U.S.C. 1104 note], is further amended as follows:

(a) “Secretary of Commerce” is deleted in Section 1 and “Director of the Office of Management and Budget” is substituted therefor.

(b) “Secretary” is deleted wherever it appears in Sections 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 and “Director” is substituted therefor.

(c) “Department of Commerce” is deleted in Section 6 and “Office of Management and Budget” is substituted therefor.

(d) Section 7 is deleted and a new Section 7 is substituted therefor as follows:

“Sec. 7. As required by Section 3(a) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (94 Stat. 2825; 44 U.S.C. 3503 note), the Director shall redelegate to the Administrator for the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, all functions, authority, and responsibility under Section 103 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 18b) [31 U.S.C. 1104(d)] which have been vested in the Director by this Order.”

(e) Section 8 is revoked.

Sec. 3. Executive Order No. 10033, as amended [22 U.S.C. 286f note], is further amended as follows:

(a) “Secretary of Commerce, hereinafter referred to as the Secretary,”, is deleted in Section 1 and “Director of the Office of Management and Budget, hereinafter referred to as the Director,”, is substituted therefor.

(b) “Secretary” is deleted wherever it appears in Sections 2(a), 2(b), 2(c), 3, 4, and 5 and “Director” is substituted therefor.

(c) Section 7 is revoked.

Sec. 4. (a) Executive Order No. 12013 is revoked.

(b) Section 4 of Executive Order No. 11961, as amended [22 U.S.C. 3101 note], is further amended by deleting “the Secretary of Commerce shall perform the functions set forth in Sections 4(a)(3) and 5(c) of the Act” [22 U.S.C. 3103(a)(3), 3104(c)], and substituting therefor “the Secretary of Commerce shall perform the function of making periodic reports to the Committees of the Congress as set forth in Section 4(a)(3) of the Act” [22 U.S.C. 3103(a)(3)].

Sec. 5. The records, property, personnel, and unexpended balances of appropriations, available or to be made available, which relate to the functions transferred or reassigned from the Secretary of Commerce to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget by the delegations made in this Order, are hereby transferred to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

Sec. 6. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make such determinations, issue such orders, and take all steps necessary or appropriate to ensure or effectuate the transfers or reassignments provided by this Order, including the transfer of funds, records, property, and personnel.

Sec. 7. Any rules, regulations, orders, directives, circulars, or other actions taken pursuant to the functions transferred or reassigned from the Secretary of Commerce to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget by the delegations made in this Order, shall remain in effect until amended, modified, or revoked pursuant to the delegations made in this Order.

Sec. 8. This Order shall be effective August 23, 1981.

Ronald Reagan.      

Executive Order No. 12479

Ex. Ord. No. 12479, May 24, 1984, 49 F.R. 22243, which established President's Council on Management Improvement, assigned functions of Council and responsibilities of Chairman, and provided for administrative support, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12816, Oct. 14, 1992, 57 F.R. 47562, set out below.

Executive Order No. 12552

Ex. Ord. No. 12552, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7041, which provided for establishment of a comprehensive program for improvement of productivity throughout all Executive departments and agencies, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 12637, Apr. 27, 1988, 53 F.R. 15349, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12615. Performance of Commercial Activities

Ex. Ord. No. 12615, Nov. 19, 1987, 52 F.R. 44853, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, and in order to facilitate ongoing efforts to ensure that the Federal Government acquires needed goods and services in the most economical and efficient manner, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The head of each Executive department and agency shall, to the extent permitted by law:

(a) Ensure that new Federal Government requirements for commercial activities are provided by private industry, except where statute or national security requires government performance or where private industry costs are unreasonable;

(b) Identify by April 29, 1988, in cooperation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget all commercial activities currently performed by government. The department and agency heads are encouraged to consult with the President's Commission on Privatization in making such identification;

(c) Schedule, by June 30, 1988, all commercial activities identified pursuant to subsection (b) for study in accordance with the procedures of OMB Circular No. A–76, as revised, and the Supplement thereto, to determine whether they could be performed more economically by private industry;

(d) Meet the study goals for Fiscal Year 1988 set forth in “Management of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1988”; and thereafter, beginning with Fiscal Year 1989, conduct annual studies of not less than 3 percent of the department or agency's total civilian population, until all identified potential commercial activities have been studied;

(e) Include in each annual budget proposal to the Office of Management and Budget estimates of expected yearly budget savings from the privatization of commercial activities projected to be accomplished following the completion of scheduled studies, unless an exception is authorized by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. These estimates shall be based on analysis of savings under previous studies and estimated savings to be achieved from future conversions to contract. A department or agency proposal may reflect retention of expected first-year savings as negotiated with the Office of Management and Budget for use as incentive compensation to reward employees covered by the studies for their productivity efforts, or for use in other productivity enhancement projects;

(f) Develop and maintain an effective job placement program for government employees affected by privatization initiatives and cooperate fully in interagency placement efforts;

(g) Designate a senior-level official to coordinate the OMB Circular No. A–76 studies and other privatization efforts; and

(h) Report to the President on progress each quarter, through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

Sec. 2. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall, to the extent permitted by law:

(a) Issue guidance to departments and agencies to implement this Order. Such guidance shall be designed to ensure an equitable cost comparison of government-operated commercial activities with private industry performance of the same activities, and to improve the efficiency in the conduct of studies;

(b) Publish for public review (i) not later than 30 days after its completion, the inventory of commercial activities identified pursuant to section 1(b) and the activities scheduled for study by departments and agencies in Fiscal Year 1988 pursuant to section 1(c); and (ii) not later than 30 days before the start of each successive fiscal year, the list of activities to be reviewed during that year pursuant to section 1(d); and

(c) Establish a tracking system to monitor, on a quarterly basis, progress by departments and agencies in carrying out this Order.

Sec. 3. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management, in consultation with the heads of other Executive departments and agencies, shall review and revise, as necessary and to the extent permitted by law, personnel policies and regulations in order (a) to ensure that government managers have the flexibility to organize in the most effective and efficient manner to achieve levels of productivity comparable with those of private industry, and (b) to reduce any adverse effects of productivity improvements on employees.

Sec. 4. For purposes of this Order, the terms “commercial activity,” “conversion to contract,” and “cost comparison” shall have the meanings set forth in OMB Circular No. A–76, as revised.

Sec. 5. Nothing in this Order shall be construed to confer a private right of action on any person, or to add in any way to applicable procurement procedures required by existing law.

Ronald Reagan.      

Executive Order No. 12625

Ex. Ord. No. 12625, Jan. 27, 1988, 53 F.R. 2812, which established President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency as an interagency committee, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12805, May 11, 1992, 57 F.R. 20627, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12637. Productivity Improvement Program for the Federal Government

Ex. Ord. No. 12637, Apr. 27, 1988, 53 F.R. 15349, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, as amended [now 31 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], and in order to further improve a comprehensive program for the improvement of productivity throughout all Executive departments and agencies, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. There is hereby established a government-wide program to improve the quality, timeliness, and efficiency of services provided by the Federal Government. The goal of the program shall be to improve the quality and timeliness of service to the public and to achieve an annual average productivity increase of 3 percent in appropriate functions. Each Executive department and agency will gradually include appropriate functions in the Productivity Improvement Program, so that by 1991 all appropriate functions are covered.

Sec. 2. As used in this Order, the term:

(a) “Productivity” means the efficiency with which resources are used to produce a government service or product at specified levels of quality and timeliness;

(b) “Appropriate functions” means those agency program functions that produce measurable outputs in the form of services to the public;

(c) “Public” means a customer outside the organization, such as citizens, businesses, State and local governments, other countries and/or their citizens, other agencies, the military;

(d) “Outputs” means products or services delivered to the public;

(e) “Measurement system” means both the specific measures used to determine whether standards of quality, timeliness, and efficiency of services are being met, and the procedures for the collection and reporting of data resulting from application of productivity measures;

(f) “Organizational performance standard” means a statement that quantifies and describes the desired level of quality, timeliness, and efficiency of services to be provided by an organization;

(g) “Management review” means the review by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, as part of the budget process of agency accomplishments and plans for management and productivity improvements.

Sec. 3. The head of each Executive department and agency shall:

(a) Develop a complete inventory of all appropriate functions to be included in the productivity program, use the agency's planning process to review current functions, and develop agency goals and objectives for improvement in services to the public.

(b) Develop and submit annually to the Office of Management and Budget a productivity plan. Each plan shall conform to the policy guidance issued by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, pursuant to Section 5 of this Order, and shall:

(1) set forth the agency's productivity goals and objectives;

(2) target priorities for the year and expand coverage each subsequent year to additional appropriate functions, with the objective of complete coverage of all appropriate functions by 1991;

(3) describe the proposed actions designed to make the agency's operations and delivery of services more efficient and responsive;

(4) describe the methods, including efficiency reviews and cost comparisons with the private sector, that the agency will use either to improve its own service, or to make use of commercial services available in the private sector when it is economical to do so; and

(5) describe the measurement systems to be used by the agency to gauge quality, timeliness, and efficiency.

(c) Implement the productivity program after the Management review by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget as provided in Section 6.

(d) Assess annually the agency's progress toward achieving objectives and priorities, including documented gains and cost savings. This assessment will form the basis of the agency's report to the President as required by Section 4.

(e) Designate a senior official responsible for guiding the agency's productivity improvement program.

(f) Inform agency managers and employees that they are expected to be responsible for improvements in the quality, timeliness, and efficiency of services.

(g) Include productivity and quality improvement goals in the performance appraisals of managers and supervisors.

(h) Encourage employee participation in the productivity program through employee training, employee involvement in work-related decisions, incentives, recognition, and rewards and by taking actions to minimize negative impacts on employees that may occur as a result of the productivity program.

Sec. 4. The head of each Executive department and agency shall report annually to the President through the Domestic Policy Council on accomplishments achieved under the plan. The annual report will form the basis of the Management Report to the Congress.

Sec. 5. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget is authorized to:

(a) Develop and promulgate goals, policies, principles, standards, and guidelines for the effective administration of this Order by Executive departments and agencies; and

(b) Identify and propose the elimination of statutory and regulatory barriers that inhibit opportunities to make improvements in productivity.

Sec. 6. The Director shall review, through the management review process, each agency's productivity plan based upon the requirements and guidance issued pursuant to Section 5 of this Order. Nothing in this Section shall be construed as displacing agency responsibilities delegated by law.

Sec. 7. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall submit to the Congress, in conjunction with the President's budget, a report on productivity plans and accomplishments of the agencies and the government as a whole.

Sec. 8. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall:

(a) Review Federal personnel policies and programs and make or recommend such changes as are appropriate to support productivity improvement;

(b) Review incentive policies and programs for Federal employees and make or recommend such changes as are appropriate to increase the productivity of the Federal Government;

(c) Develop and implement training programs for Federal employees in support of productivity improvements;

(d) Review policies and programs for Federal employees who may be displaced by productivity improvements and make or recommend such changes as are appropriate to ensure that such policies and programs will minimize any adverse impact on Federal employees.

Sec. 9. Executive Order No. 12552 of February 25, 1986, is hereby superseded.

Ronald Reagan.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12803. Infrastructure Privatization

Ex. Ord. No. 12803, Apr. 30, 1992, 57 F.R. 19063, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to ensure that the United States achieves the most beneficial economic use of its resources, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Definitions. For purposes of this order:

(a) “Privatization” means the disposition or transfer of an infrastructure asset, such as by sale or by long-term lease, from a State or local government to a private party.

(b) “Infrastructure asset” means any asset financed in whole or in part by the Federal Government and needed for the functioning of the economy. Examples of such assets include, but are not limited to: roads, tunnels, bridges, electricity supply facilities, mass transit, rail transportation, airports, ports, waterways, water supply facilities, recycling and wastewater treatment facilities, solid waste disposal facilities, housing, schools, prisons, and hospitals.

(c) “Originally authorized purposes” means the general objectives of the original grant program; however, the term is not intended to include every condition required for a grantee to have obtained the original grant.

(d) “Transfer price” means: (i) the amount paid or to be paid by a private party for an infrastructure asset, if the asset is transferred as a result of competitive bidding; or (ii) the appraised value of an infrastructure asset, as determined by the head of the executive department or agency and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, if the asset is not transferred as a result of competitive bidding.

(e) “State and local governments” means the government of any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States, and any county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority, school district, special district, intrastate district, regional or interstate governmental entity, council of governments, and any agency or instrumentality of a local government, and any federally recognized Indian Tribe.

Sec. 2. Fundamental Principles. Executive departments and agencies shall be guided by the following objectives and principles: (a) Adequate and well-maintained infrastructure is critical to economic growth. Consistent with the principles of federalism enumerated in Executive Order No. 12612 [set out under section 601 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees], and in order to allow the private sector to provide for infrastructure modernization and expansion, State and local governments should have greater freedom to privatize infrastructure assets.

(b) Private enterprise and competitively driven improvements are the foundation of our Nation's economy and economic growth. Federal financing of infrastructure assets should not act as a barrier to the achievement of economic efficiencies through additional private market financing or competitive practices, or both.

(c) State and local governments are in the best position to assess and respond to local needs. State and local governments should, subject to assuring continued compliance with Federal requirements that public use be on reasonable and nondiscriminatory terms, have maximum possible freedom to make decisions concerning the maintenance and disposition of their federally financed infrastructure assets.

(d) User fees are generally more efficient than general taxes as a means to support infrastructure assets. Privatization transactions should be structured so as not to result in unreasonable increases in charges to users.

Sec. 3. Privatization Initiative. To the extent permitted by law, the head of each executive department and agency shall undertake the following actions:

(a) Review those procedures affecting the management and disposition of federally financed infrastructure assets owned by State and local governments and modify those procedures to encourage appropriate privatization of such assets consistent with this order;

(b) Assist State and local governments in their efforts to advance the objectives of this order; and

(c) Approve State and local governments’ requests to privatize infrastructure assets, consistent with the criteria in section 4 of this order and, where necessary, grant exceptions to the disposition requirements of the “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments” common rule, or other relevant rules or regulations, for infrastructure assets; provided that the transfer price shall be distributed, as paid, in the following manner: (i) State and local governments shall first recoup in full the unadjusted dollar amount of their portion of total project costs (including any transaction and fix-up costs they incur) associated with the infrastructure asset involved; (ii) if proceeds remain, then the Federal Government shall recoup in full the amount of Federal grant awards associated with the infrastructure asset, less the applicable share of accumulated depreciation on such asset (calculated using the Internal Revenue Service accelerated depreciation schedule for the categories of assets in question); and (iii) finally, the State and local governments shall keep any remaining proceeds.

Sec. 4. Criteria. To the extent permitted by law, the head of an executive department or agency shall approve a request in accordance with section 3(c) of this order only if the grantee: (a) Agrees to use the proceeds described in section 3(c)(iii) of this order only for investment in additional infrastructure assets (after public notice of the proposed investment), or for debt or tax reduction; and

(b) Demonstrates that a market mechanism, legally enforceable agreement, or regulatory mechanism will ensure that: (i) the infrastructure asset or assets will continue to be used for their originally authorized purposes, as long as needed for those purposes, even if the purchaser becomes insolvent or is otherwise hindered from fulfilling the originally authorized purposes; and (ii) user charges will be consistent with any current Federal conditions that protect users and the public by limiting the charges.

Sec. 5. Government-wide Coordination and Review. In implementing Executive Order Nos. 12291 and 12498 [formerly set out under section 601 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees] and OMB Circular No. A–19, the Office of Management and Budget, to the extent permitted by law and consistent with the provisions of those authorities, shall take action to ensure that the policies of the executive department and agencies are consistent with the principles, criteria, and requirements of this order. The Office of Management and Budget shall review the results of implementing this order and report thereon to the President 1 year after the date of this order.

Sec. 6. Preservation of Existing Authority. Nothing in this order is in any way intended to limit any existing authority of the heads of executive departments and agencies to approve privatization proposals that are otherwise consistent with law.

Sec. 7. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch, and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by a party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

George Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12805. Integrity and Efficiency in Federal Programs

Ex. Ord. No. 12805, May 11, 1992, 57 F.R. 20627, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to coordinate and enhance governmental efforts to promote integrity and efficiency and to detect and prevent fraud, waste, and abuse in Federal programs, the establishment of two Councils of Federal Inspectors General and appropriate Federal officials is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency.

(a) There is established as an interagency committee the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency (PCIE).

(b) The PCIE shall be composed of the following members:

(1) The Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget, who shall be Chairperson of the Council;

(2) All civilian Presidentially appointed Inspectors General whose offices were established in the Inspector General Act of 1978 [5 App. U.S.C.] and subsequent amendments;

(3) The Vice Chairperson of the Executive Council on Integrity and Efficiency;

(4) The Controller of the Office of Federal Financial Management;

(5) The Associate Deputy Director for Investigations of the Federal Bureau of Investigation;

(6) The Director of the Office of Government Ethics;

(7) The Special Counsel of the Office of Special Counsel; and

(8) The Deputy Director of the Office of Personnel Management.

(c) The Chairperson may, from time to time, invite other officials to participate in meetings of the PCIE.

(d) The Chairperson shall, to the extent possible, convene meetings of the PCIE monthly.

Sec. 2. Establishment of the Executive Council on Integrity and Efficiency.

(a) There is established as an inter-entity committee the Executive Council on Integrity and Efficiency (ECIE).

(b) The ECIE shall be composed of the following members:

(1) The Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget, who shall be Chairperson of the Council;

(2) All civilian statutory Inspectors General not represented on the PCIE;

(3) The Vice Chairperson of the PCIE;

(4) The Controller of the Office of Federal Financial Management;

(5) The Associate Deputy Director for Investigations of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or his or her designee;

(6) The Director of the Office of Government Ethics, or his or her designee;

(7) The Special Counsel of the Office of Special Counsel, or his or her designee; and

(8) The Deputy Director of the Office of Personnel Management, or his or her designee.

(c) If any individual simultaneously serves as a Presidentially appointed Inspector General and as Inspector General of an entity represented on the ECIE, that individual may send a designee to ECIE meetings.

(d) The Chairperson may, from time to time, invite other officials to participate in meetings of the ECIE.

(e) The Chairperson or, in his or her absence, the Controller of the Office of Federal Financial Management shall, to the extent possible, convene meetings of the ECIE monthly.

Sec. 3. Functions of the PCIE and the ECIE.

(a) The Councils shall continually identify, review, and discuss areas of weakness and vulnerability in Federal programs and operations to fraud, waste, and abuse, and shall develop plans for coordinated, Governmentwide activities that address these problems and promote economy and efficiency in Federal programs and operations. These activities will include interagency and inter-entity audit and investigation programs and projects to deal efficiently and effectively with those problems concerning fraud and waste that exceed the capability or jurisdiction of an individual agency or entity. The Councils shall recognize the preeminent role of the Department of Justice in law enforcement and litigation.

(b) The Councils shall develop policies that will aid in the establishment of a corps of well-trained and highly skilled Office of Inspector General staff members.

(c) The individual members of the Councils should, to the extent permitted under law, adhere to professional standards developed by the Councils and participate in the plans, programs, and projects of the Councils.

(d) The creation and operation of the Councils shall neither interfere with existing authority and responsibilities in the relevant agencies and entities nor augment or diminish the statutory authority or responsibilities of individual members of either Council.

Sec. 4. Responsibilities of the Chairperson of the PCIE and the ECIE.

(a) The Chairperson may appoint a Vice Chairperson from the PCIE and the ECIE to assist in carrying out the functions of each Council.

(b) The Chairperson shall, in consultation with the members of each Council, establish the agenda for PCIE and ECIE activities.

(c) The Chairperson shall, on behalf of the Councils, report to the President on the activities of the Councils. The Chairperson shall, as appropriate, advise the Councils with respect to the President's consideration of the Councils’ activities.

(d) The Chairperson shall provide agency and entity heads with summary reports of the activities of the Councils.

(e) The Chairperson shall establish, in consultation with members of the Councils, such committees of the PCIE and the ECIE as deemed necessary and appropriate for the efficient conduct of PCIE and ECIE functions. The Chairperson may invite members of the ECIE to serve on each PCIE Committee. Similarly, the Chairperson may invite members of the PCIE to serve on each ECIE Committee.

(f) The Chairperson shall convene joint meetings of the PCIE and the ECIE at least annually.

Sec. 5. Administrative Provisions.

(a) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide the PCIE and the ECIE with such administrative support as may be necessary for the performance of the functions of the Councils.

(b) The heads of agencies and entities represented on the PCIE and the ECIE shall provide their representatives with such administrative support as may be necessary, in accordance with law, to enable the representatives to carry out their responsibilities.

Sec. 6. Revocation. Executive Order No. 12625 of January 27, 1988, entitled “Integrity and Efficiency in Federal Programs,” is revoked.

George Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12816. Management Improvement in the Federal Government

Ex. Ord. No. 12816, Oct. 14, 1992, 57 F.R. 47562, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to coordinate and implement policies with respect to management improvement in the Federal Government, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment and Membership of the President's Council on Management Improvement.

(a) There is established as an interagency committee the President's Council on Management Improvement (“Council”).

(b) The Council shall be composed of the Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget, who shall serve as Chairman, and one senior official, who is a full-time officer or employee of the Federal Government and who is responsible for management or administration, from each of the following agencies as selected by the heads of those agencies:

(1) Department of State;

(2) Department of the Treasury;

(3) Department of Defense;

(4) Department of Justice;

(5) Department of the Interior;

(6) Department of Agriculture;

(7) Department of Commerce;

(8) Department of Labor;

(9) Department of Health and Human Services;

(10) Department of Housing and Urban Development;

(11) Department of Transportation;

(12) Department of Energy;

(13) Department of Education;

(14) Department of Veterans Affairs;

(15) Agency for International Development;

(16) Environmental Protection Agency;

(17) Equal Employment Opportunity Commission;

(18) Federal Communications Commission;

(19) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;

(20) Federal Emergency Management Agency;

(21) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission;

(22) Federal Reserve Board;

(23) General Services Administration;

(24) Interstate Commerce Commission;

(25) National Aeronautics and Space Administration;

(26) National Archives and Records Administration;

(27) Nuclear Regulatory Commission;

(28) Office of Personnel Management;

(29) Resolution Trust Corporation;

(30) Securities and Exchange Commission;

(31) Small Business Administration;

(32) Tennessee Valley Authority; and

(33) United States Information Agency.

(c) The Council membership also shall include the following officials:

(1) Deputy Director, Office of Personnel Management;

(2) Deputy Administrator, General Services Administration;

(3) Assistant to the President for Policy Development or a full-time officer or employee of the Federal Government designated by that official;

(4) Assistant to the President for Presidential Personnel or a full-time officer or employee of the Federal Government designated by that official;

(5) Assistant Director for General Management, Office of Management and Budget; and

(6) At-large members appointed by the Chairman pursuant to section 3(e) of this order.

(d) The Council shall have a Vice Chairman selected by the Chairman from among the Council membership.

Sec. 2. Functions of the Council.

(a) The Council shall serve as an interagency forum to discuss problems and recommend improvements in Government management and operations and to provide advice to the Chairman on matters pertaining to the management of the Federal Government. The Council shall:

(1) assist in the formulation of short- and long-range plans to promote improvements in the management and administrative systems and operations of the Federal Government;

(2) identify specific department and agency management solutions that may have Governmentwide application and assist in the dissemination of this information and the implementation of these solutions;

(3) serve as a resource to assist in an advisory capacity in the development, review, revision, and implementation of Governmentwide policies in support of the central management agencies of the Federal Government, including the Office of Management and Budget, the Office of Personnel Management, and the General Services Administration; and

(4) serve as a forum to recommend solutions to interagency management problems.

(b) In conducting these functions, the Council shall not interfere with existing lines of authority and responsibility in the departments and agencies.

Sec. 3. Responsibilities of the Chairman. The Chairman shall:

(a) establish, in consultation with the Council membership as he deems appropriate, procedures and agenda topics for the Council;

(b) report, on behalf of the Council and as appropriate, to the President, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the agency heads, and the Cabinet on the goals and accomplishments of the Council;

(c) establish such committees or working groups of the Council, including an executive committee, as the Chairman may find necessary or appropriate for the efficient conduct of Council functions;

(d) appoint a Vice Chairman from among the Council's membership to assist the Chairman in representing the Council and to perform duties as determined by the Chairman;

(e) appoint other full-time officers or employees of the Federal Government to the Council as at-large members for specific terms to provide special expertise to the Council and to perform duties as determined by the Chairman; and

(f) be supported by the Assistant Director for General Management of the Office of Management and Budget, who shall advise and assist the Chairman in the execution of the responsibilities set forth above and act for the Chairman in his or her absence.

Sec. 4. Administrative Provisions.

(a) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide the Council with administrative support as may be necessary for the performance of its functions.

(b) To the extent permitted by law, the head of each agency represented on the Council shall provide its representative with such administrative support as necessary to enable the agency representative to carry out his or her responsibilities and to support the Governmentwide activities of the Council.

Sec. 5. Revocation. Executive Order No. 12479 is revoked.

George Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12837. Deficit Control and Productivity Improvement in the Administration of the Federal Government

Ex. Ord. No. 12837, Feb. 10, 1993, 58 F.R. 8205, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, as amended (31 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and in order to assist in the control of the Federal deficit and improve the administrative productivity of the Federal Government, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. All executive departments and agencies shall include a separate category for “administrative expenses” when submitting their appropriation requests to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for fiscal years 1994 through 1997. The Director of OMB (Director), in consultation with the agencies, shall establish and revise as necessary a definition of administrative expenses for the agencies. All questions regarding the definition of administrative expenses shall be resolved by the Director.

Sec. 2. The purpose of this order is to achieve real reductions in the administrative costs of Federal agencies. In order to accomplish that goal, agencies shall submit budgets that reflect the following reductions from the fiscal year 1993 baseline:

(a) For fiscal year 1994, all agencies shall submit budget requests that reflect no less than a 3 percent reduction in administrative expenses from the amount made available for fiscal year 1993 adjusted for inflation;

(b) For fiscal year 1995, all agencies shall submit budget requests that reflect no less than a 6 percent reduction in administrative expenses from the amounts made available for fiscal year 1993 adjusted for inflation;

(c) For fiscal year 1996, all agencies shall submit budget requests that reflect no less than a 9 percent reduction in administrative expenses from the amounts made available for fiscal year 1993 adjusted for inflation;

(d) For fiscal year 1997, all agencies shall submit budget requests that reflect no less than a 14 percent reduction in administrative expenses from the amounts made available for fiscal year 1993 adjusted for inflation.

Sec. 3. The Director shall review agency requests for administrative expenses. The Director shall ensure that all agency requests for such expenses are reduced in accordance with section 2. To the extent that any agency fails to comply with the mandates of section 2, the Director is authorized to reduce the request for administrative expenses in that agency's budget to achieve the appropriate reduction.

Sec. 4. All independent regulatory commissions and agencies are requested to comply with the provisions of this order.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12862. Setting Customer Service Standards

Ex. Ord. No. 12862, Sept. 11, 1993, 58 F.R. 48257, provided:

Putting people first means ensuring that the Federal Government provides the highest quality service possible to the American people. Public officials must embark upon a revolution within the Federal Government to change the way it does business. This will require continual reform of the executive branch's management practices and operations to provide service to the public that matches or exceeds the best service available in the private sector.

NOW, THEREFORE, to establish and implement customer service standards to guide the operations of the executive branch, and by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, it is hereby ordered:

Section 1. Customer Service Standards. In order to carry out the principles of the National Performance Review, the Federal Government must be customer-driven. The standard of quality for services provided to the public shall be: Customer service equal to the best in business. For the purposes of this order, “customer” shall mean an individual or entity who is directly served by a department or agency. “Best in business” shall mean the highest quality of service delivered to customers by private organizations providing a comparable or analogous service.

All executive departments and agencies (hereinafter referred to collectively as “agency” or “agencies”) that provide significant services directly to the public shall provide those services in a manner that seeks to meet the customer service standard established herein and shall take the following actions:

(a) identify the customers who are, or should be, served by the agency;

(b) survey customers to determine the kind and quality of services they want and their level of satisfaction with existing services;

(c) post service standards and measure results against them;

(d) benchmark customer service performance against the best in business;

(e) survey front-line employees on barriers to, and ideas for, matching the best in business;

(f) provide customers with choices in both the sources of service and the means of delivery;

(g) make information, services, and complaint systems easily accessible; and

(h) provide means to address customer complaints.

Sec. 2. Report on Customer Service Surveys. By March 8, 1994, each agency subject to this order shall report on its customer surveys to the President. As information about customer satisfaction becomes available, each agency shall use that information in judging the performance of agency management and in making resource allocations.

Sec. 3. Customer Service Plans. By September 8, 1994, each agency subject to this order shall publish a customer service plan that can be readily understood by its customers. The plan shall include customer service standards and describe future plans for customer surveys. It also shall identify the private and public sector standards that the agency used to benchmark its performance against the best in business. In connection with the plan, each agency is encouraged to provide training resources for programs needed by employees who directly serve customers and by managers making use of customer survey information to promote the principles and objectives contained herein.

Sec. 4. Independent Agencies. Independent agencies are requested to adhere to this order.

Sec. 5. Judicial Review. This order is for the internal management of the executive branch and does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by a party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

William J. Clinton.      

Implementing Management Reform in Executive Branch

Memorandum of President of the United States, Oct. 1, 1993, 58 F.R. 52393, provided:

Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies

The National Performance Review has examined how well the government serves its citizens, where it can improve, and where it is necessary to make fundamental changes to make government work better. It has presented its findings and recommendations—including the adoption of new management principles and structural reforms—to improve government throughout the Executive branch.

In order to establish and implement more effective and efficient leadership and management principles throughout the Executive branch as identified in the National Performance Review, I hereby direct the following:

1. Establish Chief Operating Officers.

Each agency head shall designate a Chief Operating Officer, who shall be the Deputy or another official with agency-wide authority. The Chief Operating Officer shall report directly to the agency head and shall be responsible for:

(a) implementing the President's and agency head's goals and the agency's mission;

(b) providing overall organization management to improve agency performance;

(c) assisting the agency head in promoting ongoing quality improvement, developing strategic plans, and measuring results;

(d) directing ongoing reengineering of the agency's administrative processes;

(e) overseeing agency-specific application of performance measures, procurement reforms, personnel reductions, financial management improvements, telecommunications and information technology policies, and other government-wide systems reforms adopted as a result of the recommendations of the National Performance Review; and

(f) reforming the agency's management practices by incorporating the principles of the National Performance Review into day-to-day management.

2. Implement Additional Agency Reforms.

Each agency head shall identify and implement additional changes within the agency that will promote the principles and standards of the National Performance Review and the strategic and quality management approaches described by the Federal Quality Institute's “Presidential Award for Quality” or its successor award(s).

3. Establishment of President's Management Council.

In order to advise and assist the President and the Vice President in ensuring that the reforms adopted as a result of the National Performance Review are implemented throughout the Executive branch, I hereby establish the President's Management Council (“The Council”). The Council shall comprise the:

(a) The Deputy Director for Management, Office of Management and Budget;

(b) The Chief Operating Officers from the following agencies:

(1) Department of State;

(2) Department of the Treasury;

(3) Department of Defense;

(4) Department of Justice;

(5) Department of the Interior;

(6) Department of Agriculture;

(7) Department of Commerce;

(8) Department of Labor;

(9) Department of Health and Human Services;

(10) Department of Housing and Urban Development;

(11) Department of Transportation;

(12) Department of Energy;

(13) Department of Education;

(14) Department of Veterans Affairs;

(15) Environmental Protection Agency;

(c) The following central management agency representatives:

(1) Director of the Office of Personnel Management;

(2) Administrator of General Services;

(d) Chief Operating Officers of three other Executive branch agencies designated by the Chairperson, in his or her discretion;

(e) Secretary of the Cabinet; and

(f) Such other officials of Executive departments and agencies as I may, from time to time, designate.

The Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget shall serve as Chairperson of the Council. The Chairperson of the Council shall appoint a Vice-Chairperson from the Council's membership to assist the Chairperson in conducting the affairs of the Council.

I also establish an Executive Committee of the Council. Members of the Executive Committee shall be: the Chairperson; the Vice Chairperson; the two central management agency representatives; two Chief Operating Officers serving on the Council, whom I shall designate, and any additional Council members whom I may, from time to time, designate.

The Chairperson shall convene meetings of the Council, which shall be held at least once a month.

The functions of the Council shall include, among others:

(a) improving overall Executive branch management, including reform of government-wide management systems, such as management controls, financial management, personnel, budgeting, and procurement;

(b) coordinating management-related efforts to improve government throughout the Executive branch and, as necessary, resolving specific interagency management issues;

(c) ensuring the adoption of new management practices in agencies throughout the Executive branch; and

(d) identifying examples of, and providing mechanisms for, interagency exchange of information about best management practices.

The Council shall be provided with appropriate staff support and other resources as may be necessary to carry out its duties. In addition, the Federal Quality Institute shall serve as a resource to the Council.

The Council shall seek advice and information as appropriate from nonmember Federal agencies, particularly smaller agencies. The Council shall also consider the management reform experience of corporations, nonprofit organizations, State and local governments, government employees, public sector unions, and customers of government services.

Agencies shall cooperate with the Council and provide such assistance, information, and advice to the Council as the Council may request, to the extent permitted by law.

4. Independent Agencies.

Independent agencies are requested to adhere to this directive.

5. Judicial Review.

This directive is for the internal management of the Executive branch and does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by a party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

6. Publication.

The Director of the Office of Management and Budget is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12893. Principles for Federal Infrastructure Investments

Ex. Ord. No. 12893, Jan. 26, 1994, 59 F.R. 4233, provided:

A well-functioning infrastructure is vital to sustained economic growth, to the quality of life in our communities, and to the protection of our environment and natural resources. To develop and maintain its infrastructure facilities, our Nation relies heavily on investments by the Federal Government.

Our Nation will achieve the greatest benefits from its infrastructure facilities if it invests wisely and continually improves the quality and performance of its infrastructure programs. Therefore, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Scope. The principles and plans referred to in this order shall apply to Federal spending for infrastructure programs. For the purposes of this order, Federal spending for infrastructure programs shall include direct spending and grants for transportation, water resources, energy, and environmental protection.

Sec. 2. Principles of Federal Infrastructure Investment.

Each executive department and agency with infrastructure responsibilities (hereinafter referred to collectively as “agencies”) shall develop and implement plans for infrastructure investment and management consistent with the following principles:

(a) Systematic Analysis of Expected Benefits and Costs. Infrastructure investments shall be based on systematic analysis of expected benefits and costs, including both quantitative and qualitative measures, in accordance with the following:

(1) Benefits and costs should be quantified and monetized to the maximum extent practicable. All types of benefits and costs, both market and nonmarket, should be considered. To the extent that environmental and other nonmarket benefits and costs can be quantified, they shall be given the same weight as quantifiable market benefits and costs.

(2) Benefits and costs should be measured and appropriately discounted over the full life cycle of each project. Such analysis will enable informed tradeoffs among capital outlays, operating and maintenance costs, and nonmonetary costs borne by the public.

(3) When the amount and timing of important benefits and costs are uncertain, analyses shall recognize the uncertainty and address it through appropriate quantitative and qualitative assessments.

(4) Analyses shall compare a comprehensive set of options that include, among other things, managing demand, repairing facilities, and expanding facilities.

(5) Analyses should consider not only quantifiable measures of benefits and costs, but also qualitative measures reflecting values that are not readily quantified.

(b) Efficient Management. Infrastructure shall be managed efficiently in accordance with the following:

(1) The efficient use of infrastructure depends not only on physical design features, but also on operational practices. To improve these practices, agencies should conduct periodic reviews of the operation and maintenance of existing facilities.

(2) Agencies should use these reviews to consider a variety of management practices that can improve the return from infrastructure investments. Examples include contracting practices that reward quality and innovation, and design standards that incorporate new technologies and construction techniques.

(3) Agencies also should use these reviews to identify the demand for different levels of infrastructure services. Since efficient levels of service can often best be achieved by properly pricing infrastructure, the Federal Government—through its direct investments, grants, and regulations—should promote consideration of market-based mechanisms for managing infrastructure.

(c) Private Sector Participation. Agencies shall seek private sector participation in infrastructure investment and management. Innovative public-private initiatives can bring about greater private sector participation in the ownership, financing, construction, and operation of the infrastructure programs referred to in section 1 of this order. Consistent with the public interest, agencies should work with State and local entities to minimize legal and regulatory barriers to private sector participation in the provision of infrastructure facilities and services.

(d) Encouragement of More Effective State and Local Programs. To promote the efficient use of Federal infrastructure funds, agencies should encourage the State and local recipients of Federal grants to implement planning and information management systems that support the principles set forth in section 2(a) through (c) of this order. In turn, the Federal Government should use the information from the State and local recipients’ management systems to conduct the system-level reviews of the Federal Government's infrastructure programs that are required by this order.

Sec. 3. Submission of Plans. Agencies shall submit initial plans to implement these principles to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (“OMB”) by March 15, 1994. Agency plans shall list the actions that will be taken to provide the data and analysis necessary for supporting infrastructure-related proposals in future budget submissions. Agency implementation plans should be consistent with OMB Circular A–94 that outlines the analytical methods required under the principles set forth in section 2 of this order.

Sec. 4. Application to Budget Submissions. Beginning with the fiscal year 1996 budget submission to OMB, each agency should use these principles to justify major infrastructure investment and grant programs. Major programs are defined as those programs with annual budgetary resources in excess of $50 million.

Sec. 5. Application to Legislative Proposals. Beginning March 15, 1994, agencies shall employ the principles set forth in section 2 of this order and, at the request of OMB, shall provide supporting analyses when requesting OMB clearance for legislative proposals that would authorize or reauthorize infrastructure programs.

Sec. 6. Guidance. The Office of Management and Budget shall provide guidance to the agencies on the implementation of this order.

Sec. 7. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by a party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

William J. Clinton.      

§502. Officers

(a) The head of the Office of Management and Budget is the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. The Director is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Under the direction of the President, the Director shall administer the Office.

(b) The Office has a Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Director—

(1) shall carry out the duties and powers prescribed by the Director; and

(2) acts as the Director when the Director is absent or unable to serve or when the office of Director is vacant.


(c) The Office has a Deputy Director for Management appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Director for Management shall be the chief official responsible for financial management in the United States Government.

(d) The Office has 3 Assistant Directors who shall carry out the duties and powers prescribed by the Director.

(e) The Office may have not more than 6 additional officers, each of whom is appointed in the competitive service by the Director, with the approval of the President. Each additional officer shall carry out the duties and powers prescribed by the Director. The Director shall specify the title of each additional officer.

(f) When the Director and Deputy Director are absent or unable to serve or when the offices of Director and Deputy Director are vacant, the President may designate an officer of the Office to act as Director.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 886; Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §201, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2839.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
502(a) 31:16(2d sentence related to Director). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §207(2d, 3d sentences), 42 Stat. 22; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; July 31, 1953, ch. 302, §101(1st proviso in par. under heading “Bureau of the Budget”), 67 Stat. 299; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), (b), (d), (e), (f)(less words between parentheses), 84 Stat. 2085; Mar. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–250, §1, 88 Stat. 11.
502(b) 31:16(2d sentence related to Deputy Director, 3d sentence).
502(c) 31:16a. Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; July 31, 1953, ch. 302, §101(last proviso in par. under heading “Bureau of the Budget”), 67 Stat. 299; Sept. 6, 1966, Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), 80 Stat. 657; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(b), (e), 84 Stat. 2085.
  31:16c. Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 838, 70 Stat. 887; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(b), (e), 84 Stat. 2085.
502(d), (e) 31:16(note). Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(c)(words before last comma), (e), (f)(words between parentheses), 84 Stat. 2085.

In subsections (a) and (b), the words related to salaries in section 207 of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (ch. 18, 42 Stat. 22), are omitted as covered by 5:5313(11) and 5314(34).

In subsection (a), the text of section 102(d)(1st sentence) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) is omitted as covered by 3:301 and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The word “administer” is substituted for “supervise and direct the administration of” in section 102(d) of the Reorganization Plan to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsections (b) and (c), the words “designated by this reorganization plan” in section 102(e) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 are omitted as executed. The words “carry out the duties and powers prescribed by” are substituted for “perform such functions as” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “may from time to time direct” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c), the words “the duties and powers prescribed by” in section 102(e)(related to Assistant Directors) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 are substituted for “such functions as” for consistency. The words “may from time to time direct” are omitted as unnecessary. The words related to compensation in 31:16c are omitted as covered by 5:5315(37).

In subsection (d), the words “as determined from time to time by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (hereinafter referred to as the Director)” in section 102(c)(1st sentence) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 are omitted as unnecessary. The words “in the competitive” are substituted for “under the classified civil” in section 102(c)(2d sentence) of the Reorganization Plan to conform to 5:2102. The words “The Director shall specify the title of each additional officer” are substituted for “shall have such title as the Director shall from time to time determine” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “provided for in subsection (c) of this section” in section 102(e)(related to officers) of the Reorganization Plan are omitted because of the restatement. The words “carry out the duties and powers prescribed by” are substituted for “perform such functions as” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “may from time to time direct” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (e), the words “When the Director and Deputy Director are absent or unable to serve or when the offices of Director and Deputy Director are vacant” are substituted for “or during the absence or disability of the Deputy Director or in the event of a vacancy in the office of Deputy Director” and “during the absence or disability of the Director or in the event of a vacancy in the office of Director” in section 102(f)(words between parentheses) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 for clarity and consistency with other titles of the Code. The words “an officer” are substituted for “such other officials” for clarity and consistency in the chapter. The words “in such order as” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “from time to time” are eliminated as unnecessary.

Amendments

1990—Subsecs. (c) to (f). Pub. L. 101–576 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) to (e) as (d) to (f), respectively.

Cross References

Compensation of Director and Deputy Director of Office of Management and Budget, see sections 5312 and 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Compensation of Assistant Directors of Office of Management and Budget, see section 5315 of Title 5.

§503. Functions of Deputy Director for Management

(a) Subject to the direction and approval of the Director, the Deputy Director for Management shall establish governmentwide financial management policies for executive agencies and shall perform the following financial management functions:

(1) Perform all functions of the Director, including all functions delegated by the President to the Director, relating to financial management.

(2) Provide overall direction and leadership to the executive branch on financial management matters by establishing financial management policies and requirements, and by monitoring the establishment and operation of Federal Government financial management systems.

(3) Review agency budget requests for financial management systems and operations, and advise the Director on the resources required to develop and effectively operate and maintain Federal Government financial management systems and to correct major deficiencies in such systems.

(4) Review and, where appropriate, recommend to the Director changes to the budget and legislative proposals of agencies to ensure that they are in accordance with financial management plans of the Office of Management and Budget.

(5) Monitor the financial execution of the budget in relation to actual expenditures, including timely performance reports.

(6) Oversee, periodically review, and make recommendations to heads of agencies on the administrative structure of agencies with respect to their financial management activities.

(7) Develop and maintain qualification standards for agency Chief Financial Officers and for agency Deputy Chief Financial Officers appointed under sections 901 and 903, respectively.

(8) Provide advice to agency heads with respect to the selection of agency Chief Financial Officers and Deputy Chief Financial Officers.

(9) Provide advice to agencies regarding the qualifications, recruitment, performance, and retention of other financial management personnel.

(10) Assess the overall adequacy of the professional qualifications and capabilities of financial management staffs throughout the Government and make recommendations on ways to correct problems which impair the capacity of those staffs.

(11) Settle differences that arise among agencies regarding the implementation of financial management policies.

(12) Chair the Chief Financial Officers Council established by section 302 of the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990.

(13) Communicate with the financial officers of State and local governments, and foster the exchange with those officers of information concerning financial management standards, techniques, and processes.

(14) Issue such other policies and directives as may be necessary to carry out this section, and perform any other function prescribed by the Director.


(b) Subject to the direction and approval of the Director, the Deputy Director for Management shall establish general management policies for executive agencies and perform the following general management functions:

(1) Coordinate and supervise the general management functions of the Office of Management and Budget.

(2) Perform all functions of the Director, including all functions delegated by the President to the Director, relating to—

(A) managerial systems, including the systematic measurement of performance;

(B) procurement policy;

(C) grant, cooperative agreement, and assistance management;

(D) information and statistical policy;

(E) property management;

(F) human resources management;

(G) regulatory affairs; and

(H) other management functions, including organizational studies, long-range planning, program evaluation, productivity improvement, and experimentation and demonstration programs.


(3) Provide complete, reliable, and timely information to the President, the Congress, and the public regarding the management activities of the executive branch.

(4) Facilitate actions by the Congress and the executive branch to improve the management of Federal Government operations and to remove impediments to effective administration.

(5) Provide leadership in management innovation, through—

(A) experimentation, testing, and demonstration programs; and

(B) the adoption of modern management concepts and technologies.


(6) Work with State and local governments to improve and strengthen intergovernmental relations, and provide assistance to such governments with respect to intergovernmental programs and cooperative arrangements.

(7) Review and, where appropriate, recommend to the Director changes to the budget and legislative proposals of agencies to ensure that they respond to program evaluations by, and are in accordance with general management plans of, the Office of Management and Budget.

(8) Provide advice to agencies on the qualification, recruitment, performance, and retention of managerial personnel.

(9) Perform any other functions prescribed by the Director.

(Added Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §202(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2839; amended Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(B), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1361.)

References in Text

Section 302 of the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–576], referred to in subsec. (a)(12), is set out as a note under section 901 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 503 was renumbered section 505 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “Perform” for “perform”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 504 of this title.

§504. Office of Federal Financial Management

(a) There is established in the Office of Management and Budget an office to be known as the “Office of Federal Financial Management”. The Office of Federal Financial Management, under the direction and control of the Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget, shall carry out the financial management functions listed in section 503(a) of this title.

(b) There shall be at the head of the Office of Federal Financial Management a Controller, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Controller shall be appointed from among individuals who possess—

(1) demonstrated ability and practical experience in accounting, financial management, and financial systems; and

(2) extensive practical experience in financial management in large governmental or business entities.


(c) The Controller of the Office of Federal Financial Management shall be the deputy and principal advisor to the Deputy Director for Management in the performance by the Deputy Director for Management of functions described in section 503(a).

(Added Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §203(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2841.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 504 was renumbered section 506 of this title.

§505. Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs

The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, established under section 3503 of title 44, is an office in the Office of Management and Budget.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 886, §503; renumbered §505, Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §202(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2839.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
503 (no source).

The section is included to provide in subchapter I of chapter 5 of the revised title a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Office of Management and Budget or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–576 renumbered section 503 of this title as this section.

§506. Office of Federal Procurement Policy

The Office of Federal Procurement Policy, established under section 5(a) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 404(a)), is an office in the Office of Management and Budget.

(Added Pub. L. 97–452, §1(1)(A), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2467, §504; renumbered §506, Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §202(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2839.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
504 (no source).

The section is included to provide in subchapter I of chapter 5 of title 31 a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Office of Management and Budget or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–576 renumbered section 504 of this title as this section.

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

§521. Employees

The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall appoint and fix the pay of employees of the Office under regulations prescribed by the President.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 886.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
521 31:17(a)(related to employees). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §208(a)(related to employees), 42 Stat. 22; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.

The words “attorneys and other” are omitted as being included in “employees”.

Cross References

Appointments generally, see sections 3101 et seq., and 3301 et seq., of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Classification and pay rates generally, see sections 5101 et seq., and 5331 et seq., of Title 5.

§522. Necessary expenditures

The Director of the Office of Management and Budget may make necessary expenditures for the Office under regulations prescribed by the President.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 886.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
522 31:17(a)(related to expenses). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §208(a)(related to expenses), 42 Stat. 22; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.

The words “for rent in the District of Columbia, printing, binding, telegrams, telephone service, law books, books of reference, periodicals, stationery, furniture, office equipment, other supplies, and” are omitted as covered by titles 5, 40, and 44, and as being included in “necessary expenditures”. The words “within the appropriations made therefor” are omitted as unnecessary.

CHAPTER 7—GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE

SUBCHAPTER I—DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL ORGANIZATION

Sec.
701.
Definitions.
702.
General Accounting Office.
703.
Comptroller General and Deputy Comptroller General.
704.
Relationship to other laws.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—GENERAL DUTIES AND POWERS

711.
General authority.
712.
Investigating the use of public money.
713.
Audit of Internal Revenue Service and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms.
714.
Audit of Financial Institutions Examination Council, Federal Reserve Board, Federal reserve banks, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and Office of Comptroller of the Currency.
715.
Audit of accounts and operations of the District of Columbia government.
716.
Availability of information and inspection of records.
717.
Evaluating programs and activities of the United States Government.
718.
Availability of draft reports.
719.
Comptroller General reports.
720.
Agency reports.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PERSONNEL

731.
General.
732.
Personnel management system.
733.
Senior Executive Service.
734.
Assignments and details to Congress.
735.
Relationship to other laws.
736.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD

751.
Organization.
752.
Chairman and General Counsel.
753.
Duties and powers.
754.
Action by the Comptroller General.
755.
Judicial review.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—ANNUITIES

771.
Definitions.
772.
Annuity of the Comptroller General.
773.
Election of survivor benefits.
774.
Survivor annuities.
775.
Refunds.
776.
Payment of survivor benefits.
777.
Annuity increases.
778.
Dependency and disability decisions.
779.
Use of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—PROPERTY MANAGEMENT

781.
Authority over the General Accounting Office Building.
782.
Leasing of space in the General Accounting Office Building.
783.
Rules and regulations.

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(C), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1362, struck out “Sec.” immediately above item 781.

1988—Pub. L. 100–545, §2(a), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2728, added subchapter VI heading and items 781 to 783.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in section 3555 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER I—DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL ORGANIZATION

§701. Definitions

In this chapter—

(1) “agency” includes the District of Columbia government but does not include the legislative branch or the Supreme Court.

(2) “appropriations” means appropriated amounts and includes, in appropriate context—

(A) funds;

(B) authority to make obligations by contract before appropriations; and

(C) other authority making amounts available for obligation or expenditure.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 887.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
701(1) 31:2(1st–4th pars.). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §2(1st–5th pars.), 42 Stat. 20; Apr. 3, 1939, ch. 36, §201, 53 Stat. 565; July 31, 1953, ch. 302, §101(1st proviso in par. under heading “Bureau of the Budget”), 67 Stat. 299.
701(2) 31:2(last par.). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §2(last par.); added Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §101, 64 Stat. 832.

In clause (1), “agency” (which is defined for purposes of this title in section 101 to mean a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States) is coextensive with and substituted for the term “department or establishment” which was defined in 31:2 as in part meaning “any executive department, independent commission, board, bureau, office, agency, or other establishment of the Government, including any independent regulatory commission or board”. This definition merely restates and continues, and does not in any way change or expand, the definition in 31:2. Under that definition, entities such as the Tennessee Valley Authority that have been interpreted to be outside the purview of the definition will continue to be outside the purview in the same manner and to the same extent that they were under 31:2. The words “includes the District of Columbia government” are used because of existing law but the inclusion of these words is not to be interpreted as construing the extent to which the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganizational Act (Pub. L. 93–198, 87 Stat. 774) supersedes the provisions codified in this title. The words “of the United States” are omitted as surplus. The text of 31:2 (2d–4th pars.) is omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The text of section 2 (3d par.) of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20), is omitted as obsolete because of section 501 of the revised title.

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–426, §1, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1598, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 703, 732, 751, 752, 755, 771 to 774, 776, and 777 of this title and section 5349 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 755 and 772 of this title] may be cited as the ‘General Accounting Office Personnel Amendments Act of 1988’.”

§702. General Accounting Office

(a) The General Accounting Office is an instrumentality of the United States Government independent of the executive departments.

(b) The head of the Office is the Comptroller General of the United States. The Office has a Deputy Comptroller General of the United States.

(c) The Comptroller General may adopt a seal for the Office.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 887; Pub. L. 100–545, §2(b), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2729.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
702(a) 31:41(1st sentence less last 14 words, 2d, 3d sentences). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §301, 42 Stat. 23.
702(b) 31:41(1st sentence last 14 words).
  31:42(a)(1st sentence words before comma). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §302(a)(1st sentence words before 1st comma), 42 Stat. 23; Apr. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–226, §104(a), 94 Stat. 314.
  31:1154(d)(1st sentence). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §204(d)(1st sentence), 84 Stat. 1168; restated July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §702(a), 88 Stat. 326.
  31:1155(a). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §205(a), 84 Stat. 1168.
702(c) 31:51–1. Jan. 2, 1975, Pub. L. 93–604, §501(a), 88 Stat. 1962.
702(d) 31:41(last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words “instrumentality of the United States Government” are substituted for “establishment of the Government” for consistency. The words “created . . . to be” and 31:41(2d, 3d sentences) are omitted as executed.

Subsection (b) is substituted for 31:41(1st sentence last 14 words) and 42(a)(1st sentence words before comma) to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency. The word “Deputy” is substituted for “Assistant” because of section 101 of the Act of July 9, 1971 (Pub. L. 92–51, 85 Stat. 143). The text of 31:1154(d)(1st sentence) and 1155(a) is omitted as unnecessary because the Comptroller General, as the head of the Office, has the authority to establish constituent parts of the Office to carry out duties and powers unless otherwise specified by law.

In subsection (c), the words “Administrator of General Services” are substituted for “the head of any Federal agency which exercises authority over such building” for clarity. The words “of the United States” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1988—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 100–545 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which directed Administrator of General Services to provide Comptroller General with space in General Accounting Office Building.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 735 of this title.

§703. Comptroller General and Deputy Comptroller General

(a)(1) The Comptroller General and Deputy Comptroller General are appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) When a vacancy occurs in the office of Comptroller General or Deputy Comptroller General, a commission is established to recommend individuals to the President for appointment to the vacant office. The commission shall be composed of—

(A) the Speaker of the House of Representatives;

(B) the President pro tempore of the Senate;

(C) the majority and minority leaders of the House of Representatives and the Senate;

(D) the chairmen and ranking minority members of the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Government Operations of the House; and

(E) when the office of Deputy Comptroller General is vacant, the Comptroller General.


(3) A commission established because of a vacancy in the office of the Comptroller General shall recommend at least 3 individuals. The President may ask the commission to recommend additional individuals.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, the term of the Comptroller General is 15 years. The Comptroller General may not be reappointed. The term of the Deputy Comptroller General expires on the date an individual is appointed Comptroller General. The Deputy Comptroller General may continue to serve until a successor is appointed.

(c) The Deputy Comptroller General—

(1) carries out duties and powers prescribed by the Comptroller General; and

(2) acts for the Comptroller General when the Comptroller General is absent or unable to serve or when the office of Comptroller General is vacant.


(d) The Comptroller General shall designate an officer or employee of the General Accounting Office to act as Comptroller General when the Comptroller General and Deputy Comptroller General are absent or unable to serve or when the offices of Comptroller General and Deputy Comptroller General are vacant.

(e)(1) A Comptroller General or Deputy Comptroller General may retire after becoming 70 years of age and completing 10 years of service as Comptroller General or Deputy Comptroller General (as the case may be). Either may be removed at any time by—

(A) impeachment; or

(B) joint resolution of Congress, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, only for—

(i) permanent disability;

(ii) inefficiency;

(iii) neglect of duty;

(iv) malfeasance; or

(v) a felony or conduct involving moral turpitude.


(2) A Comptroller General or Deputy Comptroller General removed from office under paragraph (1) of this subsection may not be reappointed to the office.

(f) The annual rate of basic pay of the—

(1) Comptroller General is equal to the rate for level II of the Executive Schedule; and

(2) Deputy Comptroller General is equal to the rate for level III of the Executive Schedule.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 888; Pub. L. 100–426, title II, §201, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1599.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
703(a)(1) 31:42(a)(1st sentence words after comma). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §302(a)(1st sentence words after 1st comma, last sentence), 42 Stat. 23; Apr. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–226, §104(a), 94 Stat. 314.
703(a)(2), (3) 31:42(b). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §302(b); added Apr. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–226, §104(a), 94 Stat. 314.
703(b) 31:43(1st par. 1st, 2d sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §303(1st par.), 42 Stat. 23; Apr. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–226, §104(b)(1), 94 Stat. 315.
703(c) 31:42(a)(last sentence).
703(d) 31:43a. June 27, 1944, ch. 286, §101(last par. on p. 371), 58 Stat. 371.
703(e) 31:43(1st par. 3d–last sentences).
703(f) 31:42a. Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, §203(a), (b), 78 Stat. 415; Dec. 16, 1967, Pub. L. 90–206, §219(1), 81 Stat. 639; restated Aug. 9, 1975, Pub. L. 94–82, §204(b), 89 Stat. 421.

In subsections (a)(1), (b), (d), and (e), the word “Deputy” is substituted for “Assistant” because of section 101 of the Act of July 9, 1971 (Pub. L. 92–51, 85 Stat. 143).

In subsection (a)(1), the words “The Comptroller General and Deputy Comptroller General” are added because of the restatement. The words “by and” are added for consistency. The words “and shall receive salaries of $10,000 and $7,500 a year, respectively” in section 302(a)(1st sentence words after 2d comma) of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (ch. 18, 42 Stat. 23), are omitted as superseded by subsection (f) of this section.

In subsection (a)(2), before clause (A), the words “after April 3, 1980” are omitted as executed. In clause (E), the words “of the United States” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(3), the words “because of a vacancy in the office of the Comptroller General” are substituted for “under paragraph (1)” for clarity. The word “recommend” is substituted for “submit” and “submitted” for consistency. The words “to the President for consideration the names of”, “for the Office of Comptroller General”, and “within his discretion” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “the term of . . . is 15 years” are substituted for “shall hold office for fifteen years” for consistency. The words “eligible for” are omitted as surplus. The words “the term of . . . expires on” are substituted for “shall hold office from the date of his appointment until” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency. The words “to fill a vacancy in the Office of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “carries out duties and powers prescribed” are substituted for “perform such duties as may be assigned” for consistency. The words “to him” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words “officer or” are added for consistency in the revised title. The text of section 101(last par. on p. 371 words before colon) of the Act of June 27, 1944 (ch. 286, 58 Stat. 371), is omitted as expired.

In subsection (e)(1), before clause (A), the words “from his office” are omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the words “and for no other cause and in no other manner” are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), before subclause (i), the words “opportunity for a” are added for consistency. The words “guilty of” are omitted as surplus. In subclause (i), the word “disability” is substituted for “incapacitated” for consistency in the chapter and with title 5. In subclause (iv), the words “in office” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(2), the words “from office” are added for clarity.

In subsection (f), before clause (1), the words “basic pay” are substituted for “compensation” for consistency with other titles of the United States Code. In clauses (1) and (2), the words “of the United States” and “positions at” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 5” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–426 substituted “may retire after becoming 70 years of age and completing 10 years of service as Comptroller General or Deputy Comptroller General (as the case may be)” for “retires on becoming 70 years of age”.

Change of Name

Committee on Government Operations of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Government Reform and Oversight of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–426 effective after end of 60-day period beginning Sept. 9, 1988, with certain exceptions, see section 208 of Pub. L. 100–426, set out as a note under section 772 of this title.

Salary Increases

1987—Salaries of Comptroller General and Deputy Comptroller General increased respectively to $89,500 and $82,500 per annum, on recommendation of the President of the United States, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2, The Congress.

1977—Salaries of Comptroller General and Deputy Comptroller General increased respectively to $57,500 and $52,500 per annum, on recommendation of the President of the United States, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2.

1969—Salaries of Comptroller General and Assistant Comptroller General increased respectively to $42,500 and $40,000 per annum, on recommendation of the President of the United States, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 735, 772 of this title; title 2 section 356.

§704. Relationship to other laws

(a) To the extent applicable, all laws generally related to administering an agency apply to the Comptroller General.

(b) A copy of a record and a transcript from a record or proceeding of the Comptroller General, that the Comptroller General or Deputy Comptroller General certifies under seal, shall be admitted as evidence with the same effect as a copy or transcript referred to in section 1733 of title 28.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 889.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
704(a) 31:46(1st sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §306, 42 Stat. 24.
704(b) 31:46(last sentence).

In the section, the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” for consistency.

In subsection (a), the word “agency” is substituted for “departments and establishments” because of section 701 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), the word “record” is substituted for “books, records, papers, or documents” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

SUBCHAPTER II—GENERAL DUTIES AND POWERS

§711. General authority

The Comptroller General may—

(1) prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers of the Comptroller General;

(2) delegate the duties and powers of the Comptroller General to officers and employees of the General Accounting Office as the Comptroller General decides is necessary to carry out those duties and powers;

(3) regulate the practice of representatives of persons before the Office; and

(4) administer oaths to witnesses when auditing and settling accounts.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 889.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
711 31:44(1st sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §304(1st par. 1st sentence), 42 Stat. 24.
  31:52(c), (d). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §311(c), (d), 42 Stat. 25; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §8(e)(4), 94 Stat. 33.
  31:52–1(related to direct). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §2(related to direct), 94 Stat. 27.
  31:117. R.S. §297.

In clause (1), the words “may . . . prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers of the Comptroller General” are substituted for “shall make such rules and regulations as may be necessary for carrying on the work of the General Accounting Office” in 31:52(d) for consistency.

In clause (2), the word “delegate” is substituted for “direct” in 31:52–1, and the words “officers and employees” are substituted for “personnel”, and 31:52(c) is omitted, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In clause (3), the words “rules and” in 31:52(d) are omitted as surplus. The words “representatives of persons” are substituted for “attorneys” for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

In clause (4), the words “in any case in which they may deem it necessary for the due” in 31:117 are omitted as surplus. The words “auditing and settling” are substituted for “examination” for consistency. The words “with which they shall be charged” are omitted because of the restatement.

§712. Investigating the use of public money

The Comptroller General shall—

(1) investigate all matters related to the receipt, disbursement, and use of public money;

(2) estimate the cost to the United States Government of complying with each restriction on expenditures of a specific appropriation in a general appropriation law and report each estimate to Congress with recommendations the Comptroller General considers desirable;

(3) analyze expenditures of each executive agency the Comptroller General believes will help Congress decide whether public money has been used and expended economically and efficiently;

(4) make an investigation and report ordered by either House of Congress or a committee of Congress having jurisdiction over revenue, appropriations, or expenditures; and

(5) give a committee of Congress having jurisdiction over revenue, appropriations, or expenditures the help and information the committee requests.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 889.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
712(1) 31:53(a)(1st sentence words before 5th comma). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §312(a)(1st sentence words before 5th comma), (b), 42 Stat. 25.
712(2) 31:59. Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, §§205, 206(1st sentence), 60 Stat. 837.
712(3) 31:60(1st sentence).
712(4) 31:53(b)(1st sentence).
712(5) 31:53(b)(last sentence).

In clause (1), the words “at the seat of government or elsewhere” are omitted as surplus.

In clause (2), the words “estimate the cost to the United States Government of complying with each restriction on expenditures” are substituted for “make a full and complete study of restrictions . . . limiting the expenditure therein with a view to determining the cost to the Government incident to complying with such restrictions”, and the word “desirable” is substituted for “necessary or desirable”, to eliminate unnecessary words.

In clause (3), the words “executive agency” are substituted for “agency in the executive branch of the Government (including Government corporations)” because of section 102 of the revised title.

In clause (4), the words “committee of Congress” are substituted for “committee of either House” for consistency.

In clause (5), the words “at the request of any such committee, direct assistants from his office” are omitted as surplus.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 719 of this title.

§713. Audit of Internal Revenue Service and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms

(a) Under regulations of the Comptroller General, the Comptroller General shall audit the Internal Revenue Service and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, of the Department of the Treasury. An audit under this section does not affect a final decision of the Secretary of the Treasury under section 6406 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 6406).

(b)(1) To carry out this section and to the extent provided by and only subject to section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 6103)—

(A) returns and return information (as defined in section 6103(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 6103(b)) shall be made available to the Comptroller General; and

(B) records and property of, or used by, the Service or the Bureau, shall be made available to the Comptroller General.


(2) At least once every 6 months, the Comptroller General shall designate each officer and employee of the General Accounting Office by name and title to whom returns, return information, or records or property of the Service or the Bureau that can identify a particular taxpayer may be made available. Each designation or a certified copy of the designation shall be sent to the Committee on Finance of the Senate, the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate, the Committee on Government Operations of the House, the Joint Committee on Taxation, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, and the Director of the Bureau.

(3) Except as expressly provided by law, an officer or employee of the Office may make known information derived from a record or property of, or in use by, the Service or the Bureau that can identify a particular taxpayer only to another officer or employee of the Office whose duties or powers require that the record or property be made known.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 889; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
713(a) 31:67(d)(1). Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, 64 Stat. 832, §117(d)(1)–(3); added Oct. 7, 1977, Pub. L. 95–125, §1, 91 Stat. 1104.
713(b)(1) 31:67(d)(2)(1st sentence less proviso).
713(b)(2) 31:67(d)(3).
713(b)(3) 31:67(d)(2)(1st sentence proviso, last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words “rules and” and “findings or” are omitted as surplus. The words “or his delegate” are omitted as unnecessary because of sections 301(b) and 321(a)(2) of the revised title.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words “To carry out” are substituted for “For the purposes of, and to the extent necessary in, making the audits required by”, and the word “only” is substituted for “but notwithstanding the provisions of any other law”, to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the requirements imposed by” are omitted as surplus. The words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “representatives of the General Accounting Office” for consistency. In clause (B), the word “records” is substituted for “books, accounts, financial records, reports, files, papers” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “other” and “things” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “in writing” and “pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection” are omitted as surplus. The words “records or property of the Service or the Bureau” are substituted for “any information described in clause (B) of such paragraph (2)” for clarity. The words “in a form . . . be associated with or otherwise . . . directly or indirectly”, “such written”, and “promptly” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the words “divulge . . . in any manner whatever to any person” are omitted as surplus. The words “information derived from a record or property of, or in use by, the Service or the Bureau” are substituted for “any information described in clause (B)” for clarity and consistency. The words “in a form . . . be associated with or otherwise . . . directly or indirectly” are omitted as surplus. The word “powers” is substituted for “responsibilities” for consistency. The words “that the record or property be made known” are substituted for “such disclosure” for clarity. The text of 31:67(d)(2)(last sentence) is omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1986—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954” wherever appearing.

Change of Name

Committee on Government Operations of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Government Reform and Oversight of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 719 of this title; title 26 section 6103.

§714. Audit of Financial Institutions Examination Council, Federal Reserve Board, Federal reserve banks, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and Office of Comptroller of the Currency

(a) In this section, “agency” means the Financial Institutions Examination Council, the Federal Reserve Board, Federal reserve banks, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Office of Thrift Supervision.

(b) Under regulations of the Comptroller General, the Comptroller General shall audit an agency, but may carry out an onsite examination of an open insured bank or bank holding company only if the appropriate agency has consented in writing. Audits of the Federal Reserve Board and Federal reserve banks may not include—

(1) transactions for or with a foreign central bank, government of a foreign country, or nonprivate international financing organization;

(2) deliberations, decisions, or actions on monetary policy matters, including discount window operations, reserves of member banks, securities credit, interest on deposits, and open market operations;

(3) transactions made under the direction of the Federal Open Market Committee; or

(4) a part of a discussion or communication among or between members of the Board of Governors and officers and employees of the Federal Reserve System related to clauses (1)–(3) of this subsection.


(c)(1) Except as provided in this subsection, an officer or employee of the General Accounting Office may not disclose information identifying an open bank, an open bank holding company, or a customer of an open or closed bank or bank holding company. The Comptroller General may disclose information related to the affairs of a closed bank or closed bank holding company identifying a customer of the closed bank or closed bank holding company only if the Comptroller General believes the customer had a controlling influence in the management of the closed bank or closed bank holding company or was related to or affiliated with a person or group having a controlling influence.

(2) An officer or employee of the Office may discuss a customer, bank, or bank holding company with an official of an agency and may report an apparent criminal violation to an appropriate law enforcement authority of the United States Government or a State.

(3) This subsection does not authorize an officer or employee of an agency to withhold information from a committee of Congress authorized to have the information.

(d)(1) To carry out this section, all records and property of or used by an agency, including samples of reports of examinations of a bank or bank holding company the Comptroller General considers statistically meaningful and workpapers and correspondence related to the reports shall be made available to the Comptroller General. The Comptroller General shall give an agency a current list of officers and employees to whom, with proper identification, records and property may be made available, and who may make notes or copies necessary to carry out an audit. An agency shall give the Comptroller General suitable and lockable offices and furniture, telephones, and access to copying facilities.

(2) Except for the temporary removal of workpapers of the Comptroller General that do not identify a customer of an open or closed bank or bank holding company, an open bank, or an open bank holding company, all workpapers of the Comptroller General and records and property of or used by an agency that the Comptroller General possesses during an audit, shall remain in the agency. The Comptroller General shall prevent unauthorized access to records or property.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 890; Pub. L. 101–73, title III, §307(c), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 353.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
714(a) 31:67(e)(2). Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, 64 Stat. 832, §117(e)(1)–(5), (7); added July 21, 1978, Pub. L. 95–320, §2, 92 Stat. 391; Nov. 10, 1978, Pub. L. 95–630, §1010, 92 Stat. 3696.
714(b) 31:67(e)(1), (3), (4).
714(c) 31:67(e)(5).
714(d) 31:67(e)(7).

In subsection (a), the words “Financial Institutions Examination Council, the Federal Reserve Board, Federal reserve banks, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency” are substituted for “the agencies, banks, facilities, and corporation, listed in clauses (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (1)” for clarity. The words “and their branches and facilities” are omitted as unnecessary because of section 4 of the Rules of Organization of the Federal Reserve System set out in 12:222(note).

In subsections (b) and (c), the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” and “Office” for consistency.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “rules and” are omitted as surplus. The word “agency” is substituted for 31:67(e)(1)(A)–(D) because of subsection (a). The words “(hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the Office)” are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (1), the words “government of a foreign country” are substituted for “foreign governments” for consistency. In clause (3), the words “including transactions of the Federal Reserve System Open Market Account” are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words “oral, written, telegraphic, or telephonic” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “otherwise”, “to any person, nor shall the Office disclose in its report or otherwise outside of the Office”, “in a form”, and “specific” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “An officer or employee of the Office” are substituted for “the Office or its employees” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The word “specific” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(3), the words “or subcommittee of the” are omitted as surplus. The words “authorized to have the information” are substituted for “duly authorized” for clarity.

In subsection (d)(1), the words “To carry out this section, all records and property of or used by an agency . . . shall be made available to the Comptroller General” are substituted for 31:67(e)(7)(A)(words before 11th comma) for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “without deletions” are omitted as surplus. The words “from whatever source” and “whether or not a part of the reports” are omitted as surplus. The words “shall have the authority to authorize Office personnel to conduct such audits and to have access to agency materials described in subparagraph (A) and” are omitted because of sections 702(b) and 711 of the revised title. The words “records and property” are substituted for “such agency materials” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (d)(2), the words “records and property of or used by an agency” are substituted for “agency materials described in subparagraph (A)” for consistency. The words “The Comptroller General shall prevent unauthorized access to records or property” are substituted for 31:67(e)(7)(D)(last sentence) for clarity.

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–73 inserted reference to Office of Thrift Supervision.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 718 of this title; title 12 section 1833c; title 18 section 1906.

§715. Audit of accounts and operations of the District of Columbia government

(a) In addition to the audit carried out under section 455 of the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganization Act (Public Law 93–198, 87 Stat. 803; D.C. Code, §47–117), the Comptroller General each year shall audit the accounts and operations of the District of Columbia government. An audit shall be carried out according to principles, under regulations, and in a way the Comptroller General prescribes. When prescribing the procedures to follow and the extent of the inspection of records, the Comptroller General shall consider generally accepted principles of auditing, including the effectiveness of accounting organizations and systems, internal audit and control, and related administrative practices.

(b) The Comptroller General shall submit each audit report to Congress and the Mayor and Council of the District of Columbia. The report shall include the scope of an audit, information the Comptroller General considers necessary to keep Congress, the Mayor, and the Council informed of operations audited, and recommendations the Comptroller General considers advisable.

(c)(1) By the 90th day after receiving an audit report from the Comptroller General, the Mayor shall state in writing to the Council measures the District of Columbia government is taking to comply with the recommendations of the Comptroller General. A copy of the statement shall be sent to Congress.

(2) After the Council receives the statement of the Mayor, the Council may make available for public inspection the report of the Comptroller General and other material the Council considers pertinent.

(d) To carry out this section, records and property of or used by the District of Columbia government necessary to make an audit easier shall be made available to the Comptroller General. The Mayor shall provide facilities to carry out an audit.

(e) Not later than March 1 of each year, the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on the District of Columbia of the House of Representatives and the Subcommittee on General Services, Federalism, and the District of Columbia of the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate a review of the report of the breakdown of the independently audited revenues of the District of Columbia for the preceding fiscal year by revenues derived from the Federal Government and revenues derived from sources other than the Federal Government that is included in the independent annual audit of the funds of the District of Columbia conducted for such fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 102–102, §2(c)(2), Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 496.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
715(a) 31:61(a)(1st, 2d sentences). Dec. 24, 1973, Pub. L. 93–198, §736, 87 Stat. 823.
715(b) 31:61(b)(1).
715(c)(1) 31:61(b)(3).
715(c)(2) 31:61(b)(2).
715(d) 31:61(a)(last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” for consistency. The words “of Columbia” are added for clarity. The words “rules and” are omitted as surplus. The word “way” is substituted for “procedures” and “detail” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “of the United States” are omitted as surplus. The word “records” is substituted for “vouchers and other documents” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the words “of the District of Columbia” are added for clarity. The words “comments and” are omitted as surplus. The word “audited” is substituted for “to which the reports relate” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “with respect thereto” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “After the Council receives the statement of the Mayor” are substituted for “After the Mayor has had an opportunity to be heard”, and the words “of the Comptroller General” are added, for clarity. The word “thereto” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words “To carry out this section” are added for clarity. The words “records and property of or used by . . . shall be made available to the Comptroller General” are substituted for 31:61(a)(last sentence 1st–30th words) for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “of Columbia government” are added for consistency. The words “The Mayor shall provide facilities to carry out an audit” are substituted for 31:61(a)(last sentence words after last comma) for clarity.

Codification

Section is also set out in D.C. Code, §47–118.1.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–102 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 2(e) of Pub. L. 102–102 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 1991].”

§716. Availability of information and inspection of records

(a) Each agency shall give the Comptroller General information the Comptroller General requires about the duties, powers, activities, organization, and financial transactions of the agency. The Comptroller General may inspect an agency record to get the information. This subsection does not apply to expenditures made under section 3524 or 3526(e) of this title.

(b)(1) When an agency record is not made available to the Comptroller General within a reasonable time, the Comptroller General may make a written request to the head of the agency. The request shall state the authority for inspecting the records and the reason for the inspection. The head of the agency has 20 days after receiving the request to respond. The response shall describe the record withheld and the reason the record is being withheld. If the Comptroller General is not given an opportunity to inspect the record within the 20-day period, the Comptroller General may file a report with the President, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Attorney General, the head of the agency, and Congress.

(2) Through an attorney the Comptroller General designates in writing, the Comptroller General may bring a civil action in the district court of the United States for the District of Columbia to require the head of the agency to produce a record—

(A) after 20 days after a report is filed under paragraph (1) of this subsection; and

(B) subject to subsection (d) of this section.


(3) The Attorney General may represent the head of the agency. The court may punish a failure to obey an order of the court under this subsection as a contempt of court.

(c)(1) Subject to subsection (d) of this section, the Comptroller General may subpena a record of a person not in the United States Government when the record is not made available to the Comptroller General to which the Comptroller General has access by law or by agreement of that person from whom access is sought. A subpena shall identify the record and the authority for the inspection and may be issued by the Comptroller General. The Comptroller General may have an individual serve a subpena under this subsection by delivering a copy to the person named in the subpena or by mailing a copy of the subpena by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to the residence or principal place of business of the person. Proof of service is shown by a verified return by the individual serving the subpena that states how the subpena was served or by the return receipt signed by the person served.

(2) If a person residing, found, or doing business in a judicial district refuses to comply with a subpena issued under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Comptroller General, through an attorney the Comptroller General designates in writing, may bring a civil action in that district court to require the person to produce the record. The court has jurisdiction of the action and may punish a failure to obey an order of the court under this subsection as a contempt of court.

(d)(1) The Comptroller General may not bring a civil action for a record withheld under subsection (b) of this section or issue a subpena under subsection (c) of this section if—

(A) the record related to activities the President designates as foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities;

(B) the record is specifically exempted from disclosure to the Comptroller General by a statute that—

(i) without discretion requires that the record be withheld from the Comptroller General;

(ii) establishes particular criteria for withholding the record from the Comptroller General; or

(iii) refers to particular types of records to be withheld from the Comptroller General; or


(C) by the 20th day after a report is filed under subsection (b)(1) of this section, the President or the Director certifies to the Comptroller General and Congress that a record could be withheld under section 552(b)(5) or (7) of title 5 and disclosure reasonably could be expected to impair substantially the operations of the Government.


(2) The President or the Director may not delegate certification under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection. A certification shall include a complete explanation of the reasons for the certification.

(e)(1) The Comptroller General shall maintain the same level of confidentiality for a record made available under this section as is required of the head of the agency from which it is obtained. Officers and employees of the General Accounting Office are subject to the same statutory penalties for unauthorized disclosure or use as officers or employees of the agency.

(2) The Comptroller General shall keep information described in section 552(b)(6) of title 5 that the Comptroller General obtains in a way that prevents unwarranted invasions of personal privacy.

(3) This section does not authorize information to be withheld from Congress.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 892.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
716(a) 31:54(a). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §313(a), 42 Stat. 26; Apr. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–226, §102, 94 Stat. 312.
716(b) 31:54(b). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §313(b)–(f); added Apr. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–226, §102, 94 Stat. 312.
716(c) 31:54(c).
716(d) 31:54(d).
716(e) 31:54(e), (f).

In the section, the word “records” is substituted for “books, documents, papers, or records”, “books, records, correspondence, memoranda, papers, and documents”, and “written information, books, documents, papers, or records” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The word “Congress” is substituted for “Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the President of the Senate” for consistency in the revised title.

In subsections (a) and (b), the word “agency” is substituted for “departments and establishments” because of section 701 of the revised title.

In subsection (a), the words “methods of business” are omitted as surplus. The words “or any of his assistants or employees, when duly authorized by him” are omitted because of sections 702(b) and 711 of the revised title. The word “inspect” is substituted for “shall . . . have access to and the right to examine” for consistency. The cross reference to section 3524 is added for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “to the Comptroller General” are substituted for “access to” for clarity and consistency. The words “in his discretion”, “in addition to subsection (a)”, “a period of”, and “to the written request of the Comptroller General” are omitted as surplus. The words “or any of his designated assistants or employees” are omitted because of sections 702(b) and 711 of the revised title.

In subsection (b)(2), before clause (A), the words “bring a civil action” are substituted for “apply” to conform to rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). In clause (A), the words “calendar” and “written” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the words “head of the agency” are substituted for “defendant official” for consistency.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “require by . . . the production of” are omitted as surplus. The words “person not in the United States Government” are substituted for “contractors, subcontractors, or other non-Federal persons” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “from whom access is sought”, “in the case of service by certified or registered mail”, and “post office” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “judicial district” are substituted for “jurisdiction of any district court of the United States” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “contumacy or” are omitted as surplus. The words “may bring a civil action” are substituted for “upon application made by” to conform to rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the words “requiring the production of material” are omitted as surplus. In clause (C), the words “in writing”, “consists of matters which . . . from disclosure”, “United States Code”, “of such material to the Comptroller General”, and “Federal” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(1), the words “the head of” are added for consistency. The words “from which such material was obtained” are omitted as surplus.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3523 of this title; title 12 section 1833c; title 20 section 1082; title 22 section 3143; title 38 section 7366; title 44 section 3519; title 50 App. section 2411.

§717. Evaluating programs and activities of the United States Government

(a) In this section, “agency” means a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government (except a mixed-ownership Government corporation) or the District of Columbia government.

(b) The Comptroller General shall evaluate the results of a program or activity the Government carries out under existing law—

(1) on the initiative of the Comptroller General;

(2) when either House of Congress orders an evaluation; or

(3) when a committee of Congress with jurisdiction over the program or activity requests the evaluation.


(c) The Comptroller General shall develop and recommend to Congress ways to evaluate a program or activity the Government carries out under existing law.

(d)(1) On request of a committee of Congress, the Comptroller General shall help the committee to—

(A) develop a statement of legislative goals and ways to assess and report program performance related to the goals, including recommended ways to assess performance, information to be reported, responsibility for reporting, frequency of reports, and feasibility of pilot testing; and

(B) assess program evaluations prepared by and for an agency.


(2) On request of a member of Congress, the Comptroller General shall give the member a copy of the material the Comptroller General compiles in carrying out this subsection that has been released by the committee for which the material was compiled.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 893.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
717(a) 31:1157. Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §207, 84 Stat. 1168.
717(b) 31:1154(a). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §204(a)–(c), 84 Stat. 1168; restated July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §702(a), 88 Stat. 326.
717(c) 31:1154(c).
717(d) 31:1154(b).

Subsection (a) restates the source provisions because of section 701 of the revised title and for consistency with section 101 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the word “evaluate” is substituted for “review and evaluate” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (3), the words “a committee of Congress” are substituted for “any committee of the House of Representatives or the Senate, or any joint committee of the two Houses” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the word “evaluate” is substituted for “review and evaluation” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the words “committee of Congress” are substituted for “committee of either House or any joint committee of the two Houses” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (A), the words “objectives and”, “actual”, and “but are not limited to” are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the words “analyzing and” and “or evaluation studies” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(2), the word “Congress” is substituted for “either House” for clarity. The words “statement or other” are omitted as surplus.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 719, 731, 1113 of this title.

§718. Availability of draft reports

(a) A draft report of an audit under section 714 of this title shall be submitted to the Financial Institutions Examination Council, the Federal Reserve Board, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency for comment for 30 days.

(b)(1) The Comptroller General may submit a part of a draft report to an agency for comment for more than 30 days only if the Comptroller General decides, after a showing by the agency, that a longer period is necessary and likely to result in a more accurate report. The report may not be delayed because the agency does not comment within the comment period.

(2) When a draft report is submitted to an agency for comment, the Comptroller General shall make the draft report available on request to—

(A) either House of Congress, a committee of Congress, or a member of Congress if the report was begun because of a request of the House, committee, or member; or

(B) the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives if the report was not begun because of a request of either House of Congress, a committee of Congress, or a member of Congress.


(3) This subsection is subject to statutory and executive order guidelines for handling and storing classified information and material.

(c) A final report of the Comptroller General shall include—

(1) a statement of significant changes of a finding, conclusion, or recommendation in an earlier draft report because of comments on the draft by an agency;

(2) a statement of the reasons the changes were made; and

(3) for a draft report submitted under subsection (a) of this section, written comments of the agency submitted during the comment period.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 894.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
718(a) 31:67(e)(6)(B)(1st sentence). Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, 64 Stat. 832, §117(e)(6)(B); added July 21, 1978, Pub. L. 95–320, §2, 92 Stat. 392.
718(b)(1) 31:53(f)(1), (2). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §312(f); added Apr. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–226, §103, 94 Stat. 314.
718(b)(2) 31:53(f)(3).
718(b)(3) 31:53(f)(5).
718(c)(1) 31:53(f)(4)(A).
718(c)(2) 31:53(f)(4)(B).
718(c)(3) 31:67(e)(6)(B)(last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words “audit under section 714 of this title” are substituted for “such Office audit report”, and the words “Financial Institutions Examination Council, the Federal Reserve Board, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency” are substituted for “agency concerned (other than banks, branches, and facilities)”, because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “The report may not be delayed because the agency does not comment within the comment period” are substituted for 31:53(f)(2) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(2)(A), the words “pursuant to subsection (b) of this section or otherwise” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2)(B), the words “if the report was not begun because of a request of either House of Congress, a committee of Congress, or a member of Congress” are substituted for “in the case of any other report” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b)(3), the words “Procedures followed pursuant to” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “version of any” are omitted as surplus. The words “shall include” are substituted for “The Comptroller General shall prepare and issue with” because of the restatement. The words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” for consistency. In clause (3), the words “when a draft report was submitted under subsection (a) of this section” are added because of the restatement. The words “as an addendum” are omitted as surplus.

Change of Name

Committee on Government Operations of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Government Reform and Oversight of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

§719. Comptroller General reports

(a) At the beginning of each regular session of Congress, the Comptroller General shall report to Congress (and to the President when requested by the President) on the work of the Comptroller General. A report shall include recommendations on—

(1) legislation the Comptroller General considers necessary to make easier the prompt and accurate making and settlement of accounts; and

(2) other matters related to the receipt, disbursement, and use of public money the Comptroller General considers advisable.


(b)(1) The Comptroller General shall include in the report to Congress under subsection (a) of this section—

(A) a review of activities under sections 717(b)–(d) and 731(e)(2) of this title, including recommendations under section 717(c) of this title;

(B) information on carrying out duties and powers of the Comptroller General under clauses (A) and (C) of this paragraph, subsections (g) and (h) of this section, and sections 717, 731(e)(2), 734, 1112, and 1113 of this title; and

(C) the name of each officer and employee of the General Accounting Office assigned or detailed to a committee of Congress, the committee to which the officer or employee is assigned or detailed, the length of the period of assignment or detail, a statement on whether the assignment or detail is finished or continuing, and compensation paid out of appropriations available to the Comptroller General for the period of the assignment or detail that has been completed.


(2) In a report under subsection (a) of this section or in a special report to Congress when Congress is in session, the Comptroller General shall include recommendations on greater economy and efficiency in public expenditures.

(c) The Comptroller General shall report to Congress—

(1) specially on expenditures and contracts an agency makes in violation of law;

(2) on the adequacy and effectiveness of—

(A) administrative audits of accounts and claims in an agency; and

(B) inspections by an agency of offices and accounts of fiscal officials; and


(3) as frequently as practicable on audits carried out under sections 713 and 714 of this title.


(d) The Comptroller General shall report each year to the Committees on Finance and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, the Committees on Ways and Means and Government Operations of the House of Representatives, and the Joint Committee on Taxation. Each report shall include—

(1) procedures and requirements the Comptroller General, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, and the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, prescribe to protect the confidentiality of returns and return information made available to the Comptroller General under section 713(b)(1) of this title;

(2) the scope and subject matter of audits under section 713 of this title; and

(3) findings, conclusions, or recommendations the Comptroller General develops as a result of an audit under section 713 of this title, including significant evidence of inefficiency or mismanagement.


(e) The Comptroller General shall report on analyses carried out under section 712(3) of this title to the Committees on Governmental Affairs and Appropriations of the Senate, the Committees on Government Operations and Appropriations of the House, and the committees with jurisdiction over legislation related to the operation of each executive agency.

(f) The Comptroller General shall give the President information on expenditures and accounting the President requests.

(g) When the Comptroller General submits a report to Congress, the Comptroller General shall deliver copies of the report to—

(1) the Committees on Governmental Affairs and Appropriations of the Senate;

(2) the Committees on Government Operations and Appropriations of the House;

(3) a committee of Congress that requested information on any part of a program or activity of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government (except a mixed-ownership Government corporation) or the District of Columbia government that is the subject of any part of a report; and

(4) any other committee of Congress requesting a copy.


(h)(1) The Comptroller General shall prepare—

(A) each month a list of reports issued during the prior month; and

(B) at least once each year a list of reports issued during the prior 12 months.


(2) A copy of each list shall be sent to each committee of Congress and each member of Congress. On request, the Comptroller General promptly shall provide a copy of a report to a committee or member.

(i) On request of a committee of Congress, the Comptroller General shall explain to and discuss with the committee or committee staff a report the Comptroller General makes that would help the committee—

(1) evaluate a program or activity of an agency within the jurisdiction of the committee; or

(2) in its consideration of proposed legislation.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 894.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
719(a) 31:53(a)(1st sentence words after 5th comma). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §312(a)(1st sentence words after 5th comma, last sentence), (c)–(e), 42 Stat. 25.
719(b)(1) (A) 31:1154(e). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §204(e), 84 Stat. 1168; restated July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §702(a), 88 Stat. 326.
719(b)(1) (B) 31:1155(b). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §§205(b), 207, 231–234, 235(b), 84 Stat. 1168, 1170, 1171.
719(b)(1) (C) 31:1175(b).
719(b)(2) 31:53(a)(last sentence).
719(c)(1) 31:53(c).
719(c)(2) 31:53(d).
719(c)(3) 31:67(d)(4)(1st sentence). Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, 64 Stat. 832, §117(d)(4); added Oct. 7, 1977, Pub. L. 95–125, 91 Stat. 1105.
  31:67(e)(6)(A). Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, 64 Stat. 832, §117(e)(6)(A); added July 21, 1978, Pub. L. 95–320, §2, 92 Stat. 392.
719(d) 31:67(d)(4)(last sentence).
719(e) 31:60(last sentence). Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, §206(last sentence), 60 Stat. 837.
719(f) 31:53(e).
719(g) 31:1157.
  31:1172.
  31:1173.
719(h) 31:1174.
719(i) 31:1171.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “of Congress” are added for clarity. The words “in writing” are omitted as surplus. The words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” for consistency.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words “under subsection (a) of this section” are substituted for “annual” in 31:1154(e), 1155(b), and 1175(b) for clarity. In clause (A), the words “of methods for review and evaluation of Government programs and activities” are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (C), the word “officer” is added for consistency. The words “of the General Accounting Office” are added for clarity. The words “committee of Congress” are substituted for “committee of the Senate or House of Representatives or any joint committee of Congress” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “name of each”, “joint committee”, and “of such employee” are omitted as surplus. The word “compensation” is substituted for “pay of such employee, his travel, subsistence, and other expenses, the agency contributions for his retirement and life and health insurance benefits, and other necessary monetary expenses for personnel benefits on account of such employee” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” for consistency. The words “of such employee, or, if such assignment or detail is currently in effect, during that part of the period of such assignment or detail” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “at any time” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the word “agency” is substituted for “department or establishment” and “departments and establishments” because of section 701 of the revised title. In clause (1), the words “in any year” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2)(A), the word “audits” is substituted for “examination” for consistency. In clause (2)(B), the words “by an agency” are substituted for “departmental” because of the restatement. The word “officials” is substituted for “officers” for consistency.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the word “written” is omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “Comptroller General, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, and the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms” are substituted for “General Accounting Office, the Internal Revenue Service, and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms” for consistency. In clauses (2) and (3), the words “or other examination or review” are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (e) and (g), the words “Governmental Affairs . . . of the Senate” are substituted for “Government Operations . . . of the two Houses” in 31:60(last sentence) and “Government Operations of the . . . Senate” in 31:1172 because of Rule 25.1(k) of the Standing Rules of the Senate (S. Doc. 96–1, 96th Cong., 1st Sess.).

In subsection (e), the words “carried out under section 712(3) of this title” are added because of the restatement. The words “legislative” before “committees”, and “respective”, are omitted as surplus. The words “executive agency” are substituted for “agencies” because of section 102 of the revised title.

In subsection (f), the word “President” is substituted for “Office of Management and Budget” because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) redesignated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President.

In subsection (g), before clause (1), the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” in 31:1172 for consistency. In clause (3), the words “committee of Congress” are substituted for “other committee of the House or Senate, or any joint committee of the two Houses” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words in the parentheses are included for consistency with section 101 of the revised title. The word “establishment” in 31:1157 is omitted as surplus. Clause (4) is substituted for 31:1173 to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (h)(1), the words “once . . . calendar”, “of the General Accounting Office”, “immediately”, and “cumulative” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (h)(2), the words “committee of Congress” are substituted for “committee of the House or Senate, each joint committee of the two Houses” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “member of Congress” are substituted for “Member of the House or Senate, and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “On request, the Comptroller General promptly shall provide a copy of a report to a committee or member” are substituted for 31:1174(last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (i), before clause (1), the words “committee of Congress” are substituted for “committee of the House or Senate, or of any joint committee of the two Houses” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “making the request” are omitted as surplus. The words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” for consistency. In clause (1), the word “evaluate” is substituted for “review” for consistency in the revised title. In clause (2), the words “including requests for appropriations” are omitted as surplus.

Change of Name

Committee on Government Operations of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Government Reform and Oversight of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 731 of this title.

§720. Agency reports

(a) In this section, “agency” means a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government (except a mixed-ownership Government corporation) or the District of Columbia government.

(b) When the Comptroller General makes a report that includes a recommendation to the head of an agency, the head of the agency shall submit a written statement on action taken on the recommendation by the head of the agency. The statement shall be submitted to—

(1) the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives before the 61st day after the date of the report; and

(2) the Committees on Appropriations of both Houses of Congress in the first request for appropriations submitted more than 60 days after the date of the report.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 896.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
720(a) 31:1157. Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §§207, 236, 84 Stat. 1168, 1171.
720(b) 31:1176.

In subsection (a), the words “As used . . . the term”, “Federal”, and “establishment” are omitted as surplus. The words in parentheses are included for consistency with section 101 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office”, and the words “head of the” are added, for consistency. The word “written” is omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “Governmental Affairs of the Senate” are substituted for “Government Operations of the . . . Senate” because of Rule 25.1(k) of the Standing Rules of the Senate (S. Doc. 96–1, 96th Cong., 1st Sess.). In clause (2), the words “both Houses of Congress” are substituted for “the House of Representatives and the Senate” for consistency. The words “connection with”, “for that agency”, and “to the Congress” are omitted as surplus.

Change of Name

Committee on Government Operations of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Government Reform and Oversight of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

SUBCHAPTER III—PERSONNEL

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in section 732 of this title; title 2 section 1371; title 40 section 166b–7; title 42 section 12209.

§731. General

(a) The Comptroller General may appoint, pay, assign, and remove officers (except the Deputy Comptroller General) and employees the Comptroller General decides are necessary to carry out the duties and powers of the General Accounting Office.

(b) The Comptroller General may establish for appropriate officers and employees a merit pay system consistent with section 5401 of title 5, as in effect on October 31, 1993.

(c) The annual rate of basic pay of the General Counsel of the General Accounting Office is equal to the rate for level IV of the Executive Schedule.

(d) When a change in organization, management responsibility, or workload makes it necessary, the Comptroller General may fix the rate of basic pay of 5 positions at rates not more than the rate for level IV of the Executive Schedule.

(e) The Comptroller General may procure the services of experts and consultants under section 3109 of title 5 at rates not in excess of the maximum daily rate for GS–18 under section 5332 of such title, except that the services of not more than—

(1) 15 experts and consultants may be procured for not more than 3 years; and

(2) 10 experts and consultants may be procured permanently, temporarily, or intermittently to carry out sections 717(b)–(d) and 719(b)(1)(A) of this title at rates that are not more than the rate for level V of the Executive Schedule.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 896; Pub. L. 98–326, §1(a), June 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 269; Pub. L. 98–615, title II, §204(b), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3216; Pub. L. 103–89, §3(b)(4), Sept. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 983.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
731(a) 31:44(1st sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §304(1st par. 1st sentence), 42 Stat. 24.
  31:52(a), (b). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §311(a), (b), 42 Stat. 25; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §8(e)(3), 94 Stat. 33.
  31:52–1(related to appointment, pay, and assignment). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §§2(related to appointment, pay, and assignment), 5(b), 94 Stat. 27, 32.
  31:56. Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 297, §1(proviso on p. 866), 35 Stat 866; May 29, 1920, ch. 214, §1(last par. under heading “Office of Comptroller of the Treasury”), 41 Stat. 647.
731(b) 31:52–4(b).
731(c) 31:51a. Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, §203(c)(5th–14th words), 78 Stat. 415; Dec. 16, 1967, Pub. L. 90–206, §219(2), 81 Stat. 639; restated Aug. 9, 1975, Pub. L. 94–82, §204(b), 89 Stat. 421.
731(d) 31:52b. Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, 78 Stat. 400, §203(i); added Dec. 15, 1971, Pub. L. 92–190, 85 Stat. 646.
731(e) 31:52c. Jan. 2, 1975, Pub. L. 93–604, §401, 88 Stat. 1962.
  31:1154(d)(last sentence). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §204(d)(last sentence), 84 Stat. 1168; restated July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §702(a), 88 Stat. 326.

In subsection (a), the text of 31:52(a) and (b) and 31:56 is omitted as superseded by the other source provisions restated in this subchapter and subchapter IV of this chapter. The word “remove” is added for consistency with other provisions of the subchapter. The words “officers (except the Deputy Comptroller General) and employees” are substituted for “personnel” in 31:52–1, and the word “powers” is substituted for “functions”, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

Subsection (b) is substituted for 31:52–4(b) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “officers and” are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsections (c) and (d), the words “basic pay” are substituted for “compensation” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c), the words “United States” and “positions at” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words “in the General Accounting Office”, “prescribed . . . under section 5315 of title 5”, and “of the Office” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), before clause (1), the words “procure the services of” are substituted for “employ” for consistency with 5:3109. The words “at rates not in excess of the maximum daily rate prescribed for GS–18 under section 5332 of title 5 for persons in the Government service employed intermittently” are omitted as unnecessary because of 5:3109. In clause (1), the word “periods” is omitted as surplus. Clause (2) is substituted for 31:1154(d)(last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “and consultants” are added because of 5:3109.

References in Text

Section 5401 of title 5, referred to in subsec. (b), was repealed by Pub. L. 103–89, §3(a)(1), Sept. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 981.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–89 inserted before period at end “, as in effect on October 31, 1993”.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–615 substituted “section 5401 of title 5” for “section 5401(a) of title 5”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–236 substituted “title 5 at rates not in excess of the maximum daily rate for GS–18 under section 5332 of such title” for “title 5” in provisions preceding par. (1) and “15” for “10” in par. (1).

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–89 effective Nov. 1, 1993, see section 3(c) of Pub. L. 103–89, set out as a note under section 3372 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments

Section 205 of Pub. L. 98–615 provided that amendment by Pub. L. 98–615 was effective Oct. 1, 1984, and applicable with respect to pay periods commencing on or after that date, with certain exceptions and qualifications.

Section 2 of Pub. L. 98–326 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and sections 732 and 733 of this title] shall take effect beginning on October 1, 1984.”

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 719, 733, 735 of this title; title 2 section 356.

§732. Personnel management system

(a) The Comptroller General shall maintain a personnel management system. The Comptroller General may prescribe a regulation about the system only after notice and opportunity for public comment. A reprisal or threat of reprisal may not be made against an officer or employee of the General Accounting Office because of comments on a proposed regulation about the system.

(b) The personnel management system shall—

(1) include the principles of section 2301(b) of title 5;

(2) prohibit personnel practices prohibited under section 2302(b) of title 5;

(3) prohibit political activities prohibited under subchapter III of chapter 73 of title 5;

(4) ensure that officers and employees of the Office are appointed, promoted, and assigned only on the basis of merit and fitness, but without regard to those provisions of title 5 governing appointments and other personnel actions in the competitive service;

(5) give a preference to an individual eligible for a preference in the executive branch of the United States Government in a way and to an extent consistent with a preference given an individual in the executive branch; and

(6) provide that the Comptroller General shall fix the basic pay of officers and employees of the Office not fixed by law, consistent with section 5301 of title 5.


(c) Under the personnel management system—

(1) the Comptroller General shall publish a schedule of basic pay rates for officers and employees of the Office;

(2) except as provided in clause (4) of this subsection and section 733(a)(3)(A) of this title, the highest basic pay rate under the pay schedule may not be more than the highest basic rate for GS–15;

(3) except as provided under section 733(a)(3)(B) of this title or section 5349(a) of title 5, basic pay rates of officers and employees of the Office shall be adjusted at the same time and to the same extent as basic pay rates of the General Schedule are adjusted;

(4) the pay schedule for officers and employees of the Office may provide that the basic pay rates for not more than 129 positions may be at rates not more than the rate of basic pay payable for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule, less the number of positions in the General Accounting Office Senior Executive Service under section 733 of this title (except positions included in the Service under section 733(c) of this title); and

(5) officers and employees of the Office are entitled to grade and basic pay retention consistent with subchapter VI of chapter 53 of title 5.


(d) The personnel management system shall provide—

(1) for a system to appraise the performance of officers and employees of the General Accounting Office that meets the requirements of section 4302 of title 5;

(2) that the Comptroller General has the same responsibility for performance appraisals under this subsection as the Director of the Office of Personnel Management has under section 4302 of title 5;

(3) for a reduction in grade or removal of an officer or employee because of unacceptable performance consistent with section 4303 of title 5;

(4) for other personnel actions consistent with chapter 75 of title 5; and

(5) a procedure for processing complaints and grievances not otherwise provided for under clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection or subsection (e) or (f)(1) of this section.


(e) The personnel management system shall provide—

(1) a procedure that ensures that each officer and employee of the General Accounting Office may form, join, or assist, or not form, join, or assist, an employee organization freely and without fear of penalty or reprisal; and

(2) for a labor-management relations program consistent with chapter 71 of title 5.


(f)(1) The personnel management system shall—

(A) provide that all personnel actions affecting an officer, employee, or applicant for employment be taken without regard to race, color, religion, age, sex, national origin, political affiliation, marital status, or handicapping condition; and

(B) include a minority recruitment program consistent with section 7201 of title 5.


(2) This subchapter and subchapter IV of this chapter do not affect a right or remedy of an officer, employee, or applicant for employment under a law prohibiting discrimination in employment in the Government on the basis of race, color, religion, age, sex, national origin, political affiliation, marital status, or handicapping condition. However, for officers, employees, or applicants in the General Accounting Office—

(A) the General Accounting Office Personnel Appeals Board has the same authority over oversight and appeals matters as an executive agency has over oversight and appeals matters; and

(B) the Comptroller General has the same authority over matters (except oversight and appeals) as an executive agency has over matters (except oversight and appeals).


(3) This section does not affect a lawful effort to achieve equal employment opportunity through affirmative action.

(g) An officer or employee of the General Accounting Office completing at least one year of continuous service under a nontemporary appointment under the personnel management system acquires a competitive status for appointment to a position in the competitive service for which the officer or employee is qualified.

(h) Notwithstanding the provisions of subchapter I of chapter 35 of title 5, United States Code, the Comptroller General shall prescribe regulations for the release of officers and employees of the General Accounting Office in a reduction in force which give due effect to tenure of employment, military preference, performance and/or contributions to the agency's goals and objectives, and length of service. The regulations shall, to the extent deemed feasible by the Comptroller General, be designed to minimize disruption to the Office and to assist in promoting the efficiency of the Office.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 897; Pub. L. 98–326, §1(b), June 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 269; Pub. L. 100–426, title III, §§302, 303, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1602; Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §529 [title I, §101(b)(2)(B)], Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1427, 1439; Pub. L. 104–53, title II, §212(a), Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 535.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
732(a) 31:52–2(a). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §§3, 6, 94 Stat. 27, 32.
  31:52–5(b).
732(b) 31:52–2(b)(1), (c)(1st sentence).
732(c) 31:52–2(c)(last sentence).
732(d) 31:52–2(d), (f), (h).
732(e) 31:52–2(e).
732(f)(1), (2) 31:52–2(g).
732(f)(3) 31:52–2(b)(2).
732(g) 31:52–5(a).

In the section, the words “officers and” are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the words “not later than October 1, 1980” and 31:52–5(b) are omitted as executed. The word “maintain” is substituted for “establish by regulation” to omit executed words. The words “for the General Accounting Office (hereinafter referred to as the ‘personnel system’) which shall meet the requirements of subsections (b) through (h)”, and “or any amendment” are omitted as surplus. The words “about the system” are substituted for “thereto” for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “merit system” are omitted as surplus. In clause (5), the words “of the United States Government” are added for consistency. In clause (6), the words “the principles of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “payable . . . under the General Schedule” are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words “not more than 100 positions” are substituted for “up to one hundred employees” for consistency. The words “payable . . . grade . . . of the General Schedule” are omitted as surplus. In clause (5), the words “the principles of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(2), the words “Director of” are added for consistency. The text of 31:52–2(d)(last sentence) is omitted as executed. In clause (4), the words “the taking of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (e)–(g), the word “management” is added for consistency.

In subsection (f)(1), the words “in the General Accounting Office” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f)(2), before clause (A), the word “affect” is substituted for “abolish or diminish” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “in the General Accounting Office by section 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, by sections 12 and 15 of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, by section 6(d) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, by sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, or . . . other” are omitted as surplus. In clauses (A) and (B), the words “has the same authority . . . as . . . has” are substituted for “authorities granted thereunder to . . . shall be exercised by” for clarity. The words “the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Office of Personnel Management, the Merit Systems Protection Board, or . . . other” are omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the words “established by section 52–3” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f)(3), the word “affect” is substituted for “prohibits or restricts” for consistency.

In subsection (g), the words “Notwithstanding any other provision of law” are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The General Schedule, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), (4), is set out under section 5332 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–53 added subsec. (h).

1990—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 101–509 substituted “5301” for “5301(a)”.

1988—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–426, §303, substituted “under section 733(a)(3)(B) of this title or section 5349(a) of title 5” for “in section 733(a)(3)(B) of this title”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–426, §302, substituted “129” for “119” and “the rate of basic pay payable for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule” for “the highest rate for GS–18”.

1984—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 98–326 substituted “119” for “100”.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–509 effective on such date as the President shall determine, but not earlier than 90 days, and not later than 180 days, after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 529 [title III, §305] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out as a note under section 5301 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–326 effective Oct. 1, 1984, see section 2 of Pub. L. 98–326, set out as a note under section 731 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 733, 751, 752, 753, 755 of this title.

§733. Senior Executive Service

(a) The Comptroller General may establish a General Accounting Office Senior Executive Service—

(1) meeting the requirements of section 3131 of title 5;

(2) providing requirements for positions consistent with section 3132(a)(2) of title 5;

(3) providing rates of basic pay—

(A) not more than the maximum rate or less than the minimum rate for the Senior Executive Service under section 5382 of title 5; and

(B) adjusted at the same time and to the same extent as rates in the Senior Executive Service under section 5382 of title 5 are adjusted;


(4) providing a performance appraisal system consistent with subchapter II of chapter 43 of title 5;

(5) allowing the Comptroller General to award ranks to officers and employees in the Office Senior Executive Service consistent with section 4507 of title 5;

(6) providing for removal consistent with section 3592 of title 5, and for removal or suspension consistent with section 7543 of title 5; and

(7) allowing the Comptroller General to pay performance awards to officers and employees of the Office Senior Executive Service consistent with section 5384 of title 5.


(b) Except as provided in subsection (a), the Comptroller General may apply any part of title 5 that applies to an applicant for or officer or employee in the Senior Executive Service under title 5 to the Office Senior Executive Service.

(c) The Office Senior Executive Service may include positions referred to in section 731(c), (d), (e)(1), or (e)(2) of this title.

(d) Section 732(b)(6), (c), (d)(1)–(4), and (e) of this title does not apply to the Office Senior Executive Service.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 899; Pub. L. 98–326, §1(c), June 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 269.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
733(a) 31:52–4(a)(1). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §5(a), 94 Stat. 31.
733(b) 31:52–4(a)(2).
733(c) 31:52–4(a)(4).
733(d) 31:52–4(a)(3).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “promulgate regulations” are omitted as surplus. The words “(hereinafter referred to as the GAO Senior Executive Service)” are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (1), the words “for the Senior Executive Service” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words “in the GAO Senior Executive Service . . . which are” are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), before subclause (A), the words “for the GAO Senior Executive Service” are omitted as surplus. In subclause (A), the word “established” is omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words “for the GAO Senior Executive Service” are omitted as surplus. In clauses (5) and (7), the words “officers and employees” are substituted for “members” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (5), the words “the provisions applicable to the Office of Personnel Management and the President under” are omitted as surplus. In clause (7), the words “the provisions applicable to performance awards under” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “officer or employee” are substituted for “member” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (d), the words “Employees in . . . the personnel system established under” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–326 inserted “(e)(1),” after “(d),”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–326 effective Oct. 1, 1984, see section 2 of Pub. L. 98–326, set out as a note under section 731 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 732, 735 of this title.

§734. Assignments and details to Congress

The Comptroller General may assign or detail an officer or employee of the General Accounting Office to full-time continuous duty with a committee of Congress for not more than one year.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 899; Pub. L. 98–367, title I, §8, July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 475.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
734(a) 31:1175(a). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §235(a), 84 Stat. 1171.
734(b) 31:1175(c). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, 84 Stat. 1140, §235(c); added Oct. 11, 1971, Pub. L. 92–136, §8, 85 Stat. 378.

In the section, the words “officer or” are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the words “Notwithstanding any other provision of law” are omitted as surplus. The word “continuous” is substituted for “on a continuing basis” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “committee of Congress” are substituted for “committee of the Senate or House of Representatives or with any joint committee of Congress” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “any period of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” for consistency. The word “pay” is substituted for “salary” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–367 struck out designation of provisions as “(a)” and struck out subsec. (b) which read as follows: “A committee of the Senate or a joint committee of Congress for which the Secretary of the Senate disburses amounts shall reimburse the Comptroller General for the pay of each officer or employee of the Office for the time the officer or employee is assigned or detailed to the committee or joint committee.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 719 of this title.

§735. Relationship to other laws

(a) Except as provided in section 733(c) of this title, this subchapter and subchapter IV of this chapter do not affect sections 702(b), 703, 731(c)–(e), 772, 775(a) and (d) of this title.

(b) Except as specifically provided in this subchapter and subchapter IV of this chapter, those subchapters do not change the application of a law applicable to officers and employees of the General Accounting Office.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 899.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
735(a) 31:52–6(a). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §7, 94 Stat. 33.
735(b) 31:52–6(b).

In subsection (a), the words “repealing, amending, or otherwise” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “repeal . . . or limit” are omitted as surplus. The words “officers and” are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

§736. Authorization of appropriations

Amounts necessary to carry out this subchapter and subchapter IV of this chapter may be appropriated to the Comptroller General.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 900.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
736 31:52–7. Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §9, 94 Stat. 34.

The word “hereby” is omitted as surplus. The words “to the Comptroller General” are added for consistency. The words “beginning fiscal year 1981 and for each fiscal year thereafter” are omitted as executed.

SUBCHAPTER IV—PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in sections 732, 735 of this title; title 2 section 1371; title 42 section 12209.

§751. Organization

(a) The General Accounting Office has a General Accounting Office Personnel Appeals Board. The Board is composed of 5 members appointed by the Comptroller General. An individual may be appointed only if the individual—

(1) is not a current or former officer or employee of the Office or of the Architect of the Capitol, the Botanic Garden, or the Senate Restaurants,; 1

(2) has the demonstrated ability, background, training, and experience necessary to be qualified specially to serve on the Board; and

(3) demonstrates a capacity and willingness to devote sufficient time to dispose of cases in a timely way.


(b) The Comptroller General shall appoint members only—

(1) after considering any candidates who are recommended to the Comptroller General (at such time and in such manner as the Comptroller General requires) by organizations composed primarily of individuals experienced in adjudicating or arbitrating personnel matters; and

(2) after the Comptroller General consults with organizations representing employees of the Office and with any member of each committee of Congress, having legislative jurisdiction over the personnel management system maintained under section 732 of this title, whom the chairman of the committee designates.


(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term of a member of the Board is 5 years. A member may not be reappointed. An individual appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of a term of office is appointed for the remainder of the term. However, if the unexpired part of a term is less than one year, the Comptroller General may appoint an individual for a 5-year term plus the unexpired part of the term. When the term of a member ends, the member may continue to serve until a successor takes office or for 6 months after the term expires, whichever is earlier.

(2)(A) The term of a member serving on the date of the enactment of the General Accounting Office Personnel Amendments Act of 1988 shall be as follows:

(i) Of the 2 members appointed in 1985, the term of 1 such member shall be 5 years, and the term of the other such member shall be 6 years.

(ii) Of the 2 members appointed in 1986, the term of 1 such member shall be 6 years, and the term of the other such member shall be 7 years.

(iii) The term of the member appointed in 1987 shall be 7 years.


(B) Within 60 days after the date referred to in subparagraph (A), the Comptroller General shall determine—

(i) with respect to the members under subparagraph (A)(i), which will have a term of 5 years and which will have a term of 6 years; and

(ii) with respect to the members under subparagraph (A)(ii), which will have a term of 6 years and which will have a term of 7 years.


(C) A term established for a member under this paragraph shall be measured—

(i) from the date on which the member was originally appointed; or

(ii) in the case of a member serving for the unexpired portion of a term, from the appointment date of the individual who was originally appointed to serve for such term.


(d) A member may be removed by a majority of the Board (except the member subject to removal) only for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office. A member subject to removal shall be given notice and an opportunity for a hearing before the Board unless the member waives the opportunity in writing.

(e) While carrying out a member's duties (including travel), a member who is not an officer or employee of the United States Government is entitled to basic pay at a rate equal to the daily rate of basic pay payable for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule. Each member is entitled to travel expenses and per diem allowances under section 5703 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 900; Pub. L. 100–426, title I, §§101, 102(b), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1598, 1599; Pub. L. 103–283, title III, §312(e)(4)(A), July 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 1446.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
751(a) 31:52–3(a)(1), (3). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §4(a)–(d), 94 Stat. 29.
751(b) 31:52–3(a)(2), (4).
751(c) 31:52–3(b).
751(d) 31:52–3(c).
751(e) 31:52–3(d).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “The General Accounting Office has a General Accounting Office Personnel Appeals Board” are substituted for 31:52–3(a)(1)(1st sentence less words between parentheses) for consistency. The text of 31:52–3(a)(1)(1st sentence words between parentheses) is omitted because of the restatement. The words “in accordance with this subsection” and “as a member of the Board” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “a total of” are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words “to service as a member of the Board in order to enable the Board . . . under this section” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “under paragraph (1)” are omitted as surplus. The word “only” is added for clarity. In clause (1), the words “in a way” are substituted for “in the form . . . and according to the procedures” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “eligible to make such a submission under paragraph (4)”, “shall be eligible to submit a list of candidates to the Comptroller General under paragraph (2)(A)”, and “the membership of” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the word “management” is added for consistency. The words “under section 772 of this title” are added for clarity. The words “to consult with the Comptroller General” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “Except as provided in paragraph (2)” are omitted because of the restatement. The text of 31:52–3(b)(2) is omitted as executed. The words “of the Board” and 31:52–3(b)(4)(1st sentence) are omitted as surplus. The words “occurring before the expiration of a term of office” are substituted for “with respect to which such vacancy has occurred” for clarity. The words “or for 6 months after the term expires, whichever is earlier” are substituted for 31:52–3(b)(5)(words after comma) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), the words “of the Board . . . from the Board”, “the members of”, and “proposed action of” are omitted as surplus. The words “prior to any vote of the members of the Board under paragraph (1)(A)” are omitted as surplus. The words “unless the member waives the opportunity in writing” are substituted for 31:52–3(c)(2)(last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e), the words “While carrying out a member's duties” are substituted for “for each day such member is engaged in the actual performance of duties as a member of the Board” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “an officer or employee of” are substituted for “otherwise employed by” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “payable . . . under the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code” and 31:52–3(d)(2d sentence) are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the General Accounting Office Personnel Amendments Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 100–426, which was approved Sept. 9, 1988.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–283 inserted “or of the Architect of the Capitol, the Botanic Garden, or the Senate Restaurants,” after “Office”. See Application of Provisions Amended by Pub. L. 103–283 note below.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–426, §101(a), struck out par. (1) which required that Board appointees have 3 years full-time or part-time experience in adjudicating or arbitrating personnel matters, and redesignated pars. (2), (3), and (4) as (1), (2), and (3), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–426, §101(b), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “from a written list of candidates, submitted to the Comptroller General in a way and at the time the Comptroller General requires, by any organization the Comptroller General believes is composed primarily of individuals experienced in adjudicating or arbitrating personnel matters; and”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–426, §101(c)(1), (2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), the” for “The”, and substituted “5” for “3” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–426, §101(c)(3), added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–426, §102(b), substituted “basic pay at a rate equal to the daily rate of basic pay payable for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule” for “pay at a rate equal to the daily rate for GS–18”.

Application of Provisions Amended by Pub. L. 103–283

Pub. L. 104–1, title V, §504(c)(2), Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 41, provided that: “The provisions of sections 751, 753, and 755 of title 31, United States Code, amended by section 312(e) of the Architect of the Capitol Human Resources Act [Pub. L. 103–283], shall be applied and administered as if such section 312(e) [amending this section and sections 753 and 755 of this title and section 166b–7 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works] (and the amendments made by such section) had not been enacted.”

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§752. Chairman and General Counsel

(a) The General Accounting Office Personnel Appeals Board shall select one of its members as Chairman. The Chairman is the chief executive and administrative officer of the Board.

(b)(1) The Comptroller General shall appoint as General Counsel of the Board an individual the Chairman selects. The General Counsel serves at the pleasure of the Chairman.

(2) The Chairman shall fix the pay of the General Counsel. The rate of basic pay of the General Counsel may be not more than the maximum rate of basic pay payable for grade GS–16 of the General Schedule.

(3) The General Counsel shall—

(A) investigate an allegation about a prohibited personnel practice under section 732(b)(2) of this title to decide if there are reasonable grounds to believe the practice has occurred, exists, or will be taken by an officer or an employee of the General Accounting Office;

(B) investigate an allegation about a prohibited political activity under section 732(b)(3) of this title;

(C) investigate a matter under the jurisdiction of the Board if the Board or a member of the Board requests; and

(D) help the Board carry out its duties and powers.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 901; Pub. L. 100–426, title I, §102(a), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1599.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
752(a) 31:52–3(e). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §4(e)–(g), 94 Stat. 30.
752(b) 31:52–3(f), (g).

In subsection (a), the words “members of the” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “(hereinafter referred to as the ‘General Counsel’)” are omitted because of the restatement. The words “shall be eligible for reappointment and” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the word “annual” is added for clarity. The word “basic” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “payable . . . of the General Schedule” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3)(A), the words “to the extent necessary” are omitted as surplus. The words “officer or” are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (b)(3)(D), the word “otherwise” is omitted as surplus. The words “duties and powers” are substituted for “functions” for consistency.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–426 substituted “The rate of basic pay of the General Counsel may be not more than the maximum rate of basic pay payable for grade GS–16 of the General Schedule” for “The annual rate of basic pay of the General Counsel may be not more than the maximum rate for GS–15”.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§753. Duties and powers

(a) The General Accounting Office Personnel Appeals Board may consider and order corrective or disciplinary action in a case arising from—

(1) an officer or employee appeal about a removal, suspension for more than 14 days, reduction in grade or pay, or furlough of not more than 30 days;

(2) a prohibited personnel practice under section 732(b)(2) of this title;

(3) a prohibited political activity under section 732(b)(3) of this title;

(4) a decision of an appropriate unit of employees for collective bargaining;

(5) an election or certification of a collective bargaining representative;

(6) a matter appealable to the Board under the labor-management relations program under section 732(e)(2) of this title, including a labor practice prohibited under section 732(e)(1) of this title;

(7) an action involving discrimination prohibited under section 732(f)(1) of this title;

(8) an issue about Office personnel the Comptroller General by regulation decides the Board shall resolve; and

(9) an action involving discrimination prohibited under section 312(e)(2) 1 of the Architect of the Capitol Human Resources Act.


(b) The Board has no authority to issue a stay of any reduction in force action.

(c) The Board may delegate to a member or a panel of members the authority to act under subsection (a) of this section. A decision of a member or panel under subsection (a) is deemed to be a final decision of the Board unless the Board reconsiders the decision under subsection (d) of this section.

(d) On motion of a party or on its own initiative, the Board may reconsider a decision under subsection (a) of this section by the 30th day after the decision is made.

(e) The Board shall prescribe regulations—

(1) providing for officer and employee appeals consistent with sections 7701 and 7702 of title 5; and

(2) on the operating procedure of the Board.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 901; Pub. L. 103–283, title III, §312(e)(4)(B), July 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 1446; Pub. L. 104–53, title II, §213, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 535.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
753(a) 31:52–3(h). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §4(h), (j), (k), (m), 94 Stat. 30, 31.
753(b) 31:52–3(j).
753(c) 31:52–3(k).
753(d) 31:52–3(m).

In the section, the words “officer or” are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “decide” and “(where appropriate)” are omitted as surplus. In clause (6), the words “relations program” are substituted for “system” for consistency. In clause (8), the words “most appropriately” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “delegate . . . to act” are substituted for “designate . . . to take any action which the Board is authorized to take” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “individual” and “reopened and” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “reopen and” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), the words “the principles of” are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

Section 312(e)(2) of the Architect of the Capitol Human Resources Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(9), was classified to section 166b–7(e)(2) of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and was repealed by Pub. L. 104–1, title V, §504(c)(1), Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 41, except as provided in section 1435 of Title 2, The Congress.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–53, §213(2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–53, §213(1), (3), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c) and in second sentence substituted “under subsection (d)” for “under subsection (c)”. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 104–53, §213(1), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

1994—Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 103–283 added par. (9). See Application of Provisions Amended by Pub. L. 103–283 note below.

Application of Provisions Amended by Pub. L. 103–283

Provisions of this section amended by section 312(e) of Pub. L. 103–283 to be applied and administered as if section 312(e) and the amendments made by section 312(e) had not been enacted, see section 504(c)(2) of Pub. L. 104–1, set out as a note under section 751 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 754, 755 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§754. Action by the Comptroller General

When the Comptroller General has authority, the Comptroller General promptly shall carry out action the General Accounting Office Personnel Appeals Board orders under section 753 of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 902.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
754 31:52–3(i). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §4(i), 94 Stat. 31.

The words “to do so” and “corrective” are omitted as surplus. The words “under section 753 of this title” are added for clarity.

§755. Judicial review

(a) A final decision under section 753(a)(1)–(3), (6),,1 (7) or (9) of this title may be reviewed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Chapter 158 of title 28 applies to a review under this subchapter, except the petition for review shall be filed by the 30th day after the petitioner receives notice of the decision. The court shall set aside a final decision the court decides is—

(1) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not consistent with law;

(2) not made consistent with required procedures; or

(3) unsupported by substantial evidence.


(b) If an officer, employee, applicant for employment, or employee of the Architect of the Capitol, the Botanic Garden, or the Senate Restaurants is the prevailing party in a proceeding under this section, and the decision is based on a finding of discrimination prohibited under section 732(f) of this title or under section 312(e)(2) 2 of the Architect of the Capitol Human Resources Act, attorney's fees may be allowed by the court in accordance with the standards prescribed under section 706(k) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 98–216, §1(1), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 100–426, title I, §103(a), (b), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1599; Pub. L. 103–283, title III, §312(e)(4)(C), July 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 1446.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1982 Act
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
755 31:52–3(l). Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–191, §4(l), 94 Stat. 31.

In the section, before clause (1), the first sentence is substituted for 31:52–3(l)(1)(1st sentence) for consistency with other titles of the United States Code. The word “review” is substituted for “appeal” for consistency. The words “the procedures of”, “any other provision of law”, “of a final decision of the Board . . . the date . . . of the Board”, and “In any case filed under paragraph (1) . . . review the record and” are omitted as surplus. The words “final decision” are substituted for “agency action, findings, or conclusions” for consistency. Clause (2) is substituted for 31:52–3(l)(2)(B) to eliminate unnecessary words.

1984 Act

This clarifies section 755 by conforming it more closely to the language of the source provision of the section.

References in Text

Section 312(e)(2) of the Architect of the Capitol Human Resources Act, referred to in subsec. (b), was classified to section 166b–7(e)(2) of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and was repealed by Pub. L. 104–1, title V, §504(c)(1), Jan. 23, 1995, 109 Stat. 41, except as provided in section 1435 of Title 2, The Congress.

Section 706(k) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (b), is classified to section 2000e–5(k) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–283, §312(e)(4)(C)(i), substituted “, (7) or (9)” for “or (7)” in introductory provisions. See Application of Provisions Amended by Pub. L. 103–283 note below.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–283, §312(e)(4)(C)(ii), substituted “applicant for employment, or employee of the Architect of the Capitol, the Botanic Garden, or the Senate Restaurants” for “or applicant for employment”, and inserted “or under section 312(e)(2) of the Architect of the Capitol Human Resources Act” after “of this title”. See Application of Provisions Amended by Pub. L. 103–283 note below.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–426, §103(a), (b)(1), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and substituted “Federal Circuit” for “District of Columbia Circuit or by the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which the petitioner resides”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–426, §103(b)(2), added subsec. (b).

1984—Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “A final decision under section 753(a)(1)–(3), (6), or (7) of this title may be reviewed by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or by the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which the petitioner resides” for “A person may apply for review of a final decision under section 753(a)(1)–(3), (6), or (7) of this title by filing a petition for review with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or with the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which the person resides” in provisions preceding par. (1).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 103(c) of Pub. L. 100–426 provided that: “Nothing in any of the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to an appeal pending on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 9, 1988].”

Application of Provisions Amended by Section 312(e) of Pub. L. 103–283

Provisions of this section amended by section 312(e) of Pub. L. 103–283 to be applied and administered as if section 312(e) and the amendments made by section 312(e) had not been enacted, see section 504(c)(2) of Pub. L. 104–1, set out as a note under section 751 of this title.

1 So in original. Second comma probably should follow “(7)”.

2 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER V—ANNUITIES

§771. Definitions

In this subchapter—

(1) “dependent child” means an unmarried dependent child (including a stepchild or adopted child) who is—

(A) under 18 years of age;

(B) incapable of self-support because of physical or mental disability; or

(C) between 18 and 22 years of age and is a student regularly pursuing a full-time course of study or training in residence in a high school, trade school, technical or vocational institute, junior college, college, university, or comparable recognized educational institution. For the purposes of this subchapter, a child whose 22nd birthday occurs before July 1 or after August 31 of a calendar year, and while such child is regularly pursuing such a course of study or training, is deemed to have become 22 years of age on the first day of July after that birthday. A child who is a student is deemed not to have ceased to be a student during an interim period between school years if the interim period is not more than 5 months and if such child shows to the satisfaction of the General Counsel of the General Accounting Office that such child has a bona fide intention of continuing in the same or a different school during the school semester (or other period into which the school year is divided) immediately after the interim period.


(2) “surviving spouse” means a surviving spouse of an individual who was a Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General and the spouse—

(A) was married to the individual for at least 1 year immediately before the individual died; or

(B) has not remarried before age 55 and is the parent of issue by the marriage.


(3) service as a Comptroller General equals the number of years and complete months an individual is Comptroller General.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 100–426, title II, §202, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
771(1), (2) 31:43b(g). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(g), (p); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 198, 200.
771(3) 31:43b(p).

In this subchapter, the words “surviving spouse”, “spouse”, “surviving spouse's”, and “parent” are substituted for “widow”, “wife”, “surviving widow's”, and “mother”, respectively, because of 5:7202(c).

In clause (3), the words “or retired Comptroller General” are omitted as executed because a retired Comptroller General could elect survivor benefits and include retirement service only if the Comptroller General had retired by July 13, 1959. The word “total” is omitted as surplus. The words “complete months” are substituted for “twelfth parts thereof, excluding from the aggregate the fractional part of a month, if any” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “an individual is Comptroller General” are added for clarity.

Amendments

1988—Par. (1)(C). Pub. L. 100–426, §202(a), added subpar. (C).

Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 100–426, §202(b)(1), substituted “1 year” for “2 years”.

Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 100–426, §202(b)(2), inserted “before age 55” after “remarried”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–426 effective after end of 60-day period beginning Sept. 9, 1988, with certain exceptions, see section 208 of Pub. L. 100–426, set out as a note under section 772 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 775, 776 of this title.

§772. Annuity of the Comptroller General

(a) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a Comptroller General serving a complete term as Comptroller General or who retires under section 703(e)(1) of this title is entitled to receive an annuity for life equal to the pay the Comptroller General is receiving on completion of the term or at the time of retirement. An annuity of a Comptroller General who completes a term before becoming 65 years of age is reduced by .25 percent for each complete month the Comptroller General is under 65 years of age.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a Comptroller General becoming permanently disabled shall be retired and is entitled to receive an annuity for life equal to—

(1) the pay of the Comptroller General at the time of retirement if the Comptroller General served at least 10 years; or

(2) 50 percent of the pay if the Comptroller General served less than 10 years.


(c) A Comptroller General who, when appointed, is or has been subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 or chapter 84 of title 5 remains subject to such subchapter III or such chapter 84 (as the case may be) unless the Comptroller General elects in writing to receive an annuity under this section. An election is irrevocable and must be made within 10 years and 60 days after the start of service as Comptroller General. A Comptroller General electing to receive an annuity under this section is entitled to a refund of the lump-sum credit to the account of the Comptroller General in the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund.

(d) A Comptroller General (except a Comptroller General remaining subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5) shall—

(1) deposit with the General Accounting Office for redeposit in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts as a contribution to the annuity—

(A) 3.5 percent of the pay received as Comptroller General before deductions are made under clause (2)(A) of this subsection plus 3 percent interest compounded every December 31 on the amount to be deposited, if electing survivor benefits under this subchapter; or

(B) 8 percent of the pay received as Comptroller General before deductions are made under clause (2)(B) of this subsection plus 3 percent interest compounded every December 31 on the amount to be deposited, if not electing survivor benefits under this subchapter; and


(2) have—

(A) 3.5 percent of the pay received as Comptroller General deducted as a contribution to the annuity if electing survivor benefits under this subchapter; or

(B) 8 percent of the pay received as Comptroller General deducted as a contribution to the annuity if not electing survivor benefits under this subchapter.


(e) A Comptroller General receiving benefits under this section may not receive retirement or disability benefits under another law of the United States.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 100–426, title II, §203, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
772(a) 31:43(2d par. 1st sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §303(2d par. 1st, 2d, last sentences); added July 28, 1953, ch. 256, 67 Stat. 229.
772(b) 31:43(2d par. 2d sentence).
772(c) 31:43(3d par. 1st, 2d sentences, 3d sentence words before comma). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §303(3d par. 1st–3d sentences); added July 26, 1966, Pub. L. 89–520, §1, 80 Stat. 329; Oct. 25, 1978, Pub. L. 95–512, §4(b)(1), 92 Stat. 1800.
772(d) 31:43(2d par. 4th sentence, 3d par. last sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §303(2d par. 4th sentence, 3d par. last sentence); added Oct. 25, 1978, Pub. L. 95–512, §4(a), (b)(2), 92 Stat. 1800.
772(e) 31:43(2d par. last sentence, 3d par. 3d sentence words after comma).

In subsections (a) and (b), the words “Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section” are added for clarity. The words “is entitled to receive” are substituted for “shall receive” as being more precise and for consistency with title 5.

In subsection (a), the words “under section 703(e)(1) of this title” are added for clarity. The words “in his office” are omitted as surplus. The words “before becoming 65 years of age” are added for clarity. The words “at such completion” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “from performing his duties” are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (c) and (d), the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “person appointed to the Office of Comptroller General” and “person who is appointed to the Office of Comptroller General” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the words “Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph of this section” are omitted as surplus. The words “after January 1, 1966” are omitted as executed. The words “receive an annuity under this section” are substituted for “and no deduction from his salary shall be made under the preceding paragraph . . . be subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph of this section” for clarity and because of the restatement.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words “after October 25, 1978” are omitted as executed. The words “(except a Comptroller General remaining subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5)” are added for clarity. In clauses (1) and (2), the word “pay” is substituted for “salary” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “a sum equal to” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), before subclause (A), the words “makes such an election under this paragraph” are omitted as surplus. The word “redeposit” is substituted for “covering” for clarity. The words “the general fund of” and “authorized under the preceding paragraph” are omitted as surplus. In subclauses (A) and (B), the words “before deductions are made under clause (2)(A) of this subsection” and “before deductions are made under clause (2)(B) of this subsection” are substituted for “prior to the date current deductions begin from his salary” for clarity. The words “per annum” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words “authorized by this paragraph” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “person” for clarity.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–426, §203(1), substituted “retires under section 703(e)(1) of this title” for “is retired for age under section 703(e)(1) of this title after serving at least 10 years”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–426, §203(2), substituted “subchapter III of chapter 83 or chapter 84 of title 5 remains subject to such subchapter III or such chapter 84 (as the case may be)” for “subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 remains subject to subchapter III”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 208 of title II of Pub. L. 100–426 provided that: “The amendments made by this title [amending this section and sections 703, 771, 773, 774, 776, and 777 of this title] shall be effective after the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 9, 1988], except that an individual who, as of such date of enactment, is receiving an annuity under subchapter V of chapter 7 of title 31, United States Code, as a retired Comptroller General (and the spouse and any dependent children of such individual who may survive such individual) shall remain subject to the provisions of such subchapter, as in effect immediately before such date, if the retired Comptroller General makes an election under this section. An election under this section shall be ineffective unless it is made in writing and received by the General Counsel of the General Accounting Office before the end of the 60-day period referred to in the preceding sentence.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 735, 773, 774, 775, 777 of this title.

§773. Election of survivor benefits

(a) To provide survivor benefits, a Comptroller General may elect in writing to reduce the pay and annuity of the Comptroller General. An election shall be made within 6 months of taking office or, if an election is made under section 772(c) of this title, by the 60th day after making an election under section 772(c).

(b) A Comptroller General electing to provide survivor benefits shall—

(1) have 4.5 percent of the pay received as Comptroller General and 5 percent of the annuity of the Comptroller General deducted; and

(2) deposit with the General Accounting Office for redeposit in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts—

(A) 4.5 percent of the pay and annuity received as Comptroller General before the deductions begin;

(B) 4.5 percent of basic pay received as a member of Congress or for other civilian service on which a surviving spouse's annuity is computed under section 774(d) of this title; and

(C) 4 percent interest before January 1, 1948, and 3 percent interest after December 31, 1947, compounded every December 31, on amounts deposited.


(c) This subchapter does not prevent a surviving spouse or dependent child from receiving another annuity while receiving an annuity under section 774 of this title. However, service used in computing an annuity under section 774 may not be used in computing the other annuity.

(d) The reduction in the Comptroller General's annuity under subsection (b)(1) for the purpose of providing survivor benefits shall be terminated for each full month after the death of the spouse.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 903; Pub. L. 100–426, title II, §204, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
773(a) 31:43b(a). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(a); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 197; July 26, 1966, Pub. L. 89–520, §2, 80 Stat. 329.
773(b) 31:43b(b), (c). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(b), (c); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 197; Oct. 25, 1978, Pub. L. 95–512, §2(1), 92 Stat. 1799.
773(c) 31:43b(q). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(q); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 200.

In subsections (a) and (b), the word “pay” is substituted for “salary”, and the word “annuity” is substituted for “retirement pay”, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the words “To provide” are substituted for “for purposes of” for clarity. The words “or in the case of the Comptroller General currently in office and any retired Comptroller General, within six months after July 13, 1959” are omitted as executed. The words “as hereinafter provided” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “of the United States” are omitted as surplus. The words “or retired Comptroller General” are omitted as executed. The word “provide” is substituted for “receive” for clarity and consistency. In clause (2), before subclause (A), the word “redeposit” is substituted for “covering” for clarity. The words “the general fund of” and “a sum equal to” are omitted as surplus. In subclause (A), the words “the date current . . . from his salary and retirement pay” and 31:43b(c)(last sentence) are omitted as surplus. In subclause (B), the words “salary . . . or compensation for service” are omitted as surplus. The words “member of Congress” are substituted for “Senator, Representative, Delegate, or Resident Commissioner in the Congress of the United States” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the words “be construed to” and “eligible therefore” are omitted as surplus. The words “receiving another annuity while” are substituted for “simultaneously . . . and any annuity . . . to which she would otherwise be entitled under any other law” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “(including old age and survivor benefits)” and “without regard to this section” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–426, §204(1), inserted “5 percent of the” before “annuity”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–426, §204(2), substituted “3 percent” for “4.5 percent”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–426, §204(3), added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–426 effective after end of 60-day period beginning Sept. 9, 1988, with certain exceptions, see section 208 of Pub. L. 100–426, set out as a note under section 772 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 774, 775, 776, 778 of this title.

§774. Survivor annuities

(a) In this section—

(1) “allowable military service” means honorable active service of not more than 5 years in an armed force (including service in the National Guard when ordered to active duty for the United States Government), when the service is not creditable in computing another annuity.

(2) “other prior allowable service” means civilian service as an officer or employee of the Government or District of Columbia government not covered by subsection (d)(1) of this section.

(3) “congressional employee” has the same meaning given that term in section 2107 of title 5.


(b) A survivor annuity shall be paid under this subchapter when a Comptroller General—

(1) makes an election under section 773 of this title;

(2) dies in office or while receiving an annuity under section 772 of this title;

(3) had at least 18 months of civilian service at death computed under subsections (a) and (d) of this section; and

(4) had deductions or deposits under section 773 of this title made for the last 18 months of civilian service.


(c) If the Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General is survived—

(1) only by a spouse, the surviving spouse shall receive an annuity computed under subsection (d) of this section beginning on the death of the Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General or when the spouse is 50 years of age, whichever is later;

(2) by a spouse and a dependent child, the surviving spouse shall receive an immediate annuity computed under subsection (d) of this section and each dependent child shall receive an immediate annuity equal to the smaller of—

(A) 10 percent of the average annual pay computed under subsection (d)(1) of this section; or

(B) 20 percent of the average annual pay computed under subsection (d)(1) of this section, divided by the number of dependent children; or


(3) only by a dependent child, each dependent child shall receive an immediate annuity equal to the smaller of—

(A) the annuity a surviving spouse would be entitled to receive under clause (2) of this subsection, divided by the number of dependent children;

(B) 20 percent of the average annual pay computed under subsection (d)(1) of this section; or

(C) 40 percent of the average annual pay computed under subsection (d)(1) of this section, divided by the number of dependent children.


(d) The annuity of a surviving spouse is equal to—

(1) 1.5 percent of the average annual pay (based on the 3 years of highest pay received as Comptroller General and other prior allowable service) times—

(A) the number of years of—

(i) service as Comptroller General or a member of Congress; and

(ii) prior allowable military service; and


(B) not more than 15 years of prior allowable service as a congressional employee; plus


(2) .75 percent of the average pay computed under clause (1) of this subsection times the number of years of other allowable service.


(e) A surviving spouse's annuity may not be more than 50 percent nor less than 25 percent of the average annual pay computed under subsection (d)(1) of this section. If a Comptroller General does not make the deposit under section 773(b) of this title, a surviving spouse's annuity shall be credited with the service during which a deposit was not made, unless the spouse elects not to have the service credited. However, the annuity shall be reduced by 10 percent of the amount of the unpaid deposit, computed on the date the Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General dies.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 904; Pub. L. 100–426, title II, §205, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
774(a) 31:43b(o). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(d), (o); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 197, 200.
774(b), (c) 31:43b(e). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(e), (n); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 197, 200; Oct. 25, 1978, Pub. L. 95–512, §2(2)–(4), 92 Stat. 1799.
774(d) 31:43b(n)(less words after last comma).
774(e) 31:43b(d).
  31:43b(n)(words after last comma).

In subsection (a)(1), the words “in an armed force” are substituted for “in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard” for consistency with title 10. The word “only” is omitted as surplus. The word “Government” is added for consistency. The word “computing” is added for clarity. The word “annuity” is substituted for “retirement or retired pay” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “under any other provision of law” are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (a)(3) is substituted for 31:43b(o)(1st sentence) for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “A survivor annuity shall be paid under this subchapter when” are added for clarity. The words “or retired Comptroller General” are omitted as executed. In clause (1), the words “made an election under section 733 of this title” are substituted for “has elected to bring himself within the purview of this section” for clarity. In clause (2), the word “annuity” is substituted for “retirement pay” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. In clause (4), the words “salary” and “actually” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “only by a spouse” are substituted for “by a widow but not by a dependent child” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2), before subclause (A), the words “or children” and “in an amount” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(3), before subclause (A), the words “only by a dependent child” are substituted for “no surviving widow but leaves a surviving dependent child or children” to eliminate unnecessary words. In subclause (A), the words “the amount of” are omitted as surplus. The words “a surviving spouse” are substituted for “such widow . . . had she survived” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words “of a Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General who has elected to bring himself within the purview of this section” are omitted as surplus. In clauses (1) and (2), the word “pay” is substituted for “salary” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. In clause (1), before subclause (A), the words “by him for service . . . service in which his” are omitted as surplus. In subclause (A)(i), the words “member of Congress” are substituted for “Senator, Representative, Delegate, or Resident Commissioner in the Congress of the United States” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “his years of service as” and “of the United States” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words “and shall be further reduced in accordance with subsection (d) of this section if applicable” are omitted because of the restatement. The words “or a retired Comptroller General” are omitted as executed. The words “during which a deposit was not made” are substituted for “rendered” for clarity. The word “unpaid” is added for clarity.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 100–426, §205(1), substituted “18 months” for “5 years”.

Subsec. (c)(2), (3). Pub. L. 100–426, §205(2), amended pars. (2) and (3) generally. Prior to amendment, pars. (2) and (3) read as follows:

“(2) by a spouse and a dependent child, the surviving spouse shall receive an immediate annuity under subsection (d) of this section and each dependent child shall receive an immediate annuity equal to the smaller of—

“(A) $1,548; or

“(B) $4,644 divided by the number of dependent children; or

“(3) only by a dependent child, each dependent child shall receive an immediate annuity equal to the smaller of—

“(A) the annuity a surviving spouse would be entitled to receive under clause (2) of this subsection divided by the number of dependent children;

“(B) $1,860; or

“(C) $5,580 divided by the number of dependent children.”

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 100–426, §205(3), substituted “1.5 percent” for “1.25 percent” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–426, §205(4), substituted “more than 50 percent nor less than 25 percent” for “more than 40 percent”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–426 effective after end of 60-day period beginning Sept. 9, 1988, with certain exceptions, see section 208 of Pub. L. 100–426, set out as a note under section 772 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 773, 775, 776, 777, 778 of this title.

§775. Refunds

(a) A Comptroller General separated from office before becoming entitled to receive an annuity under section 772 of this title is entitled to a lump-sum refund of the amount deducted from pay or deposited as a contribution under section 772, plus 3 percent interest on the amount compounded every December 31.

(b) A Comptroller General making an election under section 773 of this title who is separated from office before becoming entitled to an annuity under section 772 of this title is entitled to a lump-sum refund of the amount deducted under section 773 of this title, plus 4 percent interest before January 1, 1948, and 3 percent interest after December 31, 1947, compounded every December 31 until the separation date.

(c) A lump-sum refund of the amounts deducted under sections 772 and 773 of this title, plus interest of 4 percent before January 1, 1948, and 3 percent after December 31, 1947, compounded every December 31 until the date of death, shall be paid under subsection (d) of this section if—

(1) a Comptroller General dies in office before completing 5 years of civilian service under section 774 of this title or after completing 5 years of civilian service but without a survivor entitled to an annuity under section 774(b) and (c) of this title; or

(2) if a retired Comptroller General dies without a survivor entitled to an annuity under section 774(b) and (c) of this title.


(d) If a Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General dies before a refund is made under this section, the refund shall be paid in the following order of precedence:

(1) to a beneficiary the Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General designated in writing if the designation was received by the General Accounting Office before the death of the Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General.

(2) to a surviving spouse.

(3) to the children and to a descendant of a deceased child by representation.

(4) to the parents equally or, if only one surviving parent, to that survivor.

(5) to the executor or administrator of the estate of the Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General.

(6) to the next of kin that the General Counsel of the General Accounting Office decides is entitled to the refund under the laws of the domicile of the Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General at the time of death.


(e) The General Counsel is not subject to section 771(1) and (2) of this title when making a decision about a surviving spouse or child under subsection (c) or (d) of this section.

(f) If the annuities of all individuals entitled to survivor annuities under this subchapter end before the amount of annuities paid equals the amount deducted under sections 772 and 773 of this title, plus interest of 4 percent before January 1, 1948, and 3 percent after December 31, 1947, compounded every December 31 until the date of death, the remainder shall be paid under subsection (d) of this section.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 905.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
775(a) 31:43(last par. 1st sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §303(last par.); added Oct. 25, 1978, Pub. L. 95–512, §4(c), 92 Stat. 1801.
775(b) 31:43b(i). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(i), (j)(less last 13 words before colon), (k); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 198.
775(c)–(e) 31:43(last par. last sentence).
  31:43b(j)(less last 13 words before colon).
775(f) 31:43b(k).

In subsections (a) and (b), the word “total” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a), the word “pay” is substituted for “salary” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “by him” and “to his annuity” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “who has elected to bring himself within the purview of” are omitted as surplus. The word “annuity” is substituted for “retirement pay” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “A lump-sum refund of the amounts deducted under sections 772 and 773 of this title” are substituted for “total amount deducted from his salary and retirement pay” for clarity. The words “under subsection (d) of this section” are added because of the restatement. The words “to the person or persons surviving at the date title to payment arises” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words before clause (1) are included for clarity. In clauses (2)–(4) and (6), the words “of such Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General” are omitted as surplus. In clause (5), the words “duly appointed” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words “of a Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General” are omitted as surplus. The words “is not subject to” are substituted for “shall be made . . . without regard to the definitions of these terms in” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (f), the word “individuals” is substituted for “persons” for consistency. The word “aggregate” is omitted as surplus. The words “under sections 772 and 773 of this title” are substituted for “total . . . from the salary and retirement pay of a Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General” for clarity and consistency. The word “under” is substituted for “in the order of precedence prescribed in” to eliminate unnecessary words.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 735, 776, 778 of this title.

§776. Payment of survivor benefits

(a) An annuity under section 774 of this title accrues monthly and is paid monthly on the first business day of the month after the month in which an annuity accrues.

(b)(1) A surviving spouse's annuity ends when the spouse remarries before age 55 or dies.

(2) A dependent child's annuity ends when the child becomes 18 years of age (unless the child is then a student as described in section 771(1)(C) of this title), marries, or dies, whichever is earliest. However, if a child is not self-supporting because of a physical or mental disability, an annuity ends when the child recovers, marries, or dies.

(3) If a surviving spouse dies and a dependent child survives, the child's annuity is recomputed under section 774(c)(3) of this title.

(4) When a dependent child's annuity ends, the annuity of another dependent child is recomputed as if the child whose annuity has ended did not survive a Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General.

(c) An accrued annuity unpaid when the annuity of a survivor ends—

(1) for a reason except death, shall be paid to the survivor; and

(2) when a survivor dies, shall be paid in the following order of precedence:

(A) to the executor or administrator of the estate of the individual.

(B) if there is no executor or administrator, then after 30 days after the date of death, to an individual the General Counsel of the General Accounting Office decides is legally entitled to the payment.


(d)(1) A payment under subsection (c)(2)(B) of this section or section 775(d) of this title is a bar to recovery by another individual.

(2) A benefit under this section and sections 773–775 of this title is not assignable or subject to legal process.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 906; Pub. L. 100–426, title II, §206, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1601.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
776(a) 31:43b(m)(1st sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(f), (j)(last 13 words before colon), (l), (m); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 198, 199.
776(b) 31:43b(f).
776(c) 31:43b(l)(words before last comma).
776(d)(1) 31:43b(j)(last 13 words before colon).
  31:43b(l)(words after last comma).
776(d)(2) 31:43b(m)(last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words “due and” and “or other period” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the word “dependent” is added for clarity.

In subsections (b)(3) and (c), the words “of a Comptroller General or retired Comptroller General” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3) and (4), the words “and paid” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2)(A), the words “duly appointed” are omitted as surplus. The word “individual” is substituted for “person” for consistency.

In subsection (c)(2)(B), the words “payment may be made” and “the expiration of . . . from” are omitted as surplus. The words “to the payment” are substituted for “thereto” for clarity.

In subsection (d)(2), the words “A benefit” are substituted for “None of the moneys mentioned” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “either in law or equity” and “execution, levy, attachment, garnishment, or other” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–426, §206(1), inserted “before age 55” after “remarries”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–426, §206(2), inserted “(unless the child is then a student as described in section 771(1)(C) of this title)” after “age”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–426 effective after end of 60-day period beginning Sept. 9, 1988, with certain exceptions, see section 208 of Pub. L. 100–426, set out as a note under section 772 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 778 of this title.

§777. Annuity increases

(a) An annuity payable under this subchapter shall be increased at the same time that, and by the same percent as the percentage by which, annuities are increased under section 8340(b) of title 5.

(b) An annuity under section 772 of this title may not be more than the basic pay of the Comptroller General. A surviving spouse's annuity may be increased under this section without regard to any limitation set forth in section 774(e) of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 906; Pub. L. 100–426, title II, §207, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1601.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
777(a) 31:43c(a)(words before colon), (1). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §320; added Oct. 25, 1978, Pub. L. 95–512, §3, 92 Stat. 1799.
777(b) 31:43c(a)(2).
777(c) 31:43c(a)(3), (b).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the text of 31:43c(a)(words before colon) is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “in any year” and “commencing” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “per centum” and “by the Comptroller General” are omitted as surplus. The words “Civil Service Commission” (subsequently changed to “Office of Personnel Management” because of section 101 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1978 (eff. Jan. 1, 1979, 92 Stat. 3783)) are omitted because of the restatement of section 8340(b) of title 5 by section 1702(a) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “by reason of the application of subsection (a) of this section” and “annual” are omitted as surplus. The words “basic pay” are substituted for “compensation” for consistency with other titles of the United States Code.

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–426 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows:

“(a) The Comptroller General shall compute—

“(1) on January 1 of each year, or within a reasonable time after January 1, the percent change in the Consumer Price Index between June and December of the prior year; and

“(2) on July 1 of each year, or within a reasonable time after July 1, the percent change in the Index between June of the same year and December of the prior year.

“(b) If a percent change computed under subsection (a)(1) of this section indicates a rise in the Index, an annuity payable under this subchapter and beginning before March 2 shall increase on March 1 by the percent change computed under subsection (a)(1), adjusted to the nearest .1 percent. If a percent change computed under subsection (a)(2) of this section indicates a rise in the Index, an annuity payable under this subchapter and beginning before September 2 shall increase on September 1 by the percent change computed under subsection (a)(2), adjusted to the nearest .1 percent.

“(c)(1) An increase under this section may not be more than an increase prescribed under section 8340(b) of title 5.

“(2) An annuity under section 772 of this title may not be more than the basic pay of the Comptroller General.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–426 effective after end of 60-day period beginning Sept. 9, 1988, with certain exceptions, see section 208 of Pub. L. 100–426, set out as a note under section 772 of this title.

§778. Dependency and disability decisions

The General Counsel of the General Accounting Office shall decide a question of dependency, disability, or dependency and disability under sections 773–776 of this title. A decision under this section is final.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 907.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
778 31:43b(h). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(h); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 198.

The words “arising” and “and conclusive” are omitted as surplus.

§779. Use of appropriations

Annuities and refunds under this subchapter shall be paid by the Comptroller General from appropriations of the General Accounting Office.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 907.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
779 31:43(2d par. 3d sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §303(2d par. 3d sentence); added July 28, 1953, ch. 256, 67 Stat. 229.
  31:43b(r). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §319(r); added July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–87, 73 Stat. 200.

The words “of deposits” in 31:43b(r) are omitted as surplus.

SUBCHAPTER VI—PROPERTY MANAGEMENT

§781. Authority over the General Accounting Office Building

(a) The Comptroller General shall have exclusive custody and control over the building located at 441 G Street, N.W., in the District of Columbia, that is generally known as the General Accounting Office Building, including operation, maintenance, protection, alteration, repair, and assignment of space therein. Such custody and control shall also extend to any machinery, equipment, spare parts and tools located in and usable for the operation and maintenance of the General Accounting Office Building. For the purposes of securing approval of any prospectus detailing proposed alterations of the General Accounting Office Building, as required by section 7 of the Public Buildings Act of 1959, as amended (40 U.S.C. 606), the Comptroller General shall perform the functions assigned to the Administrator of General Services by that section.

(b) Upon request of the Comptroller General, the Administrator of General Services shall provide, to the extent resources are available, any necessary services for the protection of the property and persons in the General Accounting Office Building, including the provision of special police, responding to and investigating incidents, and the monitoring of the perimeter security system. Such services may be provided with or without reimbursement as the Comptroller General and the Administrator may agree.

(c)(1) The Comptroller General is authorized to enter into agreements or contracts to acquire property or services on such terms and conditions and in such a manner as he deems necessary and without regard to section 3709 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5); except that the Comptroller General may not acquire real property unless specifically authorized by law. In exercising the authority granted by this section, the Comptroller General shall obtain full and open competition in accordance with the principles and purposes of the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984.

(2) To the extent that funds are otherwise available for obligation, agreements or contracts for utility services may be made for periods not exceeding 10 years.

(3) The Comptroller General may make advance, progress, and other payments which relate to agreements or contracts entered into under authority of this section, without regard to the provisions of section 3324(a) and (b) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 100–545, §1, Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2727.)

References in Text

The Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is title VII of Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1175. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1984 Amendments note set out under section 251 of Title 41, Public Contracts, and Tables.

§782. Leasing of space in the General Accounting Office Building

The Comptroller General is authorized to lease or otherwise provide space and services within the General Accounting Office Building to persons, both public and private, or to any department, agency or instrumentality of the United States Government upon such terms and conditions as the Comptroller General deems necessary to protect the public interest. The Comptroller General shall establish a rental rate for such leased space equivalent to the prevailing commercial rate for comparable space devoted to a similar purpose in the vicinity of the General Accounting Office Building. Additionally, the Comptroller General may make available, on occasion, or may lease at such rates and on such other terms and conditions as the Comptroller General deems to be in the public interest, auditoriums, meeting rooms, and lobbies of the General Accounting Office Building to persons, firms, or organizations engaged in cultural, educational, or recreational activities (as defined in section 105 of the Public Buildings Cooperative Use Act of 1976 (40 U.S.C. 612a)). The Comptroller General will consult with the Administrator of General Services and will give priority to Federal agencies in filling available space within the General Accounting Office Building. Payments for space or services may be made in advance or by way of reimbursement and shall be deposited to a special account and shall be available for expenditure for operation, maintenance, protection, alteration, or repair of the General Accounting Office Building in such amounts as are specified in annual appropriation Acts without regard to fiscal year limitations.

(Added Pub. L. 100–545, §1, Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2728; amended Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(D), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1362.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “612a)).” for “612a).”

Payments of Reimbursements Incident to Operation of General Accounting Office Building

Pub. L. 101–520, title II, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2275, provided in part that “notwithstanding the provisions of section 782 of title 31, United States Code, hereinafter any payments of reimbursements received incident to the operation of the General Accounting Office Building shall be credited to the appropriation currently available to the General Accounting Office and remain available until expended, and not more than $5,915,000 of such funds shall be available for use in fiscal year 1991”.

§783. Rules and regulations

(a) The Comptroller General is authorized to make all needful rules and regulations for the Government of the General Accounting Office Building, and to annex to such rules and regulations such reasonable penalties, within the limits prescribed in subsection (b), as will ensure their enforcement. Such rules and regulations shall be posted and kept posted in a conspicuous place on such Federal property.

(b) Whoever shall violate any rule or regulation promulgated pursuant to subsection (a) shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than 6 months, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 100–545, §1, Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2728.)

CHAPTER 9—AGENCY CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICERS

Sec.
901.
Establishment of agency Chief Financial Officers.
902.
Authority and functions of agency Chief Financial Officers.
903.
Establishment of agency Deputy Chief Financial Officers.

        

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in title 7 section 6911; title 10 section 135.

§901. Establishment of agency Chief Financial Officers

(a) There shall be within each agency described in subsection (b) an agency Chief Financial Officer. Each agency Chief Financial Officer shall—

(1) for those agencies described in subsection (b)(1)—

(A) be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; or

(B) be designated by the President, in consultation with the head of the agency, from among officials of the agency who are required by law to be so appointed;


(2) for those agencies described in subsection (b)(2)—

(A) be appointed by the head of the agency;

(B) be in the competitive service or the senior executive service; and

(C) be career appointees; and


(3) be appointed or designated, as applicable, from among individuals who possess demonstrated ability in general management of, and knowledge of and extensive practical experience in financial management practices in large governmental or business entities.


(b)(1) The agencies referred to in subsection (a)(1) are the following:

(A) The Department of Agriculture.

(B) The Department of Commerce.

(C) The Department of Defense.

(D) The Department of Education.

(E) The Department of Energy.

(F) The Department of Health and Human Services.

(G) The Department of Housing and Urban Development.

(H) The Department of the Interior.

(I) The Department of Justice.

(J) The Department of Labor.

(K) The Department of State.

(L) The Department of Transportation.

(M) The Department of the Treasury.

(N) The Department of Veterans Affairs.

(O) The Environmental Protection Agency.

(P) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration.


(2) The agencies referred to in subsection (a)(2) are the following:

(A) The Agency for International Development.

(B) The Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(C) The General Services Administration.

(D) The National Science Foundation.

(E) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(F) The Office of Personnel Management.

(G) The Small Business Administration.

(H) The Social Security Administration.

(Added Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §205(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2842; amended Pub. L. 103–296, title I, §108(j)(1), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1488.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(2)(H). Pub. L. 103–296 added subpar. (H).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–296 effective Mar. 31, 1995, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Chief Financial Officers of Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Housing and Urban Development

Section 205(c)(1) of Pub. L. 101–576 provided that: “The Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may each designate as the agency Chief Financial Officer of that department for purposes of section 901 of title 31, United States Code, as amended by this section, the officer designated, respectively, under section 4(c) of the Department of Veterans Affairs Act (38 U.S.C. 201 note) and section 4(e) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (42 U.S.C. 3533(e)), as in effect before the effective date of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990].”

Transfer of Functions and Personnel of Agency Chief Financial Officers

Section 206 of Pub. L. 101–576 provided that:

“(a) Agency Reviews of Financial Management Activities.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990], the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall require each agency listed in subsection (b) of section 901 of title 31, United States Code, as amended by this Act, to conduct a review of its financial management activities for the purpose of consolidating its accounting, budgeting, and other financial management activities under the agency Chief Financial Officer appointed under subsection (a) of that section for the agency.

“(b) Reorganization Proposal.—Not later than 120 days after the issuance of requirements under subsection (a) and subject to all laws vesting functions in particular officers and employees of the United States, the head of each agency shall submit to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget a proposal for reorganizing the agency for the purposes of this Act [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 501 of this title]. Such proposal shall include—

“(1) a description of all functions, powers, duties, personnel, property, or records which the agency Chief Financial Officer is proposed to have authority over, including those relating to functions that are not related to financial management activities; and

“(2) a detailed outline of the administrative structure of the office of the agency Chief Financial Officer, including a description of the responsibility and authority of financial management personnel and resources in agencies or other subdivisions as appropriate to that agency.

“(c) Review and Approval of Proposal.—Not later than 60 days after receiving a proposal from the head of an agency under subsection (b), the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall approve or disapprove the proposal and notify the head of the agency of that approval or disapproval. The Director shall approve each proposal which establishes an agency Chief Financial Officer in conformance with section 901 of title 31, United States Code, as added by this Act, and which establishes a financial management structure reasonably tailored to the functions of the agency. Upon approving or disapproving a proposal of an agency under this section, the Director shall transmit to the head of the agency a written notice of that approval or disapproval.

“(d) Implementation of Proposal.—Upon receiving written notice of approval of a proposal under this section from the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the head of an agency shall implement that proposal.”

Chief Financial Officers Council

Section 302 of Pub. L. 101–576 provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—There is established a Chief Financial Officers Council, consisting of—

“(1) the Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget, who shall act as chairperson of the council;

“(2) the Controller of the Office of Federal Financial Management of the Office of Management and Budget;

“(3) the Fiscal Assistant Secretary of Treasury; and

“(4) each of the agency Chief Financial Officers appointed under section 901 of title 31, United States Code, as amended by this Act.

“(b) Functions.—The Chief Financial Officers Council shall meet periodically to advise and coordinate the activities of the agencies of its members on such matters as consolidation and modernization of financial systems, improved quality of financial information, financial data and information standards, internal controls, legislation affecting financial operations and organizations, and any other financial management matter.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 503, 903, 3515 of this title; title 42 section 902.

§902. Authority and functions of agency Chief Financial Officers

(a) An agency Chief Financial Officer shall—

(1) report directly to the head of the agency regarding financial management matters;

(2) oversee all financial management activities relating to the programs and operations of the agency;

(3) develop and maintain an integrated agency accounting and financial management system, including financial reporting and internal controls, which—

(A) complies with applicable accounting principles, standards, and requirements, and internal control standards;

(B) complies with such policies and requirements as may be prescribed by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget;

(C) complies with any other requirements applicable to such systems; and

(D) provides for—

(i) complete, reliable, consistent, and timely information which is prepared on a uniform basis and which is responsive to the financial information needs of agency management;

(ii) the development and reporting of cost information;

(iii) the integration of accounting and budgeting information; and

(iv) the systematic measurement of performance;


(4) make recommendations to the head of the agency regarding the selection of the Deputy Chief Financial Officer of the agency;

(5) direct, manage, and provide policy guidance and oversight of agency financial management personnel, activities, and operations, including—

(A) the preparation and annual revision of an agency plan to—

(i) implement the 5-year financial management plan prepared by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget under section 3512(a)(3) of this title; and

(ii) comply with the requirements established under sections 3515 and subsections (e) and (f) of section 3521 of this title;


(B) the development of agency financial management budgets;

(C) the recruitment, selection, and training of personnel to carry out agency financial management functions;

(D) the approval and management of agency financial management systems design or enhancement projects;

(E) the implementation of agency asset management systems, including systems for cash management, credit management, debt collection, and property and inventory management and control;


(6) prepare and transmit, by not later than 60 days after the submission of the audit report required by section 3521(f) of this title, an annual report to the agency head and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, which shall include—

(A) a description and analysis of the status of financial management of the agency;

(B) the annual financial statements prepared under section 3515 of this title;

(C) the audit report transmitted to the head of the agency under section 3521(f) of this title;

(D) a summary of the reports on internal accounting and administrative control systems submitted to the President and the Congress under the amendments made by the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act of 1982 (Public Law 97–255); and

(E) other information the head of the agency considers appropriate to fully inform the President and the Congress concerning the financial management of the agency;


(7) monitor the financial execution of the budget of the agency in relation to actual expenditures, and prepare and submit to the head of the agency timely performance reports; and

(8) review, on a biennial basis, the fees, royalties, rents, and other charges imposed by the agency for services and things of value it provides, and make recommendations on revising those charges to reflect costs incurred by it in providing those services and things of value.


(b)(1) In addition to the authority otherwise provided by this section, each agency Chief Financial Officer—

(A) subject to paragraph (2), shall have access to all records, reports, audits, reviews, documents, papers, recommendations, or other material which are the property of the agency or which are available to the agency, and which relate to programs and operations with respect to which that agency Chief Financial Officer has responsibilities under this section;

(B) may request such information or assistance as may be necessary for carrying out the duties and responsibilities provided by this section from any Federal, State, or local governmental entity; and

(C) to the extent and in such amounts as may be provided in advance by appropriations Acts, may—

(i) enter into contracts and other arrangements with public agencies and with private persons for the preparation of financial statements, studies, analyses, and other services; and

(ii) make such payments as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.


(2) Except as provided in paragraph (1)(B), this subsection does not provide to an agency Chief Financial Officer any access greater than permitted under any other law to records, reports, audits, reviews, documents, papers, recommendations, or other material of any Office of Inspector General established under the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.).

(Added Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §205(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2843.)

References in Text

The Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act of 1982, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(D), is Pub. L. 97–255, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 814, which added subsec. (d) to section 66a of former Title 31, Money and Finance. Section 66a of former Title 31 was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, and reenacted by the first section thereof as section 3512 of this title. Provisions relating to reports on internal accounting and administrative control systems are restated in section 3512(d)(2) and (3) of this title.

The Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3512 of this title; title 12 sections 1441a, 1821, 4703; title 38 section 309.

§903. Establishment of agency Deputy Chief Financial Officers

(a) There shall be within each agency described in section 901(b) an agency Deputy Chief Financial Officer, who shall report directly to the agency Chief Financial Officer on financial management matters. The position of agency Deputy Chief Financial Officer shall be a career reserved position in the Senior Executive Service.

(b) Consistent with qualification standards developed by, and in consultation with, the agency Chief Financial Officer and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the head of each agency shall appoint as Deputy Chief Financial Officer an individual with demonstrated ability and experience in accounting, budget execution, financial and management analysis, and systems development, and not less than 6 years practical experience in financial management at large governmental entities.

(Added Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §205(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2845.)

References in Text

Senior Executive Service, referred to in subsec. (a), see section 5382 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 503 of this title.

SUBTITLE II—THE BUDGET PROCESS

Chap.
Sec.
11.
The Budget and Fiscal, Budget, and Program Information
1101
13.
Appropriations
1301
15.
Appropriation Accounting
1501

        

CHAPTER 11—THE BUDGET AND FISCAL, BUDGET, AND PROGRAM INFORMATION

Sec.
1101.
Definitions.
1102.
Fiscal year.
1103.
Budget ceiling.
1104.
Budget and appropriations authority of the President.
1105.
Budget contents and submission to Congress.
1106.
Supplemental budget estimates and changes.
1107.
Deficiency and supplemental appropriations.
1108.
Preparation and submission of appropriations requests to the President.
1109.
Current programs and activities estimates.
1110.
Year-ahead requests for authorizing legislation.
1111.
Improving economy and efficiency.
1112.
Fiscal, budget, and program information.
1113.
Congressional information.
[1114.
Repealed.]
1115.
Performance plans.
1116.
Program performance reports.
1117.
Exemptions.1

        

1118.
Pilot projects for performance goals.
1119.
Pilot projects for performance budgeting.

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–355, title II, §2454(c)(3)(B), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3326, struck out item 1114 “Budget information on consulting services”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–62, §11(b)(1), Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 295, added items 1115 to 1119.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 1512, 9109 of this title; title 2 section 907a; title 7 sections 934, 1932; title 19 section 2232; title 42 sections 1487, 1962b–6, 8107, 10156, 10222.

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§1101. Definitions

In this chapter—

(1) “agency” includes the District of Columbia government but does not include the legislative branch or the Supreme Court.

(2) “appropriations” means appropriated amounts and includes, in appropriate context—

(A) funds;

(B) authority to make obligations by contract before appropriations; and

(C) other authority making amounts available for obligation or expenditure.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 907.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1101(1) 31:2(1st–4th pars.). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §2(1st–5th pars.), 42 Stat. 20; Apr. 3, 1939, ch. 36, §201, 53 Stat. 565; July 31, 1953, ch. 302, §101(1st proviso in par. under heading “Bureau of the Budget”), 67 Stat. 299.
1101(2) 31:2(last par.). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §2(last par.); added Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §101, 64 Stat. 832.

In the section, a reference to 31:71 and 471 is omitted because the definitions in the section are not used in 31:71 and 471.

In clause (1), “agency” (which is defined for purposes of this title in section 101 to mean a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States) is coextensive with and substituted for the term “department or establishment” which was defined in 31:2 as in part meaning “any executive department, independent commission, board, bureau, office, agency, or other establishment of the Government, including any independent regulatory commission or board”. This definition merely restates and continues, and does not in any way change or expand, the definition in 31:2. Under that definition, entities such as the Tennessee Valley Authority that have been interpreted to be outside the purview of the definition will continue to be outside the purview in the same manner and to the same extent that they were under 31:2. The words “includes the District of Columbia government” are used because of existing law but the inclusion of these words is not to be interpreted as construing the extent to which the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganizational Act (Pub. L. 93–198, 87 Stat. 774) supersedes the provisions codified in this title. The words “of the United States” are omitted as surplus. The text of 31:2(2d–4th pars.) is omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The text of section 2(3d par.) of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20), is omitted as obsolete because of section 501 of the revised title.

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–62, §1, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1115 to 1119, 9703, and 9704 of this title, section 306 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 2801 to 2805 of Title 39, Postal Service, amending section 1105 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1115 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Government Performance and Results Act of 1993’.”

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–501, title II, §201, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2324, provided that: “This title [amending section 1105 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1105 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal Capital Investment Program Information Act of 1984’.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1108 of this title.

§1102. Fiscal year

The fiscal year of the Treasury begins on October 1 of each year and ends on September 30 of the following year. Accounts of receipts and expenditures required under law to be published each year shall be published for the fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 908.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1102 31:1020. R.S. §237; Oct. 1, 1890, ch. 1256, §9, 26 Stat. 646; restated July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §501, 88 Stat. 321.

The words “in all matters of accounts, receipts, expenditures, estimates, and appropriations” are omitted as being included in “fiscal”. The word “prepared” is omitted as being included in “published”. The words “as established by subsection (a) of this section” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The text of 31:1020(a)(1) and the words “beginning on October 1, 1976” are omitted as executed.

Fiscal Year Transition Period of July 1, 1976, Through September 30, 1976

Pub. L. 94–274, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 383, provided for an orderly transition to the new Oct. 1 to Sept. 30 fiscal year for particular acts by specifying how the period of July 1, 1976, through Sept. 30, 1976, was to be treated for fiscal year purposes.

§1103. Budget ceiling

Congress reaffirms its commitment that budget outlays of the United States Government for a fiscal year may be not more than the receipts of the Government for that year.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 908.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1103 31:27. Oct. 10, 1978, Pub. L. 95–435, §7, 92 Stat. 1053; restated Oct. 7, 1980, Pub. L. 96–389, §3, 94 Stat. 1553.

The word “total” is omitted as surplus. The words “for a fiscal year” are substituted for “beginning with Fiscal Year 1981” because of the restatement and to eliminate executed words. The words “for that year” are added because of the restatement.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 2 section 907a.

§1104. Budget and appropriations authority of the President

(a) The President shall prepare budgets of the United States Government under section 1105 of this title and proposed deficiency and supplemental appropriations under section 1107 of this title. To the extent practicable, the President shall use uniform terms in stating the purposes and conditions of appropriations.

(b) Except as provided in this chapter, the President shall prescribe the contents and order of statements in the budget on expenditures and estimated expenditures and statements on proposed appropriations and information submitted with the budget and proposed appropriations. The President shall include with the budget and proposed appropriations information on personnel and other objects of expenditure in the way that information was included in the budget for fiscal year 1950. However, the requirement that information be included in the budget in that way may be waived or changed by joint action of the Committees on Appropriations of both Houses of Congress. This subsection does not limit the authority of a committee of Congress to request information in a form it prescribes.

(c) When the President makes a basic change in the form of the budget, the President shall submit with the budget information showing where items in the budget for the prior fiscal year are contained in the present budget. However, the President may change the functional categories in the budget only in consultation with the Committees on Appropriations and on the Budget of both Houses of Congress. Committees of the House of Representatives and Senate shall receive prompt notification of all such changes.

(d) The President shall develop programs and prescribe regulations to improve the compilation, analysis, publication, and dissemination of statistical information by executive agencies. The President shall carry out this subsection through the Administrator for the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Office of Management and Budget.

(e) Under regulations prescribed by the President, each agency shall provide information required by the President in carrying out this chapter. The President has access to, and may inspect, records of an agency to obtain information.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §224, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1060.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1104(a) 31:16(last sentence related to preparation of budgets and appropriations). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §207(last sentence related to preparation of budgets and appropriations), 42 Stat. 22; restated Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §102(e), 64 Stat. 833; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
  31:623. June 23, 1913, ch. 3, §3, 38 Stat. 75; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
1104(b) 31:581. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §204, 42 Stat. 21; restated Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §102(c), 64 Stat. 833.
1104(c) 31:11d. July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §802, 88 Stat. 330.
  31:581a. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §205, 42 Stat. 21; restated Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §102(d), 64 Stat. 833.
1104(d) 31:18b. Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §103, 64 Stat. 834; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
  44:3503(note). Dec. 11, 1980, Pub. L. 96–511, §3(a), 94 Stat. 2825.
1104(e) 31:21. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §213, 42 Stat. 23; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.

In the section, the word “President” is substituted for “Office” in 31:16(last sentence), “President, through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget” in 31:18b, “President and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget” in 44:3503(note), and “Office of Management and Budget” in 31:21 and 623, because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085), designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President.

In subsection (a), the words “under such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe” in 31:16(last sentence) are omitted as unnecessary because of section 101 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970. The words “use uniform terms in stating” are substituted for “make uniform the language commonly used in expressing” in 31:623 for consistency. The words “eliminate from all estimates unnecessary words” are omitted as unnecessary because of the authority of the President under this subsection to prepare the budget. The text of section 3(words before semicolon) in the Act of June 23, 1913 (ch. 13, 38 Stat. 75) is omitted as superseded by 31:ch. 1 and 31:581.

In subsection (b), the word “arrangement” is omitted as being included in “order”. The word “information” is substituted for “notes and other data”, and the word “submitted” is substituted for “transmitted”, for consistency. The words “The President shall include” are substituted for “shall be accompanied by” because of the authority of the President under subsection (a) to prepare the budget. The words “proposed appropriations” are substituted for “proposed supplemental or deficiency appropriations” because of the restatement. The word “personnel” is substituted for “personal services” for clarity. The word “way” is substituted for “manner and form” for consistency. The words “either generally or in specific cases” are omitted as surplus. The word “request” is substituted for “request and receive” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “it prescribes” are substituted for “as they may desire in consideration of and action upon budget estimates” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the words “President makes” are substituted for “is made” in 31:581a as being more precise. The word “information” is substituted for “explanatory notes and tables” for consistency in the revised title. The words “to Congress”, “as may be necessary”, and “various” are omitted as surplus. The words “The President may change” are substituted for “Any change . . . shall be made only” in 31:11d because the President prepares and submits the budget under 31:11. The word “budget” is substituted for “Budget of the United States Government transmitted pursuant to section 11 of this title” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the chapter.

In subsection (d), the word “gathering” in 31:18b is omitted as being included in “compilation”. The text of 31:18b(last sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the source provisions in subsection (e). The words “carry out . . . through” are substituted for “delegate to” in 44:3503(note) for consistency.

In subsection (e), the word “provide” is substituted for “furnish” for consistency. The words “required by the President in carrying out this chapter” are substituted for “as the Office may from time to time require” because of section 101 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 and to provide comparable limiting language on when information may be required. The words “the director and the assistant director, or any employee of the Office when duly authorized” are omitted because of 3:301. The word “inspect” is substituted for “examine” for consistency in the revised title. The word “records” is substituted for “books, documents, papers, or records” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–177 inserted provisions relating to notice to committees of House of Representatives and Senate.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–177 effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, see section 275(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–177, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of Title 2, The Congress.

Ex. Ord. No. 10253. Provisions for Improvement of Work of Federal Executive Agencies With Respect to Statistical Information

Ex. Ord. No. 10253, June 11, 1951, 16 F.R. 5605, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12013, Oct. 7, 1977, 42 F.R. 54931; Ex. Ord. No. 12318, Aug. 12, 1981, 46 F.R. 42833, provided:

Section 1. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget (hereinafter referred to as the Director) shall develop programs, and issue regulations and orders, for the improved gathering, compiling, analyzing, publishing, and disseminating of statistical information for any purpose by the various agencies in the executive branch of the Federal Government.

Sec. 2. In order to carry out the provisions of Section 1 of this order, the Director shall maintain a continuing study for the improvement of the statistical work of the agencies in the executive branch of the Federal Government with a view to obtaining the maximum benefit from the funds and facilities available for such work, giving due consideration to the constantly changing character of the various needs for statistical information both within and without the Government and, where the statistical work is primarily concerned with operating programs, giving due consideration to administrative needs, statutory requirements, and the needs involved in the development of administrative and legislative recommendations. The Director, either upon his own initiative or upon the request of any such agency, shall (a) provide for the interchange of information calculated to improve statistical work, (b) make appropriate arrangements for improving statistical work involving relationships between two or more agencies, and (c) assist the agencies, by other means, to improve their statistical work.

Sec. 3. The following shall be included among the objectives sought in carrying out the provisions of Section 1 hereof:

(a) To achieve an adequate program of statistical work in the agencies of the executive branch, in relation to over-all needs for statistical information, including the filling of gaps and overcoming of weaknesses in presently available statistical information.

(b) To achieve the most effective use of resources available for statistical work by the agencies, in relation to over-all needs.

(c) To minimize the burden upon those furnishing statistical data needed by the various Federal agencies.

(d) To improve the reliability and timeliness of statistical information.

(e) To achieve maximum comparability among the several statistical series and studies.

(f) To improve the presentation of statistical information and of explanations regarding the sources and reliability of such information, and regarding the limitations on the uses that can appropriately be made of it.

Sec. 4. Regulations and orders issued pursuant to Section 1 hereof shall be signed by the Director. When so signed, such regulations and orders shall require no further approval and shall be adhered to by all agencies in the executive branch. Any such regulation or order may pertain to a single agency, a group of agencies, or all agencies in the executive branch.

Sec. 5. In the development of programs and the preparation of regulations and orders for issuance pursuant to Section 1 hereof, the Director shall consult Federal agencies whose activities will be substantially affected, and may consult non-Federal groups to the extent he finds it necessary to carry out the purposes of this order.

Sec. 6. The authority outlined in this order is in addition to and not in substitution for the existing authority of the Director, or of the Office of Management and Budget, with respect to statistical and reporting activities. To the extent, however, that this order conflicts with any previous Executive order affecting statistical or reporting activities, the provisions of this order shall control.

Sec. 7. As required by Section 3(a) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (94 Stat. 2825; 44 U.S.C. 3503 note), the Director shall redelegate to the Administrator for the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, all functions, authority, and responsibility under Section 103 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 18b) [31 U.S.C. 1104(d)] which have been vested in the Director by this Order.

Sec. 8. [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12318, Aug. 21, 1981, 46 F.R. 42833.]

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 20 section 76j.

§1105. Budget contents and submission to Congress

(a) On or after the first Monday in January but not later than the first Monday in February of each year, the President shall submit a budget of the United States Government for the following fiscal year. Each budget shall include a budget message and summary and supporting information. The President shall include in each budget the following:

(1) information on activities and functions of the Government.

(2) when practicable, information on costs and achievements of Government programs.

(3) other desirable classifications of information.

(4) a reconciliation of the summary information on expenditures with proposed appropriations.

(5) except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations the President decides are necessary to support the Government in the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted and the 4 fiscal years after that year.

(6) estimated receipts of the Government in the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted and the 4 fiscal years after that year under—

(A) laws in effect when the budget is submitted; and

(B) proposals in the budget to increase revenues.


(7) appropriations, expenditures, and receipts of the Government in the prior fiscal year.

(8) estimated expenditures and receipts, and appropriations and proposed appropriations, of the Government for the current fiscal year.

(9) balanced statements of the—

(A) condition of the Treasury at the end of the prior fiscal year;

(B) estimated condition of the Treasury at the end of the current fiscal year; and

(C) estimated condition of the Treasury at the end of the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted if financial proposals in the budget are adopted.


(10) essential information about the debt of the Government.

(11) other financial information the President decides is desirable to explain in practicable detail the financial condition of the Government.

(12) for each proposal in the budget for legislation that would establish or expand a Government activity or function, a table showing—

(A) the amount proposed in the budget for appropriation and for expenditure because of the proposal in the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted; and

(B) the estimated appropriation required because of the proposal for each of the 4 fiscal years after that year that the proposal will be in effect.


(13) an allowance for additional estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations for the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted.

(14) an allowance for unanticipated uncontrollable expenditures for that year.

(15) a separate statement on each of the items referred to in section 301(a)(1)–(5) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 (2 U.S.C. 632(a)(1)–(5)).

(16) the level of tax expenditures under existing law in the tax expenditures budget (as defined in section 3(a)(3) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 (2 U.S.C. 622(a)(3)) for the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted, considering projected economic factors and changes in the existing levels based on proposals in the budget.

(17) information on estimates of appropriations for the fiscal year following the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted for grants, contracts, and other payments under each program for which there is an authorization of appropriations for that following fiscal year when the appropriations are authorized to be included in an appropriation law for the fiscal year before the fiscal year in which the appropriation is to be available for obligation.

(18) a comparison of the total amount of budget outlays for the prior fiscal year, estimated in the budget submitted for that year, for each major program having relatively uncontrollable outlays with the total amount of outlays for that program in that year.

(19) a comparison of the total amount of receipts for the prior fiscal year, estimated in the budget submitted for that year, with receipts received in that year, and for each major source of receipts, a comparison of the amount of receipts estimated in that budget with the amount of receipts from that source in that year.

(20) an analysis and explanation of the differences between each amount compared under clauses (18) and (19) of this subsection.

(21) a horizontal budget showing—

(A) the programs for meteorology and of the National Climate Program established under section 5 of the National Climate Program Act (15 U.S.C. 2904);

(B) specific aspects of the program of, and appropriations for, each agency; and

(C) estimated goals and financial requirements.


(22) a statement of budget authority, proposed budget authority, budget outlays, and proposed budget outlays, and descriptive information in terms of—

(A) a detailed structure of national needs that refers to the missions and programs of agencies (as defined in section 101 of this title); and

(B) the missions and basic programs.


(23) separate appropriation accounts for appropriations under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.) and the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (30 U.S.C. 801 et seq.).

(24) recommendations on the return of Government capital to the Treasury by a mixed-ownership corporation (as defined in section 9101(2) of this title) that the President decides are desirable.

(25) a separate appropriation account for appropriations for each Office of Inspector General of an establishment defined under section 11(2) of the Inspector General Act of 1978.

[(26) Terminated.]

(27) a separate statement of the amount of appropriations requested for the Office of National Drug Control Policy and each program of the National Drug Control Program.

(28) a separate statement of the amount of appropriations requested for the Office of Federal Financial Management.

(29) beginning with fiscal year 1999, a Federal Government performance plan for the overall budget as provided for under section 1115.

(30) information about the Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund, including a separate statement of amounts in that Trust Fund.

(31) an analysis displaying, by agency, proposed reductions in full-time equivalent positions compared to the current year's level in order to comply with section 5 of the Federal Workforce Restructuring Act of 1994.


(b) Estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations for the legislative branch and the judicial branch to be included in each budget under subsection (a)(5) of this section shall be submitted to the President before October 16 of each year and included in the budget by the President without change.

(c) The President shall recommend in the budget appropriate action to meet an estimated deficiency when the estimated receipts for the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted (under laws in effect when the budget is submitted) and the estimated amounts in the Treasury at the end of the current fiscal year available for expenditure in the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted, are less than the estimated expenditures for that year. The President shall make recommendations required by the public interest when the estimated receipts and estimated amounts in the Treasury are more than the estimated expenditures.

(d) When the President submits a budget or supporting information about a budget, the President shall include a statement on all changes about the current fiscal year that were made before the budget or information was submitted.

(e)(1) The President shall submit with materials related to each budget transmitted under subsection (a) on or after January 1, 1985, an analysis for the ensuing fiscal year that shall identify requested appropriations or new obligational authority and outlays for each major program that may be classified as a public civilian capital investment program and for each major program that may be classified as a military capital investment program, and shall contain summaries of the total amount of such appropriations or new obligational authority and outlays for public civilian capital investment programs and summaries of the total amount of such appropriations or new obligational authority and outlays for military capital investment programs. In addition, the analysis under this paragraph shall contain—

(A) an estimate of the current service levels of public civilian capital investment and of military capital investment and alternative high and low levels of such investments over a period of ten years in current dollars and over a period of five years in constant dollars;

(B) the most recent assessment analysis and summary, in a standard format, of public civilian capital investment needs in each major program area over a period of ten years;

(C) an identification and analysis of the principal policy issues that affect estimated public civilian capital investment needs for each major program; and

(D) an identification and analysis of factors that affect estimated public civilian capital investment needs for each major program, including but not limited to the following factors:

(i) economic assumptions;

(ii) engineering standards;

(iii) estimates of spending for operation and maintenance;

(iv) estimates of expenditures for similar investments by State and local governments; and

(v) estimates of demand for public services derived from such capital investments and estimates of the service capacity of such investments.


To the extent that any analysis required by this paragraph relates to any program for which Federal financial assistance is distributed under a formula prescribed by law, such analysis shall be organized by State and within each State by major metropolitan area if data are available.

(2) For purposes of this subsection, any appropriation, new obligational authority, or outlay shall be classified as a public civilian capital investment to the extent that such appropriation, authority, or outlay will be used for the construction, acquisition, or rehabilitation of any physical asset that is capable of being used to produce services or other benefits for a number of years and is not classified as a military capital investment under paragraph (3). Such assets shall include (but not be limited to)—

(A) roadways or bridges,

(B) airports or airway facilities,

(C) mass transportation systems,

(D) wastewater treatment or related facilities,

(E) water resources projects,

(F) hospitals,

(G) resource recovery facilities,

(H) public buildings,

(I) space or communications facilities,

(J) railroads, and

(K) federally assisted housing.


(3) For purposes of this subsection, any appropriation, new obligational authority, or outlay shall be classified as a military capital investment to the extent that such appropriation, authority, or outlay will be used for the construction, acquisition, or rehabilitation of any physical asset that is capable of being used to produce services or other benefits for purposes of national defense and security for a number of years. Such assets shall include military bases, posts, installations, and facilities.

(4) Criteria and guidelines for use in the identification of public civilian and military capital investments, for distinguishing between public civilian and military capital investments, and for distinguishing between major and nonmajor capital investment programs shall be issued by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget after consultation with the Comptroller General and the Congressional Budget Office. The analysis submitted under this subsection shall be accompanied by an explanation of such criteria and guidelines.

(5) For purposes of this subsection—

(A) the term “construction” includes the design, planning, and erection of new structures and facilities, the expansion of existing structures and facilities, the reconstruction of a project at an existing site or adjacent to an existing site, and the installation of initial and replacement equipment for such structures and facilities;

(B) the term “acquisition” includes the addition of land, sites, equipment, structures, facilities, or rolling stock by purchase, lease-purchase, trade, or donation; and

(C) the term “rehabilitation” includes the alteration of or correction of deficiencies in an existing structure or facility so as to extend the useful life or improve the effectiveness of the structure or facility, the modernization or replacement of equipment at an existing structure or facility, and the modernization of, or replacement of parts for, rolling stock.


[(f) Omitted.]

(g)(1) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall establish the funding for advisory and assistance services for each department and agency as a separate object class in each budget annually submitted to the Congress under this section.

(2)(A) In paragraph (1), except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term “advisory and assistance services” means the following services when provided by nongovernmental sources:

(i) Management and professional support services.

(ii) Studies, analyses, and evaluations.

(iii) Engineering and technical services.


(B) In paragraph (1), the term “advisory and assistance services” does not include the following services:

(i) Routine automated data processing and telecommunications services unless such services are an integral part of a contract for the procurement of advisory and assistance services.

(ii) Architectural and engineering services, as defined in section 901 of the Brooks Architect-Engineers Act (40 U.S.C. 541).

(iii) Research on basic mathematics or medical, biological, physical, social, psychological, or other phenomena.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 97–452, §1(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2467; Pub. L. 98–501, title II, §203, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2324; Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §241, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1063; Pub. L. 100–119, title I, §106(f), Sept. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 781; Pub. L. 100–418, title V, §5301, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1462; Pub. L. 100–504, title I, §108, Oct. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 2529; Pub. L. 100–690, title I, §1006, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4187; Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13112(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–608; Pub. L. 101–576, title II, §203(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2841; Pub. L. 103–62, §4(a), Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 286; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(1)(E), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1362; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXI, §310001(e), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2103; Pub. L. 103–355, title II, §2454(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3326.)

Amendment of Section

For repeal of amendment by section 1506 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note below.

Historical and Revision Notes
1982 Act
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1105(a) (1)–(14) 31:11(a)(less (5)(words after 2d comma)). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §201(a), 42 Stat. 20; restated Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §102(a), 64 Stat. 832; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 814, §1(a), 70 Stat. 782; Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §221(a), 84 Stat. 1169; July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §§603, 604, 88 Stat. 324.
  31:19. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §211, 42 Stat. 22; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
1105(a) (15) 31:11(d). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §201(d)–(f), (g)(last sentence)–(i)(1st sentence); added July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §601, 88 Stat. 323.
1105(a) (16) 31:11(e).
1105(a) (17) 31:11(h).
1105(a) (18)–(20) 31:11(f).
1105(a) (21) 31:25 Oct. 18, 1962, Pub. L. 87–843, §304(1st par.), 76 Stat. 1097; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085; Sept. 17, 1978, Pub. L. 95–367, §5(g)(2), 92 Stat. 603.
1105(a) (22) 31:11(i)(1st sentence).
1105(a) (23) 31:11(note). Nov. 9, 1977, Pub. L. 95–164, §305, 91 Stat. 1322.
1105(a) (24) 31:859. Dec. 6, 1945, ch. 557, §204, 59 Stat. 601.
1105(b) 28:605(last par.).
  31:11(a)(5)(words after 2d comma).
1105(c) 31:13. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §202, 42 Stat. 21.
1105(d) 31:11(g)(last sentence).

In the section, the word “current” is substituted for “in progress”, and the word “prior” is substituted for “last completed”, for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the text of 31:19 is omitted as superseded by the broader authority of 31:11(a)(5). The words “for the following fiscal year” are added for clarity. The words “summary and supporting information” are substituted for “summary data and text, and supporting detail” in the introductory matter of 31:11(a) for consistency. The words “in such form and detail as the President may determine” are omitted as unnecessary because of the authority of the President under section 1104(a) of the revised title to prepare the budget. The words “The President shall . . . in each budget the following” are substituted for “The Budget transmitted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section for each fiscal year shall” in 31:11(d)–(f), (h), and (i) because of the restatement. The word “President” is substituted for “Office of Management and Budget” in 31:25 because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President. The words “in connection with the budget presentation for fiscal year 1964 and each succeeding year thereafter” are omitted as executed.

In subsection (a)(1), the words “information on” are added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2), the word “Government” is added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(3), the word “information” is substituted for “data” for consistency.

In subsection (a)(5) and (6), the words “fiscal year for which the budget is submitted” are substituted for “ensuing fiscal year” the first time they appear for clarity. The words “the 4 fiscal years after that year” are substituted for “projections for the four fiscal years immediately following the ensuing fiscal year” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(6), the words “proposals . . . to increase revenues” are substituted for “revenue proposals” for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(7), the word “actual” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(8), the words “appropriations and” are substituted for “actual or” for clarity.

In subsection (a)(9), the words “fiscal year for which the budget is submitted” are substituted for “ensuing fiscal year” for clarity.

In subsection (a)(10), the words “bonded and other” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(11), the words “information the President decides” are substituted for “statements and data as in his opinion” for clarity and consistency. The word “desirable” is substituted for “necessary or desirable” and the words “to explain” are substituted for “in order to make known”, to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(12), before subclause (A), the word “legislation” is substituted for “new or additional legislation” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “activity or function” are substituted for “function, activity, or authority” for consistency. The words “in addition to those functions, activities, and authorities then existing or as then being administered and operated” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(16), the words “fiscal year for which the budget is submitted” are substituted for “such fiscal year” for clarity.

In subsection (a)(17), the words “fiscal year following the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted” are substituted for “next succeeding fiscal year”, the words “that following fiscal year” are substituted for “such succeeding fiscal year”, and the words “fiscal year before” are substituted for “fiscal year preceding”, for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (a)(18), the words “uncontrollable or” are omitted as being included in “relatively uncontrollable”.

In subsection (a)(19) and (20), the word “receipts” is substituted for “revenues” for consistency in the revised title.

Subsection (a)(20) is substituted for 31:11(f)(3) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(21), the words “the totality of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(22), the words “budget outlays” are substituted for “outlays” for consistency. The words “beginning with the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979” are omitted as executed.

In subsection (a)(23), the words “for appropriations” are substituted for “amounts required for appropriations” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “for mine health and safety” and “for occupational safety and health” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

In subsection (a)(24), the words “(as defined in section 9101(2) of this title)” are added because the subsection is based on a law to which the defined term applies. The words “decides are desirable” are substituted for “may wish to make” for consistency.

In subsection (b), the words “for such years” in 31:11(a)(5)(words after 2d comma) are omitted because of the restatement. The words “of the United States” and “by him” are omitted as surplus. The words “to be included in each budget under subsection (a)(5) of this section” are added because of the restatement. The words “before October 16” are substituted for “on or before October 15”, and the word “change” is substituted for “revision”, for consistency.

In subsection (c), the words “new taxes, loans, or other” are omitted as being included in “appropriate action”. The words “in effect” are substituted for “existing” for consistency. The word “aggregate” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words “When the President submits a budget or supporting information about a budget, the President” are substituted for “The Budget transmitted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section for any fiscal year, or the supporting detail transmitted in connection therewith” because of the restatement. The word “changes” is substituted for “amendments and revisions” to eliminate unnecessary words.

1983 Act
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1105(a) (25) 31 App.:11(k)(1). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §201(k)(1); added Sept. 8, 1982, Pub. L. 97–255, §3, 96 Stat. 815.

The words “The President shall include in the supporting detail accompanying each Budget” are omitted as being included in the introductory provisions of 31:1105(a). The words “submitted on or after January 1, 1983” are omitted as executed. The words “by the President” and “if any” are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (a)(23), is Pub. L. 91–596, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1590, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 15 (§651 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 651 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, referred to in subsec. (a)(23), is Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, as amended by Pub. L. 95–164, title I, §101, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1290, which is classified principally to chapter 22 (§801 et seq.) of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 30 and Tables.

Section 11(2) of the Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (a)(25), is section 11(2) of Pub. L. 95–452, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section 5 of the Federal Workforce Restructuring Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (a)(31), is section 5 of Pub. L. 103–226, which is set out as a note under section 3101 of Title 5.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(26), (27). Pub. L. 103–272 renumbered par. (26) as (27).

Subsec. (a)(30), (31). Pub. L. 103–322 added pars. (30) and (31).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–355 added subsec. (g).

1993—Subsec. (a)(29). Pub. L. 103–62 added par. (29).

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–508, §13112(c)(1), substituted “On or after the first Monday in January but not later than the first Monday in February of each year” for “On or before the first Monday after January 3 of each year (or on or before February 5 in 1986)”.

Subsec. (a)(28). Pub. L. 101–576 added par. (28).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–508, §13112(c)(2), amended subsec. (f) generally, substituting “The budget transmitted pursuant to subsection (a) for a fiscal year shall be prepared in a manner consistent with the requirements of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 that apply to that and subsequent fiscal years.” for

“(f)(1) The budget transmitted pursuant to subsection (a) for a fiscal year shall be prepared on the basis of the best estimates then available, in such a manner as to ensure that the deficit for such fiscal year shall not exceed the maximum deficit amount for such fiscal year as determined under paragraph (7) of section 3 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974.

“(2) The deficit set forth in the budget so transmitted for any fiscal year shall not exceed the maximum deficit amount for such fiscal year as determined under paragraph (7) of section 3 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, with budget outlays and Federal revenues at such levels as the President may consider most desirable and feasible.

“(3) The budget transmitted pursuant to subsection (a) for a fiscal year shall include a budget baseline estimate made in accordance with section 251(a)(6) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 and using economic and technical assumptions consistent with the current services budget submitted under section 1109 for the fiscal year. If such budget baseline estimate differs from the estimate in the current services budget, the President shall explain the differences. The budget transmitted pursuant to subsection (a) for such fiscal year shall include the information required by section 251(a)(2) of such Act (other than account-level detail) assuming that the deficit in such budget baseline were the amount estimated by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget on August 25 of the calendar year in which the fiscal year begins.

“(4) Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply with respect to fiscal year 1989 if the budget transmitted for such fiscal year provides for deficit reduction from a budget baseline deficit for such fiscal year (as defined by section 251(a)(6) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 and based on laws in effect on January 1, 1988) equal to or greater than $36,000,000,000.

“(5) Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply if a declaration of war by the Congress is in effect.”

1988—Subsec. (a)(25). Pub. L. 100–504 amended par. (25) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (25) read as follows: “a separate statement, for each agency having an Office of Inspector General, of the amount of the appropriation requested for the Office.”

Subsec. (a)(26). Pub. L. 100–690, §§1006, 1009, temporarily added par. (26) relating to statement of appropriations requested for drug programs. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note below.

Pub. L. 100–418, §§5301, 5303, temporarily added par. (26) which read as follows: “an analysis, prepared by the Office of Management and Budget after consultation with the chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, of the budget's impact on the international competitiveness of United States business and the United States balance of payments position and shall include the following projections, based upon the best information available at the time, for the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted—

“(A) the amount of borrowing by the Government in private credit markets;

“(B) net domestic savings (defined as personal savings, corporate savings, and the fiscal surplus of State and local governments);

“(C) net private domestic investment;

“(D) the merchandise trade and current accounts;

“(E) the net increase or decrease in foreign indebtedness (defined as net foreign investment); and

“(F) the estimated direction and extent of the influence of the Government's borrowing in private credit markets on United States dollar interest rates and on the real effective exchange rate of the United States dollar.”

See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note below.

1987—Subsec. (f)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 100–119 added pars. (3) and (4) and redesignated former par. (3) as (5).

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–177, §241(a), substituted “On or before the first Monday after January 3 of each year (or on or before February 5 in 1986)” for “During the first 15 days of each regular session of Congress”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–177, §§241(b), 275(b), temporarily added subsec. (f). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment note below.

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–501 added subsec. (e).

1983—Subsec. (a)(25). Pub. L. 97–452 added par. (25).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 103–355, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 251 of Title 41, Public Contracts.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–690 effective Jan. 21, 1989, and repealed Sept. 30, 1997, see section 1506 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, and section 1012 of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1501 of Title 21.

Section 5303 of Pub. L. 100–418 provided that: “The amendment made by section 5301 [amending this section] shall be effective for fiscal years 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992, and shall be fully reflected in the budgets submitted by the President as required by section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, for each such fiscal year, and the amendment made by section 5302 [amending section 632 of Title 2, The Congress] shall be effective for fiscal years 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–504 effective 180 days after Oct. 18, 1988, see section 113 of Pub. L. 100–504, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 5 of Pub. L. 95–452 [Inspector General Act of 1978] in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment

Amendment of subsec. (a) and enactment of subsec. (f) of this section by Pub. L. 99–177 effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, but with subsec. (f) to expire Sept. 30, 1995, see section 275(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 99–177, as amended, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of Title 2, The Congress.

Construction of 1993 Amendment

Amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62 not to be construed as creating any right, privilege, benefit, or entitlement for any person who is not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity, and no person not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity to have standing to file any civil action in any court of the United States to enforce any amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62, or to be construed as superseding any statutory requirement, see section 10 of Pub. L. 103–62, set out as a Construction note under section 1115 of this title.

Administrative Expenses of Legislative Branch Entities; Separate Categories; Compliance Reporting

Pub. L. 103–69, title III, §308, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 710, provided that:

“(a) For fiscal years 1995, 1996, and 1997, the submissions in support of the amounts included in the Budget for each entity of the legislative branch shall set forth a separate category for administrative expenses. For fiscal years 1993 and 1994, the administrative expenses for each entity of the legislative branch shall be calculated and submitted in a separate category in the same format as if submitted in support of amounts included in the Budget.

“(b) For fiscal years 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, the submissions under subsection (a) in the separate category for administrative expenses for each entity of the legislative branch shall include reductions from the amount calculated for administrative expenses for fiscal year 1993, adjusted for inflation, as follows:

“(1) Fiscal year 1994, reduction of not less than 3 percent.

“(2) Fiscal year 1995, reduction of not less than 6 percent.

“(3) Fiscal year 1996, reduction of not less than 9 percent.

“(4) Fiscal year 1997, reduction of not less than 14 percent.

“(c) The Comptroller General shall carry out compliance reporting under this section.

“(d) As used in this section—

“(1) the term ‘administrative expenses’ means expenses of contractual services and supplies, other than rental payments, programmatic mission-essential expenses, reimbursable expenses, and expenses required by law;

“(2) the term ‘Budget’ means the Budget of the United States Government, submitted under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code; and

“(3) the term ‘entity of the legislative branch’ means the House of Representatives, the Senate, the Office of the Architect of the Capitol (including the Botanic Garden), the Capitol Police, the Congressional Budget Office, the Copyright Royalty Tribunal, the General Accounting Office, the Government Printing Office, the Library of Congress, and the Office of Technology Assessment.”

Separate Object Class for Consulting Services in Annual Budgets

Pub. L. 102–394, title V, §512, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1826, which directed the Office of Management and Budget to establish funding for consulting services for each department and agency as separate object class in each budget annually submitted to Congress under this section, was repealed and restated in subsec. (g) of this section by Pub. L. 103–355, title II, §2454(a), (b), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3326.

NASA Triennial Budget Requests and Estimates

Pub. L. 100–685, title I, §104, Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4086, provided that: “Commencing in fiscal year 1990 and every year thereafter, the President shall submit to Congress a budget request for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the immediate fiscal year and the following fiscal year, and include budget estimates for the third fiscal year.”

Two-Year Budget Cycle for Coast Guard

Pub. L. 102–241, §11, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2212, provided that: “Notwithstanding another law, the President is not required to submit a two-year budget request for the Coast Guard until the President is required to submit a two-year budget request for the Department of Transportation.”

Pub. L. 100–448, §24, Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1847, provided that:

“(a) Opinion of Congress.—It is the opinion of the Congress that the programs and activities of the Coast Guard could be more effectively and efficiently planned and managed if funds for the Coast Guard were provided on a 2-year cycle rather than annually.

“(b) Submission of 2-Year Budget by President.—The President shall include in the budget for fiscal year 1990 submitted to the Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, a single proposed budget for the Coast Guard for fiscal years 1990 and 1991. Thereafter, the President shall submit a proposed 2-year budget for the Coast Guard every other year.

“(c) Report.—Not later than October 1, 1988, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and to the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives a report containing—

“(1) the Secretary's views on the advantages and disadvantages of operating the Coast Guard on a 2-year budget cycle;

“(2) the Secretary's plans for converting to a 2-year budget cycle; and

“(3) a description of any impediments (statutory or otherwise) to converting the operations of the Coast Guard to a 2-year budget cycle beginning with fiscal year 1990.”

Water and Sewer Services Furnished to Government Facilities in District of Columbia

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(c) [title I, §136], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–90, 1329–102, provided that: “After the effective date of this Joint Resolution [Dec. 22, 1987], the President shall include, without change, in each annual budget submitted to the Congress under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, the values estimated by the Mayor of the District of Columbia for water and water services and sanitary sewer services furnished to facilities of the United States Government under sections 106 and 212 of the District of Columbia Public Works Act of 1954, as amended (D.C. Code, sections 43–1552, 43–1612).”

Two-Year Budget Cycle for Department of Defense

Pub. L. 99–145, title XIV, §1405, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 744, provided that:

“(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that the programs and activities of the Department of Defense could be more effectively and efficiently planned and managed if funds for the Department were provided on a two-year cycle rather than annually.

“(b) Requirement for Two-Year Budget Proposal.—The President shall include in the budget submitted to the Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, for fiscal year 1988 a single proposed budget for the Department of Defense and related agencies for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. Thereafter, the President shall submit a proposed two-year budget for the Department of Defense and related agencies every other year.

“(c) Report.—Not later than April 1, 1986, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services and on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives a report containing the Secretary's views on the following:

“(1) The advantages and disadvantages of operating the Department of Defense and related agencies on a two-year budget cycle.

“(2) The Secretary's plans for converting to a two-year budget cycle.

“(3) A description of any impediments (statutory or otherwise) to converting the operations of the Department of Defense and related agencies to a two-year budget cycle beginning with fiscal year 1988.”

Federal Capital Investment Program; Congressional Statement of Purposes

Section 202 of Pub. L. 98–501 provided that: “The purposes of this title [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1101 of this title] are—

“(1) to provide budget projections for major Federal capital investment programs;

“(2) to provide a summary of the most recent needs assessment analyses for these programs;

“(3) to provide information on the sensitivity of the needs estimates to major policy issues and technical and economic variables;

“(4) to assist the planning capabilities of State and local governments on the assessment of major capital investment programs; and

“(5) to improve legislative oversight over Federal capital investment programs.”

Deficit Reduction Fund

For provisions requiring information about Deficit Reduction Fund, including a separate statement of amounts in and Federal debt redeemed by that Fund to be included in budget transmitted under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12858, §3, Aug. 4, 1993, 58 F.R. 42185, set out as a note under section 900 of Title 2, The Congress.

Budget Control

For provisions requiring annual review of direct spending and receipts to be part of each budget submitted under subsec. (a) of this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12857, §3, Aug. 4, 1993, 58 F.R. 42181, set out as a note under section 900 of Title 2, The Congress.

Ex. Ord. No. 6715. Filing of Functional Organization Charts With the Director of the Bureau of the Budget

Ex. Ord. No. 6715, May 23, 1934, provided:

(1) Each executive department, independent establishment, and emergency agency shall file with the Director of the Bureau of the Budget [now Director of Office of Management and Budget] a functional organization chart, indicating its various existing bureaus, divisions, sections, etc., and containing a description of the functions respectively performed, and shall file such additional charts from time to time, as may be necessary to show all changes made therein.

(2) Every executive department, independent establishment, and emergency agency hereafter created shall within 5 days after the appointment of the head thereof file a preliminary functional organization chart with the Director of the Bureau of the Budget.

(3) The Director of the Bureau of the Budget is hereby authorized to prescribe, subject to the approval of the President, such rules and regulations as will indicate the information desired and the form of chart to be furnished.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1104, 1106, 1107, 1115, 1118, 1119, 1554, 5134, 6503, 9103, 9109, 9703 of this title; title 2 sections 632, 655, 665b, 900, 901, 904; title 5 sections 1204, 8472; title 10 sections 113, 114, 119, 139, 168, 179, 221, 222, 226, 227, 1465, 1741, 2006, 2217, 2304a, 2304b, 2350a, 2367, 2431, 2433, 2506, 2515, 2521, 2703, 2721, 2809, 2835, 2836, 2859, 2891, 2902; title 14 sections 663, 692; title 15 sections 1022, 2935, 4626; title 20 section 76j; title 21 sections 1502, 1505, 1509; title 25 sections 450j–1, 458dd, 1621, 1671, 2012, 2505, 3803, 4043; title 29 section 762a; title 38 sections 312, 712, 3734, 7101, 7439, 7440, 8110, 8111, 8122; title 39 section 2009; title 40 sections 904, 908; title 41 sections 253h, 253i; title 42 sections 1395w–1, 2122a, 2286e, 7271b, 7274c, 7274g, 8255, 11710, 13474; title 50 sections 404a, 404b, 404d, 1906.

§1106. Supplemental budget estimates and changes

(a) Before July 16 of each year, the President shall submit to Congress a supplemental summary of the budget for the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted under section 1105(a) of this title. The summary shall include—

(1) for that fiscal year—

(A) substantial changes in or reappraisals of estimates of expenditures and receipts;

(B) substantial obligations imposed on the budget after its submission;

(C) current information on matters referred to in section 1105(a)(8) and (9)(B) and (C) of this title; and

(D) additional information the President decides is advisable to provide Congress with complete and current information about the budget and current estimates of the functions, obligations, requirements, and financial condition of the United States Government;


(2) for the 4 fiscal years following the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted, information on estimated expenditures for programs authorized to continue in future years, or that are considered mandatory, under law; and

(3) for future fiscal years, information on estimated expenditures of balances carried over from the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted.


(b) Before July 16 of each year, the President shall submit to Congress a statement of changes in budget authority requested, estimated budget outlays, and estimated receipts for the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted (including prior changes proposed for the executive branch of the Government) that the President decides are necessary and appropriate based on current information. The statement shall include the effect of those changes on the information submitted under section 1105(a)(1)–(14) and (b) of this title and shall include supporting information as practicable. The statement submitted before July 16 may be included in the information submitted under subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 911; Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §242, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1063.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1106(a) 31:11(b), (c). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §201(b), (c); added Aug. 25, 1958, Pub. L. 85–759, §1, 72 Stat. 852; restated Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §221(b), 84 Stat. 1169; July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §602, 88 Stat. 324.
1106(b) 31:11(g)(1st–3d sentences). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §201(g)(1st–3d sentences); added July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §601, 88 Stat. 323.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “Before July 16” are substituted for “on or before July 15” for consistency. The words “budget for the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted” are substituted for “Budget for the ensuing fiscal year transmitted to the Congress by the President” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the chapter. The words “in such form and detail as he may determine” are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (1)(D), the words “in summary form” and “summary of” are omitted as unnecessary. The word “necessary” is omitted as being included in “advisable”. In clauses (2) and (3), the word “information” is substituted for “summaries” because of the restatement. In clause (2), the words “programs authorized to continue in future years, or that are considered mandatory, under law” are substituted for “continuing programs which have a legal commitment for future years or are considered mandatory under existing law” for consistency.

In subsection (b), the words “Before April 11 and July 16” are substituted for “on or before April 10 and July 15”, the word “changes” is substituted for “all amendments to or revisions in”, and the words “budget outlays” are substituted for “outlays”, the words “fiscal year for which the budget is submitted” are substituted for “ensuing fiscal year set forth in the Budget transmitted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section”, for consistency. The word “information” is substituted for “summary data” because of the restatement.

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–177, §242(a), struck out “April 11 and” before “July 16”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–177, §§242(b), 275(b), temporarily added subsec. (c), which read as follows: “Subsection (f) of section 1105 shall apply to revisions and supplemental summaries submitted under this section to the same extent that such subsection applies to the budget submitted under section 1105(a) to which such revisions and summaries relate.” See Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment note below.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–177 effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, but with subsec. (c) to expire Sept. 30, 1995, see section 275(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 99–177, as amended, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of Title 2, The Congress.

§1107. Deficiency and supplemental appropriations

The President may submit to Congress proposed deficiency and supplemental appropriations the President decides are necessary because of laws enacted after the submission of the budget or that are in the public interest. The President shall include the reasons for the submission of the proposed appropriations and the reasons the proposed appropriations were not included in the budget. When the total proposed appropriations would have required the President to make a recommendation under section 1105(c) of this title if they had been included in the budget, the President shall make a recommendation under that section.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 911.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1107 31:14. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §203, 42 Stat. 21; restated Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §102(b), 64 Stat. 833.

In the section, the words “reach an aggregate which” are omitted as surplus.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1104 of this title.

§1108. Preparation and submission of appropriations requests to the President

(a) In this section (except subsections (b)(1) and (e)), “agency” means a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government.

(b)(1) The head of each agency shall prepare and submit to the President each appropriation request for the agency. The request shall be prepared and submitted in the form prescribed by the President under this chapter and by the date established by the President. When the head of an agency does not submit a request by that date, the President shall prepare the request for the agency to be included in the budget or changes in the budget or as deficiency and supplemental appropriations. The President may change agency appropriation requests. Agency appropriation requests shall be developed from cost-based budgets in the way and at times prescribed by the President. The head of the agency shall use the cost-based budget to administer the agency and to divide appropriations or amounts.

(2) An officer or employee of an agency in the executive branch may submit to the President or Congress a request for legislation authorizing deficiency or supplemental appropriations for the agency only with the approval of the head of the agency.

(c) The head of an agency shall include with an appropriation request submitted to the President a report that the statement of obligations submitted with the request contains obligations consistent with section 1501 of this title. The head of the agency shall support the report with a certification of the consistency and shall support the certification with records showing that the amounts have been obligated. The head of the agency shall designate officials to make the certifications, and those officials may not delegate the duty to make the certifications. The certifications and records shall be kept in the agency—

(1) in a form that makes audits and reconciliations easy; and

(2) for a period necessary to carry out audits and reconciliations.


(d) To the extent practicable, the head of an agency shall—

(1) provide information supporting the agency's budget request for its missions by function and subfunction (including the mission of each organizational unit of the agency); and

(2) relate the agency's programs to its missions.


(e) Except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, an officer or employee of an agency (as defined in section 1101 of this title) may submit to Congress or a committee of Congress an appropriations estimate or request, a request for an increase in that estimate or request, or a recommendation on meeting the financial needs of the Government only when requested by either House of Congress.

(f) The Interstate Commerce Commission shall submit to Congress copies of budget estimates, requests, and information (including personnel needs), legislative recommendations, prepared testimony for congressional hearings, and comments on legislation at the same time they are sent to the President or the Office of Management and Budget. An officer of an agency may not impose conditions on or impair communication by the Commission with Congress, or a committee or member of Congress, about the information.

(g) Amounts available under law are available for field examinations of appropriation estimates. The use of the amounts is subject only to regulations prescribed by the appropriate standing committees of Congress.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 912.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1108(a) (no source).
1108(b)(1) 31:16(last sentence related to appropriations requests). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §207(last sentence related to appropriations requests), 42 Stat. 22; restated Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §102(e), 64 Stat. 833; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
31:22, 23. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §§214, 215, 42 Stat. 23; restated Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §102(f), (g), 64 Stat. 833; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
31:24(a). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §216(a), 42 Stat. 23; restated Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §102(h), 64 Stat. 834; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 814, §1(b), 70 Stat. 782; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
31:24(b), (c). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §216(b), (c); added Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 814, §1(b), 70 Stat. 782.
1108(b)(2) 31:581b. Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §201, 64 Stat. 838; Reorg. Plan. No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
1108(c) 31:200(b). Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 935, §1311(b), 68 Stat. 830; restated July 8, 1959, Pub. L. 86–79, §210(a), 73 Stat. 167; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
  31:200(c). Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 935, §1311(c), 68 Stat. 831.
1108(d) 31:11(i)(last sentence). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §201(i)(last sentence); added July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §601, 88 Stat. 323.
1108(e) 31:15. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §206, 42 Stat. 21.
1108(f) 31:11(j). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §201(j); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §311, 90 Stat. 60.
1108(g) 31:22a. Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 340, §1314, 67 Stat. 438.

Subsection (a) is included because the source provisions restated in subsections (c), (d), (f), and (g) of the revised section are derived from laws that apply to all organizational units and branches of the United States Government rather than the units and branches included in the chapter-wide definition in section 1101.

In subsection (b)(1), the word “President” is substituted for “Office” in 31:16(last sentence) and “Office of Management and Budget” in 31:23 and 24(a) because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President. The words “prepare” is substituted for “prepare or cause to be prepared” in 31:22 to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “appropriations” is substituted for “regular, supplementary, or deficiency appropriations” in 31:22 and 24(a) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “in each year” are omitted as surplus. The words “in the form prescribed by the President under this chapter and by the date established by the President” are substituted for “on or before a date which the President shall determine” in 31:23, and “as the President may determine in accordance with the provisions of section 11 of this title” and “in such manner and at such times as may be determined by the President” in 31:24, to eliminate unnecessary words and to provide a cross-reference to the authority of the President to prepare and submit budgets and appropriations request. The words “prepare the request for the agency to be included in the budget or changes in the budget or as deficiency or supplemental appropriations” are substituted for “cause such requests to be prepared as are necessary to enable him to include such requests with the Budget in respect to the work of such department or establishment” in 31:23 for clarity and because of the restatement. The word “change” is substituted for “assemble, correlate, revise, reduce, or increase” in 31:16(last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “The head of the agency shall use” are substituted for “shall be used by all departments and establishments and their subordinate units” and “shall be made on the basis of” in 31:24 as being more precise. The word “operation” is omitted as being included in “administer”. The word “amounts” is substituted for “funds” for consistency in the revised title. The word “divide” is substituted for “administrative subdivisions” because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “deficiency or supplemental appropriations” are substituted for “subsequent appropriations” for consistency. The words “the Office of Management and Budget” are omitted because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President. The words “the agency” are substituted for “by such department or establishment, or by any organization unit thereof” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the word “President” is substituted for “Office of Management and Budget” in 31:200(b) because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President. The words “submitted with the request contains obligations consistent with” are substituted for “furnished therewith consists of valid obligations as defined in” for clarity and because of the restatement. The words “The head of the agency shall support the report with a certification of the consistency” are substituted for “Each report made pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be supported by certifications” in 31:200(c) for clarity. The words “duty to make certifications” are substituted for “responsibility” for consistency.

In subsection (d)(1), the words “its missions” are substituted for “its assigned mission”, and the words “the mission” are substituted for “mission responsibilities”, to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d)(2), the word “mission” is substituted for “agency missions” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e), the words “Except as provided in subsection (f) of this section” are added because of the restatement. The word “financial” is substituted for “revenue” for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (f), the word “personnel” is substituted for “manpower”, and the words “at the same time” are substituted for “concurrently”, for clarity. The words “officer of an agency” are substituted for “officer or agency” as being more precise. The word “prohibit” is omitted as being included in “impose conditions on or impair”. The word “communication” is substituted for “free communication” to eliminate a surplus word. The words “about the information” are substituted for “with respect to any budget estimate or request of the Commission” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (g), the word “Amounts” is substituted for “Funds”, the word “law” is substituted for “Act”, and the words “regulations prescribed” are substituted for “regulations”, for consistency in the revised title. The words “of Congress” are added for clarity.

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission and Transfer of Functions

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 702 of Title 49, Transportation, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of Title 49. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of Title 49.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1554, 3512 of this title; title 15 section 2935; title 19 section 2345; title 40 section 903; title 49 section 5309.

§1109. Current programs and activities estimates

(a) On or before the first Monday after January 3 of each year (on or before February 5 in 1986), the President shall submit to both Houses of Congress the estimated budget outlays and proposed budget authority that would be included in the budget for the following fiscal year if programs and activities of the United States Government were carried on during that year at the same level as the current fiscal year without a change in policy. The President shall state the estimated budget outlays and proposed budget authority by function and subfunction under the classifications in the budget summary table under the heading “Budget Authority and Outlays by Function and Agency”, by major programs in each function, and by agency. The President also shall include a statement of the economic and program assumptions on which those budget outlays and budget authority are based, including inflation, real economic growth, and unemployment rates, program caseloads, and pay increases.

(b) The Joint Economic Committee shall review the estimated budget outlays and proposed budget authority and submit an economic evaluation of the budget outlays and budget authority to the Committees on the Budget of both Houses before March 1 of each year.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 913; Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §222, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1060.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1109(a) 31:11a(a). July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §605, 88 Stat. 325.
1109(b) 31:11a(b).

In the section, the words “budget outlays” are substituted for “outlays” for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), the words “Before November 11” are substituted for “On or before November 10”, the words “both Houses of Congress” are substituted for “the Senate and the House of Representatives”, the word “following” is substituted for “ensuing”, and the word “current” is substituted for “in progress”, for consistency. The words “(beginning with 1975)” are omitted as executed. The words “of the United States Government” are added for clarity. The words “in such programs and activities” are omitted as surplus. The words “The President shall state” are substituted for “shall be shown”, and the words “The President also shall include” are substituted for “Accompanying these estimates shall be”, because of the restatement.

In subsection (b), the words “so submitted” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “before January 1” are substituted for “on or before December 31” for consistency.

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–177, §222(a), substituted “On or before the first Monday after January 3 of each year (on or before February 5 in 1986)” for “Before November 11 of each year”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–177, §222(b), substituted “March 1” for “January 1”.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–177 effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, see section 275(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–177, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of Title 2, The Congress.

§1110. Year-ahead requests for authorizing legislation

A request to enact legislation authorizing new budget authority to continue a program or activity for a fiscal year shall be submitted to Congress before May 16 of the year before the year in which the fiscal year begins. If a new program or activity will continue for more than one year, the request must be submitted for at least the first and 2d fiscal years.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 913.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1110 31:11c. July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §607, 88 Stat. 325.

The words “Notwithstanding any other provision of law” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “the enactment of” before “new” are omitted as surplus. The words “(beginning with the fiscal year commencing October 1, 1976)” are omitted as executed. The words “a request for the enactment of legislation authorizing the enactment of new budget authority for” are omitted for consistency in the chapter.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 43 section 1748.

§1111. Improving economy and efficiency

To improve economy and efficiency in the United States Government, the President shall—

(1) make a study of each agency to decide, and may send Congress recommendations, on changes that should be made in—

(A) the organization, activities, and business methods of agencies;

(B) agency appropriations;

(C) the assignment of particular activities to particular services; and

(D) regrouping of services; and


(2) evaluate and develop improved plans for the organization, coordination, and management of the executive branch of the Government.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 913.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1111 31:18. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §209, 42 Stat. 22; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
  31:18a. Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §104, 64 Stat. 834; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.

In the section, before clause (1), the words “To improve economy and efficiency in the United States Government” are substituted for “(with a view of securing greater economy and efficiency in the conduct of the public service)” in 31:18 and “with a view to efficient and economical service” in 31:18a to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “President” is substituted for “Office of Management and Budget, when directed by the President” in 31:18 and “President, through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget” in 31:18a because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President. In clause (1), the words “existing” and “detailed” are omitted as surplus.

Regulatory Reductions

For provisions requiring executive departments and agencies to undertake to eliminate not less than 50 percent of its civilian internal management regulations not required by law, see Ex. Ord. No. 12861, Sept. 11, 1993, 58 F.R. 48255, set out as a note under section 601 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§1112. Fiscal, budget, and program information

(a) In this section, “agency” means a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government except a mixed-ownership Government corporation.

(b) In cooperation with the Comptroller General, the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall establish and maintain standard data processing and information systems for fiscal, budget, and program information for use by agencies to meet the needs of the Government, and to the extent practicable, of State and local governments.

(c) The Comptroller General—

(1) in cooperation with the Secretary, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, shall establish, maintain, and publish standard terms and classifications for fiscal, budget, and program information of the Government, including information on fiscal policy, receipts, expenditures, programs, projects, activities, and functions;

(2) when advisable, shall report to Congress on those terms and classifications, and recommend legislation necessary to promote the establishment, maintenance, and use of standard terms and classifications by the executive branch of the Government; and

(3) in carrying out this subsection, shall give particular consideration to the needs of the Committees on Appropriations and on the Budget of both Houses of Congress, the Committee on Ways and Means of the House, the Committee on Finance of the Senate, and the Congressional Budget Office.


(d) Agencies shall use the standard terms and classifications published under subsection (c)(1) of this section in providing fiscal, budget, and program information to Congress.

(e) In consultation with the President, the head of each executive agency shall take actions necessary to achieve to the extent possible—

(1) consistency in budget and accounting classifications;

(2) synchronization between those classifications and organizational structure; and

(3) information by organizational unit on performance and program costs to support budget justifications.


(f) In cooperation with the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, the Comptroller General, and appropriate representatives of State and local governments, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (to the extent practicable) shall provide State and local governments with fiscal, budget, and program information necessary for accurate and timely determination by those governments of the impact on their budgets of assistance of the United States Government.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 913.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1112(a) 31:1157. Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §207, 84 Stat. 1168.
1112(b) 31:1151. Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §§201, 202(a), (b), 203(d), 84 Stat. 1167, 1168; restated July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §801(a), 88 Stat. 327, 328, 329.
1112(c) 31:1152(a)(1)(1st, 2d sentences), (2), (b).
1112(d) 31:1152(a)(1)(last sentence).
1112(e) 31:18c. Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, 64 Stat. 832, §106; added Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 814, §2(a), 70 Stat. 782; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
1112(f) 31:1153(d).

In the section, the words “program information” are substituted for “program-related data and information” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a), the words “ ‘agency’ . . . of the United States Government except a mixed-ownership Government corporation” are substituted for “ ‘Federal agency’ . . . wholly owned Government corporation” for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The word “establishment” is omitted as surplus. The words “government of the District of Columbia” are omitted as superseded by sections 441–455, 501, and 736 of the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganization Act (Pub. L. 93–198, 87 Stat. 798, 812, 823).

In subsections (b) and (c)(1), the word “develop” is omitted as being included in “establish”.

In subsection (b), the words “The development, establishment, and maintenance of such systems shall be carried out so as” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

In subsection (c)(1) and (2), the words “terms and classifications” are substituted for “terminology, definitions, classifications, and codes” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words “The authority contained in this section shall include, but not be limited to” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words “After June 30, 1975” are omitted as executed. The word “additional” is omitted as surplus. The words “establishment, maintenance, and use of” are substituted for “development, establishment, and maintenance, modification . . . implementation” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised section. The words “by the executive branch of the Government” are substituted for “executive” for clarity. The text of 31:1152(a)(2)(1st sentence) is omitted as executed. In clause (3), the words “this subsection” are substituted for “this responsibility” because of the restatement.

In subsection (c)(1), the word “revenues” is omitted as being included in “receipts”. The word “spending” is substituted for “expenditures” for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (e), the word “President” is substituted for “Director of the Office of Management and Budget” because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 719, 1113 of this title.

§1113. Congressional information

(a)(1) When requested by a committee of Congress having jurisdiction over receipts or appropriations, the President shall provide the committee with assistance and information.

(2) When requested by a committee of Congress, additional information related to the amount of an appropriation originally requested by an Office of Inspector General shall be submitted to the committee.

(b) When requested by a committee of Congress, by the Comptroller General, or by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the head of each executive agency shall—

(1) provide information on the location and kind of available fiscal, budget, and program information;

(2) to the extent practicable, prepare summary tables of that fiscal, budget, and program information and related information the committee, the Comptroller General, or the Director of the Congressional Budget Office considers necessary; and

(3) provide a program evaluation carried out or commissioned by an executive agency.


(c) In cooperation with the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, the Secretary, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Comptroller General shall—

(1) establish and maintain a current directory of sources of, and information systems for, fiscal, budget, and program information and a brief description of the contents of each source and system;

(2) when requested, provide assistance to committees of Congress and members of Congress in obtaining information from the sources in the directory; and

(3) when requested, provide assistance to committees and, to the extent practicable, to members of Congress in evaluating the information obtained from the sources in the directory.


(d) To the extent they consider necessary, the Comptroller General and the Director of the Congressional Budget Office individually or jointly shall establish and maintain a file of information to meet recurring needs of Congress for fiscal, budget, and program information to carry out this section and sections 717 and 1112 of this title. The file shall include information on budget requests, congressional authorizations to obligate and expend, apportionment and reserve actions, and obligations and expenditures. The Comptroller General and the Director shall maintain the file and an index to the file so that it is easier for the committees and agencies of Congress to use the file and index through data processing and communications techniques.

(e)(1) The Comptroller General shall—

(A) carry out a continuing program to identify the needs of committees and members of Congress for fiscal, budget, and program information to carry out this section and section 1112 of this title;

(B) assist committees of Congress in developing their information needs;

(C) monitor recurring reporting requirements of Congress and committees; and

(D) make recommendations to Congress and committees for changes and improvements in those reporting requirements to meet information needs identified by the Comptroller General, to improve their usefulness to congressional users, and to eliminate unnecessary reporting.


(2) Before September 2 of each year, the Comptroller General shall report to Congress on—

(A) the needs identified under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection;

(B) the relationship of those needs to existing reporting requirements;

(C) the extent to which reporting by the executive branch of the United States Government currently meets the identified needs;

(D) the changes to standard classifications necessary to meet congressional needs;

(E) activities, progress, and results of the program of the Comptroller General under paragraph (1)(B)–(D) of this subsection; and

(F) progress of the executive branch in the prior year.


(3) Before March 2 of each year, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the Secretary shall report to Congress on plans for meeting the needs identified under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection, including—

(A) plans for carrying out changes to classifications to meet information needs of Congress;

(B) the status of information systems in the prior year; and

(C) the use of standard classifications.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 914; Pub. L. 97–452, §1(3), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2467.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1982 Act
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1113(a) 31:20. June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §212, 42 Stat. 23; Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1939, eff. July 1, 1939, §1, 53 Stat. 1423; Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, §102(a), 84 Stat. 2085.
1113(b)– (d) 31:1153(a)–(c). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §203(a)–(c), 84 Stat. 1168; restated July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §801(a), 88 Stat. 328.
1113(e)(1) 31:1152(c), (d). Oct. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–510, §202(c)–(f), 84 Stat. 1167; restated July 12, 1974, Pub. L. 93–344, §801(a), 88 Stat. 328.
1113(e)(2) 31:1152(e).
1113(e)(3) 31:1152(f).

In the section, the words “committee of Congress” are substituted for “committee of either House, of any joint committee of the two Houses” and variations of the substituted phrase to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the word “President” is substituted for “Office of Management and Budget” because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President. The word “assistance” is substituted for “aid”, and the word “receipts” is substituted for “revenue”, for consistency in the revised title.

In subsections (b)–(d), the words “program information” are substituted for “program-related data and information” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1) and (3), the words “to such committee or joint committee, the Comptroller General, or the Director of the Congressional Budget Office” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. In clause (1), the word “kind” is substituted for “nature” for consistency in the revised title. In clause (2), the words “that fiscal, budgetary, and program information” are substituted for “such data and information” because of the restatement.

In subsection (c), the word “inventory” is omitted as unnecessary. In clause (1), the word “develop” is omitted as being included in “establish”. In clause (2), the word “obtaining” is substituted for “securing” as being more precise. In clause (3), the word “evaluating” is substituted for “appraising and analyzing” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), the words “individually or jointly . . . file” are substituted for “central file or files” for clarity. The word “information” is substituted for “data and information”, and the word “needs” is substituted for “requirements”, for consistency in the section. The words “carry out” are substituted for “carry out the purposes of” because of the restatement. A cross reference to 31:1155–1156 is not included because those sections are not relevant to the information file described in the source provisions. The words “so that it is easier” are substituted for “facilitate” for clarity. The word “modern” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(1)(A), the word “specify” is omitted as being included in “identify”. The words “carry out” are substituted for “support the objectives” for consistency. A cross reference to 31:1154–1156 is not included because those sections are not relevant to the continuing program described in the source provisions. In clause (B), the words “including such needs expressed in legislative requirements” are omitted as surplus. In clause (D), the word “duplicative” is omitted as being included in “unnecessary”.

In subsection (e)(2), the words “Before September 2 of each year” are substituted for “On or before September 1, 1974, and each year thereafter” for consistency.

In subsection (e)(3), the words “Before March 2 of each year are substituted for “On or before March 1, 1975, and each year thereafter” for consistency. The word “codes” is omitted as being included in “classifications”. The words “information systems” are substituted for “systems”, and the words “use of standard classifications” are substituted for “classification implementations”, for consistency in the revised section.

1983 Act
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1113(e)(2) 31 App.:11(k)(2). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, §201(k)(2); added Sept. 8, 1982, Pub. L. 97–255, §3, 96 Stat. 815.

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–452 redesignated existing provision as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Termination of Reporting Requirements

Pub. L. 104–66, title III, §3003, Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 734, provided that:

“(a) Termination.—

“(1) In general.—Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection and subsection (d), each provision of law requiring the submittal to Congress (or any committee of the Congress) of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report specified on the list described under subsection (c) shall cease to be effective, with respect to that requirement, 4 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 1995].

“(2) Exception.—The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply to any report required under—

“(A) the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.); or

“(B) the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–576) [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 501 of this title], including provisions enacted by the amendments made by that Act.

“(b) Identification of Wasteful Reports.—The President shall include in the first annual budget submitted pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 1995] a list of reports that the President has determined are unnecessary or wasteful and the reasons for such determination.

“(c) List of Reports.—The list referred to under subsection (a) is the list prepared by the Clerk of the House of Representatives for the first session of the One Hundred Third Congress under clause 2 of rule III of the Rules of the House of Representatives (House Document No. 103–7).

“(d) Specific Reports Exempted.—Subsection (a)(1) shall not apply to any report required under—

“(1) section 116 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151n);

“(2) section 306 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2226);

“(3) section 489 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2291h);

“(4) section 502B of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2304);

“(5) section 634 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2394);

“(6) section 406 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (22 U.S.C. 2414a);

“(7) section 25 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2765);

“(8) section 28 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2768);

“(9) section 36 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2776);

“(10) section 6 of the Multinational Force and Observers Participation Resolution (22 U.S.C. 3425);

“(11) section 104 of the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5814);

“(12) section 508 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 5858);

“(13) section 4 of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1543);

“(14) section 204 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1703);

“(15) section 14 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2413);

“(16) section 207 of the International Economic Policy Act of 1972 (Public Law 92–412; 86 Stat. 648) [former 22 U.S.C. 2846];

“(17) section 4 of Public Law 93–121 (87 Stat. 448) [former 22 U.S.C. 2846];

“(18) section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 404a);

“(19) section 704 of the Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 (22 U.S.C. 5474);

“(20) section 804 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (Public Law 101–246; 104 Stat. 72);

“(21) section 140 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (22 U.S.C. 2656f);

“(22) section 2 of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Chapter 976; 64 Stat. 903) [22 U.S.C. 262a];

“(23) section 3301 of the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (22 U.S.C. 3871);

“(24) section 2202 of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 (15 U.S.C. 4711);

“(25) section 1504 of Public Law 103–160 (10 U.S.C. 402 note);

“(26) section 502 of the International Security and Development Coordination Act of 1985 (22 U.S.C. 2349aa–7);

“(27) section 23 of the Act of August 1, 1956 (Chapter 841 [probably should be section 515(b)(2) of Public Law 95–105]; 22 U.S.C. 2694(2));

“(28) section 5(c)(5) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2404(c)(5));

“(29) section 14 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2413);

“(30) section 50 of Public Law 87–297 (22 U.S.C. 2590);

“(31) section 240A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2200a); or

“(32) section 604 of the United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 (22 U.S.C. 1469).”

Authority To Increase Efficiency in Reporting to Congress

Pub. L. 103–356, title III, §301, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3412, provided that:

“(a) Purpose.—The purpose of this title is to improve the efficiency of executive branch performance in implementing statutory requirements for reports to Congress and committees of Congress such as the elimination or consolidation of duplicative or obsolete reporting requirements and adjustments to deadlines that shall provide for more efficient workload distribution or improve the quality of reports.

“(b) Authority of the Director.—The Director of the Office of Management and Budget may publish annually in the budget submitted by the President to the Congress, recommendations for consolidation, elimination, or adjustments in frequency and due dates of statutorily required periodic reports to the Congress or committees of Congress. For each recommendation, the Director shall provide an individualized statement of the reasons that support the recommendation. In addition, for each report for which a recommendation is made, the Director shall state with specificity the exact consolidation, elimination, or adjustment in frequency or due date that is recommended.

“(c) Recommendations.—The Director's recommendations shall be consistent with the purpose stated in subsection (a).

“(d) Consultation.—Before the publication of the recommendations under subsection (b), the Director or his designee shall consult with the appropriate congressional committees concerning the recommendations.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 719 of this title.

[§1114. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–355, title II, §2454(c)(2), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3326]

Section, Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 916, related to budget information on consulting services.

Effective Date of Repeal

For effective date and applicability of repeal, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 251 of Title 41, Public Contracts.

§1115. Performance plans

(a) In carrying out the provisions of section 1105(a)(29), the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall require each agency to prepare an annual performance plan covering each program activity set forth in the budget of such agency. Such plan shall—

(1) establish performance goals to define the level of performance to be achieved by a program activity;

(2) express such goals in an objective, quantifiable, and measurable form unless authorized to be in an alternative form under subsection (b);

(3) briefly describe the operational processes, skills and technology, and the human, capital, information, or other resources required to meet the performance goals;

(4) establish performance indicators to be used in measuring or assessing the relevant outputs, service levels, and outcomes of each program activity;

(5) provide a basis for comparing actual program results with the established performance goals; and

(6) describe the means to be used to verify and validate measured values.


(b) If an agency, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, determines that it is not feasible to express the performance goals for a particular program activity in an objective, quantifiable, and measurable form, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget may authorize an alternative form. Such alternative form shall—

(1) include separate descriptive statements of—

(A)(i) a minimally effective program, and

(ii) a successful program, or

(B) such alternative as authorized by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget,


with sufficient precision and in such terms that would allow for an accurate, independent determination of whether the program activity's performance meets the criteria of the description; or

(2) state why it is infeasible or impractical to express a performance goal in any form for the program activity.


(c) For the purpose of complying with this section, an agency may aggregate, disaggregate, or consolidate program activities, except that any aggregation or consolidation may not omit or minimize the significance of any program activity constituting a major function or operation for the agency.

(d) An agency may submit with its annual performance plan an appendix covering any portion of the plan that—

(1) is specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy; and

(2) is properly classified pursuant to such Executive order.


(e) The functions and activities of this section shall be considered to be inherently Governmental functions. The drafting of performance plans under this section shall be performed only by Federal employees.

(f) For purposes of this section and sections 1116 through 1119, and sections 9703 1 and 9704 the term—

(1) “agency” has the same meaning as such term is defined under section 306(f) of title 5;

(2) “outcome measure” means an assessment of the results of a program activity compared to its intended purpose;

(3) “output measure” means the tabulation, calculation, or recording of activity or effort and can be expressed in a quantitative or qualitative manner;

(4) “performance goal” means a target level of performance expressed as a tangible, measurable objective, against which actual achievement can be compared, including a goal expressed as a quantitative standard, value, or rate;

(5) “performance indicator” means a particular value or characteristic used to measure output or outcome;

(6) “program activity” means a specific activity or project as listed in the program and financing schedules of the annual budget of the United States Government; and

(7) “program evaluation” means an assessment, through objective measurement and systematic analysis, of the manner and extent to which Federal programs achieve intended objectives.

(Added Pub. L. 103–62, §4(b), Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 287.)

References in Text

Section 9703, referred to in subsec. (f), probably means the section 9703 added by section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 289.

Construction

Section 10 of Pub. L. 103–62 provided that: “No provision or amendment made by this Act [see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title] may be construed as—

“(1) creating any right, privilege, benefit, or entitlement for any person who is not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity, and no person who is not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity shall have standing to file any civil action in a court of the United States to enforce any provision or amendment made by this Act; or

“(2) superseding any statutory requirement, including any requirement under section 553 of title 5, United States Code.”

Congressional Findings and Statement of Purposes

Section 2 of Pub. L. 103–62 provided that:

“(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

“(1) waste and inefficiency in Federal programs undermine the confidence of the American people in the Government and reduces the Federal Government's ability to address adequately vital public needs;

“(2) Federal managers are seriously disadvantaged in their efforts to improve program efficiency and effectiveness, because of insufficient articulation of program goals and inadequate information on program performance; and

“(3) congressional policymaking, spending decisions and program oversight are seriously handicapped by insufficient attention to program performance and results.

“(b) Purposes.—The purposes of this Act [see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title] are to—

“(1) improve the confidence of the American people in the capability of the Federal Government, by systematically holding Federal agencies accountable for achieving program results;

“(2) initiate program performance reform with a series of pilot projects in setting program goals, measuring program performance against those goals, and reporting publicly on their progress;

“(3) improve Federal program effectiveness and public accountability by promoting a new focus on results, service quality, and customer satisfaction;

“(4) help Federal managers improve service delivery, by requiring that they plan for meeting program objectives and by providing them with information about program results and service quality;

“(5) improve congressional decisionmaking by providing more objective information on achieving statutory objectives, and on the relative effectiveness and efficiency of Federal programs and spending; and

“(6) improve internal management of the Federal Government.”

Congressional Oversight

Section 8(a) of Pub. L. 103–62 provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title] shall be construed as limiting the ability of Congress to establish, amend, suspend, or annul a performance goal. Any such action shall have the effect of superseding that goal in the plan submitted under section 1105(a)(29) of title 31, United States Code.”

General Accounting Office Report

Section 8(b) of Pub. L. 103–62 provided that:

“No later than June 1, 1997, the Comptroller General of the United States shall report to Congress on the implementation of this Act [see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title], including the prospects for compliance by Federal agencies beyond those participating as pilot projects under sections 1118 and 9704 of title 31, United States Code.”

Strategic Planning and Performance Measurement Training

Section 9 of Pub. L. 103–62 provided that: “The Office of Personnel Management shall, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the Comptroller General of the United States, develop a strategic planning and performance measurement training component for its management training program and otherwise provide managers with an orientation on the development and use of strategic planning and program performance measurement.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1105, 1116, 1117, 1118, 1119, 9703, 9704 of this title; title 5 section 306.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1116. Program performance reports

(a) No later than March 31, 2000, and no later than March 31 of each year thereafter, the head of each agency shall prepare and submit to the President and the Congress, a report on program performance for the previous fiscal year.

(b)(1) Each program performance report shall set forth the performance indicators established in the agency performance plan under section 1115, along with the actual program performance achieved compared with the performance goals expressed in the plan for that fiscal year.

(2) If performance goals are specified in an alternative form under section 1115(b), the results of such program shall be described in relation to such specifications, including whether the performance failed to meet the criteria of a minimally effective or successful program.

(c) The report for fiscal year 2000 shall include actual results for the preceding fiscal year, the report for fiscal year 2001 shall include actual results for the two preceding fiscal years, and the report for fiscal year 2002 and all subsequent reports shall include actual results for the three preceding fiscal years.

(d) Each report shall—

(1) review the success of achieving the performance goals of the fiscal year;

(2) evaluate the performance plan for the current fiscal year relative to the performance achieved toward the performance goals in the fiscal year covered by the report;

(3) explain and describe, where a performance goal has not been met (including when a program activity's performance is determined not to have met the criteria of a successful program activity under section 1115(b)(1)(A)(ii) or a corresponding level of achievement if another alternative form is used)—

(A) why the goal was not met;

(B) those plans and schedules for achieving the established performance goal; and

(C) if the performance goal is impractical or infeasible, why that is the case and what action is recommended;


(4) describe the use and assess the effectiveness in achieving performance goals of any waiver under section 9703 1 of this title; and

(5) include the summary findings of those program evaluations completed during the fiscal year covered by the report.


(e) An agency head may include all program performance information required annually under this section in an annual financial statement required under section 3515 if any such statement is submitted to the Congress no later than March 31 of the applicable fiscal year.

(f) The functions and activities of this section shall be considered to be inherently Governmental functions. The drafting of program performance reports under this section shall be performed only by Federal employees.

(Added Pub. L. 103–62, §4(b), Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 288.)

References in Text

Section 9703, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), probably means the section 9703 added by section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 289.

Construction

No provision or amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62 to be construed as creating any right, privilege, benefit, or entitlement for any person who is not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity, and no person not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity to have standing to file any civil action in any court of the United States to enforce any provision or amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62, or to be construed as superseding any statutory requirement, see section 10 of Pub. L. 103–62, set out as a note under section 1115 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1115, 1117, 1118, 1119 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1117. Exemption

The Director of the Office of Management and Budget may exempt from the requirements of sections 1115 and 1116 of this title and section 306 of title 5, any agency with annual outlays of $20,000,000 or less.

(Added Pub. L. 103–62, §4(b), Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 289.)

Construction

No provision or amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62 to be construed as creating any right, privilege, benefit, or entitlement for any person who is not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity, and no person not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity to have standing to file any civil action in any court of the United States to enforce any provision or amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62, or to be construed as superseding any statutory requirement, see section 10 of Pub. L. 103–62, set out as a note under section 1115 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1115, 1118, 1119 of this title.

§1118. Pilot projects for performance goals

(a) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, after consultation with the head of each agency, shall designate not less than ten agencies as pilot projects in performance measurement for fiscal years 1994, 1995, and 1996. The selected agencies shall reflect a representative range of Government functions and capabilities in measuring and reporting program performance.

(b) Pilot projects in the designated agencies shall undertake the preparation of performance plans under section 1115, and program performance reports under section 1116, other than section 1116(c), for one or more of the major functions and operations of the agency. A strategic plan shall be used when preparing agency performance plans during one or more years of the pilot period.

(c) No later than May 1, 1997, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall submit a report to the President and to the Congress which shall—

(1) assess the benefits, costs, and usefulness of the plans and reports prepared by the pilot agencies in meeting the purposes of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993;

(2) identify any significant difficulties experienced by the pilot agencies in preparing plans and reports; and

(3) set forth any recommended changes in the requirements of the provisions of Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, section 306 of title 5, sections 1105, 1115, 1116, 1117, 1119 and 9703 1 of this title, and this section.

(Added Pub. L. 103–62, §6(a), Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 290.)

References in Text

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), (3), is Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285, which enacted sections 1115 to 1119, 9703, and 9704 of this title, section 306 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 2801 to 2805 of Title 39, Postal Service, amended section 1105 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1115 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Section 9703, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), probably means the section 9703 added by section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 289.

Construction

No provision or amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62 to be construed as creating any right, privilege, benefit, or entitlement for any person who is not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity, and no person not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity to have standing to file any civil action in any court of the United States to enforce any provision or amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62, or to be construed as superseding any statutory requirement, see section 10 of Pub. L. 103–62, set out as a note under section 1115 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1115, 1119, 9704 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1119. Pilot projects for performance budgeting

(a) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, after consultation with the head of each agency shall designate not less than five agencies as pilot projects in performance budgeting for fiscal years 1998 and 1999. At least three of the agencies shall be selected from those designated as pilot projects under section 1118, and shall also reflect a representative range of Government functions and capabilities in measuring and reporting program performance.

(b) Pilot projects in the designated agencies shall cover the preparation of performance budgets. Such budgets shall present, for one or more of the major functions and operations of the agency, the varying levels of performance, including outcome-related performance, that would result from different budgeted amounts.

(c) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall include, as an alternative budget presentation in the budget submitted under section 1105 for fiscal year 1999, the performance budgets of the designated agencies for this fiscal year.

(d) No later than March 31, 2001, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall transmit a report to the President and to the Congress on the performance budgeting pilot projects which shall—

(1) assess the feasibility and advisability of including a performance budget as part of the annual budget submitted under section 1105;

(2) describe any difficulties encountered by the pilot agencies in preparing a performance budget;

(3) recommend whether legislation requiring performance budgets should be proposed and the general provisions of any legislation; and

(4) set forth any recommended changes in the other requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, section 306 of title 5, sections 1105, 1115, 1116, 1117, and 9703 1 of this title, and this section.


(e) After receipt of the report required under subsection (d), the Congress may specify that a performance budget be submitted as part of the annual budget submitted under section 1105.

(Added Pub. L. 103–62, §6(c), Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 291.)

References in Text

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), is Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285, which enacted sections 1115 to 1119, 9703, and 9704 of this title, section 306 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 2801 to 2805 of Title 39, Postal Service, amended section 1105 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1115 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Section 9703, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), probably means the section 9703 added by section 5(a) of Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 289.

Construction

No provision or amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62 to be construed as creating any right, privilege, benefit, or entitlement for any person who is not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity, and no person not an officer or employee of the United States acting in such capacity to have standing to file any civil action in any court of the United States to enforce any provision or amendment made by Pub. L. 103–62, or to be construed as superseding any statutory requirement, see section 10 of Pub. L. 103–62, set out as a note under section 1115 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1115, 1118 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

CHAPTER 13—APPROPRIATIONS

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

Sec.
1301.
Application.
1302.
Determining amounts appropriated.
1303.
Effect of changes in titles of appropriations.
1304.
Judgments, awards, and compromise settlements.
1305.
Miscellaneous permanent appropriations.
1306.
Use of foreign credits.
1307.
Public building construction.
1308.
Telephone and metered services.
1309.
Social security tax.
1310.
Appropriations for private organizations.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—TRUST FUNDS AND REFUNDS

1321.
Trust funds.
1322.
Payments of unclaimed trust fund amounts and refund of amounts erroneously deposited.
1323.
Trust funds for certain fees, donations, quasi-public amounts, and unearned amounts.
1324.
Refund of internal revenue collections.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—LIMITATIONS, EXCEPTIONS, AND PENALTIES

1341.
Limitations on expending and obligating amounts.
1342.
Limitation on voluntary services.
1343.
Buying and leasing passenger motor vehicles and aircraft.
1344.
Passenger carrier use.
1345.
Expenses of meetings.
1346.
Commissions, councils, boards, and interagency and similar groups.
1347.
Appropriations or authorizations required for agencies in existence for more than one year.
1348.
Telephone installation and charges.
1349.
Adverse personnel actions.
1350.
Criminal penalty.
1351.
Reports on violations.
1352.
Limitation on use of appropriated funds to influence certain Federal contracting and financial transactions.
1353.
Acceptance of travel and related expenses from non-Federal sources.

        

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–280, §4(b)(2), May 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 157, redesignated item 1352 “Acceptance of travel and related expenses from non-Federal sources” as 1353.

1989—Pub. L. 101–194, title III, §302(b), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1746, added item 1352 “Acceptance of travel and related expenses from non-Federal sources”.

Pub. L. 101–121, title III, §319(a)(2), Oct. 23, 1989, 103 Stat. 756, added item 1352 “Limitation on use of appropriated funds to influence certain Federal contracting and financial transactions”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–550, §1(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3070, substituted “Passenger carrier use” for “Passenger motor vehicle and aircraft use” in item 1344.

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

§1301. Application

(a) Appropriations shall be applied only to the objects for which the appropriations were made except as otherwise provided by law.

(b) The reappropriation and diversion of the unexpended balance of an appropriation for a purpose other than that for which the appropriation originally was made shall be construed and accounted for as a new appropriation. The unexpended balance shall be reduced by the amount to be diverted.

(c) An appropriation in a regular, annual appropriation law may be construed to be permanent or available continuously only if the appropriation—

(1) is for rivers and harbors, lighthouses, public buildings, or the pay of the Navy and Marine Corps; or

(2) expressly provides that it is available after the fiscal year covered by the law in which it appears.


(d) A law may be construed to make an appropriation out of the Treasury or to authorize making a contract for the payment of money in excess of an appropriation only if the law specifically states that an appropriation is made or that such a contract may be made.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 917.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1301(a) 31:628. R.S. §3678.
1301(b) 31:717. Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 147, §4, 38 Stat. 1161.
1301(c) 31:718. Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 355, §7, 37 Stat. 487; Mar. 3, 1919, ch. 99, §6(last sentence), 40 Stat. 1309.
1301(d) 31:627. June 30, 1906, ch. 3914, §9, 34 Stat. 764.

In subsection (a), the word “Appropriations” is substituted for “sums appropriated for the various branches of expenditure in the public service” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “they are respectively” and “and for no others” are omitted as surplus. The words “except as otherwise provided by law” are substituted for “All” in section 3678 of the Revised Statutes to inform the reader that there are exceptions to the source provisions restated in the subsection.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “specific or indefinite” are omitted as surplus. The words “made subsequent to August 24, 1912” are omitted as executed. The words “without reference to a fiscal year” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “is for” are substituted for “belongs to one of the following four classes” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “last specifically named in and excepted from the operation of the provisions of section 713 of this title” and the words related to section 5 of the Act of June 20, 1874 (31:713), in section 6(last sentence) of the Act of March 3, 1919 (ch. 99, 40 Stat. 1309), are omitted because section 5 was repealed by section 3 of the Act of July 6, 1949 (ch. 299, 63 Stat. 407).

In subsection (d), the words “passed after June 30, 1906” are omitted as executed.

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–359, §1, July 13, 1984, 98 Stat. 402, provided: “That this Act [amending section 1322 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Postal Savings System Statute of Limitations Act’.”

Transfers From Appropriation Accounts; Salaries of Temporarily Reassigned Employees

Pub. L. 103–333, title V, §515, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2574, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law—

“(1) no amount may be transferred from an appropriation account for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education except as authorized in this or any subsequent appropriation act, or in the Act establishing the program or activity for which funds are contained in this Act [see Tables for classification];

“(2) no department, agency, or other entity, other than the one responsible for administering the program or activity for which an appropriation is made in this Act, may exercise authority for the timing of the obligation and expenditure of such appropriation, or for the purposes for which it is obligated and expended, except to the extent and in the manner otherwise provided in sections 1512 and 1513 of title 31, United States Code; and

“(3) no funds provided under this or any subsequent appropriation act shall be available for the salary (or any part thereof) of an employee who is reassigned on a temporary detail basis to another position in the employing agency or department or in any other agency or department, unless the detail is independently approved by the head of the employing department or agency.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 10 section 2633; title 40 section 481; title 42 section 9619.

§1302. Determining amounts appropriated

Except as specifically provided by law, the total amount appropriated in an appropriation law is determined by adding up the specific amounts or rates appropriated in each paragraph of the law.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 917.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1302 31:670. May 28, 1896, ch. 252, §1(par. immediately before heading “Treasury Department”), 29 Stat. 148.

The words “by adding up” are substituted for “by the correct footing up” for clarity.

§1303. Effect of changes in titles of appropriations

Expenditures for a particular object or purpose authorized by a law (and referred to in that law by the specific title previously used for the appropriation item in the appropriation law concerned) may be made from a corresponding appropriation item when the specific title is changed or eliminated from a later appropriation law.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 917.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1303 31:581(note). Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, §302(b), 64 Stat. 844.

§1304. Judgments, awards, and compromise settlements

(a) Necessary amounts are appropriated to pay final judgments, awards, compromise settlements, and interest and costs specified in the judgments or otherwise authorized by law when—

(1) payment is not otherwise provided for;

(2) payment is certified by the Comptroller General; and

(3) the judgment, award, or settlement is payable—

(A) under section 2414, 2517, 2672, or 2677 of title 28;

(B) under section 3723 of this title;

(C) under a decision of a board of contract appeals; or

(D) in excess of an amount payable from the appropriations of an agency for a meritorious claim under section 2733 or 2734 of title 10, section 715 of title 32, or section 203 of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2473).


(b)(1) Interest may be paid from the appropriation made by this section—

(A) on a judgment of a district court, only when the judgment becomes final after review on appeal or petition by the United States Government, and then only from the date of filing of the transcript of the judgment with the Comptroller General through the day before the date of the mandate of affirmance; or

(B) on a judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit or the United States Court of Federal Claims under section 2516(b) of title 28, only from the date of filing of the transcript of the judgment with the Comptroller General through the day before the date of the mandate of affirmance.


(2) Interest payable under this subsection in a proceeding reviewed by the Supreme Court is not allowed after the end of the term in which the judgment is affirmed.

(c)(1) A judgment or compromise settlement against the Government shall be paid under this section and sections 2414, 2517, and 2518 1 of title 28 when the judgment or settlement arises out of an express or implied contract made by—

(A) the Army and Air Force Exchange Service;

(B) the Navy Exchanges;

(C) the Marine Corps Exchanges;

(D) the Coast Guard Exchanges; or

(E) the Exchange Councils of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.


(2) The Exchange making the contract shall reimburse the Government for the amount paid by the Government.

(Pub. L. 97–258, §§1, 2(m)(2), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 917, 1062; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1304(a) 31:724a(1st sentence words before 1st proviso). July 27, 1956, ch. 748, §1302(1st sentence), 70 Stat. 694; Aug. 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–187, §3, 75 Stat. 416; July 18, 1966, Pub. L. 89–506, §6, 80 Stat. 307; July 23, 1970, Pub. L. 91–350, §1(c), 84 Stat. 449; restated May 4, 1977, Pub. L. 95–26, §101(2d par. under heading “Claims and Judgments”), 91 Stat. 96; Mar. 7, 1978, Pub. L. 95–240, §201, 92 Stat. 116; Nov. 1, 1978, Pub. L. 95–563, §14(c), 92 Stat. 2390; Apr. 2, 1982, Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §155, title III, §302(c), 96 Stat. 47, 56.
1304(b) 28:2516(b)(less 1st sentence words after last comma).
  31:724a(1st sentence 1st, 2d provisos).
1304(c) 31:724a(1st sentence last proviso)

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated” are omitted as surplus. The words “awards rendered by the Indian Claims Commission” are omitted as executed because under 25:70v the Commission was dissolved and all of its outstanding cases were transferred to the Court of Claims. Under 25:70v–3, judgments on cases transferred to the Court of Claims are judgments under 28:2517 and 2518 and are therefore included under clause (3)(A) of the subsection.

In subsection (b), the text of 28:2516(b)(less 1st sentence words after last comma) is omitted as superseded by 31:724a.

In subsection (b)(1)(A), the words “through the day before the date” are substituted for “to the date” as being more precise.

References in Text

Section 2518 of title 28, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §139(l), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 43.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–258, §2(m)(2)(A), struck out “under section 2411(b) of title 28” after “district court”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 97–258, §2(m)(2)(B), substituted “Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit or the United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 2(m) of Pub. L. 97–258 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Oct. 1, 1982.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Comptroller General under this section transferred, effective June 30, 1996, to Director of Office of Management and Budget, see section 211 of Pub. L. 104–53, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3723, 7430, 7432, 7433 of this title; title 7 section 136m; title 10 sections 2733, 2734; title 16 sections 79g, 429b, 460bb–2; title 23 section 307; title 28 section 1961; title 32 sections 334, 715; title 40 section 759; title 41 section 612.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1305. Miscellaneous permanent appropriations

Necessary amounts are appropriated for the following:

(1) to pay the proceeds of the personal estate of a United States citizen dying abroad to the legal representative of the deceased on proper demand and proof.

(2) to pay interest on the public debt under laws authorizing payment.

(3) to pay proceeds from derelict and salvage cases adjudged by the courts of the United States to salvors.

(4) to make payments required under contracts made under section 108 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5308) for the payment of interest on obligations guaranteed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under section 108.

(5) to make payments required under contracts made under section 103(b) of the Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C. 1453(b)) for projects or programs for which amounts had been committed before January 1, 1975, and for which amounts have not been appropriated.

(6) to pay the interest on the fund derived from the bequest of James Smithson, for the construction of buildings and expenses of the Smithsonian Institution, at the rates determined under section 5590 of the Revised Statutes (20 U.S.C. 54).

annual contributions for assisted housing

(7) to make payments required under contracts made under section 5 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1437c).

college housing grants

(8) to make payments required under contracts made under title IV of the Housing Act of 1950, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1749 et seq.).

rent supplement program

(9) to make payments required under contracts under section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1701s).

homeownership and rental housing assistance

(10) to make payments required under contracts under sections 235 and 236, respectively, of the National Housing Act, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1715z, 1715z–1).

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 97–452, §1(4), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2467; Pub. L. 98–371, title I, §101, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1220.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1982 Act
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1305 31:711(1)–(3), (11a)–(23). R.S. §3689(less last 3 pars. on p. 725 related to redemption of stamps, debentures and other charges, and debentures and drawbacks, 2d par. on p. 726 related to repayment of excess of deposits, 3d–7th pars. on p. 726 related to refunding duties on goods destroyed, marine hospital establishment, refunding duties, refunding proceeds of goods seized and sold, and refunding proceeds of unclaimed merchandise); June 20, 1874, ch. 328, §4(less words between 1st and 2d semicolons), 18 Stat. 109; Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 129, §1(6th par. 3d sentence under heading “War Department”), 18 Stat. 359; June 19, 1878, ch. 329, §1(par. immediately before heading “Office of the Attorney General”), 20 Stat. 205; May 26, 1908, ch. 198, §1(last par. on p. 295), 35 Stat. 295; June 25, 1910, ch. 384, §8(words before semicolon), 36 Stat. 773; Oct. 18, 1972, Pub. L. 92–500, §12(p), 86 Stat. 902; Aug. 22, 1974, Pub. L. 93–383, §§108(i), 117(a), 88 Stat. 649, 653; Oct. 12, 1977, Pub. L. 95–128, §108(2), 91 Stat. 1123.

In the section, the words “out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated” and “and such appropriations shall be deemed permanent annual appropriations” are omitted as surplus.

In clause (2), the text of section 4(words after 2d semicolon) of the Act of June 20, 1874 (ch. 328, 18 Stat. 109), is omitted as expired.

The text of 31:711(3) is omitted as superseded by the source provisions restated in section 1322 of the revised title.

The text of 31:711(11a) is omitted because the Environmental Financing Authority expired on June 30, 1975.

The text of 31:711(12) is omitted as superseded by 31:725s(a)(1st proviso) and 31:725s(a)(59).

The text of 31:711(13) is omitted as obsolete because provisions relating to horses and property lost in military service were repealed by section 1 of the Act of December 16, 1930 (ch. 14, 46 Stat. 1028), and section 3 of the Act of May 29, 1945 (ch. 135, 59 Stat. 225).

The text of 31:711(14) is omitted as superseded by 31:240–243.

The text of 31:711(16) is omitted as obsolete because of the repeal of the permanent appropriation for surveying within land grants (reimbursable) by 31:725(a) and (b)(13).

The text of 31:711(17) is omitted as superseded by the repeal of the appropriation account “Five Percent Funds to States” by 31:725c(a) and (b)(34).

The text of 31:711(18) is omitted as superseded by 31:725b(a) and (b)(8).

The text of 31:711(19) is omitted as superseded by 31:725q(a) and (b)(14).

The text of 31:711(20) is omitted as superseded by section 1(1st par. on p. 447) of the Act of March 3, 1875 (ch. 132, 18 Stat. 447), and section 1(last par. on p. 197) of the Act of August 15, 1876 (ch. 289, 19 Stat. 197).

1983 Act

This amends 31:1305(6) to conform to the Smithsonian Institution charter as amended by section 1 of the Act of June 22, 1982 (Pub. L. 97–199, 96 Stat. 121).

References in Text

Section 103(b) of the Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C. 1453(b)), referred to in par. (5), was omitted from the Code pursuant to section 5316 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, which terminated the authority to make grants or loans under title I of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1450 et seq.) after Jan. 1, 1975.

The Housing Act of 1950, referred to in par. (8), is act Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, 64 Stat. 48, as amended. Title IV of the Housing Act of 1950, which was classified generally to subchapter IX (§1749 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–498, title VII, §702, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1545. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1950 Amendment note set out under section 1701 of Title 12 and Tables.

Section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, as amended, referred to in par. (9), is section 101 of Pub. L. 89–117, title I, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 451, which enacted section 1701s of Title 12, and amended sections 1451 and 1465 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pars. (7) to (10). Pub. L. 98–371 added pars. (7) to (10).

1983—Par. (6). Pub. L. 97–452 substituted provisions relating to payment of the interest on the fund derived from the bequest of James Smithson, for the construction of buildings and the expenses of the Smithsonian Institution, at rates determined under section 5590 of the Revised Statutes, for provisions relating to payment for construction of buildings and expenses of the Smithsonian Institution, at 6 percent on the fund derived from the bequest of James Smithson.

§1306. Use of foreign credits

Foreign credits owed to or owned by the Treasury are not available for expenditure by agencies except as provided annually in general appropriation laws.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 918.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1306 31:724. July 15, 1952, ch. 758, §1415, 66 Stat. 662.

The words “are not available for expenditure by agencies except as provided annually in general appropriation laws” are substituted for “will not be available for expenditure by agencies of the United States after June 30, 1953, except as may be provided for annually in appropriation Acts” because of section 101 of the revised title.

Appropriations of Excess Currencies

Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §566, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1680, provided that: “The provisions of section 1306 of title 31, United States Code, shall not be waived to carry out the provisions of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] by any provision of law enacted after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 6, 1992] unless such provision makes specific reference to this section.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriations acts:

Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §570, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2041.

Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §583, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1251.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 3343 of this title; title 7 sections 1704, 1727e; title 16 section 1537; title 22 sections 1754, 1922, 2103, 2194, 2407, 5495.

§1307. Public building construction

Amounts appropriated to construct public buildings remain available until completion of the work. When a building is completed and outstanding liabilities for the construction are paid, balances remaining shall revert immediately to the Treasury.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 918.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1307 31:682. June 23, 1874, ch. 476, §1, 18 Stat. 275.

The words before the proviso in the Act of June 23, 1874 (ch. 476, 18 Stat. 275), are omitted as obsolete.

§1308. Telephone and metered services

Charges for telephone and metered services (such as gas, electricity, water, and steam) for a time period beginning in one fiscal year or allotment period and ending in another fiscal year or allotment period may be charged against the appropriation or allotment current at the end of the time period covered by the service.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 919.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1308 31:668a. Apr. 27, 1937, ch. 143, 50 Stat. 119; restated Apr. 26, 1939, ch. 103, 53 Stat. 624.

The words “On and after April 27, 1937” are omitted as executed. The words “Charges for telephone and metered services” are substituted for “in making payments for commodities or services the quantity of which is determined by metered readings . . . and for telephone services” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “another fiscal year or allotment period” are substituted for “another”, and the words “time period covered by the service” are substituted for “such period”, for clarity.

§1309. Social security tax

Amounts made available for the compensation of officers and employees of the United States Government may be used to pay taxes imposed on an agency as an employer under chapter 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 3101 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1309 31:699a. July 15, 1952, ch. 758, §1410, 66 Stat. 661.

The word “Amounts” is substituted for “Appropriations and funds” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “salaries, wages, or” are omitted as being included in “compensation”.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

§1310. Appropriations for private organizations

(a) The Secretary of the Treasury shall credit an appropriation for a private organization to the appropriate fiscal official of the organization. The credit shall be carried on the accounts of—

(1) the Treasury; or

(2) a designated depositary of the United States Government (except a national bank).


(b) The fiscal official may pay an amount out of the appropriation only on a check of the fiscal official—

(1) payable to the order of the person to whom payment is to be made; and

(2) that states the specific purpose for which the amount is to be applied.


(c)(1) The fiscal official may pay an amount of less than $20 out of the appropriation on a check—

(A) payable to the order of the fiscal official; and

(B) that states the amount is to be applied to small claims.


(2) The fiscal official shall provide the Secretary or the designated depositary on which the check is drawn with a certified list of the claims. The list shall state the kind and amount of each claim and the name of each claimant.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 919.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1310(a) 31:721(words before 14th comma). June 23, 1874, ch. 455, §1(par. immediately before heading “Smithsonian Institution”), 18 Stat. 216.
1310(b) 31:721(words between 14th comma and proviso).
1310(c) 31:721(proviso).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “by warrant” are omitted as unnecessary because of chapter 33 of the revised title. The word “appropriation” is substituted for “moneys appropriated” for consistency in the revised title. The words “for a private organization” are substituted for “for the aid, use, support, or benefit of any charitable, industrial, or other association, institution, or corporation” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “official” is substituted for “officer” for consistency in the revised title. In clause (1), the word “Treasury” is substituted for “Treasurer of the United States” because of the source provisions restated in section 321 of the revised title and Department of the Treasury Order 229 of January 14, 1974 (39 F.R. 2280). The words “or of an assistant treasurer” in section 1 of the Act of June 23, 1874, are omitted as superseded by section 1(1st par. under heading “Independent Treasury”) of the Act of May 29, 1920 (ch. 214, 41 Stat. 254).

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “The fiscal official may pay an amount out of the appropriation” are substituted for “shall be paid out” for clarity. In clause (1), the words “for services, materials, or any other purpose” are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (2), the words “in writing” are omitted as surplus. The word “purpose” is substituted for “object or purpose” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsections (b)(2) and (c), the word “amount” is substituted for “the avails thereof” for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words “an amount of less than $20 out of the appropriation” are substituted for “payments are to be made under $20” for clarity. In clause (B), the words “in writing on the check” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c)(2), the word “Secretary” is substituted for “Treasurer” because of the source provisions restated in section 321(c) of the revised title.

SUBCHAPTER II—TRUST FUNDS AND REFUNDS

§1321. Trust funds

(a) The following are classified as trust funds:

(1) Philippine special fund (customs duties).

(2) Philippine special fund (internal revenue).

(3) Unclaimed condemnation awards, Department of the Treasury.

(4) Naval reservation, Olangapo civil fund.

(5) Armed Forces Retirement Home Trust Fund.

(6) Return to deported aliens of passage money collected from steamship companies.

(7) Vocational rehabilitation, special fund.

(8) Library of Congress gift fund.

(9) Library of Congress trust fund, investment account.

(10) Library of Congress trust fund, income from investment account.

(11) Library of Congress trust fund, permanent loan.

(12) Relief and rehabilitation, Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act.

(13) Cooperative work, Forest Service.

(14) Wages and effects of American seamen, Department of Commerce.

(15) Pension money, Saint Elizabeths Hospital.

(16) Personal funds of patients, Saint Elizabeths Hospital.

(17) National Park Service, donations.

(18) Purchase of lands, national parks, donations.

(19) Extension of winter-feed facilities of game animals of Yellowstone National Park, donations.

(20) Indian moneys, proceeds of labor, agencies, schools, and so forth.

(21) Funds of Federal prisoners.

(22) Commissary funds, Federal prisons.

(23) Pay of the Navy, deposit funds.

(24) Pay of Marine Corps, deposit funds.

(25) Pay of the Army, deposit fund.

(26) Preservation birthplace of Abraham Lincoln.

(27) Funds contributed for flood control, Mississippi River, its outlets and tributaries.

(28) Funds contributed for flood control, Sacramento River, California.

(29) Effects of deceased employees, Department of the Treasury.

(30) Money and effects of deceased patients, Public Health Service.

(31) Effects of deceased employees, Department of Commerce.

(32) Topographic survey of the United States, contributions.

(33) National Institutes of Health, gift fund.

(34) National Institutes of Health, conditional gift fund.

(35) Patients’ deposits, United States Marine Hospital, Carville, Louisiana.

(36) Estates of deceased personnel, Department of the Army.

(37) Effects of deceased employees, Department of the Interior.

(38) Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields memorial fund.

(39) Petersburg National Military Park fund.

(40) Gorgas memorial laboratory quotas.

(41) Contributions to International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico.

(42) Salvage proceeds, American vessels.

(43) Wages due American seamen.

(44) Federal Industrial Institution for Women, contributions for chapel.

(45) General post fund, National Homes, Department of Veterans Affairs.

(46) Repatriation of American seamen.

(47) Expenses, public survey work, general.

(48) Expenses, public survey work, Alaska.

(49) Funds contributed for improvement of roads, bridges, and trails, Alaska.

(50) Protective works and measures, Lake of the Woods and Rainy River, Minnesota.

(51) Washington redemption fund.

(52) Permit fund, District of Columbia.

(53) Unclaimed condemnation awards, National Capital Park and Planning Commission, District of Columbia.

(54) Unclaimed condemnation awards, Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway Commission, District of Columbia.

(55) Miscellaneous trust fund deposits, District of Columbia.

(56) Surplus fund, District of Columbia.

(57) Relief and rehabilitation, District of Columbia Workmen's Compensation Act.

(58) Inmates’ fund, workhouse and reformatory, District of Columbia.

[(59) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XV, §1533(c)(1)(A)(ii), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1735.]

(60) Chamber Music Auditorium, Library of Congress.

(61) Bequest of Gertrude Hubbard.

(62) Puerto Rico special fund (Internal Revenue).

(63) Miscellaneous trust funds, Department of State.

(64) Funds contributed for improvement of (name of river or harbor).

(65) Funds advanced for improvement of (name of river or harbor).

(66) Funds contributed for Indian projects.

(67) Miscellaneous trust funds of Indian tribes.

(68) Ship's stores profits, Navy.

(69) Completing Surveys within Railroad Land Grants.

(70) Memorial to Women of World War, contributions.

(71) Funds contributed for Memorial to John Ericsson.

(72) American National Red Cross Building, contributions.

(73) Estate of decedents, Department of State, Trust Fund.

(74) Funds due Incompetent Beneficiaries, Department of Veterans Affairs.

(75) To promote the Education of the Blind (principal).

(76) Paving Government Road across Fort Sill Military Reservation, Okla.

(77) Bequest of William F. Edgar, Museum and Library, office of Surgeon General of the Army.

(78) Funds Contributed for Flood Control (name of river, harbor, or project).

(79) Matured obligations of the District of Columbia.

(80) To promote the education of the blind (interest).

[(81) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XV, §1533(c)(1)(A)(ii), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1735.]

(82) Post-Vietnam Era Veterans Education Account, Department of Veterans Affairs.

(83) United States Government life insurance fund, Department of Veterans Affairs.

(84) Estates of deceased soldiers, United States Army.

(85) Teachers Retirement Fund Deductions, District of Columbia.

(86) Teachers Retirement Fund, Government Reserves, District of Columbia.

(87) Expenses of Smithsonian Institution Trust Fund (principal).

(88) Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund.

(89) Canal Zone Retirement and Disability Fund.

(90) Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund.

(91) Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund.


(b) Amounts (except amounts received by the Comptroller of the Currency and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) that are analogous to the funds named in subsection (a) of this section and are received by the United States Government as trustee shall be deposited in an appropriate trust fund account in the Treasury. Amounts accruing to these funds (except to the trust fund “Armed Forces Retirement Home Trust Fund”) are appropriated to be disbursed in compliance with the terms of the trust. Expenditures from the trust fund “Armed Forces Retirement Home Trust Fund” shall be made only under annual appropriations and only if the appropriations are specifically authorized by law.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 98–426, §27(d)(2), Sept. 28, 1984, 98 Stat. 1654; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title III, §341(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1419; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XV, §1533(c)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1735; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(l)(1), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 277; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXI, §310001(d), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2103.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1321(a) 31:725s(a)(1st sentence, cls. (1)–(84)), (c). June 26, 1934, ch. 756, §20(less (a)(last sentence last proviso)), 48 Stat. 1233; June 15, 1943, ch. 125, §§1(a), 2(a), 57 Stat. 152, 153; Oct. 15, 1976, Pub. L. 94–502, §407, 90 Stat. 2397.
1321(b) 31:725s(a)(2d sentence, last sentence 1st, 2d provisos).

In the section, the cross-references to subsection (b) in the source provisions being restated are assumed to be references to clauses (1)–(84) of subsection (a) because the source provisions contain no subsection (b).

In subsection (a), the words “appearing on the books of the Government” and “on the books of the Treasury” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “effective July 1, 1935” and the 2d proviso are omitted as executed.

References in Text

The Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(12), is act Mar. 4, 1927, ch. 509, 44 Stat. 1424, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 18 (§901 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 901 of Title 33 and Tables.

The International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico, referred to in subsec. (a)(41), was redesignated the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, by the Water Treaty of 1944.

The National Capital Park and Planning Commission, referred to in subsec. (a)(53), was abolished and its functions transferred to the National Capital Planning Commission by section 9 of act June 6, 1924, ch. 270, as added by act July 19, 1952, ch. 949, §1, 66 Stat. 790, which enacted section 71h of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

The Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway Commission, referred to in subsec. (a)(54), was abolished and its functions transferred to the Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, Department of the Interior, by Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §2, June 10, 1933, set out as a note under section 901 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The District of Columbia Workmen's Compensation Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(57), probably means the District of Columbia Unemployment Compensation Act which is act Aug. 28, 1935, ch. 794, 49 Stat. 946, as amended, and appears in chapter 1 (§46–101 et seq.) of Title 46, Social Security, of the District of Columbia Code.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(91). Pub. L. 103–322 added par. (91).

1991—Subsec. (a)(45), (74), (82), (83). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”, wherever appearing.

1990—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–510, §1533(c)(1)(A)(i), substituted “Armed Forces Retirement Home Trust Fund” for “Personal funds of deceased inmates, Naval Home”.

Subsec. (a)(59), (81). Pub. L. 101–510, §1533(c)(1)(A)(ii), struck out pars. (59) “Soldiers’ Home, permanent fund.” and (81) “Soldiers’ Home, interest account.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–510, §1533(c)(1)(B), substituted “Armed Forces Retirement Home Trust Fund” for “Soldiers’ Home, Permanent Fund” in two places.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “annual appropriations and only if the appropriations are specifically authorized by law.” for “annual appropriations. Those appropriations are authorized to be made.”

1984—Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 98–426 substituted “Longshore” for “Longshoremen's”.

Change of Name

The United States Soldiers Home was renamed the United States Soldiers’ and Airmen's Home, effective Sept. 7, 1972. See 37 F.R. 23533, Nov. 4, 1972.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 341(b) of Pub. L. 101–189 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to appropriations for the operation of the United States Soldiers’ and Airmen's Home made for fiscal years after fiscal year 1990.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–426 effective Sept. 28, 1984, see section 28(e)(1) of Pub. L. 98–426, set out as a note under section 901 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

Trust Funds for Individual Indians

Section 725s of former Title 31 (now this section) was modified by act June 25, 1936, ch. 814, 49 Stat. 1928, providing that it shall not be applicable to funds held in trust for individual Indians, associations of individual Indians, or for Indian corporations chartered under sections 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466 to 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476 to 478, and 479 of Title 25, Indians.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1322 of this title; title 20 section 225; title 24 section 431; title 25 section 385a; title 33 section 770; title 38 sections 8502, 8520.

§1322. Payments of unclaimed trust fund amounts and refund of amounts erroneously deposited

(a) On September 30 of each year, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to the Treasury trust fund receipt account “Unclaimed Moneys of Individuals Whose Whereabouts are Unknown” that part of the balance of a trust fund account named in section 1321(a)(1)–(82) of this title or an analogous trust fund established under section 1321(b) of this title that has been in the fund for more than one year and represents money belonging to individuals whose whereabouts are unknown. Subsequent claims to the transferred funds shall be paid from the account “Unclaimed Moneys of Individuals Whose Whereabouts are Unknown”.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, necessary amounts are appropriated to the Secretary of the Treasury to make payments from—

(1) the Treasury trust fund receipt account “Unclaimed Moneys of Individuals Whose Whereabouts are Unknown”; and

(2) the United States Government account “Refund of Moneys Erroneously Received and Covered” and other collections erroneously deposited that are not properly chargeable to another appropriation.


(c)(1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall hold in the Treasury trust fund receipt account “Unclaimed Moneys of Individuals Whose Whereabouts Are Unknown” the balance remaining after the final distribution of unclaimed Postal Savings System deposits under subsection (a) of the first section of the Act of August 13, 1971 (Public Law 92–117; 85 Stat. 337). The Secretary shall use the balance to pay claims for Postal Savings System deposits without regard to the State law or the law of other jurisdictions of deposit concerning the disposition of unclaimed or abandoned property.

(2) Necessary amounts may be appropriated without fiscal year limitation to the trust fund receipt account to pay claims for deposits when the balance in the account is not sufficient to pay the claims made within the time limitation set forth in paragraph (3) of this subsection.

(3) No claim for any Postal Savings System deposit may be brought more than one year from the date of the enactment of the Postal Savings System Statute of Limitations Act.

(4) The United States Postal Service shall assist the Secretary of the Treasury in providing public notice of the time limitation set forth in paragraph (3) of this subsection by posting notices thereof in all post offices as soon as practicable after the date of the enactment of the Postal Savings System Statute of Limitations Act.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 922; Pub. L. 98–359, §2, July 13, 1984, 98 Stat. 402.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1322(a) 31:725s(a)(last sentence last proviso). June 26, 1934, ch. 756, §20(a)(last sentence last proviso), 48 Stat. 1233; Apr. 21, 1976, Pub. L. 94–273, §2(16), 90 Stat. 375.
1322(b) 31:725p–1. June 30, 1949, ch. 286, §101(par. under heading “Payments of Unclaimed Moneys”), 63 Stat. 359.
  31:725q–1. June 30, 1949, ch. 286, §101(par. under heading “Refund of Moneys Erroneously Received and Covered”), 63 Stat. 358.
1322(c) 31:725p(note). Aug. 13, 1971, Pub. L. 92–117, 85 Stat. 337.

In subsection (a), the words “directed to be established in section 725p of this title” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “Secretary of the Treasury” are substituted for “Treasury Department” for consistency. The words “out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated” in 31:725q–1 are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “of the character formerly chargeable to the appropriation accounts abolished under section 725p of this title” in 31:725p–1 are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. In clause (2), the words “United States Government account ‘Refund of Moneys Erroneously Received and Covered’ ” are substituted for “of the character formerly chargeable to the appropriation accounts abolished under section 725q of this title” in 31:725q–1 for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “claims for . . . deposits” are substituted for “claims by or on behalf of depositors” to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of section 1(a) of the Act of August 13, 1971 (Pub. L. 92–117, 85 Stat. 337), is omitted as executed.

References in Text

Subsection (a) of the first section of the Act of August 13, 1971 (Public Law 92–117; 85 Stat. 337), referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1081.

The date of the enactment of the Postal Savings System Statute of Limitations Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(3) and (4), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 98–359, which was approved July 13, 1984.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–359 substituted provision authorizing the balance to be held by the Secretary for provision authorizing the balance to be held by the Secretary in perpetuity.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–359 substituted reference to par. (3) of this subsection for reference to par. (1) of this subsection.

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 98–359 added pars. (3) and (4).

Cross References

Deposit in trust fund of unclaimed money, etc., of deceased seaman, see section 10710 of Title 46, Shipping.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 331 of this title; title 20 section 225; title 33 section 770; title 38 sections 3232, 5504.

§1323. Trust funds for certain fees, donations, quasi-public amounts, and unearned amounts

(a) Amounts from the following sources held in checking accounts of disbursing officials shall be deposited in the Treasury to the appropriate trust fund receipt accounts:

(1) unearned money, lands (Department of the Interior).

(2) reentry permit fees (Department of Justice).

(3) naturalization fees (Department of Justice).

(4) registry fees (Department of Justice).


(b) Amounts deposited under subsection (a) of this section are appropriated for refunds. Earned parts of those amounts shall be transferred and credited to the appropriate receipt fund accounts.

(c) Donations, quasi-public amounts, and unearned amounts shall be deposited in the Treasury as trust funds and are appropriated for disbursement under the terms of the trusts when the donation or amount is—

(1) administered by officers and employees of the United States Government; and

(2) carried in checking accounts of disbursing officials or others required to account to the Comptroller General (except clerks and marshals of the United States district courts).

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 922.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1323(a), (b) 31:725r(less proviso). June 26, 1934, ch. 756, §19, 48 Stat. 1232; Dec. 21, 1944, ch. 631, §2, 58 Stat. 845.
1323(c) 31:725r(proviso).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “Effective July 1, 1935” are omitted as executed. In clauses (2)–(4), the words “Department of Justice” are substituted for “Labor Department” (subsequently changed to “Justice Department” because of Reorganization Plan No. 5 of 1940 (eff. June 14, 1940, 54 Stat. 1238)) for consistency with title 28.

The words related to Patent Office (subsequently changed to Patent and Trademark Office because of section 3 of the Act of January 2, 1975 (Pub. L. 93–596, 88 Stat. 1949)), are omitted as superseded by 35:42.

In subsection (c), the words “officers and employees of the United States Government” are substituted for “officers of the United States by virtue of their official capacity” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

§1324. Refund of internal revenue collections

(a) Necessary amounts are appropriated to the Secretary of the Treasury for refunding internal revenue collections as provided by law, including payment of—

(1) claims for prior fiscal years; and

(2) accounts arising under—

(A) “Allowance or drawback (Internal Revenue)”;

(B) “Redemption of stamps (Internal Revenue)”;

(C) “Refunding legacy taxes, Act of March 30, 1928”;

(D) “Repayment of taxes on distilled spirits destroyed by casualty”; and

(E) “Refunds and payments of processing and related taxes”.


(b) Disbursements may be made from the appropriation made by this section only for—

(1) refunds to the limit of liability of an individual tax account; and

(2) refunds due from credit provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.) enacted before January 1, 1978.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 923; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1324(a) 31:725q–1a(1st par.). June 19, 1948, ch. 558, §101(words before proviso in par. under heading “Bureau of Internal Revenue”), 62 Stat. 561.
1324(b) 31:725q–1a(last par.). June 19, 1948, ch. 558, 62 Stat. 560, §302(last par); added Sept. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–355, §303, 92 Stat. 563.

In subsection (a), the words “Necessary amounts are appropriated to the Secretary of the Treasury” are added to reflect the introductory language of the Act of June 19, 1948. The words “on and after June 19, 1948” are omitted as executed.

In subsection (b), the words “appropriation made by this section” are substituted for “the appropriation to the Treasury Department entitled ‘Bureau of Internal Revenue Refunding Internal-Revenue Collections’ ” to eliminate unnecessary words.

References in Text

Act of March 30, 1928, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(C), is act Mar. 30, 1928, ch. 302, 45 Stat. 398, which is not classified to the Code.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

Coordination With Refund Provision

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11116, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–415, provided that: “For purposes of section 1324(b)(2) of title 31 of the United States Code, section 32 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 32] (as amended by this Act) shall be considered to be a credit provision of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 enacted before January 1, 1978.”

SUBCHAPTER III—LIMITATIONS, EXCEPTIONS, AND PENALTIES

§1341. Limitations on expending and obligating amounts

(a)(1) An officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government may not—

(A) make or authorize an expenditure or obligation exceeding an amount available in an appropriation or fund for the expenditure or obligation;

(B) involve either government in a contract or obligation for the payment of money before an appropriation is made unless authorized by law;

(C) make or authorize an expenditure or obligation of funds required to be sequestered under section 252 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985; or

(D) involve either government in a contract or obligation for the payment of money required to be sequestered under section 252 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.


(2) This subsection does not apply to a corporation getting amounts to make loans (except paid in capital amounts) without legal liability of the United States Government.

(b) An article to be used by an executive department in the District of Columbia that could be bought out of an appropriation made to a regular contingent fund of the department may not be bought out of another amount available for obligation.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 923; Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13213(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–621.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1341(a) 31:665(a), (d)(2)(last sentence related to spending and obligations). R.S. §3679(a), (d)(2)(last sentence related to spending and obligations); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1484, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 765.
1341(b) 31:669(words after semicolon). Aug. 23, 1912, ch. 350, §6(words after semicolon), 37 Stat. 414.

In subsection (b), the words “another amount available for obligation” are substituted for “any other fund” for consistency in the revised title.

References in Text

Section 252 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C), (D), is classified to section 902 of Title 2, The Congress.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101–508 added subpars. (C) and (D).

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1349, 1350, 1351 of this title; title 2 section 60a–2; title 5 section 5306; title 12 section 1749bbb–8; title 19 section 2081; title 20 section 1225; title 22 sections 277d–3, 1461b, 2295b, 3723, 5857; title 26 section 7608; title 33 section 891d; title 40 section 490e; title 42 sections 2204, 2204a, 2210, 2295, 2394, 9619; title 43 section 377b; title 49 sections 40110, 40111, 40112.

§1342. Limitation on voluntary services

An officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government may not accept voluntary services for either government or employ personal services exceeding that authorized by law except for emergencies involving the safety of human life or the protection of property. This section does not apply to a corporation getting amounts to make loans (except paid in capital amounts) without legal liability of the United States Government. As used in this section, the term “emergencies involving the safety of human life or the protection of property” does not include ongoing, regular functions of government the suspension of which would not imminently threaten the safety of human life or the protection of property.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 923; Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13213(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–621.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1342 31:665(b). R.S. §3679(b), (d)(2)(last sentence related to voluntary services); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1484, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 765.
  31:665(d)(2)(last sentence related to voluntary services).

The words “District of Columbia government” are added because of section 47–105 of the D.C. Code.

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–508 inserted at end “As used in this section, the term ‘emergencies involving the safety of human life or the protection of property’ does not include ongoing, regular functions of government the suspension of which would not imminently threaten the safety of human life or the protection of property.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1349, 1350, 1351 of this title; title 2 section 60a–2; title 5 sections 568, 583, 595, 3102, 3111, 5306; title 10 section 1588; title 15 sections 636, 2076, 2218; title 18 section 4204; title 19 section 2171; title 20 sections 5933, 6104; title 22 sections 277d–3, 1461b, 2124c, 2509, 3723, 5422; title 25 section 2020; title 28 section 995; title 29 sections 783, 1579, 2635; title 30 section 1807; title 33 section 1123; title 36 section 155b; title 42 sections 682, 1314a, 2204, 2204a, 2210, 2295, 2394, 3788, 4343, 5613, 7705c, 10248, 12651g; title 44 section 2105; title 46 App. section 1717; title 47 sections 154, 332.

§1343. Buying and leasing passenger motor vehicles and aircraft

(a) In this section, buying a passenger motor vehicle or aircraft includes a transfer of the vehicle or aircraft between agencies.

(b) An appropriation may be expended to buy or lease passenger motor vehicles only—

(1) for the use of—

(A) the President;

(B) the secretaries to the President; or

(C) the heads of executive departments listed in section 101 of title 5; or


(2) as specifically provided by law.


(c)(1) Except as specifically provided by law, an agency may use an appropriation to buy a passenger motor vehicle (except a bus or ambulance) only at a total cost (except costs required only for transportation) that—

(A) includes the price of systems and equipment the Administrator of General Services decides is incorporated customarily in standard passenger motor vehicles completely equipped for ordinary operation;

(B) includes the value of a vehicle used in exchange;

(C) is not more than the maximum price established by the agency having authority under law to establish a maximum price; and

(D) is not more than the amount specified in a law.


(2) Additional systems and equipment may be bought for a passenger motor vehicle if the Administrator decides the purchase is appropriate. The price of additional systems or equipment is not included in deciding whether the cost of the vehicle is within a maximum price specified in a law.

(d) An appropriation (except an appropriation for the armed forces) is available to buy, maintain, or operate an aircraft only if the appropriation specifically authorizes the purchase, maintenance, or operation.

(e) This section does not apply to—

(1) buying, maintaining, and repairing passenger motor vehicles by the United States Capitol Police;

(2) buying, maintaining, and repairing vehicles necessary to carry out projects to improve, preserve, and protect rivers and harbors; or

(3) leasing, maintaining, repairing, or operating motor passenger vehicles necessary in the field work of the Department of Agriculture.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 924.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1343(a) 31:638a(e). July 16, 1914, ch. 141, §5(a), (b), (e), 38 Stat. 508; restated Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 744, §16(a), 60 Stat. 810, 811.
1343(b) 31:638a(a).
1343(c) 31:638a(c)(1). July 16, 1914, ch. 141, §5(c)(1), 38 Stat. 508; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 744, §16(a), 60 Stat. 810; restated Sept. 26, 1970, Pub. L. 91–423, 84 Stat. 879.
1343(d) 31:638a(b).
1343(e) 31:638a–1. July 25, 1975, Pub. L. 94–59, §1108, 89 Stat. 300.
  31:638d. Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 142, §10, 38 Stat. 1054.
  31:638e. Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313(last proviso on p. 491), 39 Stat. 491.

In subsection (a), the word “agency” is substituted for “department of the Government” because of section 101 of the revised title and for consistency with the other source provisions restated in the section.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “buy or lease” are substituted for “purchase or hire” for consistency. In clause (1)(C), the words “section 101 of title 5” are used because of section 7(b) of the Act of September 6, 1966 (Pub. L. 89–554, 80 Stat. 631).

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the word “agency” is substituted for “department” for consistency. The words “total cost” are substituted for “cost” because of the restatement. The words “(except costs required only for transportation)” are substituted for “which shall be in addition to the amount required for transportation” for clarity. Clause (A) is substituted for “completely equipped for operation” and 31:638a(c)(1)(2d sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “Notwithstanding any other provisions of law” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words “armed forces” are substituted for “Military and Naval Establishments” for consistency.

In subsection (e)(2), the words “motor boats, trucks” in 31:638d are omitted as being included in “vehicles”. The words “adopted by Congress” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(3), the words “horse-drawn” in 31:638e are omitted because the section applies only to motor vehicles and aircraft described in 31:638a and also is obsolete. The words “motor boats” are omitted as being included in “vehicles”.

Motor Vehicles Purchased for Intelligence Activities; Exception From Monetary Limitations

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8105, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1464, provided that: “During the current fiscal year and thereafter, monetary limitations on the purchase price of a passenger motor vehicle shall not apply to vehicles purchased for intelligence activities conducted pursuant to Executive Order 12333 [50 U.S.C. 401 note] or successor orders.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9038, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1910.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8038, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1180.

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8039, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1883.

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9049, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1139.

Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8086, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–32.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8119], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329–84.

Maximum Purchase Price of Motor Vehicles; Exceptions

Act Nov. 19, 1995, Pub. L. 104–52, title VI, §604, 109 Stat. 497, provided that: “Unless otherwise specifically provided, the maximum amount allowable during the current fiscal year in accordance with section 16 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (60 Stat. 810 [31 U.S.C. 1343]), for the purchase of any passenger motor vehicle (exclusive of buses, ambulances, law enforcement, and undercover surveillance vehicles), is hereby fixed at $8,100 except station wagons for which the maximum shall be $9,100: Provided, That these limits may be exceeded by not to exceed $3,700 for police-type vehicles, and by not to exceed $4,000 for special heavy-duty vehicles: Provided further, That the limits set forth in this section may not be exceeded by more than five percent for electric or hybrid vehicles purchased for demonstration under the provisions of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 [15 U.S.C. 2501 et seq]: Provided further, That the limits set forth in this section may be exceeded by the incremental cost of clean alternative fuels vehicles acquired pursuant to Public Law 101–549 [see Tables for classification] over the cost of comparable conventionally fueled vehicles.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Sept. 30, 1994, Pub. L. 103–329, title VI, §604, 108 Stat. 2416.

Oct. 28, 1993, Pub. L. 103–123, title VI, §604, 107 Stat. 1259.

Oct. 6, 1992, Pub. L. 102–393, title VI, §605, 106 Stat. 1766.

Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–141, title VI, §605, 105 Stat. 868.

Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–509, title VI, §601, 104 Stat. 1470.

Nov. 3, 1989, Pub. L. 101–136, title VI, §601, 103 Stat. 816.

Sept. 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–440, title VI, §601, 102 Stat. 1751.

Dec. 22, 1987, Pub. L. 100–202, §101(m) [title VI, §601], 101 Stat. 1329–390, 1329–419.

Oct. 18, 1986, Pub. L. 99–500, §101(m) [title VI, §601], 100 Stat. 1783–308, 1783–328, and Oct. 30, 1986, Pub. L. 99–591, §101(m) [title VI, §601], 100 Stat. 3341–308, 3341–328.

Dec. 19, 1985, Pub. L. 99–190, §101(h) [H.R. 3036, title VI, §601], 99 Stat. 1291.

Oct. 12, 1984, Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(j) [H.R. 5798, title VI, §602], 98 Stat. 1963.

Nov. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 98–151, §101(f) [H.R. 4139, title VI, §602], 97 Stat. 973.

Dec. 21, 1982, Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(a) [H.R. 7158, title VI, §602], 96 Stat. 1830.

Dec. 15, 1981, Pub. L. 97–92, §101(a) [H.R. 4121, title VI, §602], 95 Stat. 1183.

Dec. 16, 1980, Pub. L. 96–536, §113, 94 Stat. 3171.

Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–74, title VI, §601, 93 Stat. 573.

Oct. 10, 1978, Pub. L. 95–429, title VI, §601, 92 Stat. 1015.

July 31, 1977, Pub. L. 95–81, title VI, §601, 91 Stat. 354.

July 14, 1976, Pub. L. 94–363, title VI, §601, 90 Stat. 977.

Aug. 9, 1975, Pub. L. 94–91, title VI, §601, 89 Stat. 458.

Aug. 21, 1974, Pub. L. 93–381, title VI, §601, 88 Stat. 630.

Oct. 30, 1973, Pub. L. 93–143, title VI, §601, 87 Stat. 524.

July 13, 1972, Pub. L. 92–351, title VI, §601, 86 Stat. 487.

July 9, 1971, Pub. L. 92–49, title VI, §601, 85 Stat. 122.

Oct. 7, 1970, Pub. L. 91–439, title V, §501, 84 Stat. 902.

Dec. 11, 1969, Pub. L. 91–144, title V, §501, 83 Stat. 336.

Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–479, title V, §501, 82 Stat. 717.

Nov. 20, 1967, Pub. L. 90–147, title V, §501, 81 Stat. 482.

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–689, title V, §501, 80 Stat. 1014.

Oct. 28, 1965, Pub. L. 89–299, title V, §501, 79 Stat. 1108.

Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–511, title V, §501, 78 Stat. 693.

Dec. 31, 1963, Pub. L. 88–257, title V, §501, 77 Stat. 855.

Oct. 24, 1962, Pub. L. 87–880, title V, §501, 76 Stat. 1227.

Aug. 3, 1961, Pub. L. 87–125, title V, §501, 75 Stat. 282.

July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–642, title II, §201, 74 Stat. 476.

July 8, 1959, Pub. L. 86–79, title II, §201, 73 Stat. 165.

June 25, 1958, Pub. L. 85–468, title II, §201, 72 Stat. 224.

June 5, 1957, Pub. L. 85–48, title II, §201, 71 Stat. 53.

June 13, 1956, ch. 385, title II, §201, 70 Stat. 279.

June 29, 1955, ch. 226, title II, §201, 69 Stat. 195.

Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 935, Ch. XIII, §1301, 68 Stat. 828.

Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 340, Ch. XIII, §1301, 67 Stat. 435.

July 15, 1952, ch. 758, Ch. XIV, §1401, 66 Stat. 659.

Nov. 1, 1951, ch. 664, Ch. XIII, §1301, 65 Stat. 755.

Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. XII, §1201, 64 Stat. 763.

Aug. 24, 1949, ch. 506, title III, §301, 63 Stat. 661.

Apr. 20, 1948, ch. 219, title II, §201, 62 Stat. 193.

July 30, 1947, ch. 359, title II, §201, 61 Stat. 608.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 5 section 3374; title 22 sections 2514, 3622; title 33 section 576a; title 40 section 491.

§1344. Passenger carrier use

(a)(1) Funds available to a Federal agency, by appropriation or otherwise, may be expended by the Federal agency for the maintenance, operation, or repair of any passenger carrier only to the extent that such carrier is used to provide transportation for official purposes. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, transporting any individual other than the individuals listed in subsections (b) and (c) of this section between such individual's residence and such individual's place of employment is not transportation for an official purpose.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), transportation between the residence of an officer or employee and various locations that is—

(A) required for the performance of field work, in accordance with regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (e) of this section, or

(B) essential for the safe and efficient performance of intelligence, counterintelligence, protective services, or criminal law enforcement duties,


is transportation for an official purpose, when approved in writing by the head of the Federal agency.

(b) A passenger carrier may be used to transport between residence and place of employment the following officers and employees of Federal agencies:

(1)(A) the President and the Vice President;

(B) no more than 6 officers or employees in the Executive Office of the President, as designated by the President; and

(C) no more than 10 additional officers or employees of Federal agencies, as designated by the President;

(2) the Chief Justice and the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court;

(3)(A) officers compensated at Level I of the Executive Schedule pursuant to section 5312 of title 5; and

(B) a single principal deputy to an officer described in subclause (A) of this clause, when a determination is made by such officer that such transportation is appropriate;

(4) principal diplomatic and consular officials abroad, and the United States Ambassador to the United Nations;

(5) the Deputy Secretary of Defense and Under Secretaries of Defense, the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the members and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Commandant of the Coast Guard;

(6) the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation;

(7) the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System;

(8) the Comptroller General of the United States and the Postmaster General of the United States; and

(9) an officer or employee with regard to whom the head of a Federal agency makes a determination, in accordance with subsection (d) of this section and with regulations prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (e), that highly unusual circumstances present a clear and present danger, that an emergency exists, or that other compelling operational considerations make such transportation essential to the conduct of official business.


Except as provided in paragraph (2) of subsection (d), any authorization made pursuant to clause (9) of this subsection to permit the use of a passenger carrier to transport an officer or employee between residence and place of employment shall be effective for not more than 15 calendar days.

(c) A passenger carrier may be used to transport between residence and place of employment any person for whom protection is specifically authorized pursuant to section 3056(a) of title 18 or for whom transportation is authorized pursuant to section 28 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, section 2637 of title 10, or section 8(a)(1) of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949.

(d)(1) Any determination made under subsection (b)(9) of this section shall be in writing and shall include the name and title of the officer or employee affected, the reason for such determination, and the duration of the authorization for such officer or employee to use a passenger carrier for transportation between residence and place of employment.

(2) If a clear and present danger, an emergency, or a compelling operational consideration described in subsection (b)(9) of this section extends or may extend for a period in excess of 15 calendar days, the head of the Federal agency shall determine whether an authorization under such paragraph shall be extended in excess of 15 calendar days for a period of not more than 90 additional calendar days. Determinations made under this paragraph may be reviewed by the head of such agency at the end of each such period, and, where appropriate, a subsequent determination may be made whether such danger, emergency, or consideration continues to exist and whether an additional extension, not to exceed 90 calendar days, may be authorized. Determinations made under this paragraph shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (e).

(3) The authority to make designations under subsection (b)(1) of this section and to make determinations pursuant to subsections (a)(2) and (b)(3)(B) and (9) of this section and pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection may not be delegated, except that, with respect to the Executive Office of the President, the President may delegate the authority of the President under subsection (b)(9) of this section to an officer in the Executive Office of the President. No designation or determination under this section may be made solely or principally for the comfort or convenience of the officer or employee.

(4) Notification of each designation or determination made under subsection (b)(1), (3)(B), and (9) of this section and under paragraph (2) of this subsection, including the name and title of the officer or employee affected, the reason for any determination under subsection (b)(9), and the expected duration of any authorization under subsection (b)(9), shall be transmitted promptly to the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Governmental Affairs of the Senate.

(e)(1) Not later than March 15, 1987, the Administrator of General Services, after consultation with the Comptroller General, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, shall promulgate regulations governing the heads of all Federal agencies in making the determinations authorized by subsections (a)(2)(A), (b)(9), and (d)(2) of this section. Such regulations shall specify that the comfort and convenience of an officer or employee is not sufficient justification for authorizations of transportation under this section.

(2) In promulgating regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Administrator of General Services shall provide criteria defining the term “field work” for purposes of subsection (a)(2)(A) of this section. Such criteria shall ensure that transportation between an employee's residence and the location of the field work will be authorized only to the extent that such transportation will substantially increase the efficiency and economy of the Government.

(f) Each Federal agency shall maintain logs or other records necessary to establish the official purpose for Government transportation provided between an individual's residence and such individual's place of employment pursuant to this section.

(g) As used in this section—

(1) the term “passenger carrier” means a passenger motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, ship, or other similar means of transportation that is owned or leased by the United States Government; and

(2) the term “Federal agency” means—

(A) a department (as such term is defined in section 18 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (41 U.S.C. 5a));

(B) an Executive department (as such term is defined in section 101 of title 5);

(C) a military department (as such term is defined in section 102 of title 5);

(D) a Government corporation (as such term is defined in section 103(1) of title 5);

(E) a Government controlled corporation (as such term is defined in section 103(2) of title 5);

(F) a mixed-ownership Government corporation (as such term is defined in section 9101(2) of this title);

(G) any establishment in the executive branch of the Government (including the Executive Office of the President);

(H) any independent regulatory agency (including an independent regulatory agency specified in section 3502(10) 1 of title 44);

(I) the Smithsonian Institution; and

(J) any nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the United States,


except that such term does not include the government of the District of Columbia.


(h) Notwithstanding section 410(a) of title 39, this section applies to the United States Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 924; Pub. L. 99–550, §1(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3067; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1314(d)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1176; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329, 1329–26; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title III, §326(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1531; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(f)(2), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1363.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1344(a) 31:638a(c)(2)(1st sentence). July 16, 1914, ch. 141, §5(c)(2)(1st, last sentences), 38 Stat. 508; restated Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 744, §16(a), 60 Stat. 810.
1344(b) 31:638a(c)(2)(last sentence).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “officers and employees of the Government” are substituted for “officers and employees” for clarity. In clause (2), the words “performing field work requiring transportation” are substituted for “engaged in field work the character of whose duties makes such transportation necessary” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “agency” is substituted for “department” because of section 101 of the revised title and for consistency with the source provisions restated in the section and section 1341.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “section 101 of title 5” are used because of section 7(b) of the Act of September 6, 1966 (Pub. L. 89–554, 80 Stat. 631).

In subsection (b)(3), the words “ambassadors, ministers, charges d'affaires” are omitted as being included in “principal diplomatic and consular officials”.

References in Text

Section 28 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, referred to in subsec. (c), is classified to section 2700 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section 8(a)(1) of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (c), is classified to section 403j(a)(1) of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), (4), was redesignated subsec. (b)(3)(B) by Pub. L. 100–202. See 1987 Amendment note below.

Section 3502 of title 44, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(H), which in par. (10) defined “independent regulatory agency”, was omitted in the general amendment of chapter 35 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, by Pub. L. 104–13, §2, May 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 163. Pub. L. 104–13 enacted a new section 3502 of Title 44 which also defines “independent regulatory agency”.

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (b), (d), (e). Pub. L. 103–272 amended Pub. L. 100–202. See 1987 Amendment notes below.

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510 inserted “, section 2637 of title 10,” after “Act of 1956”.

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(1)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, added cl. (2), redesignated former cl. (2) as (3) and in subcl. (B) substituted “subclause (A) of this clause” for “subparagraph (A) of this paragraph”, redesignated former cls. (3) to (8) as (4) to (9), respectively, and in last sentence substituted “clause (9)” for “paragraph (8)”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–180 inserted “the members and Vice Chairman of” before “the Joint Chiefs of Staff”.

Subsec. (d)(1), (2). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(2)(A)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, substituted “subsection (b)(9) of this section” for “paragraph (8) of subsection (b)”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(2)(B)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, substituted “subsections (a)(2) and (b)(3)(B) and (9)” for “subsections (a)(2), (b)(2)(B), and (b)(8)” and “subsection (b)(9)” for “subsection (b)(8)”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(2)(C)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, substituted “subsection (b)(1), (3)(B), and (9) of this section” and “subsection (b)(9), and the expected duration of any authorization under subsection (b)(9)” for “paragraphs (1), (2)(B), and (8) of subsection (b)” and “paragraph (8) of subsection (b), and the expected duration of any authorization under such paragraph”, respectively.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title IV, §407(3)], as amended by Pub. L. 103–272, substituted “(b)(9)” for “(b)(8)”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–550 substituted “carrier” for “motor vehicle and aircraft” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(a) Except as specifically provided by law, an appropriation may be expended to maintain, operate, and repair passenger motor vehicles or aircraft of the United States Government that are used only for an official purpose. An official purpose does not include transporting officers or employees of the Government between their domiciles and places of employment except—

“(1) medical officers on out-patient medical service; and

“(2) officers or employees performing field work requiring transportation between their domiciles and places of employment when the transportation is approved by the head of the agency.

“(b) This section does not apply to a motor vehicle or aircraft for the official use of—

“(1) the President;

“(2) the heads of executive departments listed in section 101 of title 5; or

“(3) principal diplomatic and consular officials.”

Change of Name

Committee on Government Operations of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Government Reform and Oversight of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 4(f)(2) of Pub. L. 103–272 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Dec. 22, 1987.

Use of Government Vehicles

Pub. L. 101–194, title V, §503, Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1755, as amended by Pub. L. 101–280, §6(b), May 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 160, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the head of each department, agency, or other entity of each branch of the Government may prescribe by rule appropriate conditions for the incidental use, for other than official business, of vehicles owned or leased by the Government. Such use with respect to vehicles owned or leased by, or the cost of which is reimbursed by, the House of Representatives or the Senate shall be only as prescribed by rule of the House of Representatives or the Senate, as applicable.”

Use of Official Vehicles of House of Representatives

Pub. L. 101–194, title VIII, §802(d), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1773, provided that: “The Committee on House Administration [now Committee on House Oversight] of the House of Representatives shall take such action as may be necessary to carry out section 503 [set out above] with respect to vehicles of the House of Representatives.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1349 of this title; title 5 section 3374; title 22 section 3622; title 40 section 491.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1345. Expenses of meetings

Except as specifically provided by law, an appropriation may not be used for travel, transportation, and subsistence expenses for a meeting. This section does not prohibit—

(1) an agency from paying the expenses of an officer or employee of the United States Government carrying out an official duty; and

(2) the Secretary of Agriculture from paying necessary expenses for a meeting called by the Secretary for 4–H Boys and Girls Clubs as part of the cooperative extension work of the Department of Agriculture.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 925.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1345 31:551. Feb. 2, 1935, ch. 4, 49 Stat. 19.
  31:552. June 17, 1935, ch. 271, 49 Stat. 387.

In the section, before clause (1), the word “appropriation” is substituted for “no moneys from funds appropriated for any purpose” in 31:551 for consistency in the revised title. The words “travel, transportation, and subsistence expenses for a meeting” are substituted for “the purpose of lodging, feeding, conveying, or furnishing transportation to, any conventions or other form of assemblage or gathering” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “to be held in the District of Columbia or elsewhere” are omitted as unnecessary.

In clause (1), the words “agency from paying” are substituted for “the payment of” for clarity and because of section 101 of the revised title.

Availability of Appropriations for Expenses of Attending Meetings

Pub. L. 102–394, title V, §505, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1825, provided that: “Appropriations contained in this Act or subsequent Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Acts, available for salaries and expenses, shall be available for expenses of attendance at meetings which are concerned with the functions or activities for which the appropriation is made or which will contribute to improved conduct, supervision, or management of those functions or activities.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–170, title V, §505, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1141.

Pub. L. 101–517, title V, §505, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2221.

Pub. L. 101–166, title V, §505, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1189.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(h) [title V, §505], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–256, 1329–287.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(i) [H.R. 5233, title V, §505], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–287, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(i) [H.R. 5233, title V, §505], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–287.

Pub. L. 99–178, title V, §505, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1132.

Pub. L. 98–619, title V, §505, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3333.

Pub. L. 98–139, title V, §505, Oct. 31, 1983, 97 Stat. 899.

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(e)(1) [title V, §505], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1878, 1904.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 5 section 6327; title 22 section 290f; title 42 section 3788.

§1346. Commissions, councils, boards, and interagency and similar groups

(a) Except as provided in this section—

(1) public money and appropriations are not available to pay—

(A) the pay or expenses of a commission, council, board, or similar group, or a member of that group;

(B) expenses related to the work or the results of work or action of that group; or

(C) for the detail or cost of personal services of an officer or employee from an executive agency in connection with that group; and


(2) an accounting or disbursing official, absent a special appropriation to pay the account or charge, may not allow or pay an account or charge related to that group.


(b) Appropriations of an executive agency are available for the expenses of an interagency group conducting activities of interest common to executive agencies when the group includes a representative of the agency. The representatives receive no additional pay because of membership in the group. An officer or employee of an executive agency not a representative of the group may not receive additional pay for providing services for the group.

(c) Subject to section 1347 of this title, this section does not apply to—

(1) commissions, councils, boards, or similar groups authorized by law;

(2) courts-martial or courts of inquiry of the armed forces; or

(3) the contingent fund related to foreign relations at the disposal of the President.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 925.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1346(a) 31:672(1st sentence less words between 4th and 5th commas). R.S. §3681.
  31:673(less words between 11th comma and semicolon). Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 299, §9, 35 Stat. 1027.
1346(b) 31:691. May 3, 1945, ch. 106, §214, 59 Stat. 134.
1346(c) 31:672(1st sentence words between 4th and 5th commas), (last sentence).
  31:673(words between 11th comma and semicolon).

In the section, the words “executive agency” are substituted for “any executive department or other Government establishment” for clarity and because of section 102 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1), before subclause (A), the words “made by Congress” are omitted as surplus. In subclause (C), the words “the detail or cost of personal services of an officer” are substituted for “by detail, hereafter or heretofore made, or otherwise personal services” to eliminate unnecessary words and for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “of the Government” are omitted as surplus. The words “absent a special appropriation” are substituted for “until special appropriations shall have been made by law” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the words “On or after May 3, 1945” are omitted as executed. The words “interagency group” are substituted for “committees, boards, or other interagency groups” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “includes a representative of the agency” are substituted for “composed in whole or in part of representatives thereof” for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “authorized by law” are substituted for “unless the creation . . . shall be or shall have been authorized by law” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “armed forces” are substituted for “military or naval service of the United States” for consistency.

Subsection (c)(3) is substituted for the last sentence of 31:672 to eliminate unnecessary words.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 22 sections 2396, 2456, 2514.

§1347. Appropriations or authorizations required for agencies in existence for more than one year

(a) An agency in existence for more than one year may not use amounts otherwise available for obligation to pay its expenses without a specific appropriation or specific authorization by law. If the principal duties and powers of the agency are substantially the same as or similar to the duties and powers of an agency established by executive order, the agency established later is deemed to have been in existence from the date the agency established by the order came into existence.

(b) Except as specifically authorized by law, another agency may not use amounts available for obligation to pay expenses to carry out duties and powers substantially the same as or similar to the principal duties and powers of an agency that is prohibited from using amounts under this section.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 925.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1347(a) 31:696(1st, 2d sentences). June 27, 1944, ch. 286, §213, 58 Stat. 387.
1347(b) 31:696(last sentence).

In the section, the word “agency” is substituted for “agency or instrumentality” because of section 101 of the revised title and for consistency. The words “amounts otherwise available for obligation” are substituted for “any appropriation or fund made available by this or any other Act”, and the words “duties and powers” are substituted for “functions”, for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), the words “After January 1, 1945” are omitted as executed. The words “including those established by Executive order” are omitted the first time they appear as surplus. The words “from the date . . . came into existence” are substituted for “during the existence” for clarity.

In subsection (b), the word “amounts” is substituted for “appropriations” for consistency in the revised title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1346 of this title.

§1348. Telephone installation and charges

(a)(1) Except as provided in this section, appropriations are not available to install telephones in private residences or for tolls or other charges for telephone service from private residences.

(2) Under regulations of the Secretary of State, appropriations may be used to install and pay for the use of telephones in residences owned or leased by the United States Government in foreign countries for the use of the Foreign Service. Subsection (b) of this section applies to long-distance calls made on those telephones.

(b) Appropriations of an agency are available to pay charges for a long-distance call if required for official business and the voucher to pay for the call is sworn to by the head of the agency. Appropriations of an executive agency are available only if the head of the agency also certifies that the call is necessary in the interest of the Government.

(c) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army on recommendation of the Chief of Engineers, not more than $30,000 may be expended each fiscal year to install and use in private residences telephones required for official business in constructing and operating locks and dams for navigation, flood control, and related water uses.

(d) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, funds appropriated to the Department of Defense are available to install, repair, and maintain telephone wiring in residences owned or leased by the United States Government and, if necessary for national defense purposes, in other private residences.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 926; Pub. L. 98–407, title VIII, §811(a), Aug. 28, 1984, 98 Stat. 1523.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1348(a)(1) 31:679(words before 2d comma). Aug. 23, 1912, ch. 350, §7(less proviso), 37 Stat. 414.
1348(a)(2) 31:679(proviso). Aug. 23, 1912, ch. 350, 37 Stat. 360, §7(proviso); added Apr. 30, 1940, ch. 175, 54 Stat. 175.
1348(b) 31:679(words between 2d comma and proviso).
  31:680a. May 10, 1939, ch. 119, §4, 53 Stat. 738.
1348(c) 31:680. Sept. 22, 1922, ch. 427, §7, 42 Stat. 1042; May 17, 1950, ch. 188, §203, 64 Stat. 170; restated June 28, 1955, ch. 198, 69 Stat. 188.

In subsection (a)(1), the words “or private apartment” are omitted as being included in “private residences”.

In subsection (a)(2), the word “appropriations” is substituted for “Government funds”, and the word “calls” is substituted for “tolls”, for consistency. The word “official” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “On and after May 10, 1939” in 31:680a are omitted as executed. The word “agency” is substituted for “executive department, establishment, or agency” for clarity and because of section 101 of the revised title. The words “official business” are substituted for “public business” in 31:679 and “transaction of public business which the interests of the Government require to be so transacted” in 31:680a to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “division, bureau, or office” in 31:679 are omitted as being included in “agency”. The words “or such subordinates as he may specially designate” in 31:680a are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “On and after September 22, 1922 the provisions of section 679 of this title, or any other law prohibiting the expenditure of public money . . . shall not be construed to apply to or forbid” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–407 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 811(b) of Pub. L. 98–407 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective as of January 1, 1984. Funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may be used to reimburse persons for expenditures made after December 31, 1983, for the installation, repair, and maintenance of telephone wiring in any Government-owned or leased housing unit before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1984].”

Employees Authorized To Work at Home

Pub. L. 104–52, title VI, §620, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 501, provided that: “Notwithstanding any provisions of this or any other Act, during the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996, and hereafter, any department, division, bureau, or office may use funds appropriated by this or any other Act to install telephone lines, and necessary equipment, and to pay monthly charges, in any private residence or private apartment of an employee who has been authorized to work at home in accordance with guidelines issued by the Office of Personnel Management: Provided, That the head of the department, division, bureau, or office certifies that adequate safeguards against private misuse exist, and that the service is necessary for direct support of the agency's mission.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 16 section 580f; title 22 section 287e.

§1349. Adverse personnel actions

(a) An officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government violating section 1341(a) or 1342 of this title shall be subject to appropriate administrative discipline including, when circumstances warrant, suspension from duty without pay or removal from office.

(b) An officer or employee who willfully uses or authorizes the use of a passenger motor vehicle or aircraft owned or leased by the United States Government (except for an official purpose authorized by section 1344 of this title) or otherwise violates section 1344 shall be suspended without pay by the head of the agency. The officer or employee shall be suspended for at least one month, and when circumstances warrant, for a longer period or summarily removed from office.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 926.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1349(a) 31:665(i)(1)(words before semicolon related to (a), (b)). R.S. §3679(i)(1)(words before semicolon related to (a), (b)); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1484, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 768.
1349(b) 31:638a(c)(2)(2d sentence). July 16, 1914, ch. 141, §5(c)(2)(2d sentence), 38 Stat. 508; restated Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 744, §16(a), 60 Stat. 810.

In subsection (a), the words “In addition to any penalty or liability under other law” are omitted as surplus. The words “District of Columbia government” are added because of section 47–105 of the D.C. Code.

In subsection (b), the words “of the Government” and “from duty” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The word “pay” is substituted for “compensation” for consistency. The word “agency” is substituted for “department” because of section 101 of the revised title and for consistency.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 2 section 60a–2; title 5 sections 3374, 5306; title 22 sections 277d–3, 1461b, 3622, 3723; title 40 section 491; title 42 sections 2204, 2204a, 2210, 2295, 2394.

§1350. Criminal penalty

An officer or employee of the United States Government or of the District of Columbia government knowingly and willfully violating section 1341(a) or 1342 of this title shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 926.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1350 31:665(i)(1)(words after semicolon related to (a), (b)). R.S. §3679(i)(1)(words after semicolon related to (a), (b)); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1484, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 768.

The words “District of Columbia government” are added because of section 47–105 of the D.C. Code. The words “upon conviction” are omitted as surplus.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 2 section 60a–2; title 5 section 5306; title 22 sections 277d–3, 1461b, 3723; title 42 sections 2204, 2204a, 2210, 2295, 2394.

§1351. Reports on violations

If an officer or employee of an executive agency or an officer or employee of the District of Columbia government violates section 1341(a) or 1342 of this title, the head of the agency or the Mayor of the District of Columbia, as the case may be, shall report immediately to the President and Congress all relevant facts and a statement of actions taken.

(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 926.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised SectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1351 31:665(i)(2)(related to (a), (b)). R.S. §3679(i)(2)(related to (a), (b)); Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1404, §4(1st par.), 33 Stat. 1257; Feb. 27, 1906, ch. 510, §3, 34 Stat. 48; restated Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, §1211, 64 Stat. 768.

The words “executive agency” are substituted for “agency” because the definition of “agency” in 31:665(d)(2) applies to the source provisions restated in the section and because of section 102 of the revised title. The word “Mayor” is used because of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1967 (eff. Aug. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 948) and sections 421, 422, and 771 of the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganization Act (Pub. L. 93–198, 87 Stat. 789, 818). The word “President” is substituted for “President, through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget” because sections 101 and 102(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (eff. July 1, 1970, 84 Stat. 2085) designated the Bureau of the Budget as the Office of Management and Budget and transferred all functions of the Bureau to the President.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 2 section 60a–2; title 5 section 5306; title 22 sections 277d–3, 1461b, 3723; title 42 sections 2204, 2204a, 2210, 2295, 2394.

§1352. Limitation on use of appropriated funds to influence certain Federal contracting and financial transactions

(a)(1) None of the funds appropriated by any Act may be expended by the recipient of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement to pay any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with any Federal action described in paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(2) The prohibition in paragraph (1) of this subsection applies with respect to the following Federal actions:

(A) The awarding of any Federal contract.

(B) The making of any Federal grant.

(C) The making of any Federal loan.

(D) The entering into of any cooperative agreement.

(E) The extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.


(b)(1) Each person who requests or receives a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement from an agency or requests or receives from an agency a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan shall file with that agency, in accordance with paragraph (4) of this subsection—

(A) a written declaration described in paragraph (2) or (3) of this subsection, as the case may be; and

(B) copies of all declarations received by such person under paragraph (5).


(2) A declaration filed by a person pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection in connection with a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement shall contain—

(A) the name of any registrant under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 who has made lobbying contacts on behalf of the person with respect to that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement; and

(B) a certification that the person making the declaration has not made, and will not make, any payment prohibited by subsection (a).


(3) A declaration filed by a person pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection in connection with a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan shall contain the name of any registrant under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 who has made lobbying contacts on behalf of the person in connection with that loan insurance or guarantee.

(4) A person referred to in paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall file a declaration referred to in that paragraph—

(A) with each submission by such person that initiates agency consideration of such person for award of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement, or for grant of a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan;

(B) upon receipt by such person of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or of a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, unless such person previously filed a declaration with respect to such contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement or commitment pursuant to clause (A); and

(C) at the end of each calendar quarter in which there occurs any event that materially affects the accuracy of the information contained in any declaration previously filed by such person in connection with such Federal contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement, loan insurance commitment, or loan guaranty commitment.


(5) Any person who requests or receives from a person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection a subcontract under a Federal contract, a subgrant or contract under a Federal grant, a contract or subcontract to carry out any purpose for which a particular Federal loan is made, or a contract under a Federal cooperative agreement shall be required to file with the person referred to in such paragraph a written declaration referred to in clause (A) of such paragraph.

(6) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, after consulting with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives, shall issue guidance for agency implementation of, and compliance with, the requirements of this section.

(c)(1) Any person who makes an expenditure prohibited by subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such expenditure.

(2)(A) Any person who fails to file or amend a declaration required to be filed or amended under subsection (b) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such failure.

(B) A filing of a declaration of a declaration amendment on or after the date on which an administrative action for the imposition of a civil penalty under this subsection is commenced does not prevent the imposition of such civil penalty for a failure occurring before that date. For the purposes of this subparagraph, an administrative action is commenced with respect to a failure when an investigating official determines in writing to commence an investigation of an allegation of such failure.

(3) Sections 3803 (except for subsection (c)), 3804, 3805, 3806, 3807, 3808, and 3812 of this title shall be applied, consistent with the requirements of this section, to the imposition and collection of civil penalties under this subsection.

(4) An imposition of a civil penalty under this subsection does not prevent the United States from seeking any other remedy that the United States may have for the same conduct that is the basis for the imposition of such civil penalty.

(d)(1)(A) Subsection (a)(1) of this section does not apply in the case of a payment of reasonable compensation made to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement to the extent that the payment is for agency and legislative liaison activities not directly related to a Federal action referred to in subsection (a)(2) of this section.

(B) Subsection (a)(1) of this section does not prohibit any reasonable payment to a person in connection with, or any payment of reasonable compensation to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving, a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or an extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement if the payment is for professional or technical services rendered directly in the preparation, submission, or negotiation of any bid, proposal, or application for that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or for meeting requirements imposed by or pursuant to law as a condition for receiving that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.

(C) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as permitting the use of appropriated funds for making any payment prohibited in or pursuant to any other provision of law.

(2) The reporting requirement in subsection (b) of this section shall not apply to any person with respect to—

(A) payments of reasonable compensation made to regularly employed officers or employees of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan;

(B) a request for or receipt of a contract (other than a contract referred to in clause (C)), grant, cooperative agreement, subcontract (other than a subcontract referred to in clause (C)), or subgrant that does not exceed $100,000; and

(C) a request for or receipt of a loan, or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, that does not exceed $150,000, or the single family maximum mortgage limit for affected programs, whichever is greater, including a contract or subcontract to carry out any purpose for which such a loan is made.


(e) The Secretary of Defense may exempt a Federal action described in subsection (a)(2) from the prohibition in subsection (a)(1) whenever the Secretary determines, in writing, that such an exemption is in the national interest. The Secretary shall transmit a copy of each such written exemption to Congress immediately after making such determination.

(f) The head of each Federal agency shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the provisions of this section are vigorously implemented and enforced in such agency.

(g) As used in this section:

(1) The term “recipient”, with respect to funds received in connection with a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement—

(A) includes the contractors, subcontractors, or subgrantees (as the case may be) of the recipient; but

(B) does not include an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or any other Indian organization eligible to receive Federal contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or loans from an agency but only with respect to expenditures that are by such tribe or organization for purposes specified in subsection (a) and are permitted by other Federal law.


(2) The term “agency” has the same meaning provided for such term in section 552(f) of title 5, and includes a Government corporation, as defined in section 9101(1) of this title.

(3) The term “person&rdq