TITLE 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

Act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 3

The following tables have been prepared as aids in comparing provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (redesignated the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095) with provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939. No inferences, implications, or presumptions of legislative construction or intent are to be drawn or made by reason of such tables.

Citations to “R.A.” refer to the sections of earlier Revenue Acts.

Table I
1939 Code

section number

1986 Code

section number

1 Omitted
2 7806(a)
3, 4 Omitted
11 1
12(a), (b)(1), (2) Omitted
12(b)(3), (c) 1
12(d) 2
12(e) Omitted
12(f) 1
12(g), 13(a) Omitted
13(b) 11
13(c)–(f), 14 Omitted
15(a), (b) 11
15(c) 1551
21 63
22(a) 61
22(b)(1) 101
22(b)(2)(A) 72
22(b)(2)(B) 72, 403
22(b)(2)(C) 72
22(b)(3)–(5) 102–104
22(b)(6) 107
22(b)(7) 894
22(b)(8) 115, 526, 892, 893, 911, 912, 933, 943
22(b)(9), (10) 108
22(b)(11)–(14) 109, 111–113
22(b)(15) 621
22(b)(16), (17) 114, 121
22(c) 471
22(d)(1)–(5) 472
22(d)(6) 1321, 6155(a)
22(e) 301(a)
22(f) 1001
22(g) 861, 862, 863, 864
22(h) Chapter 1, Subchapter G, Part III
22(i) Omitted
22(j) 76
22(k) 71
22(l) 691
22(m) 73, 6201(c)
22(n) 62
22(o) 75
23 161, 211
23(a)(1)(A), (B) 162
23(a)(1)(C) 263
23(a)(2) 212
23(b) 163, 265
23(c)(1) 164
23(c)(2) Omitted
23(c)(3), (d) 164
23(e)–(i) 165
23(j) 1091
23(k)(1) 166, 593
23(k)(2) 165(g)(1), 166(e), 582
23(k)(3) 165(g)(2)
23(k)(4), (5) 166
23(k)(6) 166, 271
23(l) 167
23(m) 611
23(n) 167
23(o) 170
23(p) 404
23(q) 170
23(r) 591
23(s) 172
23(t) 168, 169
23(u) 215
23(v) 171
23(w) 691
23(x) 213
23(y) Omitted
23(z) 216
23(aa)(1) 141
23(aa)(2) 36
23(aa)(3) 144
23(aa)(4) 4, 142
23(aa)(5)–(7) 142–144
23(bb) 173
23(cc) 616
23(dd) 592
23(ee) 1202
23(ff) 615
24(a) 261
24(a)(1) 262
24(a)(2), (3) 263
24(a)(4), (5) 264, 265
24(a)(6) 264
24(a)(7) 266
24(b), (c) 267
24(d) 273
24(e) 1451
24(f) 268
25(a) 35
25(b)(1) 151
25(b)(2) 153
25(b)(3) 152
26 241
26(a) 242
26(b)(1)–(3) 243–245
26(b) 246
26(c) 545, 556
26(d) 535, 545, 601
26(e) Omitted
26(f) 561, 562, 564
26(g) 565
26(h) 247
26(i) 922
27(a) 561
27(b) 535, 562
27(c)–(i) 562, 564
28 565
31 33
32 32
33 6401
34 Omitted
35 31
41 441, 446
42(a) 451
42(b)–(d) 454
43 461
44 453, 7101
45 482
46 442
47 443, 6011(a)
48 441, 7701
51 6001, 6011(a)
51(a) 6001, 6012(a), 6065(b)
51(b) 6012(b)(1), 6013(a), 6014(b)
51(c) 6012(b)
51(d) Omitted. See 6064.
51(e) 6065(a)
51(f) 6014(a), (b), 6151(a), (b), 6155(a)
51(g) 6012(b), 6013(b), 6653(a), 6659
52 6012(a), (b), 6062
53 6072, 6081, 6091
54(a)–(b) 6001
54(c)–(e) Omitted
54(f) 6033(a), 6065(b)
55 6103, 7213(a)
56(a) 6151(a)
56(b) 6152, 6601(c)(2)
56(c) 6161(a), 6162(a), 6165, 7101
56(d)–(f) Omitted
56(g) 6313
56(h) Omitted
56(i) 6151(b)
56(j), 57 Omitted
58 6012(b), 6015, 6064, 6065, 6073(a), (c), 6081(a), 6091(b), 6103, 6161(a)
59(a)–(c) 6153
59(d) 6201(b), 6315, 6601(g)
60 6015(g), 6073(b), (d), (e), 6091(b), 6153(b), (d), (e)
61 Omitted
62 7805
63 6108
64 7701
101(1)–(11), (13)–(19) 501
101(12) 521, 522
101 502
102(a) 531, 532
102(b), (c) 533
102(d), (e) 535, 541
102(f) 536
103 891
104(a) 581
104(b) 11
105 632
106 1347
107(a), (b) 1301, 1302
107(c) 1304(a)
107(d) 1303
107(e) 1304(b)
108 21
109 921
110 594
111 1001
112(a) 1002
112(b)(1) 1031
112(b)(2) 1036
112(b)(3) 354, 355
112(b)(4) 361
112(b)(5) 351
112(b)(6) 332
112(b)(6)(D) 7101
112(b)(7) 333
112(b)(8) 1081
112(b)(9) 373
112(b)(10) 371
112(b)(11) 355
112(c) 351, 356, 371, 1031
112(d) 361, 371
112(e) 351, 356, 361, 371, 1031
112(f) 1033
112(g), (h) 368
112(i) 367
112(j) Omitted
112(k) 357, 371
112(l) 371
112(m) 1071
112(n) 1034
113(a) 1012
113(a)(1) 1013
113(a)(2)–(4) 1015
113(a)(5) 1014
113(a)(6) 358, 1031
113(a)(7), (8) 362
113(a)(9) 1033
113(a)(10) 1091
113(a)(11), (12) 1051, 1052
113(a)(13) 723, 732
113(a)(14) 1053
113(a)(15) 334
113(a)(16) 1052
113(a)(17) 1082
113(a)(18) 334
113(a)(19) 307
113(a)(20), (21) 373
113(a)(22) 372
113(a)(23) 358
113(b) 1011
113(b)(1), (2) 1016
113(b)(3), (4) 1017, 1018
113(c), (d) 1019, 1020
113(e) 1022
114(a) 167(f)
114(b)(1) 612
114(b)(2) Omitted
114(b)(3) 613(b)(3)
114(b)(4) 613(b)(4)
115(a) 301, 316
115(b) 301, 316
115(c) 302, 312, 331, 342
115(d), (e) 301
115(f) 305
115(g)(1) 302
115(g)(2) 304
115(g)(3) 303
115(h) 312
115(i) 302, 346
115(j) 301
115(k) Omitted
115(l), (m) 312
116(a) 911
116(b) Omitted
116(c) 892
116(d), (e) 115
116(f) 943
116(g) 526
116(h) 893
116(i) 121(a)(17)
116(j), (k) 912
116(l) 933
117(a) 1221, 1222
117(b) 1202
117(c) 1201
117(d) 1211
117(e)(1) 1212
117(e)(2) Omitted
117(f) 1232
117(g)(1), (2) 1233, 1234
117(g)(3) 1238
117(h) 1223
117(i) 582
117(j) 1231
117(k) 631
117(l) 1233
117(m) 341
117(n) 1236
117(o), (p) 1239, 1240
118 1091
119(a), (b) 861
119(c), (d) 862
119(e) 861, 862, 863
119(f) 864
120 170
121 583
122 172
123 77
124 Omitted
124A, 124B 168, 169
125 171
126 691
127(a), (b) Omitted
127(c)(1)–(5) 1331–1335
127(d) 1336
127(e), (f) 1337
128 1346
129, 130 269, 270
130A 421
131(a) 901
131(b) 904
131(c) 905, 6155(a), 7101
131(d), (e) 905
131(f) 902
131(g) 901(c)
131(h) 903
131(i) 905
141 1501–1505, 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(2), 6503(a)(2)
142 6012(a), (b), 6065(a)
143(a) 1451
143(b) 1441
143(c) 1461, 6011(a), 6072(a), 6091(b), 6151(a)
143(d), (e) 1462, 1463
143(f) 1464, 6414
143(g) 1461
143(h) 1443, 6151
144 1442, 6151(a)
145 7201, 7202, 7203, 7343
146 443, 6155(a), 6601(a), 6658, 6851, 7101
147 6041(b), (c), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a)
148 6042, 6043, 6044, 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a)
149 6045, 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a)
150 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), 7001(a), 7231
151 Omitted
153(a) 6033(b), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a)
153(b) 6034, 6071, 6081(b), 6091(a)
153(c) 6104
153(d) 7201, 7203
154 692
161 641
162(a) 642(c)
162(b) 651, 652, 661, 662
162(c) 661
162(d) 643, 663
162(e), (f) 642
162(g) 681
163(a)(1), (2), (b) 642
163(c) 642(a)(1)
164 652, 662
165(a) 401, 501(a)
165(b)–(d) 402
166, 167 676, 677
168 642
169(a)–(c) 584, 6065
169(d)(1)–(4), (e) 584
169(f) 6032, 6065(a)
169(g) 584
170 584, 642
171 682
172 642
181, 182 701, 702
183(a), (b) 702, 703
183(c) 702
183(d) 703(a)
184, 186 702
187 6031, 6063, 6065(a)
188 706
189 702, 703
190 Omitted
191 704
201(a)(1) 802
201(a)(2), (3) 807
201(b) 801
201(c)(1)–(7) 803(a)–(g)
201(d)–(f) 803(h)–(j)
201(g), 202(a) Omitted
202(b) 804(a)
202(c) 806
203 Omitted
203A 805
204(a)(1) 831(a)
204(a)(2) 831(b), 832
204(a)(3) 831(b)
204(b)(1) 832(b)(1)
204(b)(2) 832(a)
204(b)(3)–(7) 832(b)(2)–(6)
204(c)–(e) 832(c)–(e)
204(f) 832(c)(12)
205, 206 841, 842
207(a)(1), (2) 821(a)
207(a)(3), (4) 821(b), (c)
207(a)(5) 822(e)
207(a)(6) 821(d)
207(b)(1) 822(a), (b)
207(b)(2), (3) 823(1), (2)
207(b)(4) 822(a)
207(b)(4)(A)–(F) 822(c)
207(c), (d) 822(d)(1), (2)
207(e) 822(e)
207(f) 822(d)(3)
207(g), 208 Omitted
211, 212 871, 872
213(a)–(c) 873
213(d) 142(b)(1)
214 873
215 874, 6011(a), 6065(b)
216 874
217 6011(a), 6012(a), 6072(c)
218(a) 6151(a)
219 875
220 876
221 877
231(a) 881
231(b), (c) 882(a), (b)
231(d) 883
232(a), (b) 882
233 882, 6065(a)
234 882
235(a) 882, 6011(a), 6072(c)
235(b) 6012(a)
236(a) 6151(a)
236(b) 884(1)
237 884(3)
238 884(4)
251 931, 6011(a)
252 932
261 11
262 941
263 942
265 943
271 6211, 6653(c)(1)
272(a) 6212(a), (b)(2), 6213(a)
272(b) 6155(a), 6215(a)
272(c) 6155(a), 6213(c)
272(d) 6213(d)
272(e) 6214(a)
272(f) 6212(c), 6213(b)(1)
272(g), (h) 6214(b), (c)
272(i) 6152(c), 6601(c)(2)
272(j) 6161(b), 6165, 7101
272(k) 6212(b)
273(a)–(i), (k) 6155, 6861, 6863(a), (b), 7101
273(j) 6404(b)
274 6036, 6155(a), 6161(c), 6503(b), 6871, 6872, 6873
275 6501
276 6501(c), 6502(a)
277 6503(a)
291 6651(a), 6659
292 6155(a), 6601
293 6653(a), (b), 6659
294 6601, 6651(c), 6654(a)
295–298 6601
299 6658
311, 312 6901, 6903
313 Omitted
321 6403
322(a)(1)–(3) 6401, 6402
322(a)(4) 31
322(b)(1)–(3) 6511
322(b)(4) 6151(c), 6513(a), 6611(d)
322(b)(5), (6) 6511(d)
322(c) 6512(a)
322(d) 6512(b)
322(e) 6151(c), 6513(b), 6611(d)
322(f) Omitted
322(g) 6511(d)
331–334 552–555
335, 336(a)–(c) 556
336(d) 557
337 551
338 6035(a)
339 6035(b)
340 7201, 7203
361 851
362 852, 855
371–373 1081–1083
391–393, 394(a)–(c) Omitted
394(d) 312
394(e), (f), 395, 396 Omitted
400 3
401, 402 4
403 36
404 4
421(a), (b) 501, 511
421(c), (d) 512
422(a) 512
422(b), 423, 424 513, 514, 515
480, 481 1401, 1402
482 1403, 6017
500–503 541–544
504(a), (b) 545
504(c) 562, 563
504(d) Omitted
504(e) 545
505(a)–(c) 545
505(d) Omitted
505(e) 546
506(a)–(h) 547
506(i), (j), 507(a) Omitted
507(b) 543
508 Omitted
509 531
510 Chapter 1, Subchapter G, Part III
511 6103, 7213(a)
650, 651 1471
722(g) 6105
800 2001, 2101
801, 802 Omitted
810 2001(a), 2011(a), (b)
811 2031(a)
811(a), (b) 2033, 2034
811(c) 2035, 2036, 2037
811(d)(1) 2038(a)(1)
811(d)(2) 2038(a)(2)
811(d)(3) 2038(b)
811(d)(4) Omitted
811(e)–(g) 2040–2042
811(h) 2044
811(i) 2043(a)
811(j) 2032
811(k), (l) 2031(b), 2035
811(m) Omitted
812 2051
812(a) Omitted
812(b) 2043(b), 2053, 2054
812(c) 2013
812(d), (e) Omitted. See 2055, 2056.
813(a)(1) Omitted
813(a)(2) 2012
813(b) 2011
813(c) 2014
820 6036, 6091(a)
821(a) 6018, 6065(a)
821(b) 6071, 6075(a), 6081(a)
821(c) 6091(b)
821(d) 6001
821(e) Omitted
822(a)(1) 6151(a)
822(a)(2) 6161(a)(2), 6165, 6503(d), 7101
822(b) 2002
823 6314(b)
824 Omitted
825 2204
826(a) 7404
826(b)–(d) 2205–2207
827(a) 6324(a)(1), 6325(a)(1)
827(b), (c) 6324(a)(2), (3)
828, 840, 841 Omitted
850 2202
851 Omitted
860 2101
861 2102, 2103, 2106
862, 863 2104, 2105
864(a) 6018, 6065(a)
864(b) 6071, 6075(a), 6081(a)
864(c) 6091(b)
865 Omitted
870 6211(a), 6653(c)(1)
871(a) 6212(a), 6213(a)
871(b) 6155(a), 6215(a)
871(c) 6155(a), 6213(c)
871(d), (e) 6213(d), 6214(a)
871(f) 6212(c), 6213(b)
871(g) 6214(c)
871(h) 6161(b)(2), 6165, 6503(d), 7101
871(i) 6155(a), 6653(b), 6659(a)
872(a) 6155(a), 6861(a)
872(b)–(e) 6861(b)–(e)
872(f) 6863(a), (b)(2), 7101
872(g) 6155(a), 6863(b)(1)
872(h) 6863(a), (b)(2)
872(i) 6155(a), 6861(f)
872(j) 6861(g)
873 6404(b)
874(a) 6501(a)
874(b)(1) 6501(c)(1), (3)
874(b)(2) 6502(a)
874(b)(3) 2016, 6071, 6081, 6091, 6155
875 6503(a)(1)
876 Omitted
890 6601(a), (b), (f)(1)
891 6155(a), 6601(a), (d), (f)(1)
892 6601(a), (c)(3)
893 6601(a), (c), (f)
894(a) 6651(a), 6653(a)
894(b) 7201, 7202, 7203, 7207, 7269, 7343
900(a) 6901(a), (b)
900(b), (c) 6901(c), (f)
900(d) 6904, 7421(b)
900(e) 6901(h)
901(a), (b) 6903(a)
901(c) 6903(b)
901(d) 6212(b)
910, 911, 912 6511, 6512(a), (b)
913, 920, 921 Omitted
925 6163(a), 6601(a), (b)
926 6163(a), 7101
927 2015
930(a) 2203
930(b)–(d), 931 Omitted
935 2001, 2052, 2101
936(a) Omitted
936(b), (c) 2012, 2014
937 6018(a), 7203
938 6103
939 2201
1000(a) 2501
1000(b) 2511(a)
1000(c) 2514
1000(d), (e) Omitted
1000(f) 2513
1000(g) Omitted
1001(a), (b) 2502(a), (c)
1001(c) Omitted
1002 2512(b)
1003 2503
1004(a)(1)–(3) 2521–2523
1004(b), (c) 2522, 2524
1005 2512(a)
1006(a) 6019(a), 6065(a)
1006(b) 6075(b), 6091(b)(1)
1007 6001
1008(a) 2502(d), 6151(a)
1008(b) 6161(a)(1)
1008(c) Omitted
1008(d) 6313
1008(e) 6314(a)
1009 6324(b), 6325(a)(1)
1010 Omitted
1011 6211(a), 6653(c)(1)
1012(a) 6212(a), 6213(a)
1012(b) 6155(a), 6215(a)
1012(c) 6155(a), 6213(c)
1012(d) 6213(d)
1012(e) 6214(a)
1012(f) 6212(c), 6213(b)
1012(g), (h) 6214(b), (c)
1012(i) 6161(b)(1), 6165, 7101
1012(j) 6212(b)
1013(a) 6155(a), 6861(a)
1013(b)–(e) 6861(b)–(e)
1013(f) 6863(a), (b)(2), 7101
1013(g) 6155(a), 6863(b)(1)
1013(h) 6863(a), (b)(2)
1013(i) 6155(a), 6861(f)
1013(j) 6861(g)
1014 6404(b)
1015(a) 6871
1015(b) 6155(a), 6161(c), 6503(b), 6873(a)
1016 6501, 6502(a)
1017 6503(a)(1)
1018 Omitted
1019 6653, 6659(b)
1020 6601(a), (f)(1)
1021 6155(a), 6601(a), (d), (f)(1)
1022 6601(a), (c)(3)
1023 6601(a), (c)(1), (f)(1)
1024(a) 7201, 7203
1024(b) 7201
1025(a) 6901(a), (b)
1025(b)–(d) 6901(c), (e), (f)
1025(e) 6904, 7421(b)
1025(f) 6901(h)
1025(g) 6901(g)
1026(a) 6903(a)
1026(b) 6903
1026(c) 6903(b)
1027(a) 6402(a)
1027(b) 6511(a), (b)
1027(c), (d) 6512(a), (b)
1028 Omitted
1029 7805(a)
1030(a) 2502(b)
1030(b) 2511(b)
1031 6103
1100, 1101 7441, 7442
1102(a)–(g) 7443(a)–(g)
1103(a)–(d) 7444(a)–(d)
1104–1106 7445–7447
1110, 111 7451, 7453
1112, 1113 7454(a), 7455
1114(a), (b) 7456(a), (c)
1115(a), (b) 7457(a), (b)
1116 7458
1117(a)–(f) 7459(a)–(f)
1117(g) 6155(a), 6659, 6673
1117(h) Omitted
1118 7460
1119, 1120, 1121 6902, 7461, 7462
1130–1133 7471–7474
1140–1143 7481–7484
1144 Omitted
1145 7101, 7485(a)
1146 7486
1250–1252 1491–1493
1253 1494, 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), 6151(a)
1400 3101
1401(a), (b) 3102(a), (b)
1401(c) 6205(a), 6413(a)(1)
1401(d)(1), (2) Omitted
1401(d)(3), (4) 6413(c)(1), (2)
1402 3502
1403 6051(a)
1410 3111
1411 6205(a), 6413(a)
1412 3112
1420(a) 3501
1420(b) 6601(a), (f)(1)
1420(c) 6011(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), 6302(b)
1420(d) 6313
1420(e) 3122
1421 6205(b), 6413(b)
1422 3503
1423(a) 6802(1)
1423(b), (c) 6803(a)(1), (2)
1424 7509
1425(a) 7209
1425(b) 7208(1)
1426(a)–(e) 3121(a)–(e)
1426(f) 7701(a)(1)
1426(g)–(l) 3121(f)–(k)
1427, 1428 3123, 3124
1429 7805(a), (c)
1430, 1431 Omitted
1432 3125
1500 3201
1501(a), (b) 3202(a), (b)
1501(c) 6205(a)(1), 6413(a)(1)
1502 6205(b), 6413(b)
1503 3502(a)
1510, 1511, 1512 3211, 3212, 3502
1520 3221
1521 6205(a)(1), 6413(a)(1)
1522 6205(b), 6413(b)
1530(a) 3501
1530(b) 6011(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), 6151(a)
1530(c) 6601(a), (f)(1)
1530(d) 6313
1531 3503
1532(a)–(e) 3231(a)–(e)
1532(f) 7701(a)(9)
1532(g), (h) 3231(f), (g)
1532(i) 7701(a)(1)
1534 3232
1535 7805(a), (c)
1536, 1537 Omitted
1538 3233
1600 3301
1601(a)–(c) 3302
1601(d) 6413(d)
1602 3303
1603 3304
1604(a) 6011(a), 6065, 6071, 6091(b)(1), (2)
1604(b) 6081(a)
1604(c) 6106
1605(a) 3501
1605(b) 6601(a), (f)(1)
1605(c) 6152(a)(3), (b), 6155(a), 6601(c)(2)
1605(d) 6161(a)(1)
1605(e) 6313
1606 3305
1607(a)–(j) 3306(a)–(j)
1607(k) 7701(a)(1)
1607(l)–(o) 3306(k)–(n)
1608 3307
1609 7805(a), (c)
1610 Omitted
1611 3308
1621 3401
1622(a), (b) 3402(a), (b)
1622(c)(1)(A) Omitted
1622(c)(1)(B), (2)–(5) 3402(c)
1622(d) 3402(d)
1622(e) 3502(b)
1622(f)(1) 6414
1622(f)(2) 6401, 6402
1622(g)–(k) 3402(e)–(i)
1623 3403
1624 3404, 6011(a)
1625(c) 6081(a)
1626(a) 7204
1626(b) 6674
1626(d) 7205
1627 Omitted
1631 6651(a)
1632 3504
1633(a), (b) 6051(a)–(d)
1633(c) 6081(a)
1634(a) 7204
1634(b) 6659, 6674
1635(a) 6501(a)
1635(b) 6501(c)(1), (3)
1635(c) 6501(c)(2)
1635(d) 6502(a)
1635(e) 6501(b)(2)
1635(f), (g) Omitted
1636(a)(1) 6511(a), (b)(1)
1636(a)(2) 6511(b)(2)
1636(b) Omitted
1636(c) 6513(c)
1636(d), (e) Omitted
1650 4001, 4011, 4021, 4471
1651 4031
1652–1655 Omitted
1656(a), (b), (c) 5063(a), (b), (c)
1657–1659 Omitted
1700 4231, 4232, 6011(a)
1701 4233
1702, 1703 4234
1704 4232
1710 4241
1711 4243
1712 4242
1715(a) 4291
1715(b), (c) 6151(a)
1715(d) 6415(b), (c), (d), 6416(a)
1716(a) 6011(a), 6065(a)
1716(b) 6071, 6081(a)
1716(c) 6091(b)(1), (2)
1717 6601(a), (f)(1)
1718(a) 7201, 7203
1718(b) 7201, 7202
1718(c) 6659, 6671(a), 6672
1718(d) 6671(b), 7343
1719 6302(b)
1720 6001
1721–1723 Omitted
1800 4301, 4311, 4321
1801 4311, 4312, 4314, 4315, 4381
1802 4301, 4302, 4304, 4321, 4322, 4323, 4341, 4342, 4343, 4344, 4351, 4352, 4353, 4381
1804 4371, 4372, 4373
1805 4891, 4892, 4894, 4895, 4896, 7701(a)(1)
1807 4451
1808 4303, 4373, 4382
1809 4383, 4454, 4893, 6201(a)(2), 6801(a), (b)
1815 6804
1816 Omitted
1817(a)–(c) 6802(1)–(3)
1818(a) 6803(b)(1), 7101
1818(b) 6803(b)(2)
1819 Omitted
1820 7271(2), (3)
1821(a)(1) 7201, 7203
1821(a)(2) 7201, 7202
1821(a)(3) 6653(e), 6659, 6671(a), 6672
1821(a)(4) 6671(b), 7343
1821(b)(3) 4374, 7270
1821(b)(4) 7201
1822 7208(3), 7271(1)
1823 7303(1)
1823(a)–(c) 7208(2)–(4)
1830 4453
1831 4452, 4455, 7272
1832 4456
1835 6001
1836–1838 Omitted
1850 4286
1851 4291
1852(a) 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071
1852(b) 6091(b)(1), (2)
1853(a), (b) 6151(a)
1853(c) 6601(a), (f)(1)
1854 6415(a), (b), (d)
1855, 1856 Omitted
1857 4287
1858, 1859 Omitted
1900, 1901, 1902 4881, 4883, 4884
1902(a)(1) 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071
1902(a)(2) 6091(b)(1), (2)
1902(a)(3), (b) 6151(a)
1903 4885
1904 Omitted
1905, 1906 4882, 4883
1907 Omitted
1920(a), (b) 4851(a), (b)
1920(c) 4871, 6804
1921 4861
1922 4863
1923 4864
1924 4865
1925 4853, 7492
1926 4854
1927 4862
1928 4872, 6001
1929(a) 7233(1), (2)
1929(b) 7263(b)
1929(c) 7263(a)
1930 4874, 7493
1931 4852, 7701(a)(1)
1932 4873
1933 4876
1934 Omitted
1935 4875
2000(a), (b) 5701(a)
2000(c)(1), (2) 5701(b), (c)
2000(d) 5701(d), (e)
2000(g)(1)–(3) 5707(a)–(c)
2001(a) 5703(a)
2002(b) 5703(d)
2002(c) 5703(a)
2010 5702(b)
2012 5712
2013 5711(a), (b)
2014 5713(a), (b)
2017 5721
2018 5741
2019 5722
2030 5702(e)
2032 5712
2033 5711(a), (b)
2036 5721
2037 5741
2038 5722
2039(a) 5711(a), (b)
2039(b) 5722, 5741
2040 5704(c)
2050 5702(b)(1)
2052 5712
2053 5711(a), (b)
2054 5713(a), (b)
2055 Omitted
2056 5741
2057 Omitted
2058 5732
2059, 2060 5731
2070–2075 Omitted
2100(a), (b) 5723(a)
2100(c)(1) 5723(d)
2100(c)(2) 5723(a)
2100(d) 5723(b), (c)
2100(e) 5723(a)
2101 5704(c)
2102 5723(a)
2103(a)(1) 5723(a)
2103(e) 5752
2104(a) 5751(a)
2110(a), (b) 5702(c), (d)
2111(a)(1), (2) 5723(a)
2111(a)(3) 5723(d)
2111(b) 5723(a)
2111(c) 5723(b), (c)
2111(d), (e)(1) 5723(a)
2111(e)(2) 5723(d)
2111(f) 5704(a), 5723(d)
2112(a)(1) 5723(a)
2112(e) 5752
2113 5751(a)
2130(a), (b) 5723(a), 5762(a)(4), (6)
2130(c) 5723(a), 5762
2130(d) 5704(d)
2135(a)(1), (2) 5704(b), (c)
2135(a)(3) 5704(b)
2136(a) 5706
2137 5705(a)
2150 Omitted
2151 5762(a)(5)
2152–2154 Omitted
2155(a) 5762(a)(4), (5)
2155(b) 5763(a)
2156(a) 5762(a)(2), (3)
2156(b) 5762(a)(3)
2156(c) 5761(b)
2160(a) 5762(a)(4)
2160(b)–(d) 5762(a)(5)
2160(e) 5762(a)(6)
2160(g)(1), (2) 5762(a)(8), (9)
2160(g)(3) 5762(a)(6)
2160(h) 5763(a)
2160(i) 5762(a)(9), (10)
2161(a) 5762(a)(1)
2161(b) 5763(c)
2161(c) 5762(a)(1)
2161(e)–(g) 5762(a)(2)
2161(h) 5763(b)
2161(i)(1) 5763(b)
2161(j)(1) 5763(b)
2161(l)(1) 5763(b)
2161(m)(1) 5761(a)
2161(m)(2) 5763(b)
2162(a)(2) 5762(a)(1)
2162(a)(3)–(5) 5762(a)(2)
2162(b)(1) 5762(a)(4), (5)
2163 Omitted
2170(a)(2) 5751(a), 5762(a)(5)
2170(a)(4) 5762(a)(6)
2170(b) 5762(a)(5), 5763(a)
2171(a) 5763(a)
2171(b)(1) 5762(a)(4)
2171(b)(2) 5762(a)(4), (5)
2172(a) 5762(a)(8)
2172(b) 5762(a)(6)
2172(c) 5762(a)(9)
2172(d) 5762(a)(6)
2172(e), (f) 5762(a)(9)
2173(a), 2174 5762(a)(5)
2175 5763(a)
2176(a)(2) 5762(a)(10)
2176(a)(3) 5762(a)(8)
2180(a) 5762(a)(1)
2180(b) 5763(c)
2180(d)–(f) 5762(a)(2)
2180(g)(1) 5763(b)
2180(h) 5763(b)
2180(i)(1) 5763(b)
2180(k)(1) 5763(b)
2180(l)(1) 5761(a)
2180(l)(2) 5763(b)
2181 Omitted
2190 5753
2191–2193 Omitted
2194 5703(a), 5722, 5741
2197(b) 5704(b)
2198 5705(a)
2300 4592, 4593
2302 4594, 4596, 6001, 7101, 7641
2303 4595, 4597, 6001
2304 4595
2305 4813
2306 4591, 4812
2307 4593, 4816
2308(a) 7234(a)
2308(b) 7265(a)(1)
2308(c) 7234(b)
2308(d) 7234(d)(4)
2308(e) 7265(b)
2308(f) Omitted
2308(g) 7234(d)(2)
2308(h), (i) 7234(c), (d)
2308(j) 7265(c)
2309 7303(2), (3), (5)
2310 Omitted
2311 4591, 4818
2312–2314 Omitted
2320 4826
2321 4811, 4813
2322 4814, 4826, 6001, 7101, 7641
2323 4815, 4826
2324 4815, 6001
2325 4817
2326(a) 7235(a), 7265(a)
2326(b), (c) 7235(b), (c)
2327 4812, 4813, 4816, 4818, 7235(e), 7265(b), (c)
2350 4846
2351 4831, 4832, 6201(a)(2)(A)
2352 4833, 4846, 6001, 7101, 7641
2353, 2354 4834, 4846
2355 4832
2356 4831, 4832
2357 7236, 7266(b)–(f)
2358 7303(2), (4), (5)
2359 Omitted
2360 4835
2361 4832
2362 Omitted
2400 4001, 4003
2401 4011, 4012
2402 4021, 4022
2403(a) 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(1), (2)
2403(b) 6151(a), 6601(a), (f)(1)
2403(c) 4051
2404, 2405 4052, 4053
2406 4055, 4056
2407 6416(a), (b)
2408 Omitted
2409 7261
2410, 2411 Omitted
2412 4002, 4003, 4012, 4013
2413 4054
2450 4041
2451(a) 6011(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(1), (2), 6151(a)
2451(b) 6151(a), 6601(a), (f)(1)
2452(a) 6416(b)(2)(D)
2452(b) 6416(a)
2453 4055, 6416(b)(2)(A)
2454, 2455 Omitted
2456 4222
2470 4511, 4513
2471 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(1), (2)
2472 6151(a)
2473 6417(a)
2474 4513, 6417(b), 7101
2475 6601(a), (f)(1)
2477 4512
2478, 2479 Omitted
2480 7809(a)
2481, 2482 Omitted
2483 7654
2490 4561, 4571, 4581
2491 4561, 4562, 4571, 4572, 4581, 4582
2492 4582, 4602
2493 4601
2494 Omitted
2550 4701, 4771
2550(c) 6302(b)
2551 4702
2552 4703, 4771
2553 4704, 4723
2554 4705
2555 4732, 6001
2555(a) 6065(a)
2555(b) 6071
2555(c) 6065(a), 6071
2555(c)(1) 6081(a), 6091(a)
2556 4773
2557(a) 7237(b)
2557(b)(1) 7237(a)
2557(b)(2) 7201, 7203
2557(b)(3) 7201, 7202
2557(b)(4) 6671(a), 6672
2557(b)(8) 6671(b), 7343
2558 4706, 4733, 7301(a)
2559, 2560 Omitted
2561 4734
2562 4736
2563 4774
2564 4735
2565 Omitted
2567 4711, 4712
2568, 2569 4712, 4713
2569(b) 7101
2569(d) 6001
2569(d)(4) 7641
2570 7238
2571 4714, 7301(a)
2590 4741, 4771
2591 4742
2592 4743, 4771
2593 4744
2594(a) 6001
2595 4773
2596 7237(a)
2597 7491
2598 4745, 7301(a)
2599, 2600 Omitted
2601 4756
2602 4774
2603 4762
2604, 2606 Omitted
2650 4802
2651 4801, 4803
2651(c)(2) 6201(a)(2)(A)
2652(a) 6801(a)
2653 4804
2653(b) 6001, 7641
2653(d) 7101
2654, 2655 4805
2656 7274
2656(a) 7206(4)
2656(b) 7239(a)
2656(c) 7271(1), 7303(6)(B)
2656(d) 7239(b)
2656(f) 7201
2656(g) 7272
2656(h) 7267(d)
2656(i) 7267(c)
2656(j), (k) 7267(a), (b)
2657(a), (b) 7303(6)(B)
2657(c) 7303(6)(A)
2657(d) 7328
2657(e) 7301(c)
2657(f) 7303(6)(B)
2658 Omitted
2659 4803
2660 Omitted
2700 4181, 4182, 4224, 5831
2701 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b)(1), (2)
2702 6151(a)
2703(a) 6416(f)
2704 4216
2705 4225, 6416(e)
2706 6601(a), (f)(1)
2707(a) 6671(a), 6672
2707(b) 7201, 7203
2707(c) 7201, 7202
2707(d) 6671(b), 7343
2708 6302(b)
2709 6001
2710–2712 Omitted
2720–2723 5811–5814
2724 5842, 6001(a)
2725 5843
2726(a)–(c) 5851–5853
2727, 2728 5844, 5845
2729 5861
2730(a), (b) 5862(a), (b)
2731–2733 5846–5848
2733(a) 7701(a)(1)
2734 5821
2734(e) 6071, 6091(a)
2800(a) 5001(a)(9) (Rev. See 5001(a)(8))
2800(a)(1) 5001(a)(1), 5005(a), 5006(a)
2800(a)(1)(A) 5026(a)(1), 5007(a)
2800(a)(1)(B) 5689
2800(a)(2) 5001(a)(2)
2800(a)(3) 5001(a)(3), 5007(b)(2)
2800(a)(4) 5001(a)(4) (Rev. See 5001(a)(10)), 5007(c) (Rev. See 7652, 7805)
2800(a)(5) 5021(a), 5025(b)
2800(a)(6) 5001(a)(5) (Rev. See 5001(a)(4))
2800(b)(2) 5006(c)
2800(c) 5001(b)
2800(d) 5005(b)
2800(e)(1) 5004(a)(1)
2800(e)(2) 5004(a)(2) (Rev. See 5004(b)(2))
2800(e)(3) 5004(a)(3) (Rev. See 5004(b)(3))
2800(e)(4) 5004(a)(4) (Rev. See 5004(b)(4))
2800(f) 5006(d), 5007(b)(1)
2801(b) 5021(b) (Rev. Omitted)
2801(c)(1) 5391
2801(c)(2) 5025(e) (Rev. See 5025(f))
2801(d) 5281 (Rev. See 5201(a))
2801(e) 5025
2801(e)(1) 5272(a) (Rev. See 5173(a), (d)), 5281(a) (Rev. See 5201(a))
2801(e)(2) 5273(a) (Rev. See 5178(a)), 5627 (Rev. See 5687))
2801(e)(3) 5386(b), 5391
2801(e)(4) 5386(a)
2801(e)(5) 5023 (Rev. See 5687)
2801(f) 5628 (Rev. See 5601(a)(10), 5687)
2802(a) 5009(a) (Rev. See 5205(c)(1), (f), 5206(c)), 5010(a) (Rev. See 5205(e))
2802(b) 5010(b) (Rev. See 5205(f))
2802(c) 5027(a) (Rev. See 5061, 5205)
2803(a) 5008(b)(1)(E) (Rev. See 5205(c)(2))
2803(b) 5008(b)(3) (Rev. See 5205(g))
2803(c) 5008(b)(4)
2803(d) 5008(b)(2) (Rev. See 5205(g))
2803(e) 5008(b)(5)
2803(f) 5640 (Rev. See 5613(b))
2803(g) 5642 (Rev. See 5604(a)(1), (4)–(6), (10), (12)–(15), (b))
2804 5211 (Rev. See 5311)
2805(a) 5688(a)
2805(b) 5688(b)
2806(a)(1), (2) 5634 (Rev. See 5601(a)(13), 5615(7))
2806(b)(1) 5645 (Rev. See 7214)
2806(c) 5625 (Rev. See 5612(a))
2806(d) 5639 (Rev. See 5613(a))
2806(e) 5646 (Rev. See Subtitle F)
2806(f) 5626 (Rev. See 5602, 5615(3))
2806(g) 5687 (See 7301, 7302)
2807 5622 (Rev. See 5610)
2808(a) 5212(a) (Rev. See 5204(b))
2809(a) 5002(a) (Rev. See 5002(a)(5))
2809(b)(1) 5002(b)(1) (Rev. See 5002(a)(6)(A))
2809(b)(2) 5002(b)(2) (Rev. See 5002(a)(6)(B))
2809(c) 5002(c) (Rev. See 5002(a)(7))
2809(d) 5002(d) (Rev. See 5002(a)(8))
2810(a) 5174(a) (Rev. See 5179(a), 5505(d)), 5601 (Rev. See 5505(i), 5601(a)(1), 5615(1))
2811 5213(a), 5609
2812(a) 5175(a) (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172), 5271 (Rev. See 5171(a), (c), 5172, 5178(a)(1)(A), (4)(B)–(D)), 5603 (Rev. See 5601(a)(2), (3))
2813(a) 5282 (Rev. See 5201(a), 5202(a), 5204(a), (c), 5205(d), 5206(c), 5251)
2814(a)(1) 5176(a), (c) (Rev. See 5173(a), (b), 5176(a)), 5177(c) (Rev. See 5173(b)(1), 5551(c)), 5604 (Rev. See 5601(a)(4), (5), 5615(3))
2814(a)(2) 5176(d) (Rev. See 5173(b))
2815(a) 5177(a), 5605 (Rev. See 7214)
2815(b)(1)(A) 5177(b)(1) (Rev. See 5173(b)(1)(A))
2815(b)(1)(B) 5177(b)(2) (Rev. See 5173(b)(1)(B))
2815(b)(1)(C) 5177(b)(3) (Rev. See 5173(b)(1)(C))
2815(b)(1)(D) 5177(b)(4) (Rev. See 5173(b)(3))
2815(c)–(e) 5551(a), (b)(1), (c)
2816(a) 5178 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172)
2817(a) 5179(a) (Rev. Omitted)
2817(b) 5179(b) (Rev. Omitted)
2818(a) 5105(a)
2818(b) 5602 (Rev. See 5615(2), 5687)
2819 5171 (Rev. See 5178(a)(1)(B), (b), (c)(2), 5505(b), 5601(a)(6)), 5607 (Rev. See 5505(i), 5601(a)(6))
2820(a) 5173(b) (Rev. See 5178(a)(2)(B), 5202(b)), 5192(b) (Rev. See 5202(b)), 5193(a) (Rev. See 5201(a), 5202(f), 5204(a), 5205(b), 5206(a), (c), 5211)
2821 5682
2822(a) 5173(a) (Rev. See 5178(a)(1)(A), (2)(C)), 5618 (Rev. See 5687)
2823(a) 5173(c) (Rev. See 5173(a)(2)(C))
2824 Omitted
2825 5215 (Rev. See 5201(c), 5312(a), (c), 5373(a), 5562)
2826(a) 5196(a) (Rev. See 5203(a)), 5617 (Rev. See 5687)
2827(a) 5196(b) (Rev. See 5203(b)), 5616 (Rev. See 5687)
2828(a) 5196(c) (Rev. See 5203(c)), 5283 (Rev. See 5203(c), (d)), 5615 (Rev. See 5203(c), (e), 5687)
2829(a) 5552 (See 5503, 5505(e))
2830(a) 5196(d) (Rev. See 5203(d)), 5283 (Rev. See 5203(c), (d))
2831 5116(a) (Rev. See 5115), 5180(a), 5274(a) (Rev. See 5180), 5681
2832 5172 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), 5601(a)(2), (4))
2833(a) 5606 (Rev. See 5601(a)(4), 5602, 5615(3))
2834 5216(a) (Rev. See 5222(a)(1), (2)(D), 5501, 5502(a), 5503, 5504(a), (b), 5505(a), (c), 5601(a)(7), (8), (9)(A)), 5608(a), (b) (Rev. See 5601(a)(7), (8), (9)(A), (12), 5615(4))
2835 Omitted
2836 5195(a) (Rev. See 5201(c)), 5613 (Rev. See 5687)
2837 Omitted
2838 5192(c) (Rev. See 5202(a), (b)), 5612 (Rev. See 5687)
2839(a) 5196(e) (Rev. See 5203(b), (c)), 5619 (Rev. See 5687)
2840 Omitted
2841(a) 5197(a)(1)(A) (Rev. See 5207(a), (d))
2841(b) 5197(a)(1)(B) (Rev. See 5207(a), (d))
2841(c) 5620 (Rev. See 5603, 5615(5))
2842 5611 (Rev. See 5603)
2843 5610 (Rev. See 5603)
2844(a) 5197(b) (Rev. See 5207(c))
2845 Omitted
2846(a) 5007(e)(1) (Rev. See 5004(b)(1), 5006(a)(3))
2847(a) 5007(e)(2) (Rev. Omitted)
2848 Omitted
2849 5191(a) (Rev. See 5221(a))
2850(a) 5191(a) (Rev. See 5221(a)), 5650 (Rev. See 5601(a)(14), 5615(3))
2851 5682
2852 5624 (Rev. See 5611)
2853(a) 5623 (Rev. See 5609)
2854 5649 (Rev. See 5614)
2855(a) 5285(a) (Rev. See 5207(b))
2856 5629 (Rev. See 5610(a)(10), (11))
2857(a) 5114(a) (Rev. See 5114(a)(1), 5146(a)), 5285(b) (Rev. See 5207(c)), 5621 (Rev. See 5603)
2858 5114(b)
2859 5197(a)(2) (Rev. See 5207(a)), 5621 (Rev. See 5603)
2860 Omitted
2861(a) 5282(b) (Rev. See 5202(a), 5204(a), (c), 5205(d), 5206(c))
2862(a) 5282(c) (Rev. See 5205(d))
2863(a) 5115(a) (Rev. See 5205(d))
2865(a) 5630 (Rev. See 5687)
2866 5010(c) (Rev. See 5205(g)), 5636 (Rev. See 5604(a)(2), (3), (7)–(9), (17), 7301)
2867 5635 (Rev. See 5604(a)(17))
2868 5637 (Rev. See 5604(a)(18))
2869 5638 (Rev. See 5604(a)(19), 5613, 7301, 7302)
2870 5195(b) (Rev. See 5201(c)), 5614 (Rev. See 5687, 7301)
2871 5214(a) (Rev. See 5301(a)), 5641 (Rev. See 5606, 5613, 7301, 7302, 7321–7323)
2872 5231 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), (B), (3)(A), (B)), 5241(b) (Rev. See 5202(a), (c), (d))
2873 5231 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), (B), (3)(A), (B)), 5241(a) (Rev. See 5201(a), 5202(a), (c))
2874(a) 5252 (Rev. See 5236)
2875 5231 (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), (B), (3)(A), (B)), 5246(a) (Rev. See 5212)
2876 5631 (Rev. See 5601(a)(12), 5615(6), 5687)
2877(a) 5192(d) (Rev. See 7803; T. 5 §301)
2878(a) 5193(a) (Rev. See 5201(a), 5202(f), 5204(a), 5205(b), 5206(a), (c), 5211)
2878(b) 5009(c), 5193(b) (Rev. See 5206(a), 5214(a)(4))
2878(c) 5193(c) (Rev. See 5206(b))
2878(d) 5193(d) (Rev. See 5204(c))
2879(a) 5242(a) (Rev. See 5211, 5231(a))
2879(b) 5006(a) (Rev. See 5006(a)(1), (2), 5008(c))
2879(c) 5232(a) (Rev. See 5005(c)(1), 5006(a)(2), 5173(a), (c)(1))
2879(d) 5232(a), (c) (Rev. See 5005(c)(1), 5006(a)(2), 5173(a), (c)(1), 5176(a), (b))
2880(a) 5006(b)
2881(a) 5245 (Rev. See 5204(a))
2882(a) 5244 (Rev. See 5213)
2883(a) 5194(a) (Rev. See 5211(a), 5212, 5213)
2883(b) 5194(d) (Rev. See 5214(a))
2883(c) 5194(c) (Rev. See 5241)
2883(d) 5194(e)(1) (Rev. See 5212, 5213)
2883(e) 5025(d), 5194(f) (Rev. See 5005(c)(1), 5212, 5223(a), (d))
2883(f) 5194(g) (Rev. See 5201(a), 5204(a), 5212)
2883(g) 5194(h) (Rev. Omitted)
2884(a) 5250(a) (Rev. See 5205(b))
2885(a) 5247(a) (Rev. See 5175(a), 5206(a), 5214(a)(4))
2885(b) 5009(b) (Rev. See 5205(i)(4)), 5247(b)
2885(d) 5648 (Rev. See 5608)
2886(a) 5247(c)
2887 5012(a) (Rev. See 5009)
2888(a) 5247(d) (Rev. See 5206(a))
2889, 2890 Omitted
2891(a) 5522(a) (Rev. See 5214(a))
2891(b) 5011(a) (Rev. See 5008(a))
2900 5006(a) (Rev. See 5006(a)(1), (2), 5008(c))
2901(a)(1) 5011(a)(1)(A) (Rev. See 5008(a)(1)(A))
2901(a)(2) 5011(a)(1)(B) (Rev. See 5008(a)(1)(B)), 5011(b) (Rev. See 5008(b)(1))
2901(b) 5011(a)(1)(B), (2) (Rev. See 5008(a)(1)(B), (2))
2901(c) 5011(a)(3) (Rev. See 5008(a)(3), (4))
2901(d) 5011(a)(4) (Rev. See 5008(a)(4))
2903(a) 5243(a) (Rev. See 5171, 5172, 5178(a)(3), (4)(A), 5233(a), (b))
2903(b) 5008(a)(1) (Rev. See 5205(a)(1), (3))
2903(c) 5008(a)(2) (Rev. See 5205(a)(3))
2903(d) 5008(a)(3)
2903(e) 5008(a)(4)
2903(f) 5243(d) (Rev. See 5206(c))
2903(g) 5243(c) (Rev. See 5233(c))
2904(a) 5243(a), (b) (Rev. See 5171, 5172, 5178(a)(3), (4)(A), 5202(g), 5233(a), (b))
2905 5243(e) (Rev. See 5175, 5206(c), 5214(a)(4))
2908 5643 (Rev. See 5601(a)(12), 5604(a)(11), (12), (16), 5615(6), 5687)
2909 5644 (Rev. See 5604(a)(4), (5), (10))
2910(a) 5243(b) (Rev. See 5202(g), 5233(b))
2911 5243(f) (Rev. See T. 27 §121)
2912, 2913 5632 (Rev. See 5601(a)(12), 5615(6))
2914(a) 5633 (Rev. See 7214)
2915(a) 5241(c) (Rev. See 7803; T. 5 §301)
2916(a) 5194(b)
3030(a) 5001(a)(9) (Rev. See 5001(a)(8))
3030(a)(1) 5001(a)(5), (9) (Rev. See 5001(a)(4), (8)), 5041(a), 5041(b), 5042(a)(2), 5362, 5368(b)
3030(a)(2) 5022, 5041(b)(4)
3030(b) 5043(b)
3031(a) 5354, 5362, 5373(b)(1), 5373(b)(3), 5391
3032(a) 5373(a), 5382(b)(2)
3033(a) 5373(b)(1)
3034(a), 3035 5366
3036 5025(f) (Rev. See 5025(g)), 5373(a), 5381, 5382(a), (b)(1), (2), 5383(a), (b)(3), (4), 5392
3037(a) 5362, 5373(b)(4)
3038(a) 5362
3039(a) 5370(a)(1)
3040(a) 5351, 5354, 5356, 5368(a), (b), 5369
3041(a) 5043(b), 5368(a)
3042(a) 5192(a) (Rev. See 5202(a)), 5366
3043(a) 5661(a) (See Chapter 68), (b), 5385(b)
3044 5381, 5382, 5383, 5392
3045 5381, 5382, 5384, 5392
3070(a) 5331(a) (Rev. See 5171(a), 5172, 5173(a), (c), 5178(a)(5), 5202(e), 5207(a), (c), (d), 5214(a), 5241, 5242, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d), 5275)
3070(b) 5331(b), (c) (Rev. See 5214(a), 5273(a), (b)(1), (2), (d))
3072 5647 (Rev. See 5273(b)(1), (2), (d), 5601(a)(12), 5607, 5615(6))
3073(a) 5332 (Rev. See 5273(c))
3074(a) 5333 (Rev. See 5243)
3100(a) 5301 (See 5171(a), (b)(1), 5172, 5173(a), (b))
3101(a) 5302 (Rev. See 5171(a), (b)(1), 5172, 5173(a), (c), 5178(a)(3)(A), (B), 5201(a), 5206(a))
3102 5303 (Rev. See 5171(a), (b)(1), 5172, 5173(a), (c), 5178(a)(5), 5241, 5242, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d))
3103 5306 (Rev. See 5025(d), (e)(1), 5103, 5113(a), 5173(c), 5201(a), (c), 5204(c), 5243(a)(1)(A), 5306), 5312(c)
3104(a) 5309 (Rev. See 5222(b)), 5412 (Rev. See 5222(b), 5412)
3105(a) 5305 (Rev. See 5171, 5172, 5173(a), 5178(a)(1)(A), (5), 5201(a), (b), 5207(a), (c), (d), 5211, 5223(a), 5235, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d), 5275, 5312(b))
3106(a) 5307 (Rev. See 5178(a)(2)(A), 5201(a))
3107 5308 (Rev. See 5212, 5223(a))
3108(a) 5310(a) (Rev. See 5214(a), 5241, 5242, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d))
3108(b) 5310(b) (Rev. See 5214(a), 5313)
3108(c) 5310(c) (Rev. See 5214(a))
3108(d) 5310(d) (Rev. See 5272(b))
3109 5310(a) (Rev. See 5214(a), 5241, 5242, 5273(b)(1), (2), (d))
3110 5502 (Rev. Omitted)
3111 5001(a)(6)
3112(a) 5004(b) (Rev. See 5004(a)(1), (b)(1)), 5005(c) (Rev. See 5005(a), (b)(1), (c)(1))
3112(b) 5007(d) (Rev. See 5007(a)(1)), 5689
3113(a) 5011(c)
3114(a) 5304(a) (Rev. See 5171(b)(1), 5271(a), (b), (c), (e)(1), (f), 5272(a))
3114(b) 5304(b) (Rev. See 5271(e))
3114(c) 5304(c) (Rev. See 5271(e))
3114(d) 5304(d)
3115(a) 5686(a) (Rev. See 5687)
3116 5686(b) (Rev. See 5505(i), 5686(a)), 7302
3117(a) 5314 (Rev. See 5557)
3118 5688(d)
3119 5315
3120 5316
3121(a), (c) 5313(a), (b) (Rev. See 5275)
3121(d) 5317(b) (Rev. See 5274)
3122 5317(a)
3123 5318 (Rev. See 5314(a)(2))
3124(a) 5119 (Rev. See 5002(a))
3125(a) 5001(a)(8) (Rev. See 5001(a)(9)), 5007(d) (Rev. See 5007(a)(1)), 5311 (Rev. See 5232)
3125(b) 5310(b) (Rev. See 5214(a), 5313)
3126 Omitted
3150(a) 5051(a)
3150(b)(1) 5054 (Rev. See 5054(a)(1))
3150(b)(2) 5055 (Rev. See 5054(a)(1), (2), (c), (d))
3150(b)(3) 5689
3150(c) 5051(b)
3152 Omitted
3153(b) 5053(a), 5401(b)
3153(c) 5053(b)
3155(a), (b) 5401(a), (b)
3155(c) 5415(a)
3155(f) 5412, 5413, 5675
3156 Omitted
3157(a) 5055 (Rev. See 5054(a)(1), (2), (c), (d))
3158 5402(a), 5411
3159(a)–(c) 5671, 5672, 5673, 5674
3159(e)–(i) 5676(1)–(5)
3159(j) 5674
3160 5052(b)
3170 Omitted
3171(a) 5367, 5555(a) (Rev. See 5207(b)–(d))
3172(a) 5061(b)
3173(a) 5683
3173(b)(1)–(3) 5684 (Rev. See 5687 and Subtitle F)
3173(b)(4) 5690
3173(c) 5685
3173(d) 5688(c)
3174 5064 (Rev. See 5065)
3175 5557 (Rev. See 5560)
3176(a) 5556 (Rev. See 5505(h))
3177(a) 5521(a)
3177(b) 5521(c)(1), (2)
3177(c) 5521(b)
3177(d)(1), (2) 5521(d)(1), (2)
3178 5523
3179(a), (b) 5062(a), (b)
3180 Omitted
3182(a) 5511
3182(b) 5001(a)(7)
3183(a) 5217(a) (Rev. See 5005(c)(1), (2), 5025(d), (e)(2), 5212, 5223(a), 5234(b))
3183(b) 5217(b) (Rev. See 5561)
3183(c) 5217(c) (Rev. Omitted)
3190–3195 Omitted
3206 4821
3207 7235(d), 7264
3208 4822, 4826
3210 4841
3211 7266(a)
3212 4842
3220 4721, 6001, 6151(a)
3221 4722
3222 4772
3223 Omitted
3224 4724
3225 7237(a)
3226 4775
3227 4725
3228 4731, 7343, 7701(a)
3230 4751, 4752, 6151(a)
3231 4753
3232 4772
3233 4754, 6001, 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a)
3234 4755
3235 7237(a)
3236 4775
3237 4756
3238 4761, 7701(a)
3239 Omitted
3250(a)(1) 5111(a)(1) (Rev. See 5111(a))
3250(a)(3) 5111(a)(2) (Rev. See 5112(b))
3250(a)(4) 5113(a)
3250(b)(1) 5121(a)(1) (Rev. See 5121(a))
3250(b)(2) 5122(c) (Rev. See 5121(a)(2))
3250(b)(4) 5121(a)(2) (Rev. See 5122(a), (b))
3250(c)(1) 5091
3250(d)(1) 5111(b)(1) (Rev. See 5111(b))
3250(d)(2) 5111(b)(2) (Rev. See 5112(c))
3250(d)(3) 5091, 5113(b) (Rev. See 5113(a))
3250(e)(1) 5121(b)(1) (Rev. See 5122(b))
3250(e)(2) 5121(b)(2) (Rev. See 5122(b))
3250(e)(3) 5121(c) (Rev. See 5121(c), 5122(c))
3250(e)(4) 5123(a) (Rev. See 5113(a))
3250(f)(1) 5081
3250(g) 5113(c) (Rev. See 5113(a))
3250(h) 5025(g) (Rev. See 5025(h))
3250(i) 5025(h) (Rev. See 5025(i))
3250(j)(1) 5101
3250(j)(3) 5106 (Rev. See 5106(b))
3250(l)(1), (2) 5131(a), (b)
3250(l)(3)–(5) 5132–5134
3251(a) 5113(d)(1) (Rev. See 5113(c)(1))
3251(b) 5113(d)(2) (Rev. See 5113(c)(2))
3251(c) 5123(c) (Rev. See 5113(e))
3252(a) 5124(a)
3252(b) 5124(b) (Rev. See 5146(a))
3252(c) 5124(c) (Rev. See 5146(a))
3252(d) 5692 (Rev. See 5603)
3253 5691 (Rev. See 5607, 5613, 5615, 5661(a), 5671, 5673, 5676(4), 5683, 7301, 7301(a), 7302)
3254(b) 5112(a) (Rev. See 5111(a), 5112(b))
3254(c)(1) 5122(a) (Rev. See 5121(a)(1), 5122(a))
3254(c)(2) 5111 (Rev. See 5111(a), (b), 5112(b), (c))
3254(d) 5052(a), 5092, 5402(a)
3254(e) 5112(b) (Rev. See 5112(c))
3254(f) 5122(b)
3254(g) 5025(c), 5082, 5387(c)
3254(h) 5102
3255(a) 5123(b)(1)
3255(b) 5123(b)(2) (Rev. See 5123(b)(2)(A))
3255(c) 5123(b)(3) (Rev. See 5113(d)(1), (2))
3260 5801(a)
3261(a) 5802
3261(b) 5841
3262 5803
3263(a) 5854(a)
3263(b) 5854(a), (b)
3267 4461, 4462, 4463
3268 4471, 4472, 4473
3270(a) 5141, 7011(a)
3271 4901
3271(a) 5142(a)
3271(b) 5142(b), 6151(a)
3271(c)(1) 5104, 5142(c)
3272(a) 5143(a) (Rev. See Subtitle F), 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b), 6151(a)
3273(a) 5145 (Rev. See 5144), 6801(a)
3273(b) 5146 (Rev. See 6806(a), 7273(a)), 6806(a)
3274 5693 (Rev. See 5692), 7273(a)
3275 5147 (Rev. See 6107), 6107
3276 4906, 5148 (Rev. See 5145)
3277 4902, 5144(a) (Rev. See 5143(a))
3278 4903, 5144(c) (Rev. See 5113(a), 5143(c)(1)–(3))
3279 4904, 5144(b) (Rev. See 5143(b))
3280(a) 4905, 5144 (Rev. See 5113(a) 5143), 7011(b)
3281 6302(b)
3282 5149 (Rev. See 5147), 6302(b)
3283 4907, 5144(e) (Rev. See 5143(e))
3285 4401, 4402, 4404, 4421
3286 6419
3287 4403
3290 4411
3291 4412, 6091(b)
3292 4413, 4903, 4907, 6107
3293 6806(c)
3294 7262, 7273(b)
3297 4422
3298 4423
3300(a) 6801(a)
3300(b) 7208
3300(c) 6808
3301(a) 6801(b), 6804
3301(b) 6808
3303 Omitted
3304(a)–(d) 6805(a)–(d)
3304(e), 3305 Omitted
3310 6331(a)
3310(a) 6011(a), 6071, 6601(c)(4), 6659
3310(b) 6011(a), 6601(c)(4), 6659
3310(c) 6601(a), (f)(1), 6659
3310(d) 6155(a), 6601(f)(1), 6659
3310(e) 6659
3310(f)(1) 6011(a), 6071, 6081(a)
3310(f)(2) 5703(c), 6302(c)
3311 6155(a), 6201(a)(2)(A), 6601(c)(4), 6659
3312(a) 6501(a)
3312(b) 6501(c)(1), (3)
3312(c) 6501(c)(2)
3312(d) 6502(a)
3313 5705(a), 6511(a), (b)(1), (2)
3314 Omitted
3320(a) 7268
3320(b) Omitted
3321 7206(4)
3321(b) 7301
3321(c) Omitted
3322 7301(d)
3323(a)(1), (2) 7271(4)
3323(a)(3) 7208(5)
3323(b) 7303(7)
3324(a)–(c) 7341(a)–(c)
3325 7211
3326 7304
3330 6065(a)
3331 5704(b), 7510
3332–3335 Omitted
3350(a), (b) 7652(b)(1), (2)
3351(a) 7653(a)(2)
3351(b), (c) 7653(b), (c)
3360(a) 7652(a)(1)
3360(b) 7101, 7652(a)(2), 7803(c)
3360(c) 7652(a)(3)
3361(a) 7653(a)(1)
3361(b), (c) 7653(b), (c)
3400(a), (c) 4071, 4072, 4073
3400(b), 3401 Omitted
3403 4061, 4062, 4063
3403(e) 6416(c)
3404 4141, 4142, 4143, 4151, 4152
3405 4111, 4112, 4113
3406(a)(1) 4161
3406(a)(2) Omitted
3406(a)(3) 4121
3406(a)(4) 4171, 4172, 4173
3406(a)(5) Omitted
3406(a)(6) 4191, 4192
3406(a)(7)–(9) Omitted
3406(a)(10) 4131
3406(b) 4221
3406(c) Omitted
3407 4181, 4182, 4224, 5831
3408 4201, 4221
3408(b) 6416(d)
3409(a) 4211
3409(b) Omitted
3412(a)–(f) 4081, 4082, 4083, 4101, 4102, 7101, 7232
3412(g) 6412(b)
3413 4091, 4092, 4093, 7101
3414, 3415, 3416 Omitted
3420 4521, 4531, 4541, 4551
3422 4521
3423 4531, 4532
3424 4551, 4552, 4553
3425 4541, 4542
3430 4601
3431 Omitted
3440 4217
3441 4216
3442 4220, 4224
3443 6416, 6611
3444, 3445, 3446 4218, 4219, 4223
3447 Omitted
3448(a) 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b), 6151(a)
3448(b) 6151(a), 6601(a), (f)(1)
3449, 3450 Omitted
3451 4222
3453 Omitted
3460 4281, 4282, 4283
3461 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081, 6091(b), 6151(a)
3462 Omitted
3465 4251, 4252, 4253, 4254
3466 4253, 4292
3467 4291, 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6091(b), 6151(a), 6161(a)
3468 Omitted
3469(a), (b), (c) 4261, 4262
3469(d) 4291, 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6091(b), 6151(a)
3469(e) 6081(a), 6161(a)
3469(f) 4262, 4292
3470 6151(a), 6601(a), (f)
3471 6415, 6416(f)
3472–3474 Omitted
3475(a) 4271, 4272
3475(b) 4272, 4292
3475(c) 4271, 4291, 6011(a), 6065(a), 6071, 6091(b), 6151(a)
3475(d) 6081(a), 6161(a)
3475(e) 4273, 7272
3480 4331, 4361
3481 4331, 4332, 4341, 4342, 4343, 4344, 4351–4353
3482 4361, 4362
3483 4382
3490 4501, 4503
3491 4501, 6011(a), 6071, 6091(b), 6151(a)
3492 4502
3493(a) 6418(b)
3493(b) 6511(e)(2)
3494(a) 6418(a)
3494(b) 6511(e)(1)
3495 6601(a), (f)
3496–3498 Omitted
3500, 3501 4501, 4504
3506 7240
3507 4502, 7701(a)
3508 4501, 6412(d)
3600 7601(a)
3601(a)(1), (2) 7606(a), (b)
3601(b) 7342
3601(c) 7212(a), (b)
3602 Omitted
3603 6001
3604(a) 6046(a), 6071, 6091(a)
3604(b) 6046(b), (c), 6065(a)
3604(c) 7201, 7203
3611(a)(1) 6011(a), 6065(a), 6081(a), 6091(a), (b)(1), (2)
3611(a)(2) 6020(a), 6065(a)
3611(b) 6071
3611(c) 6065(a), 6071, 6091(a), (b)(1), (2)
3612(a), (c) 6020(b)
3612(d)(1) 6651(a)
3612(d)(2) 6653(b)
3612(e) Omitted
3612(f) 6201(a)(1)
3613 6021
3614 7602, 7605(a)
3615 7605(a)
3615(a)–(c) 7602
3615(d) 7603
3615(e) 7604(b)
3616(a) 7207
3616(b) 7210
3616(c), 3617 Omitted
3630 6101
3631 7605(b)
3632(a) 7622(a)
3632(a)(1) 7602
3632(b) 7622(b)
3633 7402(b)
3633(a) 7604(a)
3633(b) Omitted
3634 6081(a)
3640 6201(a)
3641 6203
3642 6204
3643 Omitted
3644 6202
3645, 3646 Omitted
3647 6201(a)
3650 7621
3651(a)(1) 6301
3651(a)(2), (b) Omitted
3652 6302(a)
3653(a), (b) 7421(a), (b)
3654 Omitted
3655(a) 6303(a), 6659
3655(b) 6601(a), (f)(1), 6659
3656(a)(1) 6311(a)
3656(a)(2)(A), (B) 6311(b)(1), (2)
3656(b)(1) 6311(a)
3656(b)(2) 6311(b)(1)
3657 6312(a)
3658 6313
3659(a) 6314(a)
3659(b) Omitted
3660 6331(a)
3660(a) 6155(a), 6862
3660(b) 6863(a), 7101
3661 7501
3662, 3663 Omitted
3670 6321
3671 6322
3672 7207
3672(a), (b) 6323(a), (d)
3673(a), (b) 6325(a)(1), (2)
3674(a), (b) 6325(b)(1), (2)
3675 6325(c)
3676 7102
3677 Omitted
3678 7403
3679(a) 7424(a)
3679(b) Omitted
3679(c), (d) 7424(b), (c)
3680 Omitted
3690 6331(a), (b)
3691 6334
3692 6331(a), (b), 6334(c)
3693 6335(e)(2)(E)
3693(a)–(c) 6335(a), (b), (d)
3693(d) 6335(e)(2)(F)
3694 6342(a)
3695(a) 6335(e)(1), (2)(A)
3695(b) 6335(e)(2), 7505(a)
3695(c) 7505(b)
3696 6337(a)
3697(a)–(d) 6339(a)(1)–(4)
3698 Omitted
3700 6331(a), (b)
3701 6335(e)(2)(E)
3701(a)–(c) 6335(a), (b), (d)
3701(d) 6335(e)(1), (2)(A), (B)
3701(e) 6335(e)(1)
3701(f) 6335(e)(2)(D), (F), (3)
3702(a) 6337(a)
3702(b)(1), (2) 6337(b)(1), (2)
3702(c) 6337(c)
3703(a) 6338(c)
3703(b) 6338(a)
3704(a) 6338(c)
3704(b) 6338(b)
3704(c)(1), (2) 6339(b)(1), (2)
3705 Omitted
3706(a), (b) 6340(a)
3706(c)–(e) Omitted
3706(f) 6340(b)
3707 Omitted
3710(a), (b) 6332(a), (b)
3710(c) 6332(c), 7343
3711 6333
3712 6335(c), 6342(b)
3713, 3714(a) Omitted
3714(b) 6502(b)
3715 6331(c)
3716 6341
3717 Omitted
3720(a)(1)–(3) 7301(a)–(c)
3720(b) 7321
3720(c) Omitted
3721, 3722 7322, 7324
3722(a), (b) 7324(1), (2)
3722(c) 7101, 7324(3)
3722(d) 7324(4)
3723(a)–(c) 7323(a)–(c)
3723(d) Omitted
3724 7101, 7325
3725 6807
3726 7327
3727 Omitted
3740 7401
3742, 3743, 3745 Omitted
3746(a) 7405(a)
3746(b) 6532(b), 7405(b)
3746(c) Omitted
3746(d) 6602
3747 7406
3748 6531
3760, 3761 7121, 7122
3762 7206(5)
3770(a)(1) 6402(a), 6404(a)
3770(a)(2) 6401(a)
3770(a)(3) 6407
3770(a)(4) 6402(a)
3770(a)(5) 6402(a), 6404(a)
3770(b) 7423
3770(b)(1), (2) 7423(1), (2)
3770(c) 6401(c)
3771(a) 6611(a)
3771(b)(1) 6611(b)(1)
3771(b)(2) 6611(b)(2), (e)
3771(c) 6611(c)
3771(d) Omitted
3771(e) 6611(f)
3771(f), (g) Omitted
3772(a)(1) 7422(a)
3772(a)(2), (3) 6532(a)(1), (4)
3772(b) 7422(b)
3772(c) Omitted
3772(d), (e) 7422(c), (d)
3773 Omitted
3774 6514(a)
3774(b) 6532(a)(2)
3775 6514(b)
3777(a)–(c) 6405(a)–(c)
3778 Omitted
3779(a) 6091(a), 6164(a)
3779(b) 6065(a), 6071, 6081(a), 6164(b)
3779(c)–(g) 6164(c)–(g)
3779(h) 6155(a), 6164(h)
3779(i) 6601(a), (e), (f)(1)
3780(a) 6065(a), (b), 6071, 6091(a), 6411(a)
3780(b) 6411(b)
3780(c) 6213(b)(2)
3781 6164(i), 6411(c)
3790 6406, 6611(g)
3791(a) 6071, 6081(a), 6091(a), (b)(1), (2), 7805(a)
3791(b) 7805(b)
3792 7623
3793 7206(3)
3793(a)(2) 7303(8)
3793(b) 7206(2), 7207
3793(b)(2) 7343
3794 6601(a)
3795(a)–(d) 7506(a)–(d)
3797(a)(1)–(11) 7701(a)(1)–(11)
3797(a)(12) 7701(a)(13)
3797(a)(13) Omitted
3797(a)(14)–(20) 1465, 7701(a)(14)–(20)
3797(b), (c) 7701(b), (c)
3798 7507
3799 76
3800 7402(a)
3801 1311–1314
3802 7511
3803 7852(a)
3804(a) 7508(a)
3804(b), (c) Omitted
3804(d) 7508(b)
3804(e) Omitted
3804(f) 7508(a)
3805 6072(e)
3806 1481
3808 Omitted
3809(a) 7206(1)
3809(b) 6061, 6064
3809(c) 6065(a)
3810 Omitted
3811 7651
3812 6521
3813, 3814 503, 504
3900 7802
3901(a) 6801(a), 7805(c)
3901(b) 7803(b)(2)
3905, 3906, 3910, 3911, 3915, 3916 Omitted
3920, 3921 7803(a)
3930(a) 7801(b)
3930(b) Omitted
3931, 3932 7801(b), (c)
3940–3942 Omitted
3943 7101, 7803(c)
3944, 3950–3955, 3960–3967 Omitted
3970 7808
3971(a), (b) 7809(a), (b)
3971(b)(1)–(3) 7809(b)(1)–(3)
3975–3978 7803(d)
3990, 3991 Omitted
3992 7101, 7402(d), 7803(c)
3993, 3994 Omitted
3995(c) 7402(d)
3996, 3997 Omitted
4000 7803(a)
4001–4003 Omitted
4010 7101, 7803(c)
4011, 4012 Omitted
4013(a) 5241
4013(b)–(d) Omitted
4014–4022, 4030–4033 Omitted
4040 7803(b)(1)
4041(a) 7803(a)
4041(b) Omitted
4042 7402(c)
4043–4046 Omitted
4047(a)(1) 7213(b)
4047(b) 7214(b)
4047(c), (d) Omitted
4047(e) 7214(a)
4048 7344
5000–5004 8001–8005
5010–5012 8021–8023
Table II
1986 Code

section number

1939 Code

section number

1 11, 12(b)(3), (c), (f)
2 12(d)
3 400
4 23(aa)(4), 401, 402, 404
5  
11 13, 15, 104(b), 261
12  
21 108
31 35, 322(a)(4)
32 32
33 31
34  
35 25
36 23(aa)(2)
37  
38  
61 22(a)
62 22(n)
63 21
71 22(k)
72 22(b)(2)
73 22(m)
74  
75 22(o)
76 22(j), 3799
77 123
101 22(b)(1)
102 22(b)(3)
103 22(b)(4)
104 22(b)(5)
105  
106  
107 22(b)(6)
108 22(b)(9), (10)
109 22(b)(11)
110  
111 22(b)(12)
112 22(b)(13)
113 22(b)(14)
114 22(b)(16)
115 22(b)(8), 116(d), (e)
116  
117  
118  
119  
120  
121 22(b)(17), 116(i)
141 23(aa)(1)
142 23(aa)(4), (5), 213(d)
143 23(aa)(6)
144 23(aa)(3), (7)
145  
151 25(b)(1)
152 25(b)(3)
153 25(b)(2)
154  
161 23
162 23(a)(1)
163 23(b)
164 23(c), (d)
165 23(e), (f), (g)(1), (2), (3), (4), (h), (i), (k)(2)
166 23(k)
167 23(l), 23(n), 114(a)
168 23(t), 124A
169 23(t), 124B
170 23(o), (q), 120
171 23(v), 125
172 23(s), 122
173 23(bb)
174  
175  
211 23
212 23(a)(2)
213 23(x)
214  
215 23(u)
216 23(z)
217  
241 26
242 26(a)
243 26(b)(1)
244 26(b)(2)
245 26(b)(3)
246 26(b)
247 26(h)
248  
261 24(a)
262 24(a)(1)
263 23(a)(1)(C), 24(a)(2), (3)
264 24(a)(4), (6)
265 23(b), 24(a)(5)
266 24(a)(7)
267 24(b), (c)
268 24(f)
269 129
270 130
271 23(k)(6)
272  
273 24(d)
301 22(e), 115(a), (b), (d), (e), (j)
302 115(c), (g)(1), (i)
303 115(g)(3)
304 115(g)(2)
305 115(f)
306  
307 113(a)(19)
311  
312 115(c), (h), (l), (m), 394(d)
316 115(a), (b)
317  
318  
331 115(c)
332 112(b)(6)
333 112(b)(7)
334 113(a)(15), (18)
336  
337  
338  
341 117(m)
342 115(c)
346 115(i)
351 112(b)(5), (c), (e)
354 112(b)(3)
355 112(b)(3), (11)
356 112(c), (e)
357 112(k)
358 113(a)(6), (23)
361 112(b)(4), (d), (e)
362 113(a)(7), (8)
363  
367 112(i)
368 112(g)(1), (2), (h)
371 112(b)(10), (c), (d), (e), (k), (l)
372 113(a)(22)
373 112(b)(9), 113(a)(20), (21)
381  
382  
391  
392  
393  
394  
395  
401 165(a)
402 165(b), (c), (d)
403 22(b)(2)(B)
404 23(p)
421 130A
441 41, 48(a), (b)
442 46
443 47(a), (c), (e), (g); 146(a)
446 41
451 42(a)
452  
453 44
454 42(b), (c), (d)
461 43
462  
471 22(c)
472 22(d)(1)–(5)
481  
482 45
501 101 except (12) and last par.; 165(a), 421
502 Last par. 101
503 3813
504 3814
511 421
512 421(c), (d); 422
513 422(b)
514 423
515 424
521 101(12)(A)
522 101(12)(B)
526 116(g)
531 102(a)
532 102(a)
533 102(b), (c)
534  
535 26(d), 27(b)(2), 102(d)
536 102(f)
537  
541 500
542 501
543 502, 507(b)
544 503
545 26(c), (d); 504, 505
546 505(e)
547 506
551 337
552 331
553 332
554 333
555 334
556 26(c), 335, 336
557 336(d)
561 26(f), 27(a)
562 26(f), 27(b)–(i)
563 504(c)
564 26(f), 27(c)–(i)
565 26(g), 28
581 104(a)
582 23(k)(2), 117(i)
583 121
584 169, second sentence of 170
591 23(r)
592 23(dd)
593 23(k)
594 110
601 26(d)
611 23(m)
612 114(b)(1)
613 114(b)(3), (4)
614  
615 23(ff)
616 23(cc)
621 22(b)(15)
631 117(k)
632 105
641 161
642 162(a), (e), (f); 163, 168, 170, 172
643 162(d)
651 162(b)
652 162(b), 164
661 162(b), (c)
662 162(b), (c), 164
663 162(d)
665  
666  
667  
668  
671  
672  
673  
674  
675  
676 166
677 167
678  
681 162(g)
682 171
683  
691 126
692 154
701 181
702 182, 183, 184, 186, 189
703 183, 189
704 191, 3797(a)(2)
705  
706 188
707  
708  
721  
722  
723 113(a)(13)
731  
732 113(a)(13)
733  
734  
735  
736  
741  
742  
743  
751  
752  
753  
754  
755  
761 3797(a)(2)
771  
801 201(b)
802 201(a)(1)
803 201(c)(1)–(7), (d), (e)
804 202(b)
805 203A(b), (c), (d)
806 202(c)
807 201(a)(2), (3)
821 207(a)
822 207(a)(5), (b)(1), (4), (c), (d), (e), (f)
823 207(b)(2), (3)
831 204(a)
832 204(a)(2), (b)–(f)
841 205
842 206
851 361
852 362(a), (b)(1)–(7)
853  
854  
855 362(b)(8)
861 119(a), (b), (e)
862 119(c), (d), (e)
863 119(e)
864 119(f)
871 211(a), (b), (c)
872 212
873 213, 214
874 215, 216
875 219
876 220
877 221
881 231(a)
882 231(b), (c); 232(a), (b); 233, 234, 235(a)
883 231(d)
884 236(b), 237, 238
891 103
892 116(c)
893 116(h)
894 22(b)(7)
901 131(a), (g)
902 131(f)(1), (2)
903 131(h)
904 131(b)(1)
905 131(c), (d), (e)
911 116(a)
912 116(j), (k)
921 109
922 26(i)
931 251
932 252
933 116(l)
941 262
942 263
943 116(f), 265
1001 111
1002 112(a)
1011 113(b), except (1)–(4)
1012 113(a)
1013 113(a)(1)
1014 113(a)(5)
1015 113(a)(2), (3), (4)
1016 113(b)(1), (2)
1017 113(b)(3)
1018 113(b)(4)
1019 113(c)
1020 113(d)
1021  
1022 113(e)
1031 112(b)(1), (c)(1), (e), 113(a)(6)
1032  
1033 112(f), 113(a)(9)
1034 112(n)
1035  
1036 112(b)(2)
1051 113(a)(11)
1052 113(a)(12), (16)
1053 113(a)(14)
1054  
1071 112(m)
1081 112(b)(8), 371
1082 372, 113(a)(17)
1083 373
1091 118, 113(a)(10)
1201 117(c)
1202 23(ee), 117(b)
1211 117(d)
1212 117(e)
1221 117(a)(1)
1222 117(a)(2)–(10)
1223 117(h)
1231 117(j)
1232 117(f)
1233 117(e), (g)(1)
1234 117(g)(2)
1235  
1236 117(n)
1237  
1238 117(g)(3)
1239 117(o)
1240 117(p)
1241  
1301 107(a)
1302 107(b)
1303 107(d)
1304 107(c), (e)
1311 3801(b)
1312 3801(b)
1313 3801(a)
1314 3801(c), (d), (e), (f), (g)
1315  
1321 22(d)(6)
1331 127(c)(1)
1332 127(c)(2)
1333 127(c)(3)
1334 127(c)(4)
1335 127(c)(5)
1336 127(d)
1337 127(e), (f)
1341  
1346 128
1347 106
1351  
1361  
1401 480
1402 481
1403 482
1441 143(b)
1442 144
1443 143(h)
1451 143(a)
1461 143(c)
1462 143(d)
1463 143(e)
1464 143(f)
1465 3797(a)(16)
1471 650, 651
1481 3806
1491 1250
1492 1251
1493 1252
1494 1253
1501 141(a)
1502 141(b)
1503 141(c)
1504 141(d), (e), (f), (g)
1505 141(h), (i)
1551 15(c)
1552  
2001 810, 935
2002 822(b)
2011 810, 813(b)
2012 813(a)(2), 936(b)
2013  
2014 813(c), 936(c)
2015 927
2016 874(b)(3)
2031 811(k)
2032 811(j)
2033 811(a)
2034 811(b)
2035 811(c)(1)(A), 811(1)
2036 811(c)(1)(B)
2037 811(c)(1)(C), (c)(2), (3)
2038 811(d)
2039  
2040 811(e)
2041 811(f); 403(d)(2) R.A. 1942; 2, P.L. 635 (80th Cong.)
2042 811(g)
2043 811(i), 812(b)
2044 811(h)
2051 812
2052 935(c)
2053 812(b)
2054 812(b)
2055 812(d)
2056 812(e)
2101 860, 935
2102 861(a)(2)
2103 861(a)
2104 862
2105 863
2106 861
2201 939
2202 850
2203 930(a)
2204 825(a)
2205 826(b)
2206 826(c)
2207 826(d)
2501 1000(a)
2502 1001(a), (b); 1008(a), 1030(a)
2503 1003(a), 1003(b)
2504  
2511 1000(b), 1030(b)
2512 1002, 1005
2513 1000(f)
2514 1000(c); 452(b)(2) R.A. 1942; 2, P.L. 635 (80th Cong.)
2515  
2516  
2521 1004(a)(1)
2522 1004(a)(2), 1004(b)
2523 1004(a)(3)
2524 1004(c)
3101 1400
3102 1401(a), (b)
3111 1410
3112 1412
3121 1426(a)–(e), (g)–(l)
3122 1420(e)
3123 1427
3124 1428
3125 1432
3201 1500
3202 1501(a), (b)
3211 1510
3212 1511
3221 1520
3231 1532(a)–(e), (g), (h)
3232 1534
3233 1538
3301 1600
3302 1601(a), (b), (c)
3303 1602
3304 1603
3305 1606
3306 1607(a)–(j), (l)–(o)
3307 1608
3308 1611
3401 1621
3402 1622(a)–(d), (g)–(k)
3403 1623
3404 1624
3501 1420(a), 1530(a), 1605(a)
3502 1402, 1503, 1512, 1622(e)
3503 1422, 1531
3504 1632
4001 1650, 2400
4002 2412(a)
4003 2400, 2412(b)
4011 1650, 2401
4012 2401, 2412(a)
4013 2412(b)
4021 1650, 2402(a)
4022 2402(a), (b)
4031 1651(a)
4041 2450
4051 2403(c)
4052 2404
4053 2405
4054 2413
4055 2406, 2453
4056 2406
4057  
4061 3403(a), (b), (c)
4062  
4063 3403(c), (d)
4071 3400(a)
4072 3400(c)
4073 3400(a)
4081 3412(a)
4082 3412(b), 3412(c)
4083 3412(a)
4091 3413
4092 3413
4093 3413
4101 3412(d)
4102 3412(e)
4111 3405
4112 3405
4113 3405(b)
4121 3406(a)(3)
4131 3406(a)
4141 3404(a)
4142 3404(b)
4143 3404(a), 3404(b)
4151 3404(d)
4152 3404(d)
4161 3406(a)(1)
4171 3406(a)
4172 3406(a)(4)
4173 3406(a)(4)
4181 2700(a), 3407
4182 2700(b)(2), 3407; 706, P.L. 911 (81st Cong.)
4191 3406(a)(6)
4192 3406(a)(6)
4201 3408(a)
4211 3409(a)
4216 2704, 3441
4217 3440
4218 3444
4219 3445
4220 3442
4221 3406(b), 3408(b)
4222 2456, 3451
4223 3446
4224 2700(b), 3407, 3442(3)
4225 2705
4226  
4231 1700
4232 1700(e), 1704
4233 1701
4234 1702, 1703
4241 1710
4242 1712
4243 1711
4251 3465
4252 3465
4253 3465, 3466(b), (c)
4254 3465
4261 3469
4262 3469(a), (b), (f)
4271 3475(a), (c)
4272 3475(a), (b)
4273 3475(e)
4281 3460(a)
4282 3460(b)
4283 3460(c)
4286 1850
4287 1857
4291 1715(a), 1851, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c)
4292 3466(a), 3469(f), 3475(b)(1)
4293 307 R.A. 1943
4294  
4301 1800, 1802(a)
4302 1802(a)
4303 1808(g)
4304 1802(a)
4305  
4311 1800, 1801
4312 1801
4313 1801
4314 1801
4315 1801
4316  
4321 1800, 1802(b)
4322 1802(b)
4323 1802(b)
4324  
4331 3480, 3481(a)
4332 3481(a)
4333  
4341 1802(b), 3481(a)
4342 1802(b), 3481(a)
4343 1802(c), 3481(b)
4344 1802(b), 3481
4345  
4351 1802(b), 3481(a)
4352 1802(b), 3481(a)
4353 1802(b), 3481(a)
4354  
4361 3480, 3482
4362 3482
4363  
4371 1804(a)–(c)
4372 1804(a)–(d)
4373 1804, 1808(b)
4374 1821(b)(3)
4375  
4381 1801, 1802(a), (b)
4382 1808(a)–(f), except (b), 3483
4383 1809(a)
4401 3285(a), (c), (d)
4402 3285(e)
4403 3287
4404 3285(f)
4405  
4411 3290
4412 3291
4413 3292
4414  
4421 3285(b)
4422 3297
4423 3298
4451 1807
4452 1831(a)
4453 1830
4454 1809(a)
4455 1831(b)
4456 1832
4457  
4461 3267(a)
4462 3267(b)
4463 3267(c)
4471 1650, 3268(a)
4472 3268(a)
4473 3268(a)
4474  
4501 3490(a), 3491(a), 3500, 3508
4502 3492, 3507
4503 3490(b)
4504 3501
4511 2470(a)(1), (2)
4512 2477
4513 2470(a)(2), 2470(b), 2474
4514  
4521 3420, 3422
4531 3420, 3423
4532 3423
4541 3420, 3425
4542 3425
4551 3420, 3424
4552 3424
4553 3424(a)
4561 2490, 2491(a)
4562 2491(a)
4571 2490, 2491(b), 2491(d)
4572 2491(f)
4581 2490, 2491(c)
4582 2491(c), (g), 2492
4591 2306, 2311(a)
4592 2300
4593 2300, 2307
4594 2302
4595 2303, 2404
4596 2302(e)
4597 2303(c)
4601 2493, 3430
4602 2492
4603  
4701 2550(a), (b)
4702 2551(a), (b), (c)
4703 2552(a)
4704 2553
4705 2554
4706 2558(a), (c)
4707  
4711 2567(a)
4712 2567(b), 2568
4713 2569
4714 2571
4715  
4721 3220
4722 3221
4723 2553(a)
4724 3224
4725 3227(a)
4726  
4731 P.L. 240, (83d Cong.); 3228(a)
4732 2555
4733 2558(b)
4734 2561
4735 2564; P.L. 238, (83d Cong.)
4736 2562
4741 2590(a), (b)
4742 2591
4743 2592(a)
4744 2593
4745 2598
4746  
4751 3230(a)
4752 3230(b), (c), (d)
4753 3231
4754 3233
4755 3234
4756 2601, 3237
4757  
4761 3238
4762 2603
4771 2550(c)(1), (2); 2552(b), 2590(c), 2592(b)
4772 3222, 3232
4773 2556, 2595
4774 2563, 2602
4775 3226, 3236
4776  
4801 2651(a), (b)
4802 2650
4803 2651(c), 2659(a)
4804 2653
4805 2654, 2655
4806  
4811 2321(a), (b)
4812 2306, 2327(a)
4813 2305, 2321(c), 2327(a), (d)
4814 2322(b)–(e)
4815 2323(c), 2324
4816 2307, 2327(a)
4817 2325
4818 2311, 2327(a)
4819  
4821 3206
4822 3208
4826 2320, 2322(a), 2323(a), (b); 3208
4831 2351(a), (b); 2356
4832 2351(c), 2355, 2356, 2361
4833 2352(b)–(e)
4834 2353(b), 2354(b), (c)
4835 2360
4836  
4841 3210
4842 3212
4846 2350, 2352(a), 2353(a), 2354(a)
4851 1920(a), (b)
4852 1931
4853 1925
4854 1926
4861 1921
4862 1927
4863 1922
4864 1923
4865 1924
4871 1920(c)
4872 1928
4873 1932
4874 1930
4875 1935
4876 1933
4877  
4881 1900
4882 1905
4883 1901, 1906
4884 1902
4885 1903
4886  
4891 1805
4892 1805
4893 1809(a)
4894 1805
4895 1805
4896 1805
4897  
4901 3271
4902 3277
4903 3278, 3292
4904 3279
4905 3280
4906 3276
4907 3283, 3292
5001 2800(a)(1), (4), (6), (c); 3030(a)(1); 3111; 3125(a); 3182(b)
5002 2809(a), (b)(1), (2), (c), (d)
5003  
5004 2800(e)(1), (2), (3), (4); 3112
5005 2800(a)(1), (d); 3112
5006 2800(a)(1), (b)(2), (f); 2879(b); 2880, 2900(a)
5007 2800(f), (a)(3), (4); 2846(a), 2847(a); 3112(b); 3125(a)
5008 2803(a)–(e), 2903(b)–(e)
5009 2802, 2885, 2878
5010 2802(a), (b); 2866
5011 2891(b), 2901(a), (b), (c), (d); 3113
5012 2887
5021 2800(a)(5), 2801(b)
5022 3030(a)(2)
5023 2801(e)(5)
5024  
5025 2800(a)(5); 2801(c)(2), (e); 2883(e), 3036(a), 3250(h), (i); 3254(g)
5026 2800(a)(1)(A)
5027 2802(c)
5028  
5041 3030(a)(1), (2)
5042 3030(a)(1)
5043 3030(b), 3041
5044  
5045  
5051 3150(a), (c)
5052 3160, 3254
5053 3153(b)(c)
5054 3150(b)(1)
5055 3150(b)(2), 3157(a)
5056  
5057  
5061 3172(a)
5062 3179(a), (b)
5063 1656(a), (b), (c)
5064 3174
5065  
5081 3250(f)(1)
5082 3254(g)
5083  
5084  
5091 3250(c)(1), (d)(3)
5092 3254(d)
5093  
5101 3250(j)(1)
5102 3254(h)
5103  
5104 3271(c)(1)
5105 2818(a)
5106 3250(j)(3)
5111 3250(a)(1), (a)(3), (d)(1), (d)(2); 3254(c)(2)
5112 3254(b), (e)
5113 3250(a)(4), (d)(3), (g); 3251(a), (b)
5114 2857, 2858
5115 2863
5116 2831
5121 3250(b)(1), (b)(4), (e)(1), (2), (3)
5122 3250(b)(2), 3254(c)(1), (f)
5123 3250(e)(4); 3251(c); 3255(a), (b), (c)
5124 3252(a), (b), (c)
5131 3250(l)(1), (2)
5132 3250(l)(3)
5133 3250(l)(4)
5134 3250(l)(5)
5141 3270
5142 3271(a), (b), (c)
5143 3272(a)
5144 3277, 3278, 3279, 3280(a), 3283
5145 3273(a)
5146 3273(b)
5147 3275(a)
5148 3276
5149 3282
5171 2819
5172 2832
5173 2820(a), 2822, 2823
5174 2810
5175 2812
5176 2814(a)(1), (a)(2)
5177 2814(a)(1); 2815(a), (b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D)
5178 2816
5179 2817(a), (b)
5180 2831
5191 2849, 2850(a)
5192 2820, 2838, 2877, 3042
5193 2820, 2878(a), (b), (c), (d)
5194 2883(a)–(g), 2916
5195 2836, 2870
5196 2826, 2827, 2828, 2830, 2839
5197 2841, 2844, 2859
5211 2804
5212 2808
5213 2811
5214 2871
5215 2825
5216 2834
5217 3183(a), (b), (c)
5231 2872, 2873, 2875
5232 2879(c), (d)
5233  
5241 2872, 2873, 2915, 4013(a)
5242 2879(a)
5243 2903(a), (f), (g); 2904, 2905, 2910, 2911
5244 2882
5245 2881
5246 2875
5247 2885(a), (b), 2886, 2888
5248  
5249  
5250 2884
5251  
5252 2874
5271 2812
5272 2801(e)(1)
5273 2801(e)(2)
5274 2831
5275  
5281 2801(e)(1), (d)
5282 2813, 2861, 2862
5283 2828, 2830
5284  
5285 2855, 2857
5301 3100
5302 3101
5303 3102
5304 3114
5305 3105
5306 3103
5307 3106
5308 3107
5309 3104
5310 3108(a)–(d); 3109, 3125(b)
5311 3125(a)
5312  
5313 3121(a), (c)
5314 3117
5315 3119
5316 3120
5317 3121(d), 3122
5318 3123
5319 3124
5320  
5331 3070(a), (b)
5332 3073
5333 3074
5334  
5351 3040
5352  
5353  
5354 3031(a), 3040
5355  
5356 3040
5357  
5361  
5362 3030(a)(1), 3031(a), 3037, 3038; 19 U.S.C. 81(c), 1309, 1311
5363  
5364  
5365  
5366 3034, 3035, 3042
5367 3171
5368 3030(a)(1), 3040, 3041
5369 3040
5370 3039
5371  
5372  
5373 3031, 3032, 3033, 3036, 3037(a)
5381 3036, 3044(a), 3045
5382 3032, 3036, 3044, 3045
5383 3036, 3044(b), (c)
5384 3045
5385 3043(a)
5386 2801(e)(3), (4)
5387 3254(g)
5388  
5391 2801(c), (e)(3); 3031(a)
5392 3036, 3044(b), 3045
5401 3153(b); 3155(a), (b)
5402 3158, 3254(d)
5403  
5411 3158
5412 3104, 3155(f)
5413 3155(f)
5414  
5415 3155(c)
5416  
5501  
5502 3110
5511 3182(a)
5512  
5521 3177(a), (b), (c), (d)(1)
5522 2891(a)
5523 3178
5551 2815(c), (d), (e)
5552 2829
5553  
5554  
5555 3171
5556 3176
5557 3175
5601 2810
5602 2818
5603 2812
5604 2814
5605 2815(a)
5606 2833
5607 2819
5608 2834
5609 2811
5610 2843
5611 2842
5612 2838
5613 2836
5614 2870
5615 2828
5616 2827
5617 2826
5618 2822
5619 2839
5620 2841
5621 2857(a), 2859
5622 2807
5623 2853
5624 2852
5625 2806(c)
5626 2806(f)
5627 2801(e)(2)
5628 2801(f)
5629 2856
5630 2865
5631 2876
5632 2912, 2913
5633 2914(a)
5634 2806(a)(1)(2)
5635 2867
5636 2866
5637 2868
5638 2869
5639 2806(d)
5640 2803(f)
5641 2871
5642 2803(g)
5643 2908
5644 2909
5645 2806(b)(1)
5646 2806(e)
5647 3072
5648 2885(d)
5649 2854
5650 2850
5661 3043
5662  
5663  
5671 3159
5672 3159
5673 3159
5674 3159
5675 3155(f)
5676 3159(e), (f), (g), (h), (i)
5681 2831
5682 2821, 2851
5683 3173(a)
5684 3173(b)
5685 3173(c)
5686 3115, 3116
5687 2806(g)
5688 2805(a)–(b); 3118, 3173(d), 63 Stat. 377 et seq.
5689 2800(a)(1)(B), 3112(b), 3150(b)(3)
5690 3173(b)(4)
5691 3253
5692 3252
5693 3274
5701 2000
5702 2010, 2030, 2050, 2110
5703 2001, 2002(b), (c), 2194, 3310(f)(2)
5704 2040, 2101, 2111(f); 2130(d); 2135(a)(1), (2), (3); 2197(b); 2130(d)
5705 2137, 2198, 3313
5706 2136
5707 2000(g)(1), (2), (3)
5711 2013, 2033, 2039(a), 2053
5712 2012, 2032, 2052
5713 2014, 2054
5721 2017, 2036
5722 2019, 2038, 2039(b), 2194
5723 2100, 2102, 2103(a)(1), 2111, 2112(a)(1), 2130(a), (b), (c)
5731 2059, 2060
5732 2058
5741 2018, 2037, 2039(b)(1), 2056, 2194
5751 2104(a), 2113, 2170(a)(2)
5752 2103(e), 2112(e)
5753 2190
5761 2156(c), 2161(m)(1), 2180(1)
5762 2130(a), (b), (c); 2151(a), (c); 2155(a), 2156, 2160(a)–(e), (g), (i); 2161(a), (c), (e)–(g); 2162(a)(2), (4), (b); 2170(a)(2), (4), (b); 2171(a), (b)(2); 2172, 2173(a), 2174, 2176(a)(2), (3); 2180(a), (d)–(f)
5763 2155(b), 2160(h), 2161(b), (h), (i)(1), (j)(1), (l)(1), (m)(2); 2170(b), 2171(a), 2175, 2180(b), (g)(1), (h), (i), (k), (l)(1), (2)
5801 3260
5802 3261(a)
5803 3262
5811 2720
5812 2721
5813 2722
5814 2723
5821 2734
5831 2700, 3407
5841 3261(b)
5842 2724
5843 2725
5844 2727
5845 2728
5846 2731
5847 2732
5848 2733
5851 2726(a)
5852 2726(b)
5853 2726(c)
5854 3263
5861 2729
5862 2730
6001 51, 54(a), (b); 821(d), 1007(a), (b); 1720, 1835, 1928(b), 2302, 2303, 2322(c), 2324, 2352, 2555, 2569(d), 2594(a), 2653(b), 2709, 2724, 3220(c), 3233(a), 3603
6011(a) 47(a), 51, 143(c), 215(a), 217, 235, 251(g), 1420(c), 1530(b), 1604(a), 1624, 1700 (c)(2), (d)(2), (e)(2); 1716(a), 1852(a), 1902(a)(1), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2701, 3272(a), 3310(a), (b), (f)(1), 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3491(a), 3611(a)(1)
6011(b)  
6012(a) 51(a), 52(a), 142(a)(2), (3), (4); 217(b), 235(b)
6012(b)(1) 51(b)(4), (c), (g)(5); 142(a)(1)
6012(b)(2) 51(c), 58(f), 142(a)
6012(b)(3) 52(a)
6012(b)(4) 142(a)
6012(b)(5) 142(b)
6013(a) 51(b)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5)
6013(b) 51(g)(1)–(5)
6014(a) 51(f)(1), (2), (4)
6014(b) 51(b)(1), 51(f)(3)
6015(a) 58(a)
6015(b) 58(c)
6015(c) 58(b)
6015(d) 58(b)
6015(e) 58(d)(2)
6015(f) 58(d)(3)
6015(g) 60(b)
6015(h) 58(a)
6016  
6017 482(a)
6018(a) 821(a)(1), 864(a)(1), 937
6018(b) 821(a)(2), 864(a)(2)
6019(a) 1006(a)
6019(b)  
6020(a) 3611(a)(2)
6020(b) 3612(a), (c)
6020(c)  
6021 3613
6031 187
6032 169(f)
6033(a) 54(f)
6033(b) 153(a)
6033(c)  
6034(a) 153(b)
6034(b) 153(b)
6035(a) 338
6035(b) 339
6036 274(a), 820
6037  
6041(a) 147(b)(2)
6041(b) 147(b)(1)
6041(c) 147(c)
6041(d)  
6042 148(a), (b), (c)
6043 148(d), (e)
6044(a) 148(f)
6044(b) 148(f)
6044(c) 148(f)
6045 149
6046(a) 3604(a)
6046(b) 3604(b)
6046(c) 3604(b)
6046(d)  
6051(a) 1403, 1633(a), (b)
6051(b) 1633(a)
6051(c) 1633(b)
6051(d) 1633(b)
6061 3809(b)
6062 52(a)
6063 187
6064 58(g), 3809(b)
6065(a) 142(a), (b), 148(a), (d), (e); 149, 169(f), 187, 233, 821(a), 864(a), 1006(a), 1604(a), 1716(a), 1852(a), 1902(a)(1), 2403(a), 2471, 2555(a), (c); 2701, 3233(a), 3272(a), 3330, 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3604(b), 3611(a), (c), 3779(b), 3780(a), 3809(c)
6065(b) 51(a), 54(f), 58(b), 215(a), 3780(a)
6071 141(b), 147(a), 148(a), (b), (c), (e); 149, 150, 153(a), (b), 821(b), 864(b), 874(b)(3), 1253(a), 1420(c), 1530(b), 1604(a), 1716(b), 1852(a), 1902(a)(1), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2555(b), (c), 2701, 2734(e), 3233(a), 3272(a), 3310(a), (f)(1); 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3491(a), 3604(a), 3611(b), (c); 3779(b), 3780(a), 3791(a)
6072(a) 53(a)(1), 143(c)
6072(b) 53(a)
6072(c) 217(a), 235(a)
6072(d)  
6072(e) 3805
6073(a) 58(d)(1)
6073(b) 60(a)
6073(c) 58(d)(2)
6073(d) 60(b)
6073(e) 60(c)
6074(a)  
6074(b)  
6074(c)  
6075(a) 821(b), 864(b)
6075(b) 1006(b)
6081(a) 53(a)(2), 58(e), 141(b), 147(a), 148(a), (b), (c), (e); 149, 150, 153(a), (b); 821(b), 864(b), 874(b)(3), 1253(a), 1420(c), 1530(b), 1604(b), 1625(c), 1633(c), 1716(b), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2555(c)(1), 2701, 3233(a), 3272(a), 3310(f)(1), 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(e), 3475(d), 3611(a)(1), 3634, 3779(b), 3791(a)
6081(b)  
6081(c)  
6091(a) 147(a), 148(b), (c), (d), 149, 150, 153(a), (b), 820, 874(b)(3), 1253(a), 1420(c), 1530(b), 2555(c)(1), 2734(e), 3233(a), 3604(a), 3611(a)(1), (c); 3779(a), 3780(a), 3791(a)
6091(b)(1) 53(b)(1), 58(d)(2), 60(b), 143(c), 821(c), 864(c), 1006(b), 1604(a), 1716(c), 1852(b), 1902(a)(2), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2701, 3272(a), 3291(a), 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3491(c), 3611(a)(1), (c); 3791(a)
6091(b)(2) 53(b)(2), 141(b), 143(c), 1604(a), 1716(c), 1852(b), 1902(a)(2), 2403(a), 2451(a), 2471, 2701, 3272(a), 3291(a), 3448(a), 3461, 3467(b), 3469(d), 3475(c), 3491(c), 3611(a)(1), (c); 3791(a)
6091(b)(3) 821(c), 864(c)
6091(b)(4)  
6101 3630
6102  
6103(a) 55(a)
6103(b) 55(b)
6103(c) 55(c)
6103(d) 55(d)
6103(e) 58(h)
6103(f) 55(e)
6104 153(c)
6105 722(g)
6106 1604(c)
6107 3275, 3292
6108 63
6109  
6151(a) 56(a), 143(c), (h); 144, 218(a), 236(a), 822(a)(1), 1008(a), 1253(a), 1530(b), 1715(b), (c); 1853(a), (b); 1902(a)(3), (b); 2403(b), 2451(a), (b); 2472, 2702(a), 3220, 3230, 3271(b), 3272(a), 3448(a), (b); 3461, 3467(b), 3469(b), 3470, 3475(c), 3491(a), (c)
6151(b) 51(f)(2), 56(i)
6151(c) 322(b)(4), (e)
6152(a)(1) 56(b)(2)(A)
6152(a)(1)(A) 56(b)(2)(A)
6152(a)(1)(B) 56(b)(2)(B)
6152(a)(2) 56(b)(1)
6152(a)(3) 1605(c)
6152(b)(1) 56(b)(3)(A), 1605(c)
6152(b)(2) 56(b)(3)(B)
6152(c) 272(i)
6152(d) 56(b)(4)
6153(a) 59(a)
6153(b) 60(a)
6153(c) 59(b)
6153(d) 60(b)
6153(e) 60(c)
6153(f) 59(c)
6154  
6155(a) 22(d)(6)(F), 51(f)(2), 131(c), 146(a), 272(b), (c); 273(a), (g), (i); 274(b), 292(a), 871(b), (c), (i); 872(a), (g), (i); 874(b)(3), 891, 1012(b), (c); 1013(a), (g), (i); 1015(b), 1021, 1117(g), 1605(c), 3310(d), 3311, 3660(a), 3779(h)
6155(b)  
6156  
6161(a)(1) 56(c), 58(e), 1008(b), 1605(d), 3467(b), 3469(e), 3475(d)
6161(a)(2) 822(a)(2)
6161(b)(1) 272(j), 1012(i)
6161(b)(2) 871(h)
6161(c) 274(b), 1015(b)
6161(d)  
6162(a) 56(c)(2)
6162(b)  
6163(a) 925, 926
6163(b)  
6164(a) 3779(a)
6164(b) 3779(b)
6164(c) 3779(c)
6164(d) 3779(d)
6164(e) 3779(e)
6164(f) 3779(f)
6164(g) 3779(g)
6164(h) 3779(h)
6164(i) 3781
6165 56(c)(2), 272(j), 822(a)(2), 871(h), 1012(i)
6201(a) 3640, 3647
6201(a)(1) 3612(f)
6201(a)(2)(A) 1809(b)(2), 2351(c)(2), 2651(c)(2), 3311
6201(a)(2)(B)  
6201(a)(3)  
6201(b) 59(d)
6201(c) 22(m)(4)
6201(d)  
6202 3644
6203 3641
6204 3642
6205(a)(1) 1401(c), 1411, 1501(c), 1521
6205(a)(2) 1411
6205(b) 1421, 1502, 1522
6206  
6211(a) 271(a), 870, 1011
6211(b)(1) 271(b)(1)
6211(b)(2) 271(b)(2)
6211(b)(3) 271(b)(3)
6212(a) 272(a), 871(a), 1012(a)
6212(b)(1) 272(k), 1012(j)
6212(b)(2) 272(a)
6212(b)(3) 901(d)
6212(c)(1) 272(f), 871(f), 1012(f)
6212(c)(2)  
6213(a) 272(a), 871(a), 1012(a)
6213(b)(1) 272(f), 871(f), 1012(f)
6213(b)(2) 3780(c)
6213(b)(3)  
6213(c) 272(c), 871(c), 1012(c)
6213(d) 272(d), 871(d), 1012(d)
6213(e)  
6214(a) 272(e), 871(e), 1012(e)
6214(b) 272(g), 1012(g)
6214(c) 272(h), 871(g), 1012(h)
6215(a) 272(b), 871(b), 1012(b)
6215(b)  
6216  
6301 3651(a)(1)
6302(a) 3652
6302(b) 1420(c), 1719, 2550(c), 2708, 3281, 3282
6302(c) 3310(f)(2)
6303(a) 3655(a)
6303(b)  
6304  
6311(a) 3656(a)(1), (b)(1)
6311(b)(1) 3656(a)(2)(A), (b)(2)
6311(b)(2) 3656(a)(2)(B)
6312(a) 3657
6312(b)  
6313 56(g), 1008(d), 1420(d), 1530(d), 1605(e), 3658
6314(a) 1008(e), 3659(a)
6314(b) 823
6314(c)  
6315 59(d)
6316  
6321 3670
6322 3671
6323(a) 3672(a)
6323(a)(1) 3672(a)(1)
6323(a)(2) 3672(a)(2)
6323(a)(3) 3672(a)(3)
6323(b)  
6323(c)  
6323(d)(1) 3672(b)(1)
6323(d)(2) 3672(b)(2)
6323(e)  
6324(a)(1) 827(a)
6324(a)(2) 827(b)
6324(a)(3) 827(c)
6324(b) 1009
6324(c)  
6325(a)(1) 827(a), 1009, 3673(a)
6325(a)(2) 3673(b)
6325(b)(1) 3674(a)
6325(b)(2) 3674(b)
6325(c) 3675
6325(d)  
6326  
6331(a) 3310, 3660, 3690, 3692, 3700
6331(b) 3690, 3692, 3700
6331(c) 3715
6331(d)  
6332(a) 3710(a)
6332(b) 3710(b)
6332(c) 3710(c)
6333 3711
6334(a) 3691(a)
6334(b) 3691(b)
6334(c) 3692
6335(a) 3693(a), 3701(a)
6335(b) 3693(b), 3701(b)
6335(c) 3712
6335(d) 3693(c), 3701(c)
6335(e)(1) 3695(a), 3701(d), (e)
6335(e)(2) 3695(b)
6335(e)(2)(A) 3695(a), 3701(d)
6335(e)(2)(B) 3701(d)
6335(e)(2)(C)  
6335(e)(2)(D) 3701(f)
6335(e)(2)(E) 3693, 3701
6335(e)(2)(F) 3693(d), 3701(f)
6335(e)(3) 3701(f)
6336  
6337(a) 3696, 3702
6337(b)(1) 3702(b)(1)
6337(b)(2) 3702(b)(2)
6337(c) 3702(c)
6338(a) 3703(b)
6338(b) 3704(b)
6338(c) 3703(a), 3704(a)
6339(a)(1) 3697(a)(1)
6339(a)(2) 3697(b)
6339(a)(3) 3697(c)
6339(a)(4) 3697(d)
6339(a)(5)  
6339(b)(1) 3704(c)(1)
6339(b)(2) 3704(c)(2)
6340(a) 3706(a), (b)
6340(b) 3706(f)
6341 3716
6342(a) 3694
6342(b) 3712
6343  
6344  
6401(a) 3770(a)(2)
6401(b) 322(a)(2)
6401(c) 3770(c)
6402(a) 1027(a), 3770(a)(1), (4), (5)
6402(b) 322(a)(3)
6403 321
6404(a) 3770(a)(1), (5)
6404(b) 273(j), 873, 1014
6404(c)  
6405(a) 3777(a)
6405(b) 3777(b)
6405(c) 3777(c)
6406 3790
6407 3770(a)(3)
6411(a) 3780(a)
6411(b) 3780(b)
6411(c) 3781
6412(a)  
6412(b)(1) 3412(g)(1)
6412(b)(2) 3412(g)(2)
6412(c)  
6412(d) 3508
6412(e)  
6413(a)(1) 1401(c), 1411, 1501(c), 1521
6413(a)(2) 1411
6413(b) 1421, 1502, 1522
6413(c)(1) 1401(d)(3)
6413(c)(2) 1401(d)(4)
6413(d) 1601(d)
6414 143(f), 1622(f)(1)
6415(a) 1854(a), 3471(a)
6415(b) 1715(d)(1), (2); 1854(b), (c); 3471(b), (c)
6415(c) 1715(d)(2)
6415(d) 1715(d)(1), 1854(c), 3471(c)
6416(a) 1715(d), 2407(b), 2452(b), 3443(a)(3)(B), (b), (d)
6416(b)(1) 2407(a), 3443(a)(2)
6416(b)(2)(A) 3443(a)(3)(A)(i)
6416(b)(2)(B) 3443(a)(3)(A)(ii)
6416(b)(2)(C) 3443(a)(3)(A)(iii)
6416(b)(2)(D) 2452(a)
6416(b)(2)(E) 3443(a)(3)(A)(iv)
6416(b)(2)(F) 3443(a)(3)(A)(v)
6416(b)(2)(G) 3443(a)(3)(A)(vi)
6416(b)(2)(H) 3443(a)(3)(A)(vii)
6416(b)(3) 3443(a)(1)
6416(c) 3403(e)
6416(d) 3408(b)
6416(e) 2705
6416(f) 2703(a), 3471(b)
6417(a) 2473
6417(b) 2474
6418(a) 3494(a)
6418(b) 3493(a)
6419 3286
6420  
6501(a) 275(a), 874(a), 1016(a), 1635(a), 3312(a)
6501(b)(1) 275(f)
6501(b)(2) 1635(e)
6501(b)(3)  
6501(c)(1) 276(a), 874(b)(1), 1016(b)(1), 1635(b), 3312(b)
6501(c)(2) 1635(c), 3312(c)
6501(c)(3) 276(a), 874(b)(1), 1016(b)(1), 1635(b), 3312(b)
6501(c)(4) 276(b)
6501(c)(5)  
6501(d) 275(b)
6501(e)(1)(A) 275(c)
6501(e)(1)(B) 275(d)(1)
6501(e)(2)  
6501(f)  
6501(g)  
6502(a) 276(c), 874(b)(2), 1016(b)(2), 1635(d), 3312(d)
6502(b) 3714(b)
6503(a)(1) 277, 875, 1017
6503(a)(2) 141(h)
6503(b) 274(b), 1015(b)
6503(c)  
6503(d) 822(a)(2), 871(h)
6503(e)  
6504  
6511(a) 322(b)(1), 910, 1027(b)(1), 1636(a)(1), 3313
6511(b)(1) 322(b)(1), 910, 1027(b)(1), 1636(a)(1), 3313
6511(b)(2) 322(b)(2), 910, 1027(b)(2), 1636(a)(2), 3313
6511(c) 322(b)(3)
6511(d)(1) 322(b)(5)
6511(d)(2)(A) 322(b)(6)
6511(d)(2)(B) 322(g)
6511(d)(3)  
6511(e)(1) 3494(b)
6511(e)(2) 3493(b)
6511(f)  
6512(a) 322(c), 911, 1027(c)
6512(b) 322(d), 912, 1027(d)
6513(a) 322(b)(4)
6513(b) 322(e)
6513(c) 1636(c)
6513(d)  
6514(a) 3774
6514(b) 3775
6515  
6521 3812
6531 3748(a)
6532(a)(1) 3772(a)(2)
6532(a)(2) 3774(b)
6532(a)(3)  
6532(a)(4) 3772(a)(3)
6532(b) 3746(a), (b), (c)
6533  
6601(a) 146(f), 292(a), (c), (d); 294(a)(1), (2), (b), (c); 295, 296, 297, 298, 890(a), (b), 891, 892, 893(a)(1), (2); (b)(1), (2), (3), (4); 925, 1020(a), (b), 1021, 1022, 1023(a)(1), (2); (b)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), 1420(b), 1530(c), 1605(b), 1717, 1853(c), 2403(b), 2451(b), 2475, 2706, 3310(c), 3448(b), 3470, 3495, 3655(b), 3779(i), 3794
6601(b) 890(a), 925
6601(c)(1) 294(a)(2), 296, 893(a)(2), (b)(3); 1023(a)(2), (b)(3)
6601(c)(2) 56(b), 272(i), 1605(c)
6601(c)(3) 297, 892, 1022
6601(c)(4) 3310(a), (b), 3311
6601(d) 292(a), 891, 1021
6601(e) 292(c), 3779(i)
6601(f)(1) 292(a), 294(b), 295, 296, 298, 890(a), (b), 891, 893(a), (b), 1020(a), (b), 1021, 1023(a), (b), 1420(b), 1530(c), 1605(b), 1717, 1853(c), 2403(b), 2451(b), 2475, 2706, 3310(c), (d), 3448(b), 3470, 3495, 3655(b), 3779(i)
6601(f)(2)  
6601(f)(3)  
6601(g) 59(d)
6601(h)  
6602 3746(d)
6611(a) 3443(c), 3771(a)
6611(b)(1) 3771(b)(1)
6611(b)(2) 3771(b)(2)
6611(c) 3771(c)
6611(d) 322(b)(4), (e); 1636
6611(e) 3771(b)(2)
6611(f) 3771(e)
6611(g) 3790
6612  
6651(a) 291, 894(a), 1631, 3612(d)(1)
6651(b)  
6651(c) 294(d)(1)(A)
6652  
6653(a) 51(g)(6)(A), 293(a), 894(a) 1019(a)
6653(b) 51(g)(6)(B), 293(b), 871(i), 1019(b), 3612(d)(2)
6653(c)(1) 271, 870, 1011
6653(c)(2)  
6653(d)  
6653(e) 1821(a)(3)
6654 294(d)(1)(B)
6655  
6656  
6657  
6658 146(f)
6659 51(g)(6), 291, 293, 871(i), 1019, 1117(g), 1634(b), 1718(c), 1821(a)(3), 3310(a)–(e), 3311, 3655(a)(b)
6671(a) 1718(c), 1821(a)(3), 2557(b)(4), 2707(a)
6671(b) 1718(d), 1821(a)(4), 2557(b)(8), 2707(d)
6672 1718(c), 1821(a)(3), 2557(b)(4), 2707(a)
6673 1117(g)
6674 1634(b)
6801(a) 1809(b)(1), 2652(a), 3273(a), 3300(a), 3901(a)(2)
6801(b) 1809(b)(1), 3301(a)
6802(1) 1423(a), 1817(a)
6802(2) 1817(b)
6802(3) 1817(c)
6803(a)(1) 1423(b)
6803(a)(2) 1423(c)
6803(b)(1) 1818(a)
6803(b)(2) 1818(b)
6804 1815, 1920(c), 3301(a)
6805(a) 3304(a)
6805(b) 3304(b)
6805(c) 3304(c)
6805(d) 3304(d)
6806(a) 3273(b)
6806(b)  
6806(c) 3293
6807 3725
6808  
6851(a)(1) 146(a)(1)
6851(a)(2) 146(a)(2)
6851(b)  
6851(c) 146(d)
6851(d) 146(e)
6851(e) 146(b)
6861(a) 273(a), 872(a), 1013(a)
6861(b) 273(b), 872(b), 1013(b)
6861(c) 273(c), 872(c), 1013(c)
6861(d) 273(d), 872(d), 1013(d)
6861(e) 273(e), 872(e), 1013(e)
6861(f) 273(i), 872(i), 1013(i)
6861(g) 273(k), 872(j), 1013(j)
6861(h)  
6862(a) 3660(a)
6862(b)  
6863(a) 273(f), (h); 872(f), (h); 1013(f), (h); 3660(b)
6863(b)(1) 273(g), 872(g), 1013(g)
6863(b)(2) 273(f), (h); 872(f), (h); 1013(f), (h)
6864  
6871(a) 274(a), 1015(a)
6871(b) 274(a), 1015(a)
6872 274(a)
6873(a) 274(b), 1015(b)
6873(b)  
6901(a) 311(a), 900(a), 1025(a)
6901(b) 311(a), 900(a), 1025(a)
6901(c) 311(b), 900(b), 1025(b)
6901(d) 311(b)(4)
6901(e) 311(c), 1025(c)
6901(f) 311(d), 900(c), 1025(d)
6901(g) 311(e), 1025(g)
6901(h) 311(f), 900(e), 1025(f)
6901(i)  
6902(a) 1119(a)
6902(b) 1119(b)
6903(a) 312(a), 901(a), 1026(a)
6903(b) 312(c), 901(c), 1026(c)
6904  
7001(a) 150
7001(b)  
7011(a) 3270(a)
7011(b) 3280(a)
7012  
7101 44(d), 56(c)(2), 112(b)(6)(D), 131(c), 146(b), 272(j), 273(f), 822(a)(2), 871(h), 872(f), 926, 1012(i), 1013(f), 1145, 1818(a), 2302(e), 2322(e), 2352(e), 2474, 2569(b), 2653(d), 3360(d)(2)(B), 3412(d), 3413, 3660(b), 3722(c), 3724(c), 3943, 3992, 4010, and 6 U.S.C. 15
7102 3676
7103  
7121(a) 3760
7121(b) 3760
7122(a) 3761
7122(b) 3761
7123  
7201 145(a), (b), 153(d), 340, 894(b)(2)(B), (C); 937, 1024(a), (b); 1718(a), (b); 1821(a)(1), (2), (b)(4); 2557(b)(2), (b)(3); 2656(f), 2707(b), 2707(c), 3604(c)
7202 145(b), 894(b)(2)(C), 1718(b), 1821(a)(2), 2557(b)(3), 2707(c)
7203 145(a), 153(d), 340, 894(b)(2)(B), 937, 1024(a), 1718(a), 1821(a)(1), 2557(b)(2), 2707(b), 3604(c)
7204 1634(a)
7205 1626(d)
7206(1) 3809(a)
7206(2) 3793(b)
7206(3) 3793(a)
7206(4) 2656(a), 3321
7206(5) 3762
7207 894(b)(2), 3616(a), 3672, 3793(b)
7208 3300(b)
7208(1) 1425(b)
7208(2) 1823(a)
7208(3) 1822, 1823(b)
7208(4) 1823(c)
7208(5) 3323(a)(3)
7209 1425(a)
7210 3616(b)
7211 3325
7212(a) 3601(c)
7212(b) 3601(c)(2)
7213(a)(1) 55(f)(1)
7213(a)(2) 55(f)(2)
7213(a)(3) 55(f)(3)
7213(b) 4047(a)(1)
7213(c)  
7214(a) 4047(e)
7214(b) 4047
7214(c)  
7231 150
7232 3412(d)
7233(1) 1929(a)(1)
7233(2) 1929(a)(2)
7234(a) 2308(a)
7234(b) 2308(c)
7234(c) 2308(h)
7234(d)(1) 2308(i)(1)
7234(d)(2)(A) 2308(g)(1)
7234(d)(2)(B) 2308(g)(2)
7234(d)(3) 2308(i)(2)
7234(d)(4) 2308(d)
7235(a) 2326(a)
7235(b) 2326(b)
7235(c) 2326(c)
7235(d) 3207(b)
7235(e) 2327
7236 2357(b)
7237(a) 2557(b)(1), 2596, 3225, 3235
7237(b) 2557(a)
7238 2570
7239(a) 2656(b)
7239(b) 2656(d)
7240 3506
7261 2409
7262 3294(a)
7263(a) 1929(c)
7263(b) 1929(b)
7264 3207(a)
7265(a)(1) 2308(b)
7265(a)(2) 2326(a)(2)
7265(b) 2308(e), 2327(a)
7265(c) 2308(j), 2327(a)
7266(a)(1) 3211(a)
7266(a)(2) 3211(b)
7266(a)(3) 3211(c)
7266(b) 2357(a)
7266(c) 2357(c)
7266(d) 2357(d)
7266(e) 2357(e)
7266(f) 2357(f)
7267(a) 2656(j)
7267(b) 2656(k)
7267(c) 2656(i)
7267(d) 2656(h)
7268 3320(a)
7269 894(b)(1)
7270 1821(b)(3)
7271(1) 1822, 2656(c)
7271(2) 1820(b)
7271(3) 1820(a)
7271(4) 3323(a)(1), (2)
7272(a) 1831(c), 2656(g), 3475(e)
7272(b)  
7273(a) 3274
7273(b) 3294(b)
7274 2656
7275  
7301(a) 2558(a), (b); 2571, 2598(a), (b), (c); 3253, 3321(b)(1), 3720(a)(1)
7301(b) 3321(b)(1), 3720(a)(2)
7301(c) 2657(e), 3321(b)(1), 3720(a)(3)
7301(d) 3321(b)(2), 3322
7301(e) 3321(b)(3)
7302 3116
7303(1) 1823
7303(2) 2309(b), 2358(b)
7303(3) 2309(d)
7303(4) 2358(a)
7303(5) 2309(b), 2358(b)
7303(6)(A) 2657(c)
7303(6)(B) 2656(c), 2657(a)(b), (f)
7303(7) 3323(b)
7303(8) 3793(a)(2)
7304 3326
7321 3720(b)
7322 3721
7323(a) 3723(a)
7323(b) 3723(b)
7323(c) 3723(c)
7324 3722
7325 3724
7326  
7327 3726
7328 2657
7329  
7341(a) 3324(a)
7341(b) 3324(b)
7341(c) 3324(c)
7342 3601(b)
7343 145(d), 894(b)(2)(D), 1718(d), 1821(a)(4), 2557(b)(8), 2707(d), 3228, 3710(c), 3793(b)(2)
7344 4048
7401 3740
7402(a) 3800
7402(b) 3633
7402(c) 4042
7402(d) 3992, 3995(c)
7402(e)  
7403(a) 3678(a)
7403(b) 3678(b)
7403(c) 3678(c)
7403(d) 3678(d)
7404 826(a)
7405(a) 3746(a)
7405(b) 3746(b)
7405(c)  
7405(d)  
7406 3747
7407  
7421(a) 3653(a)
7421(b) 3653(b)
7422(a) 3772(a)(1)
7422(b) 3772(b)
7422(c) 3772(d)
7422(d) 3772(e)
7422(e)  
7422(f)  
7423(1) 3770(b)(1)
7423(2) 3770(b)(2)
7424(a)(1) 3679(a)(1)
7424(a)(2) 3679(a)(2)
7424(a)(3) 3679(a)(3)
7424(b) 3679(c)
7424(c) 3679(d)
7425  
7441 1100
7442 1101
7443(a) 1102(a)
7443(b) 1102(b)
7443(c) 1102(c)
7443(d) 1102(d)
7443(e) 1102(e)
7443(f) 1102(f)
7443(g) 1102(g)
7444(a) 1103(a)
7444(b) 1103(b)
7444(c) 1103(c)
7444(d) 1103(d)
7445 1104
7446 1105
7447(a) 1106(a)
7447(b) 1106(b)
7447(c) 1106(c)
7447(d) 1106(d)
7447(e) 1106(e)
7447(f) 1106(f)
7447(g) 1106(g)
7451 1110
7452 504(b), R.A. 1942
7453 1111
7454(a) 1112
7454(b)  
7455 1113
7456(a) 1114
7456(b)  
7456(c) 1114(b)
7457(a) 1115(a)
7457(b) 1115(b)
7458 1116
7459(a) 1117(a)
7459(b) 1117(b)
7459(c) 1117(c)
7459(d) 1117(d)
7459(e) 1117(e)
7459(f) 1117(f)
7459(g)  
7460(a) 1118(a)
7460(b) 1118(b)
7461 1120
7462 1121
7463  
7471(a) 1130(a)
7471(b) 1130(b)
7471(c)  
7472 1131
7473 1132
7474 1133
7481 1140
7482(a) 1141(a)
7482(b) 1141(b)
7482(c) 1141(c)
7483 1142
7484 1143
7485(a) 1145
7485(b)  
7486 1146
7487  
7491 2597
7492 1925(b)
7493 1930
7501(a) 3661
7501(b)  
7502  
7503  
7504  
7505(a) 3695(b)
7505(b) 3695(c)
7506(a) 3795(a)
7506(b) 3795(b)
7506(c) 3795(c)
7506(d) 3795(d)
7507(a) 3798(a)
7507(b) 3798(b)
7507(c) 3798(c)
7507(d) 3798(d)
7508(a) 3804(a)
7508(b) 3804(d)
7509 1424
7510 3331
7511 3802
7601(a) 3600
7601(b)  
7602 3614, 3615(a), (b), (c); 3632(a)(1)
7603 3615(d)
7604(a) 3633(a)
7604(b) 3615(e)
7604(c)  
7605(a) 3614, 3615
7605(b) 3631
7606(a) 3601(a)(1)
7606(b) 3601(a)(2)
7606(c)  
7607  
7621 3650
7622(a) 3632(a)
7622(b) 3632(b)
7623 3792
7641 2302(c), 2322(c), 2352(c), 2569(d)(4), 2653(b)
7651(2)(A) 3811
7652(a)(1) 3360(a)
7652(a)(2) 3360(b)
7652(a)(3) 3360(c)
7652(b)(1) 3350(a)
7652(b)(2) 3350(b)
7653(a)(1) 3361(a)
7653(a)(2) 3351(a)
7653(b) 3351(b), 3361(b)
7653(c) 3351(c), 3361(c)
7653(d)  
7654 2483
7655  
7701(a)(1) 1426(f), 1532(i), 1607(k), 1805, 1931(b), 2733(i), 3228(a), 3238(a), 3507(a), 3797(a)(1)
7701(a)(2) 3797(a)(2)
7701(a)(3) 3797(a)(3)
7701(a)(4) 3797(a)(4)
7701(a)(5) 3797(a)(5)
7701(a)(6) 3797(a)(6)
7701(a)(7) 3797(a)(7)
7701(a)(8) 3797(a)(8)
7701(a)(9) 3797(a)(9)
7701(a)(10) 3797(a)(10)
7701(a)(11) 3797(a)(11)
7701(a)(12)  
7701(a)(13) 3797(a)(12)
7701(a)(14) 3797(a)(14)
7701(a)(15) 3797(a)(15)
7701(a)(16) 3797(a)(16)
7701(a)(17) 3797(a)(17)
7701(a)(18) 3797(a)(18)
7701(a)(19) 3797(a)(19)
7701(a)(20) 3797(a)(20)
7701(a)(21)  
7701(a)(22)  
7701(a)(23) 48(a)
7701(a)(24) 48(b)
7701(a)(25) 48(c)
7701(a)(26) 48(d)
7701(a)(27)  
7701(a)(28)  
7701(b) 3797(b)
7701(c)(1) 3797(c)
7701(c)(2)  
7801(a) Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950
7801(b) 3930(a), 3931
7801(c) 3932
7802 3900
7803(a) 3920, 3921, 4000, 4041(a)
7803(b)(1) 4040
7803(b)(2) 3901(b)
7803(c) 3360(b)(2)(B), 3943, 3992, 4010
7803(d) 3975, 3976, 3977, 3978
7804(a) 616 R.A. 1951
7804(b) 3, P.L. 567 (82d Cong.)
7805(a) 62, 3791(a)
7805(b) 3791(b)
7805(c) 3901(a)(2)
7806(a) 2
7806(b) Ch. 1, Sec. 6, P.L. 1
7807(a)  
7807(b)  
7808 3970
7809(a) 2480, 3971(a)
7809(b) 3971(b)
7809(b)(1) 3971(b)(1)
7809(b)(2) 3971(b)(2)
7809(b)(3) 3971(b)(3)
7851(a) See 26 U.S.C. 3, 4
7851(b) See 26 U.S.C. 4(b)
7851(c) See 26 U.S.C. 4(c)
7851(d) See 26 U.S.C. 4(d)
7852(a) 3803
7852(b) See 26 U.S.C. 4(a), 5, 7
7852(c)  
7852(d) 108 R.A. 1941; 109 R.A. 1942; 136 R.A. 1943; 214 R.A. 1950; 615 R.A. 1951; See 22(b)(7)
8001 5000
8002 5001
8003 5002
8004 5003
8005 5004
8021 5010
8022 5011
8023 5012

An Act to revise the internal revenue laws of the United States

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That

(a) Citation

(1) The provisions of this Act set forth under the heading “Internal Revenue Title” may be cited as the “Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]”.

(2) The Internal Revenue Code enacted on February 10, 1939, as amended, may be cited as the “Internal Revenue Code of 1939”.

(b) Publication

This Act shall be published as volume 68A of the United States Statutes at Large, with a comprehensive table of contents and an appendix; but without an index or marginal references. The date of enactment, bill number, public law number, and chapter number, shall be printed as a headnote.

(c) Cross reference

For saving provisions, effective date provisions, and other related provisions, see chapter 80 (sec. 7801 and following) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(d) Enactment of Internal Revenue Title into law

The Internal Revenue Title referred to in subsection (a)(1) is as follows: * * *.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 3; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

Amendments

1986—Subsecs. (a)(1), (c). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

Redesignation of Internal Revenue Code of 1954; References

Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) Redesignation of 1954 Code.—The Internal Revenue Title enacted August 16, 1954, as heretofore, hereby, or hereafter amended, may be cited as the ‘Internal Revenue Code of 1986’.

“(b) References in Laws, Etc.—Except when inappropriate, any reference in any law, Executive order, or other document—

“(1) to the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 shall include a reference to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and

“(2) to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall include a reference to the provisions of law formerly known as the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.”

INTERNAL REVENUE TITLE

Subtitle
A.
Income taxes §§1–1564.1

        

B.
Estate and gift taxes §§2001–2663.
C.
Employment taxes §§3101–3510.
D.
Miscellaneous excise taxes §§4001–5000.
E.
Alcohol, tobacco, and certain other excise taxes §§5001–5881.
F.
Procedure and administration §§6001–7873.
G.
The Joint Committee on Taxation §§8001–8023.
H.
Financing of Presidential election campaigns §§9001–9042.
I.
Trust Fund Code §§9500–9602.
J.
Coal industry health benefits §§9701–9722.2

        

K.
Group health plan requirements §§9801–9833.1

        

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1531(b)(3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1085, added subtitle K heading “Group health plan requirements” and struck out former subtitle K heading “Group health plan portability, access, and renewability requirements”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–191, title IV, §401(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2082, added subtitle K heading “Group health plan portability, access, and renewability requirements”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§307(b)(2), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 590, 591, provided that, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983, subtitle C heading is amended to read “Employment taxes and collection of income tax at source”. Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1981—Pub. L. 97–119, title I, §103(c)(2), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1638, added subtitle I heading “Trust Fund Code”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1907(b)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1836, substituted in subtitle G heading “The Joint Committee on Taxation” for “The Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–443, title IV, §408(a), Oct. 15, 1974, 88 Stat. 1297, added subtitle H heading “Financing of Presidential election campaigns”.

Title Referred to in Other Sections

This title is referred to in title 2 sections 31a–2, 31a–3, 60c–1, 65c, 632, 651, 691e, 691f, 1610; title 5 sections 5514, 8440; title 10 section 2401; title 11 sections 346, 745; title 12 sections 1825, 3413; title 15 sections 78c, 78kkk, 80a–3, 80b–3, 631b; title 16 sections 460lll–47, 470b, 1855; title 18 section 4043; title 20 sections 1087–1, 1087–2, 1087ee, 1087ss, 1087vv; title 22 sections 3307, 3968, 4071i, 4071j, 5401; title 25 sections 983f, 1716, 2719; title 29 sections 1002, 1061, 1083, 1146, 1301, 1453, 1706, 2231; title 30 section 1473; title 31 sections 1324, 3105, 3106, 3124, 3332, 3701, 3711, 3716, 3718, 3720B, 3729, 3801; title 33 section 2717; title 36 sections 20708, 20909, 21108, 22908, 40108, 50108, 60108, 70108, 70308, 80508, 100108, 110108, 140708, 150109, 151508, 152108, 152708, 152909, 154508, 154709, 170309, 170508, 190309, 210309, 220708, 230509, 240108; title 38 sections 7361, 7363; title 40 section 270a; title 42 sections 401, 405, 408, 416, 604, 1395b–5, 1395y, 1471, 4636, 5055, 8217, 10702; title 45 sections 231m, 1347; title 46 App. section 1177; title 49 section 326; title 50 section 2154.

Table of Contents

This Table of Contents is inserted for convenience of users and was not enacted as part of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

Subtitle A—Income Taxes

Chapter
Sec.
1.
Normal taxes and surtaxes
1
2.
Tax on self-employment income
1401
3.
Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations
1441
[4, 5.
Repealed.]
6.
Consolidated returns
1501

        

Subtitle B—Estate and Gift Taxes

11.
Estate tax
2001
12.
Gift tax
2501
13.
Tax on generation skipping transfers
2601
14.
Special valuation rules
2701

        

Subtitle C—Employment Taxes

21.
Federal insurance contributions act
3101
22.
Railroad retirement tax act
3201
23.
Federal unemployment tax act
3301
23A.
Railroad unemployment repayment tax
3321
24.
Collection of income tax at source on wages
3401
25.
General provisions relating to employment taxes
3501

        

Subtitle D—Miscellaneous Excise Taxes

31.
Retail excise taxes
4001
32.
Manufacturers excise taxes
4061
33.
Facilities and services
4231
34.
Policies issued by foreign insurers
4301
35.
Taxes on wagering
4401
36.
Certain other excise taxes
4451
[37.
Repealed.]
38.
Environmental taxes
4611
39.
Registration-required obligations
4701
40.
General provisions relating to occupational taxes
4901
41.
Public charities
4911
42.
Private foundations; and certain other tax-exempt organizations
4940
43.
Qualified pension, etc., plans
4971
44.
Qualified investment entities
4981
[45.
Repealed.]
46.
Golden parachute payments
4999
47.
Certain group health plans
5000

        

Subtitle E—Alcohol, Tobacco, and Certain Other Excise Taxes

51.
Distilled spirits, wines, and beer
5001
52.
Cigars, cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, and cigarette papers and tubes
5701
53.
Machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms
5801
54.
Greenmail
5881

        

Subtitle F—Procedure and Administration

61.
Information and returns
6001
62.
Time and place for paying tax
6151
63.
Assessment
6201
64.
Collection
6301
65.
Abatements, credits, and refunds
6401
66.
Limitations
6501
67.
Interest
6601
68.
Additions to the tax, additional amounts, and assessable penalties
6651
69.
General provisions relating to stamps
6801
70.
Jeopardy, receiverships, etc.
6851
71.
Transferees and fiduciaries
6901
72.
Licensing and registration
7001
73.
Bonds
7101
74.
Closing agreements and compromises
7121
75.
Crimes, other offenses, and forfeitures
7201
76.
Judicial proceedings
7401
77.
Miscellaneous provisions
7501
78.
Discovery of liability and enforcement of title
7601
79.
Definitions
7701
80.
General Rules
7801

        

Subtitle G—The Joint Committee on Taxation

91.
Organization and membership of the Joint Committee
8001
92.
Powers and duties of the Joint Committee
8021

        

Subtitle H—Financing of Presidential Election Campaigns

95.
Presidential election campaign fund
9001
96.
Presidential primary matching payment account
9031

        

Subtitle I—Trust Fund Code

98.
Trust Fund Code
9501

        

Subtitle J—Coal Industry Health Benefits

99.
Coal industry health benefits
9701

        

Subtitle K—Group Health Plan Portability, Access, and Renewability Requirements

100.
Group health plan portability, access, and renewability requirements
9801

        

1 Section numbers editorially supplied.

2 Editorially supplied. Subtitle J added by Pub. L. 102–486 without corresponding amendment of title analysis.

Subtitle A—Income Taxes

Chapter
1.
Normal taxes and surtaxes.
2.
Tax on self-employment income.
3.
Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations.
[4, 5.
Repealed.]
6.
Consolidated returns.

        

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1131(c)(4), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 980, struck out item for chapter 5 “Tax on transfers to avoid income tax”.

1990—Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(b)(11), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–522, struck out item for chapter 4 “Rules applicable to recovery of excessive profits on government contracts”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(29)(D), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 844, struck out “and tax-free covenant bonds” at end of item for chapter 3.

Subtitle Referred to in Other Sections

This subtitle is referred to in sections 810, 2056A, 2107, 3402, 3502, 3507, 3508, 4911, 4980, 4999, 5041, 5881, 6011, 6012, 6013, 6038A, 6075, 6111, 6159, 6164, 6201, 6211, 6212, 6213, 6214, 6229, 6231, 6234, 6242, 6311, 6315, 6401, 6404, 6420, 6421, 6427, 6501, 6601, 6621, 6672, 6682, 6694, 6695, 6696, 6702, 6871, 6901, 6905, 7001, 7463, 7491, 7701, 7851, 7852, 7872, 7873 of this title; title 22 sections 1627, 5510; title 25 sections 1729, 1754; title 31 section 3105; title 42 sections 411, 11371; title 45 section 231m; title 48 section 1421i; title 50 App. section 2017e.

CHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES

Subchapter
Sec.1
A.
Determination of tax liability
1

        

B.
Computation of taxable income
61
C.
Corporate distributions and adjustments
301
D.
Deferred compensation, etc.
401
E.
Accounting periods and methods of accounting
441
F.
Exempt organizations
501
G.
Corporations used to avoid income tax on shareholders
531
H.
Banking institutions
581
I.
Natural resources
611
J.
Estates, trusts, beneficiaries, and decedents
641
K.
Partners and partnerships
701
L.
Insurance companies
801
M.
Regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts
851
N.
Tax based on income from sources within or without the United States
861
O.
Gain or loss on disposition of property
1001
P.
Capital gains and losses
1201
Q.
Readjustment of tax between years and special limitations
1301
[R.
Repealed.]
S.
Tax treatment of S corporations and their shareholders
1361
T.
Cooperatives and their patrons
1381
U.
Designation and treatment of empowerment zones, enterprise communities, and rural development investment areas
1391
V.
Title 11 cases
1398
W.
District of Columbia Enterprise Zone
1400

        

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, title VII, §701(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 869, added subchapter W.

1993—Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13301(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 555, added subchapter U.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1303(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2658, struck out subchapter U “General stock ownership plans”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–354, §5(b), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1697, substituted in subchapter S “Tax treatment of S corporations and their shareholders” for “Election of certain small business corporations as to taxable status”.

1980—Pub. L. 96–589, §3(a)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3400, added subchapter V.

1978—Pub. L. 95–600, title VI, §601(c)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2897, added subchapter U.

1966—Pub. L. 89–389, §4(b)(2), Apr. 14, 1966, 80 Stat. 116, struck out subchapter R effective January 1, 1969.

1962—Pub. L. 87–834, §17(b)(4), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1051, added subchapter T.

1960—Pub. L. 86–779, §10(c), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1009, added to subchapter M heading “and real estate investment trusts”.

1958—Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §64(d)(1), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1656, added subchapter S.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 408, 1501, 2031, 3402, 3406, 3510, 4977, 4980, 4990, 4994, 6012, 6013, 6033, 6039C, 6039E, 6039F, 6048, 6050E, 6096, 6103, 6161, 6166, 6166A, 6167, 6201, 6211, 6404, 6242, 6246, 6651, 6654, 6655, 6662, 6664, 6683, 6713, 7216, 7518, 7611, 7654, 7701, 7704, 9510 of this title; title 2 sections 632, 633, 642; title 7 sections 1926, 1929a; title 12 section 3018; title 22 section 277d–23; title 25 sections 941n, 1486; title 30 section 1141; title 42 sections 291j–7, 300e–7, 300q–2, 409, 411, 1382, 1440, 5308, 5919, 8833; title 46 App. sections 1177, 1279c; title 48 section 1574b.

1 Section numbers editorially supplied.

Subchapter A—Determination of Tax Liability

Part
I.
Tax on individuals.
II.
Tax on corporations.
III.
Changes in rates during a taxable year.
IV.
Credits against tax.
[V.
Repealed.]
VI.
Minimum tax for tax preferences.1

        

VII.
Environmental tax.
[VIII.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–234, title I, §102(a), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1980, repealed Pub. L. 100–360, §111, and provided that the provisions of law amended by such section are restored or revived as if such section had not been enacted, see 1988 Amendment note below.

1988—Pub. L. 100–360, title I, §111(c), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 697, added part VIII “Supplemental medicare premium”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §516(b)(5), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1771, added part VII.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1792, struck out part V “Tax surcharge”.

1969—Pub. L. 91–172, title III, §301(b)(1), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 585, added part VI.

1968—Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §102(d), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 259, added part V.

1 Part heading amended by Pub. L. 99–514 without corresponding amendment of analysis.

PART I—TAX ON INDIVIDUALS

Sec.
1.
Tax imposed.
2.
Definitions and special rules.
3.
Tax tables for individuals having taxable income of less than $20,000.1

        

[4.
Repealed.]
5.
Cross references relating to tax on individuals.

        

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §501(c)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1559, substituted “Tax tables for individuals having taxable income of less than $20,000” for “Optional tax tables for individuals” in item 3 and struck out item 4 relating to rules for optional tax.

1969—Pub. L. 91–172, title VIII, §803(d)(9), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 685, substituted “Definitions and special rules” and “Optional tax tables for individuals” for “Tax in case of joint return or return of surviving spouse” and “Optional tax if adjusted gross income is less than $5,000” in items 2 and 3, respectively.

1 Section catchline amended by Pub. L. 95–30 without corresponding amendment of analysis.

§1. Tax imposed

(a) Married individuals filing joint returns and surviving spouses

There is hereby imposed on the taxable income of—

(1) every married individual (as defined in section 7703) who makes a single return jointly with his spouse under section 6013, and

(2) every surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)),


a tax determined in accordance with the following table:

 
If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $36,900 15% of taxable income.
Over $36,900 but not over $89,150 $5,535, plus 28% of the excess over $36,900.
Over $89,150 but not over $140,000 $20,165, plus 31% of the excess over $89,150.
Over $140,000 but not over $250,000 $35,928.50, plus 36% of the excess over $140,000.
Over $250,000 $75,528.50, plus 39.6% of the excess over $250,000.

(b) Heads of households

There is hereby imposed on the taxable income of every head of a household (as defined in section 2(b)) a tax determined in accordance with the following table:

 
If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $29,600 15% of taxable income.
Over $29,600 but not over $76,400 $4,440, plus 28% of the excess over $29,600.
Over $76,400 but not over $127,500 $17,544, plus 31% of the excess over $76,400.
Over $127,500 but not over $250,000 $33,385, plus 36% of the excess over $127,500.
Over $250,000 $77,485, plus 39.6% of the excess over $250,000.

(c) Unmarried individuals (other than surviving spouses and heads of households)

There is hereby imposed on the taxable income of every individual (other than a surviving spouse as defined in section 2(a) or the head of a household as defined in section 2(b)) who is not a married individual (as defined in section 7703) a tax determined in accordance with the following table:

 
If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $22,100 15% of taxable income.
Over $22,100 but not over $53,500 $3,315, plus 28% of the excess over $22,100.
Over $53,500 but not over $115,000 $12,107, plus 31% of the excess over $53,500.
Over $115,000 but not over $250,000 $31,172, plus 36% of the excess over $115,000.
Over $250,000 $79,772, plus 39.6% of the excess over $250,000.

(d) Married individuals filing separate returns

There is hereby imposed on the taxable income of every married individual (as defined in section 7703) who does not make a single return jointly with his spouse under section 6013, a tax determined in accordance with the following table:

 
If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $18,450 15% of taxable income.
Over $18,450 but not over $44,575 $2,767.50, plus 28% of the excess over $18,450.
Over $44,575 but not over $70,000 $10,082.50, plus 31% of the excess over $44,575.
Over $70,000 but not over $125,000 $17,964.25, plus 36% of the excess over $70,000.
Over $125,000 $37,764.25, plus 39.6% of the excess over $125,000.

(e) Estates and trusts

There is hereby imposed on the taxable income of—

(1) every estate, and

(2) every trust,


taxable under this subsection a tax determined in accordance with the following table:

 
If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $1,500 15% of taxable income.
Over $1,500 but not over $3,500 $225, plus 28% of the excess over $1,500.
Over $3,500 but not over $5,500 $785, plus 31% of the excess over $3,500.
Over $5,500 but not over $7,500 $1,405, plus 36% of the excess over $5,500.
Over $7,500 $2,125, plus 39.6% of the excess over $7,500.

(f) Adjustments in tax tables so that inflation will not result in tax increases

(1) In general

Not later than December 15 of 1993, and each subsequent calendar year, the Secretary shall prescribe tables which shall apply in lieu of the tables contained in subsections (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) with respect to taxable years beginning in the succeeding calendar year.

(2) Method of prescribing tables

The table which under paragraph (1) is to apply in lieu of the table contained in subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e), as the case may be, with respect to taxable years beginning in any calendar year shall be prescribed—

(A) by increasing the minimum and maximum dollar amounts for each rate bracket for which a tax is imposed under such table by the cost-of-living adjustment for such calendar year,

(B) by not changing the rate applicable to any rate bracket as adjusted under subparagraph (A), and

(C) by adjusting the amounts setting forth the tax to the extent necessary to reflect the adjustments in the rate brackets.

(3) Cost-of-living adjustment

For purposes of paragraph (2), the cost-of-living adjustment for any calendar year is the percentage (if any) by which—

(A) the CPI for the preceding calendar year, exceeds

(B) the CPI for the calendar year 1992.

(4) CPI for any calendar year

For purposes of paragraph (3), the CPI for any calendar year is the average of the Consumer Price Index as of the close of the 12-month period ending on August 31 of such calendar year.

(5) Consumer Price Index

For purposes of paragraph (4), the term “Consumer Price Index” means the last Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers published by the Department of Labor. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the revision of the Consumer Price Index which is most consistent with the Consumer Price Index for calendar year 1986 shall be used.

(6) Rounding

(A) In general

If any increase determined under paragraph (2)(A), section 63(c)(4), section 68(b)(2) or section 151(d)(4) is not a multiple of $50, such increase shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $50.

(B) Table for married individuals filing separately

In the case of a married individual filing a separate return, subparagraph (A) (other than with respect to subsection (c)(4) of section 63 (as it applies to subsections (c)(5)(A) and (f) of such section) and section 151(d)(4)(A)) shall be applied by substituting “$25” for “$50” each place it appears.

(7) Special rule for certain brackets

(A) Calendar year 1994

In prescribing the tables under paragraph (1) which apply with respect to taxable years beginning in calendar year 1994, the Secretary shall make no adjustment to the dollar amounts at which the 36 percent rate bracket begins or at which the 39.6 percent rate begins under any table contained in subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e).

(B) Later calendar years

In prescribing tables under paragraph (1) which apply with respect to taxable years beginning in a calendar year after 1994, the cost-of-living adjustment used in making adjustments to the dollar amounts referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be determined under paragraph (3) by substituting “1993” for “1992”.

(g) Certain unearned income of minor children taxed as if parent's income

(1) In general

In the case of any child to whom this subsection applies, the tax imposed by this section shall be equal to the greater of—

(A) the tax imposed by this section without regard to this subsection, or

(B) the sum of—

(i) the tax which would be imposed by this section if the taxable income of such child for the taxable year were reduced by the net unearned income of such child, plus

(ii) such child's share of the allocable parental tax.

(2) Child to whom subsection applies

This subsection shall apply to any child for any taxable year if—

(A) such child has not attained age 14 before the close of the taxable year, and

(B) either parent of such child is alive at the close of the taxable year.

(3) Allocable parental tax

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “allocable parental tax” means the excess of—

(i) the tax which would be imposed by this section on the parent's taxable income if such income included the net unearned income of all children of the parent to whom this subsection applies, over

(ii) the tax imposed by this section on the parent without regard to this subsection.


For purposes of clause (i), net unearned income of all children of the parent shall not be taken into account in computing any exclusion, deduction, or credit of the parent.

(B) Child's share

A child's share of any allocable parental tax of a parent shall be equal to an amount which bears the same ratio to the total allocable parental tax as the child's net unearned income bears to the aggregate net unearned income of all children of such parent to whom this subsection applies.

(C) Special rule where parent has different taxable year

Except as provided in regulations, if the parent does not have the same taxable year as the child, the allocable parental tax shall be determined on the basis of the taxable year of the parent ending in the child's taxable year.

(4) Net unearned income

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “net unearned income” means the excess of—

(i) the portion of the adjusted gross income for the taxable year which is not attributable to earned income (as defined in section 911(d)(2)), over

(ii) the sum of—

(I) the amount in effect for the taxable year under section 63(c)(5)(A) (relating to limitation on standard deduction in the case of certain dependents), plus

(II) the greater of the amount described in subclause (I) or, if the child itemizes his deductions for the taxable year, the amount of the itemized deductions allowed by this chapter for the taxable year which are directly connected with the production of the portion of adjusted gross income referred to in clause (i).

(B) Limitation based on taxable income

The amount of the net unearned income for any taxable year shall not exceed the individual's taxable income for such taxable year.

(5) Special rules for determining parent to whom subsection applies

For purposes of this subsection, the parent whose taxable income shall be taken into account shall be—

(A) in the case of parents who are not married (within the meaning of section 7703), the custodial parent (within the meaning of section 152(e)) of the child, and

(B) in the case of married individuals filing separately, the individual with the greater taxable income.

(6) Providing of parent's TIN

The parent of any child to whom this subsection applies for any taxable year shall provide the TIN of such parent to such child and such child shall include such TIN on the child's return of tax imposed by this section for such taxable year.

(7) Election to claim certain unearned income of child on parent's return

(A) In general

If—

(i) any child to whom this subsection applies has gross income for the taxable year only from interest and dividends (including Alaska Permanent Fund dividends),

(ii) such gross income is more than the amount described in paragraph (4)(A)(ii)(I) and less than 10 times the amount so described,

(iii) no estimated tax payments for such year are made in the name and TIN of such child, and no amount has been deducted and withheld under section 3406, and

(iv) the parent of such child (as determined under paragraph (5)) elects the application of subparagraph (B),


such child shall be treated (other than for purposes of this paragraph) as having no gross income for such year and shall not be required to file a return under section 6012.

(B) Income included on parent's return

In the case of a parent making the election under this paragraph—

(i) the gross income of each child to whom such election applies (to the extent the gross income of such child exceeds twice the amount described in paragraph (4)(A)(ii)(I)) shall be included in such parent's gross income for the taxable year,

(ii) the tax imposed by this section for such year with respect to such parent shall be the amount equal to the sum of—

(I) the amount determined under this section after the application of clause (i), plus

(II) for each such child, 15 percent of the lesser of the amount described in paragraph (4)(A)(ii)(I) or the excess of the gross income of such child over the amount so described, and


(iii) any interest which is an item of tax preference under section 57(a)(5) of the child shall be treated as an item of tax preference of such parent (and not of such child).

(C) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph.

(h) Maximum capital gains rate

(1) In general

If a taxpayer has a net capital gain for any taxable year, the tax imposed by this section for such taxable year shall not exceed the sum of—

(A) a tax computed at the rates and in the same manner as if this subsection had not been enacted on the greater of—

(i) taxable income reduced by the net capital gain; or

(ii) the lesser of—

(I) the amount of taxable income taxed at a rate below 28 percent; or

(II) taxable income reduced by the adjusted net capital gain;


(B) 10 percent of so much of the adjusted net capital gain (or, if less, taxable income) as does not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(i) the amount of taxable income which would (without regard to this paragraph) be taxed at a rate below 28 percent, over

(ii) the taxable income reduced by the adjusted net capital gain;


(C) 20 percent of the adjusted net capital gain (or, if less, taxable income) in excess of the amount on which a tax is determined under subparagraph (B);

(D) 25 percent of the excess (if any) of—

(i) the unrecaptured section 1250 gain (or, if less, the net capital gain), over

(ii) the excess (if any) of—

(I) the sum of the amount on which tax is determined under subparagraph (A) plus the net capital gain, over

(II) taxable income; and


(E) 28 percent of the amount of taxable income in excess of the sum of the amounts on which tax is determined under the preceding subparagraphs of this paragraph.

(2) Reduced capital gain rates for qualified 5-year gain

(A) Reduction in 10-percent rate

In the case of any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2000, the rate under paragraph (1)(B) shall be 8 percent with respect to so much of the amount to which the 10-percent rate would otherwise apply as does not exceed qualified 5-year gain, and 10 percent with respect to the remainder of such amount.

(B) Reduction in 20-percent rate

The rate under paragraph (1)(C) shall be 18 percent with respect to so much of the amount to which the 20-percent rate would otherwise apply as does not exceed the lesser of—

(i) the excess of qualified 5-year gain over the amount of such gain taken into account under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph; or

(ii) the amount of qualified 5-year gain (determined by taking into account only property the holding period for which begins after December 31, 2000),


and 20 percent with respect to the remainder of such amount. For purposes of determining under the preceding sentence whether the holding period of property begins after December 31, 2000, the holding period of property acquired pursuant to the exercise of an option (or other right or obligation to acquire property) shall include the period such option (or other right or obligation) was held.

(3) Net capital gain taken into account as investment income

For purposes of this subsection, the net capital gain for any taxable year shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount which the taxpayer takes into account as investment income under section 163(d)(4)(B)(iii).

(4) Adjusted net capital gain

For purposes of this subsection, the term “adjusted net capital gain” means net capital gain reduced (but not below zero) by the sum of—

(A) unrecaptured section 1250 gain; and

(B) 28-percent rate gain.

(5) 28-percent rate gain

For purposes of this subsection, the term “28-percent rate gain” means the excess (if any) of—

(A) the sum of—

(i) collectibles gain; and

(ii) section 1202 gain, over


(B) the sum of—

(i) collectibles loss;

(ii) the net short-term capital loss; and

(iii) the amount of long-term capital loss carried under section 1212(b)(1)(B) to the taxable year.

(6) Collectibles gain and loss

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The terms “collectibles gain” and “collectibles loss” mean gain or loss (respectively) from the sale or exchange of a collectible (as defined in section 408(m) without regard to paragraph (3) thereof) which is a capital asset held for more than 1 year but only to the extent such gain is taken into account in computing gross income and such loss is taken into account in computing taxable income.

(B) Partnerships, etc.

For purposes of subparagraph (A), any gain from the sale of an interest in a partnership, S corporation, or trust which is attributable to unrealized appreciation in the value of collectibles shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a collectible. Rules similar to the rules of section 751 shall apply for purposes of the preceding sentence.

(7) Unrecaptured section 1250 gain

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “unrecaptured section 1250 gain” means the excess (if any) of—

(i) the amount of long-term capital gain (not otherwise treated as ordinary income) which would be treated as ordinary income if section 1250(b)(1) included all depreciation and the applicable percentage under section 1250(a) were 100 percent, over

(ii) the excess (if any) of—

(I) the amount described in paragraph (5)(B); over

(II) the amount described in paragraph (5)(A).

(B) Limitation with respect to section 1231 property

The amount described in subparagraph (A)(i) from sales, exchanges, and conversions described in section 1231(a)(3)(A) for any taxable year shall not exceed the net section 1231 gain (as defined in section 1231(c)(3)) for such year.

(8) Section 1202 gain

For purposes of this subsection, the term “section 1202 gain” means an amount equal to the gain excluded from gross income under section 1202(a).

(9) Qualified 5-year gain

For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualified 5-year gain” means the aggregate long-term capital gain from property held for more than 5 years. The determination under the preceding sentence shall be made without regard to collectibles gain, gain described in paragraph (7)(A)(i), and section 1202 gain.

(10) Coordination with recapture of net ordinary losses under section 1231

If any amount is treated as ordinary income under section 1231(c), such amount shall be allocated among the separate categories of net section 1231 gain (as defined in section 1231(c)(3)) in such manner as the Secretary may by forms or regulations prescribe.

(11) Regulations

The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as are appropriate (including regulations requiring reporting) to apply this subsection in the case of sales and exchanges by pass-thru entities and of interests in such entities.

(12) Pass-thru entity defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “pass-thru entity” means—

(A) a regulated investment company;

(B) a real estate investment trust;

(C) an S corporation;

(D) a partnership;

(E) an estate or trust;

(F) a common trust fund;

(G) a foreign investment company which is described in section 1246(b)(1) and for which an election is in effect under section 1247; and

(H) a qualified electing fund (as defined in section 1295).

(13) Special rules

(A) Determination of 28-percent rate gain

In applying paragraph (5)—

(i) the amount determined under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (5) shall include long-term capital gain (not otherwise described in such subparagraph)—

(I) which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year before May 7, 1997; or

(II) from property held not more than 18 months which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year after July 28, 1997, and before January 1, 1998;


(ii) the amount determined under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (5) shall include long-term capital loss (not otherwise described in such subparagraph)—

(I) which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year before May 7, 1997; or

(II) from property held not more than 18 months which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year after July 28, 1997, and before January 1, 1998; and


(iii) subparagraph (B) of paragraph (5) (as in effect immediately before the enactment of this clause) shall apply to amounts properly taken into account before January 1, 1998.

(B) Determination of unrecaptured section 1250 gain

The amount determined under paragraph (7)(A)(i) shall not include gain—

(i) which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year before May 7, 1997; or

(ii) from property held not more than 18 months which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year after July 28, 1997, and before January 1, 1998.

(C) Special rules for pass-thru entities

In applying this paragraph with respect to any pass-thru entity, the determination of when gains and loss are properly taken into account shall be made at the entity level.

(D) Charitable remainder trusts

Subparagraphs (A) and (B)(ii) shall not apply to any capital gain distribution made by a trust described in section 664.”

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 5; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §111, Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 19; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(a)(2), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1550; Pub. L. 91–172, title VIII, §803(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 678; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(a), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 127; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §101(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2767; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§101(a), 104(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 176, 188; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §101(a)(3), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2366; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §101(a), title III, §302(a), title XIV, §1411(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2096, 2218, 2714; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1001(a)(3), 1014(e)(1)–(3), (6), (7), title VI, §6006(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349, 3561, 3562, 3686; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7811(j)(1), 7816(b), 7831(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2411, 2420, 2425; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11101(a)–(c), (d)(1)(A), (2), 11103(c), 11104(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–403 to 1388–406, 1388–408; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13201(a), (b)(3)(A), (B), 13202(a), 13206(d)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 457, 459, 461, 467; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(m)(1), (2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1882, 1883; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §311(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 831; Pub. L. 105–206, title V, §5001(a)(1)–(4), title VI, §§6005(d)(1), 6007(f)(1), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 787, 788, 800, 810; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4002(i)(1), (3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–907, 2681–908.)

Tax Tables for Taxable Years Beginning in 1999

Revenue Procedure 98–61 provided:

Section 1. Purpose

This revenue procedure sets forth inflation adjusted items for 1999.

Section 2. Changes Made From Preceding Year

.01 The amount used in determining the exemption under §§55 and 59(j), as amended by section 1201(b) of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (the “TRA of 1997”), Pub. L. No. 105–34, 111 Stat. 788 (1997), from the alternative minimum tax under §55 for a child subject to the “kiddie tax” under §1(g), is adjusted for inflation for tax years beginning in 1999 (section 3.04).

.02 The amounts used to determine whether a health plan is a “high deductible health plan” for purposes of determining whether an individual is eligible for a deduction for cash paid to a medical savings account under §220, as enacted by section 301(a) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104–191, 110 Stat. 1936 (1996), are adjusted for inflation for tax years beginning in 1999 (section 3.10).

.03 The maximum amount of contributions that may be made to a qualified funeral trust defined in §685, as enacted by section 1309(a) of the TRA of 1997, is adjusted for inflation for calendar year 1999 (section 3.13).

.04 The maximum amount by which the estate tax valuation method under §2032A, as amended by section 501(b) of the TRA of 1997, may decrease the value of certain farm and other qualified real property included in a decedent's gross estate, is adjusted for inflation for calendar year 1999 (section 3.15).

.05 The amount of gifts that may be made to a person in a calendar year without including the amount in taxable gifts under §2503, as amended by section 501(c) of the TRA of 1997, is adjusted for inflation for calendar year 1999. Also, under §2523(i)(2) by cross reference to §2503, the amount of gifts that may be made to a spouse who is not a citizen of the United States in a calendar year without including the amount in taxable gifts under §2503 is adjusted for inflation for calendar year 1999 (section 3.16).

.06 The amount of the generation-skipping transfer tax exemption under §2631, as amended by section 501(d) of the TRA of 1997, which was technically corrected by section 6007(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998 (the “RRA of 1998”), Pub. L. No. 105–206, 112 Stat. 685 (1998), is adjusted for inflation for calendar year 1999 (section 3.17).

.07 The amount of the excise tax on passenger air transportation beginning or ending in the United States under §4261, as amended by section 1031(c) of the TRA of 1997, is adjusted for inflation for calendar year 1999 (section 3.19).

.08 The maximum amount of a casual sale of personal property below which a federal tax lien will not be valid against a purchaser of the property under §6323(b)(4), and the maximum amount of a contract for the repair or improvement of certain residential property at or below which a federal tax lien will not be valid against a mechanic's lienor under §6323(b)(7), each as amended by section 3435(a) of the RRA of 1998, are adjusted for inflation for calendar year 1999 (section 3.22).

.09 For purposes of calculating interest charged under §6601(j), as amended by section 501(e) of the TRA of 1997, the dollar amount used to determine the “2 percent portion” of the estate tax payable in installments under §6166 is adjusted for inflation for calendar year 1999 (section 3.23).

.10 The amount of the limit on the hourly rate at which attorney fees may be awarded under §7430 in a judgment or settlement of an administrative or judicial proceeding concerning the determination, collection, or refund of tax, interest, or penalty under the Code was increased to $125, as adjusted for inflation, effective for costs incurred after January 18, 1999, by section 3101(a)(1) of the RRA of 1998 (section 3.24).

Section 3. 1999 Adjusted Items

.01 Tax Rate Tables. For tax years beginning in 1999, the tax rate tables under §1 are as follows:

Table 1—Section 1(a).—Married Individuals Filing Joint Returns and Surviving Spouses
If Taxable Income Is: The Tax Is:
Not Over $43,050 15% of the taxable income
Over $43,050 but not over $104,050 $6,457.50 plus 28% of the excess over $43,050
Over $104,050 but not over $158,550 $23,537.50 plus 31% of the excess over $104,050
Over $158,550 but not over $283,150 $40,432.50 plus 36% of the excess over $158,550
Over $283,150 $85,288.50 plus 39.6% of the excess over $283,150
Table 2—Section 1(b).—Heads of Households
If Taxable Income Is: The Tax Is:
Not Over $34,550 15% of the taxable income
Over $34,550 but not over $89,150 $5,182.50 plus 28% of the excess over $34,550
Over $89,150 but not over $144,400 $20,470.50 plus 31% of the excess over $89,150
Over $144,400 but not over $283,150 $37,598 plus 36% of the excess over $144,400
Over $283,150 $87,548 plus 39.6% of the excess over $283,150
Table 3—Section 1(c).—Unmarried Individuals (Other Than Surviving Spouses and Heads of Households)
If Taxable Income Is: The Tax Is:
Not Over $25,750 15% of the taxable income
Over $25,750 but not over $62,450 $3,862.50 plus 28% of the excess over $25,750
Over $62,450 but not over $130,250 $14,138.50 plus 31% of the excess over $62,450
Over $130,250 but not over $283,150 $35,156.50 plus 36% of the excess over $130,250
Over $283,150 $90,200.50 plus 39.6% of the excess over $283,150
Table 4—Section 1(d).—Married Individuals Filing Separate Returns
If Taxable Income Is: The Tax Is:
Not Over $21,525 15% of the taxable income
Over $21,525 but not over $52,025 $3,228.75 plus 28% of the excess over $21,525
Over $52,025 but not over $79,275 $11,768.75 plus 31% of the excess over $52,025
Over $79,275 but not over $141,575 $20,216.25 plus 36% of the excess over $79,275
Over $141,575 $42,644.25 plus 39.6% of the excess over $141,575
Table 5—Section 1(e).—Estates and Trusts
If Taxable Income Is: The Tax Is:
Not Over $1,750 15% of the taxable income
Over $1,750 but not over $4,050 $262.50 plus 28% of the excess over $1,750
Over $4,050 but not over $6,200 $906.50 plus 31% of the excess over $4,050
Over $6,200 but not over $8,450 $1,573 plus 36% of the excess over $6,200
Over $8,450 $2,383 plus 39.6% of the excess over $8,450

.02 Unearned Income of Minor Children Taxed as if Parent's Income (the “Kiddie Tax”). For tax years beginning in 1999, the amount in §1(g)(4)(A)(ii)(I), which is used to reduce the net unearned income reported on the child's return that is subject to the “kiddie tax,” is $700. (This amount is the same as the $700 standard deduction amount provided in section 3.05(2) of this revenue procedure.) In the alternative, the same $700 amount is used for purposes of §1(g)(7) (that is, determining whether a parent may elect to include a child's gross income in the parent's gross income and for calculating the “kiddie tax”).

.03 Earned Income Credit.

(1) In general. For tax years beginning in 1999, the following amounts are used to determine the earned income credit under §32(b). The “earned income amount” is the amount of earned income at or above which the maximum amount of the earned income credit is allowed. The “threshold phaseout amount” is the amount of modified adjusted gross income (or, if greater, earned income) above which the maximum amount of the credit begins to phase out. The “completed phaseout amount” is the amount of modified adjusted gross income (or if greater, earned income) at or above which no credit is allowed.

 
Number of ChildrenMaximum Amount of the CreditEarned Income AmountThreshold Phaseout AmountCompleted Phaseout Amount
1 $2,312 $6,800 $12,460 $26,928
2 or more $3,816 $9,540 $12,460 $30,580
None $  347 $4,530 $ 5,670 $10,200

The Internal Revenue Service, in the instructions for the Form 1040 series, provides tables showing the amount of the earned income credit for each type of taxpayer.

(2) Excessive investment income. For tax years beginning in 1999, the earned income credit is denied under §32(i) if the aggregate amount of certain investment income exceeds $2,350.

.04 Alternative Minimum Tax Exemption for a Child Subject to the “Kiddie Tax.” For tax years beginning in 1999, in the case of a child to whom the §1(g) “kiddie tax” applies, the exemption amount under §55 and §59(j) for purposes of the alternative minimum tax under §55 may not exceed the sum of (A) such child's earned income for the taxable year, plus (B) $5,100.

.05 Standard Deduction.

(1) In general. For tax years beginning in 1999, the standard deduction amounts under §63(c)(2) are as follows:

 
Filing StatusStandard Deduction
Married Individuals Filing Joint Returns and Surviving Spouses (§1(a)) $7,200
Heads of Households (§1(b)) $6,350
Unmarried Individuals (Other Than Surviving Spouses and Heads of Households) (§1(c)) $4,300
Married Individuals Filing Separate Returns (§1(d)) $3,600

(2) Dependent. For tax years beginning in 1999, the standard deduction amount under §63(c)(5) for an individual who may be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer may not exceed the greater of $700, or the sum of $250 and the individual's earned income.

(3) Aged and blind. For tax years beginning in 1999, the additional standard deduction amounts under §63(f) for the aged and for the blind are $850 for each. These amounts are increased to $1,050 if the individual is also unmarried and not a surviving spouse.

.06 Overall Limitation on Itemized Deductions. For tax years beginning in 1999, the “applicable amount” of adjusted gross income under §68(b), above which the amount of otherwise allowable itemized deductions is reduced under §68, is $126,600 (or $63,300 for a separate return filed by a married individual).

.07 Income from United States Savings Bonds for Taxpayers Who Pay Qualified Higher Education Expenses. For tax years beginning in 1999, the exclusion under §135, regarding income from United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses, begins to phase out for modified adjusted gross income above $79,650 for joint returns and $53,100 for other returns. This exclusion completely phases out for modified adjusted gross income of $109,650 or more for joint returns and $68,100 or more for other returns.

.08 Personal Exemption.

(1) Exemption amount. For tax years beginning in 1999, the personal exemption amount under §151(d) is $2,750.

(2) Phaseout. For tax years beginning in 1999, the personal exemption amount begins to phase out at, and is completely phased out after, the following adjusted gross income amounts:


 
Filing StatusThreshold Phaseout AmountCompleted Phaseout Amount After
Code §1(a) $189,950 $312,450
Code §1(b) $158,300 $280,800
Code §1(c) $126,600 $249,100
Code §1(d) $ 94,975 $156,225

.09 Eligible Long-Term Care Premiums. For tax years beginning in 1999, the limitations under §213(d), regarding eligible long-term care premiums includible in the term “medical care,” are as follows:

 
Attained age before the close of the taxable year: 
40 or less $  210
More than 40 but not more than 50 $  400
More than 50 but not more than 60 $  800
More than 60 but not more than 70 $2,120
More than 70 $2,660

.10 Medical Savings Accounts.

(1) Self-only coverage. For tax years beginning in 1999, the term “high deductible health plan” as defined in §220(c)(2)(A) means, in the case of self-only coverage, a health plan which has an annual deductible that is not less than $1,550 and not more than $2,300, and under which the annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) for covered benefits does not exceed $3,050.

(2) Family coverage. For tax years beginning in 1999, the term “high deductible health plan” means, in the case of family coverage, a health plan which has an annual deductible that is not less than $3,050 and not more than $4,600, and under which the annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) for covered benefits does not exceed $5,600.

.11 Treatment of Dues Paid to Agricultural or Horticultural Organizations. For tax years beginning in 1999, the limitation under §512(d)(1), regarding the exemption of annual dues required to be paid by a member to an agricultural or horticultural organization, is $110.

.12 Insubstantial Benefit Limitations for Contributions Associated with Charitable Fund-Raising Campaigns.

(1) Low cost article. For tax years beginning in 1999, the unrelated business income of certain exempt organizations under §513(h)(2) does not include a “low cost article” of $7.20 or less.

(2) Other insubstantial benefits. For tax years beginning in 1999, the $5, $25, and $50 guidelines in section 3 of Rev. Proc. 90–12, 1990–1 C.B. 471 (as amplified and modified), for disregarding the value of insubstantial benefits received by a donor in return for a fully deductible charitable contribution under §170, are $7.20, $36, and $72, respectively.

.13 Funeral Trusts. For a contract entered into during calendar year 1999 for a “qualified funeral trust,” as defined in §685, the trust may not accept aggregate contributions by or for the benefit of an individual in excess of $7,100.

.14 Expatriation to Avoid Tax. For calendar year 1999, the thresholds used under §877(a)(2), regarding whether an individual's loss of United States citizenship had the avoidance of United States taxes as one of its principal purposes, are more than $110,000 for “average annual net income tax” and $552,000 or more for “net worth.”

.15 Valuation of Qualified Real Property in Decedent's Gross Estate. For an estate of a decedent dying in calendar year 1999, if the executor elects to use the special use valuation method under §2032A for qualified real property, the aggregate decrease in the value of qualified real property resulting from electing to use §2032A that is taken into account for purposes of the estate tax may not exceed $760,000.

.16 Annual Exclusion for Gifts.

(1) For calendar year 1999, the first $10,000 of gifts to any person (other than gifts of future interests in property) are not included in the total amount of taxable gifts under §2503 made during that year.

(2) For calendar year 1999, the first $101,000 of gifts to a spouse who is not a citizen of the United States (other than gifts of future interests in property) are not included in the total amount of taxable gifts under §§2503 and 2523(i)(2) made during that year.

.17 Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax Exemption. For calendar year 1999, the generation-skipping transfer tax exemption under §2631, which is allowed in determining the “inclusion ratio” defined in §2642, is $1,010,000.

.18 Luxury Automobile Excise Tax. For calendar year 1999, the excise tax under §§4001 and 4003 is imposed on the first retail sale of a passenger vehicle (including certain parts or accessories installed within six months of the date after the vehicle was first placed in service), to the extent the price exceeds $36,000.

.19 Passenger Air Transportation Excise Tax. For calendar year 1999, the tax under §4261(c) on any amount paid (whether within or without the United States) for any transportation of any person by air, if such transportation begins or ends in the United States, generally is $12.20. However, in the case of a domestic segment beginning or ending in Alaska or Hawaii as described in §4261(c)(3), the tax only applies to departures and is at the rate of $6.10.

.20 Reporting Exception for Certain Exempt Organizations with Nondeductible Lobbying Expenditures. For tax years beginning in 1999, the annual per person, family, or entity dues limitation to qualify for the reporting exception under §6033(e)(3) (and section 5.05 of Rev. Proc. 98–19, 1998–7 I.R.B. 30), regarding certain exempt organizations with nondeductible lobbying expenditures, is $77 or less.

.21 Notice of Large Gifts Received from Foreign Persons. For tax years beginning in 1999, recipients of gifts from certain foreign persons may have to report these gifts under §6039F if the aggregate value of gifts received in a taxable year exceeds $10,735.

.22 Persons against Which a Federal Tax Lien is Not Valid. For calendar year 1999, a federal tax lien is not valid against (1) certain purchasers under §6323(b)(4) that purchased personal property in a casual sale for less than $1,040, or (2) a mechanic's lienor under §6323(b)(7) that repaired or improved certain residential property if the contract price with the owner is not more than $5,220.

.23 Interest on a Certain Portion of the Estate Tax Payable in Installments. For an estate of a decedent dying in calendar year 1999, the dollar amount used to determine the “2-percent portion” (for purposes of calculating interest under §6601(j)) of the estate tax payable in installments under §6166 is $1,010,000.

.24 Attorney Fee Awards. For calendar year 1999, for costs incurred on or before January 18, 1999, the attorney fee award limitation under §7430(c)(1)(B)(iii) is $120 per hour. For costs incurred after January 18, 1999, the attorney fee award limitation under §7430(c)(1)(B)(iii) is $130 per hour.

.25 Periodic Payments Received under Qualified Long-Term Care Insurance Contracts or under Certain Life Insurance Contracts. For calendar year 1999, the stated dollar amount of the per diem limitation under §7702B(d)(4), regarding periodic payments received under a qualified long-term care insurance contract or periodic payments received under a life insurance contract that are treated as paid by reason of the death of a chronically ill individual, is $190.

Section 4. Effective Date

.01 General Rule. Except as provided in section 4.02, this revenue procedure applies to tax years beginning in 1999.

.02 Calendar Year Rule. This revenue procedure applies to transactions or events occurring in calendar year 1999 for purposes of section 3.13 (funeral trusts), section 3.14 (expatriation to avoid tax), section 3.15 (valuation of qualified real property in decedent's gross estate), section 3.16 (annual exclusion for gifts), section 3.17 (generation-skipping transfer tax exemption), section 3.18 (luxury automobile excise tax), section 3.19 (passenger air transportation excise tax), section 3.22 (persons against which a federal tax lien is not valid), section 3.23 (interest on a certain portion of the estate tax payable in installments), section 3.24 (attorney fee awards), and section 3.25 (periodic payments received under qualified long-term care insurance contracts or under certain life insurance contracts).

Tax Tables for Certain Tax Years

Revenue Procedure 97–57 provided the following inflation adjusted items for tax years beginning in 1998 (1) the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; (2) the amounts allowed against unearned income in computing the “kiddie tax,” which taxes a minor child's net unearned income at the marginal rate that applies to the income of the child's parent; (3) the earned income tax credit and the phaseout of the earned income tax credit; (4) the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses, the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of an individual who may be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer, and the additional standard deduction amounts for the aged and the blind; (5) the overall limitation on itemized deductions; (6) the monthly limitation regarding the aggregate fringe benefit exclusion amount for commuter transportation; (7) the limitations on the exclusion of income from the redemption of United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses; (8) the personal exemption and the phaseout of the tax benefit of personal exemptions; (9) the limitations regarding eligible long-term care premiums includible as “medical care”; (10) the limitation regarding the exemption of annual dues required to be paid by a member to an agricultural or horticultural organization; (11) the insubstantial benefit limitations for contributions associated with charitable fund-raising campaigns; (12) the amounts of net tax and net worth used to determine if a loss resulting from expatriation was incurred for tax avoidance; (13) the luxury automobile excise tax threshold amount; (14) the reporting exception amount for certain exempt organizations with nondeductible lobbying expenditures; (15) the annual limitation on large gifts received from foreign persons for purpose of triggering reporting requirement; (16) the limitation on the value of property exempt from levy; (17) the hourly limit on attorney fee awards in administrative or judicial proceedings under the Code; and (18) the limitation regarding periodic payments received under qualified long-term care insurance contracts or certain life insurance contracts.

Revenue Procedure 96–59 provided the following inflation adjusted items for tax years beginning in 1997 (1) the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; (2) the amounts allowed against unearned income in computing the “kiddie tax,” which taxes a minor child's net unearned income at the marginal rate that applies to the income of the child's parent; (3) the earned income tax credit and the phaseout of the earned income tax credit; (4) the alternative minimum tax exemption for “kiddie tax” reported on a parent's return; (5) the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses, the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of certain dependents, and the additional standard deduction amounts for the aged and for the blind; (6) the overall limitation on itemized deductions; (7) the limitation on exclusion for employer-provided qualified transportation fringe; (8) the limitations on the exclusion of income from the redemption of United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses; (9) the personal exemption and the phaseout of the tax benefit of personal exemptions; (10) the amount of dues paid to an agricultural or horticultural organization for purposes of treatment of payment as being derived from an unrelated trade or business; (11) the insubstantial benefit limitations for contributions associated with charitable fund-raising campaigns; (12) the amounts of net tax and net worth used to determine if a loss resulting from expatriation was incurred for tax avoidance; (13) the luxury automobile excise tax threshold amount; (14) the reporting exception amount for certain exempt organizations with nondeductible lobbying expenditures; (15) the annual limitation on large gifts received from foreign persons for purpose of triggering reporting requirement; and (16) hourly limit on attorney fee awards in administrative or judicial proceedings under the Code.

Revenue Procedure 95–53 provided the following inflation adjusted items for tax years beginning in 1996 (1) the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; (2) the amounts allowed against unearned income in computing the “kiddie tax,” which taxes a minor child's net unearned income at the marginal rate that applies to the income of the child's parent; (3) the earned income tax credit and the phaseout of the earned income tax credit; (4) the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses, the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of certain dependents, and the additional standard deduction amounts for the aged and for the blind; (5) the overall limitation on itemized deductions; (6) the limitation on exclusion for employer-provided qualified transportation fringe; (7) the limitations on the exclusion of income from the redemption of United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses; (8) the personal exemption and the phaseout of the tax benefit of personal exemptions; (9) the insubstantial benefit limitations for contributions associated with charitable fund-raising campaigns; (10) the luxury automobile excise tax threshold amount; and (11) the reporting exception amount for certain exempt organizations with nondeductible lobbying expenditures.

Revenue Procedure 94–72 provided the following inflation adjusted items for tax years beginning in 1995 (1) the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; (2) the amounts allowed against unearned income in computing the “kiddie tax,” which taxes a minor child's net unearned income at the marginal rate that applies to the income of the child's parent; (3) the earned income tax credit and the phaseout of the earned income tax credit; (4) the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses, the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of certain dependents, and the additional standard deduction amounts for the aged and for the blind; (5) the overall limitation on itemized deductions; (6) the limitation on exclusion for employer-provided qualified transportation fringe; (7) the limitations on the exclusion of income from the redemption of United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses; (8) the personal exemption and the phaseout of the tax benefit of personal exemptions; (9) the insubstantial benefit limitations for contributions associated with charitable fund-raising campaigns; and (10) the luxury automobile excise tax threshold amount.

Revenue Procedure 93–49 provided the following inflation adjusted items for tax years beginning in 1994 (1) the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; (2) the amounts allowed against unearned income in computing the “kiddie tax,” which taxes a minor child's net unearned income at the marginal rate that applies to the income of the child's parent; (3) the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses, the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of certain dependents, and the additional standard deduction amounts for the aged and for the blind; (4) the overall limitation on itemized deductions; (5) the limitation on exclusion for employer-provided qualified transportation fringe; (6) the limitations on the exclusion of income from the redemption of United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses; (7) the personal exemption and the phaseout of the tax benefit of personal exemptions; (8) the insubstantial benefit limitations for contributions associated with charitable fund-raising campaigns; and (9) the luxury automobile excise tax threshold amount.

Revenue Procedure 92–102 provided the following inflation adjusted items for tax years beginning in 1993 (1) the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; (2) the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses, the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of certain dependents, and the additional standard deduction amounts for the aged and for the blind; (3) the personal exemption and the phaseout of the tax benefit of personal exemptions; (4) the earned income credit; (5) the amounts allowed against unearned income in computing the “kiddie tax,” which taxes a minor child's net unearned income at the marginal rate that applies to the income of the child's parent; (6) the limitations on the exclusion of income from the redemption of United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses; (7) the overall limitation on itemized deductions; and (8) the insubstantial benefit limitations for contributions associated with charitable fund-raising campaigns.

Revenue Procedure 91–65 provided the following inflation adjusted items for tax years beginning in 1992 (1) the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; (2) the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses, the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of certain dependents, and the additional standard deduction amounts for the aged and for the blind; (3) the personal exemption and the phaseout of the tax benefit of personal exemptions; (4) the earned income credit; (5) the amounts allowed against unearned income in computing the “kiddie tax,” which taxes a minor child's net unearned income at the marginal rate that applies to the income of the child's parent; (6) the limitations on the exclusion of income from the redemption of United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses; and (7) the overall limitation on itemized deductions.

Revenue Procedure 90–64 provided the following inflation adjusted items for taxable years beginning in 1991 (1) the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; (2) the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses, the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of certain dependents, and the additional standard deductions for the aged and blind; (3) the personal exemption; (4) the earned income credit; (5) the amounts allowed against unearned income in computing the “kiddie tax,” which taxes a minor child's net unearned income at the marginal rate that applies to the income of the child's parent; and (6) the limitations on the exclusion of income from the redemption of United States savings bonds for taxpayers who pay qualified higher education expenses.

Revenue Procedure 90–7 provided the income tax inflation adjustment (indexing) factors as determined pursuant to the various provisions of this title for taxable years beginning in 1990, and set forth the application of the factors to the following: the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses; the limitation on the standard deduction in the case of certain dependents; the additional standard deductions for the aged and blind; the earned income credit; and the personal exemption.

Revenue Procedure 88–56 provided the income tax inflation adjustment (indexing) factors as determined pursuant to various provisions of this title for taxable years beginning in 1989, and set forth the application of the factors to the following: the tax rate tables for individuals and for estates and trusts; the basic standard deduction amounts for different filing statuses; the additional standard deductions for the aged and blind; the limitation on the standard deduction under certain circumstances; and the earned income credit.

Revenue Procedure 84–79 and Revenue Procedure 85–55, with respect to taxable years beginning in 1985 and 1986, respectively, prescribed adjusted tax tables in lieu of the tables contained in paragraph (3) of former subsections (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, to provide the income tax cost-of-living adjustment (indexing) factor as determined pursuant to former subsection (f)(3) of this section.

References in Text

The enactment of this clause, referred to in subsec. (h)(13)(A)(iii), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–206, which was approved July 22, 1998.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (g)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 105–206, §6007(f)(1), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C) and struck out heading and text of former subpar. (C). Text read as follows: “If tax is imposed under section 644(a)(1) with respect to the sale or exchange of any property of which the parent was the transferor, for purposes of applying subparagraph (A) to the taxable year of the parent in which such sale or exchange occurs—

“(i) taxable income of the parent shall be increased by the amount treated as included in gross income under section 644(a)(2)(A)(i), and

“(ii) the amount described in subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be increased by the amount of the excess referred to in section 644(a)(2)(A).”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–206, §6005(d)(1), reenacted subsec. heading without change and amended text of subsec. (h) generally, substituting present provisions comprising pars. (1) to (13) for former similar provisions comprising pars. (1) to (11).

Subsec. (h)(5). Pub. L. 105–206, §5001(a)(1), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows:

“(5) 28-percent rate gain.—For purposes of this subsection—

“(A) In general.—The term ‘28-percent rate gain’ means the excess (if any) of—

“(i) the sum of—

“(I) the aggregate long-term capital gain from property held for more than 1 year but not more than 18 months;

“(II) collectibles gain; and

“(III) section 1202 gain, over

“(ii) the sum of—

“(I) the aggregate long-term capital loss (not described in subclause (IV)) from property referred to in clause (i)(I);

“(II) collectibles loss;

“(III) the net short-term capital loss; and

“(IV) the amount of long-term capital loss carried under section 1212(b)(1)(B) to the taxable year.

“(B) Special rules.—

“(i) Short sale gains and holding periods.—Rules similar to the rules of section 1233(b) shall apply where the substantially identical property has been held more than 1 year but not more than 18 months; except that, for purposes of such rules—

“(I) section 1233(b)(1) shall be applied by substituting ‘18 months’ for ‘1 year’ each place it appears; and

“(II) the holding period of such property shall be treated as being 1 year on the day before the earlier of the date of the closing of the short sale or the date such property is disposed of.

“(ii) Long-term losses.—Section 1233(d) shall be applied separately by substituting ‘18 months’ for ‘1 year’ each place it appears.

“(iii) Options.—A rule similar to the rule of section 1092(f) shall apply where the stock was held for more than 18 months.

“(iv) Section 1256 contracts.—Amounts treated as long-term capital gain or loss under section 1256(a)(3) shall be treated as attributable to property held for more than 18 months.”

Subsec. (h)(6)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, §5001(a)(2), substituted “1 year” for “18 months”.

Subsec. (h)(7)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 105–206, §5001(a)(3), amended cls. (i) and (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cls. (i) and (ii) read as follows:

“(i) the amount of long-term capital gain (not otherwise treated as ordinary income) which would be treated as ordinary income if—

“(I) section 1250(b)(1) included all depreciation and the applicable percentage under section 1250(a) were 100 percent, and

“(II) only gain from property held for more than 18 months were taken into account, over

“(ii) the excess (if any) of—

“(I) the amount described in paragraph (5)(A)(ii), over

“(II) the amount described in paragraph (5)(A)(i).”

Subsec. (h)(13). Pub. L. 105–206, §5001(a)(4), struck out “for periods during 1997” after “Special rules” in par. heading and amended headings and text of subpars. (A) and (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpars. (A) and (B) read as follows:

“(A) Determination of 28-percent rate gain.—In applying paragraph (5)—

“(i) the amount determined under subclause (I) of paragraph (5)(A)(i) shall include long-term capital gain (not otherwise described in paragraph (5)(A)(i)) which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year before May 7, 1997;

“(ii) the amounts determined under subclause (I) of paragraph (5)(A)(ii) shall include long-term capital loss (not otherwise described in paragraph (5)(A)(ii)) which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year before May 7, 1997; and

“(iii) clauses (i)(I) and (ii)(I) of paragraph (5)(A) shall be applied by not taking into account any gain and loss on property held for more than 1 year but not more than 18 months which is properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year after May 6, 1997, and before July 29, 1997.

“(B) Other special rules.—

“(i) Determination of unrecaptured section 1250 gain not to include pre-may 7, 1997 gain.—The amount determined under paragraph (7)(A)(i) shall not include gain properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year before May 7, 1997.

“(ii) Other transitional rules for 18-month holding period.—Paragraphs (6)(A) and (7)(A)(i)(II) shall be applied by substituting ‘1 year’ for ‘18 months’ with respect to gain properly taken into account for the portion of the taxable year after May 6, 1997, and before July 29, 1997.”

Subsec. (h)(13)(B). Pub. L. 105–277, §4002(i)(1), substituted “paragraph (7)(A)(i)” for “paragraph (7)(A)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(13)(D). Pub. L. 105–277, §4002(i)(3), added subpar. (D).

1997—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–34 amended heading and text of subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If a taxpayer has a net capital gain for any taxable year, then the tax imposed by this section shall not exceed the sum of—

“(1) a tax computed at the rates and in the same manner as if this subsection had not been enacted on the greater of—

“(A) taxable income reduced by the amount of the net capital gain, or

“(B) the amount of taxable income taxed at a rate below 28 percent, plus

“(2) a tax of 28 percent of the amount of taxable income in excess of the amount determined under paragraph (1).

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the net capital gain for any taxable year shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount which the taxpayer elects to take into account as investment income for the taxable year under section 163(d)(4)(B)(iii).”

1996—Subsec. (g)(7)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(m)(1), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “such gross income is more than $500 and less than $5,000,”.

Subsec. (g)(7)(B)(i). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(m)(2)(A), substituted “twice the amount described in paragraph (4)(A)(ii)(I)” for “$1,000”.

Subsec. (g)(7)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(m)(2)(B), amended subcl. (II) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (II) read as follows: “for each such child, the lesser of $75 or 15 percent of the excess of the gross income of such child over $500, and”.

1993—Subsecs. (a) to (e). Pub. L. 103–66, §§13201(a), 13202(a), amended subsecs. (a) to (e) generally, substituting five-tiered tax tables for all categories applicable to tax years after December 31, 1992, for prior three-tiered tax tables.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, §13201(b)(3)(A)(i), substituted “1993” for “1990”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13201(b)(3)(A)(ii), substituted “1992” for “1989”.

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 103–66, §13201(b)(3)(B), added par. (7).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–66, §13206(d)(2), inserted as concluding provision at end “For purposes of the preceding sentence, the net capital gain for any taxable year shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount which the taxpayer elects to take into account as investment income for the taxable year under section 163(d)(4)(B)(iii).”

1990—Subsecs. (a) to (e). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(a), amended subsecs. (a) to (e) generally, substituting three-tiered tax tables for all categories applicable to tax years after Dec. 31, 1990, for prior two-tiered tax tables.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(1)(A)(i), substituted “1990” for “1988”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(1)(A)(ii), substituted “1989” for “1987”.

Subsec. (f)(6)(A). Pub. L. 101–508, §11104(b)(1), substituted “section 151(d)(4)” for “section 151(d)(3)”.

Pub. L. 101–508, §11103(c), inserted reference to section 68(b)(2).

Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(b)(2), struck out “subsection (g)(4),” after “paragraph (2)(A),”.

Subsec. (f)(6)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11104(b)(2), substituted “section 151(d)(4)(A)” for “section 151(d)(3)”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (i) as (g).

Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(b)(1), struck out subsec. (g) which provided for phaseout of 15-percent rate and personal exemptions.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (j) as (h) and struck out former subsec. (h) which provided tax schedules for taxable years beginning in 1987.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (i) as (g).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(2), redesignated subsec. (j) as (h).

Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(c), amended subsec. (j) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (j) read as follows:

“(1) In general.—If a taxpayer has a net capital gain for any taxable year to which this subsection applies, then the tax imposed by this section shall not exceed the sum of—

“(A) a tax computed at the rates and in the same manner as if this subsection had not been enacted on the greater of—

“(i) the taxable income reduced by the amount of net capital gain, or

“(ii) the amount of taxable income taxed at a rate below 28 percent, plus

“(B) a tax of 28 percent of the amount of taxable income in excess of the amount determined under subparagraph (A), plus

“(C) the amount of increase determined under subsection (g).

“(2) Years to which subsection applies.—This subsection shall apply to—

“(A) any taxable year beginning in 1987, and

“(B) any taxable year beginning after 1987 if the highest rate of tax set forth in subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) (whichever applies) for such taxable year exceeds 28 percent.”

1989—Subsec. (f)(6)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7831(a), substituted “subsection (c)(4) of section 63 (as it applies to subsections (c)(5)(A) and (f) of such section) and section 151(d)(3)” for “section 63(c)(4)”.

Subsec. (i)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(j)(1), redesignated subpar. (C), relating to special rule where parent has different taxable year, as (D).

Subsec. (i)(7)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7816(b), inserted “(other than for purposes of this paragraph)” after “shall be treated” in concluding provisions.

1988—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(a)(3), inserted provision relating to application of subpar. (B) at end of last sentence.

Subsec. (i)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1014(e)(2), substituted “any exclusion, deduction, or credit” for “any deduction or credit”.

Subsec. (i)(3)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1014(e)(7), added subpar. (C) relating to special rule where parent has different taxable year.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1014(e)(1), added subpar. (C) relating to coordination with section 644.

Subsec. (i)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1014(e)(3)(A), substituted “adjusted gross income” for “gross income” and inserted “attributable to” after “which is not”.

Subsec. (i)(4)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 100–647, §1014(e)(3)(B)–(D), substituted “his deductions” for “his deduction”, “the itemized deductions allowed” for “the deductions allowed”, and “adjusted gross income” for “gross income”.

Subsec. (i)(5)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1014(e)(6), substituted “custodial parent (within the meaning of section 152(e))” for “custodial parent”.

Subsec. (i)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §6006(a), added par. (7).

1986—Subsecs. (a) to (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §101(a), in amending subsecs. (a) to (e) generally, substituted a general tax table for tax tables (1), (2), and (3) in each subsec. applicable to taxable years beginning in 1982, 1983, and after 1983, respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §101(a), in amending subsec. (f) generally, in par. (1) substituted “1988,” for “1984” and struck out “paragraph (3) of” before “subsections”, in par. (2) struck out “paragraph (3) of” before “subsection” in introductory provisions, substituted subpars. (A) to (C) for former subpars. (A) to (C) which read as follows:

“(A) by increasing—

“(i) the maximum dollar amount on which no tax is imposed under such table, and

“(ii) the minimum and maximum dollar amounts for each rate bracket for which a tax is imposed under such table,

by the cost-of-living adjustment for such calendar year,

“(B) by not changing the rate applicable to any rate bracket as adjusted under subparagraph (A)(ii), and

“(C) by adjusting the amounts setting forth the tax to the extent necessary to reflect the adjustments in the rate brackets.”,

and struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: “If any increase determined under subparagraph (A) is not a multiple of $10, such increase shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10 (or if such increase is a multiple of $5, such increase shall be increased to the next highest multiple of $10).”, in par. (3)(B) substituted “1987” for “1983”, in par. (4) substituted “August 31” for “September 30”, in par. (5) inserted requirement that the Consumer Price Index most consistent with such Index for calendar year 1986 be used, and added par. (6).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §101(a), in amending section generally, added subsecs. (g) and (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1411(a), added subsec. (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 99–514, §302(a), added subsec. (j).

1982—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 97–448, §101(a)(3), set out as a note below, provided for amendment of the tables applying to married individuals filing separately or to estates and trusts so as to correct any figure differing by not more than 50 cents from the correct amount under the formula used in constructing such table. Corrections to the tables in subsecs. (d) and (e) appeared in Announcement 83–50 contained in Internal Revenue Bulletin No. 1983–12 of Mar. 21, 1983.

1981—Subsecs. (a) to (e). Pub. L. 97–34, §101(a), generally revised tax tables downward providing for cumulative across-the-board reductions of 23 percent on a three phase schedule under which different new rates were set for taxable years beginning in 1982, for taxable years beginning in 1983, and for taxable years beginning after 1983.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–34, §104(a), added subsec. (f).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–600 generally made a downward revision of tax table for married individuals filing joint returns and surviving spouses resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $3,400 or less was substituted for a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $3,200 or less.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–600 generally made a downward revision of tax table for heads of household resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $2,300 or less was substituted for a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $2,200 or less.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–600 generally made a downward revision of tax table for unmarried individuals other than surviving spouses and heads of households resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $2,300 or less was substituted for a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $2,200 or less.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–600 generally made a downward revision of tax tables for married individuals filing separate returns resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $1,700 or less was substituted for a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $1,600 or less.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–600 generally made a downward revision of tax tables for estates and trusts resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket under which a tax of 14% is imposed on taxable income of $1,050 for a bottom bracket under which a tax of 14% was imposed on taxable income of $500 or less.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–30 generally made a downward revision of tax table for married individuals filing joint returns and surviving spouses resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $3,200 or less was substituted for a bottom bracket under which a tax of 14% had been imposed on a taxable income of $1,000 or less.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–30 generally made a downward revision of tax table for heads of households resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $2,200 or less was substituted for a bottom bracket under which a tax of 14% had been imposed on a taxable income of $1,000 or less.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–30 generally made a downward revision of tax table for unmarried individuals other than surviving spouses and heads of households resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $2,200 or less was substituted for a bottom bracket under which a tax of 14% had been imposed on a taxable income of $500 or less.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–30 generally made a downward revision of tax table for married individuals filing separate returns resulting in a table under which, among other changes, a bottom bracket imposing no tax on taxable income of $1,600 or less was substituted for a bottom bracket under which a tax of 14% had been imposed on a taxable income of $500 or less. Provisions making table applicable to estates and trusts were struck out. See subsec. (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–30 added subsec. (e) consisting of table formerly contained in subsec. (d) but without any downward revision and limited so as to apply only to estates and trusts.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted a table of rates of tax for married individuals filing joint returns and surviving spouses for the tables of rates of tax on individuals. For rates of taxes on unmarried individuals and married persons filing separate returns, see subsecs. (c) and (d) of this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172 generally revised rates of tax of heads of household downwards and struck out provisions defining head of household, determination of status, and limitations. For definition of head of household, determination of status, and limitations, see section 2(b) of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted rates of tax on unmarried individuals (other than surviving spouses and heads of household) for special rules explaining the rates of tax imposed under former subsecs. (a) and (b)(1) and prescribing a maximum limit of 87 percent of the taxable year.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted a table of rates of tax for married individuals filing separate returns for provision prescribing the applicability of the rates to non-resident aliens. For applicability of rates of tax to non-resident aliens, see section 2(d) of this title.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–172 struck out cross reference to section 63. See section 2(e) of this title.

1966—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 89–809 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1964—Pub. L. 88–272 amended section generally by splitting the former first bracket which started at $2,000 into four new brackets, the 14 percent bracket representing a 30 percent reduction, the 15 percent bracket a 25 percent cut, and the 16 percent bracket a 20 percent cut, and reducing all other brackets by cuts averaging about 20 percent and effectuated these cuts in two steps, one in 1964, and one in 1965.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4002(k), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–908, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 408A, 6015, 6103, 6159, 7421, 7443A, and 7491 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under section 6601 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the 1998 Act [Pub. L. 105–206] to which they relate.”

Pub. L. 105–206, title V, §5001(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 788, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1223 and 1235 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1997.

“(2) Subsection (a)(5).—The amendments made by subsection (a)(5) [amending sections 1223 and 1235 of this title] shall take effect on January 1, 1998.”

Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6024, July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 826, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this title [see Tables for classification], the amendments made by this title shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 [Pub. L. 105–34] to which they relate.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 311(d) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 55, 57, 904, 1445, and 7518 of this title, and section 1177 of Title 46, Appendix, Shipping] shall apply to taxable years ending after May 6, 1997.

“(2) Withholding.—The amendment made by subsection (c)(1) [amending section 1445 of this title] shall apply only to amounts paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1704(m)(4) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 59 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13201(c) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 41, 63, 68, 132, 151, 453A, 513, 531, and 541 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1992.”

Section 13202(c) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 531 and 541 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1992.”

Section 13206(d)(3) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 163 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1992.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 11101(e) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 32, 41, 59, 63, 135, 151, 513, 691, 904, 6103, and 7518 of this title, and section 1177 of Title 46, Appendix, Shipping] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990.”

Section 11103(e) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 68 of this title and amending this section and section 56 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990.”

Section 11104(c) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 151 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this part [part I (§§7811–7817) of subtitle H of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239, see Tables for classification], any amendment made by this part shall take effect as if included in the provision of the 1988 Act [Pub. L. 100–647] to which such amendment relates.”

Section 7831(g) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “Any amendment made by this section [amending this section and sections 42, 406, 407, and 1250 of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 141 and 263A of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514] to which such amendment relates.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1019 of title I of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—Except as otherwise provided in this title, any amendment made by this title [see Tables for classification], shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514] to which such amendment relates.

“(b) Waiver of Estimated Tax Penalties.—No addition to tax shall be made under section 6654 or 6655 of the 1986 Code for any period before April 16, 1989 (March 16, 1989 in the case of a taxpayer subject to section 6655 of the 1986 Code) with respect to any underpayment to the extent such underpayment was created or increased by any provision of this title or title II [see Tables for classification].”

Section 6006(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 151 of title I of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this title [enacting section 67 of this title, amending this section, sections 3, 5, 15, 21, 32, 62, 63, 74, 85, 86, 102, 108, 117, 129, 151, 152, 164, 170, 172, 183, 213, 265, 274, 280A, 402, 441, 443, 527, 541, 613A, 642, 667, 861, 862, 901, 904, 1398, 1441, 2032A, 3121, 3231, 3306, 3401, 3402, 3507, 4941, 4945, 6012 to 6014, 6212, 6504, 6511, and 7871 of this title, and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, renumbering section 223 of this title as section 220 of this title, repealing sections 24, 221, 222, and 1301 to 1305 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 32 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(b) Unemployment Compensation.—The amendment made by section 121 [amending section 85 of this title] shall apply to amounts received after December 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(c) Prizes and Awards.—The amendments made by section 122 [amending sections 74, 102, 274, 3121, 3231, 3306, 3401, 4941, and 4945 of this title and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to prizes and awards granted after December 31, 1986.

“(d) Scholarships.—The amendments made by section 123 [amending sections 74, 117, 1441, and 7871 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, but only in the case of scholarships and fellowships granted after August 16, 1986.

“(e) Parsonage and Military Housing Allowances.—The amendment made by section 144 [amending section 265 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning before, on, or after, December 31, 1986.”

Section 302(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Section 1411(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6103 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 109 of title I of Pub. L. 97–448 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this title, any amendment made by this title [see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 [Pub. L. 97–34, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 172] to which such amendment relates.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 101(f)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2365, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (c), and (d) [amending this section and sections 3, 21, 55, 541, and 1304 of this title and repealing section 1348 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981; except that the amendment made by paragraph (3) of subsection (d) [amending section 21 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1981.”

Section 104(e) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 63, 151, 6012, and 6013 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 101(f)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), (c), and (d) [amending sections 63, 402, 1302, and 6012 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30 provided that: “The amendments made by sections 101, 102, and 104 [amending this section and sections 3, 21, 42, 57, 63, 143, 161, 172, 211, 402, 441, 443, 511, 584, 613A, 641, 642, 667, 703, 861, 862, 873, 904, 911, 931, 1034, 1211, 1302, 6012, 6014, 6212, 6504, and 6654 of this title and repealing sections 36, 141, 142, 144, and 145 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Section 803(f) of Pub. L. 91–172, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) [amending this section], (b) [amending section 2 of this title], and (d) (other than paragraphs (1) and (8)) [amending sections 5, 511, 632, 641, 1347, and 6015 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970, except that section 2(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [section 2(c) of this title], as amended by subsection (b), shall also apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969. The amendments made by subsections (c) [amending section 3 of this title], (d)(1) [amending section 6014 of this title], and (d)(8) [amending section 1304 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969”.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Section 103(n) of Pub. L. 89–809 provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by this section (other than the amendments made by subsections (h), (i), and (k)) [enacting section 877 of this title, amending this section and sections 116, 154, 871, 872, 873, 874, 875, 932, 6015, and 7701 of this title, renumbering section 877 as 878, and repealing section 1493 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966.

“(2) The amendments made by subsection (h) [amending section 1441 of this title] shall apply with respect to payments made in taxable years of recipients beginning after December 31, 1966.

“(3) The amendments made by subsection (i) [amending section 1461 of this title] shall apply with respect to payments occurring after December 31, 1966.

“(4) The amendments made by subsection (k) [amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply with respect to remuneration paid after December 31, 1966.”

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Section 131 of Pub. L. 88–272, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “Except for purposes of section 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to effect of changes in rates during a taxable year), the amendments made by parts I and II of this title [amending this section and sections 2, 11, 37, 141, 144, 242, 821, 871, 963, 6016, 6074, 6154, 6212, 6504, and 6655 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963.”

Short Title of 1998 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, §1000(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–886, provided that: “This division [§§1000–5301, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Tax and Trade Relief Extension Act of 1998’.”

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title XV, §1501, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–741, provided that: “This title [amending sections 4132 and 9510 of this title and section 300aa–11 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4132 and 9510 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Modification Act’.”

Pub. L. 105–206, §1(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 685, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998’.”

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3000, July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 726, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Taxpayer Bill of Rights 3’.”

Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6001(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 790, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Tax Technical Corrections Act of 1998’.”

Pub. L. 105–178, title IX, §9001(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 499, provided that: “This title [amending sections 40, 132, 4041, 4051, 4071, 4081, 4091, 4221, 4481 to 4483, 6156, 6412, 6421, 6427, 9503, and 9504 of this title and section 460l–11 of Title 16, Conservation, repealing section 9511 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 40, 132, 172, 4041, 6421, and 9503 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 172 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Revenue Act of 1998’.”

Short Title of 1997 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–35, §1, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1104, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 7213A of this title, amending sections 7213 and 7431 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 7213 and 7431 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Taxpayer Browsing Protection Act’.”

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997’.”

Pub. L. 105–2, §1(a), Feb. 28, 1997, 111 Stat. 4, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 4041, 4081, 4091, 4261, 4271, and 9502 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4041, 4081, and 4261 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Airport and Airway Trust Fund Tax Reinstatement Act of 1997’.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendments

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996’.”

Pub. L. 104–168, §1(a), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1452, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 4958, 7434, 7435, and 7524 of this title, amending sections 501, 4955, 4963, 6013, 6033, 6041 to 6042, 6044, 6045, 6049, 6050B, 6050H to 6050K, 6050N, 6103, 6104, 6159, 6201, 6213, 6323, 6334, 6343, 6404, 6503, 6601, 6651, 6652, 6656, 6672, 6685, 7122, 7213, 7422, 7430, 7433, 7454, 7502, 7608, 7609, 7623, 7802, 7805, and 7811 of this title, renumbering sections 7434 and 7435 as sections 7435 and 7436 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 501, 4955, 6013, 6033, 6041, 6103, 6104, 6159, 6201, 6311, 6323, 6334, 6404, 6503, 6601, 6651, 6652, 6656, 6672, 7122, 7430, 7433 to 7435, 7524, 7608, 7609, 7623, 7802, 7803, 7805, and 7811 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 7608 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Taxpayer Bill of Rights 2’.”

Short Title of 1994 Amendments

Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §750, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5012, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle F (§§750–781) of title VII of Pub. L. 103–465, enacting sections 1310, 1311, and 1350 of Title 29, Labor, amending sections 401, 404, 411, 412, 415, 417, 4971, and 4972 of this title and sections 1053 to 1056, 1082, 1132, 1301, 1303, 1305, 1306, 1322, 1341, 1342, and 1343 of Title 29, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 401, 411, 412, and 4972 of this title and sections 1056, 1082, 1303, 1306, 1310, 1311, 1322, 1341, and 1342 of Title 29] may be cited as the ‘Retirement Protection Act of 1994’.”

Pub. L. 103–387, §1, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4071, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 3510 of this title, amending sections 3102 and 3121 of this title, section 3701 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and sections 401, 402, 404, 409, 410, and 1383 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 3102 and 3510 of this title, section 3701 of Title 31, and sections 401, 402, and 1383 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Social Security Domestic Employment Reform Act of 1994’.”

Short Title of 1993 Amendments

Pub. L. 103–152, §1, Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1516, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 503, 504, 1105, 1108, and 1382j of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 3304 of this title and sections 503 and 1382j of Title 42, amending provisions set out as notes under section 3304 of this title and section 352 of Title 45, Railroads, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3304 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1993’.”

Section 13001(a) of title XIII of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “This chapter [chapter 1 (§§13001–13444) of title XIII of Pub. L. 103–66, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993’.”

Pub. L. 103–6, §1, Mar. 4, 1993, 107 Stat. 33, provided that: “This Act [enacting provisions set out as notes under section 3304 of this title, section 31 of Title 2, The Congress, and section 352 of Title 45, Railroads, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 3304 of this title and section 352 of Title 45] may be cited as the ‘Emergency Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1993’.”

Short Title of 1992 Amendments

Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §19141, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3036, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle C (§§19141–19143) of title XIX of Pub. L. 102–486, enacting sections 9701 to 9722 of this title, amending sections 1231 and 1232 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 9701 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992’.”

Pub. L. 102–318, §1, July 3, 1992, 106 Stat. 290, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1110 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 55, 62, 72, 151, 219, 401 to 404, 406 to 408, 411, 414, 415, 457, 691, 871, 877, 1441, 3121, 3304, 3306, 3402, 3405, 4973, 4980A, 6047, 6652, 6655, and 7701 of this title, section 8509 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, section 2291 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and sections 502, 503, 1101, 1102, 1104, and 1105 of Title 42, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 401, 402, 3302, 3304, and 6655 of this title, section 8509 of Title 5, section 2291 of Title 19, and sections 502, 666, 1102, and 1108 of Title 42, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 3304 of this title, sections 502 and 666 of Title 42, and section 352 of Title 45, Railroads] may be cited as the ‘Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1992’.”

Short Title of 1991 Amendments

Pub. L. 102–240, title VIII, §8001(a), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2203, provided that: “This title [enacting section 9511 of this title, amending sections 4041, 4051, 4071, 4081, 4091, 4221, 4481, 4482, 4483, 6156, 6412, 6420, 6421, 6427, 9503, and 9504 of this title and section 460l–11 of Title 16, Conservation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 9503 of this title, section 101 of Title 23, Highways, and section 1601 of former Title 49, Transportation] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Revenue Act of 1991’.”

Pub. L. 102–227, §1(a), Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1686, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 25, 28, 41, 42, 48, 51, 57, 120, 127, 143, 144, 162, 864, and 6655 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 25, 28, 42, 51, 120, 127, 143, 144, 162, 864, and 6655 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Extension Act of 1991’.”

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Section 11001(a) of title XI of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990’.”

Short Title of 1989 Amendment

Section 7001(a) of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1989’.”

Section 7701 of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle G (§§7701–7743) of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Improved Penalty Administration and Compliance Tax Act’.”

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988’.”

Section 6226 of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle J (§§6226–6247) of title VI of Pub. L. 100–647, enacting sections 6159, 6326, 6712, 7430, 7432, 7433, 7520, 7521, and 7811 of this title, amending sections 6213, 6214, 6331, 6332, 6334, 6335, 6343, 6404, 6512, 6601, 6673, 6863, 7216, 7429, 7481, 7482, 7802, and 7805 of this title and section 504 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, renumbering section 6326 as 6327, 7432 as 7433, and 7433 as 7434 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 6159, 6213, 6214, 6326, 6331, 6404, 6512, 6673, 6712, 6863, 7429, 7430, 7432, 7520, 7521, 7605, 7801 to 7803, 7805, and 7811 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Omnibus Taxpayer Bill of Rights’.”

Short Title of 1987 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–223, title IV, §401, Dec. 30, 1987, 101 Stat. 1532, provided that: “This title [enacting section 4283 of this title, amending sections 4041, 4261, 4271, 6427, and 9502 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4041 and 4261 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Airport and Airway Revenue Act of 1987’.”

Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9302(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–333, provided that: “This part [part II (§§9302–9346) of subtitle D of part II of Pub. L. 100–203, enacting sections 1085b and 1371 of Title 29, Labor, amending sections 401, 404, 411, 412, 414, and 4971 of this title and sections 1021, 1023, 1024, 1054, 1082 to 1084, 1085a, 1086, 1103, 1107, 1113, 1132, 1201, 1301, 1305 to 1307, 1322, 1341, 1342, 1344, 1349, 1362, 1364, 1367, and 1368 of Title 29, repealing section 1349 of Title 29, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 401, 404, 412, and 4971 of this title and sections 1054, 1107, 1132, 1301, 1305, 1322, and 1344 of Title 29] may be cited as the ‘Pension Protection Act’.”

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10000(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–382, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Act of 1987’.”

Pub. L. 100–17, title V, §501, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 256, provided that: “This title [amending sections 4041, 4051, 4052, 4071, 4081, 4221, 4481, 4482, 4483, 6156, 6412, 6420, 6421, 6427, and 9503 of this title and section 460l–11 of Title 16, Conservation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4052 and 4481 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Highway Revenue Act of 1987’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendments

Pub. L. 99–662, title XIV, §1401, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4266, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 4461, 4462, 9505, and 9506 of this title and section 988a of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, amending section 4042 of this title and sections 984 and 1804 of Title 33, repealing sections 1801 and 1802 of Title 33, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4042, 4461, 9505, and 9506 of this title and sections 984 and 988 of Title 33] may be cited as the ‘Harbor Maintenance Revenue Act of 1986’.”

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Tax Reform Act of 1986’.”

Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §501, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1760, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 59A, 4671, 4672, 9507, and 9508 of this title, amending sections 26, 164, 275, 936, 1561, 4041, 4042, 4081, 4221, 4611, 4612, 4661, 4662, 6154, 6416, 6420, 6421, 6425, 6427, 6655, 9502, 9503, and 9506 of this title and section 9601 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing sections 4681 and 4682 of this title and sections 9631 to 9633, 9641, and 9653 of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 26, 4041, 4611, 4661, 4671, 4681, 9507, and 9508 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Superfund Revenue Act of 1986’.”

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, §1(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 494, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Deficit Reduction Act of 1984’.”

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A (§§5–1082), §5(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 494, provided that: “This division [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Tax Reform Act of 1984’.”

Short Title of 1983 Amendments

Pub. L. 98–76, title II, §201, Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 419, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 3321 to 3323 and 6050G of this title, amending sections 72, 86, 105, 3201, 3202, 3211, 3221, 3231, 6157, 6201, 6317, 6513, and 6601 of this title and section 430 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 72, 105, 3201, 3321, and 6302 of this title and section 231n of Title 45, Railroads] may be cited as the ‘Railroad Retirement Revenue Act of 1983’.”

Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §101(a), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 3406 and 6705 of this title, amending sections 31, 274, 275, 643, 661, 3402, 3403, 3502, 3507, 6011, 6013, 6015, 6042, 6044, 6049, 6051, 6365, 6401, 6413, 6652, 6653, 6654, 6676, 6678, 6682, 7205, 7215, 7431, 7654, and 7701 of this title, repealing sections 3451 to 3456 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 31, 3451, and 6011 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3451 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Interest and Dividend Tax Compliance Act of 1983’.”

Pub. L. 97–473, title II, §201, Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2607, provided that: “This title [enacting section 7871 of this title, amending sections 41, 103, 164, 170, 2055, 2106, 2522, 4227, 4484, 6420, 6421, 6424, 6427, and 7701 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 7871 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Indian Tribal Governmental Tax Status Act of 1982’.”

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 97–448 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Technical Corrections Act of 1982’.”

Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §501(a), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2168, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Highway Revenue Act of 1982’.”

Short Title of 1982 Amendments

Pub. L. 97–362, §1(a), Oct. 25, 1982, 96 Stat. 1726, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 8509 and 8521 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 48, 172, 4401, 4411, 6051, 7447, 7448, 7456, 7459, and 7463 of this title, and section 601 of former Title 46, Shipping, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 8509 and 8521 of Title 5 and sections 48, 172, 336, 4401, 4411, 6051, 7448, and 7463 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 2291 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and section 3306 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1982’.”

Pub. L. 97–354, §1(a), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1669, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1361 to 1363, 1366 to 1368, 1371 to 1375, 1377 to 1379, and 6241 to 6245 of this title, amending sections 29, 31, 40, 41, 46, 48, 50A, 50B, 52, 53, 55, 57, 58, 62, 108, 163, 168, 170, 172, 179, 183, 189, 194, 267, 280, 280A, 291, 447, 464, 465, 613A, 992, 1016, 1101, 1212, 1251, 1254, 1256, 3453, 3454, 4992, 4996, 6037, 6042, 6362, and 6661 of this title and section 1108 of Title 29, Labor, omitting section 1376 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1361 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982’.”

Pub. L. 97–248, §1(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 324, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982’.”

Section 401 of title IV of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that: “This title [enacting sections 6046A and 6221 to 6232 of this title and section 1508 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending sections 702, 6031, 6213, 6216, 6422, 6501, 6504, 6511, 6512, 6515, 6679, 7422, 7451, 7456, 7459, 7482, and 7485 of this title and section 1346 of Title 28, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 6031, 6046A, 6221, and 6231 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Treatment of Partnership Items Act of 1982’.”

Short Title of 1981 Amendments

Pub. L. 97–119, title I, §101(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1635, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§101–104) of title I of Pub. L. 97–119, enacting sections 9500, 9501, 9601, and 9602 of this title, amending sections 501 and 4121 of this title and sections 902, 925, 932, and 934 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, repealing section 934a of Title 30, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4121 and 9501 of this title and section 934 of Title 30] may be cited as the ‘Black Lung Benefits Revenue Act of 1981’.”

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981’.”

Short Title of 1980 Amendments

Pub. L. 96–605, §1(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3521, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 66 and 195 of this title, amending sections 48, 105, 125, 274, 401, 408, 409A, 410, 414, 415, 501, 513, 514, 528, 861, 871, and 2055 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 48, 66, 119, 125, 195, 274, 401, 409A, 414, 415, 501, 513, 514, 528, 861, 871, 2055, 3121, and 7701 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–589, §1(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3389, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 370, 1398, 1399, 6658, and 7464 of this title, redesignating former section 7464 of this title as 7465, amending sections 108, 111, 118, 128, 302, 312, 337, 351, 354, 355, 357, 368, 381, 382, 422, 443, 542, 703, 1017, 1023, 1371, 3302, 6012, 6036, 6103, 6155, 6161, 6212, 6213, 6216, 6326, 6404, 6503, 6512, 6532, 6871, 6872, 6873, 7430, and 7508 of this title, repealing section 1018 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 108 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Bankruptcy Tax Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–510, title II, §201(a), Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2796, provided that: “This title [enacting chapter 38 of this title, sections 9631 to 9641 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and provisions set out as a note under section 4611 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Hazardous Substance Response Revenue Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1100, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2660, provided: “This title [enacting sections 103A, 280D, 897, 6039C, and 6429 of this title, amending sections 103, 861, 871, 882, 3121, 3306, 4251, 6652, and 6655 of this title and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1, 103A, 280D, 897, 3121, and 6655 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Adjustments Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, subtitle A (§§1101–1104), §1101, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2660, provided: “This subtitle [enacting section 103A of this title, amending section 103 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 103A of this title] may be cited as the ‘Mortgage Subsidy Bond Tax Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1121, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2682, provided: “This subtitle [subtitle C (§§1121–1125) of title XI of Pub. L. 96–499, enacting sections 897 and 6039C of this title, amending sections 861, 871, 882, and 6652 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 897 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–471, §1(a), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2247, provided: “This Act [enacting sections 453 to 453B of this title, amending sections 311, 336, 337, 381, former section 453, sections 453B, 481, 644, 691, 1038, 1239, and 1255 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 453, 691, and 1038 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Installment Sales Revision Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–283, title IV, §401, June 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 582, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 4495 to 4498 of this title and sections 1472, 1473 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and enacting provision set out as a note under section 4495 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Removal Tax Act of 1979’.”

Pub. L. 96–223, §1(a) Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 229, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–222, §1(a), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 194, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Technical Corrections Act of 1979’.”

Short Title of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–39, title VIII, §801(a), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 273, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§801–810) of title VIII of Pub. L. 96–39, amending sections 5001, 5002 to 5008, 5043, 5061, 5064, 5066, 5116, 5171 to 5173, 5175 to 5178, 5180, 5181, 5201 to 5205, 5207, 5211 to 5215, 5221 to 5223, 5231, 5232, 5235, 5241, 5273, 5291, 5301, 5352, 5361 to 5363, 5365, 5381, 5391, 5551, 5601, 5604, 5610, 5612, 5615, 5663, 5681, 5682, and 5691 of this title, repealing sections 5009, 5021 to 5026, 5081 to 5084, 5174, 5233, 5234, 5251, 5252, 5364, and 5521 to 5523 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 5001, 5061, 5171, and 5173 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Distilled Spirits Tax Revision Act of 1979’.”

Short Title of 1978 Amendments

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 95–618, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3174, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 44C, 124, and 4064 of this title, amending sections 39, 46 to 48, 56, 57, 167, 263, 465, 613, 613A, 614, 751, 1016, 1254, 4041, 4063, 4081, 4092, 4093, 4217, 4221, 4222, 4293, 4483, 6096, 6401, 6412, 6416, 6421, 6424, 6427, 6504, and 6675 of this title, redesignating section 124 of this title as section 125, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 39, 44C, 48, 124, 167, 263, 613, 613A, 4041, 4063, 4064, 4081, 4093, and 4221 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 57 of this title and section 120 of Title 23, Highways] may be cited as the ‘Energy Tax Act of 1978’.”

Pub. L. 95–615, §1, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3097, provided that: “This Act [probably meaning sections 1 to 8 of Pub. L. 95–615, amending section 167 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 61, 62, and 911 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 117, 167, 382, 401, and 911 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Treatment Extension Act of 1977’.”

Pub. L. 95–615, §201(a), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3098, provided that: “This Act [probably meaning sections 201 to 210 of Pub. L. 95–615, enacting section 913 of this title, amending sections 43, 62, 119, 217, 911, 1034, 1302, 1304, 1402, 3401, 6011, 6012, and 6091 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 61, 401, and 911 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Foreign Earned Income Act of 1978’.”

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Act of 1978’.”

Pub. L. 95–502, title II, §201, Oct. 21, 1978, 92 Stat. 1696, provided that: “This title [enacting section 4042 of this title and sections 1801 to 1804 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, amending section 4293 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 4042 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Inland Waterways Revenue Act of 1978’.”

Pub. L. 95–227, §1, Feb. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 11, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 192, 4121, and 4951 to 4953 of this title and section 934a of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, amended sections 501, 4218, 4221, 4293, 4946, 6104, 6213, 6405, 6416, 6501, 6503, and 7454 of this title and section 934 of Title 30 and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 192 and 4121 of this title and section 934 of Title 30] may be cited as the ‘Black Lung Benefits Revenue Act of 1977’.”

Short Title of 1977 Amendments

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 95–30 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Tax Reduction and Simplification Act of 1977’.”

Pub. L. 95–19, §1, Apr. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 39, provided that: “This Act [amending section 3304 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 3302, 3304, and 3309 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 3302, 3304, and 3309 of this title and sections 359 and 360 of Title 2, The Congress] may be cited as the ‘Emergency Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 1977’.”

Short Title of 1976 Amendments

Pub. L. 94–455, title I, §101, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1525, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Tax Reform Act of 1976’.”

Section 1 of Pub. L. 94–452 provided that: “This Act [enacting section 6158 of this title, amending sections 311, 1101, 1102, 1103, 6151, 6503, and 6601 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 311, 1101, and 6158 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Bank Holding Company Tax Act of 1976’.”

Short Title of 1975 Amendments

Pub. L. 94–164, §1, Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 970, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 11, 21, 42, 43, 103, 141, 883, 962, 1561, 3402, 6012, 6153, and 6154 of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 42, 43, and 3402 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 3, 11, 43, 103, and 883 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Adjustment Act of 1975’.”

Pub. L. 94–12, §1(a), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 26, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections, 42, 43, 44, 613A, 907, 955, and 6428 of this title, amending sections 3, 11, 12, 21, 46, 47, 48, 50A, 50B, 56, 141, 214, 535, 613, 703, 851, 901, 902, 951, 954, 962, 993, 1034, 1561, 3304 note, 3402, 6012, 6096, 6201, and 6401 of this title, repealing sections 955 and 963 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 3, 11, 43, 44, 46, 48, 50A, 214, 410, 535, 613A, 907, 955, 993, 3304, 3402, 6428, and 6611 of this title and section 402 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘Tax Reduction Act of 1975’.”

Short Title of 1973 Amendments

Pub. L. 93–69, title I, §110, July 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 166, provided that: “This title [amending sections 3201, 3202, 3211, and 3221 of this title and sections 228b, 228c, and 228e of Title 45, Railroads, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 3201 of this title and sections 228b, 228c, 228f, and 228o of Title 45, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 228c of Title 45] may be cited as the ‘Railroad Retirement Amendments of 1973’.”

For short title of Pub. L. 93–17 as the “Interest Equalization Tax Extension Act of 1973”, see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 93–17, set out as a note under section 2104 of this title.

Short Title of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–512, title II, §201, Oct. 20, 1972, 86 Stat. 936, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 6361 to 6363 of this title, amending sections 6405 and 7463 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 7463 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal-State Tax Collection Act of 1972’.”

Short Title of 1971 Amendments

Pub. L. 92–178, §1(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 497, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Act of 1971’.”

For short title of Pub. L. 92–9 as the “Interest Equalization Tax Extension Act of 1971”, see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 92–9, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Short Title of 1970 Amendment

For short title of Pub. L. 91–614 as the “Excise, Estate, and Gift Tax Adjustment Act of 1970”, see section 1 of Pub. L. 91–614, set out as a Short Title note under section 2001 of this title.

Short Title of 1969 Amendments

Pub. L. 91–172, §1(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 487, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Tax Reform Act of 1969’.”

For short title of Pub. L. 91–128 as the “Interest Equalization Tax Extension Act of 1969”, see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 91–128, set out as a note under section 4182 of this title.

Short Title of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–364, §1(a), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 251, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 51 and 6425 of this title, amending sections 103, 243, 276, 501, 963, 3402, 4061, 4251, 6020, 6154, 6412, 6651, 6655, 7203, 7502, and 7701 of this title and sections 603, 607, and 1396b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing sections 6016, 6074, and 4251 to 4254 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 51, 103, 276, 501, 4061, 6154, and 7502 of this title, section 3101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 11 and 757b of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 1396b of Title 42, and amending notes under section 1396b of Title 42,] may be cited as the ‘Revenue and Expenditure Control Act of 1968’.”

Short Title of 1967 Amendment

For short title of Pub. L. 90–59 as the “Interest Equalization Tax Extension Act of 1967”, see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 90–59, set out as a note under section 6011 of this title.

Short Title of 1966 Amendments

For short title of title I of Pub. L. 89–809 as the “Foreign Investors Tax Act of 1966”, see section 101 of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

For short title of title III of Pub. L. 89–809 as the “Presidential Election Campaign Fund Act of 1966”, see section 301 of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a Short Title note under section 6096 of this title.

For short title of Pub. L. 89–719 as the “Federal Tax Lien Act of 1966”, see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 89–719, set out as a Short Title note under section 6321 of this title.

Short Title of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–44, §1(a), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 136, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Excise Tax Reduction Act of 1965’.”

Short Title of 1964 Amendments

Section 1 of Pub. L. 88–348 provided: “That this Act [amending sections 165, 4061, 4251, 4261, 5001, 5022, 5041, 5051, 5063, 5701, 5707, and 6412 of this title, and provisions set out as notes under sections 165, 4261, and 5701 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Excise-Tax Rate Extension Act of 1964’.”

Pub. L. 88–272, §2(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat 19, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Act of 1964’.”

Short Title of 1963 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–52, §1, June 29, 1963, 77 Stat. 72, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 11, 821, 4061, 4251, 4261, 5001, 5022, 5041, 5051, 5063, 5701, 5707, 6412 of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 4261 and 5701 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Rate Extension Act of 1963’.”

Short Title of 1962 Amendments

Pub. L. 87–834, §1(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 960, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Revenue Act of 1962’.”

For short title of Pub. L. 87–792 as the “Self-Employed Individuals Tax Retirement Act of 1962”, see section 1 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Pub. L. 87–508, §1, June 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 114, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 11, 821, 4061, 4251 to 4253, 4261 to 4264, 5001, 5002, 5041, 5051, 5063, 5701, 6707, 6412, 6416, and 6421 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 4261, 6416, and 6421 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 5701 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Rate Extension Act of 1962’.”

Short Title of 1961 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–72, §1, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 193, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 11, 821, 4061, 4251, 4261, 5001, 5022, 5041, 5051, 5063, 5701, 5707, and 6412 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 5701 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Rate Extension Act of 1961’.”

Short Title of 1959 Amendments

Pub. L. 86–75, §1, June 30, 1959, 73 Stat. 157, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 11, 821, 4061, 4251, 4261, 5001, 5022, 5041, 5051, 5063, 5701, 5707 and 6412 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 5701 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Rate Extension Act of 1959’.”

Section 1 of Pub. L. 86–69 provided that: “This Act [amending former part I of subchapter L of this chapter and sections 116, 381, 841, 842, 891, 1016, 1201, 1232, 1504, 4371, and 6501 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 801, 6072, and 6655 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Life Insurance Company Income Tax Act of 1959’.”

Short Title of 1958 Amendments

Pub. L. 85–866, §1(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1606, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Technical Amendments Act of 1958’.”

Pub. L. 85–866, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1676, provided that: “This title [amending sections 165, 172, 179, 535, 1244, 1551, 6161, 6166, 6503, and 6601 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 172, 179, 535, 6161 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Small Business Tax Revision Act of 1958’.”

For short title of Pub. L. 85–859 as the “Excise Tax Technical Changes Act of 1958”, see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 85–859, set out as a Short Title note under section 5001 of this title.

Pub. L. 85–475, §1, June 30, 1958, 72 Stat. 259, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 11, 821, 4061, 4292, 5001, 5022, 5041, 5051, 5063, 5134, 5701, 5707, 6412, 6415, 6416, 7012, and 7272 of this title and repealing sections 4271 to 4273 and 4281 to 4283 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Rate Extension Act of 1958’.”

Short Title of 1957 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 85–12 provided: “That this Act [amending sections 11, 821, 4061, 5001, 5022, 5041, 5051, 5063, 5134, 5701, 5707, and 6412 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Tax Rate Extension Act of 1957’.”

Short Title of 1956 Amendments

For short title of title II of act June 29, 1956 as the “Highway Revenue Act of 1956”, see section 201(a) of act June 29, 1956, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

For short title of act Mar. 29, 1956 as the “Tax Rate Extension Act of 1956”, see section 1 of act Mar. 29, 1956, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

For short title of act Mar. 13, 1956 as the “Life Insurance Company Tax Act for 1955”, see section 1 of act Mar. 13, 1956, set out as a Short Title note under section 821 of this title.

Section 1 of act Mar. 13, 1956, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 843 of this title and amending sections 316, 501, 594, 801 to 805, 811 to 813, 816 to 818, 821, 822, 832, 841, 842, 891, 1201, 1504, and 4371 of this title] be cited as the ‘Life Insurance Company Tax Act for 1955’.”

Short Title of 1955 Amendment

For short title of act Mar. 30, 1955 as the “Tax Rate Extension Act of 1955”, see section 1 of act Mar. 30, 1955, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Coordination of Title IV of Division J of Pub. L. 105–277 With Other Titles of Division J

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4001(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–906, provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by any title of this division [§§1000–5301, see Tables for classification] other than this title [see Definitions note set out below for classification], the provisions of this title shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other titles.”

Coordination of Title VI of Pub. L. 105–206 With Other Titles of Pub. L. 105–206

Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6001(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 790, provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by any title of this Act other than this title, the provisions of this title [see Tables for classification] shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other titles.”

Application of Special Rules for Maximum Capital Gains Rate

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4002(i)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–907, provided that:

“(2)(A) Subparagraphs (A)(i)(II), (A)(ii)(II), and (B)(ii) of section 1(h)(13) of the 1986 Code shall not apply to any distribution after December 31, 1997, by a regulated investment company or a real estate investment trust with respect to—

“(i) gains and losses recognized directly by such company or trust, and

“(ii) amounts properly taken into account by such company or trust by reason of holding (directly or indirectly) an interest in another such company or trust to the extent that such subparagraphs did not apply to such other company or trust with respect to such amounts.

“(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any distribution which is treated under section 852(b)(7) or 857(b)(8) of the 1986 Code as received on December 31, 1997.

“(C) For purposes of subparagraph (A), any amount which is includible in gross income of its shareholders under section 852(b)(3)(D) or 857(b)(3)(D) of the 1986 Code after December 31, 1997, shall be treated as distributed after such date.

“(D)(i) For purposes of subparagraph (A), in the case of a qualified partnership with respect to which a regulated investment company meets the holding requirement of clause (iii)—

“(I) the subparagraphs referred to in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to gains and losses recognized directly by such partnership for purposes of determining such company's distributive share of such gains and losses, and

“(II) such company's distributive share of such gains and losses (as so determined) shall be treated as recognized directly by such company.

The preceding sentence shall apply only if the qualified partnership provides the company with written documentation of such distributive share as so determined.

“(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the term ‘qualified partnership’ means, with respect to a regulated investment company, any partnership if—

“(I) the partnership is an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.],

“(II) the regulated investment company is permitted to invest in such partnership by reason of section 12(d)(1)(E) of such Act [15 U.S.C. 80a–12(d)(1)(E)] or an exemptive order of the Securities and Exchange Commission under such section, and

“(III) the regulated investment company and the partnership have the same taxable year.

“(iii) A regulated investment company meets the holding requirement of this clause with respect to a qualified partnership if (as of January 1, 1998)—

“(I) the value of the interests of the regulated investment company in such partnership is 35 percent or more of the value of such company's total assets, or

“(II) the value of the interests of the regulated investment company in such partnership and all other qualified partnerships is 90 percent or more of the value of such company's total assets.”

Capital Gain Distribution by Trust

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4003(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–909, provided that: “In the case of any capital gain distribution made after 1997 by a trust to which section 664 of the 1986 Code applies with respect to amounts properly taken into account by such trust during 1997, paragraphs (5)(A)(i)(I), (5)(A)(ii)(I), and (13)(A) of section 1(h) of the 1986 Code (as in effect for taxable years ending on December 31, 1997) shall not apply.”

Coordination of Title XVI of Pub. L. 105–34 With Other Titles of Pub. L. 105–34

Section 1600 of title XVI of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by any title of this Act other than this title, the provisions of this title [see Tables for classification] shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other titles.”

Election To Recognize Gain on Assets Held on January 1, 2001

Section 311(e) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986—

“(1) In general.—A taxpayer other than a corporation may elect to treat—

“(A) any readily tradable stock (which is a capital asset) held by such taxpayer on January 1, 2001, and not sold before the next business day after such date, as having been sold on such next business day for an amount equal to its closing market price on such next business day (and as having been reacquired on such next business day for an amount equal to such closing market price), and

“(B) any other capital asset or property used in the trade or business (as defined in section 1231(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) held by the taxpayer on January 1, 2001, as having been sold on such date for an amount equal to its fair market value on such date (and as having been reacquired on such date for an amount equal to such fair market value).

“(2) Treatment of gain or loss.—

“(A) Any gain resulting from an election under paragraph (1) shall be treated as received or accrued on the date the asset is treated as sold under paragraph (1) and shall be recognized notwithstanding any provision of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(B) Any loss resulting from an election under paragraph (1) shall not be allowed for any taxable year.

“(3) Election.—An election under paragraph (1) shall be made in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may prescribe and shall specify the assets for which such election is made. Such an election, once made with respect to any asset, shall be irrevocable.

“(4) Readily tradable stock.—For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘readily tradable stock’ means any stock which, as of January 1, 2001, is readily tradable on an established securities market or otherwise.”

Coordination of Subtitle G of Title I of Pub. L. 104–188 With Other Subtitles of Title I of Pub. L. 104–188

Section 1701 of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by any subtitle [subtitle A to F (§§1111–1621) and H to J (§§1801–1954) of title I of Pub. L. 104–188, see Tables for classification] of this title other than this subtitle [subtitle G (§§1701–1704) of title I of Pub. L. 104–188, see Tables for classification], the provisions of this subtitle shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other subtitles.”

Election To Pay Additional 1993 Taxes in Installments

Section 13201(d) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that:

“(1) In general.—At the election of the taxpayer, the additional 1993 taxes may be paid in 3 equal installments.

“(2) Dates for paying installments.—In the case of any tax payable in installments by reason of paragraph (1)—

“(A) the first installment shall be paid on or before the due date for the taxpayer's taxable year beginning in calendar year 1993,

“(B) the second installment shall be paid on or before the date 1 year after the date determined under subparagraph (A), and

“(C) the third installment shall be paid on or before the date 2 years after the date determined under subparagraph (A).

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term ‘due date’ means the date prescribed for filing the taxpayer's return determined without regard to extensions.

“(3) Extension without interest.—For purposes of section 6601 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the date prescribed for the payment of any tax payable in installments under paragraph (1) shall be determined with regard to the extension under paragraph (1).

“(4) Additional 1993 taxes.—

“(A) In general.—For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘additional 1993 taxes’ means the excess of—

“(i) the taxpayer's net chapter 1 liability as shown on the taxpayer's return for the taxpayer's taxable year beginning in calendar year 1993, over

“(ii) the amount which would have been the taxpayer's net chapter 1 liability for such taxable year if such liability had been determined using the rates which would have been in effect under section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for taxable years beginning in calendar year 1993 but for the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 41, 63, 68, 132, 151, 453A, 513, 531, and 541 of this title] and section 13202 [amending this section and sections 531 and 541 of this title] and such liability had otherwise been determined on the basis of the amounts shown on the taxpayer's return.

“(B) Net chapter 1 liability.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘net chapter 1 liability’ means the liability for tax under chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 determined—

“(i) after the application of any credit against such tax other than the credits under sections 31 and 34, and

“(ii) before crediting any payment of estimated tax for the taxable year.

“(5) Acceleration of payments.—If the taxpayer does not pay any installment under this section on or before the date prescribed for its payment or if the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate believes that the collection of any amount payable in installments under this section is in jeopardy, the Secretary shall immediately terminate the extension under paragraph (1) and the whole of the unpaid tax shall be paid on notice and demand from the Secretary.

“(6) Election on return.—An election under paragraph (1) shall be made on the taxpayer's return for the taxpayer's taxable year beginning in calendar year 1993.

“(7) Exception for estates and trusts.—This subsection shall not apply in the case of an estate or trust.”

Coordination of Subtitle G of Title XI of Pub. L. 101–508 With Other Subtitles of Title XI

Section 11700 of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by any subtitle [subtitles A to F (§§11101–11622) and H and I (§§11801–11901) of title XI of Pub. L. 101–508, see Tables for classification] of this title other than this subtitle [subtitle G (§§11700–11704) of title XI of Pub. L. 101–508, see Tables for classification], the provisions of this subtitle shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other subtitles.”

Coordination of Subtitle H of Title VII of Pub. L. 101–239 With Other Subtitles of Title VII

Section 7801(b) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by any subtitle [subtitles A to G (§§7101–7743) of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239, see Tables for classification] of this title other than this subtitle [subtitle H (§§7801–7894) of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239, see Tables for classification], the provisions of this subtitle shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other subtitles.”

Transitional Rule for Maximum Capital Gains Rate

Section 302(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, which related to long-term capital gain on rights to royalties paid under particular leases and assignments, was repealed by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1003(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3382.

Coordination of Title XVIII of Pub. L. 99–514 With Other Titles of Pub. L. 99–514

Section 1800 of title XVIII of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by any title of this Act other than this title, the provisions of this title [see Tables for classification] shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other titles.”

Coordination With Other Provisions

Pub. L. 99–509, title VIII, §8081, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1965, provided that: “Nothing in any provision of this Act [see Tables for classifications] (other than this title) shall be construed as—

“(1) imposing any tax (or exempting any person or property from any tax),

“(2) establishing any trust fund, or

“(3) authorizing amounts to be expended from any trust fund.”

[S.Con.Res. 174, agreed to Oct. 18, 1986, provided: “That, in the enrollment of the bill (H.R. 5300) to provide for reconciliation pursuant to section 2 of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 1987, the Clerk of the House of Representatives shall insert at the end of section 8081 of the bill the following: Paragraph (3) shall not apply to any authorization made by title IX of this Act.” As a result of clerical error, the sentence was inserted at the end of section 8101 of the bill, and appears at the end of section 8101 of Pub. L. 99–509, 100 Stat. 1967.]

Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §531, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1782, provided that: “Notwithstanding any provision of this Act [see Tables for classifications] not contained in this title [see Short Title of 1986 Amendment note above], any provision of this Act (not contained in this title) which—

“(1) imposes any tax, premium, or fee,

“(2) establishes any trust fund, or

“(3) authorizes amounts to be expended from any trust fund,

shall have no force or effect.”

Elimination of 50-Cent Rounding Errors

Section 101(a)(3) of Pub. L. 97–448, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “If any figure in any table—

“(A) which is set forth in section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by section 101 of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 [Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §101, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 176], and

“(B) which applies to married individuals filing separately or to estates and trusts,

differs by not more than 50 cents from the correct amount under the formula used in constructing such table, such figure is hereby corrected to the correct amount.” [See 1982 Amendment note above.]

Policy With Respect to Additional Tax Reductions

Section 3 of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “As a matter of national policy the rate of growth in Federal outlays, adjusted for inflation, should not exceed 1 percent per year between fiscal year 1979 and fiscal year 1983; Federal outlays as a percentage of gross national product should decline to below 21 percent in fiscal year 1980, 20.5 percent in fiscal year 1981, 20 percent in fiscal year 1982 and 19.5 percent in fiscal year 1983; and the Federal budget should be balanced in fiscal years 1982 and 1983. If these conditions are met, it is the intention that the tax-writing committees of Congress will report legislation providing significant tax reductions for individuals to the extent that these tax reductions are justified in the light of prevailing and expected economic conditions.”

Effective Date of Certain Definitions and Designations

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1908, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1836, provided that: “For purposes of any amendment made by any provision of this Act [see Tables for classification] (other than this title)—

“(1) which contains a term the meaning of which is defined in or modified by any provision of this title, and

“(2) which has an effective date earlier than the effective date of the provision of this title defining or modifying such term,

that definition or modification shall be considered to take effect as of such earlier effective date.”

Congressional Declaration Relating to 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–164, §1A, Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 970, provided that:

“(a) Congress is determined to continue the tax reduction for the first 6 months of 1976 in order to assure continued economic recovery.

“(b) Congress is also determined to continue to control spending levels in order to reduce the national deficit.

“(c) Congress reaffirms its commitments to the procedures established by the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 [see Tables for classification of Pub. L. 93–344, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 297] under which it has already established a binding spending ceiling for the fiscal year 1976.

“(d) If the Congress adopts a continuation of the tax reduction provided by this Act [see Short Title of 1975 Amendment note above] beyond June 30, 1976, and if economic conditions warrant doing so, Congress shall provide, through the procedures in the Budget Act [Pub. L. 93–344], for reductions in the level of spending in the fiscal year 1977 below what would otherwise occur, equal to any additional reduction in taxes (from the 1974 tax rate levels) provided for the fiscal year 1977: Provided, however, That nothing shall preclude the right of the Congress to pass a budget resolution containing a higher or lower expenditure figure if the Congress concludes that this is warranted by economic conditions or unforeseen circumstances.”

Congressional Declaration Relating to 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–272, §1, Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 19, provided that: “It is the sense of Congress that the tax reduction provided by this Act [see Short Title of 1964 Amendment note above] through stimulation of the economy, will, after a brief transitional period, raise (rather than lower) revenues and that such revenue increases should first be used to eliminate the deficits in the administrative budgets and then to reduce the public debt. To further the objective of obtaining balanced budgets in the near future, Congress by this action, recognizes the importance of taking all reasonable means to restrain Government spending and urges the President to declare his accord with this objective.”

Definitions

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4001(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–906, provided that: “For purposes of this title [amending this section, sections 51, 56, 67, 68, 86, 135, 137, 163, 172, 219, 221, 264, 351, 368, 408A, 469, 873, 954, 2001, 2031, 6015, 6103, 6159, 6311, 6404, 6693, 7421, 7443A, 7491, 9503, and 9510 of this title, and sections 401 and 407 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 51, 67, 68, 86, 172, 833, 6103, and 9503 of this title, and section 401 of Title 42, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 6601 and 7508A of this title]—

“(1) 1986 code.—The term ‘1986 Code’ means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(2) 1998 act.—The term ‘1998 Act’ means the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–206) [see Tables for classification].

“(3) 1997 act.—The term ‘1997 Act’ means the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (Public Law 105–34) [see Tables for classification].”

Cross References

Deductions for individuals,

Additional itemized allowable, see section 211 et seq. of this title.

Itemized deductions, see section 161 et seq. of this title.

Personal exemptions, see section 151 et seq. of this title.

Dependent defined, see section 152 of this title.

Effect of change of rate of tax, see section 15 of this title.

Imposition of net income taxes by State on income derived from interstate commerce, see section 381 et seq. of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Income exempt under treaty, see section 894 of this title.

Income tax collected at source, see section 3402 of this title.

Nonresident aliens, see section 871 et seq. of this title.

Partners subject to income tax in individual capacities, see section 701 of this title.

Rate of tax under Federal Insurance Contributions Act, see section 3101 of this title.

Treaty obligations observed, see section 7852 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 2, 3, 15, 25A, 32, 41, 42, 55, 59, 63, 68, 132, 135, 162, 213, 220, 221, 402, 453A, 460, 468B, 511, 512, 513, 641, 685, 691, 774, 871, 876, 877, 891, 904, 911, 936, 962, 1291, 1301, 1398, 1446, 2032A, 2503, 2631, 3402, 4001, 4261, 6014, 6015, 6039F, 6103, 6242, 6323, 6334, 6601, 6652, 6655, 6867, 7430, 7518, 7519 of this title; title 7 section 940d; title 42 section 629; title 46 App. section 1177.

§2. Definitions and special rules

(a) Definition of surviving spouse

(1) In general

For purposes of section 1, the term “surviving spouse” means a taxpayer—

(A) whose spouse died during either of his two taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year, and

(B) who maintains as his home a household which constitutes for the taxable year the principal place of abode (as a member of such household) of a dependent (i) who (within the meaning of section 152) is a son, stepson, daughter, or stepdaughter of the taxpayer, and (ii) with respect to whom the taxpayer is entitled to a deduction for the taxable year under section 151.


For purposes of this paragraph, an individual shall be considered as maintaining a household only if over half of the cost of maintaining the household during the taxable year is furnished by such individual.

(2) Limitations

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), for purposes of section 1 a taxpayer shall not be considered to be a surviving spouse—

(A) if the taxpayer has remarried at any time before the close of the taxable year, or

(B) unless, for the taxpayer's taxable year during which his spouse died, a joint return could have been made under the provisions of section 6013 (without regard to subsection (a)(3) thereof).

(3) Special rule where deceased spouse was in missing status

If an individual was in a missing status (within the meaning of section 6013(f)(3)) as a result of service in a combat zone (as determined for purposes of section 112) and if such individual remains in such status until the date referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B), then, for purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the date on which such individual died shall be treated as the earlier of the date determined under subparagraph (A) or the date determined under subparagraph (B):

(A) the date on which the determination is made under section 556 of title 37 of the United States Code or under section 5566 of title 5 of such Code (whichever is applicable) that such individual died while in such missing status, or

(B) except in the case of the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, the date which is 2 years after the date designated under section 112 as the date of termination of combatant activities in that zone.

(b) Definition of head of household

(1) In general

For purposes of this subtitle, an individual shall be considered a head of a household if, and only if, such individual is not married at the close of his taxable year, is not a surviving spouse (as defined in subsection (a)), and either—

(A) maintains as his home a household which constitutes for more than one-half of such taxable year the principal place of abode, as a member of such household, of—

(i) a son, stepson, daughter, or stepdaughter of the taxpayer, or a descendant of a son or daughter of the taxpayer, but if such son, stepson, daughter, stepdaughter, or descendant is married at the close of the taxpayer's taxable year, only if the taxpayer is entitled to a deduction for the taxable year for such person under section 151 (or would be so entitled but for paragraph (2) or (4) of section 152(e)), or

(ii) any other person who is a dependent of the taxpayer, if the taxpayer is entitled to a deduction for the taxable year for such person under section 151, or


(B) maintains a household which constitutes for such taxable year the principal place of abode of the father or mother of the taxpayer, if the taxpayer is entitled to a deduction for the taxable year for such father or mother under section 151.


For purposes of this paragraph, an individual shall be considered as maintaining a household only if over half of the cost of maintaining the household during the taxable year is furnished by such individual.

(2) Determination of status

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) a legally adopted child of a person shall be considered a child of such person by blood;

(B) an individual who is legally separated from his spouse under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance shall not be considered as married;

(C) a taxpayer shall be considered as not married at the close of his taxable year if at any time during the taxable year his spouse is a nonresident alien; and

(D) a taxpayer shall be considered as married at the close of his taxable year if his spouse (other than a spouse described in subparagraph (C)) died during the taxable year.

(3) Limitations

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), for purposes of this subtitle a taxpayer shall not be considered to be a head of a household—

(A) if at any time during the taxable year he is a nonresident alien; or

(B) by reason of an individual who would not be a dependent for the taxable year but for—

(i) paragraph (9) of section 152(a), or

(ii) subsection (c) of section 152.

(c) Certain married individuals living apart

For purposes of this part, an individual shall be treated as not married at the close of the taxable year if such individual is so treated under the provisions of section 7703(b).

(d) Nonresident aliens

In the case of a nonresident alien individual, the taxes imposed by sections 1 and 55 shall apply only as provided by section 871 or 877.

(e) Cross reference

For definition of taxable income, see section 63.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 8; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §112(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 24; Pub. L. 91–172, title VIII, §803(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 682; Pub. L. 93–597, §3(b), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(1), (b)(9), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1764, 1795; Pub. L. 94–569, §3(a), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2699; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §307(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2407; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §423(c)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 801; Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(j)(10), title XVII, §1708(a)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2658, 2782; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1007(g)(13)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3436.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “the taxes imposed by sections 1 and 55” for “the tax imposed by section 1”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1708(a)(1), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “the date which is—

“(i) December 31, 1982, in the case of service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, or

“(ii) 2 years after the date designated under section 112 as the date of termination of combatant activities in that zone, in the case of any combat zone other than that referred to in clause (i).”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(j)(10), substituted “section 7703(b)” for “section 143(b)”.

1984—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §423(c)(2)(A), substituted “which constitutes for more than one-half of such taxable year” for “which constitutes for such taxable year”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 98–369, §423(c)(2)(B), inserted “(or would be so entitled but for paragraph (2) or (4) of section 152(e))”.

1983—Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 97–448 substituted “December 31, 1982” for “January 2, 1978”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 94–569 substituted “the date which is” for “the date which is 2 years after” in provisions preceding cl. (i), substituted “January 2, 1978” for “the date of the enactment of this paragraph” in cl. (i), and substituted “2 years after the date” for “the date” in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(9), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which provided that an individual who was a dependent solely by reason of par. (10) of section 152(a) would not be considered as a head of a household.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(1), substituted “shall be treated as not married at the close of the taxable year” for “shall not be considered as married”.

1975—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 93–597 added par. (3).

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172 redesignated subsec. (b) as (a). See sec. 1(a) of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172 redesignated provisions of former section 1(b)(2) to (4) of this title as subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (a), with minor changes.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–172 added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–172 redesignated as subsec. (d) provisions of former section 1(d) with minor changes.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–172 redesignated as subsec. (e) provisions of former section 1(e).

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–272 inserted reference to section 141.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1301(j)(10) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Section 1708(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 692, 6013, and 7508 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 423(d) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 43, 44A, 105, 143, 152, and 213 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “Except as otherwise expressly provided in this section, the amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976. The amendments made by subsections (a)(29) and (b)(10) shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976].”

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–597 applicable to taxable years ending on or after Feb. 28, 1961, see section 3(c) of Pub. L. 93–597, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1970, except that subsec. (c) is applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 803(f) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272, except for purposes of section 21 of this title, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 131 of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Joint returns of income tax by husband and wife, see section 6013 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1, 32, 55, 63, 151, 3402, 6012, 6013 of this title; title 20 sections 1087nn, 1087oo, 1087qq; title 38 section 1503.

§3. Tax tables for individuals

(a) Imposition of tax table tax

(1) In general

In lieu of the tax imposed by section 1, there is hereby imposed for each taxable year on the taxable income of every individual—

(A) who does not itemize his deductions for the taxable year, and

(B) whose taxable income for such taxable year does not exceed the ceiling amount,


a tax determined under tables, applicable to such taxable year, which shall be prescribed by the Secretary and which shall be in such form as he determines appropriate. In the table so prescribed, the amounts of the tax shall be computed on the basis of the rates prescribed by section 1.

(2) Ceiling amount defined

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “ceiling amount” means, with respect to any taxpayer, the amount (not less than $20,000) determined by the Secretary for the tax rate category in which such taxpayer falls.

(3) Authority to prescribe tables for taxpayers who itemize deductions

The Secretary may provide that this section shall apply also for any taxable year to individuals who itemize their deductions. Any tables prescribed under the preceding sentence shall be on the basis of taxable income.

(b) Section inapplicable to certain individuals

This section shall not apply to—

(1) an individual making a return under section 443(a)(1) for a period of less than 12 months on account of a change in annual accounting period, and

(2) an estate or trust.

(c) Tax treated as imposed by section 1

For purposes of this title, the tax imposed by this section shall be treated as tax imposed by section 1.

(d) Taxable income

Whenever it is necessary to determine the taxable income of an individual to whom this section applies, the taxable income shall be determined under section 63.

(e) Cross reference

For computation of tax by Secretary, see section 6014.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 8; Pub. L. 88–272, title III, §301(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 129; Pub. L. 91–172, title VIII, §803(c), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §201(c), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 29; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §501(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1558; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(b), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, §401(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2867; Pub. L. 95–600, title II, §202(g), as added Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §108(a)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §108(a)(1)(E), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 225; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§101(b)(2)(B), (C), (c)(2)(A), 121(c)(3), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 183, 197; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §§102(b), 141(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2102, 2117.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(b), substituted subsec. (a) for former subsec. (a) which read as follows:

“(1) In general.—In lieu of the tax imposed by section 1, there is hereby imposed for each taxable year on the tax table income of every individual whose tax table income for such year does not exceed the ceiling amount, a tax determined under tables, applicable to such taxable year, which shall be prescribed by the Secretary and which shall be in such form as he determines appropriate. In the tables so prescribed, the amounts of tax shall be computed on the basis of the rates prescribed by section 1.

“(2) Ceiling amount defined.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “ceiling amount” means, with respect to any taxpayer, the amount (not less than $20,000) determined by the Secretary for the tax rate category in which such taxpayer falls.

“(3) Certain taxpayers with large number of exemptions.—The Secretary may exclude from the application of this section taxpayers in any tax rate category having more than the number of exemptions for that category determined by the Secretary.

“(4) Tax table income defined.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘tax table income’ means adjusted gross income—

“(A) reduced by the sum of—

“(i) the excess itemized deductions, and

“(ii) the direct charitable deduction, and

“(B) increased (in the case of an individual to whom section 63(e) applies) by the unused zero bracket amount.

“(5) Section may be applied on the basis of taxable income.—The Secretary may provide that this section shall be applied for any taxable year on the basis of taxable income in lieu of tax table income.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §141(b)(1), struck out par. (1) which read: “an individual to whom section 1301 (relating to income averaging) applies for the taxable year,” and redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as (1) and (2), respectively.

1981—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §101(b)(2)(B), inserted “and which shall be in such form as he determines appropriate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 97–34, §121(c)(3), substituted “reduced by the sum of (i) the excess itemized deductions, and (ii) the direct charitable deduction” for “reduced by the excess itemized deductions”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 97–34, §101(b)(2)(C), added par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §101(c)(2)(A), substituted “an individual to whom section 1301 (relating to income averaging) applies for the taxable year” for “an individual to whom (A) section 1301 (relating to income averaging), or (B) section 1348 (relating to maximum rate on personal service income), applies for the taxable year”.

1980—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–222 redesignated subpars. (B) and (C) as (A) and (B), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which made reference to section 911 (relating to earned income from sources without the United States).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–600 struck out subpar. (B) which related to the alternative capital gains tax under section 1201 of this title, and redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively.

1977—Pub. L. 95–30 struck out “having taxable income of less than $20,000” after “individuals” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–30 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “tax table income” for “taxable income” and “does not exceed the ceiling amount” for “does not exceed $20,000”, and added pars. (2) to (4).

Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 95–30 added subsec. (b), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c), and added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1976—Pub. L. 94–455 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted provision relating to taxable income for such year does not exceed $20,000 for provision relating to adjusted gross income for such year is less than $15,000 and who has elected for such year to pay the tax imposed by this section, struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”, “beginning after Dec. 31, 1969” after “each taxable year”, struck out provision requiring computation of taxable income by using standard deduction, and added subsec. (b).

1975—Pub. L. 94–12 substituted “$15,000” for “$10,000”.

1969—Pub. L. 91–172 raised the individual gross income limit of $5,000 to $10,000 for exercising the option and substituted provision that the tax has to be determined under tables to be prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate for tables of tax rates for single persons, heads of household, married persons filing joint returns, married persons filing separate returns with 10 per cent standard deduction and married persons filing separate returns with minimum standard deduction.

1964—Pub. L. 88–272 substituted optional tax tables covering five categories for taxable years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1964, and before Jan. 1, 1965, and for years beginning after Dec. 31, 1964, for a single general table.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(c)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 101(f)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 121(c)(3) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to contributions made after Dec. 31, 1981, in taxable years beginning after such date, see section 121(d) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 108(a)(2) of Pub. L. 96–222 provided that:

“(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section and sections 119, 911, and 913 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the Foreign Earned Income Act of 1978 [Pub. L. 95–615].

“(B) Paragraph (1)(E).—The amendment made by paragraph (1)(E) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 401(b)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 401(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 1201 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided, the amendments made by this title [enacting section 44A, amending this section and sections 36, 37, 41, 42, 46, 50A, 104, 144, 213, 217, 904, 1211, 1304, 3402, 6014, and 6096, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 105, 8022, and repealing sections 4 and 214 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendment

Section 209(a) of Pub. L. 94–12, as amended by Pub. L. 94–164, §2(e), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 972, provided that: “The amendments made by sections 201, 202(a), and 203 [enacting section 42 of this title and amending this section and sections 56, 141, 6012, and 6096 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1974. The amendments made by sections 201(a) and 202(a) [amending section 141 of this title] shall cease to apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975; those made by sections 201(b), 201(c), and 203 [enacting section 42 of this title and amending this section and sections 56, 6012, and 6096 of this title] shall cease to apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1976.”

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 803(f) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 88–272, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “Except for purposes of section 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to effect of changes in rates during a taxable year), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 4 and 6014 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963.”

Cross References

Income tax return, tax not computed by taxpayer, see section 6014 of this title.

Personal exemptions, see section 151 et seq. of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 891 of this title.

[§4. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §501(b)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1558]

Section, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 10; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §232(f)(1), title III, §301(b)(1), (3), 78 Stat. 111, 140; Dec. 30, 1969, Pub. L. 91–172, title VIII, §802(c)(1)–(3), 83 Stat. 677, 678; Dec. 10, 1971, Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §301(b), 85 Stat. 520, related to rules for optional tax.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note under section 3 of this title.

§5. Cross references relating to tax on individuals

(a) Other rates of tax on individuals, etc.

(1) For rates of tax on nonresident aliens, see section 871.

(2) For doubling of tax on citizens of certain foreign countries, see section 891.

(3) For rate of withholding in the case of nonresident aliens, see section 1441.

(4) For alternative minimum tax, see section 55.

(b) Special limitations on tax

(1) For limitation on tax in case of income of members of Armed Forces on death, see section 692.

(2) For computation of tax where taxpayer restores substantial amount held under claim of right, see section 1341.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 10; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §232(f)(2), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 111; Pub. L. 91–172, title III, §301(b)(2), title VIII, §803(d)(6), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 585, 684; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(b)(22)(B), 1951(c)(3)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1798, 1841; Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, §§401(b)(2), 421(e)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2867, 2875; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §104(a)(4)(H)(vii), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 218; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §201(d)(4), formerly §201(c)(4), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 419, renumbered §201(d)(4), Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(1)(A)(i), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2400; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §141(b)(2), title VII, §701(e)(4)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2117, 2343.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(e)(4)(A), amended par. (4) generally, substituting “alternative minimum tax” for “minimum tax for taxpayers other than corporations”.

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 99–514, §141(b)(2), struck out par. (2) which read: “For limitation on tax where an individual chooses the benefits of income averaging, see section 1301.” and redesignated former par. (3) as (2).

1982—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 97–248, §201(d)(4), formerly §201(c)(4), substituted “section 55” for “sections 55 and 56”.

1980—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 96–222 substituted “sections 55 and 56” for “section 55”.

1978—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–600, §401(b)(2), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3), relating to the alternative tax in the case of capital gains, was struck out.

Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 95–600, §§401(b)(2), 421(e)(1), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and substituted “taxpayers other than corporations, see section 55” for “preferences, see section 56”. Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455 redesignated pars. (2), (3), and (4), as (1), (2), (3), respectively, and struck out former par. (1) which referred to section 632 for limitation on tax attributable to sales of oil or gas properties and par. (5) which referred to section 1347 for limitation on tax attributable to claims against the U.S. involving acquisition of property.

1969—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 91–172, §301(b)(2), added par. (5).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172, §803(d)(6), substituted “tax” for “surtax” in pars. (1) and (5).

1964—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–272 redesignated pars. (2), (3), (4), (7) and (8) as pars. (1) to (5), respectively, substituted “where an individual chooses the benefits of income averaging” for “with respect to compensation for longterm services” in par. (3), and struck out former pars. (1), (5) and (6) which referred to tax attributable to receipt of lump sum under annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract, to income from artistic work or inventions, and to back pay, respectively.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 141(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(e)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 201(e)(1) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 46, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 173, 174, 511, 616, 617, 897, 901, 936, 1016, 6015, 6362, 6654, and 7701 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, to which such amendment relates, see section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 401(b)(2) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 401(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 1201 of this title.

Section 421(g) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 55 of this title and amending this section and sections 57, 58, 443, 511, 666, 871, 877, 904, 6015, 6362, and 6654 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, except that the amendment made by paragraph (1) of subsection (b) [amending section 57 of this title] shall apply to sales and exchanges made after July 26, 1978, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 91–172, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 56 to 58 of this title and amending this section and sections 12, 46, 51, 443, 453, 511, 901, 1373, 1375, 6015, and 6654 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1969. In the case of a taxable year beginning in 1969 and ending in 1970, the tax imposed by section 56 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by subsection (a)) shall be an amount equal to the tax imposed by such section (determined without regard to this sentence) multiplied by a fraction—

“(1) the numerator of which is the number of days in the taxable year occurring after December 31, 1969, and

“(2) the denominator of which is the number of days in the entire taxable year.”

Amendment by section 803(d)(6) of Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 803(f) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Section 232(g) of Pub. L. 88–272, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) General rule.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting sections 1301 to 1305, amending this section and sections 4, 72, 144, 402, 403, 6511, and omitting former sections 1301 to 1307 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963.

“(2) Income from an employment.—If, in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1963, an individual or partnership receives or accrues compensation from an employment (as defined by section 1301(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] as in effect immediately before the enactment of this Act [Feb. 26, 1964] and the employment began before February 6, 1963, the tax attributable to such compensation may, at the election of the taxpayer, be computed under the provisions of sections 1301 and 1307 of such Code as in effect immediately before the enactment of this Act. If a taxpayer so elects (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate by regulations prescribes), he may not choose for such taxable year the benefits provided by part I of subchapter Q of chapter 1 of such Code (relating to income averaging) as amended by this Act and (if he elects to have subsection (e) of such section 1307 apply) section 170(b)(5) of such Code as amended by this Act shall not apply to charitable contributions paid in such taxable year.”

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(e)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1012(aa)(2) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

PART II—TAX ON CORPORATIONS

Sec.
11.
Tax imposed.
12.
Cross references relating to tax on corporations.

        

§11. Tax imposed

(a) Corporations in general

A tax is hereby imposed for each taxable year on the taxable income of every corporation.

(b) Amount of tax

(1) In general

The amount of the tax imposed by subsection (a) shall be the sum of—

(A) 15 percent of so much of the taxable income as does not exceed $50,000,

(B) 25 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $50,000 but does not exceed $75,000,

(C) 34 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $75,000 but does not exceed $10,000,000, and

(D) 35 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $10,000,000.


In the case of a corporation which has taxable income in excess of $100,000 for any taxable year, the amount of tax determined under the preceding sentence for such taxable year shall be increased by the lesser of (i) 5 percent of such excess, or (ii) $11,750. In the case of a corporation which has taxable income in excess of $15,000,000, the amount of the tax determined under the foregoing provisions of this paragraph shall be increased by an additional amount equal to the lesser of (i) 3 percent of such excess, or (ii) $100,000.

(2) Certain personal service corporations not eligible for graduated rates

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the amount of the tax imposed by subsection (a) on the taxable income of a qualified personal service corporation (as defined in section 448(d)(2)) shall be equal to 35 percent of the taxable income.

(c) Exceptions

Subsection (a) shall not apply to a corporation subject to a tax imposed by—

(1) section 594 (relating to mutual savings banks conducting life insurance business),

(2) subchapter L (sec. 801 and following, relating to insurance companies), or

(3) subchapter M (sec. 851 and following, relating to regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts).

(d) Foreign corporations

In the case of a foreign corporation, the taxes imposed by subsection (a) and section 55 shall apply only as provided by section 882.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 11; Mar. 30, 1955, ch. 18, §2, 69 Stat. 14; Mar. 29, 1956, ch. 115, §2, 70 Stat. 66; Pub. L. 85–12, §2, Mar. 29, 1957, 71 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 85–475, §2, June 30, 1958, 72 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 86–75, §2, June 30, 1959, 73 Stat. 157; Pub. L. 86–564, title II, §201, June 30, 1960, 74 Stat. 290; Pub. L. 86–779, §10(d), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1009; Pub. L. 87–72, §2, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 193; Pub. L. 87–508, §2, June 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 114; Pub. L. 88–52, §2, June 29, 1963, 77 Stat. 72; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §121, Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(b)(2), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1557; Pub. L. 91–172, title IV, §401(b)(2)(B), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 602; Pub. L. 94–12, title III, §303(a), (b), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 44; Pub. L. 94–164, §4(a)–(c), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 973, 974; Pub. L. 94–455, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1606; Pub. L. 95–30, title II, §201(1), (2), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 141; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §301(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2820; Pub. L. 97–34, title II, §231(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 249; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §66(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 585; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §601(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2249; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10224(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–412; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1007(g)(13)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3436; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13221(a), (b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 477.)

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, §13221(a)(3), inserted at end of closing provisions “In the case of a corporation which has taxable income in excess of $15,000,000, the amount of the tax determined under the foregoing provisions of this paragraph shall be increased by an additional amount equal to the lesser of (i) 3 percent of such excess, or (ii) $100,000.”

Subsec. (b)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 103–66, §13221(a)(1), (2), added subpars. (C) and (D) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “34 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $75,000.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–66, §13221(b), substituted “35 percent” for “34 percent”.

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “the taxes imposed by subsection (a) and section 55” for “the tax imposed by subsection (a)”.

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–203 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “The amount of the tax imposed by subsection (a) shall be the sum of—

“(1) 15 percent of so much of the taxable income as does not exceed $50,000,

“(2) 25 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $50,000 but does not exceed $75,000, and

“(3) 34 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $75,000.

In the case of a corporation which has taxable income in excess of $100,000 for any taxable year, the amount of tax determined under the preceding sentence for such taxable year shall be increased by the lesser of (A) 5 percent of such excess, or (B) $11,750.”

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “The amount of the tax imposed by subsection (a) shall be the sum of—

“(1) 15 percent (16 percent for taxable years beginning in 1982) of so much of the taxable income as does not exceed $25,000;

“(2) 18 percent (19 percent for taxable years beginning in 1982) of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $25,000 but does not exceed $50,000;

“(3) 30 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $50,000 but does not exceed $75,000;

“(4) 40 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $75,000 but does not exceed $100,000; plus

“(5) 46 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $100,000.

In the case of a corporation with taxable income in excess of $1,000,000 for any taxable year, the amount of tax determined under the preceding sentence for such taxable year shall be increased by the lesser of (A) 5 percent of such excess, or (B) $20,250.”

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369 inserted “In the case of a corporation with taxable income in excess of $1,000,000 for any taxable year, the amount of tax determined under the preceding sentence for such taxable year shall be increased by the lesser of (A) 5 percent of such excess, or (B) $20,250.”

1981—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §231(a)(1), substituted “15 percent (16 percent for taxable years beginning in 1982)” for “17 percent”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §231(a)(2), substituted “18 percent (19 percent for taxable years beginning in 1982)” for “20 percent”.

1978—Pub. L. 95–600 reduced corporate tax rates by substituting provisions imposing a five-step tax rate structure on corporate taxable income for provisions using a normal tax and surtax approach to the taxation of corporate taxable income.

1977—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–30, §201(1), substituted “December 31, 1978” for “December 31, 1977”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95–30, §201(1), substituted “January 1, 1979” for “January 1, 1978” in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 95–30, §201(2), substituted “December 31, 1978” for “December 31, 1977”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–30, §201(2), substituted “January 1, 1979” for “January 1, 1978”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455 reenacted subsec. (a) without change.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, among other changes, substituted “December 31, 1977, 22 percent” for “December 31, 1976, 22 percent” and “after December 31, 1974 and before January 1, 1978” for “after December 31, 1974 and before January 1, 1977” and struck out provisions relating to the six-month application of the general rule.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out provisions relating to the special rule for 1976 for calendar year taxpayers.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, among other changes, substituted provisions relating to surtax exemption of $25,000 for a taxable year ending Dec. 31, 1977, or $50,000 for a taxable year ending after Dec. 31, 1974, and before Jan. 1, 1978, for provisions relating to surtax exemption of $50,000 for any taxable year and struck out provisions relating to six-month application of the general rule.

1975—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–164 redesignated existing pars. (1) and (2) as pars. (1)(A) and (1)(B), and in par. (1)(A) as so redesignated substituted “after December 31, 1976” for “before January 1, 1975 or after December 31, 1975”, and in par. (1)(B) as so redesignated substituted “January 1, 1977” for “January 1, 1976”, and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 94–12, §303(a), reduced the normal tax for a taxable year ending after Dec. 31, 1974, and before Jan. 1, 1976, to 20 percent of so much of the taxable income as does not exceed $25,000 plus 22 percent of so much of the taxable income as exceeds $25,000.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–164 designated existing provisions as par. (1), struck out special percentages for taxable years beginning before Jan. 1, 1964, and after Dec. 31, 1963 and before Jan. 1, 1965, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–164 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “$50,000” for “$25,000”, inserted reference to section 1564 of this title, and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 94–12, §303(b), substituted “$50,000” for “$25,000”.

1969—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted “section 1561 or 1564” for “section 1561”.

1966—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 89–809, §104(b)(2)(A), struck out par. (4) which made reference to section 881(a) (relating to foreign corporations not engaged in business in United States).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 89–809, §104(b)(2)(B), added subsec. (f).

1964—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–272 applied the 30 percent tax to years beginning before Jan. 1, 1964 instead of July 1, 1964 in par. (1), and in par. (2), reduced the rate from 25 percent to 22 percent, and applied it to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, instead of June 30, 1964.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–272 increased the percentage from 22 to 28 for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, and before Jan. 1, 1965, and to 26 percent for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1964. The surtax exemption previously carried in subsec. (c), is now stated in subsec. (d).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 88–272 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1963—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–52 substituted “July 1, 1964” for “July 1, 1963” and “June 30, 1964” for “June 30, 1963” wherever appearing.

1962—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–508 substituted “July 1, 1963” for “July 1, 1962” and “June 30, 1963” for “June 30, 1962” wherever appearing.

1961—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–72 substituted “July 1, 1962” for “July 1, 1961” and “June 30, 1962” for “June 30, 1961” wherever appearing.

1960—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–564 substituted “July 1, 1961” for “July 1, 1960” and “June 30, 1961” for “June 30, 1960” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 86–779 inserted “and real estate investment trusts” after “regulated investment companies”.

1959—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–75 substituted “July 1, 1960” for “July 1, 1959” and “June 30, 1960” for “June 30, 1959” wherever appearing.

1958—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–475 substituted “July 1, 1959” for “July 1, 1958” and “June 30, 1959” for “June 30, 1958” wherever appearing.

1957—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–12 substituted “July 1, 1958” for “April 1, 1957” and “June 30, 1958” for “March 31, 1957” wherever appearing.

1956—Subsec. (b). Act Mar. 29, 1956, substituted “April 1, 1957” for “April 1, 1956” and “March 31, 1957” for “March 31, 1956” wherever appearing.

1955—Subsec. (b). Act Mar. 30, 1955, substituted “April 1, 1956” for “April 1, 1955” and “March 31, 1956” for “March 31, 1955” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13221(d) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 852, 1201, and 1445 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1993; except that the amendment made by subsection (c)(3) [amending section 1445 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 1993].”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 10224(b) of Pub. L. 100–203 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 601(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 1987.

“(2) Cross reference.—

“For treatment of taxable years which include July 1, 1987, see section 15 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 66(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1561 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983.

“(2) Amendments not treated as changed in rate of tax.—The amendments made by this subsection [probably should be “section”] shall not be treated as a change in a rate of tax for purposes of section 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954].”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 231(c) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 12, 57, 244, 247, 511, 527, 528, 802, 821, 826, 852, 857, 882, 907, 922, 962, 1351, 1551, 1561, 6154, and 6655 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on December 23, 1975. The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 821 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1974. The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending sections 21, 1561, and 6154 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendments

Section 4(e) of Pub. L. 94–164 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (b), (c), and (d) [amending this section and sections 21, 962, and 1561 of this title] apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975. The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section] ceases to apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Section 305(b)(1) of Pub. L. 94–12 provided that: “The amendments made by section 303 [amending this section and sections 12, 962, and 1561 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1974. The amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) of such section [amending this section and sections 12, 962, and 1561 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall cease to apply for taxable years ending after December 31, 1975.”

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 401(h)(2) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 1561 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Section 104(n) of Pub. L. 89–809 provided that: “The amendments made by this section (other than subsection (k)) [enacting section 6683 to this title and amending this section and sections 245, 301, 512, 542, 543, 545, 819, 821, 822, 831, 832, 841, 842, 881, 882, 884, 952, 953, 1249, 1442, and 6016 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966. The amendment made by subsection (k) [amending section 1248(d)(4) of this title] shall apply with respect to sales or exchanges occurring after December 31, 1966.”

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272, except for purposes of section 21 of this title, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 131 of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–779 applicable with respect to taxable years of real estate investment trusts beginning after Dec. 31, 1960, see section 10(k) of Pub. L. 86–779, set out as an Effective Date note under section 856 of this title.

Allocation of 1975 Taxable Income Among Component Members of Controlled Group of Corporations

Section 303(c)(1) of Pub. L. 94–12 provided in part that: “In applying subsection (b)(2) of section 11 [subsec. (b)(2) of this section], the first $25,000 of taxable income and the second $25,000 of taxable income shall each be allocated among the component members of a controlled group of corporations in the same manner as the surtax exemption is allocated.”

Cross References

Computation of taxable income, see section 61 et seq. of this title.

Corporate distributions and adjustments, see section 301 et seq. of this title.

Deduction for dividends paid, see section 561 et seq. of this title.

Definitions—

Corporation, see section 7701 of this title.

Taxable income, see section 63 of this title.

Effect of change of rate of tax, see section 15 of this title.

Exempt corporations, see section 501 of this title.

Imposition of net income taxes by State on income derived from interstate commerce, see section 381 et seq. of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Special deductions for corporations, see section 241 et seq. of this title.

Tax on—

Foreign corporations not engaged in business in United States, see section 881 of this title.

Resident foreign corporations as provided in this section, see section 882 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 15, 59, 80, 244, 247, 280C, 453A, 460, 468B, 511, 527, 594, 774, 801, 804, 831, 835, 847, 852, 857, 860E, 860G, 860K, 882, 891, 904, 907, 954, 962, 1201, 1291, 1293, 1351, 1374, 1375, 1381, 1446, 1551, 1561, 4942, 6033, 6242, 6425, 6655, 7518, 7704 of this title; title 46 App. section 1177.

§12. Cross references relating to tax on corporations

(1) For tax on the unrelated business income of certain charitable and other corporations exempt from tax under this chapter, see section 511.

(2) For accumulated earnings tax and personal holding company tax, see parts I and II of subchapter G (sec. 531 and following).

(3) For doubling of tax on corporations of certain foreign countries, see section 891.

(4) For alternative tax in case of capital gains, see section 1201(a).

(5) For rate of withholding in case of foreign corporations, see section 1442.

(6) For limitation on benefits of graduated rate schedule provided in section 11(b), see section 1551.

(7) For alternative minimum tax, see section 55.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 11; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §234(b)(4), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 115; Pub. L. 91–172, title III, §301(b)(3), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 585; Pub. L. 94–12, title III, §303(c)(2), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 44; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §301(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2820; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §474(r)(29)(E), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 844; Pub. L. 99–514, title VII, §701(e)(4)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2343.)

Amendments

1986—Par. (7). Pub. L. 99–514 amended par. (7) generally, substituting “alternative minimum tax” and “55” for “minimum tax for tax preferences” and “56”, respectively.

1984—Pars. (6) to (8). Pub. L. 98–369 redesignated pars. (7) and (8) as (6) and (7), respectively. Former par. (6), which referred to section 1451 for withholding of tax on tax-free covenant bonds, was struck out.

1978—Par. (7). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted “benefits of graduated rate schedule provided in section 11(b)” for “the $25,000 exemption from surtax provided in section 11(c)”.

1975—Par. (7). Pub. L. 94–12 substituted “$50,000” for “$25,000” for a limited period. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendment note set out below.

1969—Par. (8). Pub. L. 91–172 added par. (8).

1964—Par. (8). Pub. L. 88–272 struck out par. (8) which referred to section 1503 for additional tax for corporations filing consolidated returns.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 not applicable with respect to obligations issued before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 475(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 33 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–12 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, but to cease to apply for taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 305(b)(1) of Pub. L. 94–12, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 234(c) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1503 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Public Law 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1012(aa)(2) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

PART III—CHANGES IN RATES DURING A TAXABLE YEAR

Sec.
15.
Effect of changes.

        

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(b)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 830, substituted “15. Effect of changes” for “21. Effect of changes”.

§15. Effect of changes

(a) General rule

If any rate of tax imposed by this chapter changes, and if the taxable year includes the effective date of the change (unless that date is the first day of the taxable year), then—

(1) tentative taxes shall be computed by applying the rate for the period before the effective date of the change, and the rate for the period on and after such date, to the taxable income for the entire taxable year; and

(2) the tax for such taxable year shall be the sum of that proportion of each tentative tax which the number of days in each period bears to the number of days in the entire taxable year.

(b) Repeal of tax

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) if a tax is repealed, the repeal shall be considered a change of rate; and

(2) the rate for the period after the repeal shall be zero.

(c) Effective date of change

For purposes of subsections (a) and (b)—

(1) if the rate changes for taxable years “beginning after” or “ending after” a certain date, the following day shall be considered the effective date of the change; and

(2) if a rate changes for taxable years “beginning on or after” a certain date, that date shall be considered the effective date of the change.

(d) Section not to apply to inflation adjustments

This section shall not apply to any change in rates under subsection (f) of section 1 (relating to adjustments in tax tables so that inflation will not result in tax increases).

(e) References to highest rate

If the change referred to in subsection (a) involves a change in the highest rate of tax imposed by section 1 or 11(b), any reference in this chapter to such highest rate (other than in a provision imposing a tax by reference to such rate) shall be treated as a reference to the weighted average of the highest rates before and after the change determined on the basis of the respective portions of the taxable year before the date of the change and on or after the date of the change.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 12, §21; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §132, Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 30; Pub. L. 91–172, title VIII, §803(e), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 685; Pub. L. 92–178, title II, §205, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 94–12, title III, §305(b)(2), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 45; Pub. L. 94–164, §4(d)(2), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 975; Pub. L. 94–455, title IX, §901(c)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1607; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(d)(2), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §106, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2776; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §101(d)(3), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 184; renumbered §15, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §101(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2099; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1006(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3393.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647 added subsec. (e).

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514 amended subsec. (d) generally, substituting “apply to inflation adjustments” for “apply to section 1 rate changes made by Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981” in heading and struck out “section 1 attributable to the amendments made by section 101 of the Economic Tax Act of 1981 or” before “subsection (f)” in text.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369 renumbered section 21 of this title as this section.

1981—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted provisions that this section shall not apply to any change in rates under section 1 attributable to the amendments made by section 101 of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 or subsec. (f) of section 1 for provisions that had related to the changes made by section 303(b) of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975 in the surtax exemption.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 97–34 struck out subsecs. (e) and (f) which had related, respectively, to changes made by the Tax Reduction and Simplification Act of 1977 and to changes made by Revenue Act of 1978.

1978—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–600 added subsec. (f).

1977—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–30, §101(d)(2)(A), (B), redesignated subsec. (f) as (d). Former subsec. (d), which directed that, in applying subsec. (a) to a taxable year of an individual which was not a calendar year, each change made by the Tax Reform Act of 1969 in part I or in the application of part IV or V of subchapter B for purposes of the determination of taxable income should be treated as a change in a rate of tax, was struck out.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–30, §101(d)(2)(A), (C), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e), which directed that, in applying subsec. (a) to a taxable year of an individual which was not a calendar year, each change made by the Revenue Act of 1971 in section 141 (relating to the standard deduction) and section 151 (relating to personal exemptions) should be treated as a change in a rate of tax, was struck out.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–30, §101(d)(2)(B), redesignated subsec. (f) as (d).

1976—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455 substituted “in the surtax exemption and any change under section 11(d) in the surtax exemption” for “and the change made by section 3(c) of the Revenue Adjustment Act of 1975 in section 11(d) (relating to corporate surtax exemption)”.

1975—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–164 inserted reference to change made by section 3(c) of the Revenue Adjustment Act of 1975.

Pub. L. 94–12 added subsec. (f).

1971—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–178 added subsec. (e).

1969—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted provisions covering changes made by the Tax Reform Act of 1969 in case of individuals for provisions covering changes made by Revenue Act of 1964.

1964—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–272 amended subsection generally by substituting provisions relating to changes made by the Revenue Act of 1964, for provisions relating to taxable years beginning before Jan. 1, 1954, and ending after Dec. 31, 1953.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 101(f)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–164 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 4(e) of Pub. L. 94–164, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendments note under section 11 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Section 132 of Pub. L. 88–272 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1963.

Coordination of 1997 Amendment With Section 15

Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §1(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 788, provided that: “No amendment made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be treated as a change in a rate of tax for purposes of section 15 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Coordination of 1993 Amendment With Section 15

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13001(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 416, provided that: “Except in the case of the amendments made by section 13221 [amending sections 11, 852, 1201, and 1445 of this title] (relating to corporate rate increase), no amendment made by this chapter [chapter 1 (§§13001–13444) of title XIII of Pub. L. 103–66, see Tables for classification] shall be treated as a change in a rate of tax for purposes of section 15 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Coordination of 1990 Amendment With Section 15

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11001(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–400, provided that: “Except as otherwise expressly provided in this title, no amendment made by this title [see Tables for classification] shall be treated as a change in a rate of tax for purposes of section 15 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Coordination of 1987 Amendment With Section 15

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10000(c), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–382, provided that: “No amendment made by this title [see Tables for classification] shall be treated as a change in a rate of tax for purposes [of] section 15 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Coordination of 1986 Amendment With Section 15

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), for purposes of section 15 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, no amendment or repeal made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be treated as a change in the rate of a tax imposed by chapter 1 of such Code.

“(2) Exception.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the amendment made by section 601 [amending section 11 of this title] (relating to corporate rate reductions).”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 59A, 441, 6013 of this title.

PART IV—CREDITS AGAINST TAX

Subpart
A.
Nonrefundable personal credits.
B.
Other credits.
C.
Refundable credits.
D.
Business-related credits.
E.
Rules for computing investment credit.
F.
Rules for computing work opportunity credit.
G.
Credit against regular tax for prior year minimum tax liability.1

        

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1201(e)(3), 1601(b)(2)(F)(ii), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1772, 1833, substituted “Other credits” for “Foreign tax credit, etc.” in item for subpart B and “work opportunity credit” for “targeted jobs credit” in item for subpart F.

1990—Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11813(b)(26), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–555, substituted “Rules for computing investment credit” for “Rules for computing credit for investment in certain depreciable property” in item for subpart E.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(a), 474(n)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 825, 834, substituted “Nonrefundable personal credits” for “Credits allowable” in item for subpart A, “Foreign tax credit, etc” for “Rules for computing credit for investment in certain depreciable property” in item for subpart B, “Refundable credits” for “Rules for computing credit for expense of work incentive programs” in item for subpart C, and “Business-related credits” for “Rules for computing credit for employment of certain new employees” in item for subpart D, and added items for subparts E and F.

1977—Pub. L. 95–30, title II, §202(d)(1)(B), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 147, added subpart D.

1971—Pub. L. 92–178, title VI, §601(c)(1), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 557, added subpart C.

Part Referred to in Other Sections

This part is referred to in sections 665, 1374, 1375, 1397E, 1398, 1503, 6096, 6425, 6654, 6655, 6682 of this title.

1 Editorially supplied. Subpart G of part IV added by Pub. L. 99–514 without corresponding amendment of part analysis.

Subpart A—Nonrefundable Personal Credits

Sec.
21.
Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.
22.
Credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally disabled.
23.
Adoption expenses.
24.
Child tax credit.
25.
Interest on certain home mortgages.
25A.
Hope and Lifetime Learning credits.
26.
Limitation based on tax liability; definition of tax liability.

        

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6004(a)(1), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 792, substituted “Hope and Lifetime Learning credits” for “Higher education tuition and related expenses” in item 25A.

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §101(d)(3), title II, §201(e), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 799, 806, added items 24 and 25A.

1996—Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1807(c)(6), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1902, added item 23.

1990—Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–522, struck out item 23 “Residential energy credit”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §112(b)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2109, struck out item 24 “Contributions to candidates for public office”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(b), 612(f), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 913, substituted “Nonrefundable Personal Credits” for “Credits Allowable” as subpart A heading, struck out analysis of sections 31 through 45 formerly comprising subpart A, and inserted a new analysis of sections consisting of items 21 (formerly 44A), 22 (formerly 37), 23 (formerly 44C), 24 (formerly 41), and 25 and 26 (newly enacted).

1983—Pub. L. 98–67 repealed amendments made by Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(c)(7), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87, inserted “and the permanently and totally disabled” to item 37.

Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(6)(D), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2181, substituted “and special fuels” for “, special fuels, and lubricating oil” after “gasoline” in item 39.

Pub. L. 97–414, §4(c)(1), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2056, added item 44H.

1982—Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§307(b)(3), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 590, 591, provided that, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983, item 31 is amended to read “Tax withheld on wages, interest, dividends, and patronage dividends”. Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1981—Pub. L. 97–34, title II, §221(c)(2), title III, §331(e)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 247, 295, added items 44F and 44G.

1980—Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §§231(b)(1), 232(b)(3)(B), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 272, 276, added items 44D and 44E.

1978—Pub. L. 95–618, title I, §101(b)(1), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3179, added item 44C.

1977—Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(e)(1), title II, §202(d)(1)(A), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 134, 147, added item 44B and struck out item 36 “Credit not allowed to individuals taking standard deduction”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §401(a)(2)(D), title V, §§501(c)(2), 503(b)(5), 504(a)(2), title XIX, §1901(b)(1)(Z), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1555, 1559, 1562, 1565, 1792, substituted in item 42 “General tax credit” for “Taxable income credit”, struck out in item 36 “pay optional tax or”, inserted in item 33 “possession tax credit”, substituted in item 37 “Credit of the elderly” for “Retirement income”, added item 44A, and struck out item 35 “Partially tax-exempt interest received by individuals”.

1975—Pub. L. 94–164, §3(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 973, substituted “Taxable income credit” for “Credit for personal exemptions” in item 42.

Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §§203(b)(1), 204(c), 208(d)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 30, 32, 35, renumbered item 42 as 45 and added item 42 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, but to cease to apply to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975, item 43 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1974, but before Jan. 1, 1976, and item 44.

1971—Pub. L. 92–178, title VI, §601(c)(2), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 557, added items 40 and 41, and redesignated former item 40 as 42.

1970—Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(d)(10), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 249, inserted “, special fuels,” after “gasoline” in item 39.

1965—Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, §809(d)(1), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 167, added item 39 and redesignated former item 39 as 40.

1964—Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(d)(1), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 32, struck out item 34.

1962—Pub. L. 87–834, §2(g)(1), (2), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 972, 973, added headings of subparts A and B and item 38, and redesignated former item 38 as 39.

Subpart Referred to in Other Sections

This subpart is referred to in sections 29, 30, 32, 38, 53, 904, 1400C, 6401 of this title; title 12 section 1831q.

§21. Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

In the case of an individual who maintains a household which includes as a member one or more qualifying individuals (as defined in subsection (b)(1)), there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the applicable percentage of the employment-related expenses (as defined in subsection (b)(2)) paid by such individual during the taxable year.

(2) Applicable percentage defined

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “applicable percentage” means 30 percent reduced (but not below 20 percent) by 1 percentage point for each $2,000 (or fraction thereof) by which the taxpayer's adjusted gross income for the taxable year exceeds $10,000.

(b) Definitions of qualifying individual and employment-related expenses

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualifying individual

The term “qualifying individual” means—

(A) a dependent of the taxpayer who is under the age of 13 and with respect to whom the taxpayer is entitled to a deduction under section 151(c),

(B) a dependent of the taxpayer who is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself, or

(C) the spouse of the taxpayer, if he is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself.

(2) Employment-related expenses

(A) In general

The term “employment-related expenses” means amounts paid for the following expenses, but only if such expenses are incurred to enable the taxpayer to be gainfully employed for any period for which there are 1 or more qualifying individuals with respect to the taxpayer:

(i) expenses for household services, and

(ii) expenses for the care of a qualifying individual.


Such term shall not include any amount paid for services outside the taxpayer's household at a camp where the qualifying individual stays overnight.

(B) Exception

Employment-related expenses described in subparagraph (A) which are incurred for services outside the taxpayer's household shall be taken into account only if incurred for the care of—

(i) a qualifying individual described in paragraph (1)(A), or

(ii) a qualifying individual (not described in paragraph (1)(A)) who regularly spends at least 8 hours each day in the taxpayer's household.

(C) Dependent care centers

Employment-related expenses described in subparagraph (A) which are incurred for services provided outside the taxpayer's household by a dependent care center (as defined in subparagraph (D)) shall be taken into account only if—

(i) such center complies with all applicable laws and regulations of a State or unit of local government, and

(ii) the requirements of subparagraph (B) are met.

(D) Dependent care center defined

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “dependent care center” means any facility which—

(i) provides care for more than six individuals (other than individuals who reside at the facility), and

(ii) receives a fee, payment, or grant for providing services for any of the individuals (regardless of whether such facility is operated for profit).

(c) Dollar limit on amount creditable

The amount of the employment-related expenses incurred during any taxable year which may be taken into account under subsection (a) shall not exceed—

(1) $2,400 if there is 1 qualifying individual with respect to the taxpayer for such taxable year, or

(2) $4,800 if there are 2 or more qualifying individuals with respect to the taxpayer for such taxable year.


The amount determined under paragraph (1) or (2) (whichever is applicable) shall be reduced by the aggregate amount excludable from gross income under section 129 for the taxable year.

(d) Earned income limitation

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amount of the employment-related expenses incurred during any taxable year which may be taken into account under subsection (a) shall not exceed—

(A) in the case of an individual who is not married at the close of such year, such individual's earned income for such year, or

(B) in the case of an individual who is married at the close of such year, the lesser of such individual's earned income or the earned income of his spouse for such year.

(2) Special rule for spouse who is a student or incapable of caring for himself

In the case of a spouse who is a student or a qualifying individual described in subsection (b)(1)(C), for purposes of paragraph (1), such spouse shall be deemed for each month during which such spouse is a full-time student at an educational institution, or is such a qualifying individual, to be gainfully employed and to have earned income of not less than—

(A) $200 if subsection (c)(1) applies for the taxable year, or

(B) $400 if subsection (c)(2) applies for the taxable year.


In the case of any husband and wife, this paragraph shall apply with respect to only one spouse for any one month.

(e) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Maintaining household

An individual shall be treated as maintaining a household for any period only if over half the cost of maintaining the household for such period is furnished by such individual (or, if such individual is married during such period, is furnished by such individual and his spouse).

(2) Married couples must file joint return

If the taxpayer is married at the close of the taxable year, the credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) only if the taxpayer and his spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(3) Marital status

An individual legally separated from his spouse under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance shall not be considered as married.

(4) Certain married individuals living apart

If—

(A) an individual who is married and who files a separate return—

(i) maintains as his home a household which constitutes for more than one-half of the taxable year the principal place of abode of a qualifying individual, and

(ii) furnishes over half of the cost of maintaining such household during the taxable year, and


(B) during the last 6 months of such taxable year such individual's spouse is not a member of such household,


such individual shall not be considered as married.

(5) Special dependency test in case of divorced parents, etc.

If—

(A) paragraph (2) or (4) of section 152(e) applies to any child with respect to any calendar year, and

(B) such child is under the age of 13 or is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself,


in the case of any taxable year beginning in such calendar year, such child shall be treated as a qualifying individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(1) (whichever is appropriate) with respect to the custodial parent (within the meaning of section 152(e)(1)), and shall not be treated as a qualifying individual with respect to the noncustodial parent.

(6) Payments to related individuals

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any amount paid by the taxpayer to an individual—

(A) with respect to whom, for the taxable year, a deduction under section 151(c) (relating to deduction for personal exemptions for dependents) is allowable either to the taxpayer or his spouse, or

(B) who is a child of the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 151(c)(3)) who has not attained the age of 19 at the close of the taxable year.


For purposes of this paragraph, the term “taxable year” means the taxable year of the taxpayer in which the service is performed.

(7) Student

The term “student” means an individual who during each of 5 calendar months during the taxable year is a full-time student at an educational organization.

(8) Educational organization

The term “educational organization” means an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii).

(9) Identifying information required with respect to service provider

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any amount paid to any person unless—

(A) the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of such person are included on the return claiming the credit, or

(B) if such person is an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt from tax under section 501(a), the name and address of such person are included on the return claiming the credit.


In the case of a failure to provide the information required under the preceding sentence, the preceding sentence shall not apply if it is shown that the taxpayer exercised due diligence in attempting to provide the information so required.

(10) Identifying information required with respect to qualifying individuals

No credit shall be allowed under this section with respect to any qualifying individual unless the TIN of such individual is included on the return claiming the credit.

(f) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §504(a)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1563, §44A; amended Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §121(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2779; Pub. L. 97–34, title I §124 (a)–(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 197, 198; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(c)(1), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87; renumbered §21 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§423(c)(4), 471(c), 474(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 801, 826, 830; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2104; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10101(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–384; Pub. L. 100–485, title VII, §703(a)–(c)(1), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2426, 2427; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1615(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1853.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 21 was renumbered section 15 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 104–188 added par. (10).

1988—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–485, §703(a), substituted “age of 13” for “age of 15”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–485, §703(b), inserted at end: “The amount determined under paragraph (1) or (2) (whichever is applicable) shall be reduced by the aggregate amount excludable from gross income under section 129 for the taxable year.”

Subsec. (e)(5)(B). Pub. L. 100–485, §703(a), substituted “age of 13” for “age of 15”.

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 100–485, §703(c)(1), added par. (9).

1987—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–203 inserted at end “Such term shall not include any amount paid for services outside the taxpayer's household at a camp where the qualifying individual stays overnight.”

1986—Subsecs. (b)(1)(A), (e)(6)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(1)(A), substituted “section 151(c)” for “section 151(e)”.

Subsec. (e)(6)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(1)(B), substituted “section 151(c)(3)” for “section 151(e)(3)”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 44A of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(2), (3), substituted “subsection (b)(1)” for “subsection (c)(1)” and “subsection (b)(2)” for “subsection (c)(2)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b). Former subsec. (b), which provided that the credit allowed by subsec. (a) could not exceed the amount of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under sections 33, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, and 44, was struck out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(4), substituted “subsection (b)(1)(C)” for “subsection (c)(1)(C)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(5), substituted “subsection (c)(1)” for “subsection (d)(1)”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(6), substituted “subsection (c)(2)” for “subsection (d)(2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(7), substituted “subsection (b)(1)” for “subsection (c)(1)” in provisions following subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 98–369, §423(c)(4), amended par. (5) generally, substituting subpars. (A) and (B) reading:

“(A) paragraph (2) or (4) of section 152(e) applies to any child with respect to any calendar year, and

“(B) such child is under the age of 15 or is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself,”

for former provisions:

“(A) a child (as defined in section 151(e)(3)) who is under the age of 15 or who is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself receives over half of his support during the calendar year from his parents who are divorced or legally separated under a decree of divorce or separate maintenance or who are separated under a written separation agreement, and

“(B) such child is in the custody of one or both of his parents for more than one-half of the calendar year.”

and substituted in concluding text “(whichever is appropriate) with respect to the custodial parent (within the meaning of section 152(e)(1)), and shall not be treated as a qualifying individual with respect to the noncustodial parent” for “, as the case may be, with respect to that parent who has custody for a longer period during such calendar year than the other parent, and shall not be treated as being a qualifying individual with respect to such other parent.”

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsecs. (f) and (g) as (e) and (f), respectively.

1983—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–21 substituted “relating to credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally disabled” for “relating to credit for the elderly”.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “the applicable percentage” for “20 percent” in par. (1) as so designated, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(c), designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(d), added subpars. (C) and (D).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(b)(1)(A), substituted “$2,400” for “$2,000”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(b)(1)(B), substituted “$4,800” for “$4,000”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(b)(2)(A), substituted “$200” for “$166”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(b)(2)(B), substituted “$400” for “$333”.

1978—Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted provision disallowing a credit for any amount paid by a taxpayer to an individual with respect to whom, for the taxable year, a deduction under section 151(e) is allowable either to the taxpayer or his spouse or who is a child of the taxpayer who has not attained the age of 19 at the close of the taxpayer year and defining “taxpayer year” for provision disallowing a credit for any amount paid by the taxpayer to an individual bearing a relationship described in section 152(a)(1) through (8), or a dependent described in section 152(a)(9), except that a credit was allowed for an amount paid by a taxpayer to an individual with respect to whom, for the taxable year of the taxpayer in which the service was performed, neither the taxpayer nor his spouse was entitled to a deduction under section 151(e), provided the service constituted employment within the meaning of section 3121(b).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1615(d) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 151, 6109, 6213, and 6724 of this title] shall apply with respect to returns the due date for which (without regard to extensions) is on or after the 30th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996].

“(2) Special rule for 1995 and 1996.—In the case of returns for taxable years beginning in 1995 or 1996, a taxpayer shall not be required by the amendments made by this section to provide a taxpayer identification number for a child who is born after October 31, 1995, in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1995 or November 30, 1996, in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1996.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 703(d) of Pub. L. 100–485 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 129 and 6109 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 10101(b) of Pub. L. 100–203, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title II, §2004(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3598, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to expenses paid in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.

“(2) Special rule for cafeteria plans.—For purposes of section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a plan shall not be treated as failing to be a cafeteria plan solely because under the plan a participant elected before January 1, 1988, to receive reimbursement under the plan for dependent care assistance for periods after December 31, 1987, and such assistance included reimbursement for expenses at a camp where the dependent stays overnight.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 423(c)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 423(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this title [probably means subtitle F (§§471–475) of title IV of Pub. L. 98–369, which enacted sections 25, 38, and 39 of this title, amended this section and sections 12, 15, 22 to 24, 27 to 35, 37, 39 to 41, 44A, 44C to 44H, 45 to 48, 51, 52, 55, 56, 86, 87, 103, 108, 129, 168, 196, 213, 280C, 381, 383, 401, 404, 409, 441, 527, 642, 691, 874, 882, 901, 904, 936, 1016, 1033, 1351, 1366, 1374, 1375, 1441, 1442, 1451, 3507, 6013, 6096, 6201, 6211, 6213, 6362, 6401, 6411, 6420, 6421, 6427, 6501, 6511, 7701, 7871, 9502, and 9503 of this title, repealed sections 38, 40, 44, 44B, 50A, 50B, and 53 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 30, 33, 46, and 48 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, except that if an individual's annuity starting date was deferred under section 105(d)(6) of this title as in effect on the day before Apr. 20, 1983, such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's first taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 122(d) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 124(f) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and enacting section 129 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.

“(2) The amendments made by subsection (e)(2) [amending sections 3121, 3306, and 3401 of this title and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to remuneration paid after December 31, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 121(b) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.”

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note under section 3 of this title.

Program To Increase Public Awareness

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11114, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–414, provided that: “Not later than the first calendar year following the date of the enactment of this subtitle [Nov. 5, 1990], the Secretary of the Treasury, or the Secretary's delegate, shall establish a taxpayer awareness program to inform the taxpaying public of the availability of the credit for dependent care allowed under section 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and the earned income credit and child health insurance under section 32 of such Code. Such public awareness program shall be designed to assure that individuals who may be eligible are informed of the availability of such credit and filing procedures. The Secretary shall use appropriate means of communication to carry out the provisions of this section.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 23, 129, 213, 6213 of this title; title 7 section 2015.

§22. Credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally disabled

(a) General rule

In the case of a qualified individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to 15 percent of such individual's section 22 amount for such taxable year.

(b) Qualified individual

For purposes of this section, the term “qualified individual” means any individual—

(1) who has attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, or

(2) who retired on disability before the close of the taxable year and who, when he retired, was permanently and totally disabled.

(c) Section 22 amount

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) In general

An individual's section 22 amount for the taxable year shall be the applicable initial amount determined under paragraph (2), reduced as provided in paragraph (3) and in subsection (d).

(2) Initial amount

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the initial amount shall be—

(i) $5,000 in the case of a single individual, or a joint return where only one spouse is a qualified individual,

(ii) $7,500 in the case of a joint return where both spouses are qualified individuals, or

(iii) $3,750 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return.

(B) Limitation in case of individuals who have not attained age 65

(i) In general

In the case of a qualified individual who has not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, except as provided in clause (ii), the initial amount shall not exceed the disability income for the taxable year.

(ii) Special rules in case of joint return

In the case of a joint return where both spouses are qualified individuals and at least one spouse has not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year—

(I) if both spouses have not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, the initial amount shall not exceed the sum of such spouses’ disability income, or

(II) if one spouse has attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, the initial amount shall not exceed the sum of $5,000 plus the disability income for the taxable year of the spouse who has not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year.

(iii) Disability income

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “disability income” means the aggregate amount includable in the gross income of the individual for the taxable year under section 72 or 105(a) to the extent such amount constitutes wages (or payments in lieu of wages) for the period during which the individual is absent from work on account of permanent and total disability.

(3) Reduction

(A) In general

The reduction under this paragraph is an amount equal to the sum of the amounts received by the individual (or, in the case of a joint return, by either spouse) as a pension or annuity or as a disability benefit—

(i) which is excluded from gross income and payable under—

(I) title II of the Social Security Act,

(II) the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, or

(III) a law administered by the Veterans’ Administration, or


(ii) which is excluded from gross income under any provision of law not contained in this title.


No reduction shall be made under clause (i)(III) for any amount described in section 104(a)(4).

(B) Treatment of certain workmen's compensation benefits

For purposes of subparagraph (A), any amount treated as a social security benefit under section 86(d)(3) shall be treated as a disability benefit received under title II of the Social Security Act.

(d) Adjusted gross income limitation

If the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer exceeds—

(1) $7,500 in the case of a single individual,

(2) $10,000 in the case of a joint return, or

(3) $5,000 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return,


the section 22 amount shall be reduced by one-half of the excess of the adjusted gross income over $7,500, $10,000, or $5,000, as the case may be.

(e) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Married couple must file joint return

Except in the case of a husband and wife who live apart at all times during the taxable year, if the taxpayer is married at the close of the taxable year, the credit provided by this section shall be allowed only if the taxpayer and his spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(2) Marital status

Marital status shall be determined under section 7703.

(3) Permanent and total disability defined

An individual is permanently and totally disabled if he is unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or which has lasted or can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months. An individual shall not be considered to be permanently and totally disabled unless he furnishes proof of the existence thereof in such form and manner, and at such times, as the Secretary may require.

(f) Nonresident alien ineligible for credit

No credit shall be allowed under this section to any nonresident alien.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 15, §37; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 659, §1, 69 Stat. 591; Jan. 28, 1956, ch. 17, §1, 70 Stat. 8; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(a), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 87–876, §1, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1199; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §113(a), title II, §§201(d)(3), 202(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 24, 32, 33; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §2002(g)(1), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 968; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §503(a), title XIX, §1901(c)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1559, 1803; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §§701(a)(1)–(3), 703(j)(11), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2897, 2942; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §107(a)(1)(E)(i), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 222; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §111(b)(4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 194; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 85; renumbered §22 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(d), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 830; Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(j)(8), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2658.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i)(I), (B), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i)(II), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, §101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. For further details and complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “section 7703” for “section 143”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 37 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(d)(1), substituted “section 22 amount” for “section 37 amount”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(d)(2), substituted “Section 22 amount” for “Section 37 amount” in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(d)(1), substituted “section 22 amount” for “section 37 amount”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(d)(3), amended subsec. (d) generally, striking out heading “Limitations” and designation “(1)” before “Adjusted gross income limitation” thereby making existing par. (1) the entire subsec. (d), redesignating existing subpars. (A), (B), and (C) as pars. (1), (2), and (3), respectively, and striking out provisions, formerly comprising par. (2), which had limited the amount of the credit allowed by this section for the taxable year to the amount of the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year.

1983—Pub. L. 98–21 inserted reference to permanently and totally disabled in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–21 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting reference to a qualified individual for reference to an individual who has attained the age of 65 before the close of the taxable year.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–21 in amending section generally added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–21 in amending section generally, redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c) and, in (c) as so redesignated, added par. (2) and struck out former (2), which had provided that the initial amount was $2,500 in the case of a single individual, $2,500 in the case of a joint return where only one spouse was eligible for the credit under subsection (a), $3,750 in the case of a joint return where both spouses were eligible for the credit under subsection (a), or $1,875 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return, redesignated existing provisions as par. (3)(A), inserted “benefit” after “disability” therein, struck out former subpars. (A) to (C), which had specified sources of amounts received under title II of the Social Security Act, under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 or 1937, or otherwise excluded from gross income, added cls. (i) and (ii), substituted provision that no reduction would be made under cl. (i)(III) for any amount described in section 104(a)(4) for provision that no reduction would be made under former par. (3) for any amount excluded from gross income under section 72 (relating to annuities), 101 (relating to life insurance proceeds), 104 (relating to compensation for injuries or sickness), 105 (relating to amounts received under accident and health plans), 120 (relating to amounts received under qualified group legal services plans), 402 (relating to taxability of beneficiary of employees’ trust), 403 (relating to taxation of employee annuities), or 405 (relating to qualified bond purchase plans), and added subpar. (B). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–21 in amending section generally redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–21 in amending section generally, redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e) and struck out provision that “joint return” meant the joint return of a husband and wife made under section 6013 and inserted provisions defining permanent and total disability. Former subsec. (e), which provided for an election of prior law with respect to public retirement system income, was struck out.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–21 reenacted subsec. (f) without change.

1981—Subsec. (e)(9)(B). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted “section 911(d)(2)” for “section 911(b)”.

1978—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(a)(1), inserted “(and whose gross income includes income described in paragraph (4)(B))” after “who has not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year”.

Subsec. (e)(4)(B). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(a)(2), (3)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(1)(E)(i), inserted “and who performed the services giving rise to the pension or annuity (or is the spouse of the individual who performed the services)” after “before the close of the taxable year” and substituted reference to paragraph (9)(A) for reference to paragraph (8)(A).

Subsec. (e)(5)(B). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(a)(3)(C), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(1)(E)(i), substituted reference to paragraph (9)(A) for reference to paragraph (8)(A).

Subsec. (e)(8), (9). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(a)(3)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(1)(E)(i), added par. (8) and redesignated former par. (8) as (9).

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, §503(a), among other changes, substituted “Credits for the elderly” for “Retirement income” in section catchline and in text substituted provisions permitting taxpayers who have all types of income to be eligible for the tax credit for provisions permitting taxpayers who have only retirement income to be eligible for the tax credit, eliminated provisions requiring taxpayers to earn $600 for the previous ten years for tax credit eligibility and provisions relating variations in treatment of married couples, and inserted provisions broadening coverage of the tax credit relief to low and middle income taxpayers.

Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(c)(1), purported to amend subsec. (f) of this section by striking out “a Territory”. The amendment could not be executed in view of the prior general amendment of this section by section 503(a) of Pub. L. 94–455. Section 1901(c)(1) was repealed by section 703(j)(11) of Pub. L. 95–600.

1974—Subsec. (c)(1)(E), (F). Pub. L. 93–406 inserted reference in subpar. (E) to retirement bonds described in section 409 and added subpar. (F).

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–272, §§113(a), 201(d)(3), substituted “an amount equal to 17 percent, in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1964, or 15 percent, in the case of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1964, of the amount received by such individual as retirement income (as defined in subsection (c) and as limited by subsection (d));” for “an amount equal to the amount received by such individual as retirement income (as defined in subsection (c) and as limited by subsection (d)), multiplied by the rate provided in section 1 for the first $2,000 of taxable income;”, and struck out “section 34 (relating to credit for dividends received by individuals)”, before “and section 35”.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 88–272, §202(a), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

1962—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 87–792 inserted provisions in subpar. (A) requiring inclusion, in the case of an individual who is, or has been, an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1), distributions by a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), and added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–876 increased the limit on retirement income from $1,200 to $1,524, lowered the age requirement in par. (2)(A) from 65 to 62, and substituted provisions in par. (2)(B) which reduce the amount of retirement income for individuals who reach age 62, by one-half the amount of earned income in excess of $1,200 but not in excess of $1,700, and by the amount received over $1,700, for provisions which reduced such income by the amount earned over $1,200 by persons having reached age 65, and which defined income as in subsec. (g) of this section.

1956—Subsec. (d)(2). Act Jan. 28, 1956, reduced from 75 to 72 the age at which there will be no limitation on earned income and increased from $900 to $1,200 the amount that an individual over 65 can earn without reducing the $1,200 on which the retirement credit is computed.

1955—Subsec. (f). Act Aug. 9, 1955, extended the retirement income tax credit to members of the Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(d) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 122(d) of Pub. L. 98–21, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending sections 37 [now 22], 41 [now 24], 44A [now 21], 46, 53, 85, 105, 128, 403, 415, 904, and 7871 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983.

“(2) Transitional rule.—If an individual's annuity starting date was deferred under section 105(d)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this section [Apr. 20, 1983]), such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1983.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 701(a)(4) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that:

“(A) The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.

“(B) The amendments made by paragraph (3) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1977.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 effective Jan. 1, 1974, see section 2002(i)(2) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4973 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by section 113(a) of Pub. L. 88–272, except for purposes of section 21 [now 15] of this title, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 131 of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 201(e) of Pub. L. 88–272 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 34 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1963. The amendment made by subsection (b) [repealing section 34 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1964. The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 116 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963. The amendments made by subsection (d) [amending sections 35, 37 [now 22], 46, 116, 584, 642, 702, 854, 857, 871, 1375, and 6014 of this title] shall apply with respect to dividends received after December 31, 1964, in taxable years ending after such date”.

Section 202(b) of Pub. L. 88–272 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963.”

Effective Date of 1962 Amendments

Section 2 of Pub. L. 87–876 provided that: “The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply only to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1962].”

Section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 405 and 6047 of this title and amending sections 37 [now 22], 62, 72, 101, 104, 105, 172, 401 to 404, 503, 805, 1361, 2039, 2517, 3306, 3401 and 7207 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962.”

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Section 2 of act Jan. 28, 1956, provided that: “The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1955.”

Effective Date of 1955 Amendment

Section 2 of act Aug. 9, 1955, provided that: “The amendment made by this Act [amending this section] shall be applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1954.”

Determination of Retirement Income Credit Under Provisions as They Existed Prior to Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 Election

Pub. L. 95–30, title IV, §403, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 155, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “A taxpayer may elect (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe) to determine the amount of his credit under section 37 [now 22] of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] for his first taxable year beginning in 1976 under the provisions of such section as they existed before the amendment made by section 503 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [Pub. L. 94–455].”

Cross References

Dividends received credit not allowed on distributions of electing small business corporations, see section 1375 of this title.

Disallowance of credit where tax is computed by Secretary or his delegate, see section 6014 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 32, 86, 151, 415 of this title.

§23. Adoption expenses

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter the amount of the qualified adoption expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer.

(2) Year credit allowed

The credit under paragraph (1) with respect to any expense shall be allowed—

(A) in the case of any expense paid or incurred before the taxable year in which such adoption becomes final, for the taxable year following the taxable year during which such expense is paid or incurred, and

(B) in the case of an expense paid or incurred during or after the taxable year in which such adoption becomes final, for the taxable year in which such expense is paid or incurred.

(b) Limitations

(1) Dollar limitation

The aggregate amount of qualified adoption expenses which may be taken into account under subsection (a) for all taxable years with respect to the adoption of a child by the taxpayer shall not exceed $5,000 ($6,000, in the case of a child with special needs).

(2) Income limitation

(A) In general

The amount allowable as a credit under subsection (a) for any taxable year (determined without regard to subsection (c)) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount so allowable (determined without regard to this paragraph but with regard to paragraph (1)) as—

(i) the amount (if any) by which the taxpayer's adjusted gross income exceeds $75,000, bears to

(ii) $40,000.

(B) Determination of adjusted gross income

For purposes of subparagraph (A), adjusted gross income shall be determined without regard to sections 911, 931, and 933.

(3) Denial of double benefit

(A) In general

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any expense for which a deduction or credit is allowed under any other provision of this chapter.

(B) Grants

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any expense to the extent that funds for such expense are received under any Federal, State, or local program.

(c) Carryforwards of unused credit

If the credit allowable under subsection (a) for any taxable year exceeds the limitation imposed by section 26(a) for such taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and section 1400C), such excess shall be carried to the succeeding taxable year and added to the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such taxable year. No credit may be carried forward under this subsection to any taxable year following the fifth taxable year after the taxable year in which the credit arose. For purposes of the preceding sentence, credits shall be treated as used on a first-in first-out basis.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified adoption expenses

The term “qualified adoption expenses” means reasonable and necessary adoption fees, court costs, attorney fees, and other expenses—

(A) which are directly related to, and the principal purpose of which is for, the legal adoption of an eligible child by the taxpayer,

(B) which are not incurred in violation of State or Federal law or in carrying out any surrogate parenting arrangement,

(C) which are not expenses in connection with the adoption by an individual of a child who is the child of such individual's spouse, and

(D) which are not reimbursed under an employer program or otherwise.

(2) Eligible child

The term “eligible child” means any individual—

(A) who—

(i) has not attained age 18, or

(ii) is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself, and


(B) in the case of qualified adoption expenses paid or incurred after December 31, 2001, who is a child with special needs.

(3) Child with special needs

The term “child with special needs” means any child if—

(A) a State has determined that the child cannot or should not be returned to the home of his parents,

(B) such State has determined that there exists with respect to the child a specific factor or condition (such as his ethnic background, age, or membership in a minority or sibling group, or the presence of factors such as medical conditions or physical, mental, or emotional handicaps) because of which it is reasonable to conclude that such child cannot be placed with adoptive parents without providing adoption assistance, and

(C) such child is a citizen or resident of the United States (as defined in section 217(h)(3)).

(e) Special rules for foreign adoptions

In the case of an adoption of a child who is not a citizen or resident of the United States (as defined in section 217(h)(3))—

(1) subsection (a) shall not apply to any qualified adoption expense with respect to such adoption unless such adoption becomes final, and

(2) any such expense which is paid or incurred before the taxable year in which such adoption becomes final shall be taken into account under this section as if such expense were paid or incurred during such year.

(f) Filing requirements

(1) Married couples must file joint returns

Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of section 21(e) shall apply for purposes of this section.

(2) Taxpayer must include TIN

(A) In general

No credit shall be allowed under this section with respect to any eligible child unless the taxpayer includes (if known) the name, age, and TIN of such child on the return of tax for the taxable year.

(B) Other methods

The Secretary may, in lieu of the information referred to in subparagraph (A), require other information meeting the purposes of subparagraph (A), including identification of an agent assisting with the adoption.

(g) Basis adjustments

For purposes of this subtitle, if a credit is allowed under this section for any expenditure with respect to any property, the increase in the basis of such property which would (but for this subsection) result from such expenditure shall be reduced by the amount of the credit so allowed.

(h) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to carry out this section and section 137, including regulations which treat unmarried individuals who pay or incur qualified adoption expenses with respect to the same child as 1 taxpayer for purposes of applying the dollar limitation in subsection (b)(1) of this section and in section 137(b)(1).

(Added Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1807(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1899; amended Pub. L. 105–34, title XVI, §1601(h)(2)(A), (B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1092; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §§6008(d)(6), 6018(f)(1), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 812, 823.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 23, added Pub. L. 95–618, title I, §101(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3175, §44C; amended Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §§201, 202(a)–(d), 203(a), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 256, 258; renumbered §23 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(e), title VI, §612(e)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 831, 912, related to residential energy credit, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, §6018(f)(1), inserted “(determined without regard to subsection (c))” after “for any taxable year” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–206, §6008(d)(6), inserted “and section 1400C” after “other than this section”.

1997—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(h)(2)(A), amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The credit under paragraph (1) with respect to any expense shall be allowed—

“(A) for the taxable year following the taxable year during which such expense is paid or incurred, or

“(B) in the case of an expense which is paid or incurred during the taxable year in which the adoption becomes final, for such taxable year.”

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(h)(2)(B), substituted “determined without regard to sections 911, 931, and 933.” for “determined—

“(i) without regard to sections 911, 931, and 933, and

“(ii) after the application of sections 86, 135, 137, 219, and 469.”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6018(h), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 823, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 219, 408, 414, and 679 of this title and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 167 and 4091 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–188] to which they relate.”

Amendment by section 6008(d)(6) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1601(j) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 30A, 52, 55, 137, 401, 403, 404, 408, 414, 512, 529, 593, 641, 679, 860L, 956, 1361, 1374, 4001, 4041, 4092, 4261, 6039D, 6048, 6050R, 6501, 6693, 7701, and 9503 of this title, section 1055 of Title 29, Labor, and provisions set out as notes under sections 529 and 4091 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–188] to which they relate.

“(2) Certain administrative requirements with respect to certain pension plans.—The amendment made by subsection (d)(2)(D) [amending section 401 of this title] shall apply to calendar years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Effective Date

Section 1807(e) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 137 of this title, renumbering former section 137 of this title as section 138, and amending sections 25, 86, 135, 219, 469, and 1016 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.”

Tax Credit and Gross Income Exclusion Study and Report

Section 1807(d) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The Secretary of the Treasury shall study the effect on adoptions of the tax credit and gross income exclusion established by the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 137 of this title, renumbering former section 137 of this title as section 138, and amending sections 25, 86, 135, 219, 469, and 1016 of this title] and shall submit a report regarding the study to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives not later than January 1, 2000.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 25, 137, 1016 of this title.

§24. Child tax credit

(a) Allowance of credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year with respect to each qualifying child of the taxpayer an amount equal to $500 ($400 in the case of taxable years beginning in 1998).

(b) Limitation based on adjusted gross income

(1) In general

The amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by $50 for each $1,000 (or fraction thereof) by which the taxpayer's modified adjusted gross income exceeds the threshold amount. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “modified adjusted gross income” means adjusted gross income increased by any amount excluded from gross income under section 911, 931, or 933.

(2) Threshold amount

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “threshold amount” means—

(A) $110,000 in the case of a joint return,

(B) $75,000 in the case of an individual who is not married, and

(C) $55,000 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return.


For purposes of this paragraph, marital status shall be determined under section 7703.

(c) Qualifying child

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term “qualifying child” means any individual if—

(A) the taxpayer is allowed a deduction under section 151 with respect to such individual for the taxable year,

(B) such individual has not attained the age of 17 as of the close of the calendar year in which the taxable year of the taxpayer begins, and

(C) such individual bears a relationship to the taxpayer described in section 32(c)(3)(B).

(2) Exception for certain noncitizens

The term “qualifying child” shall not include any individual who would not be a dependent if the first sentence of section 152(b)(3) were applied without regard to all that follows “resident of the United States”.

(d) Additional credit for families with 3 or more children

(1) In general

In the case of a taxpayer with three or more qualifying children for any taxable year, the aggregate credits allowed under subpart C shall be increased by the lesser of—

(A) the credit which would be allowed under this section without regard to this subsection and the limitation under section 26(a); or

(B) the amount by which the aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart (without regard to this subsection) would increase if the limitation imposed by section 26(a) were increased by the excess (if any) of—

(i) the taxpayer's Social Security taxes for the taxable year, over

(ii) the credit allowed under section 32 (determined without regard to subsection (n)) for the taxable year.


The amount of the credit allowed under this subsection shall not be treated as a credit allowed under this subpart and shall reduce the amount of credit otherwise allowable under subsection (a) without regard to section 26(a).

(2) Reduction of credit to taxpayer subject to alternative minimum tax

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1998, the credit determined under this subsection for the taxable year shall be reduced by the excess (if any) of—

(A) the amount of tax imposed by section 55 (relating to alternative minimum tax) with respect to such taxpayer for such taxable year, over

(B) the amount of the reduction under section 32(h) with respect to such taxpayer for such taxable year.

(3) Social security taxes

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(A) In general

The term “social security taxes” means, with respect to any taxpayer for any taxable year—

(i) the amount of the taxes imposed by sections 3101 and 3201(a) on amounts received by the taxpayer during the calendar year in which the taxable year begins,

(ii) 50 percent of the taxes imposed by section 1401 on the self-employment income of the taxpayer for the taxable year, and

(iii) 50 percent of the taxes imposed by section 3211(a)(1) on amounts received by the taxpayer during the calendar year in which the taxable year begins.

(B) Coordination with special refund of social security taxes

The term “social security taxes” shall not include any taxes to the extent the taxpayer is entitled to a special refund of such taxes under section 6413(c).

(C) Special rule

Any amounts paid pursuant to an agreement under section 3121(l) (relating to agreements entered into by American employers with respect to foreign affiliates) which are equivalent to the taxes referred to in subparagraph (A)(i) shall be treated as taxes referred to in such subparagraph.

(e) Identification requirement

No credit shall be allowed under this section to a taxpayer with respect to any qualifying child unless the taxpayer includes the name and taxpayer identification number of such qualifying child on the return of tax for the taxable year.

(f) Taxable year must be full taxable year

Except in the case of a taxable year closed by reason of the death of the taxpayer, no credit shall be allowable under this section in the case of a taxable year covering a period of less than 12 months.

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §101(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 796; amended Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6003(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 790; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title II, §2001(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–901.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 24, added Pub. L. 92–178, title VII, §701(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 560, §41; amended Pub. L. 93–625, §§11(a)–(c), (e), 12(a), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2119, 2120; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §503(b)(4), title XIX, §§1901(b)(1)(B), (H)(ii), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1562, 1790, 1791, 1834; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §113(c), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2778; Pub. L. 97–473, title II, §202(b)(1), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2609; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(c)(1), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87; renumbered §24 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(f), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 831, related to contributions to candidates for public office, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §§112(a), 151(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2108, 2121, applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(C), added par. (1) and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: “In the case of a taxpayer with 3 or more qualifying children for any taxable year, the amount of the credit allowed under this section shall be equal to the greater of—

“(A) the amount of the credit allowed under this section (without regard to this subsection and after application of the limitation under section 26), or

“(B) the alternative credit amount determined under paragraph (2).”

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted “For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1998, the credit” for “The credit”.

Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(C), added par. (2) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows: “For purposes of this subsection, the alternative credit amount is the amount of the credit which would be allowed under this section if the limitation under paragraph (3) were applied in lieu of the limitation under section 26.”

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(A), (B), (2), redesignated par. (5) as (3), substituted “paragraph (1)” for “paragraph (3)” in introductory provisions, and struck out heading and text of former par. (3). Text read as follows: “The limitation under this paragraph for any taxable year is the limitation under section 26 (without regard to this subsection)—

“(A) increased by the taxpayer's social security taxes for such taxable year, and

“(B) reduced by the sum of—

“(i) the credits allowed under this part other than under subpart C or this section, and

“(ii) the credit allowed under section 32 without regard to subsection (m) thereof.”

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(A), struck out heading and text of par. (4). Text read as follows: “If the amount of the credit under paragraph (1)(B) exceeds the amount of the credit under paragraph (1)(A), such excess shall be treated as a credit to which subpart C applies. The rule of section 32(h) shall apply to such excess.”

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(B), redesignated par. (5) as (3).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title II, §2001(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–901, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 26 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 101(e) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 32, 501, and 6213 of this title and section 1324 of Title 31, Money and Finance] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 32, 501, 6213 of this title.

§25. Interest on certain home mortgages

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the product of—

(A) the certificate credit rate, and

(B) the interest paid or accrued by the taxpayer during the taxable year on the remaining principal of the certified indebtedness amount.

(2) Limitation where credit rate exceeds 20 percent

(A) In general

If the certificate credit rate exceeds 20 percent, the amount of the credit allowed to the taxpayer under paragraph (1) for any taxable year shall not exceed $2,000.

(B) Special rule where 2 or more persons hold interests in residence

If 2 or more persons hold interests in any residence, the limitation of subparagraph (A) shall be allocated among such persons in proportion to their respective interests in the residence.

(b) Certificate credit rate; certified indebtedness amount

For purposes of this section—

(1) Certificate credit rate

The term “certificate credit rate” means the rate of the credit allowable by this section which is specified in the mortgage credit certificate.

(2) Certified indebtedness amount

The term “certified indebtedness amount” means the amount of indebtedness which is—

(A) incurred by the taxpayer—

(i) to acquire the principal residence of the taxpayer,

(ii) as a qualified home improvement loan (as defined in section 143(k)(4)) with respect to such residence, or

(iii) as a qualified rehabilitation loan (as defined in section 143(k)(5)) with respect to such residence, and


(B) specified in the mortgage credit certificate.

(c) Mortgage credit certificate; qualified mortgage credit certificate program

For purposes of this section—

(1) Mortgage credit certificate

The term “mortgage credit certificate” means any certificate which—

(A) is issued under a qualified mortgage credit certificate program by the State or political subdivision having the authority to issue a qualified mortgage bond to provide financing on the principal residence of the taxpayer,

(B) is issued to the taxpayer in connection with the acquisition, qualified rehabilitation, or qualified home improvement of the taxpayer's principal residence,

(C) specifies—

(i) the certificate credit rate, and

(ii) the certified indebtedness amount, and


(D) is in such form as the Secretary may prescribe.

(2) Qualified mortgage credit certificate program

(A) In general

The term “qualified mortgage credit certificate program” means any program—

(i) which is established by a State or political subdivision thereof for any calendar year for which it is authorized to issue qualified mortgage bonds,

(ii) under which the issuing authority elects (in such manner and form as the Secretary may prescribe) not to issue an amount of private activity bonds which it may otherwise issue during such calendar year under section 146,

(iii) under which the indebtedness certified by mortgage credit certificates meets the requirements of the following subsections of section 143 (as modified by subparagraph (B) of this paragraph):

(I) subsection (c) (relating to residence requirements),

(II) subsection (d) (relating to 3-year requirement),

(III) subsection (e) (relating to purchase price requirement),

(IV) subsection (f) (relating to income requirements),

(V) subsection (h) (relating to portion of loans required to be placed in targeted areas), and

(VI) paragraph (1) of subsection (i) (relating to other requirements),


(iv) under which no mortgage credit certificate may be issued with respect to any residence any of the financing of which is provided from the proceeds of a qualified mortgage bond or a qualified veterans’ mortgage bond,

(v) except to the extent provided in regulations, which is not limited to indebtedness incurred from particular lenders,

(vi) except to the extent provided in regulations, which provides that a mortgage credit certificate is not transferrable, and

(vii) if the issuing authority allocates a block of mortgage credit certificates for use in connection with a particular development, which requires the developer to furnish to the issuing authority and the homebuyer a certificate that the price for the residence is no higher than it would be without the use of a mortgage credit certificate.


Under regulations, rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 143(a)(2) shall apply to the requirements of this subparagraph.

(B) Modifications of section 143

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in applying section 143 for purposes of subclauses (II), (IV), and (V) of subparagraph (A)(iii)—

(i) each qualified mortgage certificate credit program shall be treated as a separate issue,

(ii) the product determined by multiplying—

(I) the certified indebtedness amount of each mortgage credit certificate issued under such program, by

(II) the certificate credit rate specified in such certificate,


 shall be treated as proceeds of such issue and the sum of such products shall be treated as the total proceeds of such issue, and

(iii) paragraph (1) of section 143(d) shall be applied by substituting “100 percent” for “95 percent or more”.


Clause (iii) shall not apply if the issuing authority submits a plan to the Secretary for administering the 95-percent requirement of section 143(d)(1) and the Secretary is satisfied that such requirement will be met under such plan.

(d) Determination of certificate credit rate

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The certificate credit rate specified in any mortgage credit certificate shall not be less than 10 percent or more than 50 percent.

(2) Aggregate limit on certificate credit rates

(A) In general

In the case of each qualified mortgage credit certificate program, the sum of the products determined by multiplying—

(i) the certified indebtedness amount of each mortgage credit certificate issued under such program, by

(ii) the certificate credit rate with respect to such certificate,


shall not exceed 25 percent of the nonissued bond amount.

(B) Nonissued bond amount

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “nonissued bond amount” means, with respect to any qualified mortgage credit certificate program, the amount of qualified mortgage bonds which the issuing authority is otherwise authorized to issue and elects not to issue under subsection (c)(2)(A)(ii).

(e) Special rules and definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Carryforward of unused credit

(A) In general

If the credit allowable under subsection (a) for any taxable year exceeds the applicable tax limit for such taxable year, such excess shall be a carryover to each of the 3 succeeding taxable years and, subject to the limitations of subparagraph (B), shall be added to the credit allowable by subsection (a) for such succeeding taxable year.

(B) Limitation

The amount of the unused credit which may be taken into account under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall not exceed the amount (if any) by which the applicable tax limit for such taxable year exceeds the sum of—

(i) the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such taxable year determined without regard to this paragraph, and

(ii) the amounts which, by reason of this paragraph, are carried to such taxable year and are attributable to taxable years before the unused credit year.

(C) Applicable tax limit

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “applicable tax limit” means the limitation imposed by section 26(a) for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and sections 23 and 1400C).

(2) Indebtedness not treated as certified where certain requirements not in fact met

Subsection (a) shall not apply to any indebtedness if all the requirements of subsection (c)(1), (d), (e), (f), and (i) of section 143 and clauses (iv), (v), and (vii) of subsection (c)(2)(A), were not in fact met with respect to such indebtedness. Except to the extent provided in regulations, the requirements described in the preceding sentence shall be treated as met if there is a certification, under penalty of perjury, that such requirements are met.

(3) Period for which certificate in effect

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a mortgage credit certificate shall be treated as in effect with respect to interest attributable to the period—

(i) beginning on the date such certificate is issued, and

(ii) ending on the earlier of the date on which—

(I) the certificate is revoked by the issuing authority, or

(II) the residence to which such certificate relates ceases to be the principal residence of the individual to whom the certificate relates.

(B) Certificate invalid unless indebtedness incurred within certain period

A certificate shall not apply to any indebtedness which is incurred after the close of the second calendar year following the calendar year for which the issuing authority made the applicable election under subsection (c)(2)(A)(ii).

(C) Notice to Secretary when certificate revoked

Any issuing authority which revokes any mortgage credit certificate shall notify the Secretary of such revocation at such time and in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulations.

(4) Reissuance of mortgage credit certificates

The Secretary may prescribe regulations which allow the administrator of a mortgage credit certificate program to reissue a mortgage credit certificate specifying a certified mortgage indebtedness that replaces the outstanding balance of the certified mortgage indebtedness specified on the original certificate to any taxpayer to whom the original certificate was issued, under such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines are necessary to ensure that the amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to such reissued certificate is equal to or less than the amount of credit which would be allowable under subsection (a) with respect to the original certificate for any taxable year ending after such reissuance.

(5) Public notice that certificates will be issued

At least 90 days before any mortgage credit certificate is to be issued after a qualified mortgage credit certificate program, the issuing authority shall provide reasonable public notice of—

(A) the eligibility requirements for such certificate,

(B) the methods by which such certificates are to be issued, and

(C) such other information as the Secretary may require.

(6) Interest paid or accrued to related persons

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any interest paid or accrued to a person who is a related person to the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 144(a)(3)(A)).

(7) Principal residence

The term “principal residence” has the same meaning as when used in section 121.

(8) Qualified rehabilitation and home improvement

(A) Qualified rehabilitation

The term “qualified rehabilitation” has the meaning given such term by section 143(k)(5)(B).

(B) Qualified home improvement

The term “qualified home improvement” means an alteration, repair, or improvement described in section 143(k)(4).

(9) Qualified mortgage bond

The term “qualified mortgage bond” has the meaning given such term by section 143(a)(1).

(10) Manufactured housing

For purposes of this section, the term “single family residence” includes any manufactured home which has a minimum of 400 square feet of living space and a minimum width in excess of 102 inches and which is of a kind customarily used at a fixed location. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed as providing that such a home will be taken into account in making determinations under section 143.

(f) Reduction in aggregate amount of qualified mortgage bonds which may be issued where certain requirements not met

(1) In general

If for any calendar year any mortgage credit certificate program which satisfies procedural requirements with respect to volume limitations prescribed by the Secretary fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (2) of subsection (d), such requirements shall be treated as satisfied with respect to any certified indebtedness of such program, but the applicable State ceiling under subsection (d) of section 146 for the State in which such program operates shall be reduced by 1.25 times the correction amount with respect to such failure. Such reduction shall be applied to such State ceiling for the calendar year following the calendar year in which the Secretary determines the correction amount with respect to such failure.

(2) Correction amount

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “correction amount” means an amount equal to the excess credit amount divided by 0.25.

(B) Excess credit amount

(i) In general

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii), the term “excess credit amount” means the excess of—

(I) the credit amount for any mortgage credit certificate program, over

(II) the amount which would have been the credit amount for such program had such program met the requirements of paragraph (2) of subsection (d).

(ii) Credit amount

For purposes of clause (i), the term “credit amount” means the sum of the products determined under clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection (d)(2)(A).

(3) Special rule for States having constitutional home rule cities

In the case of a State having one or more constitutional home rule cities (within the meaning of section 146(d)(3)(C)), the reduction in the State ceiling by reason of paragraph (1) shall be allocated to the constitutional home rule city, or to the portion of the State not within such city, whichever caused the reduction.

(4) Exception where certification program

The provisions of this subsection shall not apply in any case in which there is a certification program which is designed to ensure that the requirements of this section are met and which meets such requirements as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.

(5) Waiver

The Secretary may waive the application of paragraph (1) in any case in which he determines that the failure is due to reasonable cause.

(g) Reporting requirements

Each person who makes a loan which is a certified indebtedness amount under any mortgage credit certificate shall file a report with the Secretary containing—

(1) the name, address, and social security account number of the individual to which the certificate was issued,

(2) the certificate's issuer, date of issue, certified indebtedness amount, and certificate credit rate, and

(3) such other information as the Secretary may require by regulations.


Each person who issues a mortgage credit certificate shall file a report showing such information as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe. Any such report shall be filed at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may require by regulations.

(h) Regulations; contracts

(1) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations which may require recipients of mortgage credit certificates to pay a reasonable processing fee to defray the expenses incurred in administering the program.

(2) Contracts

The Secretary is authorized to enter into contracts with any person to provide services in connection with the administration of this section.

(i) Recapture of portion of Federal subsidy from use of mortgage credit certificates

For provisions increasing the tax imposed by this chapter to recapture a portion of the Federal subsidy from the use of mortgage credit certificates, see section 143(m).

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §612(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 905; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(f), title XVIII, §§1862(a)–(d)(1), 1899A(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2655, 2883, 2884, 2958; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(a)(25), (26), title IV, §4005(a)(2), (g)(7), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3543, 3645, 3651; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7104(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2305; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11408(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–477; Pub. L. 102–227, title I, §108(b), Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13141(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1807(c)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(d)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6008(d)(7), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 812.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 25 was renumbered section 26 of this title.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted “sections 23 and 1400C” for “section 23”.

1997—Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 105–34 substituted “section 121” for “section 1034”.

1996—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–188 inserted “and section 23” after “other than this section”.

1993—Subsecs. (h) to (j). Pub. L. 103–66 redesignated subsecs. (i) and (j) as (h) and (i), respectively, and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (h). Text read as follows: “No election may be made under subsection (c)(2)(A)(ii) for any period after June 30, 1992.”

1991—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–227 substituted “June 30, 1992” for “December 31, 1991”.

1990—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted “December 31, 1991” for “September 30, 1990”.

1989—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “for any period after September 30, 1990” for “for any calendar year after 1989”.

1988—Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(a)(25), amended Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(C)(ii), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–647, §4005(a)(2), substituted “1989” for “1988”.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(a)(26), substituted “1988” for “1987”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–647, §4005(g)(7), added subsec. (j).

1986—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1862(d)(1), substituted “paid or accrued” for “paid or incurred”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(A), substituted “section 143(k)(4)” for “section 103A(l)(6)”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(B), substituted “section 143(k)(5)” for “section 103A(l)(7)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(E), substituted “section 143(a)(2)” for “section 103A(c)(2)” in provision following cl. (vii).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1862(b), inserted “Under regulations, rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 103A(c)(2) shall apply to the requirements of this subparagraph.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(C)(ii), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(a)(25), substituted “private activity bonds which it may otherwise issue during such calendar year under section 146” for “qualified mortgage bonds which it may otherwise issue during such calendar year under section 103A”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(C)(i), substituted “section 143” for “section 103A” in introductory provisions, added subcls. (I) to (VI), and struck out former subcls. (I) to (V) which read as follows:

“(I) subsection (d) (relating to residence requirements),

“(II) subsection (e) (relating to 3-year requirement),

“(III) subsection (f) (relating to purchase price requirement),

“(IV) subsection (h) (relating to portion of loans required to be placed in targeted areas), and

“(V) subsection (j), other than paragraph (2) thereof (relating to other requirements),”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii)(V). Pub. L. 99–514, §1862(a), substituted “subsection (j), other than paragraph (2) thereof” for “paragraph (1) of subsection (j)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(C)(i), substituted in heading and introductory provisions “section 143” for “section 103A”.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(F), inserted in introductory provisions reference to subcl. (V), added cl. (iii) and closing provisions, and struck out former cl. (iii) and closing provisions which read as follows:

“(iii) paragraph (1) of section 103A(e) shall be applied by substituting ‘100 percent’ for ‘90 percent or more’.

Clause (iii) shall not apply if the issuing authority submits a plan to the Secretary for administering the 90-percent requirement of section 103A(e)(1) and the Secretary is satisfied that such requirement will be met under such plan.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(1)(A), substituted “25 percent” for “20 percent” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(G), struck out par. (3) “Additional limit in certain cases” which read as follows: “In the case of a qualified mortgage credit certificate program in a State which—

“(A) has a State ceiling (as defined in section 103A(g)(4)) for the year an election is made that exceeds 20 percent of the average annual aggregate principal amount of mortgages executed during the immediately preceding 3 calendar years for single family owner-occupied residences located within the jurisdiction of such State, or

“(B) issued qualified mortgage bonds in an aggregate amount less than $150,000,000 for calendar year 1983,

the certificate credit rate for any mortgage credit certificate shall not exceed 20 percent unless the issuing authority submits a plan to the Secretary to ensure that the weighted average of the certificate credit rates in such mortgage credit certificate program does not exceed 20 percent and the Secretary approves such plan.”

Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1862(c), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) “Limitations” read as follows: “The amount of the unused credit which may be taken into account under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall not exceed the amount by which the applicable tax limit for such taxable year exceeds the sum of the amounts which, by reason of this paragraph, are carried to such taxable year and are attributable to taxable years before the unused credit year.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(H), substituted “subsections (c)(1), (d), (e), (f), and (i) of section 143” for “subsection (d)(1), (e), (f), and (j) of section 103A”.

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(I), substituted “section 144(a)(3)(A)” for “section 103(b)(6)(C)(i)”.

Subsec. (e)(8)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(J), substituted “section 143(k)(5)(B)” for “section 103A(l)(7)(B)”.

Subsec. (e)(8)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(K), substituted “section 143(k)(4)” for “section 103A(l)(6)”.

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(L), substituted “section 143(a)(1)” for “section 103A(c)(1)”.

Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(M), substituted “section 143” for “section 103A”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(N), substituted “subsection (d) of section 146” for “paragraph (4) of section 103A(g)”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(1)(B), substituted “0.25” for “0.20”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(O), substituted “section 146(d)(3)(C)” for “section 103A(g)(5)(C)”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(1), substituted “ensure” for “insure”.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1807(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as an Effective Date note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13141(f)(2) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to elections for periods after June 30, 1992.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 108(c)(2) of Pub. L. 102–227 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to elections for periods after December 31, 1991.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to elections for periods after Sept. 30, 1990, see section 11408(d)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 143 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1013(a)(25), (26) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 4005(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to bonds issued, and nonissued bond amounts elected, after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 4005(h)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 143 of this title.

Amendment by section 4005(g)(7) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to financing provided, and mortgage credit certificates issued, after Dec. 31, 1990, with certain exceptions, see section 4005(h)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 143 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1301(f)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to nonissued bond amounts elected after Aug. 15, 1986, and amendment by section 1301(f)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to certificates issued with respect to nonissued bond amounts elected after Aug. 15, 1986, see section 1311(b) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Amendment by section 1862(a)–(d)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 612(g) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6708 of this title, redesignating former section 25 as 26, and amending sections 23, 28 to 30, 38, 55, 103A, 163, 168, and 901 of this title] shall apply to interest paid or accrued after December 31, 1984, on indebtedness incurred after December 31, 1984.

“(2) Elections.—The amendments made by this section shall apply to elections under section 25(c)(2)(A)(ii) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by this section) for calendar years after 1983.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 143, 146, 163, 6708 of this title; title 42 section 12852.

§25A. Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

(a) Allowance of credit

In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year the amount equal to the sum of—

(1) the Hope Scholarship Credit, plus

(2) the Lifetime Learning Credit.

(b) Hope Scholarship Credit

(1) Per student credit

In the case of any eligible student for whom an election is in effect under this section for any taxable year, the Hope Scholarship Credit is an amount equal to the sum of—

(A) 100 percent of so much of the qualified tuition and related expenses paid by the taxpayer during the taxable year (for education furnished to the eligible student during any academic period beginning in such taxable year) as does not exceed $1,000, plus

(B) 50 percent of such expenses so paid as exceeds $1,000 but does not exceed the applicable limit.

(2) Limitations applicable to Hope Scholarship Credit

(A) Credit allowed only for 2 taxable years

An election to have this section apply with respect to any eligible student for purposes of the Hope Scholarship Credit under subsection (a)(1) may not be made for any taxable year if such an election (by the taxpayer or any other individual) is in effect with respect to such student for any 2 prior taxable years.

(B) Credit allowed for year only if individual is at least 1/2 time student for portion of year

The Hope Scholarship Credit under subsection (a)(1) shall not be allowed for a taxable year with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an individual unless such individual is an eligible student for at least one academic period which begins during such year.

(C) Credit allowed only for first 2 years of postsecondary education

The Hope Scholarship Credit under subsection (a)(1) shall not be allowed for a taxable year with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an eligible student if the student has completed (before the beginning of such taxable year) the first 2 years of postsecondary education at an eligible educational institution.

(D) Denial of credit if student convicted of a felony drug offense

The Hope Scholarship Credit under subsection (a)(1) shall not be allowed for qualified tuition and related expenses for the enrollment or attendance of a student for any academic period if such student has been convicted of a Federal or State felony offense consisting of the possession or distribution of a controlled substance before the end of the taxable year with or within which such period ends.

(3) Eligible student

For purposes of this subsection, the term “eligible student” means, with respect to any academic period, a student who—

(A) meets the requirements of section 484(a)(1) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1091(a)(1)), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, and

(B) is carrying at least 1/2 the normal full-time work load for the course of study the student is pursuing.

(4) Applicable limit

For purposes of paragraph (1)(B), the applicable limit for any taxable year is an amount equal to 2 times the dollar amount in effect under paragraph (1)(A) for such taxable year.

(c) Lifetime Learning Credit

(1) Per taxpayer credit

The Lifetime Learning Credit for any taxpayer for any taxable year is an amount equal to 20 percent of so much of the qualified tuition and related expenses paid by the taxpayer during the taxable year (for education furnished during any academic period beginning in such taxable year) as does not exceed $10,000 ($5,000 in the case of taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003).

(2) Special rules for determining expenses

(A) Coordination with Hope Scholarship

The qualified tuition and related expenses with respect to an individual who is an eligible student for whom a Hope Scholarship Credit under subsection (a)(1) is allowed for the taxable year shall not be taken into account under this subsection.

(B) Expenses eligible for Lifetime Learning Credit

For purposes of paragraph (1), qualified tuition and related expenses shall include expenses described in subsection (f)(1) with respect to any course of instruction at an eligible educational institution to acquire or improve job skills of the individual.

(d) Limitation based on modified adjusted gross income

(1) In general

The amount which would (but for this subsection) be taken into account under subsection (a) for the taxable year shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount determined under paragraph (2).

(2) Amount of reduction

The amount determined under this paragraph is the amount which bears the same ratio to the amount which would be so taken into account as—

(A) the excess of—

(i) the taxpayer's modified adjusted gross income for such taxable year, over

(ii) $40,000 ($80,000 in the case of a joint return), bears to


(B) $10,000 ($20,000 in the case of a joint return).

(3) Modified adjusted gross income

The term “modified adjusted gross income” means the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year increased by any amount excluded from gross income under section 911, 931, or 933.

(e) Election to have section apply

(1) In general

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for a taxable year with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an individual unless the taxpayer elects to have this section apply with respect to such individual for such year.

(2) Coordination with exclusions

An election under this subsection shall not take effect with respect to an individual for any taxable year if any portion of any distribution during such taxable year from an education individual retirement account is excluded from gross income under section 530(d)(2).

(f) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified tuition and related expenses

(A) In general

The term “qualified tuition and related expenses” means tuition and fees required for the enrollment or attendance of—

(i) the taxpayer,

(ii) the taxpayer's spouse, or

(iii) any dependent of the taxpayer with respect to whom the taxpayer is allowed a deduction under section 151,


at an eligible educational institution for courses of instruction of such individual at such institution.

(B) Exception for education involving sports, etc.

Such term does not include expenses with respect to any course or other education involving sports, games, or hobbies, unless such course or other education is part of the individual's degree program.

(C) Exception for nonacademic fees

Such term does not include student activity fees, athletic fees, insurance expenses, or other expenses unrelated to an individual's academic course of instruction.

(2) Eligible educational institution

The term “eligible educational institution” means an institution—

(A) which is described in section 481 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1088), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, and

(B) which is eligible to participate in a program under title IV of such Act.

(g) Special rules

(1) Identification requirement

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) to a taxpayer with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an individual unless the taxpayer includes the name and taxpayer identification number of such individual on the return of tax for the taxable year.

(2) Adjustment for certain scholarships, etc.

The amount of qualified tuition and related expenses otherwise taken into account under subsection (a) with respect to an individual for an academic period shall be reduced (before the application of subsections (b), (c), and (d)) by the sum of any amounts paid for the benefit of such individual which are allocable to such period as—

(A) a qualified scholarship which is excludable from gross income under section 117,

(B) an educational assistance allowance under chapter 30, 31, 32, 34, or 35 of title 38, United States Code, or under chapter 1606 of title 10, United States Code, and

(C) a payment (other than a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance within the meaning of section 102(a)) for such individual's educational expenses, or attributable to such individual's enrollment at an eligible educational institution, which is excludable from gross income under any law of the United States.

(3) Treatment of expenses paid by dependent

If a deduction under section 151 with respect to an individual is allowed to another taxpayer for a taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which such individual's taxable year begins—

(A) no credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) to such individual for such individual's taxable year, and

(B) qualified tuition and related expenses paid by such individual during such individual's taxable year shall be treated for purposes of this section as paid by such other taxpayer.

(4) Treatment of certain prepayments

If qualified tuition and related expenses are paid by the taxpayer during a taxable year for an academic period which begins during the first 3 months following such taxable year, such academic period shall be treated for purposes of this section as beginning during such taxable year.

(5) Denial of double benefit

No credit shall be allowed under this section for any expense for which a deduction is allowed under any other provision of this chapter.

(6) No credit for married individuals filing separate returns

If the taxpayer is a married individual (within the meaning of section 7703), this section shall apply only if the taxpayer and the taxpayer's spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(7) Nonresident aliens

If the taxpayer is a nonresident alien individual for any portion of the taxable year, this section shall apply only if such individual is treated as a resident alien of the United States for purposes of this chapter by reason of an election under subsection (g) or (h) of section 6013.

(h) Inflation adjustments

(1) Dollar limitation on amount of credit

(A) In general

In the case of a taxable year beginning after 2001, each of the $1,000 amounts under subsection (b)(1) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(i) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(ii) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting “calendar year 2000” for “calendar year 1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof.

(B) Rounding

If any amount as adjusted under subparagraph (A) is not a multiple of $100, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $100.

(2) Income limits

(A) In general

In the case of a taxable year beginning after 2001, the $40,000 and $80,000 amounts in subsection (d)(2) shall each be increased by an amount equal to—

(i) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(ii) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting “calendar year 2000” for “calendar year 1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof.

(B) Rounding

If any amount as adjusted under subparagraph (A) is not a multiple of $1,000, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $1,000.

(i) Regulations

The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out this section, including regulations providing for a recapture of the credit allowed under this section in cases where there is a refund in a subsequent taxable year of any amount which was taken into account in determining the amount of such credit.

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §201(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 799.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3)(A) and (f)(2)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–34 which was approved Aug. 5, 1997.

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, as amended. Title IV of the Act is classified generally to subchapter IV (§1070 et seq.) of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education, and part C (§2751 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 34 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section 201(f) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6050S of this title and amending sections 135, 6213, and 6724 of this title] shall apply to expenses paid after December 31, 1997 (in taxable years ending after such date), for education furnished in academic periods beginning after such date.

“(2) Lifetime learning credit.—Section 25A(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall apply to expenses paid after June 30, 1998 (in taxable years ending after such date), for education furnished in academic periods beginning after such dates.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 72, 135, 221, 529, 530, 6050S, 6213 of this title; title 20 sections 1087oo, 1087pp, 1087qq, 1087ss, 1087vv.

§26. Limitation based on tax liability; definition of tax liability

(a) Limitation based on amount of tax

The aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart for the taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(1) the taxpayer's regular tax liability for the taxable year, over

(2) the tentative minimum tax for the taxable year (determined without regard to the alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit).


For purposes of paragraph (2), the taxpayer's tentative minimum tax for any taxable year beginning during 1998 shall be treated as being zero.

(b) Regular tax liability

For purposes of this part—

(1) In general

The term “regular tax liability” means the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year.

(2) Exception for certain taxes

For purposes of paragraph (1), any tax imposed by any of the following provisions shall not be treated as tax imposed by this chapter:

(A) section 55 (relating to minimum tax),

(B) section 59A (relating to environmental tax),

(C) subsection (m)(5)(B), (q), (t), or (v) of section 72 (relating to additional taxes on certain distributions),

(D) section 143(m) (relating to recapture of proration of Federal subsidy from use of mortgage bonds and mortgage credit certificates),

(E) section 530(d)(3) (relating to additional tax on certain distributions from education individual retirement accounts),

(F) section 531 (relating to accumulated earnings tax),

(G) section 541 (relating to personal holding company tax),

(H) section 1351(d)(1) (relating to recoveries of foreign expropriation losses),

(I) section 1374 (relating to tax on certain built-in gains of S corporations),

(J) section 1375 (relating to tax imposed when passive investment income of corporation having subchapter C earnings and profits exceeds 25 percent of gross receipts),

(K) subparagraph (A) of section 7518(g)(6) (relating to nonqualified withdrawals from capital construction funds taxed at highest marginal rate),

(L) sections 871(a) and 881 (relating to certain income of nonresident aliens and foreign corporations),

(M) section 860E(e) (relating to taxes with respect to certain residual interests),

(N) section 884 (relating to branch profits tax),

(O) sections 453(l)(3) and 453A(c) (relating to interest on certain deferred tax liabilities),

(P) section 860K (relating to treatment of transfers of high-yield interests to disqualified holders), and

(Q) section 220(f)(4) (relating to additional tax on medical savings account distributions not used for qualified medical expenses).

(c) Tentative minimum tax

For purposes of this part, the term “tentative minimum tax” means the amount determined under section 55(b)(1).

(Added §25, renumbered §26, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §472, title VI, §612(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 827, 905; amended Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §516(b)(1)(A), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1770; Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §261(c), title VI, §632(c)(1), title VII, §701(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2214, 2277, 2340; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1006(t)(16)(C), 1007(g)(1), 1011A(c)(10), 1012(q)(8), title IV, §4005(g)(4), title V, §5012(b)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3425, 3434, 3476, 3524, 3650, 3662; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7811(c)(1), (2), 7821(a)(4)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2406, 2407, 2424; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1621(b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1866; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §213(e)(1), title XVI, §1602(a)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 817, 1093; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title II, §2001(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–901.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–277 inserted concluding provisions.

1997—Subsec. (b)(2)(E) to (O). Pub. L. 105–34, §213(e)(1), added subpar. (E) and redesignated former subpars. (E) to (N) as (F) to (O), respectively. Former subpar. (O) redesignated (P).

Subsec. (b)(2)(P). Pub. L. 105–34, §213(e)(1), redesignated subpar. (P) as (Q).

Pub. L. 105–34, §1602(a)(1), added subpar. (P).

Subsec. (b)(2)(Q). Pub. L. 105–34, §213(e)(1), redesignated subpar. (P) as (Q).

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(O). Pub. L. 104–188 added subpar. (O).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(c)(1), amended subpars. (C) and (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpars. (C) and (D) read as follows:

“(C) subsection (m)(5)(B) (q), or (v) of section 72 (relating to additional tax on certain distributions),

“(D) section 72(t) (relating to 10-percent additional tax on early distributions from qualified retirement plans),”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(K). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(c)(2), added subpar. (K) and struck out former subpar. (K) which was identical.

Subsec. (b)(2)(L), (M). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(c)(2), added subpars. (L) and (M) and struck out former subpars. (L) and (M) which read as follows:

“(L) section 860E(e) (relating to taxes with respect to certain residual interests), and

“(L) section 884 (relating to branch profits tax), and

“(M) section 143(m) (relating to recapture of portion of federal subsidy from use of mortgage bonds and mortgage credit certificates).”

Subsec. (b)(2)(N). Pub. L. 101–239, §7821(a)(4)(A), which directed amendment of subsec. (b)(2) of this section “as amended by section 11811” by adding subpar. (N), was executed as if it directed amendment of subsec. (b)(2) of this section “as amended by section 7811”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the renumbering of section 11811 of H.R. 3299 as section 7811 prior to the enactment of H.R. 3299 into law as Pub. L. 101–239.

1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(10)(A), struck out “, (o)(2),” after “subsection (m)(5)(B)”.

Pub. L. 100–647, §5012(b)(2), substituted “(q), or (v)” for “or (q)”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(10)(B), substituted “72(t) (relating to 10-percent additional tax on early distributions from qualified retirement plans)” for “408(f) (relating to additional tax on income from certain retirement accounts)”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(K). Pub. L. 100–647, §1007(g)(1), substituted “corporations).” for “corporations,”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(L). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(8), added subpar. (L) relating to branch profits tax.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1006(t)(16)(C), added subpar. (L) relating to taxes with respect to certain residual interests.

Subsec. (b)(2)(M). Pub. L. 100–647, §4005(g)(4), added subpar. (M).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(A), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “The aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart for the taxable year shall not exceed the taxpayer's tax liability for such taxable year.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(B)(i), (v), substituted “Regular tax liability” for “Tax liability” in heading and “this part” for “this section” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(B)(ii), substituted “regular tax liability” for “tax liability”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–499 added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpars. (B) to (J) as (C) to (K), respectively.

Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(B)(iii), substituted “section 55 (relating to minimum tax)” for “section 56 (relating to corporate minimum tax)” in subpar. (A).

Pub. L. 99–514, §632(c)(1), substituted “certain built-in gains” for “certain capital gains” in subpar. (G).

Pub. L. 99–514, §261(c), added subpar. (I).

Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(B)(iv), added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(C), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions relating to tentative minimum tax for provisions referring to section 55(c) of this title for similar rule for alternative minimum tax for taxpayers other than corporations.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 2001(c) of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 213(f) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 530 of this title and amending this section and sections 135, 4973, 4975, and 6693 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Section 1602(i) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 162, 220, 264, 877, 2107, 2501, 4975, 6050Q, 6652, 6693, 6724, and 7702B of this title, renumbering section 6039F of this title as section 6039G of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 264 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–191] to which such amendments relate.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1621(d) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 860H to 860L of this title and amending this section and sections 56, 382, 582, 856, 860G, 1202, and 7701 of this title] shall take effect on September 1, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7811(c)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 7823 of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this part [part II (§§7821–7823) of subtitle H of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239, amending this section and sections 453A, 842, 1503, 6427, 6655, 6863, 7519, 7611, 9502, 9503, and 9508 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 56 and 7519 of this title], any amendment made by this part shall take effect as if included in the provision of the 1987 Act [Pub. L. 100–203, title X] to which such amendment relates.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1006(t)(16)(C) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable, with certain exceptions, to transfers after Mar. 31, 1988, and to excess inclusions for periods after Mar. 31, 1988, see section 1006(t)(16)(D)(ii)–(iv) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 860E of this title.

Amendment by sections 1007(g)(1), 1011A(c)(10), and 1012(q)(8) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 4005(g)(4) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable, with certain exceptions, to financing provided, and mortgage credit certificates issued, after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 4005(h)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 143 of this title.

Amendment by section 5012(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to contracts entered into on or after June 21, 1988, with special rule where death benefit increases by more than $150,000, certain other material changes taken into account, and certain exchanges permitted, see section 5012(e) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7702A of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 261(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 261(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7518 of this title.

Amendment by section 632(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, but only in cases where the return for the taxable year is filed pursuant to an S election made after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 633(b) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 336 of this title.

Amendment by section 632(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 not applicable in the case of certain transactions, see section 54(d)(3)(D) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 311 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Section 516(c) of Pub. L. 99–499 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 59A of this title and amending this section and sections 164, 275, 936, 1561, 6154, 6425, and 6655 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 21 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Public Law 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Treatment of Tax Imposed Under Former Section 409(c)

Section 491(f)(5) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “For purposes of section 26(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by this Act), any tax imposed by section 409(c) of such Code (as in effect before its repeal by this section) shall be treated as a tax imposed by section 408(f) of such Code.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 23, 24, 25, 32, 39, 55, 163, 469, 901, 1397E, 1400C of this title.

Subpart B—Other Credits

Sec.
27.
Taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States; possession tax credit.
[28.
Renumbered.]
29.
Credit for producing fuel from a nonconventional source.
30.
Credit for qualified electric vehicles.
30A.
Puerto Rico economic activity credit.

        

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, title XVI, §1601(f)(1)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1090, substituted “Puerto Rico” for “Puerto Rican” in item 30A.

1996—Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1205(a)(3)(A), 1601(b)(2)(E), (F)(i), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1775, 1833, substituted “Other Credits” for “Foreign Tax Credits, Etc.” in subpart heading, struck out item 28 “Clinical testing expenses for certain drugs for rare diseases or conditions”, and added item 30A.

1992—Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1913(b)(2)(A), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3020, added item 30.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §231(d)(3)(J), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2180, struck out item 30 “Credit for increasing research activities”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, added subpart B heading and analysis of sections for subpart B consisting of items 27 (formerly 33), 28 (formerly 44H), 29 (formerly 44D), and 30 (formerly 44F). Former subpart B was redesignated E.

Subpart Referred to in Other Sections

This subpart is referred to in sections 38, 53, 469, 6401 of this title.

§27. Taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States; possession tax credit

(a) Foreign tax credit

The amount of taxes imposed by foreign countries and possessions of the United States shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter to the extent provided in section 901.

(b) Section 936 credit

In the case of a domestic corporation, the amount provided by section 936 (relating to Puerto Rico and possession tax credit) shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 13, §33; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1051(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1643; renumbered §27, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826.)

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 33 of this title as this section.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1051(i) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) Except as provided by paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 936 of this title and amending sections 33 [now 27], 48, 116, 243, 246, 861, 901, 904, 931, 1504, and 6091 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975, except that ‘qualified possession source investment income’ as defined in section 936(d)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall include income from any source outside the United States if the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate that the income from such sources was earned before October 1, 1976.

“(2) The amendment made by subsection (d)(2) [amending section 901 of this title] shall not apply to any tax imposed by a possession of the United States with respect to the complete liquidation occurring before January 1, 1979, of a corporation to the extent that such tax is attributable to earnings and profits accumulated by such corporation during periods ending before January 1, 1976.”

Cross References

Foreign tax credit, see section 901 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 29, 30, 55, 59, 108, 469, 691, 921, 1351 of this title.

[§28. Renumbered §45C]

§29. Credit for producing fuel from a nonconventional source

(a) Allowance of credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to—

(1) $3, multiplied by

(2) the barrel-of-oil equivalent of qualified fuels—

(A) sold by the taxpayer to an unrelated person during the taxable year, and

(B) the production of which is attributable to the taxpayer.

(b) Limitations and adjustments

(1) Phaseout of credit

The amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) shall be reduced by an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount of the credit (determined without regard to this paragraph) as—

(A) the amount by which the reference price for the calendar year in which the sale occurs exceeds $23.50, bears to

(B) $6.

(2) Credit and phaseout adjustment based on inflation

The $3 amount in subsection (a) and the $23.50 and $6 amounts in paragraph (1) shall each be adjusted by multiplying such amount by the inflation adjustment factor for the calendar year in which the sale occurs. In the case of gas from a tight formation, the $3 amount in subsection (a) shall not be adjusted.

(3) Credit reduced for grants, tax-exempt bonds, and subsidized energy financing

(A) In general

The amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any project for any taxable year (determined after the application of paragraphs (1) and (2)) shall be reduced by the amount which is the product of the amount so determined for such year and a fraction—

(i) the numerator of which is the sum, for the taxable year and all prior taxable years, of—

(I) grants provided by the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State for use in connection with the project,

(II) proceeds of any issue of State or local government obligations used to provide financing for the project the interest on which is exempt from tax under section 103, and

(III) the aggregate amount of subsidized energy financing (within the meaning of section 48(a)(4)(C)) provided in connection with the project, and


(ii) the denominator of which is the aggregate amount of additions to the capital account for the project for the taxable year and all prior taxable years.

(B) Amounts determined at close of year

The amounts under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall be determined as of the close of the taxable year.

(4) Credit reduced for energy credit

The amount allowable as a credit under subsection (a) with respect to any project for any taxable year (determined after the application of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3)) shall be reduced by the excess of—

(A) the aggregate amount allowed under section 38 for the taxable year or any prior taxable year by reason of the energy percentage with respect to property used in the project, over

(B) the aggregate amount recaptured with respect to the amount described in subparagraph (A)—

(i) under section 49(b) or 50(a) for the taxable year or any prior taxable year, or

(ii) under this paragraph for any prior taxable year.


The amount recaptured under section 49(b) or 50(a) with respect to any property shall be appropriately reduced to take into account any reduction in the credit allowed by this section by reason of the preceding sentence.

(5) Credit reduced for enhanced oil recovery credit

The amount allowable as a credit under subsection (a) with respect to any project for any taxable year (determined after application of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4)) shall be reduced by the excess (if any) of—

(A) the aggregate amount allowed under section 38 for the taxable year and any prior taxable year by reason of any enhanced oil recovery credit determined under section 43 with respect to such project, over

(B) the aggregate amount recaptured with respect to the amount described in subparagraph (A) under this paragraph for any prior taxable year.

(6) Application with other credits

The credit allowed by subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(A) the regular tax for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A and section 27, over

(B) the tentative minimum tax for the taxable year.

(c) Definition of qualified fuels

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term “qualified fuels” means—

(A) oil produced from shale and tar sands,

(B) gas produced from—

(i) geopressured brine, Devonian shale, coal seams, or a tight formation, or

(ii) biomass, and


(C) liquid, gaseous, or solid synthetic fuels produced from coal (including lignite), including such fuels when used as feedstocks.

(2) Gas from geopressured brine, etc.

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the determination of whether any gas is produced from geopressured brine, Devonian shale, coal seams, or a tight formation shall be made in accordance with section 503 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978.

(B) Special rules for gas from tight formations

The term “gas produced from a tight formation” shall only include gas from a tight formation—

(i) which, as of April 20, 1977, was committed or dedicated to interstate commerce (as defined in section 2(18) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this clause), or

(ii) which is produced from a well drilled after such date of enactment.

(3) Biomass

The term “biomass” means any organic material other than—

(A) oil and natural gas (or any product thereof), and

(B) coal (including lignite) or any product thereof.

(d) Other definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Only production within the United States taken into account

Sales shall be taken into account under this section only with respect to qualified fuels the production of which is within—

(A) the United States (within the meaning of section 638(1)), or

(B) a possession of the United States (within the meaning of section 638(2)).

(2) Computation of inflation adjustment factor and reference price

(A) In general

The Secretary shall, not later than April 1 of each calendar year, determine and publish in the Federal Register the inflation adjustment factor and the reference price for the preceding calendar year in accordance with this paragraph.

(B) Inflation adjustment factor

The term “inflation adjustment factor” means, with respect to a calendar year, a fraction the numerator of which is the GNP implicit price deflator for the calendar year and the denominator of which is the GNP implicit price deflator for calendar year 1979. The term “GNP implicit price deflator” means the first revision of the implicit price deflator for the gross national product as computed and published by the Department of Commerce.

(C) Reference price

The term “reference price” means with respect to a calendar year the Secretary's estimate of the annual average wellhead price per barrel for all domestic crude oil the price of which is not subject to regulation by the United States.

(3) Production attributable to the taxpayer

In the case of a property or facility in which more than 1 person has an interest, except to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, production from the property or facility (as the case may be) shall be allocated among such persons in proportion to their respective interests in the gross sales from such property or facility.

(4) Gas from geopressured brine, Devonian shale, coal seams, or a tight formation

The amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) shall be determined without regard to any production attributable to a property from which gas from Devonian shale, coal seams, geopressured brine, or a tight formation was produced in marketable quantities before January 1, 1980.

(5) Barrel-of-oil equivalent

The term “barrel-of-oil equivalent” with respect to any fuel means that amount of such fuel which has a Btu content of 5.8 million; except that in the case of qualified fuels described in subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(1), the Btu content shall be determined without regard to any material from a source not described in such subparagraph.

(6) Barrel defined

The term “barrel” means 42 United States gallons.

(7) Related persons

Persons shall be treated as related to each other if such persons would be treated as a single employer under the regulations prescribed under section 52(b). In the case of a corporation which is a member of an affiliated group of corporations filing a consolidated return, such corporation shall be treated as selling qualified fuels to an unrelated person if such fuels are sold to such a person by another member of such group.

(8) Pass-thru in the case of estates and trusts

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of subsection (d) of section 52 shall apply.

(e) Application with the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978

(1) No credit if section 107 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 is utilized

Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to any natural gas described in subsection (c)(1)(B)(i) which is sold during the taxable year only if such natural gas is sold at a lawful price which is determined without regard to the provisions of section 107 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and subtitle B of title I of such Act.

(2) Treatment of this section

For purposes of section 107(d) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, this section shall not be treated as allowing any credit, exemption, deduction, or comparable adjustment applicable to the computation of any Federal tax.

(f) Application of section

This section shall apply with respect to qualified fuels—

(1) which are—

(A) produced from a well drilled after December 31, 1979, and before January 1, 1993, or

(B) produced in a facility placed in service after December 31, 1979, and before January 1, 1993, and


(2) which are sold before January 1, 2003.

(g) Extension for certain facilities

(1) In general

In the case of a facility for producing qualified fuels described in subparagraph (B)(ii) or (C) of subsection (c)(1)—

(A) for purposes of subsection (f)(1)(B), such facility shall be treated as being placed in service before January 1, 1993, if such facility is placed in service before July 1, 1998, pursuant to a binding written contract in effect before January 1, 1997, and

(B) if such facility is originally placed in service after December 31, 1992, paragraph (2) of subsection (f) shall be applied with respect to such facility by substituting “January 1, 2008” for “January 1, 2003”.

(2) Special rule

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any facility which produces coke or coke gas unless the original use of the facility commences with the taxpayer.

(Added Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §231(a), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 268, §44D; amended Pub. L. 97–34, title VI §611(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 339; Pub. L. 97–354, §5(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1692; Pub. L. 97–448, title II, §202(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2396; renumbered §29 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(h), title VI, §612(e)(1), title VII, §722(d)(1), (2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 831, 912, 973; Pub. L. 99–514, title VII, §701(c)(3), title XVIII, §1879(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2340, 2906; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6302, Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3755; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11501(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), 11813(b)(1), 11816, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–479, 1388–550, 1388–558; Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1918, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3025; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1205(d)(3), 1207(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1776.)

References in Text

The Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2)(A), (B)(i) and (e), is Pub. L. 95–621, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3350, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 60 (§3301 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. Subtitle B of title I of the Act, which was classified generally to part B of subchapter I (§3331 et seq.) of chapter 60 of Title 15, was repealed by Pub. L. 101–60, §2(b), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 158, effective Jan. 1, 1993. Section 2(18) of the Act is classified to section 3301(18) of Title 15. Sections 107 and 503 of the Act, which were classified to sections 3317 and 3413 of Title 15, respectively, were repealed by Pub. L. 101–60, §§2(b), 3(b)(5), July 26, 1989, 103 Stat. 158, 159, effective Jan. 1, 1993. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3301 of Title 15 and Tables.

The date of the enactment of this clause, and such date of enactment, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B), probably mean the date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–508, which amended subsec. (c)(2)(B) of this section generally, and which was approved Nov. 5, 1990.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(6)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, §1205(d)(3), substituted “section 27” for “sections 27 and 28”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, §1207(a), substituted “July 1, 1998” for “January 1, 1997” and “January 1, 1997” for “January 1, 1996”.

1992—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–486 added subsec. (g).

1990—Subsec. (b)(3)(A)(i)(III). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(1)(A), substituted “section 48(a)(4)(C)” for “section 48(l)(11)(C)”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(1)(B), substituted “section 49(b) or 50(a)” for “section 47” in two places.

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 101–508, §11501(c)(1), added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

Subsec. (c)(1)(B) to (E). Pub. L. 101–508, §11816(a), inserted “and” at end of subpar. (B), substituted a period for a comma at end of subpar. (C), and struck out subpar. (D) which related to qualifying processed wood fuels, and subpar. (E) which related to steam produced from solid agricultural byproducts (not including timber byproducts).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11501(b)(1), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “The term ‘gas produced from a tight formation’ shall only include—

“(i) gas the price of which is regulated by the United States, and

“(ii) gas for which the maximum lawful price applicable under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 is at least 150 percent of the then applicable price under section 103 of such Act.”

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(1)(C), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The term ‘biomass’ means any organic material which is an alternate substance (as defined in section 48(l)(3)(B)) other than coal (including lignite) or any product of such coal.”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101–508, §11816(b)(1), struck out par. (4) “Qualifying processed wood fuel” which read as follows:

“(A) In general.—The term ‘qualifying processed wood fuel’ means any processed solid wood fuel (other than charcoal, fireplace products, or a product used for ornamental or recreational purposes) which has a Btu content per unit of volume or weight, determined without regard to any nonwood elements, which is at least 40 percent greater per unit of volume or weight than the Btu content of the wood from which it is produced (determined immediately before the processing).

“(B) Election.—A taxpayer shall elect, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary by regulations may prescribe, as to whether Btu content per unit shall be determined for purposes of this paragraph on a volume or weight basis. Any such election—

“(i) shall apply to all production from a facility; and

“(ii) shall be effective for the taxable year with respect to which it is made and for all subsequent taxable years and, once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.”

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 101–508, §11816(b)(1), struck out par. (5) “Agricultural byproduct steam” which read as follows: “Steam produced from solid agricultural byproducts which is used by the taxpayer in his trade or business shall be treated as having been sold by the taxpayer to an unrelated person on the date on which it is used.”

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 101–508, §11816(b)(2), amended par. (4) generally, striking out “Special rules applicable to” before “Gas” in heading, redesignating former subpar. (A) as par. (4), striking out subpar. (B) which related to the reference price and application of phaseout for Devonian shale, and making minor changes in phraseology.

Subsec. (d)(5), (6). Pub. L. 101–508, §11816(b)(3), (4), redesignated par. (6) as (5), substituted “subparagraph (C)” for “subparagraph (C), (D), or (E)”, and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: “In the case of a facility for the production of—

“(A) qualifying processed wood fuel,

or

“(B) steam from solid agricultural byproducts,

paragraph (1) of subsection (b) shall not apply with respect to the amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) for fuels sold during the 3-year period beginning on the date the facility is placed in service.”

Subsec. (d)(7) to (9). Pub. L. 101–508, §11816(b)(3), redesignated pars. (7) to (9) as (6) to (8), respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–508, §11816(b)(5), amended subsec. (f) generally, redesignating former par. (1) as subsec. (f), making minor changes in phraseology, substituting par. (2) for former par. (1)(B) which read as follows: “which are sold after December 31, 1979, and before January 1, 2003.”, and striking out former par. (2) which related to special rules applicable to qualified processed wood and solid agricultural byproduct steam.

Subsec. (f)(1)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 101–508, §11501(a)(1), substituted “1993” for “1991”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11501(a)(2), substituted “2003” for “2001”.

1988—Subsec. (f)(1)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “1991” for “1990”.

1986—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(3), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “The credit allowed by subsection (a) for a taxable year shall not exceed the taxpayer's tax liability for the taxable year (as defined in section 26(b)), reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A and sections 27 and 28.”

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 99–514, §1879(c)(1), inserted provision directing that a corporation which is a member of an affiliated group of corporations filing a consolidated return shall be treated as selling qualified fuels to an unrelated person if such fuels are sold to such person by another member of such group.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 44D of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §722(d)(1), substituted “in which the sale occurs” for “in which the taxable year begins”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §722(d)(2), substituted “in which the sale occurs” for “in which a taxable year begins”.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–369, §612(e)(1), substituted “section 26(b)” for “section 25(b)”.

Pub. L. 98–369, §474(h), amended par. (5) generally, substituting “shall not exceed the taxpayer's tax liability for the taxable year (as defined in section 25(b)), reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A and sections 27 and 28” for “shall not exceed the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year, reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under a section of this subpart having a lower number or letter designation than this section, other than the credits allowable by sections 31, 39, and 43. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term ‘tax imposed by this chapter’ shall not include any tax treated as not imposed by this chapter under the last sentence of section 53(a)”.

1983—Subsec. (f)(1)(B), (2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 97–448 substituted “December 31, 1979” for “December 3, 1979”.

1982—Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 97–354 substituted “Pass-thru in the case of estates and trusts” for “Pass-through in the case of subchapter S corporations, etc.” in par. heading, and substituted provisions relating to the applicability of rules similar to rules of subsec. (d) of section 52 for provisions relating to the applicability of rules similar to rules of subsecs. (d) and (e) of section 52.

1981—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted provisions respecting application with the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 for prior provision reading “If the taxpayer makes an election under section 107(d) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 to have subsections (a) and (b) of section 107 of that Act, and subtitle B of title I of that Act, apply with respect to gas described in subsection (c)(1)(B)(i) produced from any well on a property, then the credit allowable by subsection (a) shall not be allowed with respect to any gas produced on that property.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1205(e) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 30, 38, 39, 45C, 53, 55, and 280C of this title] shall apply to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years ending after June 30, 1996.”

Section 1207(b) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996].”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 11501(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to gas produced after December 31, 1990.”

Section 11501(c)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990.”

Section 11813(c) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 50 of this title and amending this section and sections 38, 42, 46 to 49, 52, 55, 108, 145, 147, 168, 170, 179, 196, 280F, 312, 465, 469, 861, 865, 1016, 1033, 1245, 1274A, 1371, 1388 and 1503 of this title] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 1990.

“(2) Exceptions.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to—

“(A) any transition property (as defined in section 49(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990]),

“(B) any property with respect to which qualified progress expenditures were previously taken into account under section 46(d) of such Code (as so in effect), and

“(C) any property described in section 46(b)(2)(C) of such Code (as so in effect).”

Section 11821(a) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this part, the amendments made by this part [part I (§§11801–11821) of subtitle H of title XI of Pub. L. 101–508, see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 701(c)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Section 1879(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 231 of Public Law 96–223 [see Effective Date note below].”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(h) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 612(e)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to interest paid or accrued after Dec. 31, 1984, on indebtedness incurred after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 612(g) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 25 of this title.

Section 722(d)(3) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1979.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96–223 to which such amendment relates, see section 203(a) of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 6652 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–354 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 97–354, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1361 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 611(b) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1979.”

Effective Date

Section 231(c) of Pub. L. 96–223 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 6096 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1979.”

Savings Provision

Section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “If—

“(1) any provision amended or repealed by this part [part I (§§11801–11821) of subtitle H of title XI of Pub. L. 101–508, see Tables for classification] applied to—

“(A) any transaction occurring before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990],

“(B) any property acquired before such date of enactment, or

“(C) any item of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account before such date of enactment, and

“(2) the treatment of such transaction, property, or item under such provision would (without regard to the amendments made by this part) affect liability for tax for periods ending after such date of enactment,

nothing in the amendments made by this part shall be construed to affect the treatment of such transaction, property, or item for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after such date of enactment.”

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(c)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 30, 43, 53, 55, 613A, 772 of this title; title 42 section 13317.

§30. Credit for qualified electric vehicles

(a) Allowance of credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to 10 percent of the cost of any qualified electric vehicle placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

(b) Limitations

(1) Limitation per vehicle

The amount of the credit allowed under subsection (a) for any vehicle shall not exceed $4,000.

(2) Phaseout

In the case of any qualified electric vehicle placed in service after December 31, 2001, the credit otherwise allowable under subsection (a) (determined after the application of paragraph (1)) shall be reduced by—

(A) 25 percent in the case of property placed in service in calendar year 2002,

(B) 50 percent in the case of property placed in service in calendar year 2003, and

(C) 75 percent in the case of property placed in service in calendar year 2004.

(3) Application with other credits

The credit allowed by subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(A) the regular tax for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A and sections 27 and 29, over—

(B) the tentative minimum tax for the taxable year.

(c) Qualified electric vehicle

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term “qualified electric vehicle” means any motor vehicle—

(A) which is powered primarily by an electric motor drawing current from rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, or other portable sources of electrical current,

(B) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer, and

(C) which is acquired for use by the taxpayer and not for resale.

(2) Motor vehicle

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “motor vehicle” means any vehicle which is manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways (not including a vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails) and which has at least 4 wheels.

(d) Special rules

(1) Basis reduction

The basis of any property for which a credit is allowable under subsection (a) shall be reduced by the amount of such credit (determined without regard to subsection (b)(3)).

(2) Recapture

The Secretary shall, by regulations, provide for recapturing the benefit of any credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any property which ceases to be property eligible for such credit.

(3) Property used outside United States, etc., not qualified

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) with respect to any property referred to in section 50(b) or with respect to the portion of the cost of any property taken into account under section 179.

(4) Election to not take credit

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any vehicle if the taxpayer elects to not have this section apply to such vehicle.

(e) Termination

This section shall not apply to any property placed in service after December 31, 2004.

(Added Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1913(b)(1), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3019; amended Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1205(d)(4), 1704(j)(4)(A), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1776, 1881.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 30 was renumbered section 41 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, §1205(d)(4), substituted “sections 27 and 29” for “sections 27, 28, and 29”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(j)(4)(A)(i), inserted “(determined without regard to subsection (b)(3))” before period at end.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(j)(4)(A)(ii), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 1205(d)(4) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years ending after June 30, 1996, see section 1205(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 29 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 1913(c) of Pub. L. 102–486 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and 179A of this title and amending sections 53, 55, 62, and 1016 of this title] shall apply to property placed in service after June 30, 1993.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 53, 55, 179A, 1016, 6501 of this title.

§30A. Puerto Rico economic activity credit

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this section, if the conditions of both paragraph (1) and paragraph (2) of subsection (b) are satisfied with respect to a qualified domestic corporation, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter an amount equal to the portion of the tax which is attributable to the taxable income, from sources without the United States, from—

(A) the active conduct of a trade or business within Puerto Rico, or

(B) the sale or exchange of substantially all of the assets used by the taxpayer in the active conduct of such trade or business.


In the case of any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2001, the aggregate amount of taxable income taken into account under the preceding sentence (and in applying subsection (d)) shall not exceed the adjusted base period income of such corporation, as determined in the same manner as under section 936(j).

(2) Qualified domestic corporation

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “qualified domestic corporation” means a domestic corporation—

(A) which is an existing credit claimant with respect to Puerto Rico, and

(B) with respect to which section 936(a)(4)(B) does not apply for the taxable year.

(3) Separate application

For purposes of determining—

(A) whether a taxpayer is an existing credit claimant with respect to Puerto Rico, and

(B) the amount of the credit allowed under this section,


this section (and so much of section 936 as relates to this section) shall be applied separately with respect to Puerto Rico.

(b) Conditions which must be satisfied

The conditions referred to in subsection (a) are—

(1) 3-year period

If 80 percent or more of the gross income of the qualified domestic corporation for the 3-year period immediately preceding the close of the taxable year (or for such part of such period immediately preceding the close of such taxable year as may be applicable) was derived from sources within a possession (determined without regard to section 904(f)).

(2) Trade or business

If 75 percent or more of the gross income of the qualified domestic corporation for such period or such part thereof was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession.

(c) Credit not allowed against certain taxes

The credit provided by subsection (a) shall not be allowed against the tax imposed by—

(1) section 59A (relating to environmental tax),

(2) section 531 (relating to the tax on accumulated earnings),

(3) section 541 (relating to personal holding company tax), or

(4) section 1351 (relating to recoveries of foreign expropriation losses).

(d) Limitations on credit for active business income

The amount of the credit determined under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the sum of the following amounts:

(1) 60 percent of the sum of—

(A) the aggregate amount of the qualified domestic corporation's qualified possession wages for such taxable year, plus

(B) the allocable employee fringe benefit expenses of the qualified domestic corporation for such taxable year.


(2) The sum of—

(A) 15 percent of the depreciation allowances for the taxable year with respect to short-life qualified tangible property,

(B) 40 percent of the depreciation allowances for the taxable year with respect to medium-life qualified tangible property, and

(C) 65 percent of the depreciation allowances for the taxable year with respect to long-life qualified tangible property.


(3) If the qualified domestic corporation does not have an election to use the method described in section 936(h)(5)(C)(ii) (relating to profit split) in effect for the taxable year, the amount of the qualified possession income taxes for the taxable year allocable to nonsheltered income.

(e) Administrative provisions

For purposes of this title—

(1) the provisions of section 936 (including any applicable election thereunder) shall apply in the same manner as if the credit under this section were a credit under section 936(a)(1)(A) for a domestic corporation to which section 936(a)(4)(A) applies,

(2) the credit under this section shall be treated in the same manner as the credit under section 936, and

(3) a corporation to which this section applies shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a corporation electing the application of section 936.

(f) Definitions

For purposes of this section, any term used in this section which is also used in section 936 shall have the same meaning given such term by section 936.

(g) Application of section

This section shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995, and before January 1, 2006.

(Added Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1601(b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1830; amended Pub. L. 105–34, title XVI, §1601(f)(1)(A), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1090.)

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–34 substituted “Puerto Rico” for “Puerto Rican” in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 effective as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–188, to which it relates, see section 1601(j) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 1601(c) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 55, 56, 59, and 936 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.

“(2) Special rule for qualified possession source investment income.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to qualified possession source investment income received or accrued before July 1, 1996, without regard to the taxable year in which received or accrued.

“(3) Special transition rule for payment of estimated tax installment.—In determining the amount of any installment due under section 6655 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996] and before October 1, 1996, only 1/2 of any increase in tax (for the taxable year for which such installment is made) by reason of the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [enacting this section and amending sections 55, 56, 59, and 936 of this title] shall be taken into account. Any reduction in such installment by reason of the preceding sentence shall be recaptured by increasing the next required installment for such year by the amount of such reduction.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 55, 56, 59, 936 of this title.

Subpart C—Refundable Credits

Sec.
31.
Tax withheld on wages.
32.
Earned income.
33.
Tax withheld at source on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations.
34.
Certain uses of gasoline and special fuels.
35.
Overpayments of tax.

        

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, added subpart C heading and analysis of sections for subpart C consisting of items 31, 32 (formerly 43), 33 (formerly 32), 34 (formerly 39), and 35 (formerly 45). Former subpart C, setting out the rules for computing credit for expenses of work incentive programs, was repealed.

Subpart Referred to in Other Sections

This subpart is referred to in sections 24, 1397E, 6096, 6401 of this title.

§31. Tax withheld on wages

(a) Wage withholding for income tax purposes

(1) In general

The amount withheld as tax under chapter 24 shall be allowed to the recipient of the income as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle.

(2) Year of credit

The amount so withheld during any calendar year shall be allowed as a credit for the taxable year beginning in such calendar year. If more than one taxable year begins in a calendar year, such amount shall be allowed as a credit for the last taxable year so beginning.

(b) Credit for special refunds of social security tax

(1) In general

The Secretary may prescribe regulations providing for the crediting against the tax imposed by this subtitle of the amount determined by the taxpayer or the Secretary to be allowable under section 6413(c) as a special refund of tax imposed on wages. The amount allowed as a credit under such regulations shall, for purposes of this subtitle, be considered an amount withheld at source as tax under section 3402.

(2) Year of credit

Any amount to which paragraph (1) applies shall be allowed as a credit for the taxable year beginning in the calendar year during which the wages were received. If more than one taxable year begins in the calendar year, such amount shall be allowed as a credit for the last taxable year so beginning.

(c) Special rule for backup withholding

Any credit allowed by subsection (a) for any amount withheld under section 3406 shall be allowed for the taxable year of the recipient of the income in which the income is received.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 12; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(D), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§302(a), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 585, 591; Pub. L. 97–354, §3(i)(4), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1691; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(b)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2405; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §§102(a), 104(d)(2), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, 379; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(c), title VII, §714(j)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 962.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §714(j)(2), substituted “as tax under chapter 24” for “under section 3402 as tax on the wages of any individual”.

1983—Pub. L. 98–67 added subsec. (c) and repealed amendments made by Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 97–448 amended subsec. (d) generally. See 1982 Amendment note below.

1982—Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 97–354 and Pub. L. 97–448, amended section generally, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983. Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1976—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “The Secretary” and “(or his delegate)” after “taxpayer or the Secretary”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “Any amendment made by this subtitle [subtitle A (§§711–715) of title VII of Pub. L. 98–369, see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [Pub. L. 97–248] to which such amendment relates.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendments

Section 110 of title I of Pub. L. 98–67 provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this title [enacting sections 3406 and 6705 of this title, amending this section and sections 274, 275, 643, 661, 3402, 3403, 3502, 3507, 6011, 6013, 6015, 6042, 6044, 6049, 6051, 6365, 6401, 6413, 6652, 6653, 6654, 6676, 6678, 6682, 7205, 7215, 7431, 7654, and 7701 of this title, repealing sections 3451 to 3456 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1, 3451, and 6011 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3451 of this title] shall apply with respect to payments made after December 31, 1983.

“(b) Section 102.—The amendments made by section 102 [amending this section and sections 274, 275, 643, 661, 3403, 3502, 3507, 6013, 6015, 6042, 6044, 6049, 6051, 6365, 6401, 6413, 6654, 6682, 7205, 7215, 7654, and 7701 of this title, repealing sections 3451 to 3456 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3451 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3451 of this title] shall take effect as of the close of June 30, 1983.

“(c) Sections 104(b) and 107.—The amendments made by sections 104(b) and 107 [amending sections 6682, 7205, and 7431 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1983].”

Section 311(d) of Pub. L. 97–448 provided that: “The amendments made by section 306 [amending this section and sections 48, 55, 263, 291, 312, 338, 401, 501, 1232, 6038A, 6226, 6228, 6679, and 7701 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 338 and 1232 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 56, 72, 101, 103, 168, 302, 311, 338, 415, 907, and 5701 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [Pub. L. 97–248] to which such amendments relate.”

Construction of Amendment by Title VII of Division A of Pub. L. 98–369

Section 701 of title VII of div. A of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by any title of this Act [see Tables for classification] other than this title, the provisions of this title shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other titles.”

Cross References

Amount allowable as credit under this section exceeding taxes imposed by chapter 1 considered as overpayment, see section 6401 of this title.

Time tax collected at source deemed paid, see section 6513 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 32, 643, 874, 995, 3406, 3510, 6211, 6413, 6513, 6654 of this title.

§32. Earned income

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

In the case of an eligible individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to the credit percentage of so much of the taxpayer's earned income for the taxable year as does not exceed the earned income amount.

(2) Limitation

The amount of the credit allowable to a taxpayer under paragraph (1) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(A) the credit percentage of the earned income amount, over

(B) the phaseout percentage of so much of the modified adjusted gross income (or, if greater, the earned income) of the taxpayer for the taxable year as exceeds the phaseout amount.

(b) Percentages and amounts

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) Percentages

The credit percentage and the phaseout percentage shall be determined as follows:

(A) In general

In the case of taxable years beginning after 1995:


 
In the case of an eligible individual with:The credit percentage is:The

phaseout

percentage

is:

1 qualifying child 34 15.98
2 or more qualifying children 40 21.06
No qualifying children  7.65  7.65

(B) Transitional percentages for 1995

In the case of taxable years beginning in 1995:


 
In the case of an eligible individual with:The credit percentage is:The

phaseout

percentage

is:

1 qualifying child 34 15.98
2 or more qualifying children 36 20.22
No qualifying children  7.65  7.65

(C) Transitional percentages for 1994

In the case of a taxable year beginning in 1994:


 
In the case of an eligible individual with:The credit percentage is:The

phaseout

percentage

is:

1 qualifying child 26.3 15.98
2 or more qualifying children 30 17.68
No qualifying children  7.65  7.65

(2) Amounts

The earned income amount and the phaseout amount shall be determined as follows:


 
In the case of an eligible individual with:The earned income amount is:The

phaseout

amount is:

1 qualifying child $6,330 $11,610
2 or more qualifying children $8,890 $11,610
No qualifying children $4,220  $5,280

(c) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Eligible individual

(A) In general

The term “eligible individual” means—

(i) any individual who has a qualifying child for the taxable year, or

(ii) any other individual who does not have a qualifying child for the taxable year, if—

(I) such individual's principal place of abode is in the United States for more than one-half of such taxable year,

(II) such individual (or, if the individual is married, either the individual or the individual's spouse) has attained age 25 but not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, and

(III) such individual is not a dependent for whom a deduction is allowable under section 151 to another taxpayer for any taxable year beginning in the same calendar year as such taxable year.


 For purposes of the preceding sentence, marital status shall be determined under section 7703.

(B) Qualifying child ineligible

If an individual is the qualifying child of a taxpayer for any taxable year of such taxpayer beginning in a calendar year, such individual shall not be treated as an eligible individual for any taxable year of such individual beginning in such calendar year.

(C) 2 or more eligible individuals

If 2 or more individuals would (but for this subparagraph and after application of subparagraph (B)) be treated as eligible individuals with respect to the same qualifying child for taxable years beginning in the same calendar year, only the individual with the highest modified adjusted gross income for such taxable years shall be treated as an eligible individual with respect to such qualifying child.

(D) Exception for individual claiming benefits under section 911

The term “eligible individual” does not include any individual who claims the benefits of section 911 (relating to citizens or residents living abroad) for the taxable year.

(E) Limitation on eligibility of nonresident aliens

The term “eligible individual” shall not include any individual who is a nonresident alien individual for any portion of the taxable year unless such individual is treated for such taxable year as a resident of the United States for purposes of this chapter by reason of an election under subsection (g) or (h) of section 6013.

(F) Identification number requirement

No credit shall be allowed under this section to an eligible individual who does not include on the return of tax for the taxable year—

(i) such individual's taxpayer identification number, and

(ii) if the individual is married (within the meaning of section 7703), the taxpayer identification number of such individual's spouse.

(G) Individuals who do not include TIN, etc., of any qualifying child

No credit shall be allowed under this section to any eligible individual who has one or more qualifying children if no qualifying child of such individual is taken into account under subsection (b) by reason of paragraph (3)(D).

(2) Earned income

(A) The term “earned income” means—

(i) wages, salaries, tips, and other employee compensation, plus

(ii) the amount of the taxpayer's net earnings from self-employment for the taxable year (within the meaning of section 1402(a)), but such net earnings shall be determined with regard to the deduction allowed to the taxpayer by section 164(f).


(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A)—

(i) the earned income of an individual shall be computed without regard to any community property laws,

(ii) no amount received as a pension or annuity shall be taken into account,

(iii) no amount to which section 871(a) applies (relating to income of nonresident alien individuals not connected with United States business) shall be taken into account,

(iv) no amount received for services provided by an individual while the individual is an inmate at a penal institution shall be taken into account, and

(v) no amount described in subparagraph (A) received for service performed in work activities as defined in paragraph (4) or (7) of section 407(d) of the Social Security Act to which the taxpayer is assigned under any State program under part A of title IV of such Act shall be taken into account, but only to the extent such amount is subsidized under such State program.

(3) Qualifying child

(A) In general

The term “qualifying child” means, with respect to any taxpayer for any taxable year, an individual—

(i) who bears a relationship to the taxpayer described in subparagraph (B),

(ii) except as provided in subparagraph (B)(iii), who has the same principal place of abode as the taxpayer for more than one-half of such taxable year, and

(iii) who meets the age requirements of subparagraph (C).

(B) Relationship test

(i) In general

An individual bears a relationship to the taxpayer described in this subparagraph if such individual is—

(I) a son or daughter of the taxpayer, or a descendant of either,

(II) a stepson or stepdaughter of the taxpayer, or

(III) an eligible foster child of the taxpayer.

(ii) Married children

Clause (i) shall not apply to any individual who is married as of the close of the taxpayer's taxable year unless the taxpayer is entitled to a deduction under section 151 for such taxable year with respect to such individual (or would be so entitled but for paragraph (2) or (4) of section 152(e)).

(iii) Eligible foster child

For purposes of clause (i)(III), the term “eligible foster child” means an individual not described in clause (i)(I) or (II) who—

(I) the taxpayer cares for as the taxpayer's own child, and

(II) has the same principal place of abode as the taxpayer for the taxpayer's entire taxable year.

(iv) Adoption

For purposes of this subparagraph, a child who is legally adopted, or who is placed with the taxpayer by an authorized placement agency for adoption by the taxpayer, shall be treated as a child by blood.

(C) Age requirements

An individual meets the requirements of this subparagraph if such individual—

(i) has not attained the age of 19 as of the close of the calendar year in which the taxable year of the taxpayer begins,

(ii) is a student (as defined in section 151(c)(4)) who has not attained the age of 24 as of the close of such calendar year, or

(iii) is permanently and totally disabled (as defined in section 22(e)(3)) at any time during the taxable year.

(D) Identification requirements

(i) In general

A qualifying child shall not be taken into account under subsection (b) unless the taxpayer includes the name, age, and TIN of the qualifying child on the return of tax for the taxable year.

(ii) Other methods

The Secretary may prescribe other methods for providing the information described in clause (i).

(E) Abode must be in the United States

The requirements of subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B)(iii)(II) shall be met only if the principal place of abode is in the United States.

(4) Treatment of military personnel stationed outside the United States

For purposes of paragraphs (1)(A)(ii)(I) and (3)(E), the principal place of abode of a member of the Armed Forces of the United States shall be treated as in the United States during any period during which such member is stationed outside the United States while serving on extended active duty with the Armed Forces of the United States. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “extended active duty” means any period of active duty pursuant to a call or order to such duty for a period in excess of 90 days or for an indefinite period.

(5) Modified adjusted gross income

(A) In general

The term “modified adjusted gross income” means adjusted gross income determined without regard to the amounts described in subparagraph (B) and increased by the amounts described in subparagraph (C).

(B) Certain amounts disregarded

An amount is described in this subparagraph if it is—

(i) the amount of losses from sales or exchanges of capital assets in excess of gains from such sales or exchanges to the extent such amount does not exceed the amount under section 1211(b)(1),

(ii) the net loss from estates and trusts,

(iii) the excess (if any) of amounts described in subsection (i)(2)(C)(ii) over the amounts described in subsection (i)(2)(C)(i) (relating to nonbusiness rents and royalties), or

(iv) 75 percent of the net loss from the carrying on of trades or businesses, computed separately with respect to—

(I) trades or businesses (other than farming) conducted as sole proprietorships,

(II) trades or businesses of farming conducted as sole proprietorships, and

(III) other trades or businesses.


For purposes of clause (iv), there shall not be taken into account items which are attributable to a trade or business which consists of the performance of services by the taxpayer as an employee.

(C) Certain amounts included

An amount is described in this subparagraph if it is—

(i) interest received or accrued during the taxable year which is exempt from tax imposed by this chapter; or

(ii) amounts received as a pension or annuity, and any distributions or payments received from an individual retirement plan, by the taxpayer during the taxable year to the extent not included in gross income.


Clause (ii) shall not include any amount which is not includible in gross income by reason of a trustee-to-trustee transfer or a rollover distribution.

(d) Married individuals

In the case of an individual who is married (within the meaning of section 7703), this section shall apply only if a joint return is filed for the taxable year under section 6013.

(e) Taxable year must be full taxable year

Except in the case of a taxable year closed by reason of the death of the taxpayer, no credit shall be allowable under this section in the case of a taxable year covering a period of less than 12 months.

(f) Amount of credit to be determined under tables

(1) In general

The amount of the credit allowed by this section shall be determined under tables prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Requirements for tables

The tables prescribed under paragraph (1) shall reflect the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) and shall have income brackets of not greater than $50 each—

(A) for earned income between $0 and the amount of earned income at which the credit is phased out under subsection (b), and

(B) for modified adjusted gross income between the dollar amount at which the phaseout begins under subsection (b) and the amount of modified adjusted gross income at which the credit is phased out under subsection (b).

(g) Coordination with advance payments of earned income credit

(1) Recapture of excess advance payments

If any payment is made to the individual by an employer under section 3507 during any calendar year, then the tax imposed by this chapter for the individual's last taxable year beginning in such calendar year shall be increased by the aggregate amount of such payments.

(2) Reconciliation of payments advanced and credit allowed

Any increase in tax under paragraph (1) shall not be treated as tax imposed by this chapter for purposes of determining the amount of any credit (other than the credit allowed by subsection (a)) allowable under this subpart.

(h) Reduction of credit to taxpayers subject to alternative minimum tax

The credit allowed under this section for the taxable year shall be reduced by the amount of tax imposed by section 55 (relating to alternative minimum tax) with respect to such taxpayer for such taxable year.

(i) Denial of credit for individuals having excessive investment income

(1) In general

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for the taxable year if the aggregate amount of disqualified income of the taxpayer for the taxable year exceeds $2,200.

(2) Disqualified income

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “disqualified income” means—

(A) interest or dividends to the extent includible in gross income for the taxable year,

(B) interest received or accrued during the taxable year which is exempt from tax imposed by this chapter,

(C) the excess (if any) of—

(i) gross income from rents or royalties not derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business, over

(ii) the sum of—

(I) the deductions (other than interest) which are clearly and directly allocable to such gross income, plus

(II) interest deductions properly allocable to such gross income,


(D) the capital gain net income (as defined in section 1222) of the taxpayer for such taxable year, and

(E) the excess (if any) of—

(i) the aggregate income from all passive activities for the taxable year (determined without regard to any amount included in earned income under subsection (c)(2) or described in a preceding subparagraph), over

(ii) the aggregate losses from all passive activities for the taxable year (as so determined).


For purposes of subparagraph (E), the term “passive activity” has the meaning given such term by section 469.

(j) Inflation adjustments

(1) In general

In the case of any taxable year beginning after 1996, each of the dollar amounts in subsections (b)(2) and (i)(1) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting “calendar year 1995” for “calendar year 1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof.

(2) Rounding

(A) In general

If any dollar amount in subsection (b)(2), after being increased under paragraph (1), is not a multiple of $10, such dollar amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10.

(B) Disqualified income threshold amount

If the dollar amount in subsection (i)(1), after being increased under paragraph (1), is not a multiple of $50, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $50.

(k) Restrictions on taxpayers who improperly claimed credit in prior year

(1) Taxpayers making prior fraudulent or reckless claims

(A) In general

No credit shall be allowed under this section for any taxable year in the disallowance period.

(B) Disallowance period

For purposes of paragraph (1), the disallowance period is—

(i) the period of 10 taxable years after the most recent taxable year for which there was a final determination that the taxpayer's claim of credit under this section was due to fraud, and

(ii) the period of 2 taxable years after the most recent taxable year for which there was a final determination that the taxpayer's claim of credit under this section was due to reckless or intentional disregard of rules and regulations (but not due to fraud).

(2) Taxpayers making improper prior claims

In the case of a taxpayer who is denied credit under this section for any taxable year as a result of the deficiency procedures under subchapter B of chapter 63, no credit shall be allowed under this section for any subsequent taxable year unless the taxpayer provides such information as the Secretary may require to demonstrate eligibility for such credit.

(l) Coordination with certain means-tested programs

For purposes of—

(1) the United States Housing Act of 1937,

(2) title V of the Housing Act of 1949,

(3) section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965,

(4) sections 221(d)(3), 235, and 236 of the National Housing Act, and

(5) the Food Stamp Act of 1977,


any refund made to an individual (or the spouse of an individual) by reason of this section, and any payment made to such individual (or such spouse) by an employer under section 3507, shall not be treated as income (and shall not be taken into account in determining resources for the month of its receipt and the following month).

(m) Identification numbers

Solely for purposes of subsections (c)(1)(F) and (c)(3)(D), a taxpayer identification number means a social security number issued to an individual by the Social Security Administration (other than a social security number issued pursuant to clause (II) (or that portion of clause (III) that relates to clause (II)) of section 205(c)(2)(B)(i) of the Social Security Act).

(n) Supplemental child credit

(1) In general

In the case of a taxpayer with respect to whom a credit is allowed under section 24(a) for the taxable year, the credit otherwise allowable under this section shall be increased by the lesser of—

(A) the excess of—

(i) the credits allowed under subpart A (determined after the application of section 26 and without regard to this subsection), over

(ii) the credits which would be allowed under subpart A after the application of section 26, determined without regard to section 24 and this subsection; or


(B) the excess of—

(i) the sum of the credits allowed under this part (determined without regard to sections 31, 33, and 34 and this subsection), over

(ii) the sum of the regular tax and the Social Security taxes (as defined in section 24(d)).


The credit determined under this subsection shall be allowed without regard to any other provision of this section, including subsection (d).

(2) Coordination with other credits

The amount of the credit under this subsection shall reduce the amount of the credits otherwise allowable under subpart A for the taxable year (determined after the application of section 26), but the amount of the credit under this subsection (and such reduction) shall not be taken into account in determining the amount of any other credit allowable under this part.

(Added Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §204(a), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 30, §43; amended Pub. L. 94–164, §2(c), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 971; Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §401(c)(1)(B), (2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1557; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §§104(a)–(e), 105(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2772, 2773; Pub. L. 95–615, §202(g)(5), formerly §202(f)(5), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3100, renumbered §202(g)(5) and amended Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §§101(a)(1), (2)(E), 108(a)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 194, 195, 223; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§111(b)(2), 112(b)(3), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 194, 195; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §124(c)(4)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 91; renumbered §32 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§423(c)(3), 471(c), title X, §1042(a)–(d)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 801, 826, 1043; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §§104(b)(1)(B), 111(a)–(d)(1), title XII, §1272(d)(4), title XIII, §1301(j)(8), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2104, 2107, 2594, 2658; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1001(c), 1007(g)(12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3350, 3436; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11101(d)(1)(B), 11111(a), (b), (e), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–405, 1388–408, 1388–412, 1388–413; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13131(a)–(d)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 433–435; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §§721(a), 722(a), 723(a), 742(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5002, 5003, 5010; Pub. L. 104–7, §4(a), Apr. 11, 1995, 109 Stat. 95; Pub. L. 104–193, title IV, §451(a), (b), title IX, §§909(a), (b), 910(a), (b), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2276, 2277, 2351, 2352; Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §101(b), title III, §312(d)(2), title X, §1085(a)(1), (b)–(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 798, 840, 955, 956; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §§6003(b), 6010(p)(1), (2), 6021(a), (b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 791, 816, 817, 823, 824.)

Earned Income Credit Adjustment for Tax Years Beginning in 1999

For adjustment of earned income credit under this section for tax years beginning in 1999, see section 3.03 of Revenue Procedure 98–61, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2)(B)(v) and (m), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Sections 205(c)(2)(B)(i) and 407(d)(4), (7) of the Act are classified to sections 405(c)(2)(B)(i) and 607(d)(4), (7), respectively, of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in subsec. (l)(1), is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, which is classified generally to chapter 8 (§1437 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note under section 1437 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Housing Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (l)(2), is act July 15, 1949, ch. 338, 63 Stat. 413, as amended. Title V of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§1471 et seq.) of chapter 8A of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (l)(3), is section 101 of Pub. L. 89–117, title I, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 451, which enacted section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and amended sections 1451 and 1465 of Title 42.

Sections 221(d)(3), 235, and 236 of the National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (l)(4), are classified to sections 1715l(d)(3), 1715z, and 1715z–1, respectively, of Title 12.

The Food Stamp Act of 1977, referred to in subsec. (l)(5), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 32 was renumbered section 33 of this title.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 105–206, §6021(a), added introductory provisions and struck out former introductory provisions which read as follows: “The term ‘eligible individual’ does not include any individual who does not include on the return of tax for the taxable year—”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(G). Pub. L. 105–206, §6021(b)(2), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(2), inserted “shall be taken into account” before “, but only”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(ii) to (iv). Pub. L. 105–206, §6021(b)(3), inserted “and” at end of cl. (ii), substituted a period for “, and” at end of cl. (iii), and struck out cl. (iv) which read as follows: “with respect to whom the taxpayer meets the identification requirements of subparagraph (D)”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(D)(i). Pub. L. 105–206, §6021(b)(1), reenacted heading without change and amended text of cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The requirements of this subparagraph are met if the taxpayer includes the name, age, and TIN of each qualifying child (without regard to this subparagraph) on the return of tax for the taxable year.”

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(1)(A), inserted “and increased by the amounts described in subparagraph (C)” before period at end.

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(1)(B), (C), inserted “or” at end of cl. (iii) and substituted cl. (iv)(III) and concluding provisions for former cls. (iv)(III), (v), (vi), and concluding provisions which read as follows:

“(III) other trades or businesses

“(v) interest received or accrued during the taxable year which is exempt from tax imposed by this chapter, and

“(vi) amounts received as a pension or annuity, and any distributions or payments received from an individual retirement plan, by the taxpayer during the taxable year to the extent not included in gross income.

For purposes of clause (iv), there shall not be taken into account items which are attributable to a trade or business which consists of the performance of services by the taxpayer as an employee. Clause (vi) shall not include any amount which is not includible in gross income by reason of section 402(c), 403(a)(4), 403(b), 408(d)(3), (4), or (5), or 457(e)(10).”

Subsec. (c)(5)(C). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(1)(C), added subpar. (C).

Subsecs. (m), (n). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(b), redesignated subsec. (m), relating to supplemental child credit, as (n) and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(1) In general.—In the case of a taxpayer with respect to whom a credit is allowed under section 24 for the taxable year, there shall be allowed as a credit under this section an amount equal to the supplemental child credit (if any) determined for such taxpayer for such taxable year under paragraph (2). Such credit shall be in addition to the credit allowed under subsection (a).

“(2) Supplemental child credit.—For purposes of this subsection, the supplemental child credit is an amount equal to the excess (if any) of—

“(A) the amount determined under section 24(d)(1)(A), over

“(B) the amount determined under section 24(d)(1)(B).

The amounts referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be determined as if section 24(d) applied to all taxpayers.

“(3) Coordination with section 24.—The amount of the credit under section 24 shall be reduced by the amount of the credit allowed under this subsection.”

1997—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(c), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105–34, §312(d)(2), struck out “(as defined in section 1034(h)(3)” after “serving on extended active duty” and inserted at end “For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term ‘extended active duty’ means any period of active duty pursuant to a call or order to such duty for a period in excess of 90 days or for an indefinite period.”

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(d)(4), inserted at end of concluding provisions “Clause (vi) shall not include any amount which is not includible in gross income by reason of section 402(c), 403(a)(4), 403(b), 408(d)(3), (4), or (5), or 457(e)(10).”

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(b), substituted “75 percent” for “50 percent” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(v), (vi). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(d)(1)–(3), added cls. (v) and (vi).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(a)(1), added subsec. (k). Former subsec. (k) redesignated (l).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (k) as (l). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (m).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (l) as (m) relating to identification numbers.

Pub. L. 105–34, §101(b), added subsec. (m) relating to supplemental child credit.

1996—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–193, §910(a), inserted “modified” before “adjusted gross income”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–193, §909(a)(3), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of subpars. (A) and (B) setting out tables for determining the earned income amount for taxable years beginning after 1994 and for taxable years beginning in 1994.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–193, §910(a), inserted “modified” before “adjusted gross income”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 104–193, §451(a), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 104–193, §910(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–193, §910(a), inserted “modified” before “adjusted gross income” in two places.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 104–193, §909(a)(1), substituted “$2,200” for “$2,350”.

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 104–193, §909(b), added subpars. (D) and (E) and concluding provisions.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 104–193, §909(a)(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(1) In general.—In the case of any taxable year beginning after 1994, each dollar amount contained in subsection (b)(2)(A) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

“(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

“(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3), for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting ‘calendar year 1993’ for ‘calendar year 1992’.

“(2) Rounding.—If any dollar amount after being increased under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $10, such dollar amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10 (or, if such dollar amount is a multiple of $5, such dollar amount shall be increased to the next higher multiple of $10).”

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 104–193, §451(b), added subsec. (l).

1995—Subsecs. (i) to (k). Pub. L. 104–7 added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsecs. (i) and (j) as (j) and (k), respectively.

1994—Subsec. (c)(1)(E). Pub. L. 103–465, §722(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 103–465, §723(a), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (c)(3)(D)(i). Pub. L. 103–465, §742(a), amended heading and text of cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The requirements of this subparagraph are met if—

“(I) the taxpayer includes the name and age of each qualifying child (without regard to this subparagraph) on the return of tax for the taxable year, and

“(II) in the case of an individual who has attained the age of 1 year before the close of the taxpayer's taxable year, the taxpayer includes the taxpayer identification number of such individual on such return of tax for such taxable year.”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–465, §721(a), added par. (4).

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In the case of an eligible individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of—

“(1) the basic earned income credit, and

“(2) the health insurance credit.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(a), substituted “Percentages and amounts” for “Computation of credit” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text related to method of computation of both earned income credit and health insurance credit.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(b), amended heading and text of subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘eligible individual’ means any individual who has a qualifying child for the taxable year.”

Subsec. (c)(3)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(d)(1), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii), substituted “clause (i)” for “clause (i) or (ii)”, and struck out heading and text of former cl. (ii). Text read as follows: “In the case of any taxpayer with respect to which the health insurance credit is allowed under subsection (a)(2), the Secretary may require a taxpayer to include an insurance policy number or other adequate evidence of insurance in addition to any information required to be included in clause (i).”

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(c)(1), added par. (1) and struck out text and heading of former par. (1). Text read as follows: “In the case of any taxable year beginning after the applicable calendar year, each dollar amount referred to in paragraph (2)(B) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

“(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

“(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3), for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting ‘calendar year 1984’ for ‘calendar year 1989’ in subparagraph (B) thereof.”

Subsec. (i)(2), (3). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(c), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which defined terms for purposes of the inflation adjustment in par. (1).

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “In the case of an eligible individual, there is allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to 14 percent of so much of the earned income for the taxable year as does not exceed $5,714.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(a), substituted heading for one which read “Limitation” and amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “The amount of the credit allowable to a taxpayer under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

“(1) the maximum credit allowable under subsection (a) to any taxpayer, over

“(2) 10 percent of so much of the adjusted gross income (or, if greater, the earned income) of the taxpayer for the taxable year as exceeds $9,000.

In the case of any taxable year beginning in 1987, paragraph (2) shall be applied by substituting ‘$6,500’ for ‘$9,000’.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(a), amended subsec. (c) generally, inserting “and special rules” in heading and substituting present provisions for provisions defining “eligible individual” and “earned income”.

Subsec. (i)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(1)(B), substituted “1989” for “1987”.

Subsec. (i)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(e)(1), (2), substituted “clause (i) of subparagraph (B)” for “clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B)” in cl. (i) and “clause (ii)” for “clause (iii)” in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(e)(3), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “The dollar amounts referred to in this subparagraph are—

“(i) the $5,714 amount contained in subsection (a),

“(ii) the $6,500 amount contained in the last sentence of subsection (b), and

“(iii) the $9,000 amount contained in subsection (b)(2).”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(b), added subsec. (j).

1988—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–647, §1007(g)(12), struck out “for taxpayers other than corporations” after “alternative minimum tax”.

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(c), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “If any increase determined under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $10, such increase shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10 (or, if such increase is a multiple of $5, such increase shall be increased to the next higher multiple of $10).”

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §111(a), substituted “14 percent” for “11 percent” and “$5,714” for “$5,000”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §111(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “The amount of the credit allowable to a taxpayer under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

“(1) $550, over

“(2) 122/9 percent of so much of the adjusted gross income (or, if greater, the earned income) of the taxpayer for the taxable year as exceeds $6,500.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(j)(8), substituted “section 7703” for “section 143”.

Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(1)(B), substituted “section 151(c)(3)” for “section 151(e)(3)”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1272(d)(4), struck out “or 931” after “911” in heading, and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘eligible individual’ does not include an individual who, for the taxable year, claims the benefits of—

“(i) section 911 (relating to citizens or residents of the United States living abroad),

“(ii) section 931 (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United States).”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(j)(8), substituted “section 7703” for “section 143”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A), (B). Pub. L. 99–514, §111(d)(1), added subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

“(A) for earned income between $0 and $11,000, and

“(B) for adjusted gross income between $6,500 and $11,000.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §111(c), added subsec. (i).

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 43 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(a), substituted “11 percent” for “10 percent”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(d)(1), substituted “$550” for “$500”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(b), substituted “122/9 percent” for “12.5 percent” and “$6,500” for “$6,000”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 98–369, §423(c)(3)(A), inserted “or would be so entitled but for paragraph (2) or (4) of section 152(e)”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §423(c)(3)(B), substituted “as the individual for more than one-half of the taxable year” for “as the individual”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(d)(2), substituted “between $0 and $11,000” for “between $0 and $10,000”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(d)(2), substituted “between $6,500 and $11,000” for “between $6,000 and $10,000”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(c), added subsec. (h).

1983—Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21 inserted before period at end “, but such net earnings shall be determined with regard to the deduction allowed to the taxpayer by section 164(f)”.

1981—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 97–34 struck out reference to section 913 in heading, substituted “relating to citizens or residents of the United States living abroad” for “relating to income earned by individuals in certain camps outside the United States” in cl. (i), struck out cl. (ii) which made reference to section 913, and redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii).

1980—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 96–222, §101(a)(1), in heading substituted “who claims benefit of section 911, 913, or 931” for “entitled to exclude income under section 911” and in text substituted “claims the benefits of” for “is entitled to exclude any amounts from gross income under” and inserted reference to section 913 (relating to deduction for certain expenses of living abroad).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 96–222, §101(a)(2)(E), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(a), substituted “subtitle” for “chapter” and “$5,000” for “$4,000”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(b), substituted provision limiting the allowable credit to an amount not to exceed the excess of $500 over 12.5 percent of so much of the adjusted gross income for the taxable year as exceeds $6,000 for provision limiting the allowable credit to an amount reduced by 10 percent of so much of the adjusted gross income for the taxable year as exceeds $4,000.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(e), amended par. (1) generally, substituting in definition of eligible individual one who is married and is entitled to a deduction under section 151 for a child, provided the child has the same principal abode as the individual and the abode is in the United States, is a surviving spouse, or is a head of household, provided the household is in the United States for one who maintains a household in the United States which is the principal abode of that individual and a child of that individual who meets the requirements of section 151(e)(1)(B) or a child of that individual who is disabled within the meaning of section 72(m)(7) and to whom the individual is entitled to claim a deduction under section 151.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(f)(5), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c)(1)(B) by substituting “(relating to income earned by employees in certain camps)” for “(relating to earned income from sources without the United States)”, was executed to subsec. (c)(1)(C) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the general amendment of subsec. (c)(1) by Pub. L. 95–600 which enacted provisions formerly contained in subsec. (c)(1)(B) in subsec. (c)(1)(C).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(d), redesignated cls. (ii) to (iv) as (i) to (iii), respectively. Former cl. (i), which provided that amounts be taken into account only if includible in the gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year, was struck out.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(c), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–600, §105(a), added subsec. (h).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §401(c)(1)(B), substituted “is allowed” for “shall be allowed” and struck out provisions relating to the application of the six-month rule.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §401(c)(1)(B), struck out provisions relating to the application of the six-month rule.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 94–455, §401(c)(2), among other changes, substituted “section 44A(f)(1)” for “section 214(b)(3)” and “if such child meets the requirements of section 151(e)(1)(B)” for “with respect to whom he is entitled to claim a deduction under section 151(e)(1)(B)” and inserted reference to a child of that individual who is disabled (within the meaning of section 72(m)(7)) and with respect to whom that individual is entitled to claim a deduction under section 151.

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–164 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–164 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6021(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 824, provided that:

“(1) Eligible individuals.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 451 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–193].

“(2) Qualifying children.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 11111 of Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–508].”

Amendment by sections 6003(b) and 6010(p)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as an Effective Date note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 312(d)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Section 1085(e) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 6213 and 6695 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.

“(2) The amendments made by subsections (b), (c), and (d) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 451(d) of Pub. L. 104–193 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6213 of this title] shall apply with respect to returns the due date for which (without regard to extensions) is more than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 22, 1996].”

Section 909(c) of Pub. L. 104–193 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.

“(2) Advance payment individuals.—In the case of any individual who on or before June 26, 1996, has in effect an earned income eligibility certificate for the individual's taxable year beginning in 1996, the amendments made by this section shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.”

Section 910(c) of Pub. L. 104–193 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.

“(2) Advance payment individuals.—In the case of any individual who on or before June 26, 1996, has in effect an earned income eligibility certificate for the individual's taxable year beginning in 1996, the amendments made by this section shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.”

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 104–7 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 721(d)(1) of Pub. L. 103–465 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1994.”

Section 722(b) of Pub. L. 103–465 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1994.”

Section 723(b) of Pub. L. 103–465 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993.”

Section 742(c) of Pub. L. 103–465 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6109 of this title] shall apply to returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1994.

“(2) Exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to—

“(A) returns for taxable years beginning in 1995 with respect to individuals who are born after October 31, 1995, and

“(B) returns for taxable years beginning in 1996 with respect to individuals who are born after November 30, 1996.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13131(e) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 162, 213, and 3507 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 11101(d)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11101(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 11111(f) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 162, 213, and 3507 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by sections 104(b)(1)(B) and 111(a)–(d)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1272(d)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Amendment by section 1301(j)(8) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 423(c)(3) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 423(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Section 1042(e) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending sections 32 and 3507 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1989, see section 124(d)(2) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 1401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 101(b)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 96–222 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1977.”

Section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in title I, any amendment made by title I [see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if it had been included in the provision of the Revenue Act of 1978 [Pub. L. 95–600, see Tables for classification] to which such amendment relates.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 104(f) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.”

Section 105(g)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (d) [amending this section and section 6012 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Election of Prior Law

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–615 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977, with provision for election of prior law, see section 209 of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1976 Amendment

Section 401(e) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §103(c), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §103(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2771, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending sections 43 [now 32] and 6096 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975, and shall cease to apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1978. The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975. The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending sections 141 and 6012 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975. The amendments made by subsection (d) [amending section 3402 of this title] shall apply to wages paid after September 14, 1976.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendments

Section 2(g) of Pub. L. 94–164, as amended by Pub. L. 94–455, §402(b), provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending sections 43 [now 32], 141, 3402, and 6012 of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 42 and 43 [now 32] of this title] (other than by subsection (d) [enacting provisions set out as a note under this section]) apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975, and before January 1, 1978. Subsection (d) applies to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975.”

Section 209(b) of Pub. L. 94–12, as amended by Pub. L. 94–164, §2(f), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 972; Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §401(c)(1)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1557; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §103(b), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §103(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2771, provided that: “The amendments made by section 204 [enacting this section and amending sections 6201 and 6401 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1974.”

Program To Increase Public Awareness

Secretary of the Treasury, or Secretary's delegate, to establish taxpayer awareness program to inform taxpaying public of availability of earned income credit and child health insurance under this section, see section 11114 of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Employee Notification

Section 111(e) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The Secretary of the Treasury is directed to require, under regulations, employers to notify any employee who has not had any tax withheld from wages (other than an employee whose wages are exempt from withholding pursuant to section 3402(n) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) that such employee may be eligible for a refund because of the earned income credit.”

Disregard of Refund for Determination of Eligibility for Federal Benefits or Assistance

Section 2(d) of Pub. L. 94–164, as amended by Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §402(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1558; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §105(f), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2776; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “Any refund of Federal income taxes made to any individual by reason of section 43 [now 32] of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to earned income credit), and any payment made by an employer under section 3507 of such Code (relating to advance payment of earned income credit) shall not be taken into account in any year ending before 1980 as income or receipts for purposes of determining the eligibility, for the month in which such refund is made or any month thereafter of such individual or any other individual for benefits or assistance, or the amount or extent of benefits or assistance, under any Federal program or under any State or local program financed in whole or in part with Federal funds, but only if such individual (or the family unit of which he is a member) is a recipient of benefits or assistance under such a program for the month before the month in which such refund is made.”

[Section 105(g)(3) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “Subsection (f) [amending section 2(d) of Pub. L. 94–164, set out above] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978].”]

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 24, 86, 129, 995, 3507, 6051, 6211, 6213, 6695 of this title; title 2 section 905; title 42 sections 502, 653, 1382a, 1382b.

§33. Tax withheld at source on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle the amount of tax withheld at source under subchapter A of chapter 3 (relating to withholding of tax on nonresident aliens and on foreign corporations).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 13, §32; renumbered §33 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(j), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 832.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 33 was renumbered section 27 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 32 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 98–369, §474(j), amended section generally, striking out “and on tax-free covenant bonds” after “foreign corporations” in section catchline, and, in text, substituting “as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle” for “as credits against the tax imposed by this chapter”, and striking out designation “(1)” before “the amount of tax withheld”, and “, and (2) the amount of tax withheld at source under subchapter B of chapter 3 (relating to interest on tax-free covenant bonds)” after “on foreign corporations)”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 475(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (j) and (r)(29) [amending this section and sections 12, 164, 1441, 1442, 6049, and 7701 of this title and repealing section 1451 of this title] shall not apply with respect to obligations issued before January 1, 1984.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 32, 874, 882, 921, 1446, 6211, 6401 of this title.

§34. Certain uses of gasoline and special fuels

(a) General rule

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of the amounts payable to the taxpayer—

(1) under section 6420 with respect to gasoline used during the taxable year on a farm for farming purposes (determined without regard to section 6420(g)),

(2) under section 6421 with respect to gasoline used during the taxable year (A) otherwise than as a fuel in a highway vehicle or (B) in vehicles while engaged in furnishing certain public passenger land transportation service (determined without regard to section 6421(i)),1 and

(3) under section 6427 with respect to fuels used for nontaxable purposes or resold during the taxable year (determined without regard to section 6427(k)).

(b) Exception

Credit shall not be allowed under subsection (a) for any amount payable under section 6421 or 6427, if a claim for such amount is timely filed and, under section 6421(i) or 6427(k), is payable under such section.

(Added Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, 809(c), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 167, §39; amended Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(c), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(3), 1906(b)(8), (9), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1764, 1834; Pub. L. 94–530, §1(c)(1), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2487; Pub. L. 95–599, title V, §505(c)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2760; Pub. L. 95–618, title II, §233(b)(2)(C), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3191; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(d)(4)(A), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(6)(A)–(C), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2181; renumbered §34 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(c), title IX, §911(d)(2)(A), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 1006; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVII, §1703(e)(2)(F), title XVIII, §1877(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2778, 2902; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1017(c)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3576; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1606(b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1839; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6023(24)(B), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 826.)

References in Text

Section 6421(i), referred to in subsec. (a)(2), was repealed by Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13241(f)(7), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 512.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 34, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 13; June 25, 1959, Pub. L. 86–69, §3(a)(1), 73 Stat. 139; Sept. 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–779, §10(e), 74 Stat. 1009; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(a), 78 Stat. 31, related to dividends received by individuals, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 31, effective with respect to dividends received after Dec. 31, 1964.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted “section 6421(i)” for “section 6421(j)”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–188 amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “under section 6427—

“(A) with respect to fuels used for nontaxable purposes or resold, or

“(B) with respect to any qualified diesel-powered highway vehicle purchased (or deemed purchased under section 6427(g)(6)),

during the taxable year (determined without regard to section 6427(k)).”

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “section 6421(j) or 6427(k)” for “section 6421(i) or 6427(j)”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1877(a), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “under section 6427 with respect to fuels used for nontaxable purposes or resold during the taxable year (determined without regard to section 6427(j)).”

Pub. L. 99–514, §1703(e)(2)(F), substituted “6427(k)” for “6427(j)”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 39 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §911(d)(2)(A), which directed the amendment of par. (4) by substituting “6427(j)” for “6427(i)” was executed to par. (3) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of par. (4) as (3) by Pub. L. 97–424.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369, §911(d)(2)(A), substituted “6427(j)” for “6427(i)”.

1983—Pub. L. 97–424, §515(b)(6)(C), substituted “and special fuels” for “, special fuels, and lubricating oil” after “gasoline” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 97–424, §515(b)(6)(A), inserted “and” at end of par. (2), redesignated par. (4) as (3), and struck out former (3) which referred to amounts payable to the taxpayer under section 6424 with respect to lubricating oil used during the taxable year for certain nontaxable purposes (determined without regard to section 6424(f)).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–424, §515(b)(6)(B)(i), substituted “6421 or 6427” for “6421, 6424, or 6427” after “amount payable under”.

Pub. L. 97–424, §515(b)(6)(B)(ii), substituted “6421(i) or 6427(i)” for “6421(i), 6424(f), or 6427(i)” after “and, under”.

1980—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 96–223 substituted “6427(i)” for “6427(h)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–223 substituted “6427(i)” for “6427(h)”.

1978—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–618 substituted “for certain nontaxable purposes” for “otherwise than in a highway motor vehicle”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 95–599 substituted “6427(h)” for “6427(g)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–599 substituted “6427(h)” for “6427(g)”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(8), substituted “6420(g)” for “6420(h)”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(9), substituted “6424(f)” for “6424(g)”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–530 substituted “6427(g)” for “6427(f)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–530, which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by substituting “6427(g)” for “6427(f)”, was executed to subsec. (b) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of subsec. (c) as (b) by Pub. L. 94–455.

Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and substituted “section 6421(i), 6424(f), or 6427(f), is payable” for “section 6421(i), 6424(g) or 6427(f) is payable”. Former subsec. (b), relating to determination of taxpayers first taxable year with respect to tax credit for certain uses of gasoline and lubricating oil, was struck out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b).

1970—Pub. L. 91–258, §207(c)(1), inserted reference to special fuels in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 91–258, §207(c)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–258, §207(c)(3), (4), inserted references to sections 6427 and 6427(f), respectively.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6023(32), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 826, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 45A, 59, 72, 142, 501, 512, 543, 871, 1017, 1250, 3121, 3401, 4092, 4221, 4222, 4973, 4975, 6039, 6050R, 6103, 6416, 6421, 6427, 6501, 7434, 7702B, 7872, and 9502 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1606(c) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6427 of this title] shall apply to vehicles purchased after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996].”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1703(e)(2)(F) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to gasoline removed (as defined in section 4082 of this title as amended by section 1703 of Pub. L. 99–514) after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1703(h) of Pub. L. 99–514 set out as a note under section 4081 of this title.

Amendment by section 1877(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 911(d)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective Aug. 1, 1984, see section 911(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 515(c) of Pub. L. 97–424 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending sections 39 [now 34], 874, 882, 4101, 4102, 4221, 4222, 6201, 6206, 6416, 6421, 6504, 6675, 7210, 7603 to 7605, 7609, and 7610 of this title and repealing sections 4091 to 4094 and 6424 of this title] shall apply with respect to articles sold after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 1983].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 effective on Jan. 1, 1979, see section 232(h)(2) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendments

Section 233(d) of Pub. L. 95–618 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending sections 39 [now 34], 4041, 4221, 4483, 6416, 6421, 6424, 6427, 6504, and 6675 of this title and amending a provision set out as a note under section 120 of Title 23, Highways] shall take effect on the first day of the first calendar month which begins more than 10 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 9, 1978].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–599 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 505(d) of Pub. L. 95–599, set out as a note under section 6427 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–530 effective on Oct. 1, 1976, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 94–530, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(a)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Amendment by section 1906(b)(8), (9) of Pub. L. 94–455, to take effect on Feb. 1, 1977, see section 1906(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–258 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after June 30, 1970, see section 211(b) of Pub. L. 91–258, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 1965, see section 809(f) of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as an Effective Date of 1965 Amendment note under section 6420 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 32, 774, 874, 882, 921, 995, 1366, 1374, 1375, 1503, 4682, 6211, 6213, 6420, 6421, 6427, 9502, 9503, 9508 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§35. Overpayments of tax

For credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for overpayments of tax, see section 6401.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 16, §38; renumbered §39, Pub. L. 87–834, §2(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 962; renumbered §40, Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, §809(c), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 167; renumbered §42, Pub. L. 92–178, title VI, §601(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 553; renumbered §43, Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §203(a), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 29; renumbered §44, Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §204(a), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 30; renumbered §45, Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §208(a), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 32; renumbered §35, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 35, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 14; Sept. 2, 1958, Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §41(b), 72 Stat. 1639; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(d)(2), 78 Stat. 32, related to partially tax-exempt interest received by individuals, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1764, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976.

[§36. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(d)(3), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 133]

Section, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 15; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §501(b)(2), title X, §1011(c), title XIX, §1901(b)(1)(A), 90 Stat. 1558, 1611, 1790, directed that credits provided by section 32 not be allowed if an individual elects under section 144 to take standard deduction.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Subpart D—Business Related Credits

Sec.
38.
General business credit.
39.
Carryback and carryforward of unused credits.
40.
Alcohol used as fuel.
41.
Credit for increasing research activities.
41.1
Employee stock ownership credit.

        

42.
Low-income housing credit.
43.
Enhanced oil recovery credit.
44.
Expenditures to provide access to disabled individuals.
45.
Electricity produced from certain renewable resources.
45A.
Indian employment credit.
45B.
Credit for portion of employer social security taxes paid with respect to employee cash tips.
45C.
Clinical testing expenses for certain drugs for rare diseases or conditions.

        

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1205(a)(3)(B), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1775, added item 45C.

1993—Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13322(e), 13443(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 563, 569, added items 45A and 45B.

1992—Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1914(d), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3023, added item 45.

1990—Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11511(c)(1), 11611(d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–485, 1388–503, added items 43 and 44.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §§231(d)(3)(K), 252(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2180, 2205, added item 41 relating to credit for increasing research activities and item 42.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, added subpart D heading and analysis of sections for subpart D, consisting of items 38 (new), 39 (new), 40 (formerly 44E), and 41 (formerly 44G). Former subpart D was redesignated F.

Subpart Referred to in Other Sections

This subpart is referred to in sections 53, 469, 6401 of this title.

1 Section 41 repealed by Pub. L. 99–514 without corresponding amendment of subpart analysis.

§38. General business credit

(a) Allowance of credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of—

(1) the business credit carryforwards carried to such taxable year,

(2) the amount of the current year business credit, plus

(3) the business credit carrybacks carried to such taxable year.

(b) Current year business credit

For purposes of this subpart, the amount of the current year business credit is the sum of the following credits determined for the taxable year:

(1) the investment credit determined under section 46,

(2) the work opportunity credit determined under section 51(a),

(3) the alcohol fuels credit determined under section 40(a),

(4) the research credit determined under section 41(a),

(5) the low-income housing credit determined under section 42(a),

(6) the enhanced oil recovery credit under section 43(a),

(7) in the case of an eligible small business (as defined in section 44(b)), the disabled access credit determined under section 44(a),

(8) the renewable electricity production credit under section 45(a),

(9) the empowerment zone employment credit determined under section 1396(a),

(10) the Indian employment credit as determined under section 45A(a),

(11) the employer social security credit determined under section 45B(a), plus

(12) the orphan drug credit determined under section 45C(a).

(c) Limitation based on amount of tax

(1) In general

The credit allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of the taxpayer's net income tax over the greater of—

(A) the tentative minimum tax for the taxable year, or

(B) 25 percent of so much of the taxpayer's net regular tax liability as exceeds $25,000.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “net income tax” means the sum of the regular tax liability and the tax imposed by section 55, reduced by the credits allowable under subparts A and B of this part, and the term “net regular tax liability” means the regular tax liability reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subparts A and B of this part.

(2) Empowerment zone employment credit may offset 25 percent of minimum tax

(A) In general

In the case of the empowerment zone employment credit credit—

(i) this section and section 39 shall be applied separately with respect to such credit, and

(ii) for purposes of applying paragraph (1) to such credit—

(I) 75 percent of the tentative minimum tax shall be substituted for the tentative minimum tax under subparagraph (A) thereof, and

(II) the limitation under paragraph (1) (as modified by subclause (I)) shall be reduced by the credit allowed under subsection (a) for the taxable year (other than the empowerment zone employment credit).

(B) Empowerment zone employment credit

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “empowerment zone employment credit” means the portion of the credit under subsection (a) which is attributable to the credit determined under section 1396 (relating to empowerment zone employment credit).

(3) Special rules

(A) Married individuals

In the case of a husband or wife who files a separate return, the amount specified under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall be $12,500 in lieu of $25,000. This subparagraph shall not apply if the spouse of the taxpayer has no business credit carryforward or carryback to, and has no current year business credit for, the taxable year of such spouse which ends within or with the taxpayer's taxable year.

(B) Controlled groups

In the case of a controlled group, the $25,000 amount specified under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall be reduced for each component member of such group by apportioning $25,000 among the component members of such group in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “controlled group” has the meaning given to such term by section 1563(a).

(C) Limitations with respect to certain persons

In the case of a person described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 46(e)(1) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990), the $25,000 amount specified under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall equal such person's ratable share (as determined under section 46(e)(2) (as so in effect) of such amount.

(D) Estates and trusts

In the case of an estate or trust, the $25,000 amount specified under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall be reduced to an amount which bears the same ratio to $25,000 as the portion of the income of the estate or trust which is not allocated to beneficiaries bears to the total income of the estate or trust.

(d) Ordering rules

For purposes of any provision of this title where it is necessary to ascertain the extent to which the credits determined under any section referred to in subsection (b) are used in a taxable year or as a carryback or carryforward—

(1) In general

The order in which such credits are used shall be determined on the basis of the order in which they are listed in subsection (b) as of the close of the taxable year in which the credit is used.

(2) Components of investment credit

The order in which the credits listed in section 46 are used shall be determined on the basis of the order in which such credits are listed in section 46 as of the close of the taxable year in which the credit is used.

(3) Credits no longer listed

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) the credit allowable by section 40, as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, (relating to expenses of work incentive programs) and the credit allowable by section 41(a), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, (relating to employee stock ownership credit) shall be treated as referred to in that order after the last paragraph of subsection (b), and

(B) the credit determined under section 46—

(i) to the extent attributable to the employee plan percentage (as defined in section 46(a)(2)(E) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984) shall be treated as a credit listed after paragraph (1) of section 46, and

(ii) to the extent attributable to the regular percentage (as defined in section 46(b)(1) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990) shall be treated as the first credit listed in section 46.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §473, title VI, §612(e)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 827, 912; Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §§221(a), 231(d)(1), (3)(B), 252(b), title VII, §701(c)(4), title XI, §1171(b)(1), (2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2173, 2178, 2179, 2205, 2341, 2513; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1002(e)(8)(A), 1007(g)(2), (8), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3368, 3434, 3435; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11511(b)(1), 11611(b)(1), 11813(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–485, 1388–503, 1388–551; Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1914(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3023; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13302(a)(1), (c)(1), 13322(a), 13443(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 555, 559, 569; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1201(e)(1), 1205(a)(2), 1702(e)(4), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1772, 1775, 1870.)

References in Text

For reference to section 51 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), treated as including reference to section 51A of this title, see section 51A(d)(2) of this title.

The date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990, referred to in subsecs. (c)(3)(C) and (d)(3)(B)(ii), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–508, which was approved Nov. 5, 1990.

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(A), (B)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 98–369, which was approved July 18, 1984.

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 99–514, which was approved Oct. 22, 1986.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 38, added Pub. L. 87–834, §2(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 962; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, related to investment in certain depreciable property, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(m)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 833.

Another prior section 38 was renumbered section 35 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–188, §1201(e)(1), substituted “work opportunity credit” for “targeted jobs credit”.

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 104–188, §1205(a)(2), added par. (12).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(e)(4), amended subpar. (C), as in effect on day before date of enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 (title XI of Pub. L. 101–508, approved Nov. 5, 1990), by inserting before period at end of first sentence “and without regard to the deduction under section 56(h)”.

1993—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 103–66, §13302(a)(1), struck out “plus” at end.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 103–66, §13322(a), which directed amendment of par. (8) by striking “plus” at end, was executed by striking “and” at end to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 103–66, §13302(a)(1), substituted “, and” for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 103–66, §13443(b)(1), struck out “plus” at end.

Pub. L. 103–66, §13322(a), substituted “, plus” for period at end.

Pub. L. 103–66, §13302(a)(1), added par. (9).

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 103–66, §13443(b)(1), substituted “, plus” for period at end.

Pub. L. 103–66, §13322(a), added par. (10).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 103–66, §13443(b)(1), added par. (11).

Subsec. (c)(2), (3). Pub. L. 103–66, §13302(c)(1), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

1992—Subsec. (b)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 102–486 struck out “plus” at end of par. (6), substituted “; plus” for period at end of par. (7), and added par. (8).

1990—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(2)(A), substituted “section 46” for “section 46(a)”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–508, §11511(b)(1), struck out “plus” at end.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 101–508, §11611(b)(1), struck out “plus” at end.

Pub. L. 101–508, §11511(b)(1), substituted “, plus” for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 101–508, §11611(b)(1), substituted “, plus” for period at end.

Pub. L. 101–508, §11511(b)(1), added par. (6).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 101–508, §11611(b)(1), added par. (7).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(2)(B), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which permitted an offset of regular investment tax credit against 25 percent of minimum tax.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(2)(C), inserted “(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990)” after “46(e)(1)” and “(as so in effect)” after “46(e)(2)”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(2)(B), redesignated par. (3) as (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(2)(D)(i), substituted “any provision” for “sections 46(f), 47(a), 196(a), and any other provision” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(2)(D)(ii), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “The order in which credits attributable to a percentage referred to in section 46(a) are used shall be determined on the basis of the order in which such percentages are listed in section 46(a) as of the close of the taxable year in which the credit is used.”

Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(2)(D)(iii), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “the employee plan percentage (as defined in section 46(a)(2)(E), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984) shall be treated as referred to after section 46(a)(2).”

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647, §1007(g)(2), amended pars. (1) to (3) generally, substituting pars. (1) and (2) for former pars. (1) to (3), redesignating former par. (4) as (3), and substituting “subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1)” for “subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1)” in subpars. (A), (B), (C), and (D).

Pub. L. 100–647, §1007(g)(8), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(4), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647, §1002(e)(8)(A), substituted “Ordering rules” for “Special rules for certain regulated companies” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In the case of any taxpayer to which section 46(f) applies, for purposes of sections 46(f), 47(a), and 196(a) and any other provision of this title where it is necessary to ascertain the extent to which the credits determined under section 40(a), 41(a), 42(a), 46(a), or 51(a) are used in a taxable year or as a carryback or carryforward, the order in which such credits are used shall be determined on the basis of the order in which they are listed in subsection (b).”

1986—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §231(d)(1), added par. (4).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1171(b)(1), struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: “the employee stock ownership credit determined under section 41(a)”.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §252(b)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(4), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1007(g)(8), added pars. (1) to (3), redesignated former par. (3) as (4), and struck out former par. (1) “In general” which provided: “The credit allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the sum of—

“(A) so much of the taxpayer's net tax liability for the taxable year as does not exceed $25,000, plus

“(B) 75 percent of so much of the taxpayer's net tax liability for the taxable year as exceeds $25,000.”

and former par. (2) “Net tax liability”, which provided: “For purposes of paragraph (1), the term ‘net tax liability’ means the tax liability (as defined in section 26(b)), reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subparts A and B of this part.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §221(a), substituted “75 percent” for “85 percent”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §252(b)(2), inserted “42(a),”.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1171(b)(2), substituted “and 196(a)” for “196(a), and 404(i)” and struck out “41(a),” after “40(a)”.

Pub. L. 99–514, §231(d)(3)(B), inserted “41(a),” after “40(a),”.

1984—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §612(e)(1), substituted “section 26(b)” for “section 25(b)”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1201(g) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 41, 45A, 51, 196, and 1396 of this title] shall apply to individuals who begin work for the employer after September 30, 1996.”

Amendment by section 1205(a)(2) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years ending after June 30, 1996, see section 1205(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 29 of this title.

Section 1702(i) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “Except as otherwise expressly provided, any amendment made by this section [amending this section, sections 50, 56, 59, 143, 151, 168, 172, 179, 243, 280F, 341, 424, 460, 613A, 805, 832, 861, 897, 1248, 1250, 1367, 1504, 2701, 2702, 2704, 4093, 4975, 5041, 5061, 5354, 6038A, 6302, 6416, 6427, 6501, 6503, 6621, 6724, and 7012 of this title, and provisions set out as a note under section 42 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–508, title XI] to which such amendment relates.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13303 of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this part [part I (§§13301–13303) of subchapter C of chapter 1 of title XIII of Pub. L. 103–66, enacting sections 1391 to 1394 and 1396 to 1397D of this title and amending this section and sections 39, 51, 196, 280C, and 381 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 1993].”

Section 13322(f) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 45A of this title and amending this section and sections 39, 196, and 280C of this title] shall apply to wages paid or incurred after December 31, 1993.”

Section 13443(d) of Pub. L. 103–66, as amended by Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1112(a)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1759, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 45B of this title and amending this section and section 39 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxes paid after December 31, 1993, with respect to services performed before, on, or after such date.”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 1914(e) of Pub. L. 102–486 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 45 of this title and amending this section and section 39 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1992.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 11511(b)(1) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to costs paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11511(d)(1) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as an Effective Date note under section 43 of this title.

Section 11611(e) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 44 of this title and amending this section and sections 39 and 190 of this title] shall apply to expenditures paid or incurred after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990].

“(2) Subsection (c).—The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 190 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Amendment by section 11813(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1990, but not applicable to any transition property (as defined in section 49(e) of this title), any property with respect to which qualified progress expenditures were previously taken into account under section 46(d) of this title, and any property described in section 46(b)(2)(C) of this title, as such sections were in effect on Nov. 4, 1990, see section 11813(c) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 29 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1002(e)(8)(C) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and section 49 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years.”

Amendment by section 1007(g)(2), (8) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 221(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1985.”

Amendment by section 231(d)(1), (3)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1985, see section 231(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 41 of this title.

Amendment by section 252(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to buildings placed in service after Dec. 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 252(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 42 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(c)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Section 1171(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 56, 108, 401, and 404 of this title and repealing sections 41 and 6699 of this title] shall apply to compensation paid or accrued after December 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Sections 404(i) and 6699 to continue to apply to pre-1987 credits.—The provisions of sections 404(i) and 6699 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall continue to apply with respect to credits under section 41 of such Code attributable to compensation paid or accrued before January 1, 1987 (or under section 38 of such Code with respect to qualified investment before January 1, 1983).”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to interest paid or accrued after December 31, 1984, on indebtedness incurred after December 31, 1984, see section 612(g) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 25 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 21 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11813(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 29 of this title.

Credit for Contributions to Certain Community Development Corporations

Section 13311 of Pub. L. 103–66, as amended by Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1703(n)(13), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1877, provided that:

“(a) In General.—For purposes of section 38 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the current year business credit shall include the credit determined under this section.

“(b) Determination of Credit.—The credit determined under this section for each taxable year in the credit period with respect to any qualified CDC contribution made by the taxpayer is an amount equal to 5 percent of such contribution.

“(c) Credit Period.—For purposes of this section, the credit period with respect to any qualified CDC contribution is the period of 10 taxable years beginning with the taxable year during which such contribution was made.

“(d) Qualified CDC Contribution.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) In general.—The term ‘qualified CDC contribution’ means any transfer of cash—

“(A) which is made to a selected community development corporation during the 5-year period beginning on the date such corporation was selected for purposes of this section,

“(B) the amount of which is available for use by such corporation for at least 10 years,

“(C) which is to be used by such corporation for qualified low-income assistance within its operational area, and

“(D) which is designated by such corporation for purposes of this section.

“(2) Limitations on amount designated.—The aggregate amount of contributions to a selected community development corporation which may be designated by such corporation shall not exceed $2,000,000.

“(e) Selected Community Development Corporations.—

“(1) In general.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘selected community development corporation’ means any corporation—

“(A) which is described in section 501(c)(3) of such Code and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of such Code,

“(B) the principal purposes of which include promoting employment of, and business opportunities for, low-income individuals who are residents of the operational area, and

“(C) which is selected by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for purposes of this section.

“(2) Only 20 corporations may be selected.—The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may select 20 corporations for purposes of this section, subject to the availability of eligible corporations. Such selections may be made only before July 1, 1994. At least 8 of the operational areas of the corporations selected must be rural areas (as defined by section 1393(a)(2) of such Code).

“(3) Operational areas must have certain characteristics.—A corporation may be selected for purposes of this section only if its operational area meets the following criteria:

“(A) The area meets the size requirements under section 1392(a)(3).

“(B) The unemployment rate (as determined by the appropriate available data) is not less than the national unemployment rate.

“(C) The median family income of residents of such area does not exceed 80 percent of the median gross income of residents of the jurisdiction of the local government which includes such area.

“(f) Qualified Low-Income Assistance.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘qualified low-income assistance’ means assistance—

“(1) which is designed to provide employment of, and business opportunities for, low-income individuals who are residents of the operational area of the community development corporation, and

“(2) which is approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.”

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Public Law 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(c)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Effective 15-Year Carryback of Existing Carryforwards of Steel Companies

Section 212 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1002(f), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3369, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—If a qualified corporation makes an election under this section for its 1st taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, with respect to any portion of its existing carryforwards, the amount determined under subsection (b) shall be treated as a payment against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 made by such corporation on the last day prescribed by law (without regard to extensions) for filing its return of tax under chapter 1 of such Code for such 1st taxable year.

“(b) Amount.—For purposes of subsection (a), the amount determined under this subsection shall be the lesser of—

“(1) 50 percent of the portion of the corporation's existing carryforwards to which the election under subsection (a) applies, or

“(2) the corporation's net tax liability for the carryback period.

“(c) Corporation Making Election May Not Use Same Amounts Under Section 38.—In the case of a qualified corporation which makes an election under subsection (a), the portion of such corporation's existing carryforwards to which such an election applies shall not be taken into account under section 38 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(d) Net Tax Liability for Carryback Period.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) In general.—A corporation's net tax liability for the carryback period is the aggregate of such corporation's net tax liability for taxable years in the carryback period.

“(2) Net tax liability.—The term ‘net tax liability’ means, with respect to any taxable year, the amount of the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] for such taxable year, reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under part IV of subchapter A of such chapter 1 (other than section 34 thereof). For purposes of the preceding sentence, any tax treated as not imposed by chapter 1 of such Code under section 26(b)(2) of such Code shall not be treated as tax imposed by such chapter 1.

“(3) Carryback period.—The term ‘carryback period’ means the period—

“(A) which begins with the corporation's 15th taxable year preceding the 1st taxable year from which there is an unused credit included in such corporation's existing carryforwards (but in no event shall such period begin before the corporation's 1st taxable year ending after December 31, 1961), and

“(B) which ends with the corporation's last taxable year beginning before January 1, 1986.

“(e) No Recomputation of Minimum Tax, Etc.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect—

“(1) the amount of the tax imposed by section 56 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or

“(2) the amount of any credit allowable under such Code,

for any taxable year in the carryback period.

“(f) Reinvestment Requirement.—

“(1) In general.—Any amount determined under this section must be committed to reinvestment in, and modernization of the steel industry through investment in modern plant and equipment, research and development, and other appropriate projects, such as working capital for steel operations and programs for the retraining of steel workers.

“(2) Special rule.—In the case of the LTV Corporation, in lieu of the requirements of paragraph (1)—

“(A) such corporation shall place such refund in a separate account; and

“(B) amounts in such separate account—

“(i) shall only be used by the corporation—

     “(I) to purchase an insurance policy which provides that, in the event the corporation becomes involved in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]), the insurer will provide life and health insurance coverage during the 1-year period beginning on the date when the corporation receives the refund to any individual with respect to whom the corporation would (but for such involvement) have been obligated to provide such coverage the coverage provided by the insurer will be identical to the coverage which the corporation would (but for such involvement) have been obligated to provide, and provides that the payment of insurance premiums will not be required during such 1-year period to keep such policy in force, or

     “(II) directly in connection with the trade or business of the corporation in the manufacturer or production of steel; and

“(ii) shall be used (or obligated) for purposes described in clause (i) not later than 3 months after the corporation receives the refund.

“(3) In the case of a qualified corporation, no offset to any refund under this section may be made by reason of any tax imposed by section 4971 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (or any interest or penalty attributable to any such tax), and the date on which any such refund is to be paid shall be determined without regard to such corporation's status under title 11, United States Code.

“(g) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) Qualified corporation.—

“(A) In general.—The term ‘qualified corporation’ means any corporation which is described in section 806(b) of the Steel Import Stabilization Act [19 U.S.C. 2253 note] and a company which was incorporated on February 11, 1983, in Michigan.

“(B) Certain predecessors included.—In the case of any qualified corporation which has carryforward attributable to a predecessor corporation described in such section 806(b), the qualified corporation and the predecessor corporation shall be treated as 1 corporation for purposes of subsections (d) and (e).

“(2) Existing carryforwards.—The term ‘existing carryforward’ means the aggregate of the amounts which—

“(A) are unused business credit carryforwards to the taxpayer's 1st taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (determined without regard to the limitations of section 38(c) and any reduction under section 49 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), and

“(B) are attributable to the amount of the regular investment credit determined for periods before January 1, 1986, under section 46(a)(1) of such Code (relating to regular percentage), or any corresponding provision of prior law, determined on the basis that the regular investment credit was used first.

“(3) Special rule for restructuring.—In the case of any corporation, any restructuring shall not limit, increase, or otherwise affect the benefits which would have been available under this section but for such restructuring.

“(h) Tentative Refunds.—Rules similar to the rules of section 6425 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall apply to any overpayment resulting from the application of this section.”

Effective 15-Year Carryback of Existing Carryforwards of Qualified Farmers

Section 213 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1002(g), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3369, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—If a taxpayer who is a qualified farmer makes an election under this section for its 1st taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, with respect to any portion of its existing carryforwards, the amount determined under subsection (b) shall be treated as a payment against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 made by such taxpayer on the last day prescribed by law (without regard to extensions) for filing its return of tax under chapter 1 of such Code for such 1st taxable year.

“(b) Amount.—For purposes of subsection (a), the amount determined under this subsection shall be equal to the smallest of—

“(1) 50 percent of the portion of the taxpayer's existing carryforwards to which the election under subsection (a) applies,

“(2) the taxpayer's net tax liability for the carryback period (within the meaning of section 212(d) of this Act [set out as a note above]), or

“(3) $750.

“(c) Taxpayer Making Election May Not Use Same Amounts Under Section 38.—In the case of a qualified farmer who makes an election under subsection (a), the portion of such farmer's existing carryforwards to which such an election applies shall not be taken into account under section 38 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(d) No Recomputation of Minimum Tax, Etc.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect—

“(1) the amount of the tax imposed by section 56 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986], or

“(2) the amount of any credit allowable under such Code,

for any taxable year in the carryback period (within the meaning of section 212(d)(3) of this Act [set out as a note above]).

“(e) Definitions and Special Rules.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) Qualified farmer.—The term ‘qualified farmer’ means any taxpayer who, during the 3-taxable year period preceding the taxable year for which an election is made under subsection (a), derived 50 percent or more of the taxpayer's gross income from the trade or business of farming.

“(2) Existing carryforward.—The term ‘existing carryforward’ means the aggregate of the amounts which—

“(A) are unused business credit carryforwards to the taxpayer's 1st taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (determined without regard to the limitations of section 38(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), and

“(B) are attributable to the amount of the investment credit determined for periods before January 1, 1986, under section 46(a) of such Code (or any corresponding provision of prior law) with respect to section 38 property which was used by the taxpayer in the trade or business of farming, determined on the basis that such credit was used first.

“(3) Farming.—The term ‘farming’ has the meaning given such term by section 2032A(e)(4) and (5) of such Code.”

Treatment of Investment Tax Credits With Respect to Certain Public Utilities

For provisions requiring different applications of subsec. (c) of this section to certain public utilities by making substitutions in the percentages of the tentative minimum tax referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A)(ii), (B), under certain circumstances, see section 701(f)(6) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Transition Rules

Section 1177 of subtitle C (§§1171–1177) of title XI of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011B(l)(1), (2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3493, provided that:

“(a) Section 1171.—The amendments made by section 1171 [amending this section and sections 56, 108, 401, and 404 of this title and repealing sections 41 and 6699 of this title] shall not apply in the case of a tax credit employee stock ownership plan if—

“(1) such plan was favorably approved on September 23, 1983, by employees, and

“(2) not later than January 11, 1984, the employer of such employees was 100 percent owned by such plan.

“(b) Subtitle Not To Apply to Certain Newspaper.—The amendments made by section 1175 [amending section 401 of this title] shall not apply to any daily newspaper—

“(1) which was first published on December 17, 1855, and which began publication under its current name in 1954, and

“(2) which is published in a constitutional home rule city (within the meaning of section 146(d)(3)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) which has a population of less than 2,500,000.”

Section 1011B(l)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “If any newspaper corporation described in section 1177(b) of the Reform Act [section 1177(b) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out above], as amended by this subsection, pays in cash a dividend within 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988] to the corporation's employee stock ownership plans and if a corporate resolution declaring such dividend was adopted before November 30, 1987, and such resolution specifies that such dividend shall be contingent upon passage by the Congress of technical corrections, then such dividend (to the extent the aggregate amount so paid does not exceed $3,500,000) shall be treated as if it had been declared and paid in 1987 for all purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Accounting for Investment Credit in Certain Financial Reports and Reports to Federal Agencies

Pub. L. 92–178, title I, §101(c), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 499, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §450(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—It was the intent of Congress in enacting, in the Revenue Act of 1962 [see Short Title of 1962 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title], the investment credit allowed by section 38 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], and it is the intent of the Congress in restoring that credit in this Act [section 50 of this title], to provide an incentive for modernization and growth of private industry. Accordingly, notwithstanding any other provision of law, on and after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 10, 1971]—

“(A) no taxpayer shall be required to use, for purposes of financial reports subject to the jurisdiction of any Federal agency or reports made to any Federal agency, any particular method of accounting for the credit allowed by such section 38 [this section], and

“(B) a taxpayer shall disclose, in any such report, the method of accounting for such credit used by him for purposes of such report.

“(2) Exceptions.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to taxpayers who are subject to the provisions of section 46(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by section 105(c) of this Act) or to section 203(e) of the Revenue Act of 1964 (as modified by section 105(e) of this Act) [set out as note below].”

[Section 450(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this note] shall take effect as if included in the Revenue Act of 1971.”]

Treatment of Investment Credit by Federal Regulatory Agencies

Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §203(e), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 35, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “It was the intent of the Congress in providing an investment credit under section 38 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] and it is the intent of the Congress in repealing the reduction in basis required by section 48(g) of such Code to provide an incentive for modernization and growth of private industry (including that portion thereof which is regulated). Accordingly, Congress does not intend that any agency or instrumentality of the United States having jurisdiction with respect to a taxpayer shall, without the consent of the taxpayer, use—

“(1) in the case of public utility property (as defined in section 46(c)(3)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, more than a proportionate part (determined with reference to the average useful life of the property with respect to which the credit was allowed) of the credit against tax allowed for any taxable year by section 38 of such Code, or

“(2) in the case of any other property, any credit against tax allowed by section 38 of such Code,

to reduce such taxpayer's Federal income taxes for the purpose of establishing the cost of service of the taxpayer or to accomplish a similar result by any other method.”

Section 203(e) of Pub. L. 88–272, not applicable to public utility property to which section 46(e) of this title applies, see section 105(e) of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as a note under section 46 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 29, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 45A, 45B, 45C, 46, 49, 50, 51, 51A, 52, 55, 108, 179, 196, 280C, 381, 877, 1274A, 1351, 1396, 4612 of this title.

§39. Carryback and carryforward of unused credits

(a) In general

(1) 1-year carryback and 20-year carryforward

If the sum of the business credit carryforwards to the taxable year plus the amount of the current year business credit for the taxable year exceeds the amount of the limitation imposed by subsection (c) of section 38 for such taxable year (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “unused credit year”), such excess (to the extent attributable to the amount of the current year business credit) shall be—

(A) a business credit carryback to each of the 1 taxable years 1 preceding the unused credit year, and

(B) a business credit carryforward to each of the 20 taxable years following the unused credit year,


and, subject to the limitations imposed by subsections (b) and (c), shall be ta