TITLE 7—AGRICULTURE

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Commodity Exchanges
1
2.
Cotton Standards
51
3.
Grain Standards
71
4.
Naval Stores
91
5.
Importation of Adulterated Seeds [Repealed]
111
6.
Insecticides and Environmental Pesticide Control
121
6A.
National Laboratory Accreditation
138
7.
Insect Pests Generally
141
7A.
Golden Nematode
150
7B.
Plant Pests
150aa
8.
Nursery Stock and Other Plants and Plant Products
151
8A.
Rubber and Other Critical Agricultural Materials
171
9.
Packers and Stockyards
181
10.
Warehouses
241
11.
Honeybees
281
12.
Associations of Agricultural Products Producers
291
13.
Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges
301
14.
Agricultural Experiment Stations
361
15.
Bureau of Animal Industry
391
16.
Bureau of Dairy Industry
401
17.
Miscellaneous Matters
411
18.
Cooperative Marketing
451
19.
Cotton Statistics and Estimates
471
20.
Dumping or Destruction of Interstate Produce
491
20A.
Perishable Agricultural Commodities
499a
21.
Tobacco Statistics
501
21A.
Tobacco Inspection
511
21B.
Tobacco Control
515
22.
Agricultural Marketing [Omitted or Transferred]
521
23.
Foreign Agricultural Service [Repealed]
541
24.
Perishable Agricultural Commodities [Transferred to Chapter 20A]
551
25.
Export Standards for Apples
581
25A.
Export Standards for Grapes and Plums
591
26.
Agricultural Adjustment
601
26A.
Agricultural Marketing Agreements
671
27.
Cotton Marketing [Repealed or Omitted]
701
28.
Tobacco Industry [Repealed]
751
29.
Potato Act of 1935 [Repealed]
801
30.
Anti-Hog-Cholera Serum and Hog-Cholera Virus
851
31.
Rural Electrification and Telephone Service
901
31A.
Telemedicine and Distance Learning Services in Rural Areas
950aaa
32.
Peanut Statistics
951
33.
Farm Tenancy
1000
34.
Sugar Production and Control [Omitted or Repealed]
1100
35.
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938
1281
35A.
Price Support of Agricultural Commodities
1421
36.
Crop Insurance
1501
37.
Seeds
1551
38.
Distribution and Marketing of Agricultural Products
1621
39.
Stabilization of International Wheat Market
1641
40.
Halogeton Glomeratus Control
1651
41.
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance
1691
42.
Agricultural Commodity Set-Aside
1741
43.
Foreign Market Development
1761
44.
Wool Program [Repealed]
1781
45.
Soil Bank Program
1801
46.
Surplus Disposal of Agricultural Commodities
1851
47.
Interchange of Department of Agriculture and State Employees [Repealed]
1881
48.
Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter
1901
49.
Consultation on Agricultural Programs
1911
50.
Agricultural Credit
1921
51.
Food Stamp Program
2011
52.
Farm Labor Contractor Registration [Repealed]
2041
53.
Cotton Research and Promotion
2101
54.
Transportation, Sale, and Handling of Certain Animals
2131
55.
Department of Agriculture
2201
55A.
Department of Agriculture Advisory Committees
2281
56.
Unfair Trade Practices Affecting Producers of Agricultural Products
2301
57.
Plant Variety Protection
2321
58.
Potato Research and Promotion
2611
59.
Rural Fire Protection, Development, and Small Farm Research and Education
2651
60.
Egg Research and Consumer Information
2701
61.
Noxious Weeds
2801
62.
Beef Research and Information
2901
63.
Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing
3001
64.
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching
3101
65.
Wheat and Wheat Foods Research and Nutrition Education
3401
66.
Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure
3501
67.
Implementation of International Sugar Agreement, 1977
3601
68.
Agricultural Subterminal Facilities
3701
69.
Swine Health Protection
3801
70.
Animal Cancer Research
3901
71.
Agricultural Trade Suspension Adjustment
4001
72.
National Agricultural Cost of Production Standards Review Board [Omitted]
4101
73.
Farmland Protection Policy
4201
74.
Floral Research and Consumer Information
4301
75.
International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs
4401
76.
Dairy Research and Promotion
4501
77.
Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information
4601
78.
Agricultural Productivity Research [Repealed]
4701
79.
Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information
4801
80.
Watermelon Research and Promotion
4901
81.
National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy [Omitted]
5001
82.
State Agricultural Loan Mediation Programs
5101
83.
Agricultural Competitiveness and Trade
5201
84.
National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research
5301
85.
Administration of Environmental Programs
5401
86.
Water Quality Research, Education, and Coordination
5501
87.
Export Promotion
5601
88.
Research
5801
89.
Pecan Promotion and Research
6001
90.
Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information
6101
91.
Lime Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information
6201
92.
Soybean Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information
6301
93.
Processor-Funded Milk Promotion Program
6401
94.
Organic Certification
6501
95.
Rural Revitalization Through Forestry
6601
96.
Global Climate Change
6701
97.
Fresh Cut Flowers and Fresh Cut Greens Promotion and Information
6801
98.
Department of Agriculture Reorganization
6901
99.
Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information
7101
100.
Agricultural Market Transition
7201
101.
Agricultural Promotion
7401
102.
Emergency Food Assistance
7501
103.
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform
7601

        

CHAPTER 1—COMMODITY EXCHANGES

Sec.
1.
Short title.
1a.
Definitions.
2.
Accounts, agreements, and transactions subject to jurisdiction of Commodity Futures Trading Commission; relation to jurisdiction of Securities and Exchange Commission and Federal and State courts; excepted transactions.
2a.
Designation of boards of trade as contract markets; approval by and jurisdiction of Commodity Futures Trading Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission.
3.
Transaction in interstate commerce.
4.
Liability of principal for act of agent.
4a.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
(a)
Establishment; composition; term of Commissioners.
(b)
Vacancies.
(c)
General Counsel.
(d)
Executive Director.
(e)
Powers and functions of Chairman.
(f)
Conflict of interest.
(g)
Liaison with Department of Agriculture; communications with Department of Treasury, Federal Reserve Board, and Securities and Exchange Commission; application by a board of trade for designation as a contract market for future delivery of securities.
(h)
Transmittal of budget requests and legislative recommendations to Congressional committees.
(i)
Seal.
(j)
Rules and regulations.
5.
Legislative findings.
6.
Regulation of futures trading and foreign transactions.
(a)
Restriction of futures trading to contract markets.
(b)
Regulation of foreign transactions by United States persons.
(c)
Public interest exemption from contract market requirement.
(d)
Effect of exemption on investigative authority of Commission.
6a.
Excessive speculation.
(a)
Burden on interstate commerce; trading or position limits.
(b)
Prohibition on trading or positions in excess of limits fixed by Commission.
(c)
Applicability to bona fide hedging transactions or positions.
(d)
Persons subject to regulation; applicability to transactions made by or on behalf of United States.
(e)
Rulemaking power of contract markets and penalties for violation.
6b.
Fraud, false reporting, or deception prohibited.
(a)
Contracts designed to defraud or mislead; bucketing orders.
(b)
Buying and selling orders for commodity.
(c)
Inapplicability to transactions on foreign exchanges.
6c.
Prohibited transactions.
(a)
Meretricious transactions.
(b)
Regulated option trading.
(c)
Regulations for elimination of pilot status of commodity option transactions; terms and conditions of options trading.
(d)
Dealer options exempt from subsections (b) and (c) prohibitions; requirements.
(e)
Rules and regulations.
(f)
Nonapplicability to foreign currency options.
(g)
Oral orders.
6d.
Dealing by unregistered futures commission merchants or introducing brokers prohibited; duties of merchants regarding monies and securities of customers.
6e.
Dealings by unregistered floor trader or broker prohibited.
6f.
Registration and financial requirements; risk assessment.
(a)
Registration of futures commission merchants, introducing brokers, and floor brokers and traders.
(b)
Financial requirements for futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.
(c)
Risk assessment for holding company systems.
6g.
Reporting and recordkeeping.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Daily trading records: clearinghouses and contract markets.
(c)
Daily trading records: floor brokers, introducing brokers, and futures commission merchants.
(d)
Daily trading records: form and reports.
(e)
Disclosure of information.
(f)
Authority of Commission to make separate determinations unimpaired.
6h.
False self-representation as contract market member prohibited.
6i.
Reports of deals equal to or in excess of trading limits; books and records; cash and controlled transactions.
6j.
Regulation of trades and executions.
(a)
Dual trading prohibited; exemptions.
(b)
Trades and executions by floor brokers.
(c)
Trades by futures commission merchants.
(d)
Restrictions on trading among members of broker associations.
6k.
Registration of associates of futures commission merchants, commodity pool operators, and commodity trading advisors; required disclosure of disqualifications.
6l.
Commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; Congressional finding.
6m.
Use of mails or other means or instrumentalities of interstate commerce by commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; relation to other law.
6n.
Registration of commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; application; expiration and renewal; record keeping and reports; disclosure; statements of account.
6o.
Fraud and misrepresentation by commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators, and associated persons.
6p.
Standards and examinations.
7.
Designation of board of trade as “contract market”; conditions and requirements.
7a.
Duties of contract markets.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Monitoring system to detect violations of rules and regulations.
7b.
Suspension or revocation of designation as “contract market”.
8.
Application for designation as “contract market”; time; suspension or revocation of designation; hearing; review by court of appeals.
9.
Exclusion of persons from privilege of “contract markets”; procedure for exclusion; review by court of appeals.
9a.
Assessment of money penalties.
9b.
Rules prohibiting deceptive and other abusive telemarketing acts or practices.
10.
Repealed.
10a.
Cooperative associations and corporations, exclusion from board of trade; rules of board inapplicable to payment of compensation by association.
11.
Vacation on request of designation as “contract market”; redesignation.
12.
Public disclosure.
(a)
Investigations respecting operations of boards of trade and others subject to this chapter; publication of results; restrictions; information received from foreign futures authorities; undercover operations.
(b)
Business matters; congressional, administrative, judicial, and bankruptcy proceedings.
(c)
Reports respecting conduct of boards of trade or transactions of violators; contents.
(d)
Investigations respecting marketing conditions of commodities and commodity products and byproducts; reports.
(e)
Names and addresses of traders of boards of trade previously disclosed; disclosure to Congress and agencies or departments of States or foreign governments or foreign futures authority.
(f)
Compliance with subpoena after notice to informant; congressional subpoenas and requests for information excepted.
(g)
Requests for information by State agencies or subdivisions; volunteering of information by Commission.
(h)
Annual report to Congress.
(i)
Review and audits by Comptroller General.
12–1 to 12–3. Omitted.
12a.
Registration of commodity dealers and associated persons; regulation of contract markets.
12b.
Trading ban violations; prohibition.
12c.
Disciplinary actions.
(a)
Action taken; written notice of reasons for action.
(b)
Review by Commission.
(c)
Affirmance, modification, set aside, or remand of action.
(d)
Stay of action.
(e)
Major disciplinary rule violations.
12d.
Commission action for noncompliance with export sales reporting requirements.
12e.
Commission oversight; deficiency orders.
(a)
Assessments.
(b)
Deficiency orders.
(c)
Rescission, modification, or delay of deficiency orders.
(d)
Penalties.
(e)
Judicial review.
13.
Violations generally; punishment; costs of prosecution.
(a)
Felonies generally.
(b)
Suspension of convicted felons.
(c)
Transactions by Commissioners and Commission employees prohibited.
(d)
Use of information by Commissioners and Commission employees prohibited.
(e)
Redesignated (d).
(f)
Insider trading prohibited.
13–1.
Violations, prohibition against dealings in onion futures; punishment.
13a.
Nonenforcement of rules of government or other violations; cease and desist orders; fines and penalties; imprisonment; misdemeanor; separate offenses.
13a–1.
Enjoining or restraining violations.
(a)
Action to enjoin or restrain violations.
(b)
Injunction or restraining order.
(c)
Writs or other orders.
(d)
Civil penalties.
(e)
Venue and process.
(f)
Action by Attorney General.
(g)
Notice to Attorney General of action brought by Commission.
13a–2.
Jurisdiction of States.
13b.
Manipulations or other violations; cease and desist orders against persons other than contract markets; punishment; misdemeanor or felony; separate offenses.
13c.
Responsibility as principal; minor violations.
14.
Repealed.
15.
Enforcement powers of Commission.
15a.
Repealed.
15b.
Cotton futures contracts.
(a)
Short title.
(b)
Repeal of tax on cotton futures.
(c)
Definitions.
(d)
Bona fide spot markets and commercial differences.
(e)
Form and validity of cotton futures contracts.
(f)
Basis grade contracts.
(g)
Tendered grade contracts.
(h)
Specific grade contracts.
(i)
Liability of principal for acts of agent.
(j)
Regulations.
(k)
Violations.
(l)
Applicability to contracts prior to effective date.
(m)
Authorization.
16.
Commission operations.
(a)
Cooperation with other agencies.
(b)
Employment of investigators, experts, Administrative Law Judges, consultants, clerks, and other personnel; contracts.
(c)
Expenses.
(d)
Authorization of appropriations.
(e)
Relation to other laws, departments, or agencies.
(f)
Investigative assistance to foreign futures authorities.
(g)
Computerized futures trading.
16a.
Service fees and National Futures Association study.
(a)
Development and implementation of plan for user fees; report to and approval by Congressional committees.
(b)
National Futures Association regulatory experience; report; contents.
(c)
Schedule of fees for services, activities and functions; notice and hearing; actual cost standard.
17.
Separability.
17a.
Separability of 1936 amendment.
17b.
Separability of 1968 amendment.
18.
Complaints against registered persons.
(a)
Petition for actual damages.
(b)
Rules and regulations; control over right of appeal.
(c)
Bond requirement when complainant is nonresident; waiver.
(d)
Enforcement of reparation award.
(e)
Review.
(f)
Automatic bar from trading and suspension for noncompliance; effect of appeal.
(g)
Effective date.
19.
Antitrust laws; anticompetitive means.
20.
Market reports.
(a)
Information.
(b)
Avoidance of duplication.
(c)
Furnishing of information; confidentiality.
(d)
Disclosure of business transactions, market positions, trade secrets, or names of customers.
21.
Registered futures associations.
(a)
Registration statement.
(b)
Standards for registration; Commission findings.
(c)
Suspension of registration.
(d)
Fees and charges.
(e)
Registered persons not members of registered associations.
(f)
Denial of registration.
(g)
Withdrawal from registration; notice of withdrawal.
(h)
Commission review of disciplinary actions taken by registered futures associations.
(i)
Notice; hearing; findings; cancellation, reduction, or remission of penalties; review by court of appeals.
(j)
Changes or additions to association rules.
(k)
Abrogation of association rules; requests to associations by Commission to alter or supplement rules.
(l)
Suspension and revocation of registration; expulsion of members; removal of association officers or directors.
(m)
Rules requiring membership in associations.
(n)
Reports to Congress.
(o)
Delegation to futures associations of registrative functions; discretionary review by Commission; judicial appeal.
(p)
Establishment of rules for futures associations; approval by Commission.
(q)
Major disciplinary rule violations.
(q)
Program for implementation of rules.
22.
Research and information programs; reports to Congress.
23.
Standardized contracts for certain commodities.
(a)
Margin accounts or contracts and leverage accounts or contracts prohibited except as authorized.
(b)
Permission to enter into contracts for delivery of silver or gold bullion, bulk silver or gold coins, or platinum; rules and regulations.
(c)
Survey of persons interested in engaging in transactions of silver and gold, etc.; assistance of futures association; regulations.
(d)
Savings provision.
24.
Regulations respecting commodity broker debtors; definitions.
25.
Private rights of action.
(a)
Actual damages; actionable transactions; exclusive remedy.
(b)
Liabilities of organizations and individuals; bad faith requirement; exclusive remedy.
(c)
Jurisdiction; statute of limitations; venue; process.
(d)
Dates of application to actions.
26.
Repealed.

        

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 15b, 16a, 499n, 7331 of this title; title 2 section 1602; title 11 section 761; title 12 section 4402; title 15 sections 78c, 78o, 80a–9, 80b–3, 431; title 26 section 277.

§1. Short title

This chapter may be cited as the “Commodity Exchange Act.”

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §1, 42 Stat. 998; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §1, 49 Stat. 1491.)

Prior Provisions

This chapter superseded act Aug. 24, 1921, ch. 86, 42 Stat. 187, known as “The Future Trading Act,” which act was declared unconstitutional, at least in part, in Hill v. Wallace, Ill. 1922, 42 S.Ct. 453, 259 U.S. 44, 66 L.Ed. 822. Section 3 of that act was found unconstitutional as imposing a penalty in Trusler v. Crooks, Mo. 1926, 46 S.Ct. 165, 269 U.S. 475, 70 L.Ed. 365.

Amendments

1936—Act June 15, 1936, substituted “Commodity Exchange Act” for “The Grain Futures Act”.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Section 13 of act June 15, 1936, provided that: “All provisions of this Act [see Tables for classification] authorizing the registration of futures commission merchants and floor brokers, the fixing of fees and charges therefor, the promulgation of rules, regulations and orders, and the holding of hearings precedent to the promulgation of rules, regulations, and orders shall be effective immediately. All other provisions of this Act shall take effect ninety days after the enactment of this Act [June 15, 1936].”

Short Title of 1995 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–9, §1, Apr. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 154, provided that: “This Act [amending section 16 of this title] may be cited as the ‘CFTC Reauthorization Act of 1995’.”

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–546, §1(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3590, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1a and 12e of this title, amending sections 2, 2a, 4, 4a, 6 to 6c, 6e to 6g, 6j, 6p, 7 to 9a, 10a, 12, 12a, 12c, 13 to 13c, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, and 25 of this title, repealing section 26 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1a, 4a, 6c, 6e, 6j, 6p, 7a, 13, 16a, 21, and 22 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 4a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–641, §1, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3556, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 2271a of this title, amending sections 2a, 6b, 6c, 7a, 13, 13a–1, 15, 16, 21, 23, 74, 87b, 1444, 1445b–3, and 1445c–2 of this title, sections 590h and 3831 of Title 16, Conservation, sections 606, 609, 621, 671, and 676 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, repealing section 14 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 20, 71, 76, 87b, and 2271a of this title and sections 601, 606, 609, 621, 671, and 676 of Title 21] may be cited as the ‘Futures Trading Act of 1986’.”

Short Title of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–444, §1, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2294, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 2a, 12d, 25, and 26 of this title, amending sections 2, 4, 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 6c, 6d, 6f, 6g, 6h, 6i, 6k, 6m, 6n, 6o, 6p, 7a, 8, 9, 12, 12a, 13, 13a–1, 13a–2, 13c, 16, 16a, 18, 20, 21, 23, and 612c–3 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Futures Trading Act of 1982’.”

Short Title of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–405, §1, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 865, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 13a–2, 16a, and 23 of this title, amending sections 2, 4a, 6c, 6d, 6f, 6g, 6k, 6m, 6n, 6o, 7a, 8, 12, 12a, 12c, 13, 13a, 15, 16, 18, and 21 of this title and section 6001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, repealing section 15a of this title, omitting sections 12–1 to 12–3 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2 and 20 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Futures Trading Act of 1978’.”

Short Title of 1974 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–463, §1, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1389, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 4a, 6j, 6k, 6l, 6m, 6n, 6o, 6p, 9a, 12–2, 13–3, 12c, 13a–1, 15a, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 of this title, amending sections 2, 4, 6, 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 6e, 6f, 6g, 6i, 7, 7a, 7b, 8, 9, 11, 12, 12–1, 12a, 12b, 13, 13a, 13b, 13c, 15, and 16 of this title and sections 5314, 5315, 5316, and 5108 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2, 4a, and 6a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974’.”

Cross References

Power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce, see Const. Art. I, §8, cl. 3.

§1a. Definitions

As used in this chapter:

(1) Board of trade

The term “board of trade” means any exchange or association, whether incorporated or unincorporated, of persons who are engaged in the business of buying or selling any commodity or receiving the same for sale on consignment.

(2) Commission

The term “Commission” means the Commodity Futures Trading Commission established under section 4a(a) of this title.

(3) Commodity

The term “commodity” means wheat, cotton, rice, corn, oats, barley, rye, flaxseed, grain sorghums, mill feeds, butter, eggs, Solanum tuberosum (Irish potatoes), wool, wool tops, fats and oils (including lard, tallow, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice, and all other goods and articles, except onions as provided in section 13–1 of this title, and all services, rights, and interests in which contracts for future delivery are presently or in the future dealt in.

(4) Commodity pool operator

The term “commodity pool operator” means any person engaged in a business that is of the nature of an investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise, and who, in connection therewith, solicits, accepts, or receives from others, funds, securities, or property, either directly or through capital contributions, the sale of stock or other forms of securities, or otherwise, for the purpose of trading in any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market, except that the term does not include such persons not within the intent of the definition of the term as the Commission may specify by rule, regulation, or order.

(5) Commodity trading advisor

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the term “commodity trading advisor” means any person who—

(i) for compensation or profit, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications, writings, or electronic media, as to the value of or the advisability of trading in—

(I) any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery made or to be made on or subject to the rules of a contract market;

(II) any commodity option authorized under section 6c of this title; or

(III) any leverage transaction authorized under section 23 of this title; or


(ii) for compensation or profit, and as part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning any of the activities referred to in clause (i).

(B) Exclusions

Subject to subparagraph (C), the term “commodity trading advisor” does not include—

(i) any bank or trust company or any person acting as an employee thereof;

(ii) any news reporter, news columnist, or news editor of the print or electronic media, or any lawyer, accountant, or teacher;

(iii) any floor broker or futures commission merchant;

(iv) the publisher or producer of any print or electronic data of general and regular dissemination, including its employees;

(v) the fiduciary of any defined benefit plan that is subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.);

(vi) any contract market; and

(vii) such other persons not within the intent of this paragraph as the Commission may specify by rule, regulation, or order.

(C) Incidental services

Subparagraph (B) shall apply only if the furnishing of such services by persons referred to in subparagraph (B) is solely incidental to the conduct of their business or profession.

(D) Advisors

The Commission, by rule or regulation, may include within the term “commodity trading advisor”, any person advising as to the value of commodities or issuing reports or analyses concerning commodities if the Commission determines that the rule or regulation will effectuate the purposes of this paragraph.

(6) Contract of sale

The term “contract of sale” includes sales, agreements of sale, and agreements to sell.

(7) Cooperative association of producers

The term “cooperative association of producers” means any cooperative association, corporate, or otherwise, not less than 75 percent in good faith owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by producers of agricultural products and otherwise complying with sections 291 and 292 of this title, including any organization acting for a group of such associations and owned or controlled by such associations, except that business done for or with the United States, or any agency thereof, shall not be considered either member or nonmember business in determining the compliance of any such association with this chapter.

(8) Floor broker

The term “floor broker” means any person who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, shall purchase or sell for any other person any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market.

(9) Floor trader

The term “floor trader” means any person who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, purchases, or sells solely for such person's own account, any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market.

(10) Foreign futures authority

The term “foreign futures authority” means any foreign government, or any department, agency, governmental body, or regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter, or any department or agency of a political subdivision of a foreign government empowered to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter.

(11) Future delivery

The term “future delivery” does not include any sale of any cash commodity for deferred shipment or delivery.

(12) Futures commission merchant

The term “futures commission merchant” means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust that—

(A) is engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market; and

(B) in or in connection with such solicitation or acceptance of orders, accepts any money, securities, or property (or extends credit in lieu thereof) to margin, guarantee, or secure any trades or contracts that result or may result therefrom.

(13) Interstate commerce

The term “interstate commerce” means commerce—

(A) between any State, territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof; or

(B) between points within the same state,1 territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, but through any place outside thereof, or within any territory or possession, or the District of Columbia.

(14) Introducing broker

The term “introducing broker” means any person (except an individual who elects to be and is registered as an associated person of a futures commission merchant) engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market who does not accept any money, securities, or property (or extend credit in lieu thereof) to margin, guarantee, or secure any trades or contracts that result or may result therefrom.

(15) Member of a contract market

The term “member of a contract market” means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust owning or holding membership in, or admitted to membership representation on, a contract market or given members’ trading privileges thereon.

(16) Person

The term “person” imports the plural or singular, and includes individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §1a, as added Pub. L. 102–546, title IV, §404(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3625.)

References in Text

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in par. (5)(B)(v), is Pub. L. 93–406, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 829, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 18 (§1001 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 29 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section 403 of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “Except as otherwise specifically provided in this Act [enacting this section and section 12e of this title, amending sections 2, 2a, 4, 4a, 6 to 6c, 6e to 6g, 6j, 6p, 7 to 9a, 10a, 12, 12a, 12c, 13 to 13c, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, and 25 of this title, repealing section 26 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1a, 4a, 6c, 6e, 6j, 6p, 7a, 13, 16a, 21, and 22 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 4a of this title], this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall become effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992].”

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§2. Accounts, agreements, and transactions subject to jurisdiction of Commodity Futures Trading Commission; relation to jurisdiction of Securities and Exchange Commission and Federal and State courts; excepted transactions

(i) The Commission shall have exclusive jurisdiction, except to the extent otherwise provided in section 2a of this title, with respect to accounts, agreements (including any transaction which is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, an “option”, “privilege”, “indemnity”, “bid”, “offer”, “put”, “call”, “advance guaranty”, or “decline guaranty”), and transactions involving contracts of sale of a commodity for future delivery, traded or executed on a contract market designated pursuant to section 7 of this title or any other board of trade, exchange, or market, and transactions subject to regulation by the Commission pursuant to section 23 of this title. Except as hereinabove provided, nothing contained in this section shall (I) supersede or limit the jurisdiction at any time conferred on the Securities and Exchange Commission or other regulatory authorities under the laws of the United States or of any State, or (II) restrict the Securities and Exchange Commission and such other authorities from carrying out their duties and responsibilities in accordance with such laws. Nothing in this section shall supersede or limit the jurisdiction conferred on courts of the United States or any State. (ii) Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to govern or in any way be applicable to transactions in foreign currency, security warrants, security rights, resales of installment loan contracts, repurchase options, government securities, or mortgages and mortgage purchase commitments, unless such transactions involve the sale thereof for future delivery conducted on a board of trade.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §2(a)(1)(A)(i), (ii), formerly §2(a), 42 Stat. 998; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §§2, 3, 49 Stat. 1491; Apr. 7, 1938, ch. 108, 52 Stat. 205; Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 786, §1, 54 Stat. 1059; Aug. 28, 1954, ch. 1041, title VII, §710(a), 68 Stat. 913; July 26, 1955, ch. 382, §1, 69 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 90–258, §1, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 26; Pub. L. 90–418, July 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 413; renumbered §2(a)(1) and amended Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §101(a)(1), (2), title II, §§201, 202, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1389, 1395; Pub. L. 95–405, §2(1), Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 865; renumbered §2(a)(1)(A) and amended Pub. L. 97–444, title I, §101(a)(1), (2), title II, §201, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2294, 2297; renumbered §2(a)(1)(A)(i), (ii) and amended Pub. L. 102–546, title IV, §404(b)(1)–(5), (7), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3628.)

Codification

Section is comprised of subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i) and (ii) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act, act Sept. 21, 1922. Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii) is classified to section 4 of this title. Subsec. (a)(1)(B) is classified to section 2a of this title. Subsecs. (a)(2) to (11) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act are classified to section 4a of this title. Subsec. (b) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act is classified to section 3 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546, §404(b)(2)–(5), (7), designated provisions of former third sentence as cl. (i), redesignated cls. (i) and (ii) of former third sentence as subcls. (I) and (II), respectively, designated former fifth sentence as cl. (ii), and struck out former first, second, sixth, seventh, and ninth through last sentences, which included definitions of “contract of sale”, “person”, “commodity”, “future delivery”, “board of trade”, “interstate commerce”, “cooperative association of producers”, “member of a contract market”, “futures commission merchant”, “introducing broker”, “floor broker”, “the Commission”, “commodity trading advisor”, and “commodity pool operator”. See section 1a of this title.

Pub. L. 102–546, §404(b)(1), which directed the substitution of “(i) The Commission” for former first two sentences and provisions of former third sentence ending with “; Provided, That the Commission”, was executed by making the substitution for provisions ending with “: Provided, That the Commission”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1983—Pub. L. 97–444, §101(a)(2), inserted in third sentence, first proviso, “, except to the extent otherwise provided in section 2a of this title,” after “exclusive jurisdiction”.

Pub. L. 97–444, §201(1), inserted definition of “introducing broker”.

Pub. L. 97–444, §201(2), in revising definition of “commodity training advisor”, included any person advising others through electronic media; substituted provision respecting advising others “as to the value of or the advisability of trading in any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery made or to be made on or subject to the rules of a contract market, any commodity option authorized under section 6c of this title, or any leverage transaction authorized under section 23 of this title, or who, for compensation or profit, and as part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning any of the foregoing” for provision respecting advising others “as to the value of commodities or as to the advisability of trading in any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any market, or who for compensation or profit, and as part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning commodities”; excluded in item (i) any person acting as an employee of any bank or trust company; substituted in cl. (ii) “news reporter, news columnist, or news editor of the print or electronic media” for “newspaper reporter, newspaper columnist, newspaper editor”; substituted in cl. (iv) “the publisher or producer of any print or electronic data of general and regular dissemination, including its employees” for “the publisher of any bona fide newspaper magazine, or business or financial publication of general and regular circulation including their employees”; inserted item (v); redesignated as items (vi) and (vii) former items (v) and (vi); and authorized Commission to effectuate purposes of definition by rule or regulation by including within definition any person advising as to the value of commodities or issuing reports or analyses concerning commodities.

1978—Pub. L. 95–405 substituted “section 23 of this title” for “section 15a of this title”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 struck out “onions,” after “eggs,” in definition of “commodity” and inserted provisions to that definition to include as commodities all other goods and articles, except onions as provided in section 13–1 of this title, and all services, rights, and interests in which contracts for the future delivery are presently or in the future dealt in, inserted definitions for “commodity trading advisor” and “commodity pool operator”, and, as definition of “the Commission”, substituted “Commodity Futures Trading Commission established under section 4a of this title” for “Commodity Exchange Commission, consisting of the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General, or an official or employee of each of the executive departments concerned, designated by the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Attorney General, respectively; and the Secretary of Agriculture or his designee shall serve as Chairman”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–418 extended definition of “commodity” in third sentence to include frozen concentrated orange juice.

Pub. L. 90–258, §1(a), extended definition of “commodity” in third sentence to include livestock and livestock products.

Pub. L. 90–258, §1(b), substituted in definition of “floor broker” in penultimate sentence “purchase or sell for any other person” for “engage in executing for others any order for the purchase or sale of” and struck out provision for receipt or acceptance of any commission or other compensation for services as a floor broker.

Pub. L. 90–258, §1(c), provided in last sentence for representation on the Commission of Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Commerce, and Attorney General by an official or employee designated from executive department concerned and for service of Secretary of Agriculture or his designee as Chairman.

1955—Act July 26, 1955, extended “commodity” to onions.

1954—Act Aug. 28, 1954, extended “commodity” to wool.

1940—Act Oct. 9, 1940, extended “commodity” to fats and oils (including lard, tallow, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans and soybean meal.

1938—Act Apr. 7, 1938, extended “commodity” to wool tops.

1936—Act June 15, 1936, substituted “commodity”, “any commodity”, or “commodities”, as the case may require, for “grain” wherever appearing, and “any cash commodity” for “cash grain”, and inserted definitions of “cooperative association of producers,” “member of a contract market”, “futures commission merchant”, “floor broker” and “the commission.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444 provided that: “This Act [see Short Title of 1983 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title] shall be effective upon the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 11, 1983], except that sections 207, 212, and 231 of this Act [amending sections 6d, 6k, and 18 of this title] shall be effective one hundred and twenty days after the date of enactment of this Act, or such earlier date as the Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall prescribe by regulation.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the provisions of this Act [see Short Title of 1978 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title] shall become effective October 1, 1978.”

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463 provided that:

“(a) Except as otherwise provided specifically in this Act, the effective date of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 1 of this title] shall be the 180th day after enactment [Oct. 23, 1974]. The Commission referred to in section 101 [Commodity Futures Trading Commission] is hereby established effective immediately on enactment of this Act. Sections 102 and 410 [amending sections 5108, 5314, 5315, and 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees] shall be effective immediately on enactment of this Act. Activities necessary to implement the changes effected by this Act may be carried out after the date of enactment and before as well as after the 180th day thereafter. Activities to be carried out after the date of enactment and before the 180th day thereafter may include, but are not limited to the following: Designation of boards of trade as contract markets, registration of futures commission merchants, floor brokers, and other persons required to be registered under the Act [this chapter], approval or modification of bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions of contract markets, and issuance of regulations, effective on or after the 180th day after enactment; appointment and compensation of the members of the Commission; hiring and compensation of staff; and conducting of investigations and hearings. Nothing in this Act shall limit the authority of the Secretary of Agriculture or the Commodity Exchange Commission under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, prior to the 180th day after enactment of this Act.

“(b) Funds appropriated for the administration of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended [this chapter], may be used to implement this Act [see Short Title note under section 4a of this title] immediately after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1974].”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258 provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 12b, 13b, 13c, and 17b, and amending this section and sections 6a, 6b, 6d, 6f, 6g, 6i, 7, 7a, 7b, 8, 9, 12, 12–1, 12a, 13, and 13a of this title] shall become effective one hundred and twenty days after enactment [Feb. 19, 1968].”

Effective Date of 1955 Amendment

Section 2 of act July 26, 1955, provided that: “This Act [amending this section] shall take effect sixty days after the date of its enactment [July 26, 1955].”

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Section 710(b) of act Aug. 28, 1954, which provided that the amendment of this section by act Aug. 28, 1954, was effective 60 days after Aug. 28, 1954, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–130, §3(a), Nov. 1, 1993, 107 Stat. 1369, eff. Dec. 31, 1995.

Effective Date of 1940 Amendment

Section 2 of act Oct. 9, 1940, provided that: “This Act [amending this section] shall take effect sixty days after the date of its enactment [Oct. 9, 1940].”

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of that act, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Onion futures transactions, definitions, applicable, see section 13–1 of this title.

Transaction in interstate commerce, see section 3 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6c, 6m, 7a, 18, 21, 25 of this title.

§2a. Designation of boards of trade as contract markets; approval by and jurisdiction of Commodity Futures Trading Commission and Securities and Exchange Commission

Notwithstanding any other provision of law—

(i) This chapter shall not apply to and the Commission shall have no jurisdiction to designate a board of trade as a contract market for any transaction whereby any party to such transaction acquires any put, call, or other option on one or more securities (as defined in section 77b(1) 1 of title 15 or section 78c(a)(10) of title 15 on January 11, 1983), including any group or index of such securities, or any interest therein or based on the value thereof.

(ii) This chapter shall apply to and the Commission shall have exclusive jurisdiction with respect to accounts, agreements (including any transaction which is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, an “option”, “privilege”, “indemnity”, “bid”, “offer”, “put”, “call”, “advance guaranty”, or “decline guaranty”) and transactions involving, and may designate a board of trade as a contract market in, contracts of sale (or options on such contracts) for future delivery of a group or index of securities (or any interest therein or based upon the value thereof): Provided, however, That no board of trade shall be designated as a contract market with respect to any such contracts of sale (or options on such contracts) for future delivery unless the board of trade making such application demonstrates and the Commission expressly finds that the specific contract (or option on such contract) with respect to which the application has been made meets the following minimum requirements:

(I) Settlement of or delivery on such contract (or option on such contract) shall be effected in cash or by means other than the transfer or receipt of any security, except an exempted security under section 77c of title 15 or section 78c(a)(12) of title 15 as in effect on January 11, 1983, (other than any municipal security, as defined in section 78c(a)(29) of title 15 on January 11, 1983);

(II) Trading in such contract (or option on such contract) shall not be readily susceptible to manipulation of the price of such contract (or option on such contract), nor to causing or being used in the manipulation of the price of any underlying security, option on such security or option on a group or index including such securities; and

(III) Such group or index of securities shall be predominately composed of the securities of unaffiliated issuers and shall be a widely published measure of, and shall reflect, the market for all publicly traded equity or debt securities or a substantial segment thereof, or shall be comparable to such measure.


(iii) Upon application by a board of trade for designation as a contract market with respect to any contract of sale (or option on such contract) for future delivery involving a group or index of securities, the Commission shall provide an opportunity for public comment on whether such contracts (or options on such contracts) meet the minimum requirements set forth in clause (ii) of this subparagraph.

(iv)(I) The Commission shall consult with the Securities and Exchange Commission with respect to any application which is submitted by a board of trade before December 9, 1982, for designation as a contract market with respect to any contract of sale (or option on such contract) for future delivery of a group or index of securities. If, no later than fifteen days following the close of the public comment period, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall object to the designation of a board of trade as a contract market in such contract (or option on such contract) on the ground that any minimum requirement of clause (ii) of this subparagraph is not met, the Commission shall afford the Securities and Exchange Commission an opportunity for an oral hearing, to be transcribed, before the Commission, and shall give appropriate weight to the views of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Such oral hearing shall be held after the public comment period, prior to Commission action upon such designation, and not less than thirty nor more than forty-five days after the close of the public comment period, unless both the Commission and the Securities and Exchange Commission otherwise agree. If such an oral hearing is held, the Securities and Exchange Commission fails to withdraw its objections, and the Commission issues an order designating a board of trade as a contract market with respect to any such contract (or option on such contract), the Securities and Exchange Commission shall have the right of judicial review of such order in accordance with the standards of section 9 of this title. If, pursuant to sections 8 and 9 of this title, there is a hearing on the record with respect to such application for designation, the Securities and Exchange Commission shall have the right to participate in that hearing as an interested party.

(II) Effective for any application submitted by a board of trade on or after December 9, 1982, for designation as a contract market with respect to any contract of sale (or option on such contract) for future delivery of a group or index of securities, the Commission shall transmit a copy of such application to the Securities and Exchange Commission for review. The Commission shall not approve any such application if the Securities and Exchange Commission determines that such contract (or option on such contract) fails to meet the minimum requirements set forth in clause (ii) of this subparagraph. Such determination shall be made by order no later than forty-five days after the close of the public comment period under clause (iii) of this subparagraph. In the event of such determination, the board of trade shall be afforded an opportunity for a hearing on the record before the Securities and Exchange Commission. If a board of trade requests a hearing on the record, the hearing shall commence no later than thirty days following the receipt of the request, and a final determination shall be made no later than thirty days after the close of the hearing. A person aggrieved by any such order of the Securities and Exchange Commission may obtain judicial review thereof in the same manner and under such terms and conditions as are provided in section 8(b) of this title.

(v) No person shall offer to enter into, enter into, or confirm the execution of any contract of sale (or option on such contract) for future delivery of any security, or interest therein or based on the value thereof, except an exempted security under section 77c of title 15 or section 78c(a)(12) of title 15 as in effect on January 11, 1983 (other than any municipal security as defined in section 78c(a)(29) of title 15 on January 11, 1983), or except as provided in clause (ii) of this subparagraph, any group or index of such securities or any interest therein or based on the value thereof.

(vi)(I) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any contract market in a stock index futures contract (or option thereon) shall file with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System any rule establishing or changing the levels of margin (initial and maintenance) for the stock index futures contract (or option thereon).

(II) The Board may at any time request any contract market to set the margin for any stock index futures contract (or option thereon) at such levels as the Board in its judgment determines are appropriate to preserve the financial integrity of the contract market or its clearing system or to prevent systemic risk. If the contract market fails to do so within the time specified by the Board in its request, the Board may direct the contract market to alter or supplement the rules of the contract market as specified in the request.

(III) Subject to such conditions as the Board may determine, the Board may delegate any or all of its authority under this clause only to the Commission.

(IV) Nothing in this clause shall supersede or limit the authority granted to the Commission in section 12a(9) of this title to direct a contract market, on finding an emergency to exist, to raise temporary emergency margin levels on any futures contract or option on the contract covered by this clause.

(V) Any action taken by the Board, or by the Commission acting under the delegation of authority under subclause III,2 under this clause directing a contract market to alter or supplement a contract market rule shall be subject to review only in the Court of Appeals where the party seeking review resides or has its principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The review shall be based on the examination of all information before the Board or the Commission, as the case may be, at the time the determination was made. The court reviewing the action of the Board or the Commission shall not enter a stay or order of mandamus unless the court has determined, after notice and a hearing before a panel of the court, that the agency action complained of was arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §2(a)(1)(B), as added Pub. L. 97–444, title I, §101(a)(3), Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2294; amended Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §110(1), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3561; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §209(b)(1), title V, §501, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3606, 3628.)

References in Text

Section 77b(1) of title 15, referred to in par. (i), was redesignated section 77b(a)(1) of title 15 by Pub. L. 104–290, title I, §106(a)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3424.

Section 9 of this title and sections 8 and 9 of this title, referred to in par. (iv)(I), were in the original “section 6(c) of this Act” and “section 6 of this Act”, respectively, meaning section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 8, 9, 9a, 13b, and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 8 of this title.

Codification

Section is comprised of subsec. (a)(1)(B) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act, act Sept. 21, 1922. Subsec. (a)(1)(A) is classified to sections 2 and 4 of this title. Subsec. (a)(2) to (11) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act is classified to section 4a of this title. Subsec. (b) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act is classified to section 3 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Par. (iv)(I). Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(1)(A), made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title appearing in penultimate sentence to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act.

Par. (iv)(II). Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(1)(B), substituted “section 8(b)” for “section 8”.

Par. (vi). Pub. L. 102–546, §501, added par. (vi).

1986—Par. (iv)(I). Pub. L. 99–641 substituted “Securities and Exchange Commission” for “Securities Exchange Commission” before “otherwise agree”.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as an Effective Date of 1983 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6, 7a, 18, 21, 25 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be subclause “(III)”.

§3. Transaction in interstate commerce

For the purposes of this chapter (but not in any wise limiting the definition of interstate commerce in section 2 of this title) a transaction in respect to any article shall be considered to be in interstate commerce if such article is part of that current of commerce usual in the commodity trade whereby commodities and commodity products and by-products thereof are sent from one State, with the expectation that they will end their transit, after purchase, in another, including in addition to cases within the above general description, all cases where purchase or sale is either for shipment to another State, or for manufacture within the State and the shipment outside the State of the products resulting from such manufacture. Articles normally in such current of commerce shall not be considered out of such commerce through resort being had to any means or device intended to remove transactions in respect thereto from the provisions of this chapter. For the purpose of this section the word “State” includes Territory, the District of Columbia, possession of the United States, and foreign nation.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §2(b), 42 Stat. 998; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §2, 49 Stat. 1491.)

Codification

Section is comprised of subsec. (b) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act, act Sept. 21, 1922. Part of subsec. (a) of such section 2 is classified to section 2 and the remainder of such subsec. (a) is classified to sections 2a, 4, and 4a of this title.

Amendments

1936—Act June 15, 1936, substituted “commodity” and “commodities”, as the case may require, for “grain” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of that act, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Interstate commerce defined, see section 2 of this title.

Power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce, see Const. Art. I, §8, cl. 3.

§4. Liability of principal for act of agent

For the purpose of this chapter the act, omission, or failure of any official, agent, or other person acting for any individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust within the scope of his employment or office shall be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust, as well as of such official, agent, or other person.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §2(a)(1)(A)(iii), formerly §2(a), 42 Stat. 998; renumbered §2(a)(1), Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §101(a)(1), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1389; renumbered §2(a)(1)(A), Pub. L. 97–444, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2294; renumbered §2(a)(1)(A)(iii), Pub. L. 102–546, title IV, §404(b)(6), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3628.)

Codification

Section is comprised of part of subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act, act Sept. 21, 1922. Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i), (ii) is classified to section 2 of this title. Subsec. (a)(1)(B) is classified to section 2a of this title. Subsecs. (a)(2) to (11) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act are classified to section 4a of this title. Subsec. (b) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act is classified to section 3 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 7a, 18, 21, 25 of this title.

§4a. Commodity Futures Trading Commission

(a) Establishment; composition; term of Commissioners

(1) There is hereby established, as an independent agency of the United States Government, a Commodity Futures Trading Commission. The Commission shall be composed of five Commissioners who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. In nominating persons for appointment, the President shall—

(i) select persons who shall each have demonstrated knowledge in futures trading or its regulation, or the production, merchandising, processing or distribution of one or more of the commodities or other goods and articles, services, rights, and interests covered by this chapter; and

(ii) seek to ensure that the demonstrated knowledge of the Commissioners is balanced with respect to such areas.


Not more than three of the members of the Commission shall be members of the same political party. Each Commissioner shall hold office for a term of five years and until his successor is appointed and has qualified, except that he shall not so continue to serve beyond the expiration of the next session of Congress subsequent to the expiration of said fixed term of office, and except (i) any Commissioner appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of such term, and (ii) the terms of office of the Commissioners first taking office after the enactment of this paragraph shall expire as designated by the President at the time of nomination, one at the end of one year, one at the end of two years, one at the end of three years, one at the end of four years, and one at the end of five years.

(2) The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a member of the Commission as Chairman, who shall serve as Chairman at the pleasure of the President. An individual may be appointed as Chairman at the same time that person is appointed as a Commissioner. The Chairman shall be the chief administrative officer of the Commission and shall preside at hearings before the Commission. At any time, the President may appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a different Chairman, and the Commissioner previously appointed as Chairman may complete that Commissioner's term as a Commissioner.

(b) Vacancies

A vacancy in the Commission shall not impair the right of the remaining Commissioners to exercise all the powers of the Commission.

(c) General Counsel

The Commission shall have a General Counsel, who shall be appointed by the Commission and serve at the pleasure of the Commission. The General Counsel shall report directly to the Commission and serve as its legal advisor. The Commission shall appoint such other attorneys as may be necessary, in the opinion of the Commission, to assist the General Counsel, represent the Commission in all disciplinary proceedings pending before it, represent the Commission in courts of law whenever appropriate, assist the Department of Justice in handling litigation concerning the Commission in courts of law, and perform such other legal duties and functions as the Commission may direct.

(d) Executive Director

The Commission shall have an Executive Director, who shall be appointed by the Commission and serve at the pleasure of the Commission. The Executive Director shall report directly to the Commission and perform such functions and duties as the Commission may prescribe.

(e) Powers and functions of Chairman

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection and in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, the executive and administrative functions of the Commission, including functions of the Commission with respect to the appointment and supervision of personnel employed under the Commission, the distribution of business among such personnel and among administrative units of the Commission, and the use and expenditure of funds, according to budget categories, plans, programs, and priorities established and approved by the Commission, shall be exercised solely by the Chairman.

(2) In carrying out any of his functions under the provisions of this subsection, the Chairman shall be governed by general policies, plans, priorities, and budgets approved by the Commission and by such regulatory decisions, findings, and determination as the Commission may by law be authorized to make.

(3) The appointment by the Chairman of the heads of major administrative units under the Commission shall be subject to the approval of the Commission.

(4) Personnel employed regularly and full time in the immediate offices of Commissioners other than the Chairman shall not be affected by the provisions of this subsection.

(5) There are hereby reserved to the Commission its functions with respect to revising budget estimates and with respect to determining the distribution of appropriated funds according to major programs and purposes.

(6) The Chairman may from time to time make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance by any officer, employee, or administrative unit under his jurisdiction of any functions of the Chairman under this subsection.

(f) Conflict of interest

No Commissioner or employee of the Commission shall accept employment or compensation from any person, exchange, or clearinghouse subject to regulation by the Commission under this chapter during his term of office, nor shall he participate, directly or indirectly, in any contract market operations or transactions of a character subject to regulation by the Commission.

(g) Liaison with Department of Agriculture; communications with Department of Treasury, Federal Reserve Board, and Securities and Exchange Commission; application by a board of trade for designation as a contract market for future delivery of securities

(1) The Commission shall, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, maintain a liaison between the Commission and the Department of Agriculture. The Secretary shall take such steps as may be necessary to enable the Commission to obtain information and utilize such services and facilities of the Department of Agriculture as may be necessary in order to maintain effectively such liaison. In addition, the Secretary shall appoint a liaison officer, who shall be an employee of the Office of the Secretary, for the purpose of maintaining a liaison between the Department of Agriculture and the Commission. The Commission shall furnish such liaison officer appropriate office space within the offices of the Commission and shall allow such liaison officer to attend and observe all deliberations and proceedings of the Commission.

(2)(i) The Commission shall maintain communications with the Department of the Treasury, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the Securities and Exchange Commission for the purpose of keeping such agencies fully informed of Commission activities that relate to the responsibilities of those agencies, for the purpose of seeking the views of those agencies on such activities, and for considering the relationships between the volume and nature of investment and trading in contracts of sale of a commodity for future delivery and in securities and financial instruments under the jurisdiction of such agencies.

(ii) When a board of trade applies for designation as a contract market involving transactions for future delivery of any security issued or guaranteed by the United States or any agency thereof, the Commission shall promptly deliver a copy of such application to the Department of the Treasury and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Commission may not designate a board of trade as a contract market based on such application until forty-five days after the date the Commission delivers the application to such agencies or until the Commission receives comments from each of such agencies on the application, whichever period is shorter. Any comments received by the Commission from such agencies shall be included as part of the public record of the Commission's designation proceeding. In designating, or refusing, suspending, or revoking the designation of, a board of trade as a contract market involving transactions for future delivery referred to in this clause or in considering possible emergency action under section 12a(9) of this title with respect to such transactions, the Commission shall take into consideration all comments it receives from the Department of the Treasury and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and shall consider the effect that any such designation, suspension, revocation, or emergency action may have on the debt financing requirements of the United States Government and the continued efficiency and integrity of the underlying market for government securities.

(iii) The provisions of this subparagraph shall not create any rights, liabilities, or obligations upon which actions may be brought against the Commission.

(h) Transmittal of budget requests and legislative recommendations to Congressional committees

(1) Whenever the Commission submits any budget estimate or request to the President or the Office of Management and Budget, it shall concurrently transmit copies of that estimate or request to the House and Senate Appropriations Committees and the House Committee on Agriculture and the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

(2) Whenever the Commission transmits any legislative recommendations, or testimony, or comments on legislation to the President or the Office of Management and Budget, it shall concurrently transmit copies thereof to the House Committee on Agriculture and the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. No officer or agency of the United States shall have any authority to require the Commission to submit its legislative recommendations, or testimony, or comments on legislation to any officer or agency of the United States for approval, comments, or review, prior to the submission of such recommendations, testimony, or comments to the Congress. In instances in which the Commission voluntarily seeks to obtain the comments or review of any officer or agency of the United States, the Commission shall include a description of such actions in its legislative recommendations, testimony, or comments on legislation which it transmits to the Congress.

(3) Whenever the Commission issues for official publication any opinion, release, rule, order, interpretation, or other determination on a matter, the Commission shall provide that any dissenting, concurring, or separate opinion by any Commissioner on the matter be published in full along with the Commission opinion, release, rule, order, interpretation, or determination.

(i) Seal

The Commission shall have an official seal, which shall be judicially noticed.

(j) Rules and regulations

The Commission is authorized to promulgate such rules and regulations as it deems necessary to govern the operating procedures and conduct of the business of the Commission.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §2(a)(2)–(11), as added Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §101(a)(3), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1389; amended Pub. L. 95–405, §2(2)–(15), Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 865–867; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §202, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2298; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§215, 226, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3611, 3618.)

Codification

Section is comprised of pars. (2) to (11) of section 2(a) of the Commodity Exchange Act. For purposes of codification the numbered pars. (2) to (11) have been translated as subsecs. (a) to (j), respectively, of this section, with subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (2), subpars. (A) to (F) of par. (6), subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (7), subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (8), and subpars. (A) to (C) of par. (9) in the original being translated as pars. (1) and (2) of subsec. (a), pars. (1) to (6) of subsec. (e), pars. (1) and (2) of subsec. (f), pars. (1) and (2) of subsec. (g), and pars. (1) to (3) of subsec. (h) of this section, respectively.

Par. (1) of section 2(a) of the Commodity Exchange Act is classified to sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title.

Subsec. (b) of section 2 of the Commodity Exchange Act is classified to section 3 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–546, §215, substituted second and third sentences for “The Commission shall be composed of five Commissioners, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. In nominating persons for appointment, the President shall seek to establish and maintain a balanced Commission, including, but not limited to, persons of demonstrated knowledge in futures trading or its regulation and persons of demonstrated knowledge in the production, merchandising, processing or distribution of one or more of the commodities or other goods and articles, services, rights and interests covered by this chapter.”

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 102–546, §226, added par. (3).

1983—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–444 struck out subpar. designation of first par. and subpar. designation and provisions of second par. which prohibited any representative activities before the Commission for a one year period upon termination of employment occurring on a day more than four months after Sept. 30, 1978, of any Commissioner or employee of the Commission having a GS–16 or higher classified position excepted from the competitive service because of its confidential or policymaking character.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–405, §2(2)–(5), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and substituted “five Commissioners” for “a chairman and four other Commissioners”, “(i)” for “(A)”, and “(ii)” for “(B)”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–405, §2(6), struck out “, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate,” after “by the Commission”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 95–405, §2(7), inserted “according to budget categories, plans, programs, and priorities established and approved by the Commission,” after “expenditure of funds,”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 95–405, §2(8), substituted “, plans, priorities, and budgets approved by the Commission” for “of the Commission”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–405, §2(9), (10), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–405, §2(11)–(13), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “maintain” for “establish a separate office within the Department of Agriculture to be staffed with employees of the Commission for the purpose of maintaining”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (h)(1), (2). Pub. L. 95–405, §2(14), (15), substituted “Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry” for “Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry”.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Separability

Section 413 of Pub. L. 93–463 provided that: “If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title] or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and the application of such provisions to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”

Educational Events and Symposia

Pub. L. 106–78, title VI, Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1160, provided in part: “That for fiscal year 2000 and thereafter, the Commission [Commodity Futures Trading Commission] is authorized to charge reasonable fees to attendees of Commission sponsored educational events and symposia to cover the Commission's costs of providing those events and symposia, and notwithstanding 31 U.S.C. 3302, said fees shall be credited to this account, to be available without further appropriation.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriations acts:

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(a) [title VI], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681–24.

Pub. L. 105–86, title VI, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2104.

Pub. L. 104–180, title VI, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1596.

Pub. L. 104–37, title VI, Oct. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 327.

Pub. L. 103–330, title VI, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2466.

Competitiveness Study

Section 219 of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that:

“(a) In General.—No later than eighteen months following the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], the Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall study the competitiveness of boards of trade over which it has jurisdiction compared with the boards of trade (or their foreign equivalent) over which foreign futures authorities, as defined in section 2(a)(1)(A) of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 2(a)(1)(A)) [see 7 U.S.C. 1a(10)], have jurisdiction, and submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report of its findings with respect to—

“(1) the overall competitive status of United States boards of trade in the world market;

“(2) a comparison of applicable statutes, rules, or regulations as they relate to futures and options administered and enforced by the Commission and those administered and enforced by foreign futures authorities;

“(3) any trends in, or movements of, volume of futures and options trading to or from United States boards of trade during the period of the study, and whether such trends or movements, if any, were the result of the adoption of statutes, regulations, or other enforcement mechanisms in foreign countries or the United States, as opposed to other competitive, economic, regional, or commercial factors;

“(4) any significant harms or risks to the public interest, market users, traders, and commerce in relation to futures or options traded on such foreign boards of trade which may result from the absence of statutes, regulations, or other enforcement mechanisms in foreign countries or the United States or disparities in regulatory protections offered by United States and foreign authorities; and

“(5) any recommendations the Commission may have as a result of the study to enhance the competitive status of United States boards of trade in the world market, or to enhance the regulations of markets in the global environment, that will not impair customer confidence in United States boards of trade.

“(b) Cooperation.—To promote the efficient use of resources, the Commission shall endeavor, as it determines appropriate, to obtain the assistance of the General Accounting Office, the Office of the United States Trade Representative, or other appropriate offices of the Federal Government in order to obtain information with regard to trading at foreign boards of trade and the regulation of such boards of trade by foreign futures authorities.”

Silver Markets Activity, September 1979 Through March 1980; Report to Congress

Act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §21, as added by Pub. L. 96–276, §7, June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 542, which required Commission to establish a joint working group with Federal Reserve Board, Department of the Treasury, and Securities and Exchange Commission to analyze and issue a report by Oct. 1, 1980, on the various aspects of events in silver cash and futures markets during period of September 1979 through March 1980, was repealed by Pub. L. 102–546, title IV, §402(13), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3625.

Non-Abatement of Pending Proceedings

Section 412 of Pub. L. 93–463 provided that: “Pending proceedings under existing law shall not be abated by reason of any provision of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 1 of this title] but shall be disposed of pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended [this chapter], in effect prior to the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 2 of this title].”

Provisional Designation of Contract Markets; Provisional Registration of Futures Commission Merchants, Floor Brokers, Associated Persons, Commodity Trading Advisors, and Commodity Pool Operators; Extension of Effective Dates

Pub. L. 94–16, §1, Apr. 16, 1975, 89 Stat. 77, provided that the Commodity Futures Trading Commission would, in its discretion, and without prior notice of hearings, grant provisional designation as a contract market to any boards of trade for any commodities traded thereon for such period not in excess of ninety days from the effective date of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 [see Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 2 of this title] and under such terms and conditions as it prescribed, and that upon the expiration of any provisional designation of a board of trade as a contract market, such board of trade should not be designated as a contract market except as provided in section 6 of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended [section 8 et seq. of this title]; would grant provisional registration as a futures commission merchant, floor broker, associated person, commodity trading adviser, and commodity pool operator to any person for such period not in excess of ninety days from the effective date of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 (Public Law 93–463) [see Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 2 of this title] and under such terms and conditions as it prescribed; and would defer for such period not in excess of ninety days from the effective date of the Act [see Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title], the effective dates of sections 204, 205, 210, and 407 of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 (Public Law 93–463) [enacting sections 6k, 6l, 6m, 6n, 6o, and 7a(12) and amending sections 7a(8), 9, and 12a(1) of this title].

Report and Recommendations to Congress Respecting Need for Insurance Covering Insolvency or Failure of Futures Commission Merchants

Section 417 of Pub. L. 93–463 required that the Commodity Futures Trading Commission submit to the Congress, not later than June 30, 1976, a report respecting the need for legislation insuring owners of commodity futures accounts and persons handling or clearing trades in such accounts against loss by reason of the insolvency or financial failure of a futures commission merchant carrying such accounts and that the report contain the recommendations of the Commission concerning the form and nature of any such legislation.

Transfer of Operations to Commodity Futures Trading Commission

Section 411 of Pub. L. 93–463 provided that all operations of the Commodity Exchange Commission and of the Secretary of Agriculture under the Commodity Exchange Act [this chapter], including all pending administrative proceedings, be transferred to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission as of the effective date of Pub. L. 93–463 [see Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 2 of this title] and continue to completion and that all rules, regulations, and orders theretofore issued by the Commodity Exchange Commission and by The Secretary of Agriculture under the Commodity Exchange Act [this chapter] to the extent not inconsistent with the provisions of Pub. L. 93–463 [see Short Title note set out under section 1 of this title] continue in full force and effect unless and until terminated, modified, or suspended by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

Transfer of Personnel, Property, Records, and Funds to Commodity Futures Trading Commission

Section 104 of Pub. L. 93–463 authorized the transfer of all of the personnel of the Commodity Exchange Authority, property, records, and unexpended balance of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with administration of the Commodity Exchange Act [this chapter] to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission upon the effective date of Pub. L. 93–463 [see Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 2 of this title].

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1a of this title.

§5. Legislative findings

Transactions in commodities involving the sale thereof for future delivery as commonly conducted on boards of trade and known as “futures” are affected with a national public interest. Such futures transactions are carried on in large volume by the public generally and by persons engaged in the business of buying and selling commodities and the products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce. The prices involved in such transactions are generally quoted and disseminated throughout the United States and in foreign countries as a basis for determining the prices to the producer and the consumer of commodities and the products and byproducts thereof and to facilitate the movements thereof in interstate commerce. Such transactions are utilized by shippers, dealers, millers, and others engaged in handling commodities and the products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce as a means of hedging themselves against possible loss through fluctuations in price. The transactions and prices of commodities on such boards of trade are susceptible to excessive speculation and can be manipulated, controlled, cornered or squeezed, to the detriment of the producer or the consumer and the persons handling commodities and the products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce, rendering regulation imperative for the protection of such commerce and the national public interest therein. Furthermore, transactions which are of the character of, or are commonly known to the trade as, “options” are or may be utilized by commercial and other entities for risk shifting and other purposes. Options transactions are in interstate commerce or affect such commerce and the national economy, rendering regulation of such transactions imperative for the protection of such commerce and the national public interest.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §3, 42 Stat. 999; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §2, 49 Stat. 1491; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §203, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2298.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 reenacted provisions punctuated with semicolons as sentences, substituted “commodities” for “commodity” wherever appearing, substituted “susceptible to excessive speculation and can be manipulated, controlled, cornered or squeezed, to the detriment of the producer or the consumer and the persons handling commodities and the products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce, rendering” for “susceptible to speculation, manipulation, or control, which are detrimental to the producer or the consumer and the persons handling commodity and products and byproducts thereof in interstate commerce, and such fluctuations in prices are an obstruction to and a burden upon interstate commerce in commodity and the products and byproducts thereof and render”, and inserted provisions respecting “options” and “options transactions”.

1936—Act June 15, 1936, substituted “commodity” for “grain” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of that act, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

§6. Regulation of futures trading and foreign transactions

(a) Restriction of futures trading to contract markets

Unless exempted by the Commission pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, it shall be unlawful for any person to offer to enter into, to enter into, to execute, to confirm the execution of, or to conduct any office or business anywhere in the United States, its territories or possessions, for the purpose of soliciting or accepting any order for, or otherwise dealing in, any transaction in, or in connection with, a contract for the purchase or sale of a commodity for future delivery (other than a contract which is made on or subject to the rules of a board of trade, exchange, or market located outside the United States, its territories or possessions) unless—

(1) such transaction is conducted on or subject to the rules of a board of trade which has been designated by the Commission as a “contract market” for such commodity;

(2) such contract is executed or consummated by or through a member of such contract market; and

(3) such contract is evidenced by a record in writing which shows the date, the parties to such contract and their addresses, the property covered and its price, and the terms of delivery: Provided, That each contract market member shall keep such record for a period of three years from the date thereof, or for a longer period if the Commission shall so direct, which record shall at all times be open to the inspection of any representative of the Commission or the Department of Justice.

(b) Regulation of foreign transactions by United States persons

The Commission may adopt rules and regulations proscribing fraud and requiring minimum financial standards, the disclosure of risk, the filing of reports, the keeping of books and records, the safeguarding of customers’ funds, and registration with the Commission by any person located in the United States, its territories or possessions, who engages in the offer or sale of any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery that is made or to be made on or subject to the rules of a board of trade, exchange, or market located outside the United States, its territories or possessions. Such rules and regulations may impose different requirements for such persons depending upon the particular foreign board of trade, exchange, or market involved. No rule or regulation may be adopted by the Commission under this subsection that (1) requires Commission approval of any contract, rule, regulation, or action of any foreign board of trade, exchange, or market, or clearinghouse for such board of trade, exchange, or market, or (2) governs in any way any rule or contract term or action of any foreign board of trade, exchange, or market, or clearinghouse for such board of trade, exchange, or market.

(c) Public interest exemption from contract market requirement

(1) In order to promote responsible economic or financial innovation and fair competition, the Commission by rule, regulation, or order, after notice and opportunity for hearing, may (on its own initiative or on application of any person, including any board of trade designated as a contract market for transactions for future delivery in any commodity under section 7 of this title) exempt any agreement, contract, or transaction (or class thereof) that is otherwise subject to subsection (a) of this section (including any person or class of persons offering, entering into, rendering advice or rendering other services with respect to, the agreement, contract, or transaction), either unconditionally or on stated terms or conditions or for stated periods and either retroactively or prospectively, or both, from any of the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, or from any other provision of this chapter (except section 2a of this title), if the Commission determines that the exemption would be consistent with the public interest.

(2) The Commission shall not grant any exemption under paragraph (1) from any of the requirements of subsection (a) of this section unless the Commission determines that—

(A) the requirement should not be applied to the agreement, contract, or transaction for which the exemption is sought and that the exemption would be consistent with the public interest and the purposes of this chapter; and

(B) the agreement, contract, or transaction—

(i) will be entered into solely between appropriate persons; and

(ii) will not have a material adverse effect on the ability of the Commission or any contract market to discharge its regulatory or self-regulatory duties under this chapter.


(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term “appropriate person” shall be limited to the following persons or classes thereof:

(A) A bank or trust company (acting in an individual or fiduciary capacity).

(B) A savings association.

(C) An insurance company.

(D) An investment company subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.).

(E) A commodity pool formed or operated by a person subject to regulation under this chapter.

(F) A corporation, partnership, proprietorship, organization, trust, or other business entity with a net worth exceeding $1,000,000 or total assets exceeding $5,000,000, or the obligations of which under the agreement, contract or transaction are guaranteed or otherwise supported by a letter of credit or keepwell, support, or other agreement by any such entity or by an entity referred to in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (H), (I), or (K) of this paragraph.

(G) An employee benefit plan with assets exceeding $1,000,000, or whose investment decisions are made by a bank, trust company, insurance company, investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80b–1 et seq.], or a commodity trading advisor subject to regulation under this chapter.

(H) Any governmental entity (including the United States, any state,1 or any foreign government) or political subdivision thereof, or any multinational or supranational entity or any instrumentality, agency, or department of any of the foregoing.

(I) A broker-dealer subject to regulation under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.) acting on its own behalf or on behalf of another appropriate person.

(J) A futures commission merchant, floor broker, or floor trader subject to regulation under this chapter acting on its own behalf or on behalf of another appropriate person.

(K) Such other persons that the Commission determines to be appropriate in light of their financial or other qualifications, or the applicability of appropriate regulatory protections.


(4) During the pendency of an application for an order granting an exemption under paragraph (1), the Commission may limit the public availability of any information received from the applicant if the applicant submits a written request to limit disclosure contemporaneous with the application, and the Commission determines that—

(A) the information sought to be restricted constitutes a trade secret; or

(B) public disclosure of the information would result in material competitive harm to the applicant.


(5) The Commission may—

(A) promptly following October 28, 1992, or upon application by any person, exercise the exemptive authority granted under paragraph (1) with respect to classes of hybrid instruments that are predominantly securities or depository instruments, to the extent that such instruments may be regarded as subject to the provisions of this chapter; or

(B) promptly following October 28, 1992, or upon application by any person, exercise the exemptive authority granted under paragraph (1) effective as of October 23, 1974, with respect to classes of swap agreements (as defined in section 101 of title 11) that are not part of a fungible class of agreements that are standardized as to their material economic terms, to the extent that such agreements may be regarded as subject to the provisions of this chapter.


Any exemption pursuant to this paragraph shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Commission shall determine to be appropriate pursuant to paragraph (1).

(d) Effect of exemption on investigative authority of Commission

The granting of an exemption under this section shall not affect the authority of the Commission under any other provision of this chapter to conduct investigations in order to determine compliance with the requirements or conditions of such exemption or to take enforcement action for any violation of any provision of this chapter or any rule, regulation or order thereunder caused by the failure to comply with or satisfy such conditions or requirements.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4, 42 Stat. 999; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §§2, 4, 49 Stat. 1491, 1492; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (f), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §204, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2299; Pub. L. 102–546, title V, §502(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3629.)

References in Text

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(D), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Investment Advisers Act of 1940, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(G), is title II of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§80b–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80b–20 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(I), is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §502(a)(1), substituted “Unless exempted by the Commission pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, it shall be unlawful” for “It shall be unlawful”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 102–546, §502(a)(2), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 amended section generally, combining into subsec. (a) existing provisions of this section together with provisions formerly contained in section 6h(1) of this title, relating to the conduct of offices or places of business anywhere in the United States or its territories that are used for dealing in commodities for future delivery unless such dealings are executed or consummated by or through a member of a contract market, and adding subsec. (b).

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” and “United States Department of Agriculture”.

1936—Act June 15, 1936, §2, substituted “commodity” for “grain” wherever appearing.

Act June 15, 1936, §4, struck out par. (a) and combined par. (b) with first par.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of that act, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section and for failure to evidence any contract mentioned in this section by a record in writing, see section 13 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 13, 16, 19 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§6a. Excessive speculation

(a) Burden on interstate commerce; trading or position limits

Excessive speculation in any commodity under contracts of sale of such commodity for future delivery made on or subject to the rules of contract markets causing sudden or unreasonable fluctuations or unwarranted changes in the price of such commodity, is an undue and unnecessary burden on interstate commerce in such commodity. For the purpose of diminishing, eliminating, or preventing such burden, the Commission shall, from time to time, after due notice and opportunity for hearing, by rule, regulation, or order, proclaim and fix such limits on the amounts of trading which may be done or positions which may be held by any person under contracts of sale of such commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market as the Commission finds are necessary to diminish, eliminate, or prevent such burden. In determining whether any person has exceeded such limits, the positions held and trading done by any persons directly or indirectly controlled by such person shall be included with the positions held and trading done by such person; and further, such limits upon positions and trading shall apply to positions held by, and trading done by, two or more persons acting pursuant to an expressed or implied agreement or understanding, the same as if the positions were held by, or the trading were done by, a single person. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Commission from fixing different trading or position limits for different commodities, markets, futures, or delivery months, or for different number of days remaining until the last day of trading in a contract, or different trading limits for buying and selling operations, or different limits for the purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) of this section, or from exempting transactions normally known to the trade as “spreads” or “straddles” or “arbitrage” or from fixing limits applying to such transactions or positions different from limits fixed for other transactions or positions. The word “arbitrage” in domestic markets shall be defined to mean the same as “spread” or “straddle”. The Commission is authorized to define the term “international arbitrage”.

(b) Prohibition on trading or positions in excess of limits fixed by Commission

The Commission shall, in such rule, regulation, or order, fix a reasonable time (not to exceed ten days) after the promulgation of the rule, regulation, or order; after which, and until such rule, regulation, or order is suspended, modified, or revoked, it shall be unlawful for any person—

(1) directly or indirectly to buy or sell, or agree to buy or sell, under contracts of sale of such commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of the contract market or markets to which the rule, regulation, or order applies, any amount of such commodity during any one business day in excess of any trading limit fixed for one business day by the Commission in such rule, regulation, or order for or with respect to such commodity; or

(2) directly or indirectly to hold or control a net long or a net short position in any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market in excess of any position limit fixed by the Commission for or with respect to such commodity: Provided, That such position limit shall not apply to a position acquired in good faith prior to the effective date of such rule, regulation, or order.

(c) Applicability to bona fide hedging transactions or positions

No rule, regulation, or order issued under subsection (a) of this section shall apply to transactions or positions which are shown to be bona fide hedging transactions or positions as such terms shall be defined by the Commission by rule, regulation, or order consistent with the purposes of this chapter. Such terms may be defined to permit producers, purchasers, sellers, middlemen, and users of a commodity or a product derived therefrom to hedge their legitimate anticipated business needs for that period of time into the future for which an appropriate futures contract is open and available on an exchange. To determine the adequacy of this chapter and the powers of the Commission acting thereunder to prevent unwarranted price pressures by large hedgers, the Commission shall monitor and analyze the trading activities of the largest hedgers, as determined by the Commission, operating in the cattle, hog, or pork belly markets and shall report its findings and recommendations to the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and the House Committee on Agriculture in its annual reports for at least two years following January 11, 1983.

(d) Persons subject to regulation; applicability to transactions made by or on behalf of United States

This section shall apply to a person that is registered as a futures commission merchant, an introducing broker, or a floor broker under authority of this chapter only to the extent that transactions made by such person are made on behalf of or for the account or benefit of such person. This section shall not apply to transactions made by, or on behalf of, or at the direction of, the United States, or a duly authorized agency thereof.

(e) Rulemaking power of contract markets and penalties for violation

Nothing in this section shall prohibit or impair the adoption by any contract market or by any other board of trade licensed or designated by the Commission of any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution fixing limits on the amount of trading which may be done or positions which may be held by any person under contracts of sale of any commodity for future delivery traded on or subject to the rules of such contract market, or under options on such contracts or commodities traded on or subject to the rules of such contract market or such board of trade: Provided, That if the Commission shall have fixed limits under this section for any contract or under section 6c of this title for any commodity option, then the limits fixed by the bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions adopted by such contract market or such board of trade shall not be higher than the limits fixed by the Commission. It shall be a violation of this chapter for any person to violate any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution of any contract market or other board of trade licensed or designated by the Commission fixing limits on the amount of trading which may be done or positions which may be held by any person under contracts of sale of any commodity for future delivery or under options on such contracts or commodities, if such bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution has been approved by the Commission: Provided, That the provisions of section 13(c) 1 of this title shall apply only to those who knowingly violate such limits.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4a, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1492; amended July 24, 1956, ch. 690, §1, 70 Stat. 630; Pub. L. 90–258, §§2–4, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 26, 27; Pub. L. 93–463, title IV, §§403, 404, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1413; Pub. L. 94–16, §4, Apr. 16, 1975, 89 Stat. 78; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §205, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2299; Pub. L. 102–546, title IV, §402(1)(A), (2), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3624.)

References in Text

Section 13(c) of this title, referred to in subsec. (e), was struck out and subsec. (d) of section 13 was redesignated (c) by Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §212(a)(1)(A), (B), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3608.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(1)(A), (2)(A), (C), redesignated par. (1) as subsec. (a), substituted “Commission” for “commission” wherever appearing except in last sentence, and substituted “paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) of this section” for “subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(1)(A), (2)(C), (D), redesignated par. (2) as subsec. (b) and subpars. (A) and (B) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, and substituted “Commission” for “commission” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(2)(B), (C), redesignated par. (3) as subsec. (c) and substituted “subsection (a)” for “paragraph (1)”.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(2)(C), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as subsecs. (d) and (e), respectively.

1983—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–444, §205(1), (2), substituted “by rule, regulation, or order, proclaim” for “by order, proclaim” and inserted “or for different number of days remaining until the last day of trading in a contract,” after “delivery months”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–444, §205(1), (3), substituted “after the promulgation of the rule, regulation, or order” for “after the order's promulgation” in provisions before subpar. (A) and substituted “rule, regulation, or order” for “order” in provisions before subpar. (A) and in subpars. (A) and (B).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 97–444, §205(4), substituted “No rule, regulation, or order issued under paragraph (1) of this section shall apply to transactions or positions which are shown to be bona fide hedging transactions or positions as such terms shall be defined by the Commission by rule, regulation, or order consistent with the purposes of this chapter” for “No order issued under paragraph (1) of this section shall apply to transactions or positions which are shown to be bona fide hedging transactions or positions as such terms shall be defined by the Commission within one hundred and eighty days after the effective date of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 by order consistent with the purposes of this chapter” and inserted “Such terms may be defined to permit producers, purchasers, sellers, middlemen, and users of a commodity or a product derived therefrom to hedge their legitimate anticipated business needs for that period of time into the future for which an appropriate futures contract is open and available on an exchange. To determine the adequacy of this chapter and the powers of the Commission acting thereunder to prevent unwarranted price pressures by large hedgers, the Commission shall monitor and analyze the trading activities of the largest hedgers, as determined by the Commission, operating in the cattle, hog, or pork belly markets and shall report its findings and recommendations to the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and the House Committee on Agriculture in its annual reports for at least two years following January 11, 1983.”

Par. (4). Pub. L. 97–444, §205(5), substituted “a futures commission merchant, an introducing broker, or a floor broker” for “a futures commission merchant or as floor broker”.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 97–444, §205(6), added par. (5).

1975—Par. (3). Pub. L. 94–16 substituted “one hundred and eighty days” for “ninety days”.

1974—Par. (1). Pub. L. 93–463, §403, inserted “or ‘arbitrage’ ” after “or ‘straddles’ ”, inserted definition of “arbitrage”, and authorized Commission to define “international arbitrage”.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 93–463, §404, directed Commission to define “bona fide hedging transactions or positions” within 90 days after the effective date of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 and struck out provisions which enumerated the factors to be taken into account in determining whether a hedging transaction or position was a bona fide transaction or position.

1968—Par. (1). Pub. L. 90–258, §2, substituted in second sentence “amounts of trading” for “amount of trading”, inserted “which may be done or positions which may be held by any person” before “under contracts of sale”, and struck out “which may be done” after “rules of any contract market”, inserted third sentence providing for inclusion of controlled positions and trading in determining whether prescribed position or trading limits have been exceeded and for application of such position and trading limits to activities of two or more persons acting pursuant to agreement or understanding as if the activities of a single person, and included in fourth, formerly third, sentence references to position limits and to positions, substituted “normally” for “commonly”, and struck out “trading” from “from fixing trading limits” and “from trading limits”.

Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 90–258, §3, substituted prohibition against holding of net long or net short positions in excess of any position limit fixed by the Commission for former prohibition of purchases or sales which result in net long or net short positions in excess of trading limits fixed by the Commission and provided that the position limit shall not apply to a position acquired in good faith prior to the effective date of the order.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 90–258, §4, included references to positions, made hedging applicable to short and long positions, substituted “contract market” for “board of trade”, and required the activities to be those of the same person to constitute hedging.

1956—Par. (3)(C). Act July 24, 1956, added subpar. (C).

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Section 404 of Pub. L. 93–463 provided that the amendment of par. (3) which struck out provisions that enumerated the factors to be taken into account in determining whether a hedging transaction or position was a bona fide transaction or position, was effective immediately upon the enactment of Pub. L. 93–463, which was approved Oct. 23, 1974.

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–463 of par. (1) and that part of par. (3) directing the Commission to define “bona fide hedging transactions or positions” effective so as to allow implementation of all changes effected by this amendment to be carried out after Oct. 23, 1974, and before as well as after the 180th day thereafter, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Section 2 of act July 24, 1956, provided that: “This Act [amending this section] shall take effect sixty days after the date of its enactment [July 24, 1956].”

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Regulations Defining Bona Fide Hedging Transactions and Positions

Section 404 of Pub. L. 93–463 provided in part: “That notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Agriculture, immediately upon the enactment of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 [which was approved on Oct. 23, 1974], is authorized and directed to promulgate regulations defining bona fide hedging transactions and positions: And provided further, That until the Secretary issues such regulations defining bona fide hedging transactions and positions and such regulations are in full force and effect, such terms shall continue to be defined as set forth in the Commodity Exchange Act [par. (3) of this section] prior to its amendment by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 [Pub. L. 93–463].”

Cross References

Power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce, see Const. Art. I, §8, cl. 3.

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 13 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§6b. Fraud, false reporting, or deception prohibited

(a) Contracts designed to defraud or mislead; bucketing orders

It shall be unlawful (1) for any member of a contract market, or for any correspondent, agent, or employee of any member, in or in connection with any order to make, or the making of, any contract of sale of any commodity in interstate commerce, made, or to be made, on or subject to the rules of any contract market, for or on behalf of any other person, or (2) for any person, in or in connection with any order to make, or the making of, any contract of sale of any commodity for future delivery made, or to be made, for or on behalf of any other person if such contract for future delivery is or may be used for (A) hedging any transaction in interstate commerce in such commodity or the products or byproducts thereof, or (B) determining the price basis of any transaction in interstate commerce in such commodity, or (C) delivering any such commodity sold, shipped, or received in interstate commerce for the fulfillment thereof—

(i) to cheat or defraud or attempt to cheat or defraud such other person;

(ii) willfully to make or cause to be made to such other person any false report or statement thereof, or willfully to enter or cause to be entered for such person any false record thereof;

(iii) willfully to deceive or attempt to deceive such other person by any means whatsoever in regard to any such order or contract or the disposition or execution of any such order or contract, or in regard to any act of agency performed with respect to such order or contract for such person; or

(iv) to bucket such order, or to fill such order by offset against the order or orders of any other person, or willfully and knowingly and without the prior consent of such person to become the buyer in respect to any selling order of such person, or become the seller in respect to any buying order of such person.

(b) Buying and selling orders for commodity

Nothing in this section or in any other section of this chapter shall be construed to prevent a futures commission merchant or floor broker who shall have in hand, simultaneously, buying and selling orders at the market for different principals for a like quantity of a commodity for future delivery in the same month executing such buying and selling orders at the market price: Provided, That any such execution shall take place on the floor of the exchange where such orders are to be executed at public outcry across the ring and shall be duly reported, recorded, and cleared in the same manner as other orders executed on such exchange: And provided further, That such transactions shall be made in accordance with such rules and regulations as the Commission may promulgate regarding the manner of the execution of such transactions.

(c) Inapplicability to transactions on foreign exchanges

Nothing in this section shall apply to any activity that occurs on a board of trade, exchange, or market, or clearinghouse for such board of trade, exchange, or market, located outside the United States, or territories or possessions of the United States, involving any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery that is made, or to be made, on or subject to the rules of such board of trade, exchange, or market.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4b, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1493; amended Pub. L. 90–258, §5, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 27; Pub. L. 93–463, title IV, §405, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1413; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §101, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3557; Pub. L. 102–546, title IV, §402(3), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3624.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 designated first par. as subsec. (a), redesignated cls. (a) to (c) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, and subpars. (A) to (D) as cls. (i) to (iv), respectively, and designated second and third undesignated pars. as subsecs. (b) and (c), respectively.

1986—Pub. L. 99–641 struck out “on or subject to the rules of any contract market,” after “to be made” in cl. (2) of first par. and added concluding paragraph that this section not apply to activity on board of trade, exchange, market, or clearinghouse located outside United States involving contract of sale of commodity for future delivery.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “a commodity” for “cotton” in provisions following subpar. (D) and inserted requirement that execution of buying and selling orders for commodities held simultaneously by the same merchant or broker be carried out in accordance with such rules and regulations as the Commission may promulgate regarding the manner of the execution of such transactions.

1968—Pub. L. 90–258 relocated cl. (1) designation in first par. to follow “unlawful” rather than to precede “any contract of sale”, provided in such cl. (1) for orders to make or making of contracts of sale “made, or to be made on or subject to the rules of any contract market, for or on behalf of any other person” and in cl. (2) “for any person, in or in connection with any order to make, or the making of,” any contract of sale of any commodity for future delivery for or on behalf of any “other” person; and inserted “other” before “person” in subpar. (A) and in subpars. (B) and (C) where appearing for first time, respectively.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Construction of section not to impair any State law applicable to any transaction enumerated or described in this section, see section 6c of this title.

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 13 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 13 of this title.

§6c. Prohibited transactions

(a) Meretricious transactions

It shall be unlawful for any person to offer to enter into, enter into, or confirm the execution of, any transaction involving any commodity, which is or may be used for (1) hedging any transaction in interstate commerce in such commodity or the products or byproducts thereof, or (2) determining the price basis of any such transaction in interstate commerce in such commodity, or (3) delivering any such commodity sold, shipped, or received in interstate commerce for the fulfillment thereof—

(A) if such transaction is, is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, a “wash sale,” “cross trade,” or “accommodation trade,” or is a fictitious sale; or

(B) if such transaction is used to cause any price to be reported, registered, or recorded which is not a true and bona fide price.


Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the exchange of futures in connection with cash commodity transactions or of futures for cash commodities, or of transfer trades or office trades if made in accordance with board of trade rules applying to such transactions and such rules shall have been approved by the Commission.

(b) Regulated option trading

No person shall offer to enter into, enter into or confirm the execution of, any transaction involving any commodity regulated under this chapter which is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, an “option”, “privilege”, “indemnity”, “bid”, “offer”, “put”, “call”, “advance guaranty”, or “decline guaranty”, contrary to any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission prohibiting any such transaction or allowing any such transaction under such terms and conditions as the Commission shall prescribe. Any such order, rule, or regulation may be made only after notice and opportunity for hearing, and the Commission may set different terms and conditions for different markets.

(c) Regulations for elimination of pilot status of commodity option transactions; terms and conditions of options trading

Not later than 90 days after November 10, 1986, the Commission shall issue regulations—

(1) to eliminate the pilot status of its program for commodity option transactions involving the trading of options on contract markets, including any numerical restrictions on the number of commodities or option contracts for which a contract market may be designated; and

(2) otherwise to continue to permit the trading of such commodity options under such terms and conditions that the Commission from time to time may prescribe.

(d) Dealer options exempt from subsections (b) and (c) prohibitions; requirements

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (c) of this section—

(1) any person domiciled in the United States who on May 1, 1978, was in the business of granting an option on a physical commodity, other than a commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974, and was in the business of buying, selling, producing, or otherwise using that commodity, may continue to grant or issue options on that commodity in accordance with Commission regulations in effect on August 17, 1978, until thirty days after the effective date of regulations issued by the Commission under clause (2) of this subsection: Provided, That if such person files an application for registration under the regulations issued under clause (2) of this subsection within thirty days after the effective date of such regulations, that person may continue to grant or issue options pending a final determination by the Commission on the application; and

(2) the Commission shall issue regulations that permit grantors and futures commission merchants to offer to enter into, enter into, or confirm the execution of, any commodity option transaction on a physical commodity subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, other than a commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974, if—

(A) the grantor is a person domiciled in the United States who—

(i) is in the business of buying, selling, producing, or otherwise using the underlying commodity;

(ii) at all times has a net worth of at least $5,000,000 certified annually by an independent public accountant using generally accepted accounting principles;

(iii) notifies the Commission and every futures commission merchant offering the grantor's option if the grantor knows or has reason to believe that the grantor's net worth has fallen below $5,000,000;

(iv) segregates daily, exclusively for the benefit of purchasers, money, exempted securities (within the meaning of section 78c(a)(12) of title 15), commercial paper, bankers’ acceptances, commercial bills, or unencumbered warehouse receipts, equal to an amount by which the value of each transaction exceeds the amount received or to be received by the grantor for such transaction;

(v) provides an identification number for each transaction; and

(vi) provides confirmation of all orders for such transactions executed, including the execution price and a transaction identification number;


(B) the futures commission merchant is a person who—

(i) has evidence that the grantor meets the requirements specified in subclause (A) of this clause;

(ii) treats and deals with all money, securities, or property received from its customers as payment of the purchase price in connection with such transactions, as belonging to such customers until the expiration of the term of the option, or, if the customer exercises the option, until all rights of the customer under the commodity option transaction have been fulfilled;

(iii) records each transaction in its customer's name by the transaction identification number provided by the grantor;

(iv) provides a disclosure statement to its customers, under regulations of the Commission, that discloses, among other things, all costs, including any markups or commissions involved in such transaction; and


(C) the grantor and futures commission merchant comply with any additional uniform and reasonable terms and conditions the Commission may prescribe, including registration with the Commission.


The Commission may permit persons not domiciled in the United States to grant options under this subsection, other than options on a commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974, under such additional rules, regulations, and orders as the Commission may adopt to provide protection to purchasers that are substantially the equivalent of those applicable to grantors domiciled in the United States. The Commission may terminate the right of any person to grant, offer, or sell options under this subsection only after a hearing, including a finding that the continuation of such right is contrary to the public interest: Provided, That pending the completion of such termination proceedings, the Commission may suspend the right to grant, offer, or sell options of any person whose activities in the Commission's judgment present a substantial risk to the public interest.

(e) Rules and regulations

The Commission may adopt rules and regulations, after public notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record, prohibiting the granting, issuance, or sale of options permitted under subsection (d) of this section if the Commission determines that such options are contrary to the public interest.

(f) Nonapplicability to foreign currency options

Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to govern or in any way be applicable to any transaction in an option on foreign currency traded on a national securities exchange.

(g) Oral orders

The Commission shall adopt rules requiring that a contemporaneous written record be made, as practicable, of all orders for execution on the floor or subject to the rules of each contract market placed by a member of the contract market who is present on the floor at the time such order is placed.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4c, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1494; amended Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), title IV, §402, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392, 1412; Pub. L. 95–405, §3, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 867; Pub. L. 97–444, title I, §102, title II, §206, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2296, 2301; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §102, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3557; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §203(a), title IV, §402(4), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3600, 3624.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(4), made technical amendments to references to section 78c(a)(12) of title 15 in subpar. (A)(iv) and to section 2 of this title in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–546, §203(a), added subsec. (g).

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–641, amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions relating to regulations to eliminate pilot status of program for commodity option transactions for provisions relating to commodity option transactions, pilot program and permanent authorization, conditions ending prohibition, and excepted persons.

1983—Subsec. (a)(B), (C). Pub. L. 97–444, §206(1), redesignated par. (C) as (B). Former par. (B), relating to transactions involving any commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title, prior to October 23, 1974, if such transactions were of the character of, or were commonly known to the trade as, an “option”, “privilege”, “indemnity”, “bid”, “offer”, “put”, “call”, “advance guaranty”, or “decline guaranty”, was struck out.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–444, §206(2), in revising section generally, struck out references to any transaction subject to provisions of subsection (a) of this section and to any commodity not specifically set forth in section 2 of this title, prior to October 23, 1974, and struck out “within one year after the effective date of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974 unless the Commission determines and notifies the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and the House Committee on Agriculture that it is unable to prescribe such terms and conditions within such period of time:” after “such terms and conditions as the Commission shall prescribe”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–444, §206(3), inserted “With respect to any commodity regulated under this chapter and specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974, the Commission may, pursuant to the procedures set forth in this subsection, establish a pilot program for a period not to exceed three years to permit such commodity option transactions. The Commission may authorize commodity option transactions during the pilot program in as many commodities as will provide an adequate test of the trading of such option transactions. After completion of the pilot program, the Commission may authorize commodity option transactions without regard to the restrictions in the pilot program after the Commission transmits to the House Committee on Agriculture and the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry the documentation required under clause (1) of the first sentence of this subsection and the expiration of thirty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date of such transmittal.”

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–444, §206(4)(A), inserted “, other than a commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974,” after “physical commodity”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–444, §206(4)(B), inserted “, other than a commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974,” after “subsection (b) of this section” in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Pub. L. 97–444, §206(4)(C), inserted “, other than options on a commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974,” after “The Commission may permit persons not domiciled in the United States to grant options under this subsection” in provisions following par. (2).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–444, §102, added subsec. (f).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–405, §3(1), in provisions following par. (C) substituted “have been approved” for “not have been disapproved”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–405, §3(2), substituted “Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry” for “Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry”.

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 95–405, §3(3), added subsecs. (c) to (e).

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–463, §§103(a), 402(a), (b), (d), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), in par. (B) of subsec. (a) as so designated inserted “if such transaction involves any commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title, prior to the enactment of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974, and” and “option”, and in provisions following par. (C), struck out provisions prohibiting a construction of this section or section 6b of this title which would impair any State law applicable to any transaction enumerated or described in this section or section 6b of this title and substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–463, §402(c), added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 203(b) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “The Commission shall adopt the rules required by the amendment made under subsection (a) [amending this section] within two hundred and seventy days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992].”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 13 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1a, 6a, 12a, 13, 16, 19, 25 of this title; title 11 section 761.

§6d. Dealing by unregistered futures commission merchants or introducing brokers prohibited; duties of merchants regarding monies and securities of customers

It shall be unlawful for any person to engage as futures commission merchant or introducing broker in soliciting orders or accepting orders for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery, or involving any contracts of sale of any commodity for future delivery, on or subject to the rules of any contract market unless—

(1) such person shall have registered, under this chapter, with the Commission as such futures commission merchant or introducing broker and such registration shall not have expired nor been suspended nor revoked; and

(2) such person shall, if a futures commission merchant, whether a member or nonmember of a contract market, treat and deal with all money, securities, and property received by such person to margin, guarantee, or secure the trades or contracts of any customer of such person, or accruing to such customer as the result of such trades or contracts, as belonging to such customer. Such money, securities, and property shall be separately accounted for and shall not be commingled with the funds of such commission merchant or be used to margin or guarantee the trades or contracts, or to secure or extend the credit, of any customer or person other than the one for whom the same are held: Provided, however, That such money, securities, and property of the customers of such futures commission merchant may, for convenience, be commingled and deposited in the same account or accounts with any bank or trust company or with the clearing house organization of such contract market, and that such share thereof as in the normal course of business shall be necessary to margin, guarantee, secure, transfer, adjust, or settle the contracts or trades of such customers, or resulting market positions, with the clearinghouse organization of such contract market or with any member of such contract market, may be withdrawn and applied to such purposes, including the payment of commissions, brokerage, interest, taxes, storage, and other charges, lawfully accruing in connection with such contracts and trades: Provided further, That in accordance with such terms and conditions as the Commission may prescribe by rule, regulation, or order, such money, securities, and property of the customers of such futures commission merchant may be commingled and deposited as provided in this section with any other money, securities, and property received by such futures commission merchant and required by the Commission to be separately accounted for and treated and dealt with as belonging to the customers of such futures commission merchant: Provided further, That such money may be invested in obligations of the United States, in general obligations of any State or of any political subdivision thereof, and in obligations fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, such investments to be made in accordance with such rules and regulations and subject to such conditions as the Commission may prescribe.


It shall be unlawful for any person, including but not limited to any clearing agency of a contract market and any depository, that has received any money, securities, or property for deposit in a separate account as provided in paragraph (2) of this section, to hold, dispose of, or use any such money, securities, or property as belonging to the depositing futures commission merchant or any person other than the customers of such futures commission merchant.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4d, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1494; amended Pub. L. 90–258, §6, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 27; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 95–405, §4, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §207, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2302.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–444, §207(1), inserted reference to introducing brokers in provisions preceding par. (1).

Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–444, §207(2), inserted “or introducing broker” after “futures commission merchant”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–444, §207(3), inserted “if a futures commission merchant,” after “such person shall,”.

1978—Pub. L. 95–405 in par. (2) inserted provisions authorizing Commission to prescribe terms and conditions under which funds and property commingled and deposited as permitted by par. (2) may be commingled and deposited with other funds and property received by a futures commission merchant and required by Commission to be separately accounted for and treated as belonging to its customers.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” in pars. (1) and (2).

1968—Pub. L. 90–258 struck out from second proviso of first par. authorization for investment of customer funds in investment securities of the kind national banking associations may buy or in loans secured by negotiable warehouse receipts conveying or securing title to readily marketable commodities to the extent of the current loan value of such receipts and added second par., making it unlawful for any person, including a clearing agency of a contract market or any depository, to treat customer funds as belonging to any person other than the customer, respectively.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective 120 days after Jan. 11, 1983, or such earlier date as the Commission shall prescribe by regulation, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 13 of this title.

§6e. Dealings by unregistered floor trader or broker prohibited

It shall be unlawful for any person to act as floor trader in executing purchases and sales, or as floor broker in executing any orders for the purchase or sale, of any commodity for future delivery, or involving any contracts of sale of any commodity for future delivery, on or subject to the rules of any contract market unless such person shall have registered, under this chapter, with the Commission as such floor trader or floor broker and such registration shall not have expired nor been suspended nor revoked.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4e, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1495; amended Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §207(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3604.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “It shall be unlawful for any person to act as floor broker in executing any orders for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery, or involving any contracts of sale of any commodity for future delivery, on or subject to the rules of any contract market unless such person shall have registered, under this chapter, with the Commission as such floor broker and such registration shall not have expired nor been suspended nor revoked.”

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 207(c) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6f, 6g, 12a, and 13a–2 of this title] shall become effective one hundred and eighty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall issue any regulations necessary to implement the amendments made by this section no later than one hundred and eighty days after the date of enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 13 of this title.

§6f. Registration and financial requirements; risk assessment

(a) Registration of futures commission merchants, introducing brokers, and floor brokers and traders

Any person desiring to register as a futures commission merchant, introducing broker, floor broker, or floor trader hereunder shall be registered upon application to the Commission. The application shall be made in such form and manner as prescribed by the Commission, giving such information and facts as the Commission may deem necessary concerning the business in which the applicant is or will be engaged, including in the case of an application of a futures commission merchant or an introducing broker, the names and addresses of the managers of all branch offices, and the names of such officers and partners, if a partnership, and of such officers, directors, and stockholders, if a corporation, as the Commission may direct. Such person, when registered hereunder, shall likewise continue to report and furnish to the Commission the above-mentioned information and such other information pertaining to such person's business as the Commission may require. Each registration shall expire on December 31 of the year for which issued or at such other time, not less than one year from the date of issuance, as the Commission may by rule, regulation, or order prescribe, and shall be renewed upon application therefor unless the registration has been suspended (and the period of such suspension has not expired) or revoked pursuant to the provisions of this chapter.

(b) Financial requirements for futures commission merchants and introducing brokers

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, no person desiring to register as futures commission merchant or as introducing broker shall be so registered unless he meets such minimum financial requirements as the Commission may by regulation prescribe as necessary to insure his meeting his obligation as a registrant, and each person so registered shall at all times continue to meet such prescribed minimum financial requirements: Provided, That such minimum financial requirements will be considered met if the applicant for registration or registrant is a member of a contract market and conforms to minimum financial standards and related reporting requirements set by such contract market in its bylaws, rules, regulations, or resolutions and approved by the Commission as adequate to effectuate the purposes of this subsection.

(c) Risk assessment for holding company systems

(1) As used in this subsection:

(i) The term “affiliated person” means any person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with a futures commission merchant, as the Commission, by rule or regulation, may determine will effectuate the purposes of this subsection.

(ii) The term “Federal banking agency” shall have the same meaning as the term “appropriate Federal banking agency” in section 1813(q) of title 12.


(2)(A) Each registered futures commission merchant shall obtain such information and make and keep such records as the Commission, by rule or regulation, prescribes concerning the registered futures commission merchant's policies, procedures, or systems for monitoring and controlling financial and operational risks to it resulting from the activities of any of its affiliated persons, other than a natural person.

(B) The records required under subparagraph (A) shall describe, in the aggregate, each of the futures and other financial activities conducted by, and the customary sources of capital and funding of, those of its affiliated persons whose business activities are reasonably likely to have a material impact on the financial or operational condition of the futures commission merchant, including its adjusted net capital, its liquidity, or its ability to conduct or finance its operations.

(C) The Commission, by rule or regulation, may require summary reports of such information to be filed by the futures commission merchant with the Commission no more frequently than quarterly.

(3)(A),1 If, as a result of adverse market conditions or based on reports provided to the Commission pursuant to paragraph (2) or other available information, the Commission reasonably concludes that the Commission has concerns regarding the financial or operational condition of any registered futures commission merchant, the Commission may require the futures commission merchant to make reports concerning the futures and other financial activities of any of such person's affiliated persons, other than a natural person, whose business activities are reasonably likely to have a material impact on the financial or operational condition of the futures commission merchant.

(B) The Commission, in requiring reports pursuant to this paragraph, shall specify the information required, the period for which it is required, the time and date on which the information must be furnished, and whether the information is to be furnished directly to the Commission or to a contract market or other self-regulatory organization with primary responsibility for examining the registered futures commission merchant's financial and operational condition.

(4)(A) in 2 developing and implementing reporting requirements pursuant to paragraph (2) with respect to affiliated persons subject to examination by or reporting requirements of a Federal banking agency, the Commission shall consult with and consider the views of each such Federal banking agency. If a Federal banking agency comments in writing on a proposed rule of the Commission under this subsection that has been published for comment, the Commission shall respond in writing to the written comment before adopting the proposed rule. The Commission shall, at the request of the Federal banking agency, publish the comment and response in the Federal Register at the time of publishing the adopted rule.

(B)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), a registered futures commission merchant shall be considered to have compiled 3 with a recordkeeping or reporting requirement adopted pursuant to paragraph (2) concerning an affiliated person that is subject to examination by, or reporting requirements of, a Federal banking agency if the futures commission merchant utilizes for the recordkeeping or reporting requirement copies of reports filed by the affiliated person with the Federal banking agency pursuant to section 161 of title 12, section 9 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), section 1817(a) of title 12, section 1467a(b) of title 12, or section 1844 of title 12.

(ii) The Commission may, by rule adopted pursuant to paragraph (2), require any futures commission merchant filing the reports with the Commission to obtain, maintain, or report supplemental information if the Commission makes an explicit finding that the supplemental information is necessary to inform the Commission regarding potential risks to the futures commission merchant. Prior to requiring any such supplemental information, the Commission shall first request the Federal banking agency to expand its reporting requirements to include the information.

(5) Prior to making a request pursuant to paragraph (3) for information with respect to an affiliated person that is subject to examination by or reporting requirements of a Federal banking agency, the Commission shall—

(A) notify the agency of the information required with respect to the affiliated person; and

(B) consult with the agency to determine whether the information required is available from the agency and for other purposes, unless the Commission determines that any delay resulting from the consultation would be inconsistent with ensuring the financial and operational condition of the futures commission merchant or the stability or integrity of the futures markets.


(6) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to permit the Commission to require any futures commission merchant to obtain, maintain, or furnish any examination report of any Federal banking agency or any supervisory recommendations or analysis contained in the report.

(7) No information provided to or obtained by the Commission from any Federal banking agency pursuant to a request under paragraph (5) regarding any affiliated person that is subject to examination by or reporting requirements of a Federal banking agency may be disclosed to any other person (other than as provided in section 12 of this title or section 12a(6) of this title), without the prior written approval of the Federal banking agency.

(8) The Commission shall notify a Federal banking agency of any concerns of the Commission regarding significant financial or operational risks resulting from the activities of any futures commission merchant to any affiliated person thereof that is subject to examination by or reporting requirements of the Federal banking agency.

(9) The Commission, by rule, regulation, or order, may exempt any person or class of persons under such terms and conditions and for such periods as the Commission shall provide in the rule, regulation, or order, from this subsection and the rules and regulations issued under this subsection. In granting the exemption, the Commission shall consider, among other factors—

(A) whether information of the type required under this subsection is available from a supervisory agency (as defined in section 3401(7) of title 12), a State insurance commission or similar State agency, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or a similar foreign regulator;

(B) the primary business of any affiliated person;

(C) the nature and extent of domestic or foreign regulation of the affiliated person's activities;

(D) the nature and extent of the registered futures commission merchant's commodity futures and options activities; and

(E) with respect to the registered futures commission merchant and its affiliated persons, on a consolidated basis, the amount and proportion of assets devoted to, and revenues derived from activities in the United States futures markets.


(10) Information required to be provided pursuant to this subsection shall be subject to section 12 of this title. Except as specifically provided in section 12 of this title and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Commission shall not be compelled to disclose any information required to be reported under this subsection, or any information supplied to the Commission by any domestic or foreign regulatory agency that relates to the financial or operational condition of any affiliated person of a registered futures commission merchant.

(11) Nothing in paragraphs (1) through (10) shall be construed to supersede or to limit in any way the authority or powers of the Commission pursuant to any other provision of this chapter or regulations issued under this chapter.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4f, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1495; amended Pub. L. 90–258, §7, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 95–405, §5, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §208, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2302; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§207(b)(1), 229, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3604, 3619.)

References in Text

Section 9 of the Federal Reserve Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(B)(i), is section 9 of act Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter VIII (§321 et seq.) of chapter 3 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §§207(b)(1), 229(1), redesignated par. (1) as subsec. (a) and substituted “floor broker, or floor trader” for “or floor broker”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §229(1), (2), redesignated par. (2) as subsec. (b) and substituted “this subsection” for “this paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–546, §229(3), added subsec. (c).

1983—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–444, §208(1), made grammatical changes, made registration provisions applicable to introducing brokers, and substituted “revoked pursuant to the provisions of this chapter” for “revoked after notice and hearing as prescribed in this chapter”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–444, §208(2), made financial requirements applicable to introducing brokers.

1978—Par. (1). Pub. L. 95–405 substituted “Each registration shall expire on December 31 of the year for which issued or at such other time, not less than one year from the date of issuance, as the Commission may by rule, regulation, or order prescribe” for “All registrations shall expire on the 31st day of December of the year for which issued”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”.

1968—Par. (1). Pub. L. 90–258, §7(a), substituted “this chapter” for “section 6g of this title”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 90–258, §7(b), substituted provisions that prescribed financial requirements for registration as futures commission merchant be met and continued at all times and that such requirements will be considered met by membership in a contract market and compliance with its minimum financial standards and related reporting requirements for former provisions for display of futures commission merchants’ registration certificates.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 207(b)(1) of Pub. L. 102–546 effective 180 days after Oct. 28, 1992, with Commodity Futures Trading Commission to issue any regulations necessary to implement such amendment no later than 180 days after Oct. 28, 1992, see section 207(c) of Pub. L. 102–546, set out as a note under section 6e of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 13 of this title.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

3 So in original. Probably should be “complied”.

§6g. Reporting and recordkeeping

(a) In general

Every person registered hereunder as futures commission merchant, introducing broker, floor broker, or floor trader shall make such reports as are required by the Commission regarding the transactions and positions of such person, and the transactions and positions of the customer thereof, in commodities for future delivery on any board of trade in the United States or elsewhere; shall keep books and records pertaining to such transactions and positions in such form and manner and for such period as may be required by the Commission; and shall keep such books and records open to inspection by any representative of the Commission or the United States Department of Justice.

(b) Daily trading records: clearinghouses and contract markets

Every clearinghouse and contract market shall maintain daily trading records. The daily trading records shall include such information as the Commission shall prescribe by rule.

(c) Daily trading records: floor brokers, introducing brokers, and futures commission merchants

Floor brokers, introducing brokers, and futures commission merchants shall maintain daily trading records for each customer in such manner and form as to be identifiable with the trades referred to in subsection (b) of this section.

(d) Daily trading records: form and reports

Daily trading records shall be maintained in a form suitable to the Commission for such period as may be required by the Commission. Reports shall be made from the records maintained at such times and at such places and in such form as the Commission may prescribe by rule, order, or regulation in order to protect the public interest and the interest of persons trading in commodity futures.

(e) Disclosure of information

Before the beginning of trading each day, the exchange shall, insofar as is practicable and under terms and conditions specified by the Commission, make public the volume of trading on each type of contract for the previous day and such other information as the Commission deems necessary in the public interest and prescribes by rule, order, or regulation.

(f) Authority of Commission to make separate determinations unimpaired

Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Commission from making separate determinations for different clearinghouses, contract markets, and exchanges when such determinations are warranted in the judgment of the Commission.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4g, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1496; amended Pub. L. 90–258, §8, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (f), title IV, §415, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392, 1415; Pub. L. 95–405, §6, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §209, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2302; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §207(b)(1), title IV, §402(5), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3604, 3624.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §§207(b)(1), 402(5)(A), redesignated par. (1) as subsec. (a) and substituted “floor broker, or floor trader” for “or floor broker”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(5)(A), redesignated par. (2) as subsec. (b).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(5), redesignated par. (3) as subsec. (c) and substituted “subsection (b)” for “paragraph (2)”.

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(5)(A), redesignated pars. (4) to (6) as subsecs. (d) to (f), respectively.

1983—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–444, §209(1), made reporting and recordkeeping requirements applicable to introducing brokers.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–444, §209(2), made customer daily trading records requirement applicable to introducing brokers.

1978—Par. (3). Pub. L. 95–405 substituted “Floor brokers” for “Brokers”.

1974—Par. (1). Pub. L. 93–463, §§103(a), (f), 415, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” and “United States Department of Agriculture”.

Pars. (2) to (6). Pub. L. 93–463, §415, added pars. (2) to (6).

1968—Pub. L. 90–258 rephrased existing provisions to express reporting and recordkeeping requirements as a positive obligation of futures commission merchants and floor brokers, rather than as a ground for revoking or suspending registration and struck out provisions for revocation or suspension of registration. See section 9 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 207(b)(1) of Pub. L. 102–546 effective 180 days after Oct. 28, 1992, with Commodity Futures Trading Commission to issue any regulations necessary to implement such amendment no later than 180 days after Oct. 28, 1992, see section 207(c) of Pub. L. 102–546, set out as a note under section 6e of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463 see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

§6h. False self-representation as contract market member prohibited

It shall be unlawful for any person falsely to represent such person to be a member of a contract market or the representative or agent of such member, or to be a registrant under this chapter or the representative or agent of any registrant, in soliciting or handling any order or contract for the purchase or sale of any commodity in interstate commerce or for future delivery, or falsely to represent in connection with the handling of any such order or contract that the same is to be or has been executed on, or by or through a member of, any contract market.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4h, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1496; amended Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §210, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2302.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 struck out provisions formerly designated as par. (1) relating to conduct of offices or places of business anywhere in the United States or its territories that were used for dealing in commodities for future delivery unless such dealings were executed or consummated by or through a member of a contract market, which provisions were transferred to section 6(a) of this title, and broadened remaining provisions, formerly designated as par. (2), to prohibit false representations that a person is registered with the Commission in any capacity, and not only as a futures commission merchant, as previously provided.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 13 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 13 of this title.

§6i. Reports of deals equal to or in excess of trading limits; books and records; cash and controlled transactions

It shall be unlawful for any person to make any contract for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market—

(1) if such person shall directly or indirectly make such contracts with respect to any commodity or any future of such commodity during any one day in an amount equal to or in excess of such amount as shall be fixed from time to time by the Commission, and

(2) if such person shall directly or indirectly have or obtain a long or short position in any commodity or any future of such commodity equal to or in excess of such amount as shall be fixed from time to time by the Commission,


unless such person files or causes to be filed with the properly designated officer of the Commission such reports regarding any transactions or positions described in clauses (1) and (2) hereof as the Commission may by rule or regulation require and unless, in accordance with rules and regulations of the Commission, such person shall keep books and records of all such transactions and positions and transactions and positions in any such commodity traded on or subject to the rules of any other board of trade, and of cash or spot transactions in, and inventories and purchase and sale commitments of such commodity. Such books and records shall show complete details concerning all such transactions, positions, inventories, and commitments, including the names and addresses of all persons having any interest therein, and shall be open at all times to inspection by any representative of the Commission or the Department of Justice. For the purposes of this section, the futures and cash or spot transactions and positions of any person shall include such transactions and positions of any persons directly or indirectly controlled by such person.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4i, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §5, 49 Stat. 1496; amended Pub. L. 90–258, §9, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (f), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §211, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2303.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 amended section generally by substantially restating provisions and inserting requirement that persons whose transactions and positions in any cash commodity or commodity future are equal to or in excess of amounts fixed by the Commission, must keep books and records of such transactions and positions as well as books and records of any such commodity traded on or subject to rules of any other board of trade, whether or not such person is required to file reports with the Commission concerning such transactions and positions.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” and “United States Department of Agriculture”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–258 required recordkeeping of positions and of cash or spot transactions in commodities entered into, and inventories and purchase and sale commitments of commodities held, in any month in which reports are required to be kept, including details concerning positions, inventories, and commitments, and included controlled transactions and positions in the futures and cash or spot transactions and positions of any person.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 13 of this title.

§6j. Regulation of trades and executions

(a) Dual trading prohibited; exemptions

(1) The Commission shall issue regulations to prohibit the privilege of dual trading on each contract market which has not been exempted from such regulations under paragraph (3). The regulations issued by the Commission under this paragraph—

(A) shall provide that the prohibition of dual trading thereunder shall take effect not less than thirty days after the issuance of the regulations;

(B) shall provide for exceptions, as the Commission determines necessary and appropriate, to ensure fairness and orderly trading in affected contract markets, including—

(i) transition measures and a reasonable phase-in period,

(ii) exceptions for spread transactions and the correction of trading errors,

(iii) allowance for a customer to designate in writing not less than once annually a named floor broker to execute orders for such customer, notwithstanding the regulations to prohibit the privilege of dual trading required under this paragraph, and

(iv) other measures reasonably designed to accommodate unique or special characteristics of individual boards of trade or contract markets, to address emergency or unusual market conditions, or otherwise to further the public interest;


(C) shall establish procedures for the application for and issuance of exemptions under paragraph (3) which, among other things, shall specify the relevant data required to be submitted by the board of trade with each application;

(D) shall specify the methodology by which it shall determine the average daily trading volume on a contract market for purposes of paragraph (4) based on a moving daily average of either six or twelve months; and

(E) shall establish an expeditious procedure to revoke an exemption granted under paragraph (3) providing sufficient notice, opportunity for hearing, and findings to assure fundamental fairness.


(2) As used in this section, the term “dual trading” means the execution of customer orders by a floor broker during any trading session in which the floor broker executes any trade in the same contract market for—

(A) the account of such floor broker;

(B) an account for which such floor broker has trading discretion; or

(C) an account controlled by a person with whom such floor broker is subject to trading restrictions under subsection (d) of this section.


(3) The Commission shall exempt a contract market from the regulations issued under paragraph (1), either unconditionally or on stated conditions (including stated periods of time) relevant to the attainment or maintenance of compliance with the standards in subparagraphs (A) and (B), upon finding that—

(A) the trade monitoring system in place at the contract market satisfies the requirements of section 7a(b) of this title with regard to violations attributable to dual trading at such contract market; or

(B)(i) there is a substantial likelihood that a dual trading suspension would harm the public interest in hedging or price basing at such contract market, and

(ii) other corrective actions, such as those described in section 12e of this title, are sufficient and appropriate to bring the contract market into compliance with the standard in subparagraph (A).


(4)(A) The regulations issued by the Commission under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any contract market in which the Commission determines that the average daily trading volume is less than the threshold trading level established for the contract market under this paragraph.

(B) The threshold trading level shall be set initially at eight thousand contracts.

(C) The Commission may, by rule or order—

(i) increase, or

(ii) at any time following the date three years after October 28, 1992, decrease,


the threshold trading level for specific contract markets after taking into consideration the actual or potential effects of a dual trading ban on the public interest in hedging or price basing at the affected contract market.

(D) The Commission shall provide the affected contract market with adequate notice of any such increase or decrease.

(5) Before the Commission denies an application for an exemption under paragraph (3) or exempts a contract market subject to conditions, it shall—

(A) provide the affected board of trade with notice of the reason or reasons that the application was not approved as submitted, including—

(i) any reason the Commission has to believe that the trade monitoring system in place at the contract market does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (3)(A) and the basis for such reason;

(ii) any corrective action or actions, such as those described in section 12e of this title, that the Commission believes the affected contract market must take to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (3)(A), and an acceptable timetable for such corrective action; and

(iii) any conditions or limitations that the Commission proposes to attach to the exemption under paragraph (3);


(B) provide the affected board of trade with an opportunity for a hearing through submission of written data, views, or arguments and, under terms set by the Commission at the request of the board of trade, through an oral presentation of views and comments to the Commission, in order to make the demonstration required under paragraph (3) or otherwise to petition the Commission with respect to its application; and

(C) make findings, based on the information, views, and arguments placed before it in connection with the application, as to whether—

(i) the standard in either paragraph (3)(A) or (3)(B) applies, and

(ii) any conditions or limitations which the Commission proposes to attach under paragraph (3) are appropriate in light of the purposes of this subsection.


The Commission shall publish in the Federal Register notice of any exemptive petitions filed under paragraph (3) and any proposed or final actions the Commission may take on such petitions. Unless the Commission determines that more immediate action is appropriate in the public interest, any Commission order denying an application or exempting a contract market conditionally shall not take effect for at least twenty days following the issuance of the order.

(6) Violation of an order issued under this subsection shall be considered a violation of an order of the Commission for purposes of—

(i) establishing liability and assessing penalties against a contract market or any director, officer, agent, or employee thereof under section 13a or 13a–1 of this title; or

(ii) initiating proceedings under section 7b or 8(a) of this title.


(7) Any board of trade which has applied to the Commission to exempt a contract market from the regulations issued under paragraph (1) may obtain judicial review of any final action of the Commission to deny such application, to issue an exemption subject to conditions, or to revoke an exemption, only in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which the party seeking review resides or has its principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, under the standards applicable to rulemaking proceedings under section 553 of title 5.

(8)(A) The Commission shall issue the regulations required under paragraph (1) not later than two hundred and seventy days after October 28, 1992. If, prior to the effective date of the prohibition on dual trading under such regulations, a board of trade submits to the Commission an application for an exemption for a contract market under paragraph (3), the Commission shall not apply the prohibition against dual trading under paragraph (1) to the contract market until the Commission has approved or denied the application.

(B) The Commission shall approve or deny any application for an exemption under paragraph (3) within seventy-five days after receipt of the application, or as soon as practicable.

(b) Trades and executions by floor brokers

If, in addition to the regulations issued pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Commission has reason to believe that dual trading-related or facilitated abuses are not being or cannot be effectively addressed by subsection (a) of this section, the Commission shall make a determination, after notice and opportunity for hearing, whether or not a floor broker may trade for his own account or any account in which such broker has trading discretion, and also execute a customer's order for future delivery and, if the Commission determines that such trades and such executions shall be permitted, the Commission shall further determine the terms, conditions, and circumstances under which such trades and such executions shall be conducted: Provided, That any such determination shall, at a minimum, take into account the effect upon the liquidity of trading of each market: And provided further, That nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit the Commission from making separate determinations for different contract markets when such are warranted in the judgment of the Commission, or to prohibit contract markets from setting terms and conditions more restrictive than those set by the Commission.

(c) Trades by futures commission merchants

The Commission shall within nine months after the effective date of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974, and subsequently when it determines that changes are required, make a determination, after notice and opportunity for hearing, whether or not a futures commission merchant may trade for its own account or any proprietary account, as defined by the Commission, and if the Commission determines that such trades shall be permitted, the Commission shall further determine the terms, conditions, and circumstances under which such trades shall be conducted: Provided, That any such determination, at a minimum, shall take into account the effect upon the liquidity of trading of each market: And provided further, That nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit the Commission from making separate determinations for different contract markets when such are warranted in the judgment of the Commission, or to prohibit contract markets from setting terms and conditions more restrictive than those set by the Commission.

(d) Restrictions on trading among members of broker associations

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a floor broker may not execute an order of a customer if such floor broker knows the opposite party to the transaction to be a floor broker or floor trader with whom such trader or broker has a relationship involving trading on such contract market as—

(A) a partner in a partnership;

(B) an employer or employee; or

(C) Such 1 other affiliation as the Commission may specify by rule.


(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply—

(A) if the Commission has adopted rules that the Commission certifies to Congress require procedures and standards designed to prevent violations of this chapter attributable to the trading described in paragraph (1); or

(B) to any contract market that has implemented rules designed to prevent violations of this chapter attributable to the trading described in paragraph (1), except that, if the Commission determines, by rule or order, that such rules are not adequate to prevent such violations, paragraph (1) shall become effective with respect to such contract market after a reasonable period determined by the Commission.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4j, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §203, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1396; amended Pub. L. 94–16, §2, Apr. 16, 1975, 89 Stat. 77; Pub. L. 102–546, title I, §§101, 102(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3591, 3594.)

References in Text

For the effective date of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c), see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §101(a)(3), added subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §101(a)(1), (2), redesignated par. (1) as subsec. (b) and substituted “If, in addition to the regulations issued pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Commission has reason to believe that dual trading-related or facilitated abuses are not being or cannot be effectively addressed by subsection (a) of this section, the Commission shall” for “The Commission shall within nine months after the effective date of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974, and subsequently when it determines that changes are required,”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–546, §101(a)(1), redesignated par. (2) as subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–546, §102(a), added subsec. (d).

1975—Pub. L. 94–16 substituted “nine months” for “six months” in pars. (1) and (2).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 102(b) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall become effective two hundred and seventy days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992].”

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 7a, 12e of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§6k. Registration of associates of futures commission merchants, commodity pool operators, and commodity trading advisors; required disclosure of disqualifications

(1) It shall be unlawful for any person to be associated with a futures commission merchant as a partner, officer, or employee, or to be associated with an introducing broker as a partner, officer, employee, or agent (or any person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions), in any capacity that involves (i) the solicitation or acceptance of customers’ orders (other than in a clerical capacity) or (ii) the supervision of any person or persons so engaged, unless such person is registered with the Commission under this chapter as an associated person of such futures commission merchant or of such introducing broker and such registration shall not have expired, been suspended (and the period of suspension has not expired), or been revoked. It shall be unlawful for a futures commission merchant or introducing broker to permit such a person to become or remain associated with the futures commission merchant or introducing broker in any such capacity if such futures commission merchant or introducing broker knew or should have known that such person was not so registered or that such registration had expired, been suspended (and the period of suspension has not expired), or been revoked. Any individual who is registered as a floor broker, futures commission merchant, or introducing broker (and such registration is not suspended or revoked) need not also register under this paragraph.

(2) It shall be unlawful for any person to be associated with a commodity pool operator as a partner, officer, employee, consultant, or agent (or any person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions), in any capacity that involves (i) the solicitation of funds, securities, or property for a participation in a commodity pool or (ii) the supervision of any person or persons so engaged, unless such person is registered with the Commission under this chapter as an associated person of such commodity pool operator and such registration shall not have expired, been suspended (and the period of suspension has not expired), or been revoked. It shall be unlawful for a commodity pool operator to permit such a person to become or remain associated with the commodity pool operator in any such capacity if the commodity pool operator knew or should have known that such person was not so registered or that such registration had expired, been suspended (and the period of suspension has not expired), or been revoked. Any individual who is registered as a floor broker, futures commission merchant, introducing broker, commodity pool operator, or as an associated person of another category of registrant under this section (and such registration is not suspended or revoked) need not also register under this paragraph. The Commission may exempt any person or class of persons from having to register under this paragraph by rule, regulation, or order.

(3) It shall be unlawful for any person to be associated with a commodity trading advisor as a partner, officer, employee, consultant, or agent (or any person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions), in any capacity which involves (i) the solicitation of a client's or prospective client's discretionary account or (ii) the supervision of any person or persons so engaged, unless such person is registered with the Commission under this chapter as an associated person of such commodity trading advisor and such registration shall not have expired, been suspended (and the period of suspension has not expired), or been revoked. It shall be unlawful for a commodity trading advisor to permit such a person to become or remain associated with the commodity trading advisor in any such capacity if the commodity trading advisor knew or should have known that such person was not so registered or that such registration had expired, been suspended (and the period of suspension has not expired), or been revoked. Any individual who is registered as a floor broker, futures commission merchant, introducing broker, commodity trading advisor, or as an associated person of another category of registrant under this section (and such registration is not suspended or revoked) need not also register under this paragraph. The Commission may exempt any person or class of persons from having to register under this paragraph by rule, regulation, or order.

(4) Any person desiring to be registered as an associated person of a futures commission merchant, of an introducing broker, of a commodity pool operator, or of a commodity trading advisor shall make application to the Commission in the form and manner prescribed by the Commission, giving such information and facts as the Commission may deem necessary concerning the applicant. Such person, when registered hereunder, shall likewise continue to report and furnish to the Commission such information as the Commission may require. Such registration shall expire at such time as the Commission may by rule, regulation, or order prescribe.

(5) It shall be unlawful for any registrant to permit a person to become or remain an associated person of such registrant, if the registrant knew or should have known of facts regarding such associated person that are set forth as statutory disqualifications in section 12a(2) of this title, unless such registrant has notified the Commission of such facts and the Commission has determined that such person should be registered or temporarily licensed.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4k, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §204(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1396; amended Pub. L. 95–405, §7, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §212, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2303.)

Amendments

1983—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–444 amended par. (1) generally to apply to introducing brokers and persons associated with introducing brokers.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–444 added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (4).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 97–444 added par. (3). Former par. (3), which empowered Commission to authorize a registered futures association to perform any portion of the registration functions under this section, in accordance with rules approved by the Commission, and subject to the provisions of this chapter applicable to registrations granted by the Commission, was struck out.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 97–444 redesignated former par. (2) as (4) and substituted “Any person desiring to be registered as an associated person of a futures commission merchant, of an introducing broker, of a commodity pool operator, or of a commodity trading advisor shall make application to the Commission in the form and manner prescribed by the Commission, giving such information and facts as the Commission may deem necessary concerning the applicant. Such person, when registered hereunder, shall likewise continue to report and furnish to the Commission such information as the Commission may require. Such registration shall expire at such time as the Commission may by rule, regulation, or order prescribe” for “Any such person desiring to be registered shall make application to the Commission in the form and manner prescribed by the Commission, giving such information and facts as the Commission may deem necessary concerning the applicant. Such person, when registered hereunder, shall likewise continue to report and furnish to the Commission such information as the Commission may require. Such registration shall expire two years after the effective date thereof or at such other time, not less than one year from the date of issuance thereof, as the Commission may by rule, regulation, or order prescribe and shall be renewed upon application therefor, unless the registration has been suspended (and the period of such suspension has not expired) or revoked after notice and hearing as prescribed in section 9 of this title: Provided, That upon initial registration, unless the Commission otherwise prescribes by rule, regulation, or order, the effective period of such registration shall be not more than two years nor less than one year from the effective date thereof”.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 97–444 added par. (5).

1978—Par. (2). Pub. L. 95–405, §7(1), inserted provisions authorizing the Commission to prescribe the period of registration of not less than one year for associated persons.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 95–405, §7(2), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective 120 days after Jan. 11, 1983, or such earlier date as the Commission shall prescribe by regulation, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 21 of this title.

§6l. Commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; Congressional finding

It is hereby found that the activities of commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators are affected with a national public interest in that, among other things—

(1) their advice, counsel, publications, writings, analyses, and reports are furnished and distributed, and their contracts, solicitations, subscriptions, agreements, and other arrangements with clients take place and are negotiated and performed by the use of the mails and other means and instrumentalities of interstate commerce;

(2) their advice, counsel, publications, writings, analyses, and reports customarily relate to and their operations are directed toward and cause the purchase and sale of commodities for future delivery on or subject to the rules of contract markets; and

(3) the foregoing transactions occur in such volume as to affect substantially transactions on contract markets.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4l, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §205(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1397.)

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

§6m. Use of mails or other means or instrumentalities of interstate commerce by commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; relation to other law

(1) It shall be unlawful for any commodity trading advisor or commodity pool operator, unless registered under this chapter, to make use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce in connection with his business as such commodity trading advisor or commodity pool operator: Provided, That the provisions of this section shall not apply to any commodity trading advisor who, during the course of the preceding twelve months, has not furnished commodity trading advice to more than fifteen persons and who does not hold himself out generally to the public as a commodity trading advisor. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any commodity trading advisor who is a (1) dealer, processor, broker, or seller in cash market transactions of any commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974, (or products thereof) or (2) nonprofit, voluntary membership, general farm organization, who provides advice on the sale or purchase of any commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974; if the advice by the person described in clause (1) or (2) of this sentence as a commodity trading advisor is solely incidental to the conduct of that person's business: Provided, That such person shall be subject to proceedings under section 18 of this title.

(2) Nothing in this chapter shall relieve any person of any obligation or duty, or affect the availability of any right or remedy available to the Securities and Exchange Commission or any private party arising under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.] governing the issuance, offer, purchase, or sale of securities of a commodity pool, or of persons engaged in transactions with respect to such securities, or reporting by a commodity pool.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4m, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §205(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1398; amended Pub. L. 95–405, §8, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 870; Pub. L. 97–444, title I, §103, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2296.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in par. (2), is title I of act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, 48 Stat. 74, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of chapter 2A of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of Title 15 and Tables.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in par. (2), is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1978—Pub. L. 95–405 inserted provisions relating to applicability of this section to commodity trading advisors who are dealers, processors, brokers, or sellers in cash market transactions of specifically listed commodities or nonprofit, voluntary membership, general farm organizations who provide advice on sale or purchase of specifically listed commodities if the advice by the person described in cl. (1) or (2) of this sentence is incidental solely to the conduct to the person's business and that such person be subject to proceedings under section 18 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

§6n. Registration of commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; application; expiration and renewal; record keeping and reports; disclosure; statements of account

(1) Any commodity trading advisor or commodity pool operator, or any person who contemplates becoming a commodity trading advisor or commodity pool operator, may register under this chapter by filing an application with the Commission. Such application shall contain such information, in such form and detail, as the Commission may, by rules and regulations, prescribe as necessary or appropriate in the public interest, including the following:

(A) the name and form of organization, including capital structure, under which the applicant engages or intends to engage in business; the name of the State under the laws of which he is organized; the location of his principal business office and branch offices, if any; the names and addresses of all partners, officers, directors, and persons performing similar functions or, if the applicant be an individual, of such individual; and the number of employees;

(B) the education, the business affiliations for the past ten years, and the present business affiliations of the applicant and of his partners, officers, directors, and persons performing similar functions and of any controlling person thereof;

(C) the nature of the business of the applicant, including the manner of giving advice and rendering of analyses or reports;

(D) the nature and scope of the authority of the applicant with respect to clients’ funds and accounts;

(E) the basis upon which the applicant is or will be compensated; and

(F) such other information as the Commission may require to determine whether the applicant is qualified for registration.


(2) Each registration under this section shall expire on the 30th day of June of each year, or at such other time, not less than one year from the effective date thereof, as the Commission may by rule, regulation, or order prescribe, and shall be renewed upon application therefor subject to the same requirements as in the case of an original application.

(3)(A) Every commodity trading advisor and commodity pool operator registered under this chapter shall maintain books and records and file such reports in such form and manner as may be prescribed by the Commission. All such books and records shall be kept for a period of at least three years, or longer if the Commission so directs, and shall be open to inspection by any representative of the Commission or the Department of Justice. Upon the request of the Commission, a registered commodity trading advisor or commodity pool operator shall furnish the name and address of each client, subscriber, or participant, and submit samples or copies of all reports, letters, circulars, memorandums, publications, writings, or other literature or advice distributed to clients, subscribers, or participants, or prospective clients, subscribers, or participants.

(B) Unless otherwise authorized by the Commission by rule or regulation, all commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators shall make a full and complete disclosure to their subscribers, clients, or participants of all futures market positions taken or held by the individual principals of their organization.

(4) Every commodity pool operator shall regularly furnish statements of account to each participant in his operations. Such statements shall be in such form and manner as may be prescribed by the Commission and shall include complete information as to the current status of all trading accounts in which such participant has an interest.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4n, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §205(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1398; amended Pub. L. 95–405, §9, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 870; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §213, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2305.)

Amendments

1983—Par. (5). Pub. L. 97–444 struck out par. (5) which authorized Commission, without hearing, to deny registration to any person as a commodity trading advisor or commodity pool operator if such person was subject to an outstanding order under this chapter denying to such person trading privileges on any contract market, or suspending or revoking the registration of such person as a commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, futures commission merchant, or floor broker, or suspending or expelling such person from membership on any contract market.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 97–444 struck out par. (6) which authorized Commission to deny registration or revoke or suspend the registration of any commodity trading advisor or commodity pool operator if the Commission found that such denial, revocation, or suspension was in the public interest and that such person had been guilty of certain specified activities. See section 12a(2), (3), and (4) of this title.

1978—Par. (2). Pub. L. 95–405, §9(1)–(3), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and substituted “Each registration” for “All registrations” and inserted “or at such other time, not less than one year from the effective date thereof, as the Commission may rule, regulation, or order prescribe,” after “June of each year,”. Former par. (2), which provided that registration under this section becomes effective thirty days after the receipt of such application by the Commission, or within such shorter period of time as the Commission may determine, was struck out.

Pars. (3) to (6). Pub. L. 95–405, §9(1), redesignated pars. (4) to (7) as (3) to (6), respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

§6o. Fraud and misrepresentation by commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators, and associated persons

(1) It shall be unlawful for a commodity trading advisor, associated person of a commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, or associated person of a commodity pool operator, by use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce, directly or indirectly—

(A) to employ any device, scheme, or artifice to defraud any client or participant or prospective client or participant; or

(B) to engage in any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates as a fraud or deceit upon any client or participant or prospective client or participant.


(2) It shall be unlawful for any commodity trading advisor, associated person of a commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, or associated person of a commodity pool operator registered under this chapter to represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that such person has been sponsored, recommended, or approved, or that such person's abilities or qualifications have in any respect been passed upon, by the United States or any agency or officer thereof. This section shall not be construed to prohibit a statement that a person is registered under this chapter as a commodity trading advisor, associated person of a commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, or associated person of a commodity pool operator, if such statement is true in fact and if the effect of such registration is not misrepresented.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4o, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §205(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1399; amended Pub. L. 95–405, §10, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 870; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §214, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2305.)

Amendments

1983—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–444 made the antifraud prohibition applicable to an associated person of a commodity trading advisor or a commodity pool operator.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–444 made the misrepresentation prohibition applicable to an associated person of a commodity training advisor or a commodity pool operator, authorized registration statements of such persons, and substituted “such person” and “such person's abilities” for “he” before “has been sponsored” and “his abilities”, respectively.

1978—Par. (1). Pub. L. 95–405 struck out “registered under this chapter” after “pool operator”.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 13 of this title.

§6p. Standards and examinations

(a) The Commission may specify by rules and regulations appropriate standards with respect to training, experience, and such other qualifications as the Commission finds necessary or desirable to insure the fitness of persons required to be registered with the Commission. In connection therewith, the Commission may prescribe by rules and regulations the adoption of written proficiency examinations to be given to applicants for registration and the establishment of reasonable fees to be charged to such applicants to cover the administration of such examinations. The Commission may further prescribe by rules and regulations that, in lieu of examinations administered by the Commission, futures associations registered under section 21 of this title or contract markets may adopt written proficiency examinations to be given to applicants for registration and charge reasonable fees to such applicants to cover the administration of such examinations. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Commission may specify by rules and regulations such terms and conditions as it deems appropriate to protect the public interest wherein exception to any written proficiency examination shall be made with respect to individuals who have demonstrated, through training and experience, the degree of proficiency and skill necessary to protect the interests of customers, clients, pool participants, or other members of the public with whom such individuals deal.

(b) The Commission shall issue regulations to require new registrants, within six months after receiving such registration, to attend a training session, and all other registrants to attend periodic training sessions, to ensure that registrants understand their responsibilities to the public under this chapter, including responsibilities to observe just and equitable principles of trade, any rule or regulation of the Commission, any rule of any appropriate contract market, registered futures association, or other self-regulatory organization, or any other applicable Federal or state 1 law, rule or regulation.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §4p, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §206, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1400; amended Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §215, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2305; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §210(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3607.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 substituted “persons required to be registered with the Commission” for “futures commission merchants, floor brokers, and those persons associated with futures commission merchants or floor brokers” in first sentence, “customers, clients, pool participants, or other members of the public with whom such individuals deal” for “the customers of futures commission merchants and floor brokers” in last sentence, and in second and third sentences struck out “as futures commission merchants, floor brokers, and those persons associated with futures commission merchants or floor brokers,” after “applicants for registration”.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Regulations

Section 210(b) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “The Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall issue the regulations required by section 4p(b) of the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 6p(b)], as added by subsection (a), no later than one hundred and eighty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992].”

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§7. Designation of board of trade as “contract market”; conditions and requirements

The Commission is hereby authorized and directed to designate any board of trade as a “contract market” when, and only when, such board of trade complies with and carries out the following conditions and requirements:

(1) When located at a terminal market where any cash commodity of the kind specified in the contracts of sale of commodities for future delivery to be executed on such board is sold in sufficient volumes and under such conditions as fairly to reflect the general value of the commodity and the differences in value between the various grades of such commodity, and where there is available to such board of trade, official inspection service approved by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Commission for the purpose: Provided, That any board of trade not so located shall be designated as a “contract market” if such board of trade provides for the delivery of commodities on such contracts at a delivery point or points and upon terms and conditions approved by the Commission.

(2) When the governing board thereof provides for the making and filing by the board or any member thereof, as the Commission may direct, of reports in accordance with the rules and regulations, and in such manner and form and at such times as may be prescribed by the Commission, showing the details and terms of all transactions entered into by the board, or the members thereof, either in cash transactions or transactions for future delivery consummated on or subject to the rules of a board of trade, and when such governing board provides, in accordance with such rules and regulations, for the keeping of a record by the board or the members of the board of trade, as the Commission may direct, showing the details and terms of all cash and future transactions entered into by them, consummated on or subject to the rules of a board of trade, such record to be in permanent form, showing the parties to all such transactions, including the persons for whom made, any assignments or transfers thereof, with the parties thereto, and the manner in which said transactions are fulfilled, discharged, or terminated. Such record shall be required to be kept for a period of three years from the date thereof, or for a longer period if the Commission shall so direct, and shall at all times be open to the inspection of any representative of the Commission or United States Department of Justice.

(3) When the governing board thereof provides for the prevention of dissemination by the board or any member thereof of false or misleading or knowingly inaccurate reports concerning crop or market information or conditions that affect or tend to affect the price of any commodity in interstate commerce.

(4) When the governing board thereof provides for the prevention of manipulation of prices and the cornering of any commodity by the dealers or operators upon such board.

(5) When the governing board thereof does not exclude from membership in and all privileges on such board of trade any duly authorized representative of any lawfully formed and conducted cooperative association of producers having adequate financial responsibility which is engaged in any cash commodity business, if such association has complied, and agrees to comply, with such terms and conditions as are or may be imposed lawfully on other members of such board: Provided, That no rule of a contract market shall forbid or be construed to forbid the return on a patronage basis by such cooperative association to its bona fide members of moneys collected in excess of the expense of conducting the business of such association.

(6) When the governing board provides for making effective the final orders or decisions entered pursuant to the provisions of section 9 of this title, and the orders issued pursuant to the provisions of section 7a of this title, and for compliance in all other respects with the requirements applicable to such board of trade under this chapter.

(7) When such board of trade demonstrates that transactions for future delivery in the commodity for which designation as a contract market is sought will not be contrary to the public interest.

(8) When such board of trade demonstrates that every contract market for which such board of trade is designated complies with the requirements of section 7a(b) of this title.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §5, 42 Stat. 1000; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §§2, 6, 49 Stat. 1491, 1497; Pub. L. 90–258, §§10, 11, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 29; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (f), (g), title II, §207, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392, 1400; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§201(c), 209(b)(2), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3597, 3606.)

References in Text

Section 9 of this title, referred to in par. (6), was in the original “section 6(c)” meaning section 6(c) of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 8 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(2), in par. (6) made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act.

Pub. L. 102–546, §201(c), redesignated pars. (a) to (g) as (1) to (7), respectively, realigned margins, and added par. (8).

1974—Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” in provisions preceding par. (a).

Par. (a). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), (g), substituted “official inspection service approved by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Commission for the purpose” for “official inspection service approved by the Secretary of Agriculture for the purpose” and “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”.

Par. (b). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), (f), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” and “United States Department of Agriculture”.

Par. (g). Pub. L. 93–463, §207, added par. (g).

1968—Par. (b). Pub. L. 90–258, §10, substituted “cash transactions or transactions for future delivery consummated on or subject to the rules of a board of trade” for “cash transactions consummated at, on, or in a board of trade, or transactions for future delivery” and “consummated on or subject to the rules of a board of trade” for “consummated at, on, or in a board of trade” where appearing the second time, respectively.

Par. (f). Pub. L. 90–258, §11, prescribed as additional conditions and requirements for designation of board of trade as contract market that governing board provide for making effective the orders issued pursuant to the provisions of section 7a of this title and for compliance in all other respects with the requirements applicable to the board of trade under this chapter.

1936—June 15, 1936, §2, substituted “commodity”, “any commodity”, or “commodities”, as the case may require, for “grain” wherever appearing.

Act June 15, 1936, §6, inserted proviso in par. (a), and substituted “and” for “or” after “prices”.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of that act, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Showing of compliance with conditions and requirements of this section to accompany application for designation as contract market, see section 8 of this title.

Showing of noncompliance with conditions and requirements of this section as authorizing suspension or revocation of designation as a contract market, see section 8 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 2, 6, 8, 13a of this title; title 15 section 78c; title 26 section 408.

§7a. Duties of contract markets

(a) In general

Each contract market shall—

(1) promptly furnish the Commission copies of all bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions made or issued by it or by the governing board thereof or any committee, and of all changes and proposed changes therein;

(2) keep all books, records, minutes, and journals of proceedings of such contract market, and its governing board, committees, subsidiaries, and affiliates in a manner that will clearly describe all matters discussed by such contract market, governing board, committees, subsidiaries and affiliates and reveal any action taken in such matters, and allow inspection at all times by any authorized representative of the Commission or United States Department of Justice of all such books, records, minutes, and journals of proceedings. Such books, records, minutes, and journals of proceedings shall be kept for a period of three years from the date thereof, or for a longer period if the Commission shall so direct;

(3) require the operators of warehouses in which or out of which any commodity is deliverable on any contract for future delivery made on or subject to the rules of such contract market, to make such reports, keep such records, and permit such warehouse visitation as the Commission may prescribe. Such books and records shall be required to be kept for a period of three years from the date thereof, or for a longer period if the Commission shall so direct, and such books, records, and warehouses shall be open at all times to inspection by any representative of the Commission or United States Department of Justice;

(4) when so directed by order of the Commission, provide for a period, after trading in contracts of sale of any commodity for future delivery in a delivery month has ceased, during which contracts of sale of such commodity for future delivery in such month may be satisfied by the delivery of the actual cash commodity. Whenever, after due notice and opportunity for hearing, the Commission finds that provision for such a period of delivery for any one or more commodities or markets would prevent or tend to prevent “squeezes” and market congestion endangering price stability, it shall, by order, require such period of delivery (which shall be not less than three nor more than ten business days) applicable to such commodities and markets as it finds will prevent or tend to prevent such “squeezes” and market congestion: Provided, however, That such order shall not apply to then existing contracts;

(5) require the party making delivery of any commodity on any contract of sale of such commodity for future delivery to furnish the party obligated under the contract to accept delivery, written notice of the date of delivery at least one business day prior to such date of delivery. Whenever, after due notice and opportunity for hearing, the Commission finds that the giving of longer notice of delivery is necessary to prevent or diminish unfair practices in trading in any one or more commodities or markets, it shall by order require such longer notice of delivery (which shall be not more than ten business days) applicable to such commodities and markets as it finds will prevent or diminish such unfair practices: Provided, however, That such order shall not apply to then existing contracts;

(6) require that all contracts of sale of any commodity for future delivery on such contract market shall provide for the delivery thereunder of commodities of grades conforming to United States standards, if such standards shall have been officially promulgated and adopted by the Commission;

(7) require that receipts issued under the United States Warehouse Act [7 U.S.C. 241 et seq.] shall be accepted in satisfaction of any futures contract, made on or subject to the rules of such contract market, without discrimination and notwithstanding that the warehouseman issuing such receipts is not also licensed as a warehouseman under the laws of any state or enjoys other or different privileges than under State law: Provided, however, That such receipts shall be for the kind, quality, and quantity of commodity specified in such contract and that the warehouse in which the commodity is stored meets such reasonable requirements as may be imposed by such contract market on other warehouses as to location, accessibility, and suitability for warehousing and delivery purposes: And provided further, That this paragraph shall apply only to futures contracts for those commodities which may be delivered from a warehouse subject to the United States Warehouse Act;

(8) enforce all bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions, made or issued by it or by the governing board thereof or any committee, that (i) have been approved by the Commission pursuant to paragraph (12) of this section, (ii) have become effective under such paragraph, or (iii) must be enforced pursuant to any Commission rule, regulation, or order; and revoke and not enforce any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution, made, issued, or proposed by it or by the governing board thereof or any committee, which has been disapproved by the Commission;

(9) enforce all bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions made or issued by it or by the governing board thereof or by any committee, which provide minimum financial standards and related reporting requirements for futures commission merchants who are members of such contract market, and which have been approved by the Commission;

(10) permit the delivery of any commodity, on contracts of sale thereof for future delivery, of such grade or grades, at such point or points and at such quality and locational price differentials as will tend to prevent or diminish price manipulation, market congestion, or the abnormal movement of such commodity in interstate commerce. If the Commission after investigation finds that the rules and regulations adopted by a contract market permitting delivery of any commodity on contracts of sale thereof for future delivery, do not accomplish the objectives of this paragraph, then the Commission shall notify the contract market of its findings and afford the contract market an opportunity to make appropriate changes in such rules and regulations. If the contract market within seventy-five days of such notification fails to make the changes which in the opinion of the Commission are necessary to accomplish the objectives of this paragraph, then the Commission after granting the contract market an opportunity to be heard, may change or supplement such rules and regulations of the contract market to achieve the above objectives: Provided, That any order issued under this paragraph shall not apply to contracts of sale for future delivery in any months in which contracts are currently outstanding and open: And provided further, That no requirement for an additional delivery point or points shall be promulgated following hearings until the contract market affected has had notice and opportunity to file exceptions to the proposed order determining the location and number of such delivery point or points;

(11) provide a fair and equitable procedure through arbitration or otherwise (such as by delegation to a registered futures association having rules providing for such procedures) for the settlement of customers’ claims and grievances against any member or employee thereof: Provided, That (A) the use of such procedure by a customer shall be voluntary, (B) the term “customer” as used in this paragraph shall not include another member of the contract market, and (C) in the case of a claim arising from a violation in the execution of an order on the floor of a contract market, such procedure shall provide, to the extent appropriate—

(i) for payment of actual damages proximately caused by such violation. If an award of actual damages is made against a floor broker in connection with the execution of a customer order, and the futures commission merchant which selected the floor broker for the execution of the customer order is held to be responsible under sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title for the floor broker's violation, such futures commission merchant may be required to satisfy such award; and

(ii) where the violation is willful and intentional, for payment to the customer of punitive or exemplary damages, in addition to losses proximately caused by the violation, in an amount equal to no more than two times the amount of such losses. If punitive or exemplary damages are awarded against a floor broker in connection with the execution of a customer order, and the futures commission merchant which selected the floor broker for the execution of such order is held to be responsible under sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title for the floor broker's violation, such futures commission merchant may be required to satisfy the award of punitive or exemplary damages if the floor broker fails to do so, except that such requirement shall apply to the futures commission merchant only if it willfully and intentionally selected the floor broker with the intent to assist or facilitate the floor broker's violation;; 1


(12)(A) except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, submit to the Commission for its prior approval all bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions (“rules”) made or issued by such contract market, or by the governing board thereof or any committee thereof, that relate to terms and conditions in contracts of sale to be executed on or subject to the rules of such contract market, as such terms and conditions are defined by the Commission by rule or regulation, except those rules relating to the setting of levels of margin. Each contract market shall submit to the Commission all other rules (except those relating to the setting of levels of margin and except those that the Commission may specify by regulation) and may make such rules effective ten days after receipt of such submission by the Commission unless, within the ten-day period, the contract market requests review and approval thereof by the Commission or the Commission notifies such contract market in writing of its determination to review such rules for approval. The determination to review such rules for approval shall not be delegable to any employee of the Commission. At least thirty days before approving any rules of major economic significance, as determined by the Commission, the Commission shall publish a notice of such rules in the Federal Register. The Commission shall give interested persons an opportunity to participate in the approval process through the submission of written data, views, or arguments. The determination by the Commission whether any such rules are of major economic significance shall be final and not subject to judicial review. The Commission shall approve such rules if such rules are determined by the Commission not to be in violation of this chapter or the regulations of the Commission and the Commission shall disapprove, after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, any such rule which the Commission determines at any time to be in violation of the provisions of this chapter or the regulations of the Commission. If the Commission institutes proceedings to determine whether a rule should be disapproved pursuant to this paragraph, it shall provide the contract market with written notice of the proposed grounds for disapproval, including the specific sections of this chapter or the Commission's regulations which would be violated. At the conclusion of such proceedings, the Commission shall approve or disapprove such rule. Any disapproval shall specify the sections of this chapter or the Commission's regulations which the Commission determines such rule has violated or, if effective, would violate. If the Commission does not approve or institute disapproval proceedings with respect to any rule within one hundred and eighty days after receipt or within such longer period as the contract market may agree to, or if the Commission does not conclude a disapproval proceeding with respect to any rule within one year after receipt or within such longer period as the contract market may agree to, such rule may be made effective by the contract market until such time as the Commission disapproves such rule in accordance with this paragraph.

(B)(i) The Commission shall issue regulations to specify the terms and conditions under which, in an emergency as defined by the Commission, a contract market may, by a two-thirds vote of its governing board, make a rule (hereinafter referred to as an “emergency rule”) effective on a temporary basis without prior Commission approval, or without compliance with the ten-day notice requirement under subparagraph (A), or during any period of review by the Commission, if the contract market makes every effort practicable to notify the Commission of such emergency rule, along with a complete explanation of the emergency involved, prior to making the emergency rule effective. If the contract market does not provide the Commission with such notification and explanation before making the emergency rule effective, the contract market shall provide the Commission with such notification and explanation at the earliest possible date. The Commission may delegate the power to receive such notification and explanation to such individuals as the Commission determines necessary and appropriate.

(ii) Within ten days of the receipt from a contract market of notification of such an emergency rule and an explanation of the emergency involved, or as soon as practicable, the Commission shall determine whether it is appropriate either—

(I) to permit such rule to remain in effect during the pendency of the emergency, or

(II) to suspend the effect of such rule pending review either under the procedures of subparagraph (A) or otherwise.


The Commission shall submit a report on its determination and the basis thereof with respect to such emergency rule to the affected contract market, to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate. If the report is submitted more than ten days after the Commission's receipt of notification of such an emergency rule from a contract market, the report shall explain why submission within such ten-day period was not practicable. A determination by the Commission to suspend the effect of a rule under this subparagraph shall be subject to judicial review on the same basis as an emergency determination under section 12a(9) of this title. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the authority of the Commission under section 12a(9) of this title;

(13) provide for disclosure to the contract market and the Commission of any trade, business, or financial partnership, cost-, profit-, or capital-sharing agreements or other formal arrangement among or between floor brokers and traders on such contract market where such partnership agreement or arrangement is material and known to the floor broker or floor trader;

(14)(A) provide for meaningful representation on the governing board of the contract market's board of trade of a diversity of interests, including—

(i) futures commission merchants;

(ii) producers of, and consumers, processors, distributors, or merchandisers of, principal commodities traded on the board of trade;

(iii) floor brokers and traders; and

(iv) participants in a variety of pits or principal groups of commodities traded on the exchange.


(B) provide that no less than 20 percent of the regular voting members of such board be comprised of nonmembers of such contract market's board of trade with—

(i) expertise in futures trading, or the regulation thereof, or in commodities traded through contracts on the board of trade; or

(ii) other eminent qualifications making such person capable of participating in and contributing to board deliberations.


(C) provide that no less than 10 percent of the regular voting members of such board be comprised where applicable of farmers, producers, merchants, or exporters of principal commodities traded on the exchange;

(15)(A) provide on all major disciplinary committees for a diversity of membership sufficient to ensure fairness and to prevent special treatment or preference for any person in the conduct of disciplinary proceedings and the assessment of penalties.

(B) Consistent with Commission rules, a major disciplinary committee hearing a disciplinary matter shall include—

(i) a majority of qualified persons representing a trading status other than that of the subject of the proceeding; and

(ii) where appropriate to carry out the purposes of this chapter, qualified persons who are not members of the exchange.


(C) For purposes of this paragraph, a trading status on a contract market may include, consistent with Commission rules, such categories as 2

(i) floor brokers and traders;

(ii) producers, consumers, processors, distributors, or merchandisers of commodities;

(iii) futures commission merchants; and

(iv) members of the aforementioned categories who participate in particular contract markets or principal groups of commodities on the board of trade.


(D) If a contract market takes final disciplinary action against a member for a violation that involves the execution of a customer transaction and results in financial harm to such customer, the contract market shall promptly inform the futures commission merchant identified on the records of such contract market as having cleared such transaction, and such futures commission merchant shall promptly inform the person identified on its records as the owner of the account for which such transaction was executed, of the disciplinary action and the principal facts thereof;

(16) provide that no member found by the Commission, a contract market, a registered futures association, or a court of competent jurisdiction to have committed any violation of this chapter or any other provision of law that would reflect on the fitness of the member may serve on any contract market oversight or disciplinary panel for an appropriate period (as defined by Commission rule); and

(17)(A) provide for the avoidance of conflict of interest in deliberations by the governing board and any disciplinary and oversight committees. In order to comply with this subparagraph, each contract market shall adopt rules and procedures to require, at a minimum, that 2

(i) any member of a governing board or a disciplinary or other oversight committee must abstain from confidential deliberations and voting on any matter where the named party in interest is the member, the member's employer, the member's employee, or any other person that has a business, employment, or family relationship with the member that warrants abstention by the member;

(ii) any member of a governing board or a disciplinary or other oversight committee must abstain from voting on any significant action that would not be submitted to the Commission for its prior approval, if, as determined in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Commission, the member knowingly has a direct and substantial financial interest in the result of the vote, based either on positions held personally or at an affiliated firm;

(iii) prior to the deliberations of the governing board, disciplinary board, or other oversight committee, acting directly or indirectly through an authorized member or contract market official, the positions of the members of such board or committee, and positions of the firm or firms with which such members are affiliated, are reviewed: Provided, however, That no contract market or official, employee, member, other than the member whose position or positions are being reviewed, or agent thereof shall be subject to liability, except for liability in an action initiated by the Commission, for having conducted this review and for having taken or not taken further action; and

(iv) the board or committee shall clearly reflect, in the minutes of such meeting, that the review required in clause (iii) occurred and any decisions by a member to abstain or by the board or committee whether to direct a member or members to abstain from deliberations or voting on the matter before the board or committee.


Any member prohibited from voting on a rule pursuant to this paragraph shall not be included in determining whether there has been a two-thirds vote of members of the governing board or committee as required by subparagraph 3 (12).

(B) For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “significant action that would not be submitted to the Commission for its prior approval” includes—

(i) any nonphysical emergency rule; or

(ii) any changes in margin levels designed to respond to extraordinary market conditions that are likely to have a substantial affect on prices in any contract traded on such contract market, but does not include any rule not submitted for prior Commission approval because such rule is unrelated to terms and conditions of any contract traded on such contract market.


(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (A)(ii), the Commission shall issue rules establishing the conditions under which a member of a board or committee who is required to abstain from voting on a significant action, as provided in subparagraph (A)(ii), may participate in deliberations on that action prior to such vote, where the member's participation is consistent with the public interest.

(b) Monitoring system to detect violations of rules and regulations

(1) Each contract market shall maintain and utilize a system to monitor trading to detect and deter violations of the contract market's rules and regulations committed in the making of trades and the execution of customer orders on the floor or subject to the rules of such contract market. The system shall include—

(A) physical observation of trading areas;

(B) audit trail and recordkeeping systems able to capture essential data on the terms, participants, and sequence of transactions (including relevant data on unmatched trades and out-trades);

(C) systems capable of reviewing, and used to review, data on trades effectively on a regular basis to detect violations committed in making trades and executing customer orders on the floor or subject to the rules of such contract market, including—

(i) all types of violations attributable to dual trading; and

(ii) to the full extent feasible, as determined by the Commission, all other types of violations involving the making of trades and the execution of customer orders;


(D) the use of information gathered through such system on a consistent basis to bring appropriate disciplinary actions against violators;

(E) the commitment of resources to such system necessary for such system to be effective in detecting and deterring such violations, including adequate staff to develop and prosecute disciplinary actions; and

(F) the assessment of meaningful penalties against violators and the referral of appropriate cases to the Commission.


(2) The audit trail system of the contract market shall, consistent with Commission regulations, accurately record—

(A) the times of trades in increments of no more than one minute in length; and

(B) the sequence of trades for each floor trader and broker.


(3) Beginning three years after October 28, 1992, the audit trail system of each contract market, except as provided in paragraph (5) and except to the extent the Commission determines that circumstances beyond the control of the contract market prevent compliance despite the contract market's affirmative good faith efforts to comply, shall—

(A) for all trades, record accurately and promptly the essential data on terms, participants, and times as required by the Commission by rule, including the time of execution of such trade, through a means that—

(i) records such data in a form which cannot be altered except in a manner that will leave a complete and independent record of such alteration;

(ii) continually provides such data to the contract market;

(iii) identifies such time, to the extent practicable as determined by the Commission—

(I) independently of the person making the trade;

(II) through a mechanism that records the time automatically when entered by the person making the trade; or

(III) through such other means that will capture a similarly reliable time; and


(iv) is adequately precise to determine, to the extent practicable as determined by the Commission by rule or order—

(I) the sequence of all trades by each floor trader; and

(II) the sequence of all trades by each floor broker; and


(B) to the extent practicable as determined by the Commission by rule or order, for customer trades, record the time that each order is received on the floor of the board of trade, is received by the floor broker for execution (or when such order is transmitted in an extremely rapid manner to the broker), and is reported from the floor of the board of trade as executed, through a means that—

(i) records such times in a form which cannot be altered except in a manner that will leave a complete and independent record of such alteration;

(ii) continually provides such data to the contract market;

(iii) identifies such time—

(I) independently of the person making the trade or processing the order;

(II) through a mechanism that records the time automatically when entered by the person making the trade or processing such order, as appropriate; or

(III) through such other means as will capture a similarly reliable time; and


(iv) is adequately precise to determine—

(I) the sequence in which, for each futures commission merchant, floor broker, or member firm, as applicable, all orders are received on and reported from the floor of the contract market; and

(II) the sequence in which orders are received by each floor broker for execution.


(4) The Commission may, by rule, establish standards under which the audit trail systems required under paragraph (3) shall record, to the extent practicable—

(A) the sequence of all trades made by all floor traders and floor brokers; and

(B) the interval between the time of receipt and the time of execution of each order by the floor broker executing the order.


(5)(A) The Commission shall, by rule or order, make exemptions from the requirements of paragraph (3)—

(i) for an exchange with respect to which the Commission finds that—

(I) the volume of trading on such exchange is relatively small and the exchange has demonstrated substantial compliance with the objectives of such paragraph; and

(II) the trade monitoring system at such exchange otherwise maintains a high level of compliance with this subsection; and


(ii) to the extent determined appropriate by the Commission, for categories of customer orders with respect to which the Commission finds that such orders are transmitted to and reported from the trading pit in an extremely rapid manner such that substantial compliance with the objectives of paragraph (3) can be otherwise achieved.


(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A)(i)(I) the Commission shall find that the volume of trading at an exchange is relatively small if, among other things, the Commission determines that the average daily trading volume for each contract market for which the board of trade is designated is less than the threshold trading level established for the contract market under section 6j(a)(4) of this title.

(6) Any rule or order adopted by the Commission under paragraphs (4) and (5) shall become effective thirty legislative days or ninety calendar days, whichever is later, after submission of such rule or order to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “legislative day” means any day on which either House of Congress is in session.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §5a, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §7, 49 Stat. 1497; amended Pub. L. 90–258, §12, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 29; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (e), (f), title II, §§208–210, title IV, §§406, 407, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392, 1400, 1401, 1413; Pub. L. 95–405, §§11, 12, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 870, 871; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §§216, 217(a), Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2306, 2307; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §110(2), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3561; Pub. L. 102–546, title I, §103, title II, §§201(a), 206(a)(1), 213(a), 217, 222(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3594, 3595, 3601, 3609, 3611, 3615.)

References in Text

The United States Warehouse Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(7), is part C of act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, 39 Stat. 486, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 10 (§241 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 241 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §201(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a).

Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 102–546, §222(a), substituted “(A)” for “(i)” and “voluntary, (B)” for “voluntary and (ii)”, inserted “and” after “contract market”, and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 102–546, §213(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), added subpar. (B), and struck out last two sentences of subpar. (A) which read as follows: “The Commission shall specify the terms and conditions under which a contract market may, in an emergency as defined by the Commission, make a rule effective on a temporary basis without prior Commission approval, or without compliance with the ten-day notice requirement under this paragraph, or during any period of review by the Commission. In the event of such an emergency, as defined by the Commission, requiring immediate action, the contract market by a two-thirds vote of its governing board may immediately make effective a temporary rule dealing with such emergency if the contract market notifies the Commission of such action with a complete explanation of the emergency involved;”.

Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 102–546, §103, added par. (13).

Subsec. (a)(14) to (16). Pub. L. 102–546, §206(a)(1), added pars. (14) to (16).

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 102–546, §217, added par. (17).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §201(a)(2), added subsec. (b).

1986—Par. (12). Pub. L. 99–641 substituted “participate” for “particpate”.

1983—Par. (8). Pub. L. 97–444, §216(1), struck out after initial “any committee,” the clause “which relate to terms and conditions in contracts of sale to be executed on or subject to the rules of such contract market or relate to other trading requirements,”; incorporated existing text in provisions designated cl. (i); inserted cls. (ii) and (iii); and in revocation provision, struck out “such” before “bylaw” and substituted “that” for “which”.

Par. (11). Pub. L. 97–444, §217(a), redesignated cl. (iv) as (ii) and substituted “another member of the contract market” for “a futures commission merchant or a floor broker”; and struck out clauses “(ii) the procedure shall not be applicable to any claim in excess of $15,000, (iii) the procedure shall not result in any compulsory payment except as agreed upon between the parties,”.

Par. (12). Pub. L. 97–444, §216(2), amended par. (12) generally to reduce the types of contract market rules that require prior approval of the Commission before they may be implemented.

1978—Par. (11). Pub. L. 95–405, §11, inserted “(such as by delegation to a registered futures association having rules providing for such procedures)” after “arbitration or otherwise”.

Par. (12). Pub. L. 95–405, §12, inserted “(or within sixty days of their receipt if the Commission determines them to be of major economic significance)” after “thirty days of their receipt” and inserted provisions requiring that the Commission at least thirty days before approving any bylaws, rules, etc., of major economic significance publish such bylaws, rules, etc., in the Federal Register and that the Commission give interested persons an opportunity to participate in the approval process through the submission of written data, views, or arguments and making the determination of the Commission as to whether any such bylaws, rules, etc., are of major economic significance final and not subject to judicial review.

1974—Par. (1). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), (f), substituted “Commission” for “United States Department of Agriculture” and “Secretary of Agriculture”.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), (f), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” and “United States Department of Agriculture”.

Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), (e), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” and “it” for “he”.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 93–463, §406, inserted “and adopted by the Commission” after “officially promulgated”.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 93–463, §208(a), inserted “: And provided further, That this paragraph shall apply only to futures contracts for those commodities which may be delivered from a warehouse subject to the United States Warehouse Act”.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 93–463, §407, substituted “been approved by the Commission pursuant to paragraph (12) of this section” for “not been disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to paragraph (7) of section 12a of this title” and “has been disapproved by the Commission” for “has been so disapproved”.

Par. (9). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”.

Par. (10). Pub. L. 93–463, §208(d), added par. (10).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 93–463, §209, added par. (11).

Par. (12). Pub. L. 93–463, §210, added par. (12).

1968—Par. (2). Pub. L. 90–258, §12(a), required contract markets to keep their books and records of proceedings of the contract markets and their governing boards, committees, subsidiaries, and affiliates in a manner that will clearly describe all matters discussed and action taken.

Pars. (8), (9). Pub. L. 90–258, §12(b), (c), added pars. (8) and (9).

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Regulations

Section 206(c) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “Not later than two hundred and seventy days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], the Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall adopt such rules as are necessary to carry out the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and sections 12c and 21 of this title], including rules that—

“(1) specify membership categories that shall be represented on disciplinary panels;

“(2) define ‘major disciplinary committee’ for purposes of sections 5a(a)(15) and 17(b)(12) of the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 7a(a)(15) and 21(b)(12)] (as added by subsections (a) and (b), respectively); and

“(3) specify the conditions under which such panels shall include qualified persons who are not members of the exchange or association, which shall include at a minimum—

“(A) any disciplinary action where the subject of such action is a member of the contract market or association governing board or of any major disciplinary committee of such contract market or association; and

“(B) any disciplinary action based on facts related to a claim that the subject of such action manipulated or attempted to manipulate the price of a commodity or future or option.”

Section 213(b) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “The Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall issue regulations to implement section 5a(12)(B) of the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 7a(a)(12)(B)], as added by subsection (a), no later than one hundred and eighty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992]. Until the effective date of such regulations, any regulation of the Commission that implements the last two sentences of section 5a(12), as such sentences were in effect immediately before the date of enactment of this Act, shall remain in effect.”

Study

Section 201(b) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Not later than two years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], the Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that contains—

“(A) an assessment of the progress of each contract market in developing and implementing systems to record the times of transactions independently, precisely, and completely as required under section 5a(b) of the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 7a(b)] (as added by subsection (a) of this section); and

“(B) recommendations as to whether any extension of time for the completion of such systems or any modification of the standards contained in such section is appropriate.

“(2) GAO views.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall state to Congress the views of the Comptroller General with regard to the issues addressed in such report.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6j, 7, 12e, 25 of this title.

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a dash.

3 So in original. Probably should be “paragraph”.

§7b. Suspension or revocation of designation as “contract market”

The failure or refusal of any board of trade to comply with any of the provisions of this chapter, or any of the rules, regulations, or orders of the Commission or the commission 1 thereunder, shall be cause for suspending for a period not to exceed six months or revoking the designation of such board of trade as a “contract market” in accordance with the procedure and subject to the judicial review provided in section 8(b) of this title.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §5b, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §7, 49 Stat. 1498; amended Pub. L. 90–258, §13, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 30; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (b), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §209(b)(3), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3607.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 substituted reference to section 8(b) of this title for reference to section 8 of this title.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), provided for substitution of “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” except where such words would be stricken by section 103(b), which directed striking the words “the Secretary of Agriculture or” where they appeared in the phrase “the Secretary of Agriculture or the Commission”. Because the word “commission” was not capitalized in the text of this section, section 103(b) did not apply to this section and therefore section 103(a) was executed, resulting in the substitution of “the Commission or the commission” for “the Secretary of Agriculture or the commission”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–258 substituted “rules, regulations, or orders of the Secretary of Agriculture or the commission” for “rules and regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture”.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6j, 12e of this title.

1 So in original. The words “or the commission” probably should not appear.

§8. Application for designation as “contract market”; time; suspension or revocation of designation; hearing; review by court of appeals

(a) Any board of trade desiring to be designated a “contract market” shall make application to the Commission for such designation and accompany the same with a showing that it complies with the conditions of section 7 of this title, and with a sufficient assurance that it will continue to comply with the requirements of such section 7. The Commission shall approve or deny an application for designation as a contract market within one year of the filing of the application. If the Commission notifies the board of trade that its application is materially incomplete and specifies the deficiencies in the application, the running of the one-year period shall be stayed from the time of such notification until the application is resubmitted in completed form: Provided, That the Commission shall have not less than sixty days to approve or deny the application from the time the application is resubmitted in completed form. If the Commission denies an application, it shall specify the grounds for the denial. In the event of a refusal to designate as a “contract market” any board of trade that has made application therefor, such board of trade shall be afforded an opportunity for a hearing on the record before the Commission, with the right to appeal an adverse decision after such hearing to the court of appeals as provided for in other cases in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) The Commission is authorized to suspend for a period not to exceed six months or to revoke the designation of any board of trade as a “contract market” upon a showing that such board of trade is not enforcing or has not enforced its rules of government made a condition of its designation as set forth in section 7 of this title or that such board of trade, or any director, officer, agent, or employee thereof, otherwise is violating or has violated any of the provisions of this chapter or any of the rules, regulations, or orders of the Commission or the Commission 1 thereunder. Such suspension or revocation shall only be after a notice to the officers of the board of trade affected and upon a hearing on the record: Provided, That such suspension or revocation shall be final and conclusive, unless within fifteen days after such suspension or revocation by the Commission such board of trade appeals to the court of appeals for the circuit in which it has its principal place of business, by filing with the clerk of such court a written petition praying that the order of the Commission be set aside or modified in the manner stated in the petition, together with a bond in such sum as the court may determine, conditioned that such board of trade will pay the costs of the proceedings if the court so directs. The clerk of the court in which such a petition is filed shall immediately cause a copy thereof to be delivered to the Commission and file in the court the record in such proceedings, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. The testimony and evidence taken or submitted before the Commission, duly filed as aforesaid as a part of the record, shall be considered by the court of appeals as the evidence in the case. Such a court may affirm or set aside the order of the Commission or may direct it to modify its order. No such order of the Commission shall be modified or set aside by the court of appeals unless it is shown by the board of trade that the order is unsupported by the weight of the evidence or was issued without due notice and a reasonable opportunity having been afforded to such board of trade for a hearing, or infringes the Constitution of the United States, or is beyond the jurisdiction of the Commission.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6(a), (b), formerly §6(a), 42 Stat. 1001; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 85–791, §7(a), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 90–258, §§14, 15, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 30; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a)–(c), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 95–405, §13(1), (2), Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 871; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §218, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2308; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(3), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3357; renumbered §6(a), (b) and amended Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §209(a)(1)–(3), title IV, §402(1)(B), (9)(A), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3606, 3624, 3625.)

Codification

Section is comprised of subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922. Subsec. (c) of section 6 is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. Subsecs. (d), (e), and (f) of section 6 are classified to sections 13b, 9a, and 9b of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546, §209(a)(1), (2), designated first par. as subsec. (a) and redesignated former par. (a) as subsec. (b).

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §209(a)(3), substituted “subsection (b)” for “paragraph (a)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(9)(A), which directed amendment of first sentence by striking “the Secretary of Agriculture or”, could not be executed because of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a). See 1974 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 102–546, §402(1)(B), substituted “Commission” for “commission” wherever appearing.

1984—Par. (a). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provisions requiring proceedings in such cases in the court of appeals to be made a preferred cause and expedited in every way.

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 required approval or denial of application within one year period of filing of application, stay of such period following notification that application was incomplete and deficient until resubmission of application, minimum period prior to acting upon resubmitted application, and specification of grounds for denial of application.

1978—Pub. L. 95–405, §13(1), in provisions before par. (a) inserted “on the record” after “opportunity for a hearing”.

Par. (a). Pub. L. 95–405, §13(2), inserted “on the record” after “upon a hearing”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” in first par.

Par. (a). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(c), struck out “the Secretary of Agriculture, who shall thereupon notify the other members of” after “The clerk of the court in which such a petition is filed shall immediately cause a copy thereof to be delivered to”.

Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), provided for substitution of “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” except where such words would be stricken by section 103(b), which directed striking the words “the Secretary of Agriculture or” where they appeared in the phrase “the Secretary of Agriculture or the Commission”. Because the word “commission” was not capitalized in that phrase in par. (a), section 103(b) did not apply to par. (a) and therefore section 103(a) was executed, resulting in the substitution of “the Commission or the commission” for “the Secretary of Agriculture or the commission”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–258, §14, inserted provision affording any board of trade refused a contract market designation a hearing before the Commission with right to appeal in adverse decision to the court of appeals as provided for in par. (a) of this section at end of first par.

Par. (a). Pub. L. 90–258, §15, amended par. (a) generally, striking out such parts both of first sentence and of proviso of last sentence as described the commission as made up of the Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Commerce, and Attorney General (covered in definition of “Commission” in section 2 of this title, including representation of such officials by their designees), extending grounds for suspension or revocation of designation to include violations of any provisions of this chapter or rules, regulations, or orders of the Secretary of Agriculture or commission, requiring delivery of appeal petitions to Secretary of Agriculture rather than any member of the commission, who would notify the other members, and filing of commission records of proceedings on appeal by the Secretary of Agriculture and not the commission, striking out provisions describing Secretary of Agriculture as Chairman (now found in section 2 of this title), superseding such part of proviso of seventh sentence as authorized appeals to the commission from Secretary of Agriculture's refusal of a contract market designation by provisions of first par. of this section, and striking out such other part as made decision of court on appeal from commission final and binding on the parties.

1958—Pub. L. 85–791 substituted “thereupon file in the court the record in such proceedings, as provided in section 2112 of title 28” for “forthwith prepare, certify, and file in the court a full and accurate transcript of the record in such proceedings including the notice to the board of trade, a copy of the charges, the evidence, and the report and order” in third notice, and struck out “certified and” after “duly” in fourth sentence.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted “court of appeals” for “circuit court of appeals” wherever appearing in this section.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Cross References

Cease and desist orders, review of, see section 13a of this title.

Orders with respect to exclusion from boards of trade of cooperative associations and corporations, review of under the procedure provided in this section, see section 10a of this title.

Suspension or revocation of designation as contract market in accordance with procedure and subject to judicial review provided in this section, see section 7b of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 2a, 6j, 7b, 10a, 12, 12a, 12e, 13a of this title.

1 So in original. The words “or the Commission” probably should not appear.

§9. Exclusion of persons from privilege of “contract markets”; procedure for exclusion; review by court of appeals

If the Commission has reason to believe that any person (other than a contract market) is manipulating or attempting to manipulate or has manipulated or attempted to manipulate the market price of any commodity, in interstate commerce, or for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market, or has willfully made any false or misleading statement of a material fact in any registration application or any report filed with the Commission under this chapter, or willfully omitted to state in any such application or report any material fact which is required to be stated therein, or otherwise is violating or has violated any of the provisions of this chapter or of the rules, regulations, or orders of the Commission or the Commission 1 thereunder, it may serve upon such person a complaint stating its charges in that respect, which complaint shall have attached or shall contain therein a notice of hearing, specifying a day and place not less than three days after the service thereof, requiring such person to show cause why an order should not be made prohibiting him from trading on or subject to the rules of any contract market, and directing that all contract markets refuse all trading privileges to such person, until further notice of the Commission, and to show cause why the registration of such person, if registered with the Commission in any capacity, should not be suspended or revoked. Said hearing may be held in Washington, District of Columbia, or elsewhere, before the Commission, or before an Administrative Law Judge designated by the Commission, which Administrative Law Judge shall cause all evidence to be reduced to writing and forthwith transmit the same to the Commission. Upon evidence received, the Commission may (1) prohibit such person from trading on or subject to the rules of any contract market and require all contract markets to refuse such person all trading privileges thereon for such period as may be specified in the order, (2) if such person is registered with the Commission in any capacity, suspend, for a period not to exceed six months, or revoke, the registration of such person, (3) assess such person a civil penalty of not more than the higher of $100,000 or triple the monetary gain to such person for each such violation 2 and (4) require restitution to customers of damages proximately caused by violations of such persons. Notice of such order shall be sent forthwith by registered mail or by certified mail or delivered to the offending person and to the governing boards of said contract markets. After the issuance of the order by the Commission, the person against whom it is issued may obtain a review of such order or such other equitable relief as to the court may seem just by filing in the United States court of appeals of the circuit in which the petitioner is doing business, or in the case of an order denying registration, the circuit in which the petitioner's principal place of business listed on petitioner's application for registration is located, a written petition, within fifteen days after the notice of such order is given to the offending person praying that the order of the Commission be set aside. A copy of such petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Commission and thereupon the Commission shall file in the court the record theretofore made, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of the petition the court shall have jurisdiction to affirm, to set aside, or modify the order of the Commission, and the findings of the Commission as to the facts, if supported by the weight of evidence, shall in like manner be conclusive.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6(c), formerly §6(b), 42 Stat. 1002; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §8(a)–(d), (h)–(j), 49 Stat. 1498, 1499; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 85–791, §7(b), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 86–507, §1(2), June 11, 1960, 74 Stat. 200; Pub. L. 90–258, §16, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 30; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (b), (e), title II, §§204(b), 205(b), 212(a)(1), (2), title IV, §408, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392, 1397, 1400, 1403, 1414; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §219, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2308; renumbered §6(c) and amended Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§209(a)(1), 212(b), 223, title IV, §402(1)(C), (6), (9)(B), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3606, 3609, 3617, 3624, 3625.)

Codification

Section is comprised of part of subsec. (c) of section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922. A further provision of subsec. (c) is contained in section 15 of this title. Subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 6 are classified to section 8 of this title. Subsecs. (d), (e), and (f) of section 6 are classified to sections 13b, 9a, and 9b of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546, §402(9)(B), which directed amendment of first sentence by striking “the Secretary of Agriculture or”, could not be executed because of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a). See 1974 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 102–546, §§209(a)(1), 212(b), 223, 402(1)(C), (6), substituted, in first sentence, “Commission thereunder” for “commission thereunder”, in sentence beginning “Upon evidence received”, inserted “(1)”, substituted “(2) if” for “and, if”, “suspend” for “may suspend”, “(3)” for “and may”, “the higher of $100,000 or triple the monetary gain to such person” for “$100,000”, and inserted before period “and (4) require restitution to customers of damages proximately caused by violations of such persons”, and in sentence beginning “After the issuance”, substituted “offending person” for “offending person.”.

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 struck out “as futures commission merchant or any person associated therewith as described in section 6k of this title, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, or as floor broker hereunder” after “such person, if registered” and also after “such person is registered” and inserted “, or in the case of an order denying registration, the circuit in which the petitioner's principal place of business listed on petitioner's application for registration is located,” after “court of appeals of the circuit in which the petitioner is doing business”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463, §§103(e), 204(b), 205(b), 212(a)(1), (2), 408, substituted “it” for “he”, inserted “or any person associated therewith as described in section 6k of this title,” after “futures commission merchant” wherever appearing, inserted “commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator” before “or as floor broker” wherever appearing, inserted provision for the assessment of civil penalties of not more than $100,000 for each violation, set a limit of fifteen days after the issuance of an order within which period the person against whom the order was issued must file with the court of appeals his petition that the order be set aside, and substituted “an Administrative Law Judge” and “Administrative Law Judge” for “a referee” and “referee”, respectively.

Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), provided for substitution of “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” except where such words would be stricken by section 103(b), which directed striking the words “the Secretary of Agriculture or” where they appeared in the phrase “the Secretary of Agriculture or the Commission”. Section 103(a) was executed wherever the term “Secretary of Agriculture” appeared in this section including in the phrase “the Secretary of Agriculture or the commission” in the first sentence. Because the word “commission” was not capitalized in that phrase in the first sentence, section 103(b) did not apply to that phrase and therefore section 103(a) was executed, resulting in the substitution of “the Commission or the commission” for “the Secretary of Agriculture or the commission”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–258 amended first sentence generally, providing for denial of trading privileges to persons other than contract markets and suspension or revocation of registration of futures commission merchants and floor brokers, who are manipulating or have attempted to manipulate prices, for willful, material, misstatements in, or omissions from, reports or registration statements, and for violations of orders of Secretary of Agriculture or commission, and authorizing the Secretary to prohibit such persons from trading on or subject to rules of any contract market.

1960—Pub. L. 86–507 inserted “or by certified mail” after “registered mail”.

1958—Pub. L. 85–791 substituted “transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary of Agriculture and thereupon the Secretary of Agriculture shall file in the court the record theretofore made, as provided in section 2112 of Title 28” for “served upon the Secretary of Agriculture by delivering such copy to him and thereupon the Secretary of Agriculture shall forthwith certify and file in the court a transcript of the record theretofore made, including evidence received” in seventh sentence, and substituted “petition” for “transcript” in eighth sentence.

1936—Act June 15, 1936, among other changes, amended section by inserting provisions relating to the service of complaints and penalties for violations of this chapter.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted “court of appeals” for “circuit court of appeals” wherever appearing in this section.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Conditional requirements for designation of board of trade as “contract market”, see section 7 of this title.

Suspension or revocation of registration as futures commission merchant for accepting orders from person denied trading privileges pursuant to order under provisions of this section, see section 12a of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 2a, 7, 9a, 12, 12a, 13b, 18, 21 of this title.

1 So in original. The words “or the Commission” probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§9a. Assessment of money penalties

(1) In determining the amount of the money penalty assessed under section 9 of this title, the Commission shall consider the appropriateness of such penalty to the gravity of the violation.

(2) Unless the person against whom a money penalty is assessed under section 9 of this title shows to the satisfaction of the Commission within fifteen days from the expiration of the period allowed for payment of such penalty that either an appeal as authorized by section 9 of this title has been taken or payment of the full amount of the penalty then due has been made, at the end of such fifteen-day period and until such person shows to the satisfaction of the Commission that payment of such amount with interest thereon to date of payment has been made—

(A) such person shall be prohibited automatically from trading on all contract markets; and

(B) if such person is registered with the Commission, such registration shall be suspended automatically.


(3) If a person against whom a money penalty is assessed under section 9 of this title takes an appeal and if the Commission prevails or the appeal is dismissed, unless such person shows to the satisfaction of the Commission that payment of the full amount of the penalty then due has been made by the end of thirty days from the date of entry of judgment on the appeal—

(A) such person shall be prohibited automatically from trading on all contract markets; and

(B) if such person is registered with the Commission, such registration shall be suspended automatically.


If the person against whom the money penalty is assessed fails to pay such penalty after the lapse of the period allowed for appeal or after the affirmance of such penalty, the Commission may refer the matter to the Attorney General who shall recover such penalty by action in the appropriate United States district court.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6(e), formerly §6(d), as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §212(a)(3), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1403; renumbered §6(e) and amended Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §209(a)(1), (5), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3606.)

References in Text

Section 9 of this title, referred to in text, was in the original “subsection (c)” meaning section 6(c) of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out below.

Codification

Section is comprised of subsec. (e) of section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922. Subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 6 are classified to section 8 of this title. Subsec. (c) of section 6 is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. Subsecs. (d) and (f) of section 6 are classified to sections 13b and 9b of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “In determining the amount of the money penalty assessed under section 9 of this title, the Commission shall consider, in the case of a person whose primary business involves the use of the commodity futures market—the appropriateness of such penalty to the size of the business of the person charged, the extent of such person's ability to continue in business, and the gravity of the violation; and in the case of a person whose primary business does not involve the use of the commodity futures market—the appropriateness of such penalty to the net worth of the person charged, and the gravity of the violation. If the offending person upon whom such penalty is imposed, after the lapse of the period allowed for appeal or after the affirmance of such penalty, shall fail to pay such penalty the Commission shall refer the matter to the Attorney General who shall recover such penalty by action in the appropriate United States district court.”

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

§9b. Rules prohibiting deceptive and other abusive telemarketing acts or practices

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), not later than six months after the effective date of rules promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission under section 6102(a) of title 15, the Commission shall promulgate, or require each registered futures association to promulgate, rules substantially similar to such rules to prohibit deceptive and other abusive telemarketing acts or practices by any person registered or exempt from registration under this chapter in connection with such person's business as a futures commission merchant, introducing broker, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, leverage transaction merchant, floor broker, or floor trader, or a person associated with any such person.

(2) The Commission is not required to promulgate rules under paragraph (1) if it determines that—

(A) rules adopted by the Commission under this chapter provide protection from deceptive and abusive telemarketing by persons described under paragraph (1) substantially similar to that provided by rules promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission under section 6102(a) of title 15; or

(B) such a rule promulgated by the Commission is not necessary or appropriate in the public interest, or for the protection of customers in the futures and options markets, or would be inconsistent with the maintenance of fair and orderly markets.


If the Commission determines that an exception described in subparagraph (A) or (B) applies, the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register its determination with the reasons for it.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6(f), as added Pub. L. 103–297, §3(e)(2), Aug. 16, 1994, 108 Stat. 1547.)

Codification

Section is comprised of subsec. (f) of section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922. Subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 6 are classified to section 8 of this title. Subsec. (c) of section 6 is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. Subsecs. (d) and (e) of section 6 are classified to sections 13b and 9a of this title, respectively.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 15 section 6102.

§10. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §39, 62 Stat. 992, eff. Sept. 1, 1948

Section, acts Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6(b), 42 Stat. 1001; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §8(k), 49 Stat. 1499, related to review by Supreme Court on certiorari. See section 1254 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§10a. Cooperative associations and corporations, exclusion from board of trade; rules of board inapplicable to payment of compensation by association

(a) No board of trade which has been designated as a “contract market” shall exclude from membership in, and all privileges on, such board of trade, any association or corporation engaged in cash commodity business having adequate financial responsibility which is organized under the cooperative laws of any State, or which has been recognized as a cooperative association of producers by the United States Government or by any agency thereof, if such association or corporation complies and agrees to comply with such terms and conditions as are or may be imposed lawfully upon other members of such board, and as are or may be imposed lawfully upon a cooperative association of producers engaged in cash commodity business, unless such board of trade is authorized by the commission to exclude such association or corporation from membership and privileges after hearing held upon at least three days’ notice subsequent to the filing of complaint by the board of trade: Provided, however, That if any such association or corporation shall fail to meet its obligations with any established clearing house or clearing agency of any contract market, such association or corporation shall be ipso facto debarred from further trading on such contract market, except such trading as may be necessary to close open trades and to discharge existing contracts in accordance with the rules of such contract market applicable in such cases. Such commission may prescribe that such association or corporation shall have and retain membership and privileges, with or without imposing conditions, or it may permit such board of trade immediately to bar such association or corporation from membership and privileges. Any order of said commission entered hereunder shall be reviewable by the court of appeals for the circuit in which such association or corporation, or such board of trade, has its principal place of business, on written petition either of such association or corporation, or of such board of trade, under the procedure provided in section 8(b) of this title, but such order shall not be stayed by the court pending review.

(b) No rule of any board of trade designated as a contract market shall forbid or be construed to forbid the payment of compensation on a commodity-unit basis, or otherwise, by any federated cooperative association to its regional member-associations for services rendered or to be rendered in connection with any organization work, educational activity, or procurement of patronage, provided no part of any such compensation is returned to patrons (whether members or nonmembers) of such cooperative association, or of its regional or local member-associations, otherwise than as a dividend on capital stock or as a patronage dividend out of the net earnings or surplus of such federated cooperative association.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6a, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §9, 49 Stat. 1499; amended June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §209(b)(4), title IV, §402(8), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3607, 3625.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 redesignated subsecs. (1) and (2) as (a) and (b), respectively, and in subsec. (a) substituted reference to section 8(b) of this title for reference to section 8 of this title.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted “court of appeals” for “circuit court of appeals” wherever appearing.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

§11. Vacation on request of designation as “contract market”; redesignation

Any board of trade that has been designated a contract market in the manner provided in this chapter may have such designation vacated and set aside by giving notice in writing to the Commission requesting that its designation as a contract market be vacated, which notice shall be served at least ninety days prior to the date named therein as the date when the vacation of designation shall take effect. Upon receipt of such notice the Commission shall forthwith order the vacation of the designation of such board of trade as a contract market, effective upon the day named in the notice, and shall forthwith send a copy of the notice and its order to all other contract markets. From and after the date upon which the vacation became effective the said board of trade can thereafter be designated again a contract market by making application to the Commission in the manner in this chapter provided for an original application.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §7, 42 Stat. 1002; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (e), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392.)

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” and “its order” for “his order”.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

§12. Public disclosure

(a) Investigations respecting operations of boards of trade and others subject to this chapter; publication of results; restrictions; information received from foreign futures authorities; undercover operations

(1) For the efficient execution of the provisions of this chapter, and in order to provide information for the use of Congress, the Commission may make such investigations as it deems necessary to ascertain the facts regarding the operations of boards of trade and other persons subject to the provisions of this chapter. The Commission may publish from time to time the results of any such investigation and such general statistical information gathered therefrom as it deems of interest to the public: Provided, That except as otherwise specifically authorized in this chapter, the Commission may not publish data and information that would separately disclose the business transactions or market positions of any person and trade secrets or names of customers: Provided further, That the Commission may withhold from public disclosure any data or information concerning or obtained in connection with any pending investigation of any person. The Commission shall not be compelled to disclose any information or data obtained from a foreign futures authority if—

(A) the foreign futures authority has in good faith determined and represented to the Commission that disclosure of such information or data by that foreign futures authority would violate the laws applicable to that foreign futures authority; and

(B) the Commission obtains such information pursuant to—

(i) such procedure as the Commission may authorize for use in connection with the administration or enforcement of this chapter; or

(ii) a memorandum of understanding with that foreign futures authority;


except that nothing in this subsection shall prevent the Commission from disclosing publicly any information or data obtained by the Commission from a foreign futures authority when such disclosure is made in connection with a congressional proceeding, an administrative or judicial proceeding commenced by the United States or the Commission, in any receivership proceeding commenced involving a receiver appointed in a judicial proceeding by the United States or the Commission, or in any proceeding under title 11 in which the Commission has intervened or in which the Commission has the right to appear and be heard. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the Commission to withhold information or data from Congress. For purposes of section 552 of title 5, this subsection shall be considered a statute described in subsection (b)(3)(B) of section 552.

(2) In conducting investigations authorized under this subsection or any other provision of this chapter, the Commission shall continue, as the Commission determines necessary, to request the assistance of and cooperate with the appropriate Federal agencies in the conduct of such investigations, including undercover operations by such agencies. The Commission and the Department of Justice shall assess the effectiveness of such undercover operations and, within two years of October 28, 1992, shall recommend to Congress any additional undercover or other authority for the Commission that the Commission or the Department of Justice believes to be necessary.

(b) Business matters; congressional, administrative, judicial, and bankruptcy proceedings

The Commission may disclose publicly any data or information that would separately disclose the market positions, business transactions, trade secrets, or names of customers of any person when such disclosure is made in connection with a congressional proceeding, in an administrative or judicial proceeding brought under this chapter, in any receivership proceeding involving a receiver appointed in a judicial proceeding brought under this chapter, or in any bankruptcy proceeding in which the Commission has intervened or in which the Commission has the right to appear and be heard under title 11. This subsection shall not apply to the disclosure of data or information obtained by the Commission from a foreign futures authority.

(c) Reports respecting conduct of boards of trade or transactions of violators; contents

The Commission may make or issue such reports as it deems necessary, or such opinions or orders as may be required under other provisions of law, relative to the conduct of any board of trade or to the transactions of any person found guilty of violating the provisions of this chapter or the rules, regulations, or orders of the Commission thereunder in proceedings brought under sections 8, 9 and 15 of this title. In any such report or opinion, the Commission may set forth the facts as to any actual transaction or any information referred to in subsection (b) of this section, if such facts or information have previously been disclosed publicly in connection with a congressional proceeding, or in an administrative or judicial proceeding brought under this chapter.

(d) Investigations respecting marketing conditions of commodities and commodity products and byproducts; reports

The Commission, upon its own initiative or in cooperation with existing governmental agencies, shall investigate the marketing conditions of commodities and commodity products and byproducts, including supply and demand for these commodities, cost to the consumer, and handling and transportation charges. It shall also compile and furnish to producers, consumers, and distributors, by means of regular or special reports, or by such other methods as it deems most effective, information respecting the commodity markets, together with information on supply, demand, prices, and other conditions in this and other countries that affect the markets.

(e) Names and addresses of traders of boards of trade previously disclosed; disclosure to Congress and agencies or departments of States or foreign governments or foreign futures authority

The Commission may disclose and make public, where such information has previously been disclosed publicly in accordance with the provisions of this section, the names and addresses of all traders on the boards of trade on the commodity markets with respect to whom the Commission has information, and any other information in the possession of the Commission relating to the amount of commodities purchased or sold by each such trader. Upon the request of any committee of either House of Congress, acting within the scope of its jurisdiction, the Commission shall furnish to such committee the names and addresses of all traders on such boards of trade with respect to whom the Commission has information, and any other information in the possession of the Commission relating to the amount of any commodity purchased or sold by each such trader. Upon the request of any department or agency of the Government of the United States, acting within the scope of its jurisdiction, the Commission may furnish to such department or agency any information in the possession of the Commission obtained in connection with the administration of this chapter. However, any information furnished under this subsection to any Federal department or agency shall not be disclosed by such department or agency except in any action or proceeding under the laws of the United States to which it, the Commission, or the United States is a party. Upon the request of any department or agency of any State or any political subdivision thereof, acting within the scope of its jurisdiction, any foreign futures authority, or any department or agency of any foreign government or any political subdivision thereof, acting within the scope of its jurisdiction, the Commission may furnish to such foreign futures authority, department or agency any information in the possession of the Commission obtained in connection with the administration of this chapter. Any information furnished to any department or agency of any State or political subdivision thereof shall not be disclosed by such department or agency except in connection with an adjudicatory action or proceeding brought under this chapter or the laws of such State or political subdivision to which such State or political subdivision or any department or agency thereof is a party. The Commission shall not furnish any information to a foreign futures authority or to a department or agency of a foreign government or political subdivision thereof unless the Commission is satisfied that the information will not be disclosed by such foreign futures authority, department or agency except in connection with an adjudicatory action or proceeding brought under the laws of such foreign government or political subdivision to which such foreign government or political subdivision or any department or agency thereof, or foreign futures authority.1 is a party.

(f) Compliance with subpoena after notice to informant; congressional subpoenas and requests for information excepted

The Commission shall disclose information in its possession pursuant to a subpoena or summons only if—

(1) a copy of the subpoena or summons has been mailed to the last known home or business address of the person who submitted the information that is the subject of the subpoena or summons, if the address is known to the Commission, or, if such mailing would be unduly burdensome, the Commission provides other appropriate notice of the subpoena or summons to such person, and

(2) at least fourteen days have expired from the date of such mailing of the subpoena or summons, or such other notice.


This subsection shall not apply to congressional subpoenas or congressional requests for information.

(g) Requests for information by State agencies or subdivisions; volunteering of information by Commission

The Commission shall provide any registration information maintained by the Commission on any registrant upon reasonable request made by any department or agency of any State or any political subdivision thereof. Whenever the Commission determines that such information may be appropriate for use by any department or agency of a State or political subdivision thereof, the Commission shall provide such information without request.

(h) Annual report to Congress

The Commission shall submit to Congress a written report within one hundred and twenty days after the end of each fiscal year detailing the operations of the Commission during such fiscal year. The Commission shall include in such report such information, data, and legislative recommendations as it deems advisable with respect to the administration of this chapter and its powers and functions under this chapter.

(i) Review and audits by Comptroller General

The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct reviews and audits of the Commission and make reports thereon. For the purpose of conducting such reviews and audits, the Comptroller General shall be furnished such information regarding the powers, duties, organizations, transactions, operations, and activities of the Commission as the Comptroller General may require and the Comptroller General and the duly authorized representatives of the Comptroller General shall, for the purpose of securing such information, have access to and the right to examine any books, documents, papers, or records of the Commission, except that in reports the Comptroller General shall not include data and information that would separately disclose the business transactions of any person and trade secrets or names of customers, although such data shall be provided upon request by any committee of either House of Congress acting within the scope of its jurisdiction.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §8, 42 Stat. 1003; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §2, 49 Stat. 1491; Pub. L. 90–258, §19(a), Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (e), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 95–405, §16, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 873; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §222, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2309; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §205, title III, §§304, 305, title IV, §402(7), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3600, 3623, 3624.)

References in Text

Sections 8, 9, and 15 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), were in the original “section 6 of this Act” meaning section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 8, 9, 9a, 13b, and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 8 of this title.

Codification

Section is comprised of first par. of section 8 of act Sept. 21, 1922. Second, third, and fourth pars. of section 8 are classified to sections 12–1, 12–2, and 12–3 of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §§205, 304(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted provisions at end relating to disclosure of information received from foreign futures authorities, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §304(2), inserted at end “This subsection shall not apply to the disclosure of data or information obtained by the Commission from a foreign futures authority.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–546, §305, inserted references to foreign futures authority in fifth and last sentences.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(7), substituted “subpoena” for “subpena” wherever appearing and “subpoenas” for “subpenas” in last sentence.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–444, §222(1), inserted proviso authorizing Commission to withhold from public disclosure any data or information concerning or obtained in connection with any pending investigation of any person.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–444, §222(2), inserted references to receivership proceedings involving a receiver appointed in a judicial proceeding brought under this chapter and to bankruptcy proceedings in which the Commission has intervened or in which Commission has right to appear and be heard under title 11.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–444, §222(3), struck out “of the Executive Branch” after “Upon the request of any department or agency” and inserted “Upon the request of any department or agency of any State or any political subdivision thereof, acting within the scope of its jurisdiction, or any department or agency of any foreign government or any political subdivision thereof, acting within the scope of its jurisdiction, the Commission may furnish to such department or agency any information in the possession of the Commission obtained in connection with the administration of this chapter. Any information furnished to any department or agency of any State or political subdivision thereof shall not be disclosed by such department or agency except in connection with an adjudicatory action or proceeding brought under this chapter or the laws of such State or political subdivision to which such State or political subdivision or any department or agency thereof is a party. The Commission shall not furnish any information to a department or agency of a foreign government or political subdivision thereof unless the Commission is satisfied that the information will not be disclosed by such department or agency except in connection with an adjudicatory action or proceeding brought under the laws of such foreign government or political subdivision to which such foreign government or political subdivision or any department or agency thereof is a party.”

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 97–444, §222(5), added subsecs. (f) and (g). Former subsecs. (f) and (g) were redesignated (h) and (i), respectively.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 97–444, §222(4), redesignated former subsecs. (f) and (g) as (h) and (i), respectively.

1978—Pub. L. 95–405 consolidated under this section provisions formerly contained in this section and sections 12–1, 12–2, and 12–3 of this title, generally revised provisions thus consolidated to clarify and expand disclosure to public of traders and their positions on boards of trade, and divided provisions thus consolidated and revised into subsecs. (a) to (g).

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”, “it” for “he”, “its” for “his”, and “It” for “He”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–258 authorized investigations to ascertain facts regarding operations of other persons subject to any provisions of this chapter.

1936—Act June 15, 1936, substituted “commodity” for “grain” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Publication of harmful acts notwithstanding the provisions of this section, see section 12a of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6f, 12a, 20 of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

§§12–1 to 12–3. Omitted

Codification

Sections 12–1 to 12–3 comprised the second, third, and fourth pars., respectively, of section 8 of the Commodity Exchange Act, Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §8, 42 Stat. 1003. Such section 8 was amended generally by Pub. L. 95–405, §16, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 873, and is classified in its entirety to section 12 of this title.

Section 12–1, as added Dec. 19, 1947, ch. 523, 61 Stat. 941; amended Feb. 19, 1968, Pub. L. 90–258, §19(b), 82 Stat. 32; Oct. 23, 1974, Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (e), (f), 88 Stat. 1392, related to disclosure of names of traders on commodity markets by Commission. See section 12(e) of this title.

Section 12–2, as added Oct. 23, 1974, Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §105, 88 Stat. 1392, required an annual report to Congress. See section 12(h) of this title.

Section 12–3, as added Oct. 23, 1974, Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §105, 88 Stat. 1392, related to reviews and audits by Comptroller General. See section 12(i) of this title.

§12a. Registration of commodity dealers and associated persons; regulation of contract markets

The Commission is authorized—

(1) to register futures commission merchants, associated persons of futures commission merchants, introducing brokers, associated persons of introducing brokers, commodity trading advisors, associated persons of commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators, associated persons of commodity pool operators, floor brokers, and floor traders upon application in accordance with rules and regulations and in the form and manner to be prescribed by the Commission, which may require the applicant, and such persons associated with the applicant as the Commission may specify, to be fingerprinted and to submit, or cause to be submitted, such fingerprints to the Attorney General for identification and appropriate processing, and in connection therewith to fix and establish from time to time reasonable fees and charges for registrations and renewals thereof: Provided, That notwithstanding any provision of this chapter, the Commission may grant a temporary license to any applicant for registration with the Commission pursuant to such rules, regulations, or orders as the Commission may adopt, except that the term of any such temporary license shall not exceed six months from the date of its issuance;

(2) upon notice, but without a hearing and pursuant to such rules, regulations, or orders as the Commission may adopt, to refuse to register, to register conditionally, or to suspend or place restrictions upon the registration of, any person and with such a hearing as may be appropriate to revoke the registration of any person—

(A) if a prior registration of such person in any capacity has been suspended (and the period of such suspension has not expired) or has been revoked;

(B) if registration of such person in any capacity has been refused under the provisions of paragraph (3) of this section within five years preceding the filing of the application for registration or at any time thereafter;

(C) if such person is permanently or temporarily enjoined by order, judgment, or decree of any court of competent jurisdiction (except that registration may not be revoked solely on the basis of such temporary order, judgment, or decree), including an order entered pursuant to an agreement of settlement to which the Commission or any Federal or State agency or other governmental body is a party, from (i) acting as a futures commission merchant, introducing broker, floor broker, floor trader, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, associated person of any registrant under this chapter, securities broker, securities dealer, municipal securities broker, municipal securities dealer, transfer agent, clearing agency, securities information processor, investment adviser, investment company, or affiliated person or employee of any of the foregoing or (ii) engaging in or continuing any activity where such activity involves embezzlement, theft, extortion, fraud, fraudulent conversion, misappropriation of funds, securities or property, forgery, counterfeiting, false pretenses, bribery, gambling, or any transaction in or advice concerning contracts of sale of a commodity for future delivery, concerning matters subject to Commission regulation under section 6c or 23 of this title, or concerning securities;

(D) if such person has been convicted within ten years preceding the filing of the application for registration or at any time thereafter of any felony that (i) involves any transactions or advice concerning any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery, or any activity subject to Commission regulation under section 6c or 23 of this title, or concerning a security, (ii) arises out of the conduct of the business of a futures commission merchant, introducing broker, floor broker, floor trader, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, associated person of any registrant under this chapter, securities broker, securities dealer, municipal securities broker, municipal securities dealer, transfer agent, clearing agency, securities information processor, investment adviser, investment company, or an affiliated person or employee of any of the foregoing, (iii) involves embezzlement, theft, extortion, fraud, fraudulent conversion, misappropriation of funds, securities or property, forgery, counterfeiting, false pretenses, bribery, or gambling, or (iv) involves the violation of section 152, 1001, 1341, 1342, 1343, 1503, 1623, 1961, 1962, 1963, or 2314, or chapter 25, 47, 95, or 96 of title 18, or section 7201 or 7206 of title 26;

(E) if such person, within ten years preceding the filing of the application or at any time thereafter, has been found in a proceeding brought by the Commission or any Federal or State agency or other governmental body, or by agreement of settlement to which the Commission or any Federal or State agency or other governmental body is a party, (i) to have violated any provision of this chapter, the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.], the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 [15 U.S.C. 79 et seq.], the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 [15 U.S.C. 77aaa et seq.], the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80b–1 et seq.], the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.], the Securities Investors 1 Protection Act of 1970 [15 U.S.C. 78aaa et seq.], the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, chapter 96 of title 18, or any similar statute of a State or foreign jurisdiction, or any rule, regulation, or order under any such statutes, or the rules of the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board where such violation involves embezzlement, theft, extortion, fraud, fraudulent conversion, misappropriation of funds, securities or property, forgery, counterfeiting, false pretenses, bribery, or gambling, or (ii) to have willfully aided, abetted, counseled, commanded, induced, or procured such violation by any other person;

(F) if such person is subject to an outstanding order of the Commission denying trading privileges on any contract market to such person, denying, suspending, or revoking such person's membership in any contract market or registered futures association, or barring or suspending such person from being associated with a registrant under this chapter or with a member of a contract market or with a member of a registered futures association;

(G) if, as to any of the matters set forth in this paragraph and paragraph (3), such person willfully made any materially false or misleading statement or omitted to state any material fact in such person's application or any update thereto; or

(H) if refusal, suspension, or revocation of the registration of any principal of such person would be warranted because of a statutory disqualification listed in this paragraph:


Provided, That such person may appeal from a decision to refuse registration, condition registration, suspend, revoke or to place restrictions upon registration made pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph in the manner provided in section 9 of this title; and

Provided, further, That for the purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of this section, “principal” shall mean, if the person is a partnership, any general partner or, if the person is a corporation, any officer, director, or beneficial owner of at least 10 per centum of the voting shares of the corporation, and any other person that the Commission by rule, regulation, or order determines has the power, directly or indirectly, through agreement or otherwise, to exercise a controlling influence over the activities of such person which are subject to regulation by the Commission;

(3) to refuse to register or to register conditionally any person, if it is found, after opportunity for hearing, that—

(A) such person has been found by the Commission or by any court of competent jurisdiction to have violated, or has consented to findings of a violation of, any provision of this chapter, or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder (other than a violation set forth in paragraph (2) of this section), or to have willfully aided, abetted, counseled, commanded, induced, or procured the violation by any other person of any such provision;

(B) such person has been found by any court of competent jurisdiction or by any Federal or State agency or other governmental body, or by agreement of settlement to which any Federal or State agency or other governmental body is a party, (i) to have violated any provision of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.], the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 [15 U.S.C. 79 et seq.], the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 [15 U.S.C. 77aaa et seq.], the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80b–1 et seq.], the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.], the Securities Investors 2 Protection Act of 1970 [15 U.S.C. 78aaa et seq.], the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, or any similar statute of a State or foreign jurisdiction, or any rule, regulation, or order under any such statutes, or the rules of the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board or (ii) to have willfully aided, abetted, counseled, commanded, induced, or procured such violation by any other person;

(C) such person failed reasonably to supervise another person, who is subject to such person's supervision, with a view to preventing violations of this chapter, or of any of the statutes set forth in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, or of any of the rules, regulations, or orders thereunder, and the person subject to supervision committed such a violation: Provided, That no person shall be deemed to have failed reasonably to supervise another person, within the meaning of this subparagraph if (i) there have been established procedures, and a system for applying such procedures, which would reasonably be expected to prevent and detect, insofar as practicable, any such violation by such other person and (ii) such person has reasonably discharged the duties and obligations incumbent upon that person, as supervisor, by reason of such procedures and system, without reasonable cause to believe that such procedures and system were not being complied with;

(D) such person pleaded guilty to or was convicted of a felony other than a felony of the type specified in paragraph (2)(D) of this section, or was convicted of a felony of the type specified in paragraph (2)(D) of this section more than ten years preceding the filing of the application;

(E) such person pleaded guilty to or was convicted of any misdemeanor which (i) involves any transaction or advice concerning any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery or any activity subject to Commission regulation under section 6c or 23 of this title or concerning a security, (ii) arises out of the conduct of the business of a futures commission merchant, introducing broker, floor broker, floor trader, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, associated person of any registrant under this chapter, securities broker, securities dealer, municipal securities broker, municipal securities dealer, transfer agent, clearing agency, securities information processor, investment adviser, investment company, or an affiliated person or employee of any of the foregoing, (iii) involves embezzlement, theft, extortion, fraud, fraudulent conversion, misappropriation of funds, securities or property, forgery, counterfeiting, false pretenses, bribery, or gambling, (iv) involves the violation of section 152, 1341, 1342, or 1343 or chapter 25, 47, 95, or 96 of title 18, or section 7203, 7204, 7205, or 7207 of title 26;

(F) such person was debarred by any agency of the United States from contracting with the United States;

(G) such person willfully made any materially false or misleading statement or willfully omitted to state any material fact in such person's application or any update thereto, in any report required to be filed with the Commission by this chapter or the regulations thereunder, in any proceeding before the Commission or in any registration disqualification proceeding;

(H) such person has pleaded nolo contendere to criminal charges of felonious conduct, or has been convicted in a State court, in a United States military court, or in a foreign court of conduct which would constitute a felony under Federal law if the offense had been committed under Federal jurisdiction;

(I) in the case of an applicant for registration in any capacity for which there are minimum financial requirements prescribed under this chapter or under the rules or regulations of the Commission, such person has not established that such person meets such minimum financial requirements;

(J) such person is subject to an outstanding order denying, suspending, or expelling such person from membership in a contract market, a registered futures association, any other self-regulatory organization, or any foreign regulatory body that the Commission recognizes as having a comparable regulatory program or barring or suspending such person from being associated with any member or members of such contract market, association, self-regulatory organization, or foreign regulatory body;

(K) such person has been found by any court of competent jurisdiction or by any Federal or State agency or other governmental body, or by agreement of settlement to which any Federal or State agency or other governmental body is a party, (i) to have violated any statute or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder which involves embezzlement, theft, extortion, fraud, fraudulent conversion, misappropriation of funds, securities or property, forgery, counterfeiting, false pretenses, bribery, or gambling or (ii) to have willfully aided, abetted, counseled, commanded, induced or procured such violation by any other person;

(L) such person has associated with such person any other person and knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, of facts regarding such other person that are set forth as statutory disqualifications in paragraph (2) of this section, unless such person has notified the Commission of such facts and the Commission has determined that such other person should be registered or temporarily licensed;

(M) there is other good cause; or

(N) any principal, as defined in paragraph (2) of this section, of such person has been or could be refused registration:


Provided, That pending final determination under this paragraph, registration shall not be granted: Provided further, That such person may appeal from a decision to refuse registration or to condition registration made pursuant to this paragraph in the manner provided in section 9 of this title;

(4) in accordance with the procedure provided for in section 9 of this title, to suspend, revoke, or place restrictions upon the registration of any person registered under this chapter if cause exists under paragraph (3) of this section which would warrant a refusal of registration of such person, and to suspend or revoke the registration of any futures commission merchant or introducing broker who shall knowingly accept any order for the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market from any person if such person has been denied trading privileges on any contract market by order of the Commission under section 9 of this title and the period of denial specified in such order shall not have expired: Provided, That such person may appeal from a decision to suspend, revoke, or place restrictions upon registration made pursuant to this paragraph in the manner provided in section 9 of this title;

(5) to make and promulgate such rules and regulations as, in the judgment of the Commission, are reasonably necessary to effectuate any of the provisions or to accomplish any of the purposes of this chapter;

(6) to communicate to the proper committee or officer of any contract market, registered futures association, or self-regulatory organization as defined in section 3(a)(26) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(26)], notwithstanding the provisions of section 12 of this title, the full facts concerning any transaction or market operation, including the names of parties thereto, which in the judgment of the Commission disrupts or tends to disrupt any market or is otherwise harmful or against the best interests of producers, consumers, or investors, or which is necessary or appropriate to effectuate the purposes of this chapter: Provided, That any information furnished by the Commission under this paragraph shall not be disclosed by such contract market, registered futures association, or self-regulatory organization except in any self-regulatory action or proceeding;

(7) to alter or supplement the rules of a contract market insofar as necessary or appropriate by rule or regulation or by order, if after making the appropriate request in writing to a contract market that such contract market effect on its own behalf specified changes in its rules and practices, and after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, the Commission determines that such contract market has not made the changes so required, and that such changes are necessary or appropriate for the protection of persons producing, handling, processing, or consuming any commodity traded for future delivery on such contract market, or the product or byproduct thereof, or for the protection of traders or to insure fair dealing in commodities traded for future delivery on such contract market. Such rules, regulations, or orders may specify changes with respect to such matters as—

(A) terms or conditions in contracts of sale to be executed on or subject to the rules of such contract market;

(B) the form or manner of execution of purchases and sales for future delivery;

(C) other trading requirements, excepting the setting of levels of margin;

(D) safeguards with respect to the financial responsibility of members;

(E) the manner, method, and place of soliciting business, including the content of such solicitations; and

(F) the form and manner of handling, recording, and accounting for customers’ orders, transactions, and accounts;


(8) to make and promulgate such rules and regulations with respect to those persons registered under this chapter, who are not members of a contract market, as in the judgment of the Commission are reasonably necessary to protect the public interest and promote just and equitable principles of trade, including but not limited to the manner, method, and place of soliciting business, including the content of such solicitation;

(9) to direct the contract market, whenever it has reason to believe that an emergency exists, to take such action as in the Commission's judgment is necessary to maintain or restore orderly trading in or liquidation of any futures contract, including, but not limited to, the setting of temporary emergency margin levels on any futures contract, and the fixing of limits that may apply to a market position acquired in good faith prior to the effective date of the Commission's action. The term “emergency” as used herein shall mean, in addition to threatened or actual market manipulations and corners, any act of the United States or a foreign government affecting a commodity or any other major market disturbance which prevents the market from accurately reflecting the forces of supply and demand for such commodity. Any action taken by the Commission under this paragraph shall be subject to review only in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which the party seeking review resides or has its principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Such review shall be based upon an examination of all the information before the Commission at the time the determination was made. The court reviewing the Commission's action shall not enter a stay or order of mandamus unless it has determined, after notice and hearing before a panel of the court, that the agency action complained of was arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law. Nothing herein shall be deemed to limit the meaning or interpretation given by a contract market to the terms “market emergency”, “emergency”, or equivalent language in its own bylaws, rules, regulations, or resolutions;

(10) to authorize any person to perform any portion of the registration functions under this chapter, in accordance with rules, notwithstanding any other provision of law, adopted by such person and submitted to the Commission for approval or, if applicable, for review pursuant to section 21(j) of this title, and subject to the provisions of this chapter applicable to registrations granted by the Commission; and

(11)(A) by written notice served on the person and pursuant to such rules, regulations, and orders as the Commission may adopt, to suspend or modify the registration of any person registered under this chapter who is charged (in any information, indictment, or complaint authorized by a United States attorney or an appropriate official of any State) with the commission of or participation in a crime involving a violation of this chapter, or a violation of any other provision of Federal or State law that would reflect on the honesty or the fitness of the person to act as a fiduciary (including an offense specified in subparagraph (D) or (E) of paragraph (2)) that is punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year, if the Commission determines that continued registration of the person may pose a threat to the public interest or may threaten to impair public confidence in any market regulated by the Commission.

(B) Prior to the suspension or modification of the registration of a person under this paragraph, the person shall be afforded an opportunity for a hearing at which the Commission shall have the burden of showing that the continued registration of the person does, or is likely to, pose a threat to the public interest or threaten to impair public confidence in any market regulated by the Commission.

(C) Any notice of suspension or modification issued under this paragraph shall remain in effect until such information, indictment, or complaint is disposed of or until terminated by the Commission.

(D) On disposition of such information, indictment, or complaint, the Commission may issue and serve on such person an order pursuant to paragraph (2) or (4) to suspend, restrict, or revoke the registration of such person.

(E) A finding of not guilty or other disposition of the charge shall not preclude the Commission from thereafter instituting any other proceedings under this chapter.

(F) A person aggrieved by an order issued under this paragraph may obtain review of such order in the same manner and on the same terms and conditions as are provided in section 8(b) of this title.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §8a, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §10, 49 Stat. 1500; amended Aug. 5, 1955, ch. 574, 69 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 90–258, §§20–23, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 32, 33; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), title II, §§204(c), 205(c), 213–215, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392, 1397, 1400, 1404; Pub. L. 95–405, §17, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 874; Pub. L. 97–444, title I, §104, title II, §§223–225, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2297, 2310–2315; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§207(b)(3), (4), 208, 209(b)(6), 227, title IV, §402(10), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3604, 3607, 3618, 3625.)

References in Text

Section 9 of this title, referred to in pars. (2) to (4), was in the original “section 6(c) of this Act” meaning section 6(c) of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 8 of this title.

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in pars. (2)(E) and (3)(B), is title I of act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, 48 Stat. 74, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of chapter 2A of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of Title 15 and Tables.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in pars. (2)(E) and (3)(B), is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of Title 15 and Tables.

The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, referred to in pars. (2)(E) and (3)(B), is title I of act Aug. 26, 1935, ch. 687, 49 Stat. 838, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 2C (§79 et seq.) of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 79 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Trust Indenture Act of 1939, referred to in pars. (2)(E) and (3)(B), is title III of act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1149, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§77aaa et seq.) of chapter 2A of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77aaa of Title 15 and Tables.

The Investment Advisers Act of 1940, referred to in pars. (2)(E) and (3)(B), is title II of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§80b–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80b–20 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in pars. (2)(E) and (3)(B), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, referred to in pars. (2)(E) and (3)(B), is Pub. L. 91–598, Dec. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1636, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 2B–1 (§78aaa et seq.) of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78aaa of Title 15 and Tables.

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, referred to in pars. (2)(E) and (3)(B), is title I of Pub. L. 95–213, Dec. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 1494, as amended, which enacted sections 78dd–1 and 78dd–2 of Title 15, and amended sections 78m and 78ff of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 78a of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

1992—Par. (1). Pub. L. 102–546, §207(b)(3), substituted “floor brokers, and floor traders” for “and floor brokers”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(6)(A), made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title in concluding provisions to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act.

Par. (2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 102–546, §207(b)(4), inserted “floor trader,” after “floor broker,”.

Par. (2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(a), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “engaging in or continuing any activity involving any transaction in or advice concerning contracts of sale of a commodity for future delivery, concerning matters subject to Commission regulation under section 6c or 23 of this title, or concerning securities”.

Par. (2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 102–546, §207(b)(4), inserted “floor trader,” after “floor broker,”.

Par. (2)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(b), inserted references to sections 1001, 1503, 1623, 1961 to 1963, and 2314 of title 18 and sections 7201 and 7206 of title 26.

Par. (2)(E). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(c), substituted “in a proceeding brought” for “by any court of competent jurisdiction,” and in cl. (i) inserted reference to chapter 96 of title 18.

Par. (2)(G). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(d), substituted “this paragraph and paragraph (3)” for “subparagraphs (A) through (F) of this paragraph”, “materially false” for “material false”, and “application or any update thereto” for “application”.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(6)(B), made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title in concluding provisions to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act.

Par. (3)(D). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(e), inserted “pleaded guilty to or” after “person”, substituted “section,” for “section within ten years preceding the filing of the application or at any time thereafter,” and “felony of the type specified in paragraph (2)(D) of this section more” for “felony, including a felony of the type specified in paragraph (2)(D) of this section, more”.

Par. (3)(E). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(f)(1), (2), inserted “pleaded guilty to or” after “person” and struck out “within ten years preceding the filing of the application for registration or at any time thereafter” before “of any misdemeanor”.

Par. (3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 102–546, §207(b)(4), inserted “floor trader,” after “floor broker,”.

Par. (3)(E)(iv). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(f)(3), inserted reference to sections 7203 to 7205 and 7207 of title 26.

Par. (3)(G). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(g)(5), which directed the insertion of “or in any registration disqualification proceeding” after “Commission”, was executed by making the insertion after “Commission” the second time it appeared to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 102–546, §208(g)(1)–(4), substituted “materially false” for “material false”, “application or any update thereto,” for “application,” and struck out “or” after “thereunder,”.

Par. (3)(H). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(h), inserted “, in a United States military court,” after “State court”.

Par. (3)(J). Pub. L. 102–546, §208(i), struck out “or” before “any other self-regulatory”, inserted “or any foreign regulatory body that the Commission recognizes as having a comparable regulatory program”, and substituted “association, self-regulatory organization, or foreign regulatory body” for “association, or self-regulatory organization”.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(6)(C), made technical amendment to references to section 9 of this title in concluding provisions to reflect change in references to corresponding section of original act.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(10)(A), struck out “and” at end.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(10)(B), substituted “matters as—” for “matters as:” in introductory provisions.

Par. (11). Pub. L. 102–546, §227, added par. (11).

1983—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–444, §223, substituted authorization for registration of “associated persons of futures commission merchants” for “and persons associated therewith as described in section 6k of this title”; authorized registration of introducing brokers, associated persons of introducing brokers, associated persons of commodity trading advisors and associated persons of commodity pool operators, substituted “such persons” for “any persons” before “associated with the applicant”, and authorized establishment of registration and renewal fees and charges and granting of temporary licenses for terms not exceeding six months from date of issuance.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–444, §224(1), added par. (2) and struck out prior par. (2) which authorized Commission “to refuse to register any person—

“(A) if the prior registration of such person has been suspended (and the period of such suspension shall not have expired) or has been revoked;

“(B) if it is found, after opportunity for hearing, that the applicant is unfit to engage in the business for which the application for registration is made, (i) because such applicant, or, if the applicant is a partnership, any general partner, or, if the applicant is a corporation, any officer or holder of more than 10 per centum of the stock, at any time engaged in any practice of the character prohibited by this chapter or was convicted of a felony in any State or Federal court, or was debarred by any agency of the United States from contracting with the United States, or the applicant willfully made any material false or misleading statement in his application or willfully omitted to state any material fact in connection with the application, or (ii) for other good cause shown; or

“(C) in the case of an applicant for registration as futures commission merchant, if it is found after opportunity for hearing that the applicant has not established that he meets the minimum financial requirements under section 6f of this title: Provided, That pending final determination under subparagraph (B) or (C), registration shall not be granted: And provided further, That the applicant may appeal from the refusal of registration under subparagraph (B) or (C) in the manner provided in section 9 of this title; and”.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 97–444, §224(3), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Par. (4). Pub. L. 97–444, §224(2), (4), struck out par. (4) provision for establishment of registration and renewal fees and charges, covered in par. (1), redesignated par. (3) as (4), and in redesignated par. (4), authorized placing of restrictions on registrations, suspension or revocation of registration of an introducing broker and appeals from registration decisions made pursuant to this paragraph as provided in section 9 of this title, and substituted “if cause exists under paragraph (3) of this section” for “if cause exists under paragraph (2)(B) or (C) of this section”.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 97–444, §104, authorized communication of full facts respecting transactions or market operations to registered futures associations and self-regulatory organizations, included concern for investors, provided for communications when necessary or appropriate to effectuate purposes of this chapter, and prohibited disclosure of furnished information except in self-regulatory actions or proceedings.

Pars. (6) to (8). Pub. L. 97–444, §224(5), struck out “and” at end of pars. (6), (7), and (8).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 97–444, §225, authorized Commission to direct the contract market to take certain action, including, but not limited to, setting of temporary emergency margin levels on any futures contract, and fixing of limits that may apply to a market position acquired in good faith prior to the effective date of Commission's action and inserted provisions respecting judicial review.

Par. (10). Pub. L. 97–444, §224(6), added par. (10).

1978—Par. (1). Pub. L. 95–405, §17(1), inserted “, which may require the applicant, and any persons associated with the applicant as the Commission may specify, to be fingerprinted and to submit, or cause to be submitted, such fingerprints to the Attorney General for identification and appropriate processing” after “by the Commission”.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 95–405, §17(2), struck out “and to publish” after “any contract market”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” in provisions preceding par. (1).

Par. (1). Pub. L. 93–463, §§103(a), 204(c), 205(c), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”, inserted “and persons associated therewith as described in section 6k of this title,” after “futures commission merchants”, and inserted “commodity trading advisors, commodity pool operators” before “and floor brokers”.

Pars. (3), (5), (6). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 93–463, §213, amended par. (7) generally, substituting provisions covering the altering or supplementing of the rules of a contract market for provisions covering the disapproval of bylaws, rules, regulations, and resolutions made, issued, or proposed by a contract market.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 93–463, §214, added par. (8).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 93–463, §215, added par. (9).

1968—Par. (2). Pub. L. 90–258, §20, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “if the prior registration of such person” for “if such person has violated any of the provisions of this chapter or any of the rules or regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Agriculture hereunder for which the registration of such person” and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 90–258, §21, authorized Secretary of Agriculture, in accordance with procedure provided for in section 9 of this title, to suspend or revoke the registration of any person registered under this chapter if cause exists under par. (2)(B) or (C) of this section which would warrant a refusal of registration of such person.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 90–258, §22, struck out authorization for establishment of fees for copies of registration certificates.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 90–258, §23, added par. (7).

1955—Par. (4). Act Aug. 5, 1955, authorized Secretary to fix and establish reasonable fees for registrations and renewals, and struck out provisions which set the fee for each registration and renewal at not more than $10.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 207(b)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 102–546 effective 180 days after Oct. 28, 1992, with Commodity Futures Trading Commission to issue any regulations necessary to implement such amendment no later than 180 days after Oct. 28, 1992, see section 207(c) of Pub. L. 102–546, set out as a note under section 6e of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 2a, 4a, 6f, 6k, 7a, 21 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “Investor”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “Investor”.

§12b. Trading ban violations; prohibition

It shall be unlawful for any person, against whom there is outstanding any order of the Commission prohibiting him from trading on or subject to the rules of any contract market, to make or cause to be made in contravention of such order, any contract for future delivery of any commodity, on or subject to the rules of any contract market.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §8b, as added Pub. L. 90–258, §24, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 33; amended Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392.)

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463 see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

§12c. Disciplinary actions

(a) Action taken; written notice of reasons for action

(1) Any exchange or the Commission if the exchange fails to act, may suspend, expel, or otherwise discipline any person who is a member of that exchange, or deny any person access to the exchange. Any such action shall be taken solely in accordance with the rules of that exchange.

(2) Any suspension, expulsion, disciplinary, or access denial procedure established by an exchange rule shall provide for written notice to the Commission and to the person who is suspended, expelled, or disciplined, or denied access, within thirty days, which includes the reasons for the exchange action in the form and manner the Commission prescribes. An exchange shall make public its findings and the reasons for the exchange action in any such proceeding, including the action taken or the penalty imposed, but shall not disclose the evidence therefor, except to the person who is suspended, expelled, or disciplined, or denied access, and to the Commission.

(b) Review by Commission

The Commission may, in its discretion and in accordance with such standards and procedures as it deems appropriate, review any decision by an exchange whereby a person is suspended, expelled, otherwise disciplined, or denied access to the exchange. In addition, the Commission may, in its discretion and upon application of any person who is adversely affected by any other exchange action, review such action.

(c) Affirmance, modification, set aside, or remand of action

The Commission may affirm, modify, set aside, or remand any exchange decision it reviews pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, after a determination on the record whether the action of the exchange was in accordance with the policies of this chapter. Subject to judicial review, any order of the Commission entered pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall govern the exchange in its further treatment of the matter.

(d) Stay of action

The Commission, in its discretion, may order a stay of any action taken pursuant to subsection (a) of this section pending review thereof.

(e) Major disciplinary rule violations

(1) The Commission shall issue regulations requiring each contract market to establish and make available to the public a schedule of major violations of any rule within the disciplinary jurisdiction of such contract market.

(2) The regulations issued by the Commission pursuant to this subsection shall prohibit, for a period of time to be determined by the Commission, any individual who is found to have committed any major violation from service on the governing board of any contract market or registered futures association, or on any disciplinary committee thereof.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §8c, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §216, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1405; amended Pub. L. 95–405, §18, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 874; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §206(a)(2), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3602.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 redesignated pars. (1) to (4) as subsecs. (a) to (d), respectively, in subsec. (a) redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, in subsec. (c) substituted references to subsection (b) for references to paragraph (2), in subsec. (d) substituted reference to subsection (a) for reference to paragraph (1), and added subsec. (e).

1978—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 95–405 substituted “An exchange shall make public its findings and the reasons for the exchange action in any such proceeding, including the action taken or the penalty imposed, but shall not disclose the evidence therefor, except to the person who is suspended, expelled, or disciplined or denied access, and to the Commission” for “Otherwise the notice and reasons shall be kept confidential”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

§12d. Commission action for noncompliance with export sales reporting requirements

The Commission may, in accordance with the procedures provided for in this chapter, refuse to register, register conditionally, or suspend, place restrictions upon, or revoke the registration of, any person, and may bar for any period as it deems appropriate any person from using or participating in any manner in any market regulated by the Commission, if such person is subject to a final decision or order of any court of competent jurisdiction or agency of the United States finding such person to have knowingly violated any provision of the export sales reporting requirements of section 612c–3 1 of this title, or of any regulation issued thereunder.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §8d, as added Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §226, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2316.)

References in Text

Section 612c–3 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1578, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3702.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as an Effective Date of 1983 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12e. Commission oversight; deficiency orders

(a) Assessments

At least once every two years, to the extent practicable, the Commission shall assess whether the trade monitoring system of each contract market satisfies section 7a(b) of this title.

(b) Deficiency orders

(1) Causes

The Commission may issue a proposed deficiency order in accordance with paragraph (2), or take such other administrative or enforcement action as the Commission determines is appropriate, if, based on its assessment or on other information, the Commission at any time has reason to believe that a contract market's trade monitoring system implemented pursuant to section 7a(b) of this title does not satisfy one or more of the requirements of such section.

(2) Contents

A proposed deficiency order issued under this subsection shall specify—

(A) the deficiencies the Commission has reason to believe exist in the trade monitoring system of the contract market and a statement of reasons supporting the Commission's belief that those deficiencies exist;

(B) the corrective action that the Commission believes that the contract market must take and an acceptable timetable for such corrective action; and

(C) a date, not less than twenty days from the date of issuance of the proposed deficiency order, when such deficiency order will become final, subject to subsection (d) 1 of this section.

(3) Remedies

On becoming final, the Commission deficiency order may—

(A) require the contract market to—

(i) institute appropriate improvements in its trade monitoring system necessary to correct the deficiencies noted therein;

(ii) satisfy stated objective performance criteria to correct such deficiencies;

(iii) upgrade or reconfigure existing systems for collecting or processing relevant data on trading and trader or broker activity, including, where appropriate, the commitment of additional resources; or


(B) revoke any exemption of the contract market from the regulations prohibiting the privilege of dual trading under section 6j(a) of this title, if the deficiency noted in such deficiency order relates to—

(i) the audit trail system the contract market is required to maintain under paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of section 7a(b) of this title; or

(ii) the prevention, detection, or disciplining of violations attributable to such trading at such contract market, subject to the standards, exceptions, and duration provisions of section 6j(a) of this title; or


(C) take any combination of the actions described in subparagraphs (A) and (B).

(4) Removal

If the Commission finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record prior to such deficiency order becoming final, that a named officer, director, committee member, or employee of such contract market has willfully—

(A) violated this chapter, the rules or regulations of the Commission thereunder, or the rules of such contract market;

(B) abused the authority of such person; or

(C) without reasonable justification or excuse, failed to enforce compliance with any provision of the rules of such contract market by any member or person associated with a member thereof,


the Commission may issue a deficiency order under this section to remove such officer, director, committee member, or employee.

(5) Designation as contract market

Notwithstanding section 8 of this title, during the period that a proposed or final deficiency order under this section is in effect, the Commission may refrain from approving any application for designation as a contract market made by the board of trade whose contract market is the subject of such deficiency order.

(6) Delegation

The Commission shall not delegate the authority to issue deficiency orders under this subsection.

(c) Rescission, modification, or delay of deficiency orders

Before any proposed deficiency order issued by the Commission under subsection (b) of this section may become final, the Commission shall—

(1) provide the affected contract market with an opportunity for a hearing through submission of written data, views, or arguments and, under terms set by the Commission at the request of the contract market, through an oral presentation of views and comments to the Commission, in order to petition the Commission to rescind, modify, or delay such deficiency order; and

(2) rule on such petition, not less than twenty days before the deficiency order takes effect, making findings, as appropriate, as to whether—

(A) the deficiencies cited by the Commission have been corrected or are being corrected under an expeditious timetable acceptable to the Commission;

(B) the trade monitoring system of the contract market is deficient as noted in the deficiency order; or

(C) the timetable for corrective action by the contract market in the proposed deficiency order, and the particular corrective action proposed, is appropriate in light of the deficiencies noted and the purposes of this chapter.

(d) Penalties

Violation of a final deficiency order issued under subsection (c) of this section shall be considered a violation of an order of the Commission for purposes of—

(1) establishing liability and assessing penalties against a contract market or any director, officer, agent, or employee thereof under section 13a or 13a–1 of this title; or

(2) initiating proceedings under section 7b or 8(a) of this title.

(e) Judicial review

(1) Persons

Any person, other than a contract market, aggrieved by a deficiency order issued under subsection (b)(4) of this section, may obtain review of such deficiency order when issued by the Commission under the terms and conditions in section 8(b) of this title.

(2) Contract markets

Any contract market that has petitioned the Commission to rescind, modify, or delay any proposed deficiency order issued under subsection (b) of this section may obtain judicial review of any final such deficiency order only in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which the party seeking review resides or has its principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, under the standards applicable to rulemaking proceedings under section 553 of title 5.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §8e, as added Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §202(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3598.)

References in Text

Section 8 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), was in the original “section 6” meaning section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 8, 9, 9a, 13b, and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 8 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 6j of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be subsection “(c)”.

§13. Violations generally; punishment; costs of prosecution

(a) Felonies generally

It shall be a felony punishable by a fine of not more than $1,000,000 (or $500,000 in the case of a person who is an individual) or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, together with the costs of prosecution, for:

(1) Any person registered or required to be registered under this chapter, or any employee or agent thereof, to embezzle, steal, purloin, or with criminal intent convert to such person's use or to the use of another, any money, securities, or property having a value in excess of $100, which was received by such person or any employee or agent thereof to margin, guarantee, or secure the trades or contracts of any customer or accruing to such customer as a result of such trades or contracts or which otherwise was received from any customer, client, or pool participant in connection with the business of such person. The word “value” as used in this paragraph means face, par, or market value, or cost price, either wholesale or retail, whichever is greater.

(2) Any person to manipulate or attempt to manipulate the price of any commodity in interstate commerce, or for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract market, or to corner or attempt to corner any such commodity or knowingly to deliver or cause to be delivered for transmission through the mails or interstate commerce by telegraph, telephone, wireless, or other means of communication false or misleading or knowingly inaccurate reports concerning crop or market information or conditions that affect or tend to affect the price of any commodity in interstate commerce, or knowingly to violate the provisions of section 6, section 6b, subsections (a) through (e) of subsection 1 6c, section 6h, section 6o(1), or section 23 of this title.

(3) Any person knowingly to make, or cause to be made, any statement in any application, report, or document required to be filed under this chapter or any rule or regulation thereunder or any undertaking contained in a registration statement required under this chapter, or by any contract market or registered futures association in connection with an application for membership or participation therein or to become associated with a member thereof, which statement was false or misleading with respect to any material fact, or knowingly to omit any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(4) Any person willfully to falsify, conceal, or cover up by any trick, scheme, or artifice a material fact, make any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements or representations, or make or use any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or entry to a contract market, board of trade, or futures association designated or registered under this chapter acting in furtherance of its official duties under this chapter.

(5) Any person willfully to violate any other provision of this chapter, or any rule or regulation thereunder, the violation of which is made unlawful or the observance of which is required under the terms of this chapter, but no person shall be subject to imprisonment under this paragraph for the violation of any rule or regulation if such person proves that he had no knowledge of such rule or regulation.

(b) Suspension of convicted felons

Any person convicted of a felony under this section shall be suspended from registration under this chapter and shall be denied registration or reregistration for five years or such longer period as the Commission may determine, and barred from using, or participating in any manner in, any market regulated by the Commission for five years or such longer period as the Commission shall determine, on such terms and conditions as the Commission may prescribe, unless the Commission determines that the imposition of such suspension, denial of registration or reregistration, or market bar is not required to protect the public interest. The Commission may upon petition later review such disqualification and market bar and for good cause shown reduce the period thereof.

(c) Transactions by Commissioners and Commission employees prohibited

It shall be a felony punishable by a fine of not more than $500,000 or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, together with the costs of prosecution, for any Commissioner of the Commission or any employee or agent thereof, to participate, directly or indirectly, in any transaction in commodity futures or any transaction of the character of or which is commonly known to the trade as an “option”, “privilege”, “indemnity”, “bid”, “offer”, “put”, “call”, “advance guaranty”, or “decline guaranty”, or any transaction for the delivery of any commodity under a standardized contract commonly known to the trade as a margin account, margin contract, leverage account, or leverage contract, or under any contract, account, arrangement, scheme, or device that the Commission determines serves the same function or functions as such a standardized contract, or is marketed or managed in substantially the same manner as such a standardized contract, or for any such person to participate, directly or indirectly, in any investment transaction in an actual commodity if nonpublic information is used in the investment transaction, if the investment transaction is prohibited by rule or regulation of the Commission, or if the investment transaction is effected by means of any instrument regulated by the Commission. The foregoing prohibitions shall not apply to any transaction or class of transactions that the Commission, by rule or regulation, has determined would not be contrary to the public interest or otherwise inconsistent with the purposes of this subsection.

(d) Use of information by Commissioners and Commission employees prohibited

It shall be a felony punishable by a fine of not more than $500,000 or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, together with the costs of prosecution—(1) for any Commissioner of the Commission or any employee or agent thereof who, by virtue of his employment or position, acquires information which may affect or tend to affect the price of any commodity futures or commodity and which information has not been made public to impart such information with intent to assist another person, directly or indirectly, to participate in any transaction in commodity futures, any transaction in an actual commodity, or in any transaction of the character of or which is commonly known to the trade as an “option”, “privilege”, “indemnity”, “bid”, “offer”, “put”, “call”, “advance guaranty”, or “decline guaranty”, or in any transaction for the delivery of any commodity under a standardized contract commonly known to the trade as a margin account, margin contract, leverage account, or leverage contract, or under any contract, account, arrangement, scheme, or device that the Commission determines serves the same function or functions as such a standardized contract, or is marketed or managed in substantially the same manner as such a standardized contract; and (2) for any person to acquire such information from any Commissioner of the Commission or any employee or agent thereof and to use such information in any transaction in commodity futures, any transaction in an actual commodity, or in any transaction of the character of or which is commonly known to the trade as an “option”, “privilege”, “indemnity”, “bid”, “offer”, “put”, “call”, “advance guaranty”, or “decline guaranty”, or in any transaction for the delivery of any commodity under a standardized contract commonly known to the trade as a margin account, margin contract, leverage account, or leverage contract, or under any contract, account, arrangement, scheme, or device that the Commission determines serves the same function or functions as such a standardized contract, or is marketed or managed in substantially the same manner as such a standardized contract.

(e) Redesignated (d)

(f) Insider trading prohibited

It shall be a felony for any person—

(1) who is an employee, member of the governing board, or member of any committee of a board of trade, contract market, or registered futures association, in violation of a regulation issued by the Commission, willfully and knowingly to trade for such person's own account, or for or on behalf of any other account, in contracts for future delivery or options thereon on the basis of, or willfully and knowingly to disclose for any purpose inconsistent with the performance of such person's official duties as an employee or member, any material nonpublic information obtained through special access related to the performance of such duties.2

(2) willfully and knowingly to trade for such person's own account, or for or on behalf of any other account, in contracts for future delivery or options thereon on the basis of any material nonpublic information that such person knows was obtained in violation of paragraph (1) from an employee, member of the governing board, or member of any committee of a board of trade, contract market, or registered futures association.


Such felony shall be punishable by a fine of not more than $500,000, plus the amount of any profits realized from such trading or disclosure made in violation of this subsection, or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, together with the costs of prosecution.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §9, 42 Stat. 1003; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §§2, 11, 49 Stat. 1491, 1501; Pub. L. 90–258, §25, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 33; Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §212(d), title IV, §§401, 409, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1404, 1412, 1414; Pub. L. 95–405, §19, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 875; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §227, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2316; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §§105, 110(3), (4), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3558, 3561; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§212(a), 214(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3608, 3610.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §212(a)(1)(A), (C), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which related to penalty for embezzlement and larcenous actions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §212(a)(1)(A), (C), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which related to penalty for price manipulation, cornering, and fraudulent information.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–546, §212(a)(1)(A), (B), (2), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c), substituted “$500,000” for “$100,000”, and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to penalty for misdemeanors.

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 102–546, §§212(a)(1)(B), (3), 214(a), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d), substituted “$500,000” for “$100,000”, and added subsec. (f).

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–641, §110(3), substituted “6k,” for “6k.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–641, §110(4), substituted “advance guaranty” for “advance guarantee”.

Pub. L. 99–641, §105, inserted “if nonpublic information is used in the investment transaction, if the investment transaction is prohibited by rule or regulation of the Commission, or if the investment transaction is effected by means of any instrument regulated by the Commission” after “actual commodity”, and substituted provisions which related to foregoing prohibitions not being applicable to transactions determined by Commission not contrary to public interest or inconsistent with this subsection for provisions which read as follows: “Such prohibition against any investment transaction in an actual commodity shall not apply to (1) a transaction in which such person buys an agricultural commodity or livestock for use in such person's own farming or ranching operations or sells an agricultural commodity which such person has produced in connection with such person's own farming or ranching operations nor to any transaction in which such person sells livestock owned by such person for at least three months, (2) a transaction entered into by the trustee of a trust established by such person over which such person exercises no control if such transaction is entered into solely to hedge against adverse price changes in connection with such farming or ranching operations or is a transaction for the lease of oil or gas or other mineral rights or interests owned by such person, or (3) a transaction in which such person buys or sells, directly or indirectly (except by means of an instrument regulated by the Commission), a United States Government security, a certificate of deposit, or a similar financial instrument if no nonpublic information is used by such person in such transaction. With respect to such excepted transactions, the Commission shall require any Commissioner of the Commission or any employee or agent thereof who participates in any such transaction to notify the Commission thereof in accordance with such regulations as the Commission shall prescribe and the Commission shall make such information available to the public.”

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–444, §227(1), expanded applicability to any person registered or required to be registered under this chapter and inserted provision suspending persons convicted under this subsec. from registration and denying reregistration for five years or longer as determined by the Commission, unless such suspension or denial is not required to protect the public interest.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–444, §227(2), inserted “A person convicted of a felony under this subsection shall be suspended from any registration under this chapter, denied registration or reregistration for five years or such longer period as the Commission shall determine, and barred from using or participating in any manner in any market regulated by the Commission for five years or such longer period as the Commission shall determine on such terms and conditions as the Commission may prescribe, unless the Commission determines that the imposition of such suspension, denial of registration or reregistration, or market bar is not required to protect the public interest. The Commission may upon petition later review such disqualification and market bar and for good cause shown reduce the period thereof.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–444, §227(3), inserted “A person convicted under this subsection of knowingly violating the provisions of section 6a of this title shall be suspended from any registration under this chapter, denied registration or reregistration for a period of two years or such longer period as the Commission shall determine, and barred from using or participating in any manner in any market regulated by the Commission for two years or such longer period as the Commission shall determine on such terms and conditions as the Commission may prescribe, unless the Commission determines that the imposition of such suspension, denial of registration or reregistration, or market bar is not required to protect the public interest. The Commission may upon petition later review such disqualification and market bar and for good cause shown reduce the period thereof.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–444, §227(4), in amending subsec. (d) generally, added to range of felonious conduct, participation in any transaction for the delivery of any commodity under a standardized contract commonly known to the trade as a margin account, margin contract, leverage account, or leverage contract, or under any contract, account, arrangement, scheme, or device that the Commission determines serves the same function or functions as such a standardized contract, or is marketed or managed in substantially the same manner as such a standardized contract, and added to nonapplicability of prohibition against any investment transaction in an actual commodity, a transaction entered into by the trustee of a trust established by such person over which such person exercises no control if such transaction is entered into solely to hedge against adverse price changes in connection with such farming or ranching operations or is a transaction for the lease of oil or gas or other mineral rights or interests owned by such person, or a transaction in which such person buys or sells, directly or indirectly (except by means of an instrument regulated by the Commission), a United States Government security, a certificate of deposit, or a similar financial instrument if no nonpublic information is used by such person in such transaction.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–444, §227(5), inserted after words “ ‘decline guaranty’ ” each place they appear the following: “, or in any transaction for the delivery of any commodity under a standardized contract commonly known to the trade as a margin account, margin contract, leverage account, or leverage contract, or under any contract, account, arrangement, scheme, or device that the Commission determines serves the same function or functions as such a standardized contract, or is marketed or managed in substantially the same manner as such a standardized contract”.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–405, §19(1), substituted “$500,000” for “$100,000” and inserted provision relating to a fine of not more than $100,000 plus costs of prosecution for a violation by a person who is an individual.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–405, §19(2), substituted “$500,000” for “$100,000” and inserted provisions making felonies the violation of sections 6, 6b, 6c(b) to (e), 6h, 6o(1) and 23 of this title, knowingly making any false or misleading statement of material fact, or omitting such fact in any application or report, and setting the fine for such felonies at not more than $100,000 for a person who is an individual.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–405, §19(3), inserted references to subsecs. (d) and (e) of this section and substituted “sections 6a, 6c(a), 6d, 6e, 6i, 6k, 6m, 6o(2), or 12b of this title” for “sections 6 to 6e, 6h, 6i, 6k, 6m, 6o or 12b of this title”.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 95–405, §19(4), (5), substituted “$100,000” for “$10,000”.

1974—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 93–463, §212(d)(1), (2), substituted “$100,000” for “$10,000”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–463, §§212(d)(3), 409, substituted “$100,000” for “$10,000” and inserted reference to sections 6k, 6m, and 6o of this title.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 93–463, §401, added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–258 added subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–258 incorporated existing offenses in provisions designated as subsec. (b), changed classification thereof from misdemeanors to felonies, and increased term of imprisonment from not more than one year to not more than five years.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–258 incorporated existing offenses in provisions designated as subsec. (c), and included penalty for violation of section 12b of this title.

1936—Act June 15, 1936, amended section generally and provided that price manipulations of commodities in interstate commerce was a violation.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of that act, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Regulations

Section 214(b) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “The Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall issue regulations to implement the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] not later than three hundred and sixty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992].”

Penalties Study and Guidelines

Section 225 of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that:

“(a) Study.—The Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall study the penalties the Commission imposes against persons found to have violated the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.) and the penalties imposed by contract markets and registered futures associations against persons found to have violated their respective rules established under such Act.

“(b) Report.—Not later than two years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], the Commission shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that describes the results of the study conducted under subsection (a). The report shall—

“(1) include an analysis of whether systematic differences exist among penalties imposed by various contract markets and registered futures associations for similar offenses, and, if so, the causes of such differences;

“(2) propose industry-wide guidelines or rules to make penalty levels among contract markets and registered futures associations consistent, including, if appropriate, minimum penalties or penalty ranges for various offenses; and

“(3) propose guidelines or rules to make Commission penalty levels consistent, including, if appropriate, minimum penalties or penalty ranges for various offenses.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6a, 13b of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

2 So in original. The period probably should be “; or”.

§13–1. Violations, prohibition against dealings in onion futures; punishment

(a) No contract for the sale of onions for future delivery shall be made on or subject to the rules of any board of trade in the United States. The terms used in this section shall have the same meaning as when used in this chapter.

(b) Any person who shall violate the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof be fined not more than $5,000.

(Pub. L. 85–839, §1, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1013.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Commodity Exchange Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section 2 of Pub. L. 85–839 provided that: “This Act [enacting this section] shall take effect thirty days after its enactment [Aug. 28, 1958].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1a of this title.

§13a. Nonenforcement of rules of government or other violations; cease and desist orders; fines and penalties; imprisonment; misdemeanor; separate offenses

If any contract market is not enforcing or has not enforced its rules of government made a condition of its designation as set forth in section 7 of this title, or if any contract market, or any director, officer, agent, or employee of any contract market otherwise is violating or has violated any of the provisions of this chapter or any of the rules, regulations, or orders of the Commission thereunder, the Commission may, upon notice and hearing on the record and subject to appeal as in other cases provided for in section 8(b) of this title, make and enter an order directing that such contract market, director, officer, agent, or employee shall cease and desist from such violation, and assess a civil penalty of not more than $500,000 for each such violation. If such contract market, director, officer, agent, or employee, after the entry of such a cease and desist order and the lapse of the period allowed for appeal of such order or after the affirmance of such order, shall fail or refuse to obey or comply with such order, such contract market, director, officer, agent, or employee shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500,000 or imprisoned for not less than six months nor more than one year, or both. Each day during which such failure or refusal to obey such cease and desist order continues shall be deemed a separate offense. If the offending contract market or other person upon whom such penalty is imposed, after the lapse of the period allowed for appeal or after the affirmance of such penalty, shall fail to pay such penalty, the Commission shall refer the matter to the Attorney General who shall recover such penalty by action in the appropriate United States district court. In determining the amount of the money penalty assessed under this section, the Commission shall consider the gravity of the offense, and in the case of a contract market shall further consider whether the amount of the penalty will materially impair the contract market's ability to carry on its operations and duties.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6b, as added June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §9, 49 Stat. 1500; amended Pub. L. 90–258, §18, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 31; Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §212(b), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1403; Pub. L. 95–405, §14, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 872; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§209(b)(5), 212(c), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3607, 3609.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 substituted “section 8(b) of this title” for “paragraph (a) of section 8 of this title”, substituted “$500,000” for “$100,000” in two places, and in last sentence struck out “the appropriateness of such penalty to the net worth of the offending person and” after “Commission shall consider”.

1978—Pub. L. 95–405 inserted “on the record” after “notice and hearing”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 inserted provision for assessment of a civil penalty of not more than $100,000 for each violation, substituted “not more than $100,000” for “not less than $500 nor more than $10,000” as permissible range of fines imposed, inserted provisions for enforcement of a penalty, and substituted “orders of the Commission” for “orders of the Secretary of Agriculture or the commission”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–258 amended section to clarify application only to boards of trade designated as contract markets, to include as grounds for cease and desist orders failure to enforce the market's rules of government made a condition of its designation and violation of rules or regulations of the commission or orders of the Secretary, and to authorize such orders in conjunction with a suspension or revocation of designation as a contract market rather than in lieu of suspension or revocation.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–258 effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6j, 12e of this title.

§13a–1. Enjoining or restraining violations

(a) Action to enjoin or restrain violations

Whenever it shall appear to the Commission that any contract market or other person has engaged, is engaging, or is about to engage in any act or practice constituting a violation of any provision of this chapter or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, or is restraining trading in any commodity for future delivery, the Commission may bring an action in the proper district court of the United States or the proper United States court of any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to enjoin such act or practice, or to enforce compliance with this chapter, or any rule, regulation or order thereunder, and said courts shall have jurisdiction to entertain such actions: Provided, That no restraining order (other than a restraining order which prohibits any person from destroying, altering or disposing of, or refusing to permit authorized representatives of the Commission to inspect, when and as requested, any books and records or other documents or which prohibits any person from withdrawing, transferring, removing, dissipating, or disposing of any funds, assets, or other property, and other than an order appointing a temporary receiver to administer such restraining order and to perform such other duties as the court may consider appropriate) or injunction for violation of the provisions of this chapter shall be issued ex parte by said court.

(b) Injunction or restraining order

Upon a proper showing a permanent or temporary injunction or restraining order shall be granted without bond.

(c) Writs or other orders

Upon application of the Commission, the district courts of the United States and the United States courts of any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States shall also have jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, or orders affording like relief, commanding any person to comply with the provisions of this chapter or any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission thereunder, including the requirement that such person take such action as is necessary to remove the danger of violation of this chapter or any such rule, regulation, or order: Provided, That no such writ of mandamus, or order affording like relief, shall be issued ex parte.

(d) Civil penalties

(1) In any action brought under this section, the Commission may seek and the court shall have jurisdiction to impose, on a proper showing, on any person found in the action to have committed any violation a civil penalty in the amount of not more than the higher of $100,000 or triple the monetary gain to the person for each violation.

(2) If a person on whom such a penalty is imposed fails to pay the penalty within the time prescribed in the court's order, the Commission may refer the matter to the Attorney General who shall recover the penalty by action in the appropriate United States district court.

(e) Venue and process

Any action under this section may be brought in the district wherein the defendant is found or is an inhabitant or transacts business or in the district where the act or practice occurred, is occurring, or is about to occur, and process in such cases may be served in any district in which the defendant is an inhabitant or wherever the defendant may be found.

(f) Action by Attorney General

In lieu of bringing actions itself pursuant to this section, the Commission may request the Attorney General to bring the action.

(g) Notice to Attorney General of action brought by Commission

Where the Commission elects to bring the action, it shall inform the Attorney General of such suit and advise him of subsequent developments.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6c, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §211, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1402; amended Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §220, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2308; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §104, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3557; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §221, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3614.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 designated first, second, and third sentences as subsecs. (a) to (c), respectively, added subsec. (d), and designated fourth, fifth, and sixth sentences as subsecs. (e) to (g), respectively.

1986—Pub. L. 99–641 inserted “, and other than an order appointing a temporary receiver to administer such restraining order and to perform such other duties as the court may consider appropriate”.

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 inserted “(other than a restraining order which prohibits any person from destroying, altering or disposing of, or refusing to permit authorized representatives of the Commission to inspect, when and as requested, any books and records or other documents or which prohibits any person from withdrawing, transferring, removing, dissipating, or disposing of any funds, assets, or other property)” after “Provided, That no restraining order”.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Injunctions, see rule 65, Title 28, Appendix, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Writ of mandamus abolished in United States district courts, but relief available by appropriate action or motion, see rule 81.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6j, 12e of this title.

§13a–2. Jurisdiction of States

(1) Whenever it shall appear to the attorney general of any State, the administrator of the securities laws of any State, or such other official as a State may designate, that the interests of the residents of that State have been, are being, or may be threatened or adversely affected because any person (other than a contract market, clearinghouse, floor broker, or floor trader) has engaged in, is engaging or is about to engage in, any act or practice constituting a violation of any provision of this chapter or any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission thereunder, the State may bring a suit in equity or an action at law on behalf of its residents to enjoin such act or practice, to enforce compliance with this chapter, or any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission thereunder, to obtain damages on behalf of their residents, or to obtain such further and other relief as the court may deem appropriate.

(2) The district courts of the United States, the United States courts of any territory, and the District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia, shall have jurisdiction of all suits in equity and actions at law brought under this section to enforce any liability or duty created by this chapter or any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission thereunder, or to obtain damages or other relief with respect thereto. Upon proper application, such courts shall also have jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, or orders affording like relief, commanding the defendant to comply with the provisions of this chapter or any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission thereunder, including the requirement that the defendant take such action as is necessary to remove the danger of violation of this chapter or of any such rule, regulation, or order. Upon a proper showing, a permanent or temporary injunction or restraining order shall be granted without bond.

(3) Immediately upon instituting any such suit or action, the State shall serve written notice thereof upon the Commission and provide the Commission with a copy of its complaint, and the Commission shall have the right to (A) intervene in the suit or action and, upon doing so, shall be heard on all matters arising therein, and (B) file petitions for appeal.

(4) Any suit or action brought under this section in a district court of the United States may be brought in the district wherein the defendant is found or is an inhabitant or transacts business or wherein the act or practice occurred, is occurring, or is about to occur, and process in such cases may be served in any district in which the defendant is an inhabitant or wherever the defendant may be found.

(5) For purposes of bringing any suit or action under this section, nothing in this chapter shall prevent the attorney general, the administrator of the State securities laws, or other duly authorized State officials from exercising the powers conferred on them by the laws of such State to conduct investigations or to administer oaths or affirmations or to compel the attendance of witnesses or the production of documentary and other evidence.

(6) For purposes of this section, “State” means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States.

(7) Nothing contained in this section shall prohibit an authorized State official from proceeding in State court on the basis of an alleged violation of any general civil or criminal antifraud statute of such State.

(8)(A) Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit an authorized State official from proceeding in a State court against any person registered under this chapter (other than a floor broker, floor trader, or registered futures association) for an alleged violation of any antifraud provision of this chapter or any antifraud rule, regulation, or order issued pursuant to the chapter.

(B) The State shall give the Commission prior written notice of its intent to proceed before instituting a proceeding in State court as described in this subsection and shall furnish the Commission with a copy of its complaint immediately upon instituting any such proceeding. The Commission shall have the right to (i) intervene in the proceeding and, upon doing so, shall be heard on all matters arising therein, and (ii) file a petition for appeal. The Commission or the defendant may remove such proceeding to the district court of the United States for the proper district by following the procedure for removal otherwise provided by law, except that the petition for removal shall be filed within sixty days after service of the summons and complaint upon the defendant. The Commission shall have the right to appear as amicus curiae in any such proceeding.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6d, as added Pub. L. 95–405, §15, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 872; amended Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §221, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2308; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §207(b)(1), (2), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3604.)

Amendments

1992—Pars. (1), (8)(A). Pub. L. 102–546 inserted reference to floor trader.

1983—Par. (8). Pub. L. 97–444 added par. (8).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–546 effective 180 days after Oct. 28, 1992, with Commodity Futures Trading Commission to issue any regulations necessary to implement such amendment no later than 180 days after Oct. 28, 1992, see section 207(c) of Pub. L. 102–546, set out as a note under section 6e of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Injunctions, see rule 65, Title 28, Appendix, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

One form of action, see rule 2.

Rules as governing the procedure in all suits of a civil nature whether cognizable as cases at common law or in equity, see rule 1.

Writ of mandamus abolished in United States district courts, but relief available by appropriate action or motion, see rule 81.

§13b. Manipulations or other violations; cease and desist orders against persons other than contract markets; punishment; misdemeanor or felony; separate offenses

If any person (other than a contract market) is manipulating or attempting to manipulate or has manipulated or attempted to manipulate the market price of any commodity, in interstate commerce, or for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any contract markets, or otherwise is violating or has violated any of the provisions of this chapter or of the rules, regulations, or orders of the Commission or the commission 1 thereunder, the Commission may, upon notice and hearing, and subject to appeal as in other cases provided for in section 9 of this title, make and enter an order directing that such person shall cease and desist therefrom and, if such person thereafter and after the lapse of the period allowed for appeal of such order or after the affirmance of such order, shall fail or refuse to obey or comply with such order, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than the higher of $100,000 or triple the monetary gain to such person, or imprisoned for not less than six months nor more than one year, or both, except that if such failure or refusal to obey or comply with such order involves any offense within paragraph (a) or (b) of section 13 of this title, such person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be subject to the penalties of said paragraph (a) or (b): Provided, That any such cease and desist order against any respondent in any case of manipulation of, or attempt to manipulate, the price of any commodity shall be issued only in conjunction with an order issued against such respondent under section 9 of this title. Each day during which such failure or refusal to obey or comply with such order continues shall be deemed a separate offense.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6(d), formerly §6(c), as added Pub. L. 90–258, §17, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 31; amended Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (b), title II, §212(c), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392, 1404; renumbered §6(d) and amended Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§209(a)(1), (4), 212(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3606, 3609.)

References in Text

Section 9 of this title, referred to in text, was in the original “subsection (c)” meaning subsec. (c) of section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out below.

Codification

Section is comprised of subsec. (d) of section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922. Subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 6 are classified to section 8 of this title. Subsec. (c) of section 6 is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. Subsecs. (e) and (f) of section 6 are classified to sections 9a and 9b of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 made technical amendment to references to section 9 of this title to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act and substituted “the higher of $100,000 or triple the monetary gain to such person” for “$100,000”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463, §§103(a), 212(c), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary” before “may” and substituted “not more than $100,000” for “not less than $500 nor more than $10,000”.

Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), provided for substitution of “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” except where such words would be stricken by section 103(b), which directed striking the words “the Secretary of Agriculture or” where they appeared in the phrase “the Secretary of Agriculture or the Commission”. Because the word “commission” was not capitalized in the text of this section, section 103(b) did not apply to this section and therefore section 103(a) was executed, resulting in the substitution of “the Commission or the commission” for “the Secretary of Agriculture or the commission”.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

1 So in original. The words “or the commission” probably should not appear.

§13c. Responsibility as principal; minor violations

(a) Any person who commits, or who willfully aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces, or procures the commission of, a violation of any of the provisions of this chapter, or any of the rules; regulations, or orders issued pursuant to this chapter, or who acts in combination or concert with any other person in any such violation, or who willfully causes an act to be done or omitted which if directly performed or omitted by him or another would be a violation of the provisions of this chapter or any of such rules, regulations, or orders may be held responsible for such violation as a principal.

(b) Any person who, directly or indirectly, controls any person who has violated any provision of this chapter or any of the rules, regulations, or orders issued pursuant to this chapter may be held liable for such violation in any action brought by the Commission to the same extent as such controlled person. In such action, the Commission has the burden of proving that the controlling person did not act in good faith or knowingly induced, directly or indirectly, the act or acts constituting the violation.

(c) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the Commission or the Commission 1 to report minor violations of this chapter for prosecution, whenever it appears that the public interest does not require such action.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §13, as added Pub. L. 90–258, §26, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 34; amended Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(a), (b), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §230, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2319; Pub. L. 102–546, title IV, §402(1)(D), (9)(C), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3624, 3625.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(9)(C), which directed that “the Secretary of Agriculture or” be struck out, could not be executed because of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a). See 1974 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 102–546, §402(1)(D), substituted “Commission” for “commission” before “to report”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–444, §230(1), struck out “in administrative proceedings under this chapter” after “may be held responsible”.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 97–444, §230(2), (3), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–463, §103(a), provided for substitution of “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture” except where such words would be stricken by section 103(b), which directed striking the words “the Secretary of Agriculture or” where they appeared in the phrase “the Secretary of Agriculture or the Commission”. Because the word “commission” was not capitalized in the text of this section, section 103(b) did not apply to this section and therefore section 103(a) was executed, resulting in the substitution of “the Commission or the commission” for “the Secretary of Agriculture or the commission”.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

1 So in original. The words “or the Commission” probably should not appear.

§14. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §110(5), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3561

Section, act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §11, 42 Stat. 1003, provided that violations of this chapter occurring before Nov. 1, 1922, should not be punishable.

§15. Enforcement powers of Commission

For the purpose of securing effective enforcement of the provisions of this chapter, for the purpose of any investigation or proceeding under this chapter, and for the purpose of any action taken under section 16(f) of this title, any member of the Commission or any Administrative Law Judge or other officer designated by the Commission (except as provided in the third sentence of this section) may administer oaths and affirmations, subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of any books, papers, correspondence, memoranda, or other records that the Commission deems relevant or material to the inquiry. The attendance of witnesses and the production of any such records may be required from any place in the United States, any State, or any foreign country or jurisdiction at any designated place of hearing. A subpoena issued under this section may be served upon any person who is not to be found within the territorial jurisdiction of any court of the United States in such manner as the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure prescribe for service of process in a foreign country, except that a subpoena to be served on a person who is not to be found within the territorial jurisdiction of any court of the United States may be issued only on the prior approval of the Commission. In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to, any person, the Commission may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction in which the investigation or proceeding is conducted, or where such person resides or transacts business, in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, correspondence, memoranda, and other records. Such court may issue an order requiring such person to appear before the Commission or member or Administrative Law Judge or other officer designated by the Commission, there to produce records, if so ordered, or to give testimony touching the matter under investigation or in question. Any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in the judicial district wherein such person is an inhabitant or transacts business or wherever such person may be found.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §6(c), formerly §6(b), 42 Stat. 1002; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §8(e)–(g), 49 Stat. 1499; June 16, 1955, ch. 151, 69 Stat. 160; Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §202, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 928; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §103(d), title IV, §408(b), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1392, 1414; Pub. L. 95–405, §13(3), Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 871; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §103, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3557; renumbered §6(c) and amended Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §209(a)(1), title III, §301, title IV, §402(7), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3606, 3622, 3624.)

References in Text

This section, referred to in text, means section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, 42 Stat. 1001. For classification of section 6 to the Code, see Codification note below.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in text, are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Codification

Section is comprised of part of subsec. (c) of section 6 of act Sept. 21, 1922. A further provision of subsec. (c) is contained in section 9 of this title. This subsec. (c) [former par. (a)] prior to its incorporation into the Code contained a provision as to finality of judgments and review by the Supreme Court and is covered by section 1254 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 6 are classified to section 8 of this title. Subsecs. (d), (e), and (f) of section 6 are classified to sections 13b, 9a, and 9b of this title, respectively.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 substituted “chapter,” for “chapter and” after “provisions of this”, “chapter, and for the purpose of any action taken under section 16(f) of this title, any” for “chapter, any”, and “subpoena” for “subpena” wherever appearing.

1986—Pub. L. 99–641 inserted “(except as provided in the third sentence of this section)”, substituted “, any State, or any foreign country or jurisdiction” for “or any State”, and inserted provisions which related to service of subpena upon person not found within territorial jurisdiction of United States.

1978—Pub. L. 95–405 substituted provisions giving Commission or any Administrative Law Judge or other officer designated by Commission independent authority to administer oaths and affirmations, to subpena witnesses, and related actions for the purpose of conducting investigations and proceedings with regard to this chapter for provisions basing authority of Commission or any Administrative Law Judge with regard to investigations and proceedings under this chapter on the Interstate Commerce Act and inserted provisions authorizing Commission to invoke the aid of the courts in requiring attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books and other records.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 struck out “the Secretary of Agriculture (or any person designated by him),” after “jurisdiction, and authority of” and substituted “Administrative Law Judge” for “referee”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–452 struck out references to sections 46–48 of title 49, and provisions relating to the immunity of witnesses.

1955—Act June 16, 1955, extended subpoena power to investigations.

1936—Act June 15, 1936, §8(e), (f), substituted “sections 12 and 46–48 of title 49” for “section 12 of title 49”.

Act June 15, 1936, §8(g), substituted “and” for “or” after “commission”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment of Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–452 effective on sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, and not to affect any immunity to which any individual is entitled under this section by reason of any testimony given before sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, see section 260 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provision note under section 6001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 1936 Amendment

Amendment by act June 15, 1936, effective 90 days after June 15, 1936, see section 13 of that act, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Cross References

Immunity of witnesses, see section 6001 et seq. of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 12 of this title.

§15a. Repealed. Pub. L. 95–405, §24, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 877

Section, Pub. L. 93–463, title II, §217, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1405, related to leverage contracts for gold and silver. See section 23(b) of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

§15b. Cotton futures contracts

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the “United States Cotton Futures Act”.

(b) Repeal of tax on cotton futures

Subchapter D of chapter 39 of title 26 (relating to tax on cotton futures) is repealed.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Cotton futures contract

The term “cotton futures contract” means any contract of sale of cotton for future delivery made at, on, or in any exchange, board of trade, or similar institution or place of business which has been designated a “contract market” by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission pursuant to the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.] and the term “contract of sale” as so used shall be held to include sales, agreements of sale, and agreements to sell, except that any cotton futures contract that, by its terms, is settled in cash is excluded from the coverage of this paragraph and section.

(2) Future delivery

The term “future delivery” shall not include any cash sale of cotton for deferred shipment or delivery.

(3) Person

The term “person” includes an individual, trust, estate, partnership, association, company, or corporation.

(4) Secretary

The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States.

(5) Standards

The term “standards” means the official cotton standards of the United States established by the Secretary pursuant to the United States Cotton Standards Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 51 et seq.].

(d) Bona fide spot markets and commercial differences

(1) Definition

For purposes of this section, the only markets which shall be considered bona fide spot markets shall be those which the Secretary shall, from time to time, after investigation, determine and designate to be such, and of which he shall give public notice.

(2) Determination

In determining, pursuant to the provisions of this section, what markets are bona fide spot markets, the Secretary is directed to consider only markets in which spot cotton is sold in such volume and under such conditions as customarily to reflect accurately the value of middling cotton and the differences between the prices or values of middling cotton and of other grades of cotton for which standards shall have been established by the Secretary; except that if there are not sufficient places, in the markets of which are made bona fide sales of spot cotton of grades for which standards are established by the Secretary, to enable him to designate at least five spot markets in accordance with subsection (f)(3) of this section, he shall, from data as to spot sales collected by him, make rules and regulations for determining the actual commercial differences in the value of spot cotton of the grades established by him as reflected by bona fide sales of spot cotton, of the same or different grades, in the market selected and designated by him, from time to time, for that purpose, and in that event differences in value of cotton of various grades involved in contracts made pursuant to subsection (f)(1) and (2) of this section shall be determined in compliance with such rules and regulations. It shall be the duty of any person engaged in the business of dealing in cotton, when requested by the Secretary or any agent acting under his instructions, to answer correctly to the best of his knowledge, under oath or otherwise, all questions touching his knowledge of the number of bales, the classification, the price or bona fide price offered, and other terms of purchase or sale, of any cotton involved in any transaction participated in by him, or to produce all books, letters, papers, or documents in his possession or under his control relating to such matter.

(3) Withholding information

Any person engaged in the business of dealing in cotton who shall, within a reasonable time prescribed by the Secretary or any agent acting under his instructions, willfully fail or refuse to answer questions or to produce books, letters, papers, or documents, as required under paragraph (2) of this subsection, or who shall willfully give any answer that is false or misleading, shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $500.

(e) Form and validity of cotton futures contracts

Each cotton futures contract shall be a basis grade contract, or a tendered grade contract, or a specific grade contract as specified in subsections (f), (g), or (h) of this section and shall be in writing plainly stating, or evidenced by written memorandum showing, the terms of such contract, including the quantity of the cotton involved and the names and addresses of the seller and buyer in such contract, and shall be signed by the party to be charged, or by his agent in his behalf. No cotton futures contract which does not conform to such requirements shall be enforceable by, or on behalf of, any party to such contract or his privies.

(f) Basis grade contracts

(1) Conditions

Each basis grade cotton futures contract shall comply with each of the following conditions:

(A) Conformity with regulations

Conform to the regulations made pursuant to this section.

(B) Specification of grade, price, and dates of sale and settlement

Specify the basis grade for the cotton involved in the contract, which shall be one of the grades for which standards are established by the Secretary, except grades prohibited from being delivered on a contract made under this subsection by subparagraph (E), the price per pound at which the cotton of such basis grade is contracted to be bought or sold, the date when the purchase or sale was made, and the month or months in which the contract is to be fulfilled or settled; except that middling shall be deemed the basis grade incorporated into the contract if no other basis grade be specified either in the contract or in the memorandum evidencing the same.

(C) Provision for delivery of standard grades only

Provide that the cotton dealt with therein or delivered thereunder shall be of or within the grades for which standards are established by the Secretary except grades prohibited from being delivered on a contract made under this subsection by subparagraph (E) and no other grade or grades.

(D) Provision for settlement on basis of actual commercial differences

Provide that in case cotton of grade other than the basis grade be tendered or delivered in settlement of such contract, the differences above or below the contract price which the receiver shall pay for such grades other than the basis grade shall be the actual commercial differences, determined as here-inafter provided.

(E) Prohibition of delivery of inferior cotton

Provide that cotton that, because of the presence of extraneous matter of any character, or irregularities or defects, is reduced in value below that of low middling, or cotton that is below the grade of low middling, or, if tinged, cotton that is below the grade of strict middling, or, if yellow stained, cotton that is below the grade of good middling, the grades mentioned being of the official cotton standards of the United States, or cotton that is less than seven-eighths of an inch in length of staple, or cotton of perished staple, or of immature staple, or cotton that is “gin cut” or reginned, or cotton that is “repacked” or “false packed” or “mixed packed” or “water packed”, shall not be delivered on, under, or in settlement of such contract.

(F) Provisions for tender in full, notice of delivery date, and certificate of grade

Provide that all tenders of cotton under such contract shall be the full number of bales involved therein, except that such variations of the number of bales may be permitted as is necessary to bring the total weight of the cotton tendered within the provisions of the contract as to weight; that, on the fifth business day prior to delivery, the person making the tender shall give to the person receiving the same written notice of the date of delivery, and that, on or prior to the date so fixed for delivery, and in advance of final settlement of the contract, the person making the tender shall furnish to the person receiving the same a written notice or certificate stating the grade of each individual bale to be delivered and, by means of marks or numbers, identifying each bale with its grade.

(G) Provision for tender and settlement in accordance with Government classification

Provide that all tenders of cotton and settlements therefor under such contract shall be in accordance with the classification thereof made under the regulations of the Secretary by such officer or officers of the Government as shall be designated for the purpose, and the costs of such classification shall be fixed, assessed, collected, and paid as provided in such regulations and shall be credited to the account referred to in section 55 of this title. The Secretary may provide by regulation conditions under which cotton samples submitted or used in the performance of services authorized by this act shall become the property of the United States and may be sold and the proceeds credited to the foregoing account: Provided, That such cotton samples shall not be subject to the provisions of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 471 et seq.). The Secretary is authorized to prescribe regulations for carrying out the purposes of this subparagraph and the certificates of the officers of the Government as to the classification of any cotton for the purposes of this subparagraph shall be accepted in the courts of the United States in all suits between the parties to such contract, or their privies, as prima facie evidence of the true classification of the cotton involved.

(2) Incorporation of conditions in contracts

The provisions of paragraphs (1)(C), (D), (E), (F), and (G) shall be deemed fully incorporated into any such contract if there be written or printed thereon, or on the memorandums evidencing the same, at or prior to the time the same is signed, the phrase “Subject to United States Cotton Futures Act, subsection (f).”

(3) Delivery allowances

For the purpose of this subsection, the differences above or below the contract price which the receiver shall pay for cotton of grades above or below the basic 1 grade in the settlement of a contract of sale for the future delivery of cotton shall be determined by the actual commercial differences in value thereof upon the sixth business day prior to the day fixed, in accordance with paragraph (1)(F), for the delivery of cotton on the contract, established by the sale of spot cotton in the spot markets of not less than five places designated for the purpose from time to time by the Secretary, as such values were established by the sales of spot cotton, in such designated five or more markets. For purposes of this paragraph, such values in the such spot markets shall be based upon the standards for grades of cotton established by the Secretary. Whenever the value of one grade is to be determined from the sale or sales of spot cotton of another grade or grades, such value shall be fixed in accordance with rules and regulations which shall be prescribed for the purpose by the Secretary.

(g) Tendered grade contracts

(1) Conditions

Each tendered grade cotton future contract shall comply with each of the following conditions:

(A) Compliance with subsection (f)

Comply with all the terms and conditions of subsection (f) of this section not inconsistent with this subsection; and

(B) Provision for contingent specific performance

Provide that, in case cotton of grade or grades other than the basis grade specified in the contract shall be tendered in performance of the contract, the parties to such contract may agree, at the time of the tender, as to the price of the grade or grades so tendered, and that if they shall not then agree as to such price, then, and in that event, the buyer of said contract shall have the right to demand the specific fulfillment of such contract by the actual delivery of cotton of the basis grade named therein and at the price specified for such basis grade in said contract.

(2) Incorporation of conditions in contract

Contracts made in compliance with this subsection shall be known as “subsection (g) Contracts”. The provisions of this subsection shall be deemed fully incorporated into any such contract if there be written or printed thereon, or on the memorandum evidencing the same, at or prior to the time the same is signed, the phrase “Subject to United States Cotton Futures Act, subsection (g)”.

(3) Application of subsection

Nothing in this subsection shall be so construed as to authorize any contract in which, or in the settlement of or in respect to which, any device or arrangement whatever is resorted to, or any agreement is made, for the determination or adjustment of the price of the grade or grades tendered other than the basis grade specified in the contract by any “fixed difference” system, or by arbitration, or by any other method not provided for by this section.

(h) Specific grade contracts

(1) Conditions

Each specific grade cotton futures contract shall comply with each of the following conditions:

(A) Conformity with rules and regulations

Conform to the rules and regulations made pursuant to this section.

(B) Specification of grade, price, dates of sale and delivery

Specify the grade, type, sample, or description of the cotton involved in the contract, the price per pound at which such cotton is contracted to be bought or sold, the date of the purchase or sale, and the time when shipment or delivery of such cotton is to be made.

(C) Prohibition of delivery of other than specified grade

Provide that cotton of or within the grade or of the type, or according to the sample or description, specified in the contract shall be delivered thereunder, and that no cotton which does not conform to the type, sample, or description, or which is not of or within the grade specified in the contract shall be tendered or delivered thereunder.

(D) Provision for specific performance

Provide that the delivery of cotton under the contract shall not be effected by means of “setoff” or “ring” settlement, but only by the actual transfer of the specified cotton mentioned in the contract.

(2) Incorporation of conditions in contract

The provisions of paragraphs (1)(A), (C), and (D) shall be deemed fully incorporated into any such contract if there be written or printed thereon, or on the document or memorandum evidencing the same, at or prior to the time the same is entered into, the words “Subject to United States Cotton Futures Act, subsection (h)”.

(3) Application of subsection

This subsection shall not be construed to apply to any contract of sale made in compliance with subsection (f) or (g) of this section.

(i) Liability of principal for acts of agent

When construing and enforcing the provisions of this section, the act, omission, or failure of any official, agent, or other person acting for or employed by any association, partnership, or corporation within the scope of his employment or office shall, in every case, also be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such association, partnership, or corporation, as well as that of the person.

(j) Regulations

The Secretary is authorized to make such regulations with the force and effect of law as he determines may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section and the powers vested in him by this section.

(k) Violations

Any person who knowingly violates any regulation made in pursuance of this section, shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500, for each violation thereof, in the discretion of the court, and, in case of natural persons, may, in addition be punished by imprisonment for not less than 30 days nor more than 90 days, for each violation, in the discretion of the court except that this subsection shall not apply to violations subject to subsection (d)(3) of this section.

(l) Applicability to contracts prior to effective date

The provisions of this section shall not apply to any cotton futures contract entered into prior to the effective date of this section or to any act or failure to act by any person prior to such effective date and all such prior contracts, acts or failure to act shall continue to be governed by the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 2 as in effect prior to the enactment of this section. All designations of bona fide spot markets and all rules and regulations issued by the Secretary pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 2 which were in effect on the effective date of this section, shall remain fully effective as designations and regulations under this section until superseded, amended, or terminated by the Secretary.

(m) Authorization

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1952(a)–(m), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1841–1846; Pub. L. 97–35, title I, §156(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §123, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1844.)

References in Text

The Commodity Exchange Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, 42 Stat. 998, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 1 (§1 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1 of this title and Tables.

The United States Cotton Standards Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (c)(5), is act Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, 42 Stat. 1517, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 2 (§51 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 51 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (f)(1)(G), is act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, 63 Stat. 377, as amended. The provisions of that Act relating to management and disposal of government property are classified to chapter 10 (§471 et seq.) of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 471 of Title 40 and Tables.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1954, referred to in subsec. (l), was redesignated the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, and is classified to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Tax Reform Act of 1976, and not as part of the Commodity Exchange Act which comprises this chapter.

This section, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was in the original a reference to this “Act”, meaning the United States Cotton Futures Act, which comprises this section.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–237 inserted before period at end “, except that any cotton futures contract that, by its terms, is settled in cash is excluded from the coverage of this paragraph and section”.

1981—Subsec. (f)(1)(G). Pub. L. 97–35 inserted provisions relating to crediting to account referred to in section 55 of this title and provisions respecting cotton samples submitted or used becoming the property of the United States.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 156(e) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 61a of this title.

Effective Date

Section 1952(o) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The provisions of this section [enacting this section, amending section 6808 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and repealing sections 7233 and 7263, subchapter D of chapter 39, and subchapter E of chapter 76 of Title 26] shall take effect on the 90th day after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 55 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “basis”.

2 See References in Text note below.

§16. Commission operations

(a) Cooperation with other agencies

The Commission may cooperate with any Department or agency of the Government, any State, territory, district, or possession, or department, agency, or political subdivision thereof, any foreign futures authority, any department or agency of a foreign government or political subdivision thereof, or any person.

(b) Employment of investigators, experts, Administrative Law Judges, consultants, clerks, and other personnel; contracts

(1) The Commission shall have the authority to employ such investigators, special experts, Administrative Law Judges, clerks, and other employees as it may from time to time find necessary for the proper performance of its duties and as may be from time to time appropriated for by Congress.

(2) The Commission may employ experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, and compensate such persons at rates not in excess of the maximum daily rate prescribed for GS–18 under section 5332 of title 5.

(3) The Commission shall also have authority to make and enter into contracts with respect to all matters which in the judgment of the Commission are necessary and appropriate to effectuate the purposes and provisions of this chapter, including, but not limited to, the rental of necessary space at the seat of Government and elsewhere.

(4) The Commission may request (in accordance with the procedures set forth in subchapter II of chapter 31 of title 5) and the Office of Personnel Management shall authorize pursuant to the request, eight positions in the Senior Executive Service in addition to the number of such positions authorized for the Commission on October 28, 1992.

(c) Expenses

All of the expenses of the Commissioners, including all necessary expenses for transportation incurred by them while on official business of the Commission, shall be allowed and paid on the presentation of itemized vouchers therefor approved by the Commission.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this chapter for each of fiscal years 1995 through 2000.

(e) Relation to other laws, departments, or agencies

Nothing in this chapter shall supersede or preempt—

(1) criminal prosecution under any Federal criminal statute;

(2) the application of any Federal or State statute, including any rule or regulation thereunder, to any transaction in or involving any commodity, product, right, service, or interest (A) that is not conducted on or subject to the rules of a contract market, or, in the case of any State or local law that prohibits or regulates gaming or the operation of “bucket shops” (other than antifraud provisions of general applicability), that is not a transaction or class of transactions that has received or is covered by the terms of any exemption previously granted by the Commission under subsection (c) of section 6 of this title, or (B) (except as otherwise specified by the Commission by rule or regulation) that is not conducted on or subject to the rules of any board of trade, exchange, or market located outside the United States, its territories or possessions, or (C) that is not subject to regulation by the Commission under section 6c or 23 of this title; or

(3) the application of any Federal or State statute, including any rule or regulation thereunder, to any person required to be registered or designated under this chapter who shall fail or refuse to obtain such registration or designation.


The Commission may refer any transaction or matter subject to such other Federal or State statutes to any department or agency administering such statutes for such investigation, action, or proceedings as that department or agency shall deem appropriate.

(f) Investigative assistance to foreign futures authorities

(1) On request from a foreign futures authority, the Commission may, in its discretion, provide assistance in accordance with this section if the requesting authority states that the requesting authority is conducting an investigation which it deems necessary to determine whether any person has violated, is violating, or is about to violate any laws, rules or regulations relating to futures or options matters that the requesting authority administers or enforces. The Commission may conduct such investigation as the Commission deems necessary to collect information and evidence pertinent to the request for assistance. Such assistance may be provided without regard to whether the facts stated in the request would also constitute a violation of the laws of the United States.

(2) In deciding whether to provide assistance under this subsection, the Commission shall consider whether—

(A) the requesting authority has agreed to provide reciprocal assistance to the Commission in futures and options matters; and

(B) compliance with the request would prejudice the public interest of the United States.


(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Commission may accept payment and reimbursement, in cash or in kind, from a foreign futures authority, or made on behalf of such authority, for necessary expenses incurred by the Commission, its members, and employees in carrying out any investigation, or in providing any other assistance to a foreign futures authority, pursuant to this section. Any payment or reimbursement accepted shall be considered a reimbursement to the appropriated funds of the Commission.

(g) Computerized futures trading

Consistent with its responsibilities under section 22 of this title, the Commission is directed to facilitate the development and operation of computerized trading as an adjunct to the open outcry auction system. The Commission is further directed to cooperate with the Office of the United States Trade Representative, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of State in order to remove any trade barriers that may be imposed by a foreign nation on the international use of electronic trading systems.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §12, 42 Stat. 1003; Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §101(b), Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1391; Pub. L. 95–405, §20, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 875; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §§228, 229, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2318; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §106, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3558; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§216, 220(a), title III, §§302, 303, title IV, §401, title V, §502(c), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3611, 3614, 3622, 3624, 3631; Pub. L. 104–9, §2, Apr. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 154.)

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–9 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this chapter—

“(1) $53,000,000 for fiscal year 1993; and

“(2) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 1994.”

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §302, inserted “any foreign futures authority, any department or agency of a foreign government or political subdivision thereof,” after “thereof,”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–546, §216, designated first through third sentences as pars. (1) to (3), respectively, and added par. (4).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–546, §401, amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this chapter such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years during the period beginning October 1, 1986, and ending September 30, 1989.”

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–546, §502(c), inserted “or, in the case of any State or local law that prohibits or regulates gaming or the operation of ‘bucket shops’ (other than antifraud provisions of general applicability), that is not a transaction or class of transactions that has received or is covered by the terms of any exemption previously granted by the Commission under subsection (c) of section 6 of this title,” after “market,”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–546, §303, added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–546, §220(a), added subsec. (g).

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–641 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the provisions of this chapter such sums as may be required for each of the fiscal years during the period beginning October 1, 1982, and ending September 30, 1986.”

1983—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–444, §228, substituted appropriation authorization for fiscal years during period beginning Oct. 1, 1982, and ending Sept. 30, 1986, for prior authorization for fiscal years during period beginning Oct. 1, 1978, and ending Sept. 30, 1982.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–444, §229, added subsec. (e).

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–405 substituted “for each of the fiscal years during the period beginning October 1, 1978, and ending September 30, 1982” for “for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1977, and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1978”.

1974—Pub. L. 93–463 designated existing unlettered provisions as subsecs. (a) to (d), substituted “Commission” for “Secretary of Agriculture”, inserted provisions authorizing the expenditure of funds for expenses upon the presentation of itemized vouchers therefor approved by the Commission, substituted provisions authorizing appropriations specifically for fiscal years ending June 30, 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1978, for provisions making a general authorization of appropriations without a fiscal year limitation, and inserted authorization to enter into contracts and compensate experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5 at rates not in excess of the maximum daily rate prescribed for GS–18 under section 5332 of title 5.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 93–463, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 15 of this title.

§16a. Service fees and National Futures Association study

(a) Development and implementation of plan for user fees; report to and approval by Congressional committees

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission may develop and implement a plan to charge and collect reasonable fees to cover the estimated cost of regulating transactions under the jurisdiction of the Commission. However, prior to implementing such a plan, the Commission shall report its intention to do so to the House Committee on Agriculture and the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. The Commission shall include in its report the feasibility and desirability of collecting such fees. Any plan developed under this section shall not be implemented until approved by the House Committee on Agriculture and the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. Fees collected under any plan approved under this section shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

(b) National Futures Association regulatory experience; report; contents

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall submit to Congress a report containing the results of a study of the regulatory experience of the National Futures Association for the period beginning January 1, 1983 and ending September 30, 1985. The report shall be submitted not later than January 1, 1986. The report shall include (but not to be limited to) the following—

(1) the extent to which the National Futures Association has fully implemented the program provided in the rules approved by the Commission under section 17(p) and (q) of the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 21(p), (q)] and the effectiveness of the operation of such program;

(2) the actual and projected cost savings to the Federal Government, if any, resulting from operations of the National Futures Association;

(3) the actual and projected costs which the Commission and the public would have incurred if the Association had not undertaken self-regulatory responsibility for certain areas under the Commission's jurisdiction;

(4) problem areas, if any, encountered by the Association;

(5) the nature of the working relationship between the Association and the Commission;

(6) an assessment of the actual and projected efficiencies the Commission has achieved or expects to be achieved as a result of the continuing regulatory activities of the Association; and

(7) the immediate and projected capabilities of the Commission at the time of submission of the study to turn its attention to more immediate problems of regulation, as a result of the activities of the Association.

(c) Schedule of fees for services, activities and functions; notice and hearing; actual cost standard

Nothing in this section shall limit the authority of the Commission to promulgate, after notice and opportunity for hearing, a schedule of appropriate fees to be charged for services rendered and activities and functions performed by the Commission in conjunction with its administration and enforcement of the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.]: Provided, That the fees for any specified service or activity or function shall not exceed the actual cost thereof to the Commission.

(Pub. L. 95–405, §26, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 877; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §237, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2325.)

References in Text

The Commodity Exchange Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, 42 Stat. 998, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 1 (§1 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Futures Trading Act of 1978, and not as part of the Commodity Exchange Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–444 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Study of Assessments on Transactions

Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §218, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3612, provided that:

“(a) Study.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study to determine whether—

“(1) it is feasible to fund some or all of the enforcement and market surveillance activities of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, as required by the amendments to the Commodity Exchange Act made by the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992 [see Short Title of 1992 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title], through the imposition of an assessment on commodity futures and options transactions executed pursuant to the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.]; and

“(2) a program of assessment-based funding for some or all of such enforcement and market surveillance activities would better provide resources to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission to enable the Commission to—

“(A) protect the interests of market users (including hedgers and speculators), producers of commodities traded on the futures markets, and the general public; and

“(B) maintain and enhance the credibility of such futures and options markets.

“(b) Report.—Not later than one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report containing the Comptroller General's determinations pursuant to subsection (a), together with any appropriate recommendations for the implementation of such a program of assessment-based funding for some or all of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's enforcement and market surveillance activities.”

§17. Separability

If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the chapter and of the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §10, 42 Stat. 1003.)

§17a. Separability of 1936 amendment

If any provision of the act of June 15, 1936, ch. 545, 49 Stat. 1491, which amends this chapter, or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the provisions of the section of this chapter which is amended by such provision of said act shall apply to such person or circumstances. No proceeding shall be abated by reason of any amendment to this chapter made by said act but shall be disposed of pursuant to said act.

(June 15, 1936, ch. 545, §12, 49 Stat. 1501.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Commodity Exchange Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 13 of act June 15, 1936, set out as an Effective Date of 1936 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

§17b. Separability of 1968 amendment

If any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby, and the provisions of the section of this chapter which is amended by such provision of this Act shall apply to such person or circumstances. Pending proceedings shall not be abated by reason of any provision of this Act but shall be disposed of pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, in effect prior to the effective date of this Act.

(Pub. L. 90–258, §27, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 34.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 90–258, Feb. 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 26. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Effective date of this Act, referred to in text, as one hundred and twenty days after Feb. 19, 1968, see section 28 of Pub. L. 90–258, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Commodity Exchange Act which comprises this chapter.

§18. Complaints against registered persons

(a) Petition for actual damages

(1) Any person complaining of any violation of any provision of this chapter, or any rule, regulation, or order issued pursuant to this chapter, by any person who is registered under this chapter may, at any time within two years after the cause of action accrues, apply to the Commission for an order awarding—

(A) actual damages proximately caused by such violation. If an award of actual damages is made against a floor broker in connection with the execution of a customer order, and the futures commission merchant which selected the floor broker for the execution of the customer order is held to be responsible under sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title for the floor broker's violation, such futures commission merchant may be required to satisfy such award; and

(B) in the case of any action arising from a willful and intentional violation in the execution of an order on the floor of a contract market, punitive or exemplary damages equal to no more than two times the amount of such actual damages. If an award of punitive or exemplary damages is made against a floor broker in connection with the execution of a customer order, and the futures commission merchant which selected the floor broker for the execution of the customer order is held to be responsible under sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title for the floor broker's violation, such futures commission merchant may be required to satisfy such award if the floor broker fails to do so, except that such requirement shall apply to the futures commission merchant only if it willfully and intentionally selected the floor broker with the intent to assist or facilitate the floor broker's violation.


(2)(A) An action may be brought under this subsection by any one or more persons described in this subsection for and in behalf of such person or persons and other persons similarly situated, if the Commission permits such actions pursuant to a final rule issued by the Commission.

(B) Not later than two hundred and seventy days after October 28, 1992, the Commission shall propose and publish for public comment such rules as are necessary to carry out subparagraph (A). In developing such rules, the Commission shall consider the potential impact of such actions on resources available to the reparations system established under this chapter and the relative merits of bringing such actions in Federal court.

(b) Rules and regulations; control over right of appeal

The Commission may promulgate such rules, regulations, and orders as it deems necessary or appropriate for the efficient and expeditious administration of this section. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such rules, regulations, and orders may prescribe, or otherwise condition, without limitation, the form, filing, and service of pleadings or orders, the nature and scope of discovery, counterclaims, motion practice (including the grounds for dismissal of any claim or counterclaim), hearings (including the waiver thereof, which may relate to the amount in controversy), rights of appeal, if any, and all other matters governing proceedings before the Commission under this section.

(c) Bond requirement when complainant is nonresident; waiver

In case a complaint is made by a nonresident of the United States, the complainant shall be required, before any formal action is taken on his complaint, to furnish a bond in double the amount of the claim conditioned upon the payment of costs, including a reasonable attorney's fee for the respondent if the respondent shall prevail, and any reparation award that may be issued by the Commission against the complainant on any counterclaim by respondent: Provided, That the Commission shall have authority to waive the furnishing of a bond by a complainant who is a resident of a country which permits the filing of a complaint by a resident of the United States without the furnishing of a bond.

(d) Enforcement of reparation award

If any person against whom an award has been made does not pay the reparation award within the time specified in the Commission's order, the complainant, or any person for whose benefit such order was made, within three years of the date of the order, may file a certified copy of the order of the Commission, in the district court of the United States for the district in which he resides or in which is located the principal place of business of the respondent, for enforcement of such reparation award by appropriate orders. The orders, writs, and processes of such district court may in such case run, be served, and be returnable anywhere in the United States. The petitioner shall not be liable for costs in the district court, nor for costs at any subsequent state of the proceedings, unless they accrue upon his appeal. If the petitioner finally prevails, he shall be allowed a reasonable attorney's fee, to be taxed and collected as a part of the costs of the suit. Subject to the right of appeal under subsection (e) of this section, an order of the Commission awarding reparations shall be final and conclusive.

(e) Review

Any order of the Commission entered hereunder shall be reviewable on petition of any party aggrieved thereby, by the United States Court of Appeals for any circuit in which a hearing was held, or if no hearing was held, any circuit in which the appellee is located, under the procedure provided in section 9 of this title. Such appeal shall not be effective unless within 30 days from and after the date of the reparation order the appellant also files with the clerk of the court a bond in double the amount of the reparation awarded against the appellant conditioned upon the payment of the judgment entered by the court, plus interest and costs, including a reasonable attorney's fee for the appellee, if the appellee shall prevail. Such bond shall be in the form of cash, negotiable securities having a market value at least equivalent to the amount of bond prescribed, or the undertaking of a surety company on the approved list of sureties issued by the Treasury Department of the United States. The appellee shall not be liable for costs in said court. If the appellee prevails, he shall be allowed a reasonable attorney's fee to be taxed and collected as a part of his costs.

(f) Automatic bar from trading and suspension for noncompliance; effect of appeal

Unless the party against whom a reparation order has been issued shows to the satisfaction of the Commission within fifteen days from the expiration of the period allowed for compliance with such order that either an appeal as herein authorized has been taken or payment of the full amount of the order (or any agreed settlement thereof) has been made, such party shall be prohibited automatically from trading on all contract markets and, if the party is registered with the Commission, such registration shall be suspended automatically at the expiration of such fifteen-day period until such party shows to the satisfaction of the Commission that payment of such amount with interest thereon to date of payment has been made: Provided, That if on appeal the appellee prevails or if the appeal is dismissed, the automatic prohibition against trading and suspension of registration shall become effective at the expiration of thirty days from the date of judgment on the appeal, but if the judgment is stayed by a court of competent jurisdiction, the suspension shall become effective ten days after the expiration of such stay, unless prior thereto the judgment of the court has been satisfied.

(g) Effective date

The provisions of this section shall not become effective until fifteen months after October 23, 1974: Provided, That claims which arise within one year immediately prior to the effective date of this section may be heard by the Commission after such 15-month period.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §14, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §106, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1393; amended Pub. L. 94–16, §3, Apr. 16, 1975, 89 Stat. 77; Pub. L. 95–405, §21, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 875; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §231, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2319; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§209(b)(7), 222(b), 224, title IV, §402(11), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3607, 3615, 3617, 3625.)

References in Text

Section 9 of this title, referred to in subsec. (e), was in the original “section 6(c) of this Act” meaning section 6(c) of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 8 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–546, §224, designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 102–546, §222(b), substituted “awarding—” and pars. (1) and (2) for “awarding actual damages proximately caused by such violation.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(7), made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(11), substituted “15-month” for second reference to “fifteen months”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–444, §231(1), substituted provisions relating to complaints against violations by persons “registered under this chapter” for provisions relating to complaints against persons “registered or required to be registered under section 6d, 6e, 6j, or 6m of this title”, and substituted provisions for application to Commission for an award of actual damages caused by such violation, for provisions authorizing application to Commission by petition, and forwarding of complaint, if warranted, to respondent for satisfaction or answer.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–444, §231(2), substituted provisions relating to promulgation by Commission of rules, regulations, and orders necessary or appropriate for administration of this section, including rules of practice and procedure governing proceedings before the Commission, for provisions relating to investigation and service of complaint by Commission, and hearing thereon before an Administrative Law Judge, except that where amount claimed as damages did not exceed $5,000, hearing need not be held, and proofs could be supplied by deposition or verified statements of fact.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–444, §231(3), (4), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c). Former subsec. (c), which provided that after opportunity for hearing on complaints where the damages claimed exceeded the sum of $5,000 had been provided or waived and on complaints where damages claimed did not exceed the sum of $5,000 not requiring hearing as provided herein, Commission would determine whether or not the respondent had violated any provision of this chapter or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, was struck out.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–444, §231(4), (5), redesignated subsec. (f) as (d) and substituted “subsection (e)” for “subsection (g)”. Former subsec. (d) was redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–444, §231(3), (4), redesignated subsec. (g) as (e). Former subsec. (e), which provided that if, after a hearing on a complaint made by any person under subsection (a) of this section, or without hearing as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, or upon failure of the party complained against to answer a complaint duly served within the time prescribed, or to appear at a hearing after being duly notified, the Commission determined that the respondent had violated any provision of this chapter, or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, the Commission would unless the offender had already made reparation to the person complaining, determine the amount of damage, if any, to which such person was entitled as a result of such violation and would make an order directing the offender to pay to such person complaining such amount on or before the date fixed in the order, and that if, after the respondent had filed his answer to the complaint, it appeared therein that the respondent had admitted liability for a portion of the amount claimed in the complaint as damages, the Commission under such rules and regulations as it would prescribe, unless the respondent had already made reparation to the person complaining, could issue an order directing the respondent to pay to the complainant the undisputed amount on or before the date fixed in the order, leaving the respondent's liability for the disputed amount for subsequent determination, with the remaining disputed amount to be determined in the same manner and under the same procedure as it would have been determined if no order had been issued by the Commission with respect to the undisputed sum, was struck out.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–444, §231(4), (6), redesignated subsec. (h) as (f), made certain grammatical changes, and inserted provision allowing party against whom a reparation order has been issued to show compliance by payment of the full amount of the order or any agreed settlement thereof.

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 97–444, §231(4), redesignated subsecs. (g), (h), and (i), as (e), (f), and (g), respectively.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–405, §21(1), substituted “who is registered or required to be registered” for “registered”.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 95–405, §21(2), (3), substituted “$5,000” for “$2,500” wherever appearing.

1975—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 94–16 substituted “fifteen months” for “one year” in two places, and “one year” for “nine months”.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective 120 days after Jan. 11, 1983, or such earlier date as the Commission shall prescribe by regulation, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6m, 25 of this title.

§19. Antitrust laws; anticompetitive means

The Commission shall take into consideration the public interest to be protected by the antitrust laws and endeavor to take the least anticompetitive means of achieving the objectives of this chapter, as well as the policies and purposes of this chapter, in issuing any order or adopting any Commission rule or regulation (including any exemption under section 6(c) or 6c(b) of this title), or in requiring or approving any bylaw, rule, or regulation of a contract market or registered futures association established pursuant to section 21 of this title.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §15, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title I, §107, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1395; amended Pub. L. 102–546, title V, §502(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3631.)

References in Text

The antitrust laws, referred to in text, are classified generally to chapter 1 (§1 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–546 substituted “regulation (including any exemption under section 6(c) or 6c(b) of this title)” for “regulation”.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

§20. Market reports

(a) Information

The Commission may conduct regular investigations of the markets for goods, articles, services, rights, and interests which are the subject of futures contracts, and furnish reports of the findings of these investigations to the public on a regular basis. These market reports shall, where appropriate, include information on the supply, demand, prices, and other conditions in the United States and other countries with respect to such goods, articles, services, rights, interests, and information respecting the futures markets.

(b) Avoidance of duplication

The Commission shall cooperate with the Department of Agriculture and any other Department or Federal agency which makes market investigations to avoid unnecessary duplication of information-gathering activities.

(c) Furnishing of information; confidentiality

The Department of Agriculture and any other Department or Federal agency which has market information sought by the Commission shall furnish it to the Commission upon the request of any authorized employee of the Commission. The Commission shall abide by any rules of confidentiality applying to such information.

(d) Disclosure of business transactions, market positions, trade secrets, or names of customers

The Commission shall not disclose in such reports data and information which would separately disclose the business transactions or market positions of any person and trade secrets or names of customers except as provided in section 12 of this title.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §16, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title IV, §414, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1414; amended Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §232, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2320.)

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–444 prohibited disclosure of market positions.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Study of Trading in Cattle Futures Contracts

Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §111, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3561, provided that:

“(a) Study.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct and complete a comprehensive study of the effect of trading in contracts for the future delivery of live cattle on the cash market price of live cattle, with particular emphasis on—

“(1) whether the reaction of the live cattle futures market to the results of the milk production termination program in March 1986, conducted under section 201(d)(3) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1446(d)(3)), was based on and accurately reflected the then prevailing conditions of supply and demand;

“(2) the effect of the trading in contracts for the future delivery of live cattle on—

“(i) the price relationship between feeder cattle and fed cattle;

“(ii) the price discovery process with respect to live cattle; and

“(iii) price competition within the cattle industry;

“(3) the effect of the use of packer contracts, as a means of obtaining slaughter cattle, on the increase in short hedging in contracts for the future delivery of live cattle and the effect of this increase in short hedging on prices in the futures and cash markets;

“(4) the effect on the ability of the cash markets to accurately reflect prevailing conditions of supply and demand if packer contracts become the prevalent method of marketing fed cattle;

“(5) whether the present delivery system for contracts for the future delivery of live cattle creates any bias (either upward or downward) in the cash price for cattle;

“(6) whether the present delivery system for contracts for the future delivery of live cattle creates price volatility during the delivery month; and

“(7) whether there are advantages or disadvantages to a cash settlement system in lieu of the present delivery system in the case of contracts for the future delivery of live cattle.

“(b) Reports.—

“(1) Preliminary report.—Not later than January 15, 1987, the Comptroller General shall submit a preliminary report on the results of the study required under subsection (a) to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate.

“(2) Final report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1986], the Comptroller General shall submit to such committees a detailed final report of the results of the study required under subsection (a).”

Potato Futures Study; Submission of Report to Congress

Pub. L. 95–405, §27, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 877, required, within one year of Oct. 1, 1978, Secretary of Agriculture to (1) conduct a comprehensive study of marketing of Irish potatoes and of making and trading of contracts of sale for future delivery of Irish potatoes, including rules and regulations pertaining to such trading issued by Commodity Futures Trading Commission or any contract market designated by Commission; and (2) submit to each House of Congress a detailed report on results of such study, and that report should also include any proposals Secretary may have concerning any legislation needed to implement such recommendations and concerning any modifications and rules and regulations needed to improve regulation of such contracts by Commission or any contract market designated by Commission.

§21. Registered futures associations

(a) Registration statement

Any association of persons may be registered with the Commission as a registered futures association pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, under the terms and conditions hereinafter provided in this section, by filing with the Commission for review and approval a registration statement in such form as the Commission may prescribe, setting forth the information, and accompanied by the documents, below specified:

(1) Data as to its organization, membership, and rules of procedure, and such other information as the Commission may by rules and regulations require as necessary or appropriate in the public interest; and

(2) Copies of its constitution, charter, or articles of incorporation or association, with all amendments thereto, and of its bylaws, and of any rules or instruments corresponding to the foregoing, whatever the name, hereinafter in this section collectively referred to as the “rules of the association”.

(b) Standards for registration; Commission findings

An applicant association shall not be registered as a futures association unless the Commission finds, under standards established by the Commission, that—

(1) such association is in the public interest and that it will be able to comply with the provisions of this section and the rules and regulations thereunder and to carry out the purposes of this section;

(2) the rules of the association provide that any person registered under this chapter, contract market, or any other person designated pursuant to the rules of the Commission as eligible for membership may become a member of such association, except such as are excluded pursuant to paragraph (3) or (4) of this subsection, or a rule of the association permitted under this subparagraph. The rules of the association may restrict membership in such association on such specified basis relating to the type of business done by its members, or on such other specified and appropriate basis, as appears to the Commission to be necessary or appropriate in the public interest and to carryout the purpose of this section. Rules adopted by the association may provide that the association may, unless the Commission directs otherwise in cases in which the Commission finds it appropriate in the public interest so to direct, deny admission to, or refuse to continue in such association any person if (i) such person, whether prior or subsequent to becoming registered as such, or (ii) any person associated within the meaning of “associated person” as set forth in section 6k of this title, whether prior or subsequent to becoming so associated, has been and is suspended or expelled from a contract market or has been and is barred or suspended from being associated with all members of such contract market, for violation of any rule of such contract market;

(3) the rules of the association provide that, except with the approval or at the direction of the Commission in cases in which the Commission finds it appropriate in the public interest so to approve or direct, no person shall be admitted to or continued in membership in such association, if such person—

(A) has been and is suspended or expelled from a registered futures association or from a contract market or has been and is barred or suspended from being associated with all members of such association or from being associated with all members of such contract market, for violation of any rule of such association or contract market which prohibits any act or transaction constituting conduct inconsistent with just and equitable principles of trade, or requires any act the omission of which constitutes conduct inconsistent with just and equitable principles of trade;

(B) is subject to an order of the Commission denying, suspending, or revoking his registration pursuant to section 9 of this title, or expelling or suspending him from membership in a registered futures association or a contract market, or barring or suspending him from being associated with a futures commission merchant;

(C) whether prior or subsequent to becoming a member, by his conduct while associated with a member, was a cause of any suspension, expulsion, or order of the character described in clause (A) or (B) which is in effect with respect to such member, and in entering such a suspension, expulsion, or order, the Commission or any such contract market or association shall have jurisdiction to determine whether or not any person was a cause thereof; or

(D) has associated with him any person who is known, or in the exercise of reasonable care should be known, to him to be a person who would be ineligible for admission to or continuance in membership under clause (A), (B), or (C) of this paragraph;


(4) the rules of the association provide that, except with the approval or at the direction of the Commission in cases in which the Commission finds it appropriate in the public interest so to approve or direct, no person shall become a member and no natural person shall become a person associated with a member, unless such person is qualified to become a member or a person associated with a member in conformity with specified and appropriate standards with respect to the training, experience, and such other qualifications of such person as the association finds necessary or desirable, and in the case of a member, the financial responsibility of such a member. For the purpose of defining such standards and the application thereof, such rules may—

(A) appropriately classify prospective members (taking into account relevant matters, including type or nature of business done) and persons proposed to be associated with members;

(B) specify that all or any portion of such standard shall be applicable to any such class;

(C) require persons in any such class to pass examinations prescribed in accordance with such rules;

(D) provide that persons in any such class other than prospective members and partners, officers and supervisory employees (which latter term may be defined by such rules and as so defined shall include branch managers of members) of members, may be qualified solely on the basis of compliance with specified standards of training and such other qualifications as the association finds appropriate;

(E) provide that applications to become a member or a person associated with a member shall set forth such facts as the association may prescribe as to the training, experience, and other qualifications (including, in the case of an applicant for membership, financial responsibility) of the applicant and that the association shall adopt procedures for verification of qualifications of the applicant, which may require the applicant to be fingerprinted and to submit, or cause to be submitted, such fingerprints to the Attorney General for identification and appropriate processing. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such an association may receive from the Attorney General all the results of such identification and processing; and

(F) require any class of persons associated with a member to be registered with the association in accordance with procedures specified by such rules (and any application or document supplemental thereto required by such rules of a person seeking to be registered with such association shall, for the purposes of section 9 of this title, be deemed an application required to be filed under this section);


(5) the rules of the association assure a fair representation of its members in the adoption of any rule of the association or amendment thereto, the selection of its officers and directors, and in all other phases of the administration of its affairs;

(6) the rules of the association provide for the equitable allocation of dues among its members, to defray reasonable expenses of administration;

(7) the rules of the association are designed to prevent fraudulent and manipulative acts and practices, to promote just and equitable principles of trade, in general, to protect the public interest, and to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of free and open futures trading;

(8) the rules of the association provide that its members and persons associated with its members shall be appropriately disciplined, by expulsion, suspension, fine, censure, or being suspended or barred from being associated with all members, or any other fitting penalty, for any violation of its rules;

(9) the rules of the association provide a fair and orderly procedure with respect to the disciplining of members and persons associated with members and the denial of membership to any person seeking membership therein or the barring of any person from being associated with a member. In any proceeding to determine whether any member or other person shall be disciplined, such rules shall require that specific charges be brought; that such member or person shall be notified of, and be given an opportunity to defend against, such charges; that a record shall be kept; and that the determination shall include—

(A) a statement setting forth any act or practice in which such member or other person may be found to have engaged, or which such member or other person may be found to have omitted;

(B) a statement setting forth the specific rule or rules of the association of which any such act or practice, or omission to act, is deemed to be in violation;

(C) a statement whether the acts or practices prohibited by such rule or rules, or the omission of any act required thereby, are deemed to constitute conduct inconsistent with just and equitable principles of trade; and

(D) a statement setting forth the penalty imposed; 1


In any proceeding to determine whether a person shall be denied membership or whether any person shall be barred from being associated with a member, such rules shall provide that the person shall be notified of, and be given an opportunity to be heard upon, the specific grounds for denial or bar which are under consideration; that a record shall be kept; and that the determination shall set forth the specific grounds upon which the denial or bar is based;

(10) the rules of the association provide a fair, equitable, and expeditious procedure through arbitration or otherwise for the settlement of customers’ claims and grievances against any member or employee thereof: Provided, That (A) the use of such procedure by a customer shall be voluntary, (B) the term “customer” as used in this paragraph shall not include another member of the association, and (C) in the case of a claim arising from a violation in the execution of an order on the floor of a contract market, such procedure shall provide, to the extent appropriate—

(i) for payment of actual damages proximately caused by such violation. If an award of actual damages is made against a floor broker in connection with the execution of a customer order, and the futures commission merchant which selected the floor broker for the execution of the customer order is held to be responsible under sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title for the floor broker's violation, such futures commission merchant may be required to satisfy such award; and

(ii) where the violation is willful and intentional, for payment to the customer of punitive or exemplary damages, in addition to losses proximately caused by the violation, in an amount equal to no more than two times the amount of such losses. If punitive or exemplary damages are awarded against a floor broker in connection with the execution of a customer order, and the futures commission merchant which selected the floor broker for the execution of such order is held to be responsible under sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title for the floor broker's violation, such futures commission merchant may be required to satisfy the award of punitive or exemplary damages if the floor broker fails to do so, except that such requirement shall apply to the futures commission merchant only if it willfully and intentionally selected the floor broker with the intent to assist or facilitate the floor broker's violation; and 2


(11) such association provides for meaningful representation on the governing board of such association of a diversity of membership interests and provides that no less than 20 percent of the regular voting members of such board be comprised of qualified nonmembers of or persons who are not regulated by such association.3

(12)(A) 4 such association provides on all major disciplinary committees for a diversity of membership sufficient to ensure fairness and to prevent special treatment or preference for any person in the conduct of disciplinary proceedings and the assessment of penalties.5

(13) A 6 major disciplinary committee hearing a disciplinary matter shall include—

(A) qualified persons representing segments of the association membership other than that of the subject of the proceeding; and

(B) where appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, qualified persons who are not members of the association.

(c) Suspension of registration

The Commission may, after notice and opportunity for hearing, suspend the registration of any futures association if it finds that the rules thereof do not conform to the requirements of the Commission, and any such suspension shall remain in effect until the Commission issues an order determining that such rules have been modified to conform with such requirements.

(d) Fees and charges

In addition to the fees and charges authorized by section 12a(1) of this title, each person registered under this chapter, who is not a member of a futures association registered pursuant to this section, shall pay to the Commission such reasonable fees and charges as may be necessary to defray the costs of additional regulatory duties required to be performed by the Commission because such person is not a member of a registered futures association. The Commission shall establish such additional fees and charges by rules and regulations.

(e) Registered persons not members of registered associations

Any person registered under this chapter, who is not a member of a futures association registered pursuant to this section, in addition to the other requirements and obligations of this chapter and the regulations thereunder shall be subject to such other rules and regulations as the Commission may find necessary to protect the public interest and promote just and equitable principles of trade.

(f) Denial of registration

Upon filing of an application for registration pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Commission may by order grant such registration if the requirements of this section are satisfied. If, after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, it appears to the Commission that any requirement of this section is not satisfied, the Commission shall by order deny such registration.

(g) Withdrawal from registration; notice of withdrawal

A registered futures association may, upon such reasonable notice as the Commission may deem necessary in the public interest, withdraw from registration by filing with the Commission a written notice of withdrawal in such form as the Commission may by rules and regulations prescribe.

(h) Commission review of disciplinary actions taken by registered futures associations

(1) If any registered futures association takes any final disciplinary action against a member of the association or a person associated with a member, denies admission to any person seeking membership therein, or bars any person from being associated with a member, the association promptly shall give notice thereof to such member or person and file notice thereof with the Commission. The notice shall be in such form and contain such information as the Commission, by rule or regulation, may prescribe as necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(2) Any action with respect to which a registered futures association is required by paragraph (1) to file notice shall be subject to review by the Commission on its motion, or on application by any person aggrieved by the action. Such application shall be filed within 30 days after the date such notice is filed with the Commission and received by the aggrieved person, or within such longer period as the Commission may determine.

(3)(A) Application to the Commission for review, or the institution of review by the Commission on its own motion, shall not operate as a stay of such action unless the Commission otherwise orders, summarily or after notice and opportunity for hearing on the question of a stay (which hearing may consist solely of the submission of affidavits or presentation of oral arguments).

(B) The Commission shall establish procedures for expedited consideration and determination of the question of a stay.

(i) Notice; hearing; findings; cancellation, reduction, or remission of penalties; review by court of appeals

(1) In a proceeding to review a final disciplinary action taken by a registered futures association against a member thereof or a person associated with a member, after appropriate notice and opportunity for a hearing (which hearing may consist solely of consideration of the record before the association and opportunity for the presentation of supporting reasons to affirm, modify, or set aside the sanction imposed by the association)—

(A) if the Commission finds that—

(i) the member or person associated with a member has engaged in the acts or practices, or has omitted the acts, that the association has found the member or person to have engaged in or omitted;

(ii) the acts or practices, or omissions to act, are in violation of the rules of the association specified in the determination of the association; and

(iii) such rules are, and were applied in a manner, consistent with the purposes of this chapter,


the Commission, by order, shall so declare and, as appropriate, affirm the sanction imposed by the association, modify the sanction in accordance with paragraph (2), or remand the case to the association for further proceedings; or

(B) if the Commission does not make any such finding, the Commission, by order, shall set aside the sanction imposed by the association and, if appropriate, remand the case to the association for further proceedings.


(2) If, after a proceeding under paragraph (1), the Commission finds that any penalty imposed on a member or person associated with a member is excessive or oppressive, having due regard for the public interest, the Commission, by order, shall cancel, reduce, or require the remission of the penalty.

(3) In a proceeding to review the denial of membership in a registered futures association or the barring of any person from being associated with a member, after appropriate notice and opportunity for a hearing (which hearing may consist solely of consideration of the record before the association and opportunity for the presentation of supporting reasons to affirm, modify, or set aside the action of the association)—

(A) if the Commission finds that—

(i) the specific grounds on which the denial or bar is based exist in fact;

(ii) the denial or bar is in accordance with the rules of the association; and

(iii) such rules are, and were applied in a manner, consistent with the purposes of this chapter,


the Commission, by order, shall so declare and, as appropriate, affirm or modify the action of the association, or remand the case to the association for further proceedings; or

(B) if the Commission does not make any such finding, the Commission, by order, shall set aside the action of the association and require the association to admit the applicant to membership or permit the person to be associated with a member, or, as appropriate, remand the case to the association for further proceedings.


(4) Any person aggrieved by a final order of the Commission entered under this subsection may file a petition for review with a United States court of appeals in the same manner as provided in section 9 of this title.

(j) Changes or additions to association rules

Every registered futures association shall file with the Commission in accordance with such rules and regulations as the Commission may prescribe as necessary or appropriate in the public interest, copies of any changes in or additions to the rules of the association, and such other information and documents as the Commission may require to keep current or to supplement the registration statement and documents filed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. A registered futures association shall submit to the Commission any change in or addition to its rules and may make such rules effective ten days after receipt of such submission by the Commission unless, within the ten-day period, the registered futures association requests review and approval thereof by the Commission or the Commission notifies such registered futures association in writing of its determination to review such rules for approval. The Commission shall approve such rules if such rules are determined by the Commission to be consistent with the requirements of this section and not otherwise in violation of this chapter or the regulations issued pursuant to this chapter, and the Commission shall disapprove, after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, any such rule which the Commission determines at any time to be inconsistent with the requirements of this section or in violation of this chapter or the regulations issued pursuant to this chapter. If the Commission does not approve or institute disapproval proceedings with respect to any rule within one hundred and eighty days after receipt or within such longer period of time as the registered futures association may agree to, or if the Commission does not conclude a disapproval proceeding with respect to any rule within one year after receipt or within such longer period as the registered futures association may agree to, such rule may be made effective by the registered futures association until such time as the Commission disapproves such rule in accordance with this subsection.

(k) Abrogation of association rules; requests to associations by Commission to alter or supplement rules

(1) The Commission is authorized by order to abrogate any rule of a registered futures association, if after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, it appears to the Commission that such abrogation is necessary or appropriate to assure fair dealing by the members of such association, to assure a fair representation of its members in the administration of its affairs or effectuate the purposes of this section.

(2) The Commission may in writing request any registered futures association to adopt any specified alteration or supplement to its rules with respect to any of the matters hereinafter enumerated. If such association fails to adopt such alteration or supplement within a reasonable time, the Commission is authorized by order to alter or supplement the rules of such association in the manner theretofore requested, or with such modifications of such alteration or supplement as it deems necessary if, after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, it appears to the Commission that such alteration or supplement is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or to effectuate the purposes of this section, with respect to—

(A) the basis for, and procedure in connection with, the denial of membership or the barring from being associated with a member or the disciplining of members or persons associated with members, or the qualifications required for members or natural persons associated with members or any class thereof;

(B) the method for adoption of any change in or addition to the rules of the association;

(C) the method of choosing officers and directors.

(l) Suspension and revocation of registration; expulsion of members; removal of association officers or directors

The Commission is authorized, if such action appears to it to be necessary or appropriate in the public interest or to carry out the purposes of this section—

(1) after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, by order to suspend for a period not exceeding twelve months or to revoke the registration of a registered futures association, if the Commission finds that such association has violated any provisions of this chapter or any rule or regulation thereunder, or has failed to enforce compliance with its own rules, or has engaged in any other activity tending to defeat the purposes of this chapter;

(2) after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, by order to suspend for a period not exceeding twelve months or to expel from a registered futures association any member thereof, or to suspend for a period not exceeding twelve months or to bar any person from being associated with a member thereof, if the Commission finds that such member or person—

(A) has violated any provision of this chapter or any rule or regulation thereunder, or has effected any transaction for any other person who, he had reason to believe, was violating with respect to such transaction any provision of this chapter or any rule or regulation thereunder; or

(B) has willfully violated any provision of this chapter, or of any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, or has effected any transaction for any other person who, he had reason to believe, was willfully violating with respect to such transaction any provision of this chapter or rule, regulation, or order; and


(3) after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, by order to remove from office any officer or director of a registered futures association who, the Commission finds, has willfully failed to enforce the rules of the association, or has willfully abused his authority.

(m) Rules requiring membership in associations

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Commission may approve rules of futures associations that, directly or indirectly, require persons eligible for membership in such associations to become members of at least one such association, upon a determination by the Commission that such rules are necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes and objectives of this chapter.

(n) Reports to Congress

The Commission shall include in its annual reports to Congress information concerning any futures associations registered pursuant to this section and the effectiveness of such associations in regulating the practices of the members.

(o) Delegation to futures associations of registrative functions; discretionary review by Commission; judicial appeal

(1) The Commission may require any futures association registered pursuant to this section to perform any portion of the registration functions under this chapter with respect to each member of the association other than a contract market and with respect to each associated person of such member, in accordance with rules, notwithstanding any other provision of law, adopted by such futures association and submitted to the Commission pursuant to subsection (j) of this section, and subject to the provisions of this chapter applicable to registrations granted by the Commission.

(2) In performing any Commission registration function authorized by the Commission under section 12a(10) of this title, this section, or any other applicable provisions of this chapter, a futures association may issue orders (A) to refuse to register any person, (B) to register conditionally any person, (C) to suspend the registration of any person, (D) to place restrictions on the registration of any person, or (E) to revoke the registration of any person. If such an order is the final decision of the futures association, any person against whom the order has been issued may petition the Commission to review the decision. The Commission may on its own initiative or upon petition decline review or grant review and affirm, set aside, or modify such an order of the futures association; and the findings of the futures association as to the facts, if supported by the weight of the evidence, shall be conclusive. Unless the Commission grants review under this section of an order concerning registration issued by a futures association, the order of the futures association shall be considered to be an order issued by the Commission.

(3) Nothing in this section shall affect the Commission's authority to review the granting of a registration application by a registered futures association that is performing any Commission registration function authorized by the Commission under section 12a(10) of this title, this section, or any other applicable provision of this chapter.

(4) If a person against whom a futures association has issued a registration order under this subsection petitions the Commission to review that order and the Commission declines to take review, such person may file a petition for review with a United States court of appeals, in accordance with section 9 of this title.

(p) Establishment of rules for futures associations; approval by Commission

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, each futures association registered under this section on January 11, 1983, shall adopt and submit for Commission approval not later than ninety days after such date, and each futures association that applies for registration after such date shall adopt and include with its application for registration, rules of the association that require the association to—

(1) establish training standards and proficiency testing for persons involved in the solicitation of transactions subject to the provisions of this chapter, supervisors of such persons, and all persons for which it has registration responsibilities, and a program to audit and enforce compliance with such standards;

(2) establish minimum capital, segregation, and other financial requirements applicable to its members for which such requirements are imposed by the Commission and implement a program to audit and enforce compliance with such requirements, except that such requirements may not be less stringent than those imposed on such firms by this chapter or by Commission regulation;

(3) establish minimum standards governing the sales practices of its members and persons associated therewith for transactions subject to the provisions of this chapter; and

(4) establish special supervisory guidelines to protect the public interest relating to the solicitation by telephone of new futures or options accounts and make such guidelines applicable to those members determined to require such guidelines in accordance with standards established by the Commission consistent with this chapter. Such guidelines may include a requirement that, with respect to a customer with no previous futures or commodity options trading experience, the member may not enter an order for the account of such customer for a period of three days following opening of the account and receipt of a signed acknowledgment by the customer of receipt of a risk disclosure statement.

(q) 7 Major disciplinary rule violations

(1) The Commission shall issue regulations requiring each registered futures association to establish and make available to the public a schedule of major violations of any rule within the disciplinary jurisdiction of such registered futures association.

(2) The regulations issued by the Commission pursuant to this subsection shall prohibit, for a period of time to be determined by the Commission, any member of a registered futures association who is found to have committed any major violation from service on the governing board of any registered futures association or contract market, or on any disciplinary committee thereof.

(q) 7 Program for implementation of rules

Each futures association registered under this section shall develop a comprehensive program that fully implements the rules approved by the Commission under this section as soon as practicable but not later than September 30, 1985, in the case of any futures association registered on January 11, 1983, and not later than two and one-half years after the date of registration in the case of any other futures association registered under this section.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §17, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title III, §301, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1406; amended Pub. L. 95–405, §22, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §§217(b), 233, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2307, 2320; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §§107, 108, 110(6), (7), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3558, 3559, 3561; Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§204(a), 206(b), 209(b)(8), 222(c), 228, title IV, §402(12), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3600, 3602, 3607, 3616, 3619, 3625.)

References in Text

Section 9 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3)(B), (4)(F), (i)(4), and (o)(4), was in the original reference to section 6(c) of this Act, meaning section 6(c) of act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, which is classified to sections 9 and 15 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 8 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(12)(A), realigned margins.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–546, §§206(b)(1)(A), (B), 209(b)(8)(A)(i), struck out “or” at end of subpar. (A), in subpar. (B) made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act and struck out “or” at end, and in subpar. (D) substituted a semicolon for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–546, §§206(b)(1)(B), (C), 209(b)(8)(A)(ii), substituted a semicolon for period at end of subpars. (A) to (D), in subpar. (E) substituted “; and” for period at end, and in subpar. (F) made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act and substituted a semicolon for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(5) to (9). Pub. L. 102–546, §206(b)(1)(B), (C), substituted a semicolon for period at end of pars. (5) to (9) and subpars. (A), (B), and (D) of par. (9) and in par. (9)(C) substituted “; and” for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 102–546, §§206(b)(1)(C), 222(c), substituted “(A)” for “(i)” and “voluntary, (B)” for “voluntary and (ii)”, inserted “, and” and subpar. (C) after “association”, and substituted “; and” for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(11) to (13). Pub. L. 102–546, §206(b)(1)(D), added pars. (11) to (13).

Subsec. (i)(4). Pub. L. 102–546, §228, which directed that “(other than a registered futures association).” be struck out, was executed by striking “(other than a registered futures association)” after “Any person” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(8)(B), made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act.

Subsec. (l)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(12)(B), made technical amendment to reference to this chapter appearing after “violated any provision of” to reflect change in reference to corresponding provision of original act and substituted “; and” for period at end.

Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 102–546, §209(b)(8)(C), made technical amendment to reference to section 9 of this title to reflect change in reference to corresponding section of original act.

Subsec. (p)(4). Pub. L. 102–546, §204(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 102–546, §206(b)(2), added subsec. (q) relating to major disciplinary rules violations.

1986—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–641, §110(6), substituted “within” for “with in” before “the meaning”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–641, §107, amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) read as follows: “If any registered futures association takes any disciplinary action against any member thereof or any person associated with such a member or denies admission to any person seeking membership therein, or bars any person from being associated with a member, such action shall be subject to review by the Commission, on its own motion, or upon application by any person aggrieved thereby filed within thirty days after such action has been taken or within such longer period as the Commission may determine. Application to the Commission for review, or the institution of review by the Commission on its own motion, shall operate as a stay of such action until an order is issued upon such review pursuant to subsection (i) of this section unless the Commission otherwise orders, after notice and opportunity for hearing on the question of a stay (which hearing may consist solely of affidavits and oral arguments).”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–641, §107, amended subsec. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (i) read as follows:

“(1) In a proceeding to review disciplinary action taken by a registered futures association against a member thereof or a person associated with a member, if the Commission, after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, upon consideration of the record before the association and such other evidence as it may deem relevant—

“(A) finds that such member or person has engaged in such acts or practices, or has omitted such act, as the association has found him to have engaged in or omitted, and

“(B) determines that such acts or practices, or omission to act, are in violation of such rules of the association as have been designated in the determination of the association, the Commission shall by order dismiss the proceeding, unless it appears to the Commission that such action should be modified in accordance with paragraph (2) of this subsection. The Commission shall likewise determine whether the acts or practices prohibited, or the omission of any act required, by any such rule constitute conduct inconsistent with just and equitable principles of trade, and shall so declare. If it appears to the Commission that the evidence does not warrant the finding required in clause (A), or if the Commission determines that such acts or practices as are found to have been engaged in are not prohibited by the designated rule or rules of the association, or that such act as is found to have been omitted is not required by such designated rule or rules, the Commission shall by order set aside the action of the association.

“(2) If, after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, the Commission finds that any penalty imposed upon a member or person associated with a member is excessive or oppressive, having due regard to the public interest, the Commission shall by order cancel, reduce, or require the remission of such penalty.

“(3) In any proceeding to review the denial of membership in a registered futures association or the barring of any person from being associated with a member, if the Commission, after appropriate notice and hearing, and upon consideration of the record before the association and such other evidence as it may deem relevant, determines that the specific grounds on which such denial or bar is based exist in fact and are valid under this section, the Commission shall by order dismiss the proceeding; otherwise, the Commission shall by order set aside the action of the association and require it to admit the applicant to membership therein, or to permit such person to be associated with a member.”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 99–641, §108, struck out sentence which read as follows: “The Commission shall approve such rules within thirty days of their receipt if Commission approval is requested under this subsection or within thirty days after the Commission determines to review for approval any other rules unless the Commission notifies the registered futures association of its inability to complete such approval or review within such period of time.”

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 99–641, §110(7), substituted “section” for “title”.

1983—Subsec. (b)(4)(E). Pub. L. 97–444, §233(1), inserted “, which may require the applicant to be fingerprinted and to submit, or cause to be submitted, such fingerprints to the Attorney General for identification and appropriate processing. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such an association may receive from the Attorney General all the results of such identification and processing” after “adopt procedures for verification of qualifications of the applicant”.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 97–444, §217(b), required association rules to provide for “expeditious” procedure, redesignated cl. (iv) as (ii) and substituted “ ‘customer’ as used in this paragraph shall not include another member of the association” for “ ‘customer’ as used in this subsection shall not include a futures commission merchant or a floor broker”, and struck out clauses “(ii) the procedure shall not be applicable to any claim in excess of $15,000, (iii) the procedure shall not result in any compulsory payment except as agreed upon between the parties,”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–444, §233(2), substituted “section 12a(1) of this title” for “section 12a(4) of this title”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–444, §233(3), substituted “subsection (i) of this section” for “subsection (k) of this section”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 97–444, §233(4), substituted “A registered futures association shall submit to the Commission any change in or addition to its rules and may make such rules effective ten days after receipt of such submission by the Commission unless, within the ten-day period, the registered futures association requests review and approval thereof by the Commission or the Commission notifies such registered futures association in writing of its determination to review such rules for approval. The Commission shall approve such rules within thirty days of their receipt if Commission approval is requested under this subsection or within thirty days after the Commission determines to review for approval any other rules unless the Commission notifies the registered futures association of its inability to complete such approval or review within such period of time. The Commission shall approve such rules if such rules are determined by the Commission to be consistent with the requirements of this section and not otherwise in violation of this chapter or the regulations issued pursuant to this chapter, and the Commission shall disapprove, after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, any such rule which the Commission determines at any time to be inconsistent with the requirements of this section or in violation of this chapter or the regulations issued pursuant to this chapter. If the Commission does not approve or institute disapproval proceedings with respect to any rule within one hundred and eighty days after receipt or within such longer period of time as the registered futures association may agree to, or if the Commission does not conclude a disapproval proceeding with respect to any rule within one year after receipt or within such longer period as the registered futures association may agree to, such rule may be made effective by the registered futures association until such time as the Commission disapproves such rule in accordance with this subsection” for “Any change in or addition to the rules of a registered futures association shall be submitted to the Commission for approval and shall take effect upon the thirtieth day after such approval by the Commission, or upon such earlier date as the Commission may determine, unless the Commission shall enter an order disapproving such change or addition; and the Commission shall enter such an order unless such change or addition appears to the Commission to be consistent with the requirements of this section and the provisions of this chapter”.

Subsecs. (o) to (q). Pub. L. 97–444, §233(5), added subsecs. (o), (p), and (q).

1978—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 95–405, §22(1), struck out “(7 U.S.C. 9)” after “section 9 of this title”.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 95–405, §22(2), substituted “$15,000” for “$5,000”.

Subsec. (l)(1), (2)(A). Pub. L. 95–405, §22(3), substituted “chapter” for “section” wherever appearing.

Subsecs. (m), (n). Pub. L. 95–405, §22(4), added subsec. (m) and redesignated former subsec. (m) as (n).

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–405 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Implementation

Section 204(b) of Pub. L. 102–546 provided that: “The guidelines required under section 17(p)(4) of the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 21(p)(4)] (as added by subsection (a) of this section) shall be submitted by a futures association registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992] to the Commission for the approval of the Commission not later than one hundred and eighty days after the date of enactment of this Act.”

Study on Computerized Futures Trading

Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §220(b), (c), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3614, provided that:

“(b) Study.—The Commodity Futures Trading Commission shall conduct a study to assess—

“(1) the progress made under initiatives to conduct trading in futures and options subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.] through systems of computers or by other electronic means; and

“(2) whether the experience with such systems of trading indicates that they may be useful or effective to enhance access to the futures and options markets by potential market participants, improve the ability of the Commission to audit the activities of the futures and options markets, reduce the opportunity for trading abuses, and otherwise be in the public interest or raise other related issues.

“(c) Report.—Not later than two years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], the Commission shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report containing the results of the study conducted under subsection (a), together with any appropriate recommendations.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 6p, 12a, 16a, 19, 25 of this title; title 15 section 78c.

1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.

2 So in original. The word “and” probably should not appear.

3 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

4 So in original. No subpar. (B) has been enacted.

5 So in original. The period probably should be “; and”.

6 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

7 Two subsecs. (q) have been enacted.

§22. Research and information programs; reports to Congress

(a) The Commission shall establish and maintain, as part of its ongoing operations, research and information programs to (1) determine the feasibility of trading by computer, and the expanded use of modern information system technology, electronic data processing, and modern communication systems by commodity exchanges, boards of trade, and by the Commission itself for purposes of improving, strengthening, facilitating, or regulating futures trading operations; (2) assist in the development of educational and other informational materials regarding futures trading for dissemination and use among producers, market users, and the general public; and (3) carry out the general purposes of this chapter.

(b) The Commission shall include in its annual reports to Congress plans and findings with respect to implementing this section.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §18, as added Pub. L. 93–463, title IV, §416, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1415.)

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 16 of this title.

§23. Standardized contracts for certain commodities

(a) Margin accounts or contracts and leverage accounts or contracts prohibited except as authorized

Except as authorized under subsection (b) of this section, no person shall offer to enter into, enter into, or confirm the execution of, any transaction for the delivery of any commodity under a standardized contract commonly known to the trade as a margin account, margin contract, leverage account, or leverage contract, or under any contract, account, arrangement, scheme, or device that the Commission determines serves the same function or functions as such a standardized contract, or is marketed or managed in substantially the same manner as such a standardized contract.

(b) Permission to enter into contracts for delivery of silver or gold bullion, bulk silver or gold coins, or platinum; rules and regulations

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), no person shall offer to enter into, enter into, or confirm the execution of, any transaction for the delivery of silver bullion, gold bullion, bulk silver coins, bulk gold coins, or platinum under a standardized contract described in subsection (a) of this section, contrary to the terms of any rule, regulation, or order that the Commission shall prescribe, which may include terms designed to ensure the financial solvency of the transaction or prevent manipulation or fraud. Such rule, regulation, or order may be made only after notice and opportunity for hearing. The Commission may set different terms and conditions for transactions involving different commodities.

(2) No person may engage in any activity described in paragraph (1) who is not permitted to engage in such activity, by the rules, regulations, and orders of the Commission in effect on November 10, 1986, until the Commission permits such person to engage in such activity in accordance with regulations issued in accordance with subsection (c)(2) of this section.

(c) Survey of persons interested in engaging in transactions of silver and gold, etc.; assistance of futures association; regulations

(1)(A) Not later than 2 years after November 10, 1986, the Commission shall—

(i) with the assistance of a futures association registered under this chapter, conduct a survey concerning the persons interested in engaging in the business of offering to enter into, entering into, or confirming the execution of, the transactions described in subsection (b)(1) of this section; and

(ii) transmit a report of the results of the survey to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate.


(B) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of completing such report the Commission may direct, by rule, regulation, or order, a futures association registered under this chapter to render such assistance as the Commission shall specify.

(C) Such report shall include the findings and any recommendations of the Commission concerning—

(i) whether such transactions serve an economic purpose;

(ii) the most efficient manner, consistent with the public interest, to permit additional persons to engage in the business of offering to enter into, entering into, and confirming the execution of such transactions; and

(iii) the appropriate regulatory scheme to govern such transactions to ensure the financial solvency of such transactions and to prevent manipulation or fraud.


(2) The report shall also include Commission regulations governing such transactions. The regulations shall provide for permitting additional persons to engage in such transactions. The regulations shall become effective on the expiration of 90 calendar days on which either House of Congress is in session after the date of the transmittal of the report to Congress. The regulations—

(A) may authorize or require, notwithstanding any other provision of law, a futures association registered under this chapter to perform such responsibilities in connection with such transactions as the Commission may specify; and

(B) may require that permission for additional persons to engage in such business be given on a gradual basis, so as not to place an undue burden on the resources of the Commission.

(d) Savings provision

This section shall not affect any rights or obligations arising out of any transaction subject to this section, as in effect before November 10, 1986, that was entered into, or the execution of which was confirmed, before November 10, 1986.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §19, as added Pub. L. 95–405, §23, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 876; amended Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §234, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 99–641, title I, §109, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3560.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those appearing in subsec. (b) were formerly contained in section 15a of this title.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–641 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “No person shall offer to enter into, enter into, or confirm the execution of, any transaction for the delivery of any commodity specifically set forth in section 2 of this title prior to October 23, 1974, under a standardized contract commonly known to the trade as a margin account, margin contract, leverage account, or leverage contract, or under any contract, account, arrangement, scheme, or device that the Commission determines serves the same function or functions as such a standardized contract, or is marketed or managed in substantially the same manner as such a standardized contract.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–641 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “No person shall offer to enter into, enter into, or confirm the execution of any transaction for the delivery of silver bullion, gold bullion, or bulk silver coins or bulk gold coins, under a standardized contract described in subsection (a) of this section, contrary to any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission designed to ensure the financial solvency of the transaction or prevent manipulation or fraud: Provided, That such rule, regulation, or order may be made only after notice and opportunity for hearing.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–641 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “The Commission shall regulate any transactions under a standardized contract described in subsection (a) of this section involving commodities described in subsection (b) of this section or any other commodities (except those commodities described in subsection (a) of this section) under such terms and conditions as the Commission shall prescribe by rule, regulation, or order made only after notice and opportunity for a hearing. The Commission may set different terms and conditions for such transactions involving different commodities. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Commission may prohibit any transaction for the delivery of any commodity under a standardized contract described in subsection (a) of this section that is not permitted by the rules, regulations and orders of the Commission in effect on December 9, 1982, if the Commission determines that any such transactions would be contrary to the public interest.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–641, in amending section generally, added subsec. (d).

1983—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–444, §234(1), substituted “shall regulate” for “may prohibit or regulate” and authorized Commission prohibition of transactions for delivery of commodities under a standardized contract that was not permitted by the rules, regulations and orders of the Commission in effect on Dec. 9, 1982, where transactions are determined to be contrary to the public interest.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–444, §234(2), struck out subsec. (d) which provided for regulation of transactions in accordance with applicable provisions of this chapter where Commission determined the transactions under subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section were contracts for future delivery within the meaning of this chapter.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–444 effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 28 of Pub. L. 95–405, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1a, 2, 12a, 13, 16, 25 of this title; title 11 section 761.

§24. Regulations respecting commodity broker debtors; definitions

(a) Notwithstanding title 11, the Commission may provide, with respect to a commodity broker that is a debtor under chapter 7 of title 11, by rule or regulation—

(1) that certain cash, securities, other property, or commodity contracts are to be included in or excluded from customer property or member property;

(2) that certain cash, securities, other property, or commodity contracts are to be specifically identifiable to a particular customer in a specific capacity;

(3) the method by which the business of such commodity broker is to be conducted or liquidated after the date of the filing of the petition under such chapter, including the payment and allocation of margin with respect to commodity contracts not specifically identifiable to a particular customer pending their orderly liquidation;

(4) any persons to which customer property and commodity contracts may be transferred under section 766 of title 11; and

(5) how the net equity of a customer is to be determined.


(b) As used in this section, the terms “commodity broker”, “commodity contract”, “customer”, “customer property”, “member property”, “net equity”, and “security” have the meanings assigned such terms for the purposes of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of title 11.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §20, formerly §19, as added Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §302, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2673; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 97–222, §20, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 241.)

Amendments

1982—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–222, §20(b), inserted “, including the payment and allocation of margin with respect to commodity contracts not specifically identifiable to a particular customer pending their orderly liquidation”.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 6, 1978, see section 402(d) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

§25. Private rights of action

(a) Actual damages; actionable transactions; exclusive remedy

(1) Any person (other than a contract market, clearing organization of a contract market, licensed board of trade, or registered futures association) who violates this chapter or who willfully aids, abets, counsels, induces, or procures the commission of a violation of this chapter shall be liable for actual damages resulting from one or more of the transactions referred to in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of this paragraph and caused by such violation to any other person—

(A) who received trading advice from such person for a fee;

(B) who made through such person any contract of sale of any commodity for future delivery (or option on such contract or any commodity); or who deposited with or paid to such person money, securities, or property (or incurred debt in lieu thereof) in connection with any order to make such contract;

(C) who purchased from or sold to such person or placed through such person an order for the purchase or sale of—

(i) an option subject to section 6c of this title (other than an option purchased or sold on a contract market or other board of trade);

(ii) a contract subject to section 23 of this title; or

(iii) an interest or participation in a commodity pool; or


(D) who purchased or sold a contract referred to in subparagraph (B) hereof if the violation constitutes a manipulation of the price of any such contract or the price of the commodity underlying such contract.


(2) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the rights of action authorized by this subsection and by sections 7a(11),1 18, and 21(b)(10) of this title shall be the exclusive remedies under this chapter available to any person who sustains loss as a result of any alleged violation of this chapter. Nothing in this subsection shall limit or abridge the rights of the parties to agree in advance of a dispute upon any forum for resolving claims under this section, including arbitration.

(3) In any action arising from a violation in the execution of an order on the floor of a contract market, the person referred to in paragraph (1) shall be liable for—

(A) actual damages proximately caused by such violation. If an award of actual damages is made against a floor broker in connection with the execution of a customer order, and the futures commission merchant which selected the floor broker for the execution of the customer order is held to be responsible under sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title for the floor broker's violation, such futures commission merchant may be required to satisfy such award; and

(B) where the violation is willful and intentional, punitive or exemplary damages equal to no more than two times the amount of such actual damages. If an award of punitive or exemplary damages is made against a floor broker in connection with the execution of a customer order, and the futures commission merchant which selected the floor broker for the execution of the customer order is held to be responsible under sections 2, 2a, and 4 of this title for the floor broker's violation, such futures commission merchant may be required to satisfy such award if the floor broker fails to do so, except that such requirement shall apply to the futures commission merchant only if it willfully and intentionally selected the floor broker with the intent to assist or facilitate the floor broker's violation.

(b) Liabilities of organizations and individuals; bad faith requirement; exclusive remedy

(1)(A) A contract market or clearing organization of a contract market that fails to enforce any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution that it is required to enforce by section 7a(8) 1 and section 7a(9) 1 of this title, (B) a licensed board of trade that fails to enforce any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution that it is required to enforce by the Commission, or (C) any contract market, clearing organization of a contract market, or licensed board of trade that in enforcing any such bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution violates this chapter or any Commission rule, regulation, or order, shall be liable for actual damages sustained by a person who engaged in any transaction on or subject to the rules of such contract market or licensed board of trade to the extent of such person's actual losses that resulted from such transaction and were caused by such failure to enforce or enforcement of such bylaws, rules, regulations, or resolutions.

(2) A registered futures association that fails to enforce any bylaw or rule that is required under section 21 of this title or in enforcing any such bylaw or rule violates this chapter or any Commission rule, regulation, or order shall be liable for actual damages sustained by a person that engaged in any transaction specified in subsection (a) of this section to the extent of such person's actual losses that resulted from such transaction and were caused by such failure to enforce or enforcement of such bylaw or rule.

(3) Any individual who, in the capacity as an officer, director, governor, committee member, or employee of a contract market, clearing organization, licensed board of trade, or a registered futures association willfully aids, abets, counsels, induces, or procures any failure by any such entity to enforce (or any violation of the chapter in enforcing) any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection, shall be liable for actual damages sustained by a person who engaged in any transaction specified in subsection (a) of this section on, or subject to the rules of, such contract market, licensed board of trade or, in the case of an officer, director, governor, committee member, or employee of a registered futures association, any transaction specified in subsection (a) of this section, in either case to the extent of such person's actual losses that resulted from such transaction and were caused by such failure or violation.

(4) A person seeking to enforce liability under this section must establish that the contract market, licensed board of trade, clearing organization, registered futures association, officer, director, governor, committee member, or employee acted in bad faith in failing to take action or in taking such action as was taken, and that such failure or action caused the loss.

(5) The rights of action authorized by this subsection shall be the exclusive remedy under this chapter available to any person who sustains a loss as a result of (A) the alleged failure by a contract market, licensed board of trade, clearing organization, or registered futures association or by any officer, director, governor, committee member, or employee to enforce any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection, or (B) the taking of action in enforcing any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution referred to in this subsection that is alleged to have violated this chapter, or any Commission rule, regulation, or order.

(c) Jurisdiction; statute of limitations; venue; process

The United States district courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction of actions brought under this section. Any such action shall be brought not later than two years after the date the cause of action arises. Any action brought under subsection (a) of this section may be brought in any judicial district wherein the defendant is found, resides, or transacts business, or in the judicial district wherein any act or transaction constituting the violation occurs. Process in such action may be served in any judicial district of which the defendant is an inhabitant or wherever the defendant may be found.

(d) Dates of application to actions

The provisions of this section shall become effective with respect to causes of action accruing on or after the date of enactment of the Futures Trading Act of 1982 [January 11, 1983]: Provided, That the enactment of the Futures Trading Act of 1982 shall not affect any right of any parties which may exist with respect to causes of action accruing prior to such date.

(Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §22, as added Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §235, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2322; amended Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §§211, 222(d), title IV, §402(14), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3607, 3616, 3625.)

References in Text

Sections 7a(8), 7a(9), and 7a(11) of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(1)(A), were redesignated sections 7a(a)(8), 7a(a)(9), and 7a(a)(11), respectively, by Pub. L. 102–546, title II, §201(a)(1), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3595.

The Futures Trading Act of 1982, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 97–444, Jan. 11, 1983, 96 Stat. 2294, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1983 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(14)(A), substituted “subparagraphs” for “clauses” in introductory provisions and “subparagraph” for “clause” in subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–546, §402(14)(B), made technical amendment to reference to section 21(b)(10) of this title to correct reference to corresponding section of original act.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–546, §222(d), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–546, §211, amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “The United States district courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction of actions brought under this section. Any such action must be brought within two years after the date the cause of action accrued.”

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as an Effective Date of 1983 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§26. Repealed. Pub. L. 102–546, title IV, §402(15), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3625

Section, act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, §23, as added Jan. 11, 1983, Pub. L. 97–444, title II, §236, 96 Stat. 2324, provided for special studies to be conducted by Commission, Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System, and Securities and Exchange Commission.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 11, 1983, see section 239 of Pub. L. 97–444, set out as an Effective Date of 1983 Amendment note under section 2 of this title.

CHAPTER 2—COTTON STANDARDS

Sec.
51.
Short title.
51a.
Extension of classification facilities to cotton growers.
51a–1.
Contracts with cooperatives furnishing classers; amount and type of payment.
51b.
Licensing samplers; revocation and suspension of license.
52.
Use of nonofficial standards prohibited; sales by sample excepted.
53.
Licensing classifiers; revocation and suspension of license.
54.
Classification by Department of Agriculture; certification thereof; effect of certificate; regulations for classification.
55.
Fees and charges for cotton classing and related services; criteria; disposition of moneys and samples.
56.
Establishment of cotton standards; furnishing copies of established standards sold.
57.
Disposition of proceeds of sale of cotton and of copies of standards.
57a.
Agreements with cotton associations, etc., in foreign countries to establish cotton standards.
58.
General inspection and sampling of cotton.
59.
Offenses in relation to cotton standards.
60.
Penalties for violations.
61.
General regulations, investigations, tests, etc., by Secretary.
61a.
Annual review meetings with cotton industry representatives; purposes, etc.
62.
Definitions.
63.
Liability of principal for act of agent.
64.
Appropriation for expenses; appointment by Secretary of officers and agents; compensation.
65.
Separability.

        

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 15b, 61a of this title.

§51. Short title

This chapter shall be known by the short title of “United States Cotton Standards Act.”

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §1, 42 Stat. 1517.)

Effective Date

Section 14 of act Mar. 4, 1923, provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter] shall become effective on and after Aug. 1, 1923.”

§51a. Extension of classification facilities to cotton growers

The Secretary of Agriculture is requested to extend to cotton growers facilities for the classification of cotton authorized in this chapter, with such supervision of licensed classifiers as he shall deem necessary under authority of the United States Cotton Futures Act.

(Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 284, §1, 47 Stat. 1621.)

References in Text

The United States Cotton Futures Act, referred to in text, is part A of act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, 39 Stat. 476, as amended, which was repealed by section 4 of act Feb. 10, 1939, ch. 2, 53 Stat. 1. For complete classification of this Act to the Code prior to its repeal, see Tables.

Codification

This section was not enacted as part of the United States Cotton Standards Act which comprises this chapter.

§51a–1. Contracts with cooperatives furnishing classers; amount and type of payment

On and after July 5, 1952 the Secretary may contract with cooperatives furnishing classers and other facilities for classing cotton and may pay for such services in amount, some part of which may be in kind, not in excess of the value of the samples.

(July 5, 1952, ch. 574, title I, §101, 66 Stat. 349.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1953, and not as part of the United States Cotton Standards Act which comprises this chapter.

§51b. Licensing samplers; revocation and suspension of license

Further to carry out the purposes of this chapter the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to issue to any qualified person, upon presentation of satisfactory evidence of competency, a license to sample cotton. Any such license may be suspended or revoked by the Secretary of Agriculture whenever he is satisfied that such licensee is incompetent or has knowingly or carelessly sampled cotton improperly, or has violated any provision of this chapter or the regulations thereunder so far as the same may relate to him, or has used his license, or allowed it to be used, for any improper purpose. The Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe by regulation the conditions under which licenses may be issued hereunder, and may require any licensed sampler to give bond for the faithful performance of his duties and for the protection of persons affected thereby and may prescribe the conditions under which cotton shall be sampled by licensed samplers for the purpose of classification by officers of the Department of Agriculture, or by licensed cotton classifiers.

(Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 284, §2, 47 Stat. 1621.)

Codification

This section was not enacted as part of the United States Cotton Standards Act which comprises this chapter.

§52. Use of nonofficial standards prohibited; sales by sample excepted

It shall be unlawful (a) in or in connection with any transaction or shipment in commerce made after August 1, 1923, or (b) in any publication of a price or quotation determined in or in connection with any transaction or shipment in commerce after August 1, 1923, or (c) in any classification for the purposes of or in connection with a transaction or shipment in commerce after August 1, 1923, for any person to indicate for any cotton a grade or other class which is of or within the official cotton standards of the United States then in effect under this chapter by a name, description, or designation, or any system of names, description, or designation not used in said standards: Provided, That nothing herein shall prevent a transaction otherwise lawful by actual sample or on the basis of a private type which is used in good faith and not in evasion of or substitution for said standards.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §2, 42 Stat. 1517.)

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 60 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 60 of this title.

§53. Licensing classifiers; revocation and suspension of license

The Secretary of Agriculture may, upon presentation of satisfactory evidence of competency, issue to any person a license to grade or otherwise classify cotton and to certificate the grade or other class thereof in accordance with the official cotton standards of the United States. Any such license may be suspended or revoked by the Secretary of Agriculture whenever he is satisfied, after reasonable opportunity afforded to the licensee for a hearing, that such licensee is incompetent or has knowingly or carelessly classified cotton improperly, or has violated any provision of this chapter or the regulations thereunder so far as the same may relate to him, or has used his license or allowed it to be used for any improper purpose. Pending investigation the Secretary of Agriculture, whenever he deems necessary, may suspend a license temporarily without a hearing.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §3, 42 Stat. 1517.)

Cross References

Charges for licenses issued to classifiers of cotton under this section, see section 55 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 55 of this title.

§54. Classification by Department of Agriculture; certification thereof; effect of certificate; regulations for classification

Any person who has custody of or a financial interest in any cotton may submit the same or samples thereof, drawn in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture, to such officer or officers of the Department of Agriculture, as may be designated for the purpose pursuant to the regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture for a determination of the true classification of such cotton or samples, including the comparison thereof, if requested, with types or other samples submitted for the purpose. The final certificate of the Department of Agriculture showing such determination shall be binding on officers of the United States and shall be accepted in the courts of the United States as prima facie evidence of the true classification or comparison of such cotton or samples when involved in any transaction or shipment in commerce. The Secretary of Agriculture shall fix rules and regulations for submitting samples of cotton for classification providing that all samples shall be numbered so that no one interested in the transaction involved shall be known by any classifier engaged in the classification of such cotton samples.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §4, 42 Stat. 1517.)

Cross References

Charges for determinations made under this section, see section 55 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 55, 58 of this title.

§55. Fees and charges for cotton classing and related services; criteria; disposition of moneys and samples

(a) The Secretary of Agriculture shall cause to be collected such fees and charges for licenses issued to classifiers of cotton under section 53 of this title, for determinations made under section 54 of this title, and for the establishment of standards and sale of copies of standards under sections 56, 57, and 57a of this title, as will cover, as nearly as practicable, and after taking into consideration net proceeds from any sale of samples, the costs incident to providing services and standards under such sections, including administrative and supervisory costs. The Secretary may provide by regulation conditions under which cotton samples submitted or used in the performance of services authorized by this chapter shall become the property of the United States and may be sold with the proceeds credited to the foregoing account: Provided, That such cotton samples shall not be subject to the provisions of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 471 et seq.). Any fees or charges, late payment penalties, or proceeds from the sales of samples collected under this subsection, and any interest earned through the investment of such funds shall be credited to the current appropriation account that incurs the costs of the services provided under this chapter, and shall remain available without fiscal year limitation to pay the expenses of the Secretary incident to providing services and standards under this chapter and section 15b of this title. Such funds may be invested by the Secretary in insured or fully collateralized, interest-bearing accounts or, at the discretion of the Secretary, by the Secretary of the Treasury in United States Government debt instruments.

(b) The price established by the Secretary of Agriculture under the foregoing provisions of this section for practical forms representing the official cotton standards of the United States shall cover, as nearly as practicable, the estimated actual cost to the Department of Agriculture for developing and preparing such practical forms.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §5, 42 Stat. 1518; Pub. L. 97–35, title I, §156(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 373; Pub. L. 100–518, §4, Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2587.)

References in Text

The Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, 63 Stat. 377, as amended. The provisions of that Act relating to management and disposal of government property are classified to chapter 10 (§471 et seq.) of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 471 of Title 40 and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–518 included late payment penalties, proceeds, and interest within amounts to be credited to current appropriation account and remain available until expended, and authorized investment of such funds in certain interest-bearing accounts or debt instruments.

1981—Pub. L. 97–35 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted provisions requiring Secretary to cause to be collected fees and charges, for provisions authorizing Secretary to cause to be collected charges, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 156(e) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 61a of this title.

Appropriation Account

Effective July 1, 1935, the appropriation account for expenses provided for in this chapter was abolished by act June 26, 1934, ch. 756, §5, 48 Stat. 1228.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 15b of this title.

§56. Establishment of cotton standards; furnishing copies of established standards sold

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to establish from time to time standards for the classification of cotton by which its quality or value may be judged or determined for commercial purposes which shall be known as the official cotton standards of the United States. Any such standard or change or replacement thereof shall become effective only on and after a date specified in the order of the Secretary of Agriculture establishing the same, which date shall be not less than one year after the date of such order: Provided, That the official cotton standards established, effective August 1, 1923, under the United States Cotton Futures Act shall be at the same time the official cotton standards for the purpose of this chapter unless and until changed or replaced under this chapter. Whenever any standard or change or replacement thereof shall become effective under this chapter, it shall also, when so specified in the order of the Secretary of Agriculture, become effective for the purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act and supersede any inconsistent standard established under said Act. Whenever the official cotton standards of the United States established under this chapter shall be represented by practical forms the Department of Agriculture shall furnish copies thereof, upon request, to any person, and the cost thereof, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture, shall be paid by the person making the request. The Secretary of Agriculture may cause such copies to be certified under the seal of the Department of Agriculture and may attach such conditions to the purchase and use thereof, including provision for the inspection, condemnation, and exchange thereof by duly authorized representatives of the Department of Agriculture as he may find to be necessary to the proper application of the official cotton standards of the United States.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §6(a), formerly §6, 42 Stat. 1518; renumbered §6(a), Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, §401(b), 58 Stat. 738.)

References in Text

The United States Cotton Futures Act, referred to in text, is part A of act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, 39 Stat. 476, as amended, which was repealed by section 4 of act Feb. 10, 1939, ch. 2, 53 Stat. 1. For complete classification of this Act to the Code prior to its repeal, see Tables.

Codification

Section is composed of the first five sentences of subsec. (a) of section 6 of act Mar. 4, 1923, as renumbered by section 401(b), of act Sept. 21, 1944. Last sentence of subsec. (a) of section 6 is classified to section 57 of this title. Subsec. (b) of section 6 is classified to section 57a of this title.

Cross References

Disposition of proceeds of sale of cotton and of copies of standards, see section 57 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 55, 57 of this title.

§57. Disposition of proceeds of sale of cotton and of copies of standards

Any moneys received from or in connection with the sale of cotton purchased for the preparation of the copies mentioned in section 56 of this title and condemned as unsuitable for such use or with the sale of such copies may be expended for the purchase of other cotton for such use.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §6(a), formerly §6, 42 Stat. 1518; renumbered §6(a), Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, §401(b), 58 Stat. 738.)

Codification

Section is composed of the last sentence of subsec. (a) of section 6 of act Mar. 4, 1923, as renumbered by section 401(b) of act Sept. 21, 1944. First five sentences of subsec. (a) of section 6 is classified to section 56 of this title. Subsec. (b) of section 6 is classified to section 57a of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 55 of this title.

§57a. Agreements with cotton associations, etc., in foreign countries to establish cotton standards

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to effectuate agreements with cotton associations, cotton exchanges, and other cotton organizations in foreign countries, for (1) the adoption, use, and observance of universal standards of cotton classification, (2) the arbitration or settlement of disputes with respect thereto, and (3) the preparation, distribution, inspection, and protection of the practical forms or copies thereof under such agreements.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §6(b), as added Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title IV, §401(b), 58 Stat. 738.)

Codification

Section was enacted as subsec. (b) of section 6 of act Mar. 4, 1923, by act Sept. 21, 1944, §401(b). Subsec. (a) of section 6 is classified to sections 56 and 57 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 55 of this title.

§58. General inspection and sampling of cotton

In order to carry out the provisions of this chapter, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cause the inspection, including the sampling, of any cotton involved in any transaction or shipment in commerce, wherever such cotton may be found, or of any cotton with respect to which a determination of the true classification is requested under section 54 of this title.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §7, 42 Stat. 1518.)

§59. Offenses in relation to cotton standards

It shall be unlawful for any person (a) with intent to deceive or defraud, to make, receive, use, or have in his possession any simulate or counterfeit practical form or copy of any standard or part thereof established under this chapter; or (b) without the written authority of the Secretary of Agriculture, to make, alter, tamper with, or in any respect change any practical form or copy of any standard established under this chapter; or (c) to display or use any such practical form or copy after the Secretary of Agriculture shall have caused it to be condemned.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §8, 42 Stat. 1519.)

Cross References

Punishment for violating the provisions of this section, see section 60 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 60 of this title.

§60. Penalties for violations

(a) Any person who shall knowingly violate any provision of sections 52 or 59 of this title, or (b) any person licensed under this chapter who, for the purposes of or in connection with any transaction or shipment in commerce, shall knowingly classify cotton improperly, or shall knowingly falsify or forge any certificate of classification, or shall accept money or other consideration, either directly or indirectly, for any neglect or improper performance of duty as such licensee, or (c) any person who shall knowingly influence improperly or attempt to influence improperly any person licensed under this chapter in the performance of his duties as such licensee relating to any transaction or shipment in commerce, or (d) any person who shall forcibly assault, resist, impede, or interfere with or influence improperly or attempt to influence improperly any person employed under this chapter in the performance of his duties, shall, upon conviction thereof, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not exceeding $1,000, or imprisoned not exceeding six months, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §9, 42 Stat. 1519.)

§61. General regulations, investigations, tests, etc., by Secretary

For the purposes of this chapter the Secretary of Agriculture shall cause to be promulgated such regulations, may cause such investigations, tests, demonstrations, and publications to be made, including the investigation and determination of some practical method whereby repeated and unnecessary sampling and classification of cotton may be avoided, and may cooperate with any department or agency of the Government, any State, Territory, District, or possession, or department, agency, or political subdivision thereof, or any person, as he shall find to be necessary.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §10, 42 Stat. 1519.)

§61a. Annual review meetings with cotton industry representatives; purposes, etc.

The Secretary of Agriculture shall hold annual meetings with representatives of the cotton industry to review (1) activities and operations under the Cotton Standards Act [7 U.S.C. 51 et seq.], and the Cotton Statistics and Estimates Act [7 U.S.C. 471 et seq.], (2) activities and operations relating to cotton under the United States Warehouse Act [7 U.S.C. 241 et seq.], and (3) the effect of such activities and operations on prices received by producers and sales to domestic and foreign users, for the purpose of improving procedures for financing and administering such activities and operations for the benefit of the industry and the Government. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall take such action as may be necessary to insure that the universal cotton standards system and the licensing and inspection procedures for cotton warehouses are preserved and that the Government cotton classification system continues to operate so that the United States cotton crop is provided an official quality description.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title I, §156(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 374.)

References in Text

The Cotton Standards Act, referred to in text, probably meaning the United States Cotton Standards Act, is act Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, 42 Stat. 1517, as amended, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 51 of this title and Tables.

The Cotton Statistics and Estimates Act, referred to in text, is act Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 337, 44 Stat. 1372, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 19 (§471 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 471 of this title and Tables.

The United States Warehouse Act, referred to in text, is part C of act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, 39 Stat. 486, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 10 (§241 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 241 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, and not as part of the United States Cotton Standards Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section 156(e) of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that: “The provisions of this section [enacting this section, amending sections 15b, 55, and 473a of this title, and enacting provision set out as a note under section 473a of this title] shall become effective October 1, 1981.”

§62. Definitions

Wherever used in this chapter, (a) the word “person” imports the plural or the singular, as the case demands, and includes an individual, a partnership, a corporation, or two or more persons having a joint or common interest; (b) the word “commerce” means commerce between any State or the District of Columbia and any place outside thereof, or between points within the same State or the District of Columbia but through any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia; and (c) the word “cotton” means cotton of any variety produced within the continental United States, including linters.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §11, 42 Stat. 1519.)

Codification

Section is composed of the first sentence of section 11 of act Mar. 4, 1923. The remainder of section 11 is contained in section 63 of this title.

§63. Liability of principal for act of agent

When construing and enforcing the provisions of this chapter, the act, omission, or failure of any agent, officer, or other person acting for or employed by any person, within the scope of his employment or office, shall in every case be deemed also the act, omission, or failure of such person as well as that of such agent, officer, or other person.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §11, 42 Stat. 1519.)

Codification

Section is composed of the second sentence of section 11 of act Mar. 4, 1923. The first sentence of section 11 is contained in section 62 of this title.

§64. Appropriation for expenses; appointment by Secretary of officers and agents; compensation

There are authorized to be appropriated out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary for carrying out the provisions of this chapter; and the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized, within the limits of such appropriations, to appoint, remove, and fix the compensations of such officers and employees, not in conflict with existing law, and make such expenditures for rent outside the District of Columbia, printing, telegrams, telephones, law books, books of reference, periodicals, furniture, stationery, office equipment, travel, and other supplies and expenses as shall be necessary to the administration of this chapter in the District of Columbia and elsewhere.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §12, 42 Stat. 1519.)

§65. Separability

If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the chapter and the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 288, §13, 42 Stat. 1520.)

CHAPTER 3—GRAIN STANDARDS

Sec.
71.
Short title.
72, 73.
Omitted.
74.
Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
75.
Definitions.
75a.
Repealed.
75b.
Committee on Grain Quality and Grain Quality Coordinator.
(a)
Establishment of Committee and Coordinator.
(b)
Duties.
(c)
Termination.
76.
Standards and procedures; establishment, amendment, and revocation.
(a)
Authority of Secretary.
(b)
Notice and opportunity for comment; standards regarding cleanliness of grain.
(c)
Grade determining factors related to physical soundness and purity; notice and opportunity for comment.
(d)
Moisture content criterion.
77.
Official inspection and weighing requirements; waiver; supervision by representatives of Secretary.
(a)
Official samples and certificates; waiver; excepted grains.
(b)
Supervision by representatives of Secretary.
(c)
Testing for aflatoxin contamination of corn shipped in foreign commerce.
78.
Use of official grade designations required; false or misleading grade designations for grain shipped out of the United States.
79.
Official inspection.
(a)
Grain required to be officially inspected.
(b)
Inspections made pursuant to request of interested persons.
(c)
Reinspections and appeals; cancellation of superseded certificates; sale of samples.
(d)
Official certificates as evidence.
(e)
Official inspection at export port locations; delegation of authority to State agencies.
(f)
Official inspections at other than export port locations; designation of agencies or persons to conduct official inspections.
(g)
Termination, renewal, amendment, cancellation, and revocation of designations of official agencies.
(h)
Official inspections at locations other than export port locations when designated official agencies are not available.
(i)
Official inspections in Canadian ports.
(j)
Fees; establishment, amount, payment, etc.
79a.
Weighing authority.
(a)
Official weighing in accordance with prescribed regulations.
(b)
Official weighing or supervision of weighing at grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities located other than at export elevators at export port locations.
(c)
Personnel performing official weighing or supervision of weighing at locations at which official inspection is provided.
(d)
Official weighing in Canadian ports.
(e)
Official weighing or supervision of weighing upon request of operators of grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities.
(f)
Demonstrated willingness of operators of grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities to meet equipment and personnel requirements.
(g)
Official certificates as evidence.
(h)
Weighing prohibited when not in accordance with prescribed procedures.
(i)
Unauthorized weighing prohibited.
(j)
Authority under United States Warehouse Act not limited.
(k)
Access to elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities.
(l)
Fees; establishment, amount, payment, etc.
79b.
Testing of equipment.
(a)
Random and periodic testing at least annually; fees.
(b)
Personnel to conduct testing.
(c)
Use of non-approved equipment prohibited.
79c.
Omitted.
79d.
Limitation on administrative and supervisory costs.
80 to 83.
Omitted.
84.
Licensing of inspectors.
(a)
Authorization.
(b)
Duration of licenses; suspension; reinstatement.
(c)
Examination of applicants; reexaminations.
(d)
Inspectors performing under contract not deemed Federal employees.
(e)
Hiring of official inspection personnel and supervisory personnel without regard to laws governing appointments to the competitive service.
(f)
Periodic rotation of personnel.
(g)
Recruitment, training, and supervision of personnel; work production standards; exemption for certain personnel.
85.
Suspension, revocation, and refusal to renew licenses; hearing; grounds; temporary suspension.
86.
Refusal of inspection and weighing services; civil penalties.
(a)
Grounds for refusal of services.
(b)
Persons responsibly connected with a business.
(c)
Civil penalties.
(d)
Opportunity for hearing; temporary refusal without hearing pending final determination.
(e)
Collection and disposition of civil penalties.
87.
Conflicts of interest.
(a)
Prohibition with respect to persons licensed or authorized by Secretary to perform official functions.
(b)
Prohibition with respect to personnel of official or State agencies and business or governmental entities related to such agencies; substantial stock holder; use of official inspection service; authority delegation; report to Congressional committees.
(c)
Official agencies or State agencies not prevented from engaging in business of weighing grain.
87a.
Records.
(a)
Samples of grain.
(b)
Period of maintenance.
(c)
Access to records; audits.
(d)
Maintenance of records by persons or entities receiving official inspection or weighing services; access to records and facilities.
87b.
Prohibited acts.
87c.
Criminal penalties.
87d.
Responsibility for acts of others.
87e.
General authorities.
(a)
Authority of Secretary.
(b)
Investigation of reports or complaints of discrepancies and abuses in official inspection or weighing of grain.
(c)
Monitoring of United States grain upon its entry into foreign nations.
(d)
Authority of Office of Investigation of Department of Agriculture.
(e)
Research program to develop methods of improving accuracy and uniformity in grading grain.
(f)
Adequate personnel to meet inspection and weighing requirements.
(g)
Testing of certain weighing equipment.
(h)
Testing of grain inspection instruments.
(i)
Additional for fee services.
(j)
Deposit of fees.
(k)
Official courtesies.
87e–1.
Purchase or lease of inspection equipment.
87f.
Enforcement provisions.
(a)
Subpena power.
(b)
Disobedience of subpena.
(c)
Court order requiring attendance and testimony of witnesses.
(d)
Fees and mileage costs of witnesses.
(e)
Violation of subpena as misdemeanor.
(f),
(g) Repealed.
(h)
District court jurisdiction.
87f–1.
Registration requirements.
(a)
General requirement.
(b)
Required information.
(c)
Certificate of registration.
(d)
Suspension or registration of certificate of registration.
(e)
Fees.
87f–2.
Reporting requirements.
(a)
General requirements; annual report to Congressional committees.
(b)
Notification of Congressional committees of complaints regarding faulty grain deliveries and cancellation of export contracts.
(c)
Submission to Congressional committees of annual summary of complaints from foreign purchasers and prospective purchasers of grain.
87g.
Relation to State and local laws; separability.
87h.
Appropriations.
87i.
Omitted.
87j.
Advisory committee.
(a)
Establishment; number and terms of members.
(b)
Federal Advisory Committee Act as governing.
(c)
Clerical assistance and staff personnel.
(d)
Compensation and travel expenses.
(e)
Expiration of Secretary's authority.
87k.
Standardizing commercial inspections.
(a)
Testing equipment.
(b)
General inspection procedures.
(c)
Inspection services and information.
(d)
Standardized aflatoxin equipment and procedures.

        

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in section 420 of this title.

§71. Short title

This chapter may be cited as the “United States Grain Standards Act.”

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §1, 39 Stat. 482; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 761.)

Codification

This chapter constitutes part B of “An act making appropriations for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, and for other purposes,” approved Aug. 11, 1916. Part A of act of Aug. 11, 1916, containing the “United States Cotton Futures Act,” was repealed by section 4 of act Feb. 10, 1939, ch. 2, 53 Stat. 1. Part C of that act contained the “United States Warehouse Act,” and is incorporated, as amended, as section 241 et seq. of this title.

Section is comprised of part of section 1 of part B of act Aug. 11, 1916. Other provisions contained in section 1 were classified to former sections 72 and 73 of this title.

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted “may be cited as” for “shall be known by the short title of”.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–487 effective 180 days after Aug. 15, 1968, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–156, §1(a), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1525, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 75 to 77, 79 to 79b, 79d, 84 to 87e, 87f, 87f–1, 87h, 87j, and 87k of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 75 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 79 of this title] may be cited as the ‘United States Grain Standards Act Amendments of 1993’.”

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–624, title XX, §2001, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3928, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 75b, 87k, 1427–1, 1593a, and 1622a of this title, amending sections 74, 76, 77, 87b, 1423, and 1445e of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 76 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Grain Quality Incentives Act of 1990’.”

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–518, §1, Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2584, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 79d and 87j of this title, amending sections 55, 79, 79a, and 87h of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 79 and 1421 of this title] may be cited as the ‘United States Grain Standards Act Amendments of 1988’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–641, title III, §301, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3564, provided that: “This title [amending sections 74 and 87b of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 76 and 87b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Grain Quality Improvement Act of 1986’.”

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 94–582, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2867, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 75a, 79a, 79b, 87e–1, 87f–1, and 87f–2 of this title, amending sections 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 84, 85, 86, 87, 87a, 87b, 87c, 87e, 87f, 87g, and 87h of this title, section 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 74, 75a, 76, and 79 of this title] may be cited as the ‘United States Grain Standards Act of 1976’.”

§§72, 73. Omitted

Codification

Sections were omitted in the general reorganization of this chapter by Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 761.

Section 72, act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §1 (part), 39 Stat. 482, defined the words “person” and “in interstate or foreign commerce”. See section 75 of this title.

Section 73, act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §1 (part), 39 Stat. 482, made associations, partnerships, and corporations liable for the acts of their agents within the scope of their employment or office. See section 87d of this title.

§74. Congressional findings and declaration of policy

(a) Grain is an essential source of the world's total supply of human food and animal feed and is merchandised in interstate and foreign commerce. It is declared to be the policy of the Congress, for the promotion and protection of such commerce in the interests of producers, merchandisers, warehousemen, processors, and consumers of grain, and the general welfare of the people of the United States, to provide for the establishment of official United States standards for grain, to promote the uniform application thereof by official inspection personnel, to provide for an official inspection system for grain, and to regulate the weighing and the certification of the weight of grain shipped in interstate or foreign commerce in the manner hereinafter provided; with the objectives that grain may be marketed in an orderly and timely manner and that trading in grain may be facilitated. It is hereby found that all grain and other articles and transactions in grain regulated under this chapter are either in interstate or foreign commerce or substantially affect such commerce and that regulation thereof as provided in this chapter is necessary to prevent or eliminate burdens on such commerce and to regulate effectively such commerce.

(b) It is also declared to be the policy of Congress—

(1) to promote the marketing of grain of high quality to both domestic and foreign buyers;

(2) that the primary objective of the official United States standards for grain is to certify the quality of grain as accurately as practicable; and

(3) that official United States standards for grain shall—

(A) define uniform and accepted descriptive terms to facilitate trade in grain;

(B) provide information to aid in determining grain storability;

(C) offer users of such standards the best possible information from which to determine end-product yield and quality of grain;

(D) provide the framework necessary for markets to establish grain quality improvement incentives;

(E) reflect the economic value-based characteristics in the end uses of grain; and

(F) accommodate scientific advances in testing and new knowledge concerning factors related to, or highly correlated with, the end use performance of grain.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §2, 39 Stat. 482; July 18, 1940, ch. 636, 54 Stat. 765; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 94–582, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2867; Pub. L. 99–641, title III, §302, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3564; Pub. L. 101–624, title XX, §2004, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3929.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b)(3)(E), (F). Pub. L. 101–624 added subpars. (E) and (F).

1986—Pub. L. 99–641 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1976—Pub. L. 94–582 expressed the policy of Congress to regulate the weighing and the certification of the weight of grain shipped in interstate or foreign commerce and the finding of Congress of the necessity to regulate grain transactions to prevent or eliminate burdens on commerce and to regulate effectively such interstate or foreign commerce, and provided that the grain be marketed in a timely manner.

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted a declaration of policy by the Congress for provisions authorizing promulgation and establishment of grain standards by Secretary of Agriculture.

1940—Act July 18, 1940, inserted “soybeans,” after “flaxseed,”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, as amended by Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §§1602(d), 1605(b), 1607(b), 1608, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1025, 1030, 1031, provided that: “This Act [see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 71 of this title] shall become effective thirty days after enactment hereof [Oct. 21, 1976]; and thereafter no State or other agency or person shall provide official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing under the United States Grain Standards Act as amended by this Act [this chapter], at an export port location without a delegation of authority or other authorization under such amended Act, and no agency or person shall provide official inspection service or official weighing or supervision of weighing under such amended Act in any other area without a designation or other authorization under such amended Act, except that any agency or person then providing such service in any area may continue to operate in that area without a delegation or designation or other authorization under such Act but shall be subject to all provisions of the United States Grain Standards Act and regulations thereunder in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this Act, until whichever of the following events occurs first:

“(1) a delegation or designation of such agency or person to perform such services is granted or denied by the Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service pursuant to the United States Grain Standards Act, as amended by this Act; or

“(2) such agency or person, or two or more members or employees thereof, have been or are convicted of a violation of any provision of the United States Grain Standards Act in effect immediately prior to the effective date of this Act; or convicted of any offense proscribed by other Federal law involving the handling, weighing, or official inspection of grain: Provided, That the Administrator may allow such affected agency or person to continue to operate in that area if the Administrator determines that such continued operations are necessary or desirable in carrying out the requirements of this Act: Provided further, That the Administrator shall, within 30 days after making such determination, submit a report to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate detailing the factual bases for such determination; or

“(3) with respect to export port locations, the expiration of a period determined by the Administrator of not more than eighteen months following the effective date hereof; or

“(4) with respect to any other area, the expiration of a period as determined by the Administrator of not more than two years following the effective date hereof:

Provided, That the Administrator is authorized and directed to cause official inspection and official weighing of grain pursuant to the provisions of the United States Grain Standards Act, as amended by this Act, to be performed by authorized employees of the United States Department of Agriculture or the Service, to begin at any time immediately thereafter the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1976], at those export port locations and export elevators located at export port locations at which the Administrator determines that such performance by such authorized employees is necessary to effectuate the provisions of section 2 of the United States Grain Standards Act, as amended [this section].”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 79, 79a, 86, 87e, 87f–2, 87j of this title.

§75. Definitions

When used in this chapter, except where the context requires otherwise—

(a) the term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States or delegates of the Secretary;

(b) the term “Department of Agriculture” means the United States Department of Agriculture;

(c) the term “person” means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other business entity;

(d) the term “United States” means the States (including Puerto Rico) and the territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia);

(e) the term “State” means any one of the States (including Puerto Rico) or territories or possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia);

(f) the term “interstate or foreign commerce” means commerce from any State to or through any other State, or to or through any foreign country;

(g) the term “grain” means corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, flaxseed, sorghum, soybeans, mixed grain, and any other food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds for which standards are established under section 76 of this title;

(h) the term “export grain” means grain for shipment from the United States to any place outside thereof;

(i) the term “official inspection” means the determination (by original inspection, and when requested, reinspection and appeal inspection) and the certification, by official inspection personnel of the kind, class, quality, or condition of grain, under standards provided for in this chapter, or the condition of vessels and other carriers or receptacles for the transportation of grain insofar as it may affect the quality or condition of such grain; or other facts relating to grain under other criteria approved by the Secretary under this chapter (the term “officially inspected” shall be construed accordingly);

(j) the term “official inspection personnel” means persons licensed or otherwise authorized by the Secretary pursuant to section 84 of this title to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing, or in the supervision of official inspection, official weighing or supervision of weighing;

(k) the term “official mark” means any symbol prescribed by regulations of the Secretary to show the official determination of official inspection or official weighing;

(l) the term “official grade designation” means a numerical or sample grade designation, specified in the standards relating to kind, class, quality, and condition of grain, provided for in this chapter;

(m) the term “official agency” means any State or local governmental agency, or any person, designated by the Secretary pursuant to subsection (f) of section 79 of this title for the conduct of official inspection (other than appeal inspection), or subsection (c) of section 79a of this title for the conduct of official weighing or supervision of weighing (other than appeal weighing);

(n) the terms “official certificate” and “official form” mean, respectively, a certificate or other form prescribed by regulations of the Secretary under this chapter;

(o) the term “official sample” means a sample obtained from a lot of grain by, and submitted for official inspection by, official inspection personnel (the term “official sampling” shall be construed accordingly);

(p) the term “submitted sample” means a sample submitted by or for an interested person for official inspection, other than an official sample;

(q) the term “lot” means a specific quantity of grain identified as such;

(r) the term “interested person” means any person having a contract or other financial interest in grain as the owner, seller, purchaser, warehouseman, or carrier, or otherwise;

(s) the verb “ship” with respect to grain means transfer physical possession of the grain to another person for the purpose of transportation by any means of conveyance, or transport one's own grain by any means of conveyance;

(t) the terms “false”, “incorrect”, and “misleading” mean, respectively, false, incorrect, and misleading in any particular;

(u) the term “deceptive loading, handling, weighing, or sampling” means any manner of loading, handling, weighing, or sampling that deceives or tends to deceive official inspection personnel, as specified by regulations of the Secretary under this chapter;

(v) the term “export elevator” means any grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility in the United States as determined by the Secretary, from which grain is shipped from the United States to an area outside thereof;

(w) the term “export port location” means a commonly recognized port of export in the United States or Canada, as determined by the Secretary, from which grain produced in the United States is shipped to any place outside the United States;

(x) the term “official weighing” means the determination and certification by official inspection personnel of the quantity of a lot of grain under standards provided for in this chapter, based on the actual performance of weighing or the physical supervision thereof, including the physical inspection and testing for accuracy of the weights and scales and the physical inspection of the premises at which the weighing is performed and the monitoring of the discharge of grain into the elevator or conveyance (the terms “officially weigh” and “officially weighed” shall be construed accordingly);

(y) the term “supervision of weighing” means such supervision by official inspection personnel of the grain-weighing process as is determined by the Secretary to be adequate to reasonably assure the integrity and accuracy of the weighing and of certificates which set forth the weight of the grain and such physical inspection by such personnel of the premises at which the grain weighing is performed as will reasonably assure that all the grain intended to be weighed has been weighed and discharged into the elevator or conveyance; and

(z) the term “intracompany shipment” means the shipment, within the United States, of grain lots between facilities owned or controlled by the person owning the grain. The shipment of grain owned by a cooperative, from a facility owned by that cooperative, to an export facility which it jointly owns with other cooperatives, qualifies as an intracompany shipment.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §3, 39 Stat. 483; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 94–582, §3, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2867; Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §§1604(a), 1606(a), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1026, 1030; Pub. L. 96–437, §1, Oct. 13, 1980, 94 Stat. 1870; Pub. L. 102–237, title X, §1007(1), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1897; Pub. L. 103–156, §12(a), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1528; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(1), (7), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing in subsecs. (i) to (k), (m), (n), (u) to (w), and (y), redesignated subsec. (bb) as (z), and struck out former subsecs. (z) and (aa) which read as follows:

“(z) the term ‘Administrator’ means the Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service or delegates of the Administrator;

“(aa) the term ‘Service’ means the Federal Grain Inspection Service; and”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156, §12(a), which directed amendment of “Section 3”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 3 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(a)(1), substituted “delegates of the Secretary” for “his delegates”.

Subsec. (z). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(a)(2), substituted “delegates of the Administrator” for “his delegates”.

1991—Subsecs. (i) to (k), (u) to (x), (z), (aa). Pub. L. 102–237 substituted “the” for “The” before “term”.

1980—Subsec. (bb). Pub. L. 96–437 added subsec. (bb).

1977—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(a)(1), substituted “sorghum” for “grain sorghum”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 95–113, §1606(a), struck out reference to the determination of the quantity of sacks of grain upon the request of the interested party applying for inspection.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(a)(2), substituted “or subsection (c) of section 79a of this title for the conduct of official weighing or supervision of weighing (other than appeal weighing)” for “or subsection (b) of section 79a of this title for the conduct of supervision of weighing”.

Subsec. (x). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(a)(3), substituted “under standards provided for in this chapter” for “under standards provided in this chapter”.

Subsec. (y). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(a)(4), substituted “such supervision by official inspection personnel of the grain-weighing process as is determined by the Administrator to be adequate to reasonably assure the integrity and accuracy of the weighing and of certificates which set forth the weight of the grain and such physical inspection by such personnel of the premises at which the grain weighing is performed as will reasonably assure that all the grain intended to be weighed has been weighed and discharged into the elevator or conveyance” for “the supervision of the weighing process and of the certification of the weight of grain, and the physical inspection of the premises at which the weighing is performed to assure that all the grain intended to be weighed has been weighed and discharged into the elevator or conveyance represented on the weight certificate or other document”.

1976—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 94–582, §3(a), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”, and expanded definition of “official inspection” to include determination “(by original inspection, and when requested, reinspection and appeal inspection)” and determination and certification of the condition of vessels and other carriers or receptacles for the transportation of grain insofar as it may affect the quality or condition of the grain.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 94–582, §3(b), in redefining “official inspection personnel”, substituted provision declaring term to mean “persons licensed or otherwise authorized by the Administrator pursuant to section 84 of this title to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing, or in the supervision of official inspection, official weighing or supervision of weighing” for “employees of State or other governmental agencies or commercial agencies or other persons who are licensed to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection under this chapter; employees of the Department of Agriculture who are authorized to supervise official inspection and to conduct appeal inspection or initial inspection of United States grain in Canadian ports”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 94–582, §3(c), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” and “official inspection or official weighing” for “an official inspection”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 94–582, §3(d), substituted “standards relating to kind, class, quality, and condition of grain,” for “standards”.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 94–582, §3(e), substituted definition of “official agency” meaning “any State or local governmental agency, or any person, designated by the Administrator pursuant to subsection (f) of section 79 of this title for the conduct of official inspection (other than appeal inspection), or subsection (b) of section 79a of this title for the conduct of supervision of weighing” for definition of “official inspection agency” meaning “the agency or person located at an inspection point designated by the Secretary for the conduct of official inspection under this chapter”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 94–582, §3(f), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 94–582, §3(g), included within term defined and its definition the concept of “weighing” and substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”.

Subsecs. (v) to (aa). Pub. L. 94–582, §3(h), added subsecs. (v) to (aa).

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions defining terms used in the chapter for provisions that the standards fixed and established by the Secretary of Agriculture be known as the official grain standards of the United States.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 16 of Pub. L. 103–156 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments made by this Act [amending this section and sections 75a to 77, 79 to 79b, 79d, 84 to 87e, 87f, 87f–1, 87h, 87j, and 87k of this title and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 79 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 24, 1993].

“(b) Special Effective Date for Certain Provisions.—The amendments made by sections 2, 3, and 13(a) [amending sections 79d and 87h of this title and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 79 of this title] shall take effect as of September 30, 1993.”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 49 sections 10709, 11101.

§75a. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(2), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237

Section, act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §3A, as added Oct. 21, 1976, Pub. L. 94–582, §4, 90 Stat. 2868; amended Sept. 29, 1977, Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §1604(b), 91 Stat. 1026; Nov. 24, 1993, Pub. L. 103–156, §15, 107 Stat. 1530, established Federal Grain Inspection Service in Department of Agriculture and provided for cost containment plan to make the Service more efficient.

§75b. Committee on Grain Quality and Grain Quality Coordinator

(a) Establishment of Committee and Coordinator

(1) Committee

The Secretary of Agriculture (hereafter referred to in this title 1 as the “Secretary”) shall establish, within the Department of Agriculture, a Committee on Grain Quality (hereafter referred to in this section as the “Committee”).

(2) Coordinator

The Committee established under paragraph (1) shall be chaired by an individual, appointed by the Secretary, who shall serve as the Grain Quality Coordinator (hereafter referred to in this title 1 as the “Coordinator”) and, in consultation with the Committee, carry out the duties described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Duties

The Coordinator shall be responsible for—

(1) assembling and evaluating, in a systematic manner, concerns and problems with the quality of United States grain, expressed by foreign and domestic buyers and end-users;

(2) developing and implementing a coordinated effort to inform and educate foreign buyers concerning the proper specifications of grain purchase contracts to obtain the quality of grain they desire;

(3) reviewing the programs and activities of the Department of Agriculture with respect to United States grain to determine whether the activities are consistent with the provisions of this title 1 (and other provisions of law) as such provisions relate to grain quality and grain quality competitiveness;

(4) serving as the Federal Government coordinator with respect to grain quality and grain quality competitiveness; and

(5) investigating and communicating, through the Secretary, to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate concerning—

(A) actions undertaken by the Department of Agriculture—

(i) to improve the quality of United States grain; and

(ii) that are inconsistent with the goal of improving grain quality;


(B) conditions in the production and marketing sectors that discourage improvements in grain quality;

(C) interrelationships of rules and actions taken by the Federal Grain Inspection Service, other agencies of the Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, and other Federal agencies, relating to grain production, handling, storage, transportation, and processing as such actions affect the wholesomeness and performance of grain;

(D) recommendations for legislative or regulatory changes that would address grain quality issues;

(E) progress made and benefits expected from the international harmonization of sanitary and phytosanitary requirements affecting grain;

(F) potential opportunities and benefits from the international harmonization of grain grades and standards;

(G) alternative forms of financial and technical assistance available and needed by producers and elevator operators to acquire and properly utilize grain cleaning, drying, and storage equipment; and

(H) progress on requirements of other sections of this title.2

(c) Termination

This section shall terminate on January 1, 2001.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XX, §2002, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3928.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(3), (5)(H), is title XX of Pub. L. 101–624, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3928, known as the Grain Quality Incentives Act of 1990. For complete classification of title XX to the Code, see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 71 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Grain Quality Incentives Act of 1990, and not as part of the United States Grain Standards Act which comprises this chapter.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 See References in Text note below.

§76. Standards and procedures; establishment, amendment, and revocation

(a) Authority of Secretary

The Secretary is authorized to investigate the handling, weighing, grading, and transportation of grain and to fix and establish (1) standards of kind, class, quality, and condition for corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, flaxseed, sorghum, soybeans, mixed grain, and such other grains as in the judgment of the Secretary the usages of the trade may warrant and permit, and (2) standards or procedures for accurate weighing and weight certification and controls, including safeguards over equipment calibration and maintenance, for grain shipped in interstate or foreign commerce; and the Secretary is authorized to amend or revoke such standards or procedures whenever the necessities of the trade may require.

(b) Notice and opportunity for comment; standards regarding cleanliness of grain

(1) Before establishing, amending, or revoking any standards under this chapter, the Secretary shall publish notice of the proposals and give interested persons opportunity to submit data, views, and arguments thereon and, upon request, an opportunity to present data, views, and arguments orally in an informal manner. No standards established or amendments or revocations of standards under this chapter shall become effective less than one calendar year after promulgation thereof, unless in the judgment of the Secretary, the public health, interest, or safety require that they become effective sooner.

(2)(A)(i) If the Secretary determines that the establishment or amendment of standards regarding cleanliness conditions of wheat, corn, barley, sorghum and soybeans that meet the requirements for grade number 3 or better (as set forth in subparagraph (B)) would—

(I) enhance the competitiveness of exports of wheat, corn, barley, sorghum and soybeans from the United States with wheat, corn, barley, sorghum and soybean exports marketed by other major exporters;

(II) result in the maintenance or expansion of the United States export market share for wheat, corn, barley, sorghum and soybeans;

(III) result in the maintenance or increase of United States producer income; and

(IV) be in the interest of United States agriculture, taking into consideration technical constraints, economic benefits and costs to producers and industry, price competitiveness, and importer needs;


the Secretary shall establish or amend the standards to include economically and commercially practical levels of cleanliness for wheat, corn, barley, sorghum and soybeans.

(ii) The Secretary shall make a finding under this subsection for grain of the type described in clause (i) as soon as practicable after November 28, 1990.

(B)(i) In establishing requirements for cleanliness characteristics, the Secretary shall—

(I) consider technical constraints, economic benefits and costs to producers and industry, the price competitiveness of United States agricultural production, and levels of cleanliness met by major competing nations that export wheat, corn, barley, sorghum and soybeans;

(II) promulgate regulations after providing for notice and an opportunity for public comment; and

(III) phase in any requirements for cleanliness characteristics by incrementally decreasing the levels of the objectionable material permitted in shipments of grade number 3 or better wheat, corn, barley, sorghum and soybeans.


(ii) Following the phase-in period referred to in clause (i)(III), subsequent revision of cleanliness requirements shall be conducted consistent with the schedule of the Secretary for reviewing grain standards.

(C) If the Secretary determines to establish requirements for cleanliness characteristics under this section, the Secretary shall ensure that such requirements are fully implemented not later than 6 years after November 28, 1990.

(c) Grade determining factors related to physical soundness and purity; notice and opportunity for comment

(1) In establishing standards under subsection (a) of this section for each grain for which official grades are established, the Secretary shall establish for each such grain official grade-determining factors and factor limits that reflect the levels of soundness and purity that are consistent with end-use performance goals of the major foreign and domestic users of each such grain. Such factors and factor limits for grades number 3 and better shall provide users of such standards the best possible information from which to determine end-use product quality. The Secretary shall establish factors and factor limits that will provide that grain meeting the requirements for grades number 3 and better will perform in accordance with general trade expectations for the predominant uses of such grain.

(2) In establishing factors and factor limits under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide for notice and an opportunity for public comment prior to making changes in the grade-determining factors and factor limits that shall be applicable under this section to grain that is officially graded.

(d) Moisture content criterion

If the Government of any country requests that moisture content remain a criterion in the official grade designations of grain, such criterion shall be included in determining the official grade designation of grain shipped to such country.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §4, 39 Stat. 483; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 94–582, §5, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2869; Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §1604(c), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1027; Pub. L. 99–198, title XVI, §1671, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1632; Pub. L. 101–624, title XX, §§2005, 2006, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3930; Pub. L. 103–156, §12(b), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1528; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(7), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–156, which directed amendment of “Section 4(a)(1)” by substituting “the judgment of the Administrator” for “his judgment”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 4 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–624, §2005, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 101–624, §2006, added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1985—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–198 added subsec. (c).

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–113 substituted “sorghum” for “grain sorghum”, “standards or procedures” for “standards”, “weight certification and controls” for “weight certification procedures and controls”, and “calibration and maintenance, for grain” for “calibration and maintenance for grain”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–582, §5(a), authorized weighing of grain, designated existing provisions as cl. (1), inserted cl. (2), and reenacted provision for amendment or revocation of standards.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–582, §5(b), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” in two places.

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions authorizing Secretary to establish, amend, and revoke standards for provisions making the use of official standards compulsory, setting out exceptions, and providing for the right of appeal.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Benefits and Costs Associated With Improved Grain Quality

Section 2003 of title XX of Pub. L. 101–624 provided that: “The Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service shall estimate the economic impact, including the benefits and costs and the distribution of such benefits and costs, of any major changes necessary to carry out the amendments made under this title to sections 4 and 13 of the United States Grain Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 76 and 87b) prior to making such changes.”

Revision of Grain Inspection Procedures To Reflect Levels of Insect Infestation

Pub. L. 99–641, title III, §304, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3565, provided that: “Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1986], the Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service shall issue a final rule that revises grain inspection procedures and standards established under the United States Grain Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 71 et seq.) to more accurately reflect levels of insect infestation.”

Study of Uniform End-Use Value Tests for Grain

Pub. L. 99–641, title III, §307, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3566, as amended by Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1011(i), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 710, provided that:

“(a) Study.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall direct the Federal Grain Inspection Service and the Agricultural Research Service to conduct a study of the need for and availability of uniform end-use value tests for grain. The study shall include the following:

“(1) A survey of domestic and foreign buyers of grain to identify the information about grain characteristics that would be most useful to such buyers. The survey shall take into account those factors that buyers specify in contracts, test for, measure, or would measure if tests were available, including—

“(A) the starch, oil, and protein content, breakage susceptibility, and individual kernel moisture of corn;

“(B) the baking characteristics, protein content, gluten content and quality, and milling hardness of wheat; and

“(C) the protein, oil, and free-fatty-acid content of soybeans.

“(2) A review of the development and availability of tests for the characteristics identified in the survey conducted under paragraph (1), including an evaluation of the costs of providing such tests.

“(b) End-Use Tests.—

“(1) Ongoing review.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall direct the Federal Grain Inspection Service and the Agricultural Research Service to maintain an ongoing review to determine the end-use tests that are of economic value to buyers, and the availability and costs of such tests.

“(2) Revision of procedures.—The Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service, to the extent practicable, shall revise official grain inspection and certification procedures to include within official inspection (as defined in section 3(i) of the United States Grain Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 75(i))) those tests that are identified under the study conducted under subsection (a) as useful, available, and economically feasible.”

New Grain Classifications

Section 1672 of Pub. L. 99–198 provided that:

“(a) The Secretary of Agriculture shall direct the Federal Grain Inspection Service and the Agricultural Research Service to cooperate in developing new means of establishing grain classifications taking into account characteristics other than those visually evident.

“(b) The Secretary shall report to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, semiannually, with the first report due not later than December 31, 1985, on the status of cooperative efforts required under subsection (a), as such efforts relate to more accurately classifying types of wheat and other grains currently in use.”

Investigation and Study Regarding Adequacy of Grain Standards; Changes in Standards; Report to Congress by October 21, 1978

Section 24 of Pub. L. 94–582 provided for an investigation and study to be made by the Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service regarding the adequacy of the grain standards established under this chapter in relation to the needs and concerns of domestic and foreign grain buyers, with the Administrator to seek the advice of or employ the services of representatives of the grain industry, land grant colleges and other members of the public, the study to address specifically, without being limited to determining (A) if standards may be developed that would reduce grading errors and remove, where possible, subjective human judgment from grading by increased utilization of mechanical, electrical, and chemical means of grading, (B) whether grain should be subclassed according to color or other factor not affecting the quality of the grain, (C) whether the protein factor should be included in the standards, and (D) whether broken grain should be grouped together with foreign material, and the Administrator, as a result of such study, to make necessary changes in the grain standards in accordance with section 75a of this title, and to submit a report to Congress setting forth the findings of the study and actions taken as a result thereof not later than two years after Oct. 21, 1976.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 75, 77, 78, 79, 79a of this title.

§77. Official inspection and weighing requirements; waiver; supervision by representatives of Secretary

(a) Official samples and certificates; waiver; excepted grains

Whenever standards or procedures are effective under section 76 of this title for any grain—

(1) no person shall ship from the United States to any place outside thereof any lot of such grain, unless such lot is officially weighed and officially inspected (on the basis of official samples taken after final elevation as near the final spout through which the grain passes as physically practicable as it is being loaded aboard, or while it is in, the final carrier in which it is to be transported from the United States) in accordance with such standards or procedures, and unless a valid official certificate showing the official grade designation and certified weight of the lot of grain has been provided by official inspection personnel and is promptly furnished by the shipper, or the agent of the shipper, to the consignee with the bill of lading or other shipping documents covering the shipment: Provided, That the Secretary may waive the foregoing requirement in emergency or other circumstances which would not impair the objectives of this chapter: Provided further, That the Secretary shall waive the requirement for official inspection whenever the parties to a contract for such shipment of a lot of grain (which is not sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by grade) from the United States to any place outside thereof mutually agree under the contract to ship such lot of grain without official inspection being performed and a copy of the contract is furnished to the Secretary prior to shipment;

(2) except as the Secretary may provide in emergency or other circumstances which would not impair the objectives of this chapter, all other grain transferred out of and all grain transferred into an export elevator at an export port location shall be officially weighed in accordance with such standards or procedure: Provided, That, unless the shipper or receiver requests that the grain be officially weighed, intracompany shipments of grain into an export elevator by any mode of transportation, grain transferred into an export elevator by transportation modes other than barge, and grain transferred out of an export elevator to destinations within the United States shall not be officially weighed; and

(3) except as otherwise authorized by the Secretary, whenever a lot of grain is both officially inspected and officially weighed while being transferred into or out of a grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility, an official certificate shall be issued showing both the official grade designation and the certified weight of the lot of grain.

(b) Supervision by representatives of Secretary

All official inspection and official weighing, whether performed by authorized employees of the Secretary or any other person licensed under section 84 of this title, shall be supervised by representatives of the Secretary, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may provide.

(c) Testing for aflatoxin contamination of corn shipped in foreign commerce

The Secretary is authorized and directed to require that all corn exported from the United States be tested to ascertain whether it exceeds acceptable levels of aflatoxin contamination, unless the contract for export between the buyer and seller stipulates that aflatoxin testing shall not be conducted.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §5, 39 Stat. 483; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 94–582, §6, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2869; Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §1606(b), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1030; Pub. L. 96–437, §2, Oct. 13, 1980, 94 Stat. 1870; Pub. L. 101–624, title XX, §2007, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3931; Pub. L. 103–156, §12(c), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1528; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(3), (7), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “employees of the Secretary” for “Service employees” in subsec. (b) and “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156, §12(c), which directed amendment of “Section 5”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 5 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(c)(1), substituted “the agent of the shipper” for “his agent”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(c)(2), substituted “regulations as the Administrator” for “regulations as he”.

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–624 added subsec. (c).

1980—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–437 inserted proviso that, unless the shipper or receiver requests that the grain be officially weighed, intracompany shipments of grain into an export elevator by any mode of transportation, grain transferred into an export elevator by transportation modes other than barge, and grain transferred out of an export elevator to destinations within the United States shall not be officially weighed.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–113 substituted “standards or procedures” for “standards” wherever appearing.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–582 designated existing provisions as par. (1) of subsec. (a); struck out “that is sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by grade” after “any lot of such grain”; inserted official weighing requirement; substituted “officially inspected (on the basis of official samples taken after final elevation as near the final spout through which the grain passes as physically practicable as it is being loaded aboard, or while it is in, the final carrier in which it is to be transported from the United States)” for “officially inspected in accordance with such standards on the basis of official samples taken after final elevation as the grain is being loaded aboard, or while it is in, the final carrier in which it is to be transported from the United States”; required the certificate to show the certified weight of the lot of grain provided by official inspection personnel; substituted provision for waiver by the Administrator of requirement for official inspection certificate in emergency or other circumstances which would not impair the objectives of this chapter for provision for waiver by the Secretary of any requirement of this section with respect to shipments from or to any area or any other class of shipments when in his judgment it is impracticable to provide official inspection with respect to such shipments; inserted provision for waiver by Administrator of requirement for official inspection whenever the parties to a contract for such shipment of a lot of grain (which is not sold, offered for sale, or consigned for sale by grade) from the United States to any place outside thereof mutually agree under the contract to ship such lot of grain without official inspection being performed and a copy of the contract is furnished to the Administrator prior to shipment; and added pars. (2) and (3) of subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–582 added subsec. (b).

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions requiring an official inspection for export grains but authorizing the waiver of such requirements when official inspection is impracticable for provisions prohibiting misrepresentation respecting grade shipped or delivered for shipment, allowing reexamination, requiring hearing in the event of a false or misleading description, and allowing publication of findings.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 79, 79a, 87b of this title.

§78. Use of official grade designations required; false or misleading grade designations for grain shipped out of the United States

(a) Whenever standards relating to kind, class, quality, or condition of grain are effective under section 76 of this title for any grain no person shall in any sale, offer for sale, or consignment for sale, which involves the shipment of such grain in interstate or foreign commerce, describe such grain as being of any grade in any advertising, price quotation, other negotiation of sale, contract of sale, invoice, bill of lading, other document, or description on bags or other containers of the grain, other than by an official grade designation, with or without additional information as to specified factors: Provided, That the description of such grain by any proprietary brand name or trademark that does not resemble an official grade designation, or with respect to interstate commerce, by the use of one or more grade factor designations set forth in the official United States standards for grain, or by other criteria shall not be deemed to be a description of grain as being of any grade.

(b) No person shall, in any sale, offer for sale, or consignment for sale, of any grain which involves the shipment of such grain from the United States to any place outside thereof, knowingly describe such grain by any official grade designation, or other description, which is false or misleading.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §6, 39 Stat. 484; Pub. L. 85–509, July 11, 1958, 72 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 94–582, §7, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2870; Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §1606(c), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1030.)

Amendments

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–113 substituted “criteria” for “factor information”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “standards relating to kind, class, quality, or condition of grain” for “standards”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions requiring the use of official grade designations and prohibiting the use of false or misleading description of grain shipped out of the United States, for provisions allowing the appeal to the Secretary from official grading, authorizing the payment of additional fees for employees required in making appeal inspections, and making the findings prima facie evidence of the grain's true grade.

1958—Pub. L. 85–509 authorized payment of employees assigned to perform appeal inspection for all overtime, night, or holiday work, and permitted acceptance of reimbursement for any sums paid for such work.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487 provided that: “This Act [amending this section and sections 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 84, 85, 86, and 87 of this title and enacting sections 87a to 87h of this title] shall become effective one hundred and eighty days after enactment hereof [Aug. 15, 1968], except that the repeal of the mandatory inspection provisions with respect to grain shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate commerce shall become effective thirty days after enactment hereof, and the provisions of sections 6(a) and 13(a)(5) of the United States Grain Standards Act, as amended by this Act [subsec. (a) of this section and section 87b(a)(5) of this title] shall then become effective with respect to such grain.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 87b of this title.

§79. Official inspection

(a) Grain required to be officially inspected

The Secretary is authorized to cause official inspection under the standards provided for in section 76 of this title to be made of all grain required to be officially inspected as provided in section 77 of this title, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe.

(b) Inspections made pursuant to request of interested persons

The Secretary is further authorized, upon request of any interested person, and under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, to cause official inspection to be made with respect to any grain whether by official sample, submitted sample, or otherwise within the United States under standards provided for in section 76 of this title, or, upon request of the interested person, under other criteria approved by the Secretary for determining the kind, class, quality, or condition of grain, or other facts relating to grain, whenever in the judgment of the Secretary providing such service will effectuate any of the objectives stated in section 74 of this title.

(c) Reinspections and appeals; cancellation of superseded certificates; sale of samples

The regulations prescribed by the Secretary under this chapter shall include provisions for reinspections and appeal inspections; cancellation and surrender of certificates superseded by reinspections and appeal inspections; and the use of standard forms for official certificates. The Secretary may provide by regulation that samples obtained by or for employees of the Secretary for purposes of official inspection shall become the property of the United States, and such samples may be disposed of without regard to the provisions of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended [40 U.S.C. 471 et seq.].

(d) Official certificates as evidence

Official certificates setting out the results of official inspection issued and not canceled under this chapter shall be received by all officers and all courts of the United States as prima facie evidence of the truth of the facts stated therein.

(e) Official inspection at export port locations; delegation of authority to State agencies

(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the Secretary shall cause official inspection at export port locations, for all grain required or authorized to be inspected by this chapter, to be performed by official inspection personnel employed by the Secretary or other persons under contract with the Secretary as provided in section 84 of this title.

(2) If the Secretary determines, pursuant to paragraph (3) of this subsection, that a State agency is qualified to perform official inspection, meets the criteria in subsection (f)(1)(A) of this section, and (A) was performing official inspection at an export port location under this chapter on July 1, 1976, or (B)(i) performed official inspection at an export port location at any time prior to July 1, 1976, (ii) was designated under subsection (f) of this section on December 22, 1982, to perform official inspections at locations other than export port locations, and (iii) operates in a State from which total annual exports of grain do not exceed, as determined by the Secretary, 5 per centum of the total amount of grain exported from the United States annually, the Secretary may delegate authority to the State agency to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection (other than appeal inspection) at export port locations within the State, including export port locations which may in the future be established, subject to such rules, regulations, instructions, and oversight as the Secretary may prescribe, and any such official inspection shall continue to be the direct responsibility of the Secretary. Any such delegation may be revoked by the Secretary, at the discretion of the Secretary, at any time upon notice to the State agency without opportunity for a hearing.

(3) Prior to delegating authority to a State agency for the performance of official inspection at export port locations pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection, the Secretary shall (A) conduct an investigation to determine whether such agency is qualified, and (B) make findings based on such investigation. In conducting the investigation, the Secretary shall consult with, and review the available files of the Department of Justice, the Office of Investigation of the Department of Agriculture (or such other organization or agency within the Department of Agriculture which may be delegated the authority, in lieu thereof, to conduct investigations on behalf of the Department of Agriculture), and the General Accounting Office.

(4) The Secretary may provide that grain loaded at an interior point in the United States into a rail car, barge, or other container as the final carrier in which it is to be transported from the United States shall be inspected in the manner provided in this subsection or subsection (f) of this section, as the Secretary determines will best meet the objectives of this chapter.

(f) Official inspections at other than export port locations; designation of agencies or persons to conduct official inspections

(1) With respect to official inspections other than at export port locations, the Secretary is authorized, upon application by any State or local governmental agency, or any person, to designate such agency or person as an official agency for the conduct of all or specified functions involved in official inspection (other than appeal inspection) at locations where the Secretary determines official inspection is needed, if—

(A) the agency or person shows to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such agency or person—

(i) has adequate facilities and qualified personnel for the performance of such official inspection functions;

(ii) will provide for the periodic rotation of official inspection personnel among the grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities at which the State or person provides official inspection, as is necessary to preserve the integrity of the official inspection service;

(iii) will meet training requirements and personnel standards established by the Secretary under section 84(g) of this title;

(iv) will otherwise conduct such training and provide such supervision of its personnel as are necessary to assure that they will provide official inspection in accordance with this chapter and the regulations and instructions thereunder;

(v) will not charge official inspection fees that are discriminatory or unreasonable;

(vi) if a State or local governmental agency, will not use any moneys collected pursuant to the charging of fees for any purpose other than the maintenance of the official inspection operation of the State or local governmental agency;

(vii) and any related entities do not have a conflict of interest prohibited by section 87 of this title;

(viii) will maintain complete and accurate records of its organization, staffing, official activities, and fiscal operations, and such other records as the Secretary may require by regulation;

(ix) if a State or local governmental agency, will employ personnel on the basis of job qualifications rather than political affiliations;

(x) will comply with all provisions of this chapter and the regulations and instructions thereunder; and

(xi) meets other criteria established in regulations issued under this chapter relating to official functions under this chapter; and


(B) the Secretary determines that the applicant is better able than any other applicant to provide official inspection service.


(2) Not more than one official agency or State delegated authority pursuant to subsection (e)(2) of this section for carrying out the inspection provisions of this chapter shall be operative at one time for any geographic area as determined by the Secretary to effectuate the objectives stated in section 74 of this title, except that the Secretary may conduct pilot programs to allow more than 1 official agency to carry out inspections within a single geographical area without undermining the policy stated in section 74 of this title.

(3) Except as authorized by the Secretary, no official agency or State delegated authority pursuant to subsection (e)(2) of this section shall officially inspect under this chapter any official or other sample drawn from a lot of grain and submitted for inspection unless such lot of grain is physically located within the geographic area assigned to the agency by the Secretary at the time such sample is drawn.

(4) No State or local governmental agency or person shall provide any official inspection for the purposes of this chapter except pursuant to an unsuspended and unrevoked delegation of authority or designation by the Secretary, as provided in this section, or as provided in section 84(a) of this title.

(g) Termination, renewal, amendment, cancellation, and revocation of designations of official agencies

(1) Designations of official agencies shall terminate at such time as specified by the Secretary but not later than triennially and may be renewed in accordance with the criteria and procedure prescribed in subsection (f) of this section.

(2) A designation of an official agency may be amended at any time upon application by the official agency if the Secretary determines that the amendment will be consistent with the provisions and objectives of this chapter; and a designation will be cancelled upon request by the official agency with ninety days written notice to the Secretary. A fee as prescribed by regulations of the Secretary shall be paid by the official agency to the Secretary for each such amendment, to cover the costs incurred by the Secretary in connection therewith, and it shall be deposited in the fund created in subsection (j) of this section.

(3) The Secretary may revoke a designation of an official agency whenever, after opportunity for hearing is afforded the agency, the Secretary determines that the agency has failed to meet one or more of the criteria specified in subsection (f) of this section or the regulations under this chapter for the performance of official functions, or otherwise has not complied with any provision of this chapter or any regulation prescribed or instruction issued to such agency under this chapter, or has been convicted of any violation of other Federal law involving the handling or official inspection of grain: Provided, That the Secretary may, without first affording the official agency an opportunity for a hearing, suspend any designation pending final determination of the proceeding whenever the Secretary has reason to believe there is cause for revocation of the designation and considers such action to be in the best interest of the official inspection system under this chapter. The Secretary shall afford any such agency an opportunity for a hearing within thirty days after temporarily suspending such designation.

(h) Official inspections at locations other than export port locations when designated official agencies are not available

If the Secretary determines that official inspection by an official agency designated under subsection (f) of this section is not available on a regular basis at any location (other than at an export port location) where the Secretary determines such inspection is needed to effectuate the objectives stated in section 74 of this title, and that no official agency within reasonable proximity to such location is willing to provide or has or can acquire adequate personnel and facilities for providing such service on an interim basis, official inspection shall be provided by authorized employees of the Secretary, and other persons licensed by the Secretary to perform official inspection functions, as provided in section 84 of this title, until such time as the service can be provided on a regular basis by an official agency.

(i) Official inspections in Canadian ports

The Secretary is authorized to cause official inspection under this chapter to be made, as provided in subsection (a) of section 77 of this title, in Canadian ports of United States export grain transshipped through Canadian ports, and pursuant thereto the Secretary is authorized to enter into an agreement with the Canadian Government for such inspection. All or specified functions of such inspections shall be performed by official inspection personnel employed by the Secretary or, except for appeals, by persons operating under a contract with the Secretary or as otherwise provided by agreement with the Canadian Government.

(j) Fees; establishment, amount, payment, etc.

(1) The Secretary shall, under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, charge and collect reasonable inspection fees to cover the estimated cost to the Secretary incident to the performance of official inspection except when the official inspection is performed by a designated official agency or by a State under a delegation of authority. The fees authorized by this subsection shall, as nearly as practicable and after taking into consideration any proceeds from the sale of samples, cover the costs of the Secretary incident to its 1 performance of official inspection services in the United States and on United States grain in Canadian ports, including administrative and supervisory costs related to such official inspection of grain. Such fees, and the proceeds from the sale of samples obtained for purposes of official inspection which become the property of the United States, shall be deposited into a fund which shall be available without fiscal year limitation for the expenses of the Secretary incident to providing services under this chapter.

(2) Each designated official agency and each State agency to which authority has been delegated under subsection (e) of this section shall pay to the Secretary fees in such amount as the Secretary determines fair and reasonable and as will cover the estimated costs incurred by the Secretary relating to supervision of official agency personnel and supervision by the Secretary of the Secretary's field office personnel, except costs incurred under paragraph (3) of subsection (g) of this section and sections 85, 86, and 87c of this title. The fees shall be payable after the services are performed at such times as specified by the Secretary and shall be deposited in the fund created in paragraph (1) of this subsection. Failure to pay the fee within thirty days after it is due shall result in automatic termination of the delegation or designation, which shall be reinstated upon payment, within such period as specified by the Secretary, of the fee currently due plus interest and any further expenses incurred by the Secretary because of such termination. The interest rate on overdue fees shall be as prescribed by the Secretary, but not less than the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturity, plus an additional charge of not to exceed 1 per centum per annum as determined by the Secretary and adjusted to the nearest one-eighth of 1 per centum.

(3) Any sums collected or received by the Secretary under this chapter and deposited to the fund created in paragraph (1) of this subsection and any late payment penalties collected by the Secretary and credited to such fund may be invested by the Secretary in insured or fully collateralized, interest-bearing accounts or, at the discretion of the Secretary, by the Secretary of the Treasury in United States Government debt instruments. The interest earned on such sums and any late payment penalties collected by the Secretary shall be credited to the fund and shall be available without fiscal year limitation for the expenses of the Secretary incident to providing services under this chapter.

(4) The duties imposed by paragraph (2) on designated official agencies and State agencies described in such paragraph and the investment authority provided by paragraph (3) shall expire on September 30, 2000. After that date, the fees established by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1) shall not cover administrative and supervisory costs related to the official inspection of grain.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7, 39 Stat. 484; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 94–582, §8(a), Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2870; Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §§1602(a), 1604(d), 1606(d), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1025, 1027, 1030; Pub. L. 97–35, title I, §155(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 371; Pub. L. 97–98, title IX, §1113(a), Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1268; Pub. L. 98–469, §2(1), Oct. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1831; Pub. L. 100–518, §2(1), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2584; Pub. L. 103–156, §§4(a), 5(a), 12(d), 14(a), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1525, 1526, 1528, 1529; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(4), (7), (8), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

References in Text

The Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended, referred to in subsec. (c), is act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, 63 Stat. 377, as amended. The provisions of that act relating to management and disposal of government property are classified to chapter 10 (§471 et seq.) of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 471 of Title 40 and Tables.

Codification

Section as originally enacted was composed of part of section 7 of part B of act Aug. 11, 1916. Other provisions of section 7 were classified to former sections 80 to 83 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “supervision by the Secretary of the Secretary's field office personnel” for “supervision of Service personnel of its field office personnel” in first sentence of subsec. (j)(2) and substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” and “Service” wherever appearing.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156, §12(d), which directed amendment of “Section 7”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 7 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(d)(1), substituted “regulations as the Administrator” for “regulations as he”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(d)(2), substituted “regulations as the Administrator” for “regulations as he” and “the judgment of the Administrator” for “his judgment”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(d)(3), substituted “oversight as the Administrator” for “oversight as he” and “the discretion of the Administrator” for “his discretion”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 103–156, §4(a)(1), substituted “of the State” for “or other agricultural programs operated by the State”.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 103–156, §5(a), inserted before period at end “, except that the Administrator may conduct pilot programs to allow more than 1 official agency to carry out inspections within a single geographical area without undermining the policy stated in section 74 of this title”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–156, §4(a)(2), inserted before period at end “or as otherwise provided by agreement with the Canadian Government”.

Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 103–156, §14(a), added par. (4).

1988—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–518 reenacted subsec. (j) without change.

1984—Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 98–469 temporarily added par. (3). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1984 Amendment note below.

1981—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97–98 inserted provision authorizing the Administrator to delegate authority to perform grain inspection functions at export port locations to any State agency that performed official inspection at an export port location at any time prior to July 1, 1976, was designated under subsec. (f) of this section on Dec. 22, 1981, to perform inspections at locations other than export port locations, and operates in a State from which the total annual exports of grain do not exceed 5 per centum of the total amount of grain exported from the United States.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 97–35 temporarily designated existing provisions as par. (1), made changes in nomenclature and provided for inclusion, rather than exclusion, of administrative and supervisory costs, and added par. (2). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1981 Amendments note below.

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–113, §1606(d), struck out reference to a determination of the quantity of sacks of grain.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(d)(1), designated as par. (4) provisions, formerly forming a part of par. (2), authorizing the Administrator to provide that grain loaded at an interior point in the United States into a rail car, barge, or other container as the final carrier in which it is to be transported from the United States be inspected in the manner provided in this subsection or subsec. (f) of this section, as the Administrator determines best meets the objectives of this chapter.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(d)(2), substituted “official agency or State delegated authority pursuant to subsection (e)(2) of this section for carrying out the inspection provisions of this chapter” for “official agency for carrying out the provisions of this chapter”, struck out “, but this paragraph shall not be applicable to prevent any inspection agency from operating in any area in which it was operative on August 15, 1968” after “section 74 of this title”, and redesignated other existing provisions as pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(d)(2)(B), (C), redesignated a portion of existing par. (2) as (3) and substituted “Except as authorized by the Administrator, no” for “No”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(d)(2)(D), redesignated a portion of existing par. (2) as (4).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(d)(3), substituted “prescribed in subsection (f)” for “prescribed in subsections (e) and (f)”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(d)(4), inserted provision that all or specified functions of the inspections be performed by official inspection personnel employed by the Service or, except for appeals, by persons operating under a contract with the Service.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–113, §1602(a), revised provisions relating to fees so as to remove requirement that field supervision of inspection be supported by fees.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–582, §8(a)(1), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–582, §8(a)(1), (2), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” in two places and struck out from first sentence “or with respect to United States grain in Canadian ports” after “within the United States”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–582, §8(a)(1), (3), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” in two places; and substituted “Service” for “Department of Agriculture” and “cancellation and surrender” for “cancellation” and required regulation provision for use of standard forms for official certificates, respectively.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–582, §8(a)(4), substituted “Official certificates setting out the results of official inspection” for “Certificates”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–582, §8(a)(5), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which authorized charging and collection of reasonable fees to cover cost of official inspection and to cover costs of Department of Agriculture incident to performance of appeal and Canadian port inspection services for which fees are collected, including supervisory and administrative costs, and for deposit of fees and proceeds from sale of samples obtained for purposes of official inspection which become property of the United States into a fund to be available without fiscal year limitation for expenses of the Department of Agriculture incident to providing official inspection services. Fee provisions are now covered in subsec. (j)(2) of this section.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–582, §8(a)(5), added par. (1) and second and third sentences of par. (2), and designated existing provisions as par. (2), substituting “one official agency for carrying out the provisions of this chapter shall be operative at one time for any geographic area as determined by the Administrator to effectuate the objectives stated in section 74 of this title” for “one inspection agency for carrying out the provisions of this section shall be operative at one time for any one city, town, or other area”.

Subsecs. (g) to (j). Pub. L. 94–582, §8(a)(5), added subsecs. (g) to (j).

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions covering the authority and funding of official inspections for provisions covering the licensing of inspectors and the utilization by the Secretary of Agriculture of State inspectors.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

That part of section 2 of Pub. L. 100–518 which provided that the amendment made by Pub. L. 100–518 was effective for period Oct. 1, 1988, through Sept. 30, 1993, inclusive, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–156, §§13(a), 16(b), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1529, 1530, eff. Sept. 30, 1993.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1984 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 98–469 provided that the amendment made by Pub. L. 98–469 is effective for period beginning Oct. 11, 1984, and ending Sept. 30, 1988.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1981 Amendments

Section 1113(b) of Pub. L. 97–98 provided that: “The provisions of this section [amending this section] shall become effective one hundred and eighty days after enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1981].”

Section 155 of Pub. L. 97–35, as amended by Pub. L. 98–469, §1, Oct. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1831, provided that the amendment made by Pub. L. 97–35 is effective for period beginning Oct. 1, 1981, and ending Sept. 30, 1988.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Investigations and Studies of Grain Inspection and Weighing in Interior of United States; Completion of Studies and Submission of Reports by May 20, 1979, and Nov. 20, 1979, Respectively

Section 8(b) of Pub. L. 94–582, as amended by Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §§1605(a), 1607(a), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1029, 1031, provided that:

“(1) In order to provide information for use by the Congress in evaluating the needs of the grain inspection and weighing system at points in the United States other than at export port locations; the Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service, the Director of the Office of Investigation of the United States Department of Agriculture (or such other organization or agency within the Department of Agriculture which may be delegated the authority, in lieu thereof, to conduct investigations on behalf of the Department of Agriculture), and the Comptroller General of the United States shall severally conduct investigations into and study grain inspection and weighing in the interior of the United States. The studies shall address, but are not limited to, the tasks of (A) determining the reliability and effectiveness of present official inspection and weighing procedures in the interior of the United States, and (B) evaluating the operating procedures and management practices of agencies providing grain inspection and weighing services in the interior of the United States, as they relate to the integrity and accuracy of the services.

“(2) The Director of the Office of Investigation specifically is directed to study the extent of any irregularities or problem areas under the present inspection and weighing systems and conflicts of interest rules and develop factual summaries of evidence disclosed in the Director's investigations into violations of the United States Grain Standards Act [this chapter], the grain weighing provisions of the United States Warehouse Act [section 241 et seq. of this title], and related provisions of title 18 of the United States Code: Provided, That the Director shall not submit such summary with respect to any criminal investigation which is pending at the time the report is due.

“(3) The Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service shall make findings with respect to present grain inspection and weighing agencies at each inland terminal marketing area of the United States at which over fifty million bushels of grain are inspected in an average year, such findings to include (A) results of interviews with shippers who ship grain to and consignees who receive grain from such terminal marketing areas, and (B) a thorough analysis of inspection and weighing error rates of such agencies (which may include the application of statistical tolerances for expected variations), based on existing documentation and the sampling during the investigation of a representative number of randomly selected lots of grain shipped to and from such terminal marketing areas.

“(4) The Director of the Office of Investigation and the Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service shall complete their investigations and study and shall submit their reports to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate and the Comptroller General not later than thirty months after the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 74 of this title].

“(5) The Comptroller General, in making his investigations and study, shall (A) assess the present grain inspection and weighing system in the interior of the United States, and (B) evaluate the reports submitted under this subsection by the Director of the Office of Investigation and the Administrator of the Federal Grain Inspection Service. The Comptroller General shall submit a report setting forth the findings of such study and evaluation and his recommendations for changes in the United States Grain Standards Act [this chapter] to such Committees not later than three years after the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 74 of this title].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 75, 79a, 79b, 84, 87b, 87e, 87f–1, 87h of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “the Secretary's”.

§79a. Weighing authority

(a) Official weighing in accordance with prescribed regulations

The Secretary shall cause official weighing under standards or procedures provided for in section 76 of this title to be made of all grain required to be officially weighed as provided in section 77 of this title, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe.

(b) Official weighing or supervision of weighing at grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities located other than at export elevators at export port locations

The Secretary is authorized to cause official weighing or supervision of weighing under standards or procedures provided in section 76 of this title to be performed at any grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility located other than at export elevators at export port locations at which official inspection is provided pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, in such manner as the Secretary deems appropriate and under such regulations as the Secretary may provide.

(c) Personnel performing official weighing or supervision of weighing at locations at which official inspection is provided

(1) With respect to official weighing or supervision of weighing for locations at which official inspection is provided by the Secretary, the Secretary shall cause such official weighing or supervision of weighing to be performed by official inspection personnel employed by the Secretary.

(2) With respect to official weighing or supervision of weighing for any location at which official inspection is provided other than by the Secretary, the Secretary is authorized, with respect to export port locations, to delegate authority to perform official weighing or supervision of weighing to the State agency providing official inspection service at such location, and with respect to any other location, to designate the agency or person providing official inspection service at such location to perform official weighing or supervision of weighing, if such agency or person qualifies for a delegation of authority or designation under section 79 of this title, except that where the term “official inspection” is used in such section it shall be deemed to refer to “official weighing” or “supervision of weighing” under this section. If such agency or person is not available to perform such weighing services, or the Secretary determines that such agency or person is not qualified to perform such weighing services, then (A) at export port locations official weighing or supervision of weighing shall be performed by official inspection personnel employed by the Secretary, and (B) at any other location, the Secretary is authorized to cause official weighing or supervision of weighing to be performed by official inspection personnel employed by the Secretary or designate any State or local governmental agency, or any person to perform official weighing or supervision of weighing, if such agency or person meets the same criteria that agencies must meet to be designated to perform official inspection as set out in section 79 of this title, except that where the term “official inspection” is used in such section it shall be deemed to refer to “official weighing” or “supervision of weighing” under this section. Delegations and designations made pursuant to this subsection shall be subject to the same provisions for delegations and designations set forth in subsection (g) of section 79 of this title.

(d) Official weighing in Canadian ports

The Secretary is authorized to cause official weighing under this chapter to be made, as provided in subsection (a) of section 77 of this title, in Canadian ports of United States export grain transshipped through Canada; and pursuant thereto the Secretary is authorized to enter into an agreement with the Canadian Government for such official weighing. All or specified functions of such weighing shall be performed by official inspection personnel employed by the Secretary or, except for appeals, by persons operating under a contract with the Secretary or as otherwise provided by agreement with the Canadian Government.

(e) Official weighing or supervision of weighing upon request of operators of grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities

The Secretary is further authorized to cause official weighing or supervision of weighing under standards or procedures provided for in section 76 of this title to be made at grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities not subject to subsection (a) or (b) of this section, upon request of the operator of such grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility and in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe.

(f) Demonstrated willingness of operators of grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities to meet equipment and personnel requirements

No official weighing or supervision of weighing shall be provided for the purposes of this chapter at any grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility until such time as the operator of the facility has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the operator (1) has and will maintain, in good order, suitable grain-handling equipment and accurate scales for all weighing of grain at the facility, in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary; (2) will permit only competent persons with a reputation for honesty and integrity and who are approved by the Secretary to operate the scales and to handle grain in connection with weighing of the grain, in accordance with this chapter; (3) when weighing is to be done by persons other than official inspection personnel, will require such persons to operate the scales in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary and to require that each lot of grain for delivery from any railroad car, truck, barge, vessel, or other means of conveyance at the facility is entirely removed from such means of conveyance and delivered to the scales without avoidable waste or loss, and each lot of grain weighed at the elevator for shipment from the facility is entirely delivered to the means of conveyance for which intended, and without avoidable waste or loss, in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary; (4) will provide all assistance needed by the Secretary for making any inspection or examination and carrying out other functions at the facility pursuant to this chapter; and (5) will comply with all other requirements of this chapter and the regulations hereunder.

(g) Official certificates as evidence

Official certificates setting out the results of official weighing or supervision of weighing, issued and not cancelled under this chapter, shall be received by all officers and all courts of the United States as prima facie evidence of the truth of the facts stated therein.

(h) Weighing prohibited when not in accordance with prescribed procedures

No State or local governmental agency or person shall weigh or state in any document the weight of grain determined at a location where official weighing is required to be performed as provided for in this section except in accordance with the procedures prescribed pursuant to this section.

(i) Unauthorized weighing prohibited

No State or local governmental agency or person other than an authorized employee of the Secretary shall perform official weighing or supervision of weighing for the purposes of this chapter except in accordance with the provisions of an unsuspended and unrevoked delegation of authority or designation by the Secretary as provided in this section or as otherwise provided in section 79(i) of this title and subsection (d) of this section. Not more than one official agency or State delegated authority pursuant to subsection (c)(2) of this section for carrying out the weighing provisions of this chapter shall be operative at one time for any geographic area as determined by the Secretary to effectuate the objectives stated in section 74 of this title, except that the Secretary may conduct pilot programs to allow more than 1 official agency to carry out the weighing provisions within a single geographic area without undermining the policy stated in section 74 of this title.

(j) Authority under United States Warehouse Act not limited

The provisions of this section shall not limit any authority vested in the Secretary under the United States Warehouse Act (39 Stat. 486, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 241 et seq.).

(k) Access to elevators, warehouses, or their storage or handling facilities

The representatives of the Secretary shall be afforded access to any elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility from which grain is delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce or to which grain is delivered from shipment in interstate or foreign commerce and all facilities therein for weighing grain.

(l) Fees; establishment, amount, payment, etc.

(1) The Secretary shall, under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, charge and collect reasonable fees to cover the estimated costs to the Secretary incident to the performance of the functions provided for under this section except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection. The fees authorized by this paragraph shall, as nearly as practicable, cover the costs of the Secretary incident to performance of its 1 functions related to weighing, including administrative and supervisory costs directly related thereto. Such fees shall be deposited into the fund created in section 79(j) of this title.

(2) Each agency to which authority has been delegated under this section and each agency or other person which has been designated to perform functions related to weighing under this section shall pay to the Secretary fees in such amount as the Secretary determines fair and reasonable and as will cover the costs incurred by the Secretary relating to supervision of the agency personnel and supervision by the Secretary of the Secretary's field office personnel incurred as a result of the functions performed by such agencies, except costs incurred under sections 79(g)(3), 85, 86, and 87c of this title. The fees shall be payable after the services are performed at such times as specified by the Secretary and shall be deposited in the fund created in section 79(j) of this title. Failure to pay the fee within thirty days after it is due shall result in automatic termination of the delegation or designation, which shall be reinstated upon payment, within such period as specified by the Secretary, of the fee currently due plus interest and any further expenses incurred by the Secretary because of such termination. The interest rate on overdue fees shall be as prescribed by the Secretary, but not less than the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturity, plus an additional charge of not to exceed 1 per centum per annum as determined by the Secretary, and adjusted to the nearest one-eighth of 1 per centum.

(3) The authority provided to the Secretary by paragraph (1) and the duties imposed by paragraph (2) on agencies and other persons described in such paragraph shall expire on September 30, 2000. After that date, the Secretary shall, under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, charge and collect reasonable fees to cover the estimated costs of official weighing and supervision of weighing except when the official weighing or supervision of weighing is performed by a designated official agency or by a State under a delegation of authority. The fees authorized by this paragraph shall, as nearly as practicable, cover the costs of the Secretary incident to its 1 performance of official weighing and supervision of weighing services in the United States and on United States grain in Canadian ports, excluding administrative and supervisory costs. The fees authorized by this paragraph shall be deposited into a fund which shall be available without fiscal year limitation for the expenses of the Secretary incident to providing services under this chapter.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7A, as added Pub. L. 94–582, §9, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2875; amended Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §§1602(b), 1604(e), 1606(e), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1025, 1027, 1030; Pub. L. 97–35, title I, §155(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 371; Pub. L. 100–518, §2(2), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2585; Pub. L. 103–156, §§4(b), 5(b), 12(e), 14(b), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1526, 1528, 1530; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(4), (7), (8), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

References in Text

The United States Warehouse Act, referred to in subsec. (j), is part C of act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, 39 Stat. 486, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 10 (§241 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 241 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “supervision by the Secretary of the Secretary's field office personnel” for “supervision by Service personnel of its field office personnel” in first sentence of subsec. (l)(2) and substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” and “Service” wherever appearing in subsecs. (a) to (f) and (i) to (l).

1993—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–156, §4(b)(1), in second sentence, substituted “ ‘official weighing’ or ‘supervision of weighing’ ” for “ ‘supervision of weighing’ ”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–156, §4(b)(2), inserted before period at end of second sentence “or as otherwise provided by agreement with the Canadian Government”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(e), which directed amendment of “Section 7A(e)” by substituting “regulations as the Administrator” for “regulations as he”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 7A of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–156, §§4(b)(3), 5(b), inserted before period at end of first sentence “or as otherwise provided in section 79(i) of this title and subsection (d) of this section” and inserted before period at end of second sentence “, except that the Administrator may conduct pilot programs to allow more than 1 official agency to carry out the weighing provisions within a single geographic area without undermining the policy stated in section 74 of this title”.

Subsec. (l)(3). Pub. L. 103–156, §14(b), added par. (3).

1988—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–518 amended subsec. (l) generally, substituting “cover the costs of the Service” for “cover the costs of the service” in par. (1).

1981—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 97–35 temporarily designated existing provisions as par. (1), made changes in nomenclature, provided for inclusion, rather than exclusion, of administrative and supervisory costs, and struck out provisions respecting availability of deposited funds, and added par. (2). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1981 Amendment note below.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–113, §1606(e), substituted “standards or procedures” for “standards”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–113, §§1604(e)(1), 1606(e), substituted “The Administrator is authorized to cause official weighing or supervision of weighing under standards or procedures” for “The Administrator is authorized to cause supervision of weighing under standards” and “other than at export elevators at export port locations” for “other than at export port locations”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(e)(2), made technical amendments to conform par. (2) to increased authority granted in subsec. (b) to cause official weighing as well as supervision of weighing at interior inspection points and corrected a typographical error in which “number” had been erroneously used for “under” in text as originally enacted by Pub. L. 94–582.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(e)(3), inserted requirement that all or specified functions of Canadian weighing be performed by official inspection personnel employed by the Service or, except for appeals, by persons operating under a contract with the Service.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–113, §§1604(e)(4), 1606(e), substituted “under standards or procedures provided” for “under standards provided” and struck out provisions which had required that the weighing service not be provided for periods of less than a year, that the fees therefor be set separately from the fees provided for in subsec. (l), and that they be reasonable, nondiscriminatory, and equal, as nearly as possible, to the cost of providing the service.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(e)(5)(A), substituted “permit only competent persons with a reputation for honesty and integrity and who are approved by the Administrator” for “employ only competent persons with a reputation for honesty and integrity”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(e)(5)(B), substituted “when weighing is to be done by persons other than official inspection personnel, will require such persons to operate the scales” for “when weighing is to be done by employees of the facility, will require employees to operate the scales”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(e)(6), substituted “official weighing or supervision of weighing” for “official weighing”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(e)(7), (8), substituted “No State or local governmental agency” for “No State” and inserted provision that not more than one official agency or State delegated authority pursuant to subsection (c)(2) of this section for carrying out the weighing provisions of this chapter be operative at one time for any geographic area as determined by the Administrator to effectuate the objectives stated in section 74 of this title.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 95–113, §1602(b), revised provisions relating to fees so as to remove requirement that field supervision of weighing be supported by fees.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

That part of section 2 of Pub. L. 100–518 which provided that the amendment made by Pub. L. 100–518 was effective for period Oct. 1, 1988, through Sept. 30, 1993, inclusive, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–156, §§13(a), 16(b), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1529, 1530, eff. Sept. 30, 1993.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1981 Amendment

Section 155 of Pub. L. 97–35, as amended by Pub. L. 98–469, §1, Oct. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1831, provided that the amendment made by Pub. L. 97–35 is effective for period beginning Oct. 1, 1981, and ending Sept. 30, 1988.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 74 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 75, 84, 87, 87b, 87e, 87h of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “the Secretary's”.

§79b. Testing of equipment

(a) Random and periodic testing at least annually; fees

The Secretary shall provide for the testing of all equipment used in the sampling, grading, inspection, and weighing for the purpose of official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing of grain located at all grain elevators, warehouses, or other storage or handling facilities at which official inspection or weighing services are provided under this chapter, to be made on a random and periodic basis, but at least annually and under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, as the Secretary deems necessary to assure the accuracy and integrity of such equipment. Such regulations shall provide for the charging and collection of reasonable fees to cover the estimated costs to the Secretary incident to the performance of such testing by employees of the Secretary. Such fees shall be deposited into the fund created by section 79(j) of this title.

(b) Personnel to conduct testing

The Secretary is authorized to cause such testing provided for in subsection (a) of this section to be performed (1) by personnel employed by the Secretary, or (2) by States, political subdivisions thereof, or persons under the supervision of the Secretary, under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe.

(c) Use of non-approved equipment prohibited

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall use for the purposes of this chapter any such equipment not approved by the Secretary.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7B, as added Pub. L. 94–582, §9, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2877; amended Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §1604(f), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1028; Pub. L. 103–156, §12(f), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1528; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(7), (8), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” and “Service” wherever appearing.

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–156, which directed amendment of “Section 7B(a)” by substituting “as the Administrator deems necessary” for “as he deems necessary”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 7B of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(f)(1), (2), substituted “and weighing for the purpose of official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing of grain located at all grain elevators” for “and weighing of grain located at all grain elevators” and inserted provisions that regulations provide for the charging and collection of reasonable fees to cover the estimated costs to the Service incident to the performance of testing by employees of the Service and that the fees be deposited into the fund created by section 79(j) of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(f)(3), substituted “shall use for the purposes of this chapter” for “shall use”.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 74 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 87b, 87e, 87h of this title.

§79c. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7C, as added Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, title I, §155(3), 95 Stat. 372; amended Oct. 11, 1984, Pub. L. 98–469, §2(2), 98 Stat. 1831, which limited the total administrative and supervisory costs which could be incurred under this chapter for fiscal years 1982 through 1988, was effective for the period Oct. 1, 1981, through Sept. 30, 1988, pursuant to section 155 of Pub. L. 97–35, as amended. See section 79d of this title.

§79d. Limitation on administrative and supervisory costs

The total administrative and supervisory costs which may be incurred under this chapter for services performed (excluding standardization, compliance, and foreign monitoring activities) for each of the fiscal years 1989 through 2000 shall not exceed 40 per centum of the total costs for such activities carried out by the Secretary for such year.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7D, as added Pub. L. 100–518, §2(3), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2585; amended Pub. L. 103–156, §2, Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1525; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(8), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “Secretary” for “Service”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156 substituted “services performed” for “inspection and weighing” and “2000” for “1993”.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–156 effective as of Sept. 30, 1993, see section 16(b) of Pub. L. 103–156, set out as a note under section 75 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates

That part of section 2 of Pub. L. 100–518 which provided that section was effective for the period Oct. 1, 1988, through Sept. 30, 1993, inclusive, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–156, §§13(a), 16(b), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1529, 1530, eff. Sept. 30, 1993.

§§80 to 83. Omitted

Codification

Sections were omitted in the general reorganization of this chapter by Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 761.

Section 80, act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7 (part), 39 Stat. 484, provided for revocation and suspension of licenses issued by the Secretary of Agriculture. See section 85 of this title.

Section 81, act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7 (part), 39 Stat. 484, prohibited the existence of an interest, financial or otherwise, direct or indirect, on the part of inspectors in grain elevators or warehouses or in the merchandising of grain. See section 87 of this title.

Section 82, act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7 (part), 39 Stat. 484, required maintenance of records and reports by inspectors. See section 87a of this title.

Section 83, act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §7 (part), 39 Stat. 484, called for a semiannual report by the Secretary of Agriculture on the delivery of grain in the nation.

§84. Licensing of inspectors

(a) Authorization

The Secretary is authorized (1) to issue a license to any individual upon presentation to the Secretary of satisfactory evidence that such individual is competent, and is employed (or is supervised under a contractual arrangement) by an official agency or a State agency delegated authority under section 79 or 79a of this title, to perform all or specified functions involved in original inspection or reinspection functions involved in official inspection, or in the official weighing or the supervision of weighing, other than appeal weighing, of grain in the United States; (2) to authorize any competent employee of the Secretary to (A) perform all or specified original inspection, reinspection, or appeal inspection functions involved in official inspection of grain in the United States, or of United States grain in Canadian ports, (B) perform official weighing or supervision of weighing (including appeal weighing) of grain in the United States, or of United States grain in Canadian ports, (C) supervise the official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing of grain in the United States and of United States grain in Canadian ports or the testing of equipment, and (D) perform monitoring activities in foreign ports with respect to grain officially inspected and officially weighed under this chapter; (3) to contract with any person or governmental agency to perform specified sampling, laboratory testing, and similar technical functions and to license competent persons to perform such functions pursuant to such contract; and (4) to contract with any competent person for the performance of monitoring activities in foreign ports with respect to grain officially inspected and officially weighed under this chapter. Except as otherwise provided in sections 79(i) and 79a(d) of this title, no person shall perform any official inspection or weighing function for purposes of this chapter unless such person holds an unsuspended and unrevoked license or authorization from the Secretary under this chapter.

(b) Duration of licenses; suspension; reinstatement

All classes of licenses issued under this chapter shall terminate triennially on a date or dates to be fixed by regulation of the Secretary: Provided, That any license shall be suspended automatically when the licensee ceases to be employed by an official agency or by a State agency under a delegation of authority pursuant to this chapter or to operate under the terms of a contract for the conduct of any functions under this chapter: Provided further, That subject to subsection (c) of this section such license shall be reinstated if the licensee is employed by an official agency or by a State agency under a delegation of authority pursuant to this chapter or resumes operation under such a contract within one year of the suspension date and the license has not expired in the interim.

(c) Examination of applicants; reexaminations

The Secretary may require such examinations and reexaminations as the Secretary may deem warranted to determine the competence of any applicants for licenses, licensees, or employees of the Secretary, to perform any official inspection or weighing function under this chapter.

(d) Inspectors performing under contract not deemed Federal employees

Persons employed or supervised under a contractual arrangement by an official agency (including persons employed or supervised under a contractual arrangement by a State agency under a delegation of authority pursuant to this chapter) and persons performing official inspection functions under contract with the Secretary shall not, unless otherwise employed by the Federal Government, be determined to be employees of the Federal Government of the United States: Provided, That such persons shall be considered in the performance of any official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing function as prescribed by this chapter or by the rules and regulations of the Secretary, as persons acting for or on behalf of the United States, for the purpose of determining the application of section 201 of title 18, to such persons and as employees of the Department of Agriculture assigned to perform inspection functions for the purposes of sections 1114 and 111 of title 18.

(e) Hiring of official inspection personnel and supervisory personnel without regard to laws governing appointments to the competitive service

The Secretary may hire (without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service) as official inspection personnel any individual who is licensed (on October 21, 1976) to perform functions of official inspection under this chapter and as personnel to perform supervisory weighing or official weighing functions any individual who, on October 21, 1976, was performing similar functions: Provided, That the Secretary determines that such individual is of good moral character and is technically and professionally qualified for the duties to which the individual will be assigned. The Secretary may compensate such personnel at any rate within the appropriate grade of the General Schedule as the Secretary deems necessary without regard to section 5333 of title 5.

(f) Periodic rotation of personnel

The Secretary shall provide for the periodic rotation of supervisory personnel and official inspection personnel employed by the Secretary as the Secretary deems necessary to preserve the integrity of the official inspection and weighing system provided by this chapter.

(g) Recruitment, training, and supervision of personnel; work production standards; exemption for certain personnel

The Secretary shall develop and effectuate standards for the recruiting, training, and supervising of official inspection personnel and appropriate work production standards for such personnel, which shall be applicable to the Secretary, all State agencies under delegation of authority pursuant to this chapter, and all official agencies and all persons licensed or authorized to perform functions under this chapter: Provided, That persons licensed or authorized on October 21, 1976, to perform any official function under this chapter, shall be exempted from the uniform recruiting and training provisions of this subsection and regulations or standards issued pursuant thereto if the Secretary determines that such persons are technically and professionally qualified for the duties to which they will be assigned and they agree to complete whatever additional training the Secretary deems necessary.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §8, 39 Stat. 485; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 94–582, §10, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2877; Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §§1604(g), 1606(f), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1028, 1030; Pub. L. 103–156, §§6, 12(g), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1526, 1528; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(7), (8), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

References in Text

The provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, referred to in subsec. (e), are classified to section 3301 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The General Schedule, referred to in subsec. (e), is set out under section 5332 of Title 5.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” and “Service” wherever appearing.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156, §12(g), which directed amendment of “Section 8”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 8 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–156, §§6(1), 12(g)(1), in cl. (1), substituted “presentation to the Administrator” for “presentation to him” and inserted “(or is supervised under a contractual arrangement)” after “and is employed”, and in second sentence, substituted “Except as otherwise provided in sections 79(i) and 79a(d) of this title, no person” for “No person”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–156, §6(2), substituted “under the terms of a contract for the conduct of any functions” for “independently under the terms of a contract for the conduct of any functions involved in official inspection”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(g)(2), substituted “the Administrator” for “he”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–156, §6(3), inserted “or supervised under a contractual arrangement” after “Persons employed” and after “including persons employed”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(g)(2), substituted “the Administrator” for “he”.

1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(g)(1)(A), substituted “weighing, other than appeal weighing, of grain” for “weighing of grain”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(g)(1)(B), substituted “weighing (including appeal weighing) of grain in the United States, or of United States grain in Canadian ports” for “weighing of grain”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(g)(1)(C), substituted “any person or governmental agency specified sampling, laboratory testing, and similar technical functions” for “any person to perform specified sampling and laboratory testing”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(g)(2), inserted provisions authorizing the Administrator to compensate the personnel at any rate within the appropriate grade of the General Schedule as the Administrator deems necessary without regard to section 5333 of title 5.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–113, §1606(f), substituted “official inspection and weighing system” for “official inspection system”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” in two places; designated existing provisions as item (1) and substituted “official agency or a State agency delegated authority under section 79 or 79a of this title, to perform all or specified functions involved in original inspection or reinspection functions involved in official inspection, or in the official weighing or the supervision of weighing of grain in the United States” for “official inspection agency to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection”; substituted provisions designated as item (2) for “to authorize any competent employee of the Department of Agriculture to perform all or specified functions involved in supervisory or appeal inspection or initial inspection of United States grain in Canadian ports”; inserted items (3) and (4); struck out authorization to license any competent individual to perform specified functions involved in official inspection under a contract with the Department of Agriculture; and conditioned performance of any official weighing function on the holding of a license or authorization.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”, “official agency” for “official inspection agency” in two places, and “subsection (c)” for “paragraph (c)”, and inserted provision respecting employment of licensee by a State agency under a delegation of authority pursuant to this chapter in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” and “Service” for “Department of Agriculture” and included performance of weighing function.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “official agency (including persons employed by a State agency under a delegation of authority pursuant to this chapter)” for “official inspection agency” and “contract with the Service” for “contracts with the Department of Agriculture” and inserted provision respecting status as persons acting for or on behalf of the United States in application of sections 118, 201, and 1114 of Title 18.

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 94–582 added subsecs. (e) to (g).

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions for the licensing and examination and reexamination of inspectors for provisions authorizing the Secretary of Agriculture to promulgate rules and regulations.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 75, 77, 79, 87b of this title.

§85. Suspension, revocation, and refusal to renew licenses; hearing; grounds; temporary suspension

The Secretary may refuse to renew, or may suspend or revoke, any license issued under this chapter whenever, after the licensee has been afforded an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary shall determine that such licensee is incompetent, or has inspected or weighed or supervised the weighing of grain for purposes of this chapter, by any standard or criteria other than as provided for in this chapter, or has issued, or caused the issuance of, any false or incorrect official certificate or other official form, or has knowingly or carelessly inspected or weighed or supervised the weighing of grain improperly under this chapter, or has accepted any money or other consideration, directly or indirectly, for any neglect or improper performance of duty, or has used the license or allowed it to be used for any improper purpose, or has otherwise violated any provision of this chapter or of the regulations prescribed or instructions issued to the licensee by the Secretary under this chapter. The Secretary may, without first affording the licensee an opportunity for a hearing, suspend any license temporarily pending final determination whenever the Secretary deems such action to be in the best interests of the official inspection system under this chapter. The Secretary may summarily revoke any license whenever the licensee has been convicted of any offense prohibited by section 87b of this title or convicted of any offense proscribed by title 18, with respect to performance of functions under this chapter.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §9, 39 Stat. 485; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 812, 70 Stat. 780; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 765; Pub. L. 94–582, §11, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2879; Pub. L. 103–156, §12(h), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1528; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(7), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156, which directed amendment of “Section 9” by substituting “or has used the license” for “or has used his license” and “instructions issued to the licensee” for “instructions issued to him”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 9 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1976—Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “inspected or weighed or supervised the weighing of” for “inspected” in two places and authorized summary revocation of licenses based on conviction of prescribed offenses.

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions authorizing the suspension, revocation, and refusal of renewal of licenses by the Secretary, for provisions setting out the penalties for violations of this chapter.

1956—Act Aug. 1, 1956, provided penalties for persons who knowingly sample grain improperly and for persons who knowingly or willfully cause or attempt to cause the issuance of a false grade certificate by deceptive loading, handling, or sampling of grain, or any other means.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 79, 79a, 87e of this title.

§86. Refusal of inspection and weighing services; civil penalties

(a) Grounds for refusal of services

The Secretary may (for such period, or indefinitely, as the Secretary deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of this chapter) refuse to provide official inspection or the services related to weighing otherwise available under this chapter with respect to any grain offered for such services, or owned, wholly or in part, by any person if the Secretary determines (1) that the individual (or in case such person is a partnership, any general partner; or in case such person is a corporation, any officer, director, or holder or owner of more than 10 per centum of the voting stock; or in case such person is an unincorporated association or other business entity, any officer or director thereof; or in case of any such business entity, any individual who is otherwise responsibly connected with the business) has knowingly committed any violation of section 87b of this title, or has been convicted of any violation of other Federal law with respect to the handling, weighing, or official inspection of grain, or that official inspection or the services related to weighing have been refused for any of the above-specified causes (for a period which has not expired) to such person, or any other person conducting a business with which the former was, at the time such cause existed, or is responsibly connected; and (2) that providing such service with respect to such grain would be inimical to the integrity of the service.

(b) Persons responsibly connected with a business

For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, a person shall be deemed to be responsibly connected with a business if the person was or is a partner, officer, director, or holder or owner of 10 per centum or more of its voting stock, or an employee in a managerial or executive capacity.

(c) Civil penalties

In addition to, or in lieu of, penalties provided under section 87c of this title, or in addition to, or in lieu of, refusal of official inspection or services related to weighing in accordance with this section, the Secretary may assess against any person who has knowingly committed any violation of section 87b of this title or has been convicted of any violation of other Federal law with respect to the handling, weighing, or official inspection of grain a civil penalty not to exceed $75,000 for each such violation as the Secretary determines is appropriate to effectuate the objectives stated in section 74 of this title.

(d) Opportunity for hearing; temporary refusal without hearing pending final determination

Before official inspection or services related to weighing is refused to any person or a civil penalty is assessed against any person under this section, such person shall be afforded opportunity for a hearing in accordance with sections 554, 556, and 557 of title 5: Provided, That the Secretary may, without first affording the person a hearing, refuse official inspection or services related to weighing temporarily pending final determination whenever the Secretary has reason to believe there is cause for refusal of inspection or services related to weighing and considered such action to be in the best interest of the official inspection system under this chapter. The Secretary shall afford such person an opportunity for a hearing within seven days after temporarily refusing official inspection or services related to weighing; and such hearing and ancillary procedures related thereto shall be conducted in an expedited manner.

(e) Collection and disposition of civil penalties

Moneys received in payment of such civil penalties shall be deposited in the general fund of the United States Treasury. Upon any failure to pay the penalties assessed under this section, the Secretary may request the Attorney General of the United States to institute a civil action to collect the penalties in the appropriate court identified in subsection (h) of section 87f of this title for the jurisdiction in which the respondent is found or resides or transacts business, and such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and decide any such action.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §10, 39 Stat. 485; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 765; Pub. L. 94–582, §12, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2879; Pub. L. 103–156, §12(i), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1528; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(7), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (a), (c) to (e). Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156, §12(i), which directed amendment of “Section 10”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 10 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(i)(1), substituted “the Administrator” for “he” in two places.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(i)(2), substituted “the person” for “he”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”, “grain offered for such services” for “grain offered for inspection”, “has knowingly committed any violation of section 87b of this title or has been convicted of any violation of other Federal law with respect to the handling, weighing, or official inspection of grain, or that official inspection or the services related to weighing have been refused” for “has been convicted of any violation of section 87b of this title, or that official inspection has been refused”, and “integrity of the service” for “integrity of the official inspection service”, and authorized refusal of provision of services relating to weighing.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–582 added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–582 redesignated provisions of former subsec. (c) as (d), inserted “or services related to weighing” before “is refused”, inserted “or a civil penalty is assessed against any person under this section” after “to any person”, provided for the hearing under sections 554, 556, and 557 of title 5, and inserted provisions relating to temporary refusal without hearing pending final determination.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–582 added subsec. (e).

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions authorizing the Secretary to refuse official inspection and affording an opportunity for a hearing in such a case, for provisions setting the penalty for interference with the execution of official duties.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 79, 79a, 87c of this title.

§87. Conflicts of interest

(a) Prohibition with respect to persons licensed or authorized by Secretary to perform official functions

No person licensed or authorized by the Secretary to perform any official function under this chapter, or employed by the Secretary in otherwise carrying out any of the provisions of this chapter, shall, during the term of such license, authorization, or employment, (a) be financially interested (directly or otherwise) in any business entity owning or operating any grain elevator or warehouse or engaged in the merchandising of grain, or (b) be in the employment of, or accept gratuities from, any such entity, or (c) be engaged in any other kind of activity specified by regulation of the Secretary as involving a conflict of interest: Provided, however, That the Secretary may license qualified employees of any grain elevators or warehouses to perform official sampling functions, under such conditions as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe, and the Secretary may by regulation provide such other exceptions to the restrictions of this section as the Secretary determines are consistent with the purposes of this chapter.

(b) Prohibition with respect to personnel of official or State agencies and business or governmental entities related to such agencies; substantial stockholder; use of official inspection service; authority delegation; report to Congressional committees

(1) No official agency or a State agency delegated authority under this chapter, or any member, director, officer, or employee thereof, and no business or governmental entity related to any such agency, shall be employed in or otherwise engaged in, or directly or indirectly have any stock or other financial interest in, any business involving the commercial transportation, storage, merchandising, or other commercial handling of grain, or the use of official inspection service (except that in the case of a producer such use shall not be prohibited for grain in which the producer does not have an interest); and no business or governmental entity conducting any such business, or any member, director, officer, or employee thereof, and no other business or governmental entity related to any such entity, shall operate or be employed by or directly or indirectly have any stock or other financial interest in, any official agency or a State agency delegated inspection authority. Further, no substantial stockholder in any incorporated official agency shall be employed in or otherwise engaged in, or be a substantial stockholder in any corporation conducting any such business, or directly or indirectly have any other kind of financial interest in any such business; and no substantial stockholder in any corporation conducting such a business shall operate or be employed by or be a substantial stockholder in, or directly or indirectly have any other kind of financial interest in, any official agency.

(2) A substantial stockholder of a corporation shall be any person holding 2 per centum or more, or one hundred shares or more, of the voting stock of the corporation, whichever is the lesser interest. Any entity shall be considered to be related to another entity if it owns or controls, or is owned or controlled by, such other entity, or both entities are owned or controlled by another entity.

(3) Each State agency delegated official weighing authority under section 79a of this title and each State or local agency or other person designated by the Secretary under such section to perform official weighing or supervision of weighing shall be subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section. The term “use of official inspection service” shall be deemed to refer to the use of the services provided under such a delegation or designation.

(4) If a State or local governmental agency is delegated authority to perform official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing, or a State or local governmental agency is designated as an official agency, the Secretary shall specify the officials and other personnel thereof to which the conflict of interest provisions of this subsection (b) apply.

(5) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subsection, the Secretary may delegate authority to a State agency or designate a governmental agency, board of trade, chamber of commerce, or grain exchange to perform official inspection or perform official weighing or supervision of weighing except that for purposes of supervision of weighing only, the Secretary may also designate any other person, if the Secretary determines that any conflict of interest which may exist between the agency or person or any member, director, officer, employee, or stockholder thereof and any business involving the transportation, storage, merchandising, or other handling of grain or use of official inspection or weighing service is not such as to jeopardize the integrity or the effective and objective operation of the functions performed by such agency. Whenever the Secretary makes such a determination and makes a delegation or designation to an agency that has a conflict of interest otherwise prohibited by this subsection, the Secretary shall, within thirty days after making such a determination, submit a report to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, detailing the factual bases for such determination.

(c) Official agencies or State agencies not prevented from engaging in business of weighing grain

The provisions of this section shall not prevent an official agency or State agency delegated authority under this chapter from engaging in the business of weighing grain.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §11, 39 Stat. 485; Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 766; Pub. L. 94–582, §13, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2880; Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §§1604(h), 1606(g), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1028, 1030; Pub. L. 103–156, §12(j), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1529; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(7), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237; Pub. L. 103–437, §4(a)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4581.)

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–354 substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted “Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry” for “Committee on Agriculture and Forestry”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156, §12(j), which directed amendment of “Section 11”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 11 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(j)(1), substituted “the Administrator” for “he” before “determines”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(j)(2)(A), substituted “the producer” for “he”.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(j)(2)(B), substituted “the Administrator” for “he” in two places.

1977—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(h)(1), substituted “to perform official weighing or supervision of weighing” for “to perform supervision of weighing”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–113, §1606(g), substituted “official weighing or supervision of weighing” for “official weighing”.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(h)(2), substituted “to perform official inspection or perform official weighing or supervision of weighing except that” for “to perform official inspection or perform supervision of weighing except that” and “member, director, officer” for “member, officer”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(h)(3), inserted “or State agency delegated authority under this chapter” after “official agency”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–582, §13(a)–(c), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “perform any official function” for “perform any official inspection function”, and designated first paragraph provisions, as amended, as subsec. (a), respectively.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 94–582, §13(c), added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1968—Pub. L. 90–487 substituted provisions prohibiting a conflict of interest on the part of inspectors who are interested financially in a grain elevator or in grain merchandising, for provisions covering the separability of provisions of this chapter.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 90–487, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as a note under section 78 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 79, 87b of this title.

§87a. Records

(a) Samples of grain

Every official agency, every State agency delegated authority under this chapter, and every person licensed to perform any official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing function under this chapter shall maintain such samples of officially inspected grain and such other records as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe for the purpose of administration and enforcement of this chapter.

(b) Period of maintenance

Every official agency, every State agency delegated authority under this chapter, and every person licensed to perform any official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing function under this chapter required to maintain records under this section shall keep such records for a period of five years after the inspection, weighing, or transaction, which is the subject of the record, occurred: Provided, That grain samples shall be required to be maintained only for such period not in excess of ninety days as the Secretary, after consultation with the grain trade and taking into account the needs and circumstances of local markets, shall prescribe; and in specific cases other records may be required by the Secretary to be maintained for not more than three years in addition to the five-year period whenever in the judgment of the Secretary the retention of such records for the longer period is necessary for the effective administration and enforcement of this chapter.

(c) Access to records; audits

Every official agency, every State agency delegated authority under this chapter, and every person licensed to perform any official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing function under this chapter required to maintain records under this section shall permit any authorized representative of the Secretary or the Comptroller General of the United States to have access to, and to copy, such records at all reasonable times. The Secretary shall, from time to time, perform audits of official agencies and State agencies delegated authority of this chapter in such manner and at such periodic intervals as the Secretary deems appropriate.

(d) Maintenance of records by persons or entities receiving official inspection or weighing services; access to records and facilities

Every State, political subdivision thereof, or person who is the owner or operator of a commercial grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility or is engaged in the merchandising of grain other than as a producer, and who, at any time, has obtained or obtains official inspection or weighing services shall maintain such complete and accurate records for such period of time as the Secretary may, by regulation, prescribe for the purpose of the administration and enforcement of this chapter, and permit any authorized representative of the Secretary, at all reasonable times, to have access to, and to copy, such records and to have access to any grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility used by such persons for handling of grain.

(Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, §12, as added Pub. L. 90–487, §1, Aug. 15, 1968, 82 Stat. 766; amended Pub. L. 94–582, §14, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2882; Pub. L. 95–113, title XVI, §§1601, 1604(i), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1024, 1029; Pub. L. 103–156, §12(k), Nov. 24, 1993, 107 Stat. 1529; Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §293(a)(5)–(7), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3237.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 12 of act Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, pt. B, 39 Stat. 485, which appropriated a sum of $250,000 for expenses of carrying into effect this chapter, was not classified to the Code.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–354 struck out “or Administrator” after “representative of the Secretary” in subsec. (c), struck out “or the Administrator” after “representative of the Secretary” in subsec. (d), and substituted “Secretary” for “Administrator” wherever appearing.

1993—Pub. L. 103–156, §12(k), which directed amendment of “Section 12”, without specifying the name of the Act being amended, was executed to this section, which is section 12 of the United States Grain Standards Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(k)(1), substituted “the judgment of the Administrator” for “his judgment”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–156, §12(k)(2), substituted “the Administrator” for “he”.

1977—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(i)(1), inserted “, every State agency delegated authority under this chapter,” after “official agency”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–113, §1604(i)(1), (2), inserted “, every State delegated authority under this chapter,” after “official agency” and corrected a typographical error in Pub. L. 94–582 under which “delegate authority of this chapter” had been erroneously used instead of “delegated authority under this chapter”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–113, §1601, substituted “shall maintain such complete and accurate records for such period of time as the Administrator may, by regulation, prescribe for the purpose of the administration and enforcement of this chapter” for “shall, within the five-year period thereafter, maintain complete and accurate records of purchases, sales, transportation, storage, weighing, handling, treating, cleaning, drying, blending, and other processing, and official inspection and official weighing of grain,”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “official agency” for “official inspection agency” and “Administrator” for “Secretary” and inserted reference to licensed performance of official weighing or supervision of weighing function.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “Every official agency and every person licensed to perform any official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing function under this chapter” for “Every official inspection agency” and “Administrator” for “Secretary” in two places, increased from two to five years the period of time for keeping the records, and inserted provision for keeping the records after the weighing.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–582 substituted “Every official agency and every person licensed to perform any official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing function under this chapter” for “Every official inspection agency”, provided for access to and the copying of records by any authorized representative of the Administrator or the Comptroller General, and required Administrator audits of official agencies and State agencies delegate authority.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–582 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 94–582, see section 27 of Pub. L. 94–582, set out as a note under section 74 of this title.

Effective Date

For effective date of section, see section 2 of Pub. L. 90–487, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendment note under section 78 of this title.

Maintenance of Records Not Involving Official Inspection or Official Weighing

Pub. L. 103–111, title I, Oct. 21, 1993, 107 Stat. 1055, provided in part: “That hereafter, none of the funds available to the Federal Grain Inspection Service may be used to pay the salaries of any person or persons who require, or who authorize payments from fee-supported funds to any person or persons who require nonexport, nonterminal interior elevators to maintain records not involving official inspection or official weighing in the United States under Public Law 94–582 [see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 71 of this title] other than those necessary to fulfill the purposes of such Act.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–341, title I, Aug. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 883.

Pub. L. 102–142, title I, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 887.

Pub. L. 101–506, title I, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1324.

Pub. L. 101–161, title I, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 960.

Pub. L. 100–460, title I, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2238.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 87b of this title.

§87b. Prohibited acts

(a) No person shall—

(1) knowingly falsely make, issue, alter, forge, or counterfeit any official certificate or other official form or official mark;

(2) knowingly utter, publish, or use as true any falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited official certificate or other official form or official mark, or knowingly possess, without promptly notifying the Secretary or the representative of the Secretary, or fail to surrender to such a representative upon demand, any falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited official certificate or other official form, or any device for making any official mark or simulation thereof, or knowingly possess any grain in a container bearing any falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited official mark without promptly giving such notice;

(3) knowingly cause or attempt (whether successfully or not) to cause the issuance of a false or incorrect official certificate or other official form by any means, including but not limited to deceptive loading, handling, weighing, or sampling of grain, or submitting grain for official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing knowing that it has been deceptively loaded, handled, weighed, or sampled, without disclosing such knowledge to the official inspection personnel before official sampling or official weighing or supervision of weighing;

(4) alter any official sample of grain in any manner or, knowing that an official sample has been altered, thereafter represent it as an official sample;

(5) knowingly use any official grade designation or official mark on any container of grain by means of a tag, label, or otherwise, unless the grain in such container was officially inspected on the basis of an official sample taken while the grain was being loaded into or was in such container or officially weighed, respectively, and the grain was found to qualify for such designation or mark;

(6) knowingly make any false representation that any grain has been officially inspected, or officially inspected and found to be of a particular kind, class, quality, or condition, or that particular facts have been established with respect to grain by official inspection under this chapter, or that any weighing service under this chapter has been performed with respect to grain;

(7) improperly influence, or attempt to improperly influence, any official inspection personnel or personnel of agencies delegated authority or of agencies or other persons designated under this chapter or any officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture with respect to the performance of the duties of the officer, employee, or other person under this chapter;

(8) forcibly assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, or interfere with any official inspection personnel or personnel of agencies delegated authority or of agencies or other persons designated under this chapter or any officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture in, or on account of, the performance of the duties of the officer, employee, or other person under this chapter;

(9) falsely represent that the person is licensed or authorized to perform an official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing function under this chapter;

(10) use any false or misleading means in connection with the making or filing of an application for official inspection or official weighing or supervision of weighing;

(11) violate section 77, 78, 79, 79a, 79b, 84, 87, 87a, 87e, or 87f–1 of this title;

(12) knowingly engage in falsely stating or falsifying the weight of any grain shipped in interstate or foreign commerce by any means, including, but not limited to, the use of inaccurate, faulty, or defective weighing equipment; or

(13) knowingly prevent or impede any buyer or seller of grain or other person having a financial interest in grain, or the authorized agent of any such person, from observing the loading of the grain inspected under this chapter and the weighing, sampling, and inspection of such grain under conditions prescribed by the Secretary.


(b) No person licensed or authorized to perform any function under this chapter shall—

(1) commit any offense prohibited by subsection (a) of this section;

(2) knowingly perform improperly any official sampling or other official inspection or weighing function under this chapter;

(3) knowingly execute or issue any false or incorrect official certificate or other official form; or

(4) accept money or other consideration, directly or indirectly, for any neglect or improper performance of duty.


(c) An offense shall be deemed to have been committed knowingly under this chapter if it resulted from gross negligence or was committed with knowledge of the pertinent facts.

(d)(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), to ensure the quality of grain marketed in or exported from the United States—

(A) no dockage or foreign material, as defined by the Secretary, once removed from grain shall be recombined with any grain; and

(B) no dockage or foreign material of any origin may be added to any grain.


(2) Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed to prohibit—

(A) the treatment of grain to suppress, destroy, or prevent insects and fungi injurious to stored grain;

(B) the marketing, domestically or for export, of dockage or foreign material removed from grain if such dockage or foreign material is marketed—

(i) separately and uncombine