TITLE 49—TRANSPORTATION

This title was enacted by Pub. L. 95–473, §1, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1337; Pub. L. 97–449, §1, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413; and Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745

Subtitle
Sec.
I.
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
101
II.
OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
1101
III.
GENERAL AND INTERMODAL PROGRAMS
5101
IV.
INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION
10101
V.
RAIL PROGRAMS
20101
VI.
MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
30101
VII.
AVIATION PROGRAMS
40101
VIII.
PIPELINES
60101
IX.
COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION
70101
X.
MISCELLANEOUS
80101

        

Amendments

1995—Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(b), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 852, as amended by Pub. L. 104–287, §6(f)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3399, substituted “TRANSPORTATION” for “COMMERCE” in item for subtitle IV.

1994—Pub. L. 103–272, §1(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745, amended subtitle analysis generally, substituting “OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES . . .1101” for “TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS . . .3101” in item for subtitle II, “GENERAL AND INTERMODAL PROGRAMS . . .5101” for “[RESERVED—AIR TRANSPORTATION]” in item for subtitle III, and “RAIL PROGRAMS . . .20101” for “[RESERVED—MISCELLANEOUS]” in item for subtitle V, and adding items for subtitles VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X.

1983—Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413, amended subtitle analysis generally, substituting “DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION . . .101” for “[RESERVED—DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION]” in item for subtitle I and “TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS . . .3101” for “[RESERVED—TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS]” in item for subtitle II.

Table Showing Disposition of Former Sections of Title 49
Title 49

Former Sections

Title 49

New Sections

1(1), (2) 10501
1(3) 10102
1(4) (related to standards) 10701
1(4) (2d sentence last cl.) 10702
1(4) (1st sentence related to through routes and 2d sentence less last cl.) 10703
1(4) (1st sentence 14th–23d words) 11101
1(5)(a) 10701
1(5)(b) (7th and 8th sentences) 10709
1(5)(b) (less 7th and 8th sentences) 10701
1(5)(c)(i) 10709
1(5)(c)(ii) 10102
1(5)(d) Rep.
1(51/2) 10749
1(6) (last sentence) 10750
1(6) (less last sentence) 10702 (See also 10701(a))
1(7) (1st sentence, 32 words before 8th semicolon-9th semicolon) 10721
1(7) (1st sentence words before 2d semicolon, words between 5th semicolon and 21st word after 7th semicolon, 1st–18th words after 9th semicolon, 1st proviso (words before semicolon), 2d, and 3d provisos) 10722
1(7) (1st sentence 1st–4th and 13th–20th words after 2d semicolon and words between 3d and 5th semicolons) 10723
1(7) (1st sentence 5th–12th and 21st–29th words after 2d semicolon and last 11 words before 1st proviso) 10723
1(7) (1st sentence 1st proviso, words between semicolon and colon) 10724
1(7) (less 1st sentence) 11905
1(8) 10746
1(9) 11104
1(10) 10102
1(11) 11121
1(12) (3d sentence) 11902
1(12) (less 3d sentence) 11126
1(13) 11121
1(14)(a) 11122
1(14)(b) 11121
1(14)(c) 11105
1(15) (related to car service less last sentence) 11123
1(15) (last sentence) 11128
1(15) (related to service less last sentence) 11127
1(16) (related to traffic less (b)) 11124
1(16) (related to service less (b)) 11127
1(16)(b) 11125
1(17)(a) (1st sentence) 11121
1(17)(a) (last sentence less proviso) 11901
1(17)(a) (last sentence proviso) 10501
1(17)(b) 11907
1(18)(a), (b) 10901
1(18)(c) 10902
1(18)(d) 10907
1(18)(e) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
1(18)(e) (related to Commission action) 11702
1(18)(e) 11901
1(18)(e) (related to State enforcement) 11505
1(19)–(22) Rep.
1 note 10711
1a(1) (1st sentence) 10903
1a(1) (less 1st and last sentences) 10904
1a(1) (last sentence) 10907
1a(2), (3) 10904
1a(4) 10903
1a(5) 10904
1a(6), (7) 10905
1a(8) Rep.
1a(9) (related to Commission action) 11702
1a(9) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
1a(9) (last sentence) 11901
1a(9) (related to State enforcement) 11505
1a(10) 10906
1a(11) 10905
2 10741
3(1) 10741
3(1a) Rep.
3(2) (1st sentence) 10743
3(2) (less 1st sentence) 10744
3(3) 10744
3(4) (1st sentence 2d cl., 2d sentence related to standards) 10701
3(4) (less 1st sentence 2d cl., and 2d sentence related to facilities) 10742
3(5) 11103
4 10726
5(1) (words between semicolon and 1st colon) 11914
5(1) (less words between semicolon and 1st colon) 11342
5(2)(a) 11343
5(2)(b)–(e) 11344
5(2)(f) 11347
5(2)(g), (h) 11345
5(3)(a)–(e) 11346
5(3)(f) (last sentence) 11346
5(3)(f) (less last sentence) 11350
5(3)(g) 11346
5(4) 11348
5(5)–(7) 11343
5(8) (last sentence) 11912
5(8) (less last sentence) 11701
5(9) 11702
5(10) 11351
5(11) 11343
5(12) 11341
5(13) Rep.
5(14) 11343
5(15) (words after semicolon) 11914
5(15) (less words after semicolon) 11321
5(16), (17) 11321
5a Rep.
5b, 5c 10706
6(1) 10762
6(2) 10765
6(3), (4) 10762
6(5) 10764
6(6) 10762
6(7) 10761
6(8) 11128
6(9) 10762
6(10) 11901
6(11) 10503
6(12) 10765
7 10745
8, 9 11705
10(1) 11914
10(2)–(4) 11904
11 10301
12(1)(a) (less 2d sentence words after semicolon and last sentence words after 1st semicolon and before last semicolon) 10321
12(1)(a) (words after semicolon in 2d sentence) 10311
12(1)(a) (last sentence less words before 1st semicolon and after last semicolon) 11703
12(1)(b) 10505
12(2)–(7) 10321
13(1) 11701
13(2) (last sentence) 11502
13(2) (less last sentence) 11701
13(3) 11502
13(4), (5) 11501
13(6) 10326
13a(1) 10908
13a(2) 10909
14(1), (2) 10310
14(3) (last sentence) 10311
14(3) (less last sentence) 10310
15(1) 10704
15(2) 10324
15(3), (4) 10705
15(5) 10748
15(6) 10705
15(7) 10708
15(8) 10707
15(9) 10709
15(10) 10763
15(11) 11710
15(12) 10763
15(13), (14) 11910
15(15) 10747
15(16) 10321
15(17) 10727
15(18) 10728
15(19) 10729
15a(1)–(5) 10704
15a(6), 15b Rep.
16(1), (2) 11705
16(3)(c), (g) 11705
16(3)(h) Rep.
16(3) (less (c), (g), and (h)) 11706
16(4) 11705
16(5) 10329
16(6) 10324
16(7) 11914
16(8)–(10) 11901
16(11) 10301
16(12) (related to Commission action) 11702
16(12) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
16(12) (related to action by private person) 11705
16(12) (enforcement of money award) 11705
16(13) 10303
16a Rep.
17(1) 10302
17(2) (1st sentence 80th–98th words and 2d sentence) 10304
17(2) (less 80th–90th words in 1st sentence, less 2d sentence) 10305
17(3) (less 2d sentence and last 42 words of 3d sentence) 10306
17(3) (2d sentence) 10301
17(3) (last 42 words of 3d sentence) 10321
17(4) (1st and 3d sentences) 10305
17(4) (2d sentence) 10303
17(5) 10322
17(6), (7) 10323
17(8) 10324
17(9)(j) 10310
17(9) (less (j)) 10327
17(10) 10325
17(11) 10305, 10306
17(12) 10328
17(13) 10308
17(14)(a) 11701
17(14)(b) Rep.
17(15) 10309
17 note 10306
18(1) (1st and 3d sentences) 10301
18(1) (2d sentence) 10303
18(1) (4th sentence) 10307
18(1) (last sentence) 10321
18(2) 10301
19 10307
19a(a) (1st and last sentences) 10781
19a(a) (2d and 3d sentences) 10301
19a(b) 10782
19a(c) 10781
19a(d) Rep.
19a(e) 10783
19a(f), (g) 10784
19a(h)–(j) 10785
19a(k) (1st sentence) 10786
19a(k) (less 1st sentence) 11901
19a(l) 11703
20(1), (2) 11145
20(3) (less (e)) 11142
20(3)(e) Rep.
20(4) 11143
20(5) 11144
20(6) (2d sentence, 1st cl.) 11144
20(6) (2d sentence, 2d cl.) 11145
20(6) (less 2d sentence) 11144
20(7)(a) 11901
20(7)(b) (proviso) 11144
20(7)(b) (less proviso) 11909
20(7)(c)–(e) 11901
20(7)(f) 11910
20(8) 11141
20(9) 11703
20(10) 10301
20(11) (2d sentence, 1st proviso) 10103
20(11) (less 1st sentence 2d proviso related to released value, 2d sentence less words before 2d proviso) 11707
20(11) (1st sentence 2d proviso related to released value), 2d sentence (less 1st–5th provisos) 10730
20(12) 11707
20a(1)–(10) 11301
20a(11) (2d and 3d sentences) 11709
20a(11) (less 2d, 3d, and 4th sentences) 11301
20a(11) (last sentence) 11911
20a(12) (last sentence) 11911
20a(12) (less last sentence) 11322
20b(1) 11361
20b(2) (1st–3d sentences, 4th sentence less words between 8th comma and period, 9th sentence) 11362
20b(2) (4th sentence, words between 8th comma and period, 8th comma and period, 8th sentence) 11363
20b(2) (5th and 7th sentences) 11364
20b(2) (less 1st–9th sentences) 11365
20b(3) (1st and last sentences) 11362
20b(3) (less 1st and last sentences) 11363
20b(4) 11365
20b(5) 11361
20b(6) 11366
20b(7) Rep.
20b(8) 11362
20b(9) 11367
20b(10) 10321
20b(11) 11367
20b(12) Rep.
20b(13) 11361
20c 11303
21 10311
22(1) (1st sentence 1st 26th and 62d–76th words) 10721
22(1) (1st sentence 77th–86th words and 2d proviso, 2d–4th sentences) 10722
22(1) (1st sentence words between 2d and 4th semicolons) 10722
22(1) (1st sentence words between 4th and 5th semicolons) 10722
22(1) (1st sentence 27th–61st words and words between 1st and 2d semicolons) 10723
22(1) (1st sentence words between 6th semicolon and 1st proviso) 10723
22(1) (last 2 sentences) 10724
22(1) (1st sentence words between 5th and 6th semicolons) 10103
22(1) (1st proviso 1st sentence) Rep.
22(2) (less 1st sentence proviso) 10721
22(2) (1st sentence proviso) Rep.
23 11703
25 Rep.
26(a) 20102
26(b) 20502
26(c) 20503
26(d) 20504
26(e) 20502
26(f) (words before last semicolon) 20505
26(f) (words after last semicolon) 20902
26(g) 501
26(h) (1st sentence words before last comma) 21302
26(h) (1st sentence words after last comma) 21304
26(h) (2d, 3d sentences, 4th sentence words before last comma) 21302
26(h) (4th sentence words after last comma, 5th sentence) 21304
26(h) (last sentence) 21302
26a 11504
26b 10381–10388
26c 11503
27 Rep.
41(1) (1st sentence) 11915
41(1) (less 1st sentence) 11903
41(2) (related to corporate violations) 11903
41(2) (related to corporate violations) 11915
41(2) (last sentence) 11916
41(3) 11902
42 Rep.
43 11703
44, 45 T. 15 §§28, 29
46 11913
47, 48 Rep.
49 Elim.
50 (related to notice) 10329
50 (related to process) 10330
51 (related to ownership) 11321
51 (related to 49:6(11)) 10503
52 10783
53 Elim.
54–59 Rep.
60 11507
61–64 Rep.
65, 65a 10721
66 T. 31 §3726
67 Elim.
71–79 Rep.
80 T. 40 §316
81 80102
82, 83 80103
84, 85 80112
86, 87 80103
88, 89 80110
90–92 80111
93 80108
94 80114
95 80107
96–99 80110
100–102 80113
103 80115
104 Rep.
105 80109
106 80111
107, 108 80104
109 (1st sentence) 80106
109 (last sentence) 80103
110 80104
111 80105
112, 113 80106
114–116 80107
117, 118 80104
119, 120 80105
121 80116
122 80101
123, 124 Rep.
141 Rep.
142 303a
143 Rep.
151–157 Rep.
171–173a, 174–184 Rep.
201 Rep.
211–213 T. 43 §§1441–1443
214 Rep.
231 Rep.
241–246 T. 50 §§151–154, 156, 157
250–268 Rep.
301 Rep.
302(a), (b)(1) 10521
302(b) (less (1)) 11506
302(c) 10523
303(a)(1) 10102
303(a)(2) 10342
303(a)(3) Rep.
303(a)(4) 10341
303(a)(5)–(7) Rep.
303(a)(8), (9) 10102
303(a)(10) (proviso) 10522
303(a)(10) (less proviso) 10521
303(a)(11) 10521, 10927
303(a)(12), (13) 10102
303(a)(14) (words before 2d comma) 10102
303(a)(14) (words after 2d comma) 10502
303(a)(15)–(19) 10102
303(a)(20), (21) Rep.
303(a)(22), (23) 31501
303(b) 10526
303(c) (words between 6th and 7th commas) 10521
303(c) (words before “nor”, less words between 6th and 7th commas) 10921
303(c) (less words before “nor”) 10524
304(a) (matter preceding (1)) 10321
304(a)(1) (related to service) 11101
304(a)(1) (related to accounts) 11142
304(a)(1)–(2) (related to qualifications, hours of service, and safety) 31502
304(a)(2) (less “qualifications” through period) 11142
304(a)(3) (1st sentence) 31502
304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Secs. 304(c), 305, 320, 321, 322(a), (b), (d), (f), (g)”) 502–507, 522, 523, 525, 526
304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 305(d) (related to liability)”) 525
304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 324”) 31504
304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Secs. 304(c), 305, 320, 321, 322(a), (b), (d), (f), (g)”) 502–507, 522, 523, 525, 526
304(a)(3a) (1st sentence) 31502
304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 305(d) (related to liability)”) 525
304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 324”) 31504
304(a)(4) 11142
304(a)(4a) 10525
304(a)(5) 31503
304(a)(6) 10321
304(a)(7) (words after semicolon) 10311
304(a)(7) (less words after semicolon) 10321
304(b) 11102
304(c) 11701
304(d) (related to administration matters) 10303
304(d) (related to reports) 10310
304(d) 10311
304(e) 11107
304(f) 11101
304a(1)–(4) 11706
304a(5), (6) 11705
304a(7) Rep.
304a(8) 11706
305(a) (1st and 2d sentences) 10341
305(a) (3d sentence less proviso) 10342
305(a) (3d sentence proviso) 10344
305(a) (less 1st–3d sentences) 10343
305(b) (2d sentence, 1st 12 words) 10344
305(b) (1st, 3d, 5th, and 12th sentences) 10342
305(b) (2d sentence 13th–37th words) 10341
305(b) (4th and 6th sentences) 10342
305(b) (7th–9th sentences) 10343
305(b) (10th sentence) 10342
305(b) (11th sentence) 10344
305(b) (less 1st–12th sentences) 10342
305(c) (related to the Commission) 10307
305(c) (related to joint boards) 10344
305(d) (related to Commission and employee board subpena power) 10321
305(d) (related to joint boards) 10344
305(d) (related to liability) 11913
305(e) 10328
305(f) (4th sentence) 10344
305(f) (less 4th sentence) 11502
305(g) (proviso) Rep.
305(g) (less proviso) 11705, 11706
305(h) 10301–10306, 10308, 10309, 10321–10325, 10328
305(i) (related to members of Commission) 10301
305(i) (related to joint board) 10344
305(i) (related to examiner) 10306
305(j) 10301
305a 10344 note
306(a)(1) (word before proviso) 10921
306(a)(1) (words after colon) Rep.
306(a)(2) 10932
306(a)(3)–(5) Rep.
306(a)(6) 10931
306(a)(7) 10932
306(b), 307 10922
308(a), (b) 10922
308(c), (d) 10932
309(a)(1) (words before 1st proviso) 10921
309(a)(1) (words between 1st and last colons) Rep.
309(a)(1) (last proviso) 10526
309(a)(2) 10932
309(a)(3)–(5) Rep.
309(b) (last proviso) 10932
309(b) (less last proviso) 10923
310 10930
310a(a) 10928
310a(b) 11349
310a(c) 10928
310a(c) 11349
311(a) (words before 1st proviso) 10921
311(a) (words after 1st colon) 10924
311(b), (c) (words before 2d comma) 10924
311(c) (words after 2d comma) 10927
311(d) 11144
312(a) 10925
312(b) 10926
312(c) Rep.
313 11304
314 (related to securities) 11302
314 (related to penalties) 11911
315 10927
316 (related to standards) 10701
316(a) (1st–24th, 45th–59th words) 10703
316(a) (60th–143d words) 10702
316(a) (25th–44th words) 11101
316(b) (related to standards) 10701
316(b) (16th–33d words) 11101
316(b) (less 16th–33d words) 10702
316(c) (less 2d sentence) 10703
316(c) (2d sentence) 10702
316(d) (1st sentence) 10701
316(d) (less 1st sentence) 10741
316(e) (2d sentence 2d cl.) 10705
316(e) (2d sentence less 2d cl. and less proviso) 10704
316(e) (proviso) 10521
316(e) (less 2d sentence) 11701
316(f) 10705
316(g) (less proviso) 10708
316(g) (proviso) Rep.
316(h) 10701
316(i) 10704
316(j) 10103
317(a) 10762
317(b) (proviso) 10103, 10721–10724
317(b) (less proviso) 10761
317(c) 10762
317(d) 10761
318(a) (1st sentence related to standards) 10701
318(a) (1st and 4th sentences, and 7th sentence proviso related to relief) 10702
318(a) (2d, 5th, and 6th sentences, and 7th sentence proviso related to general requirements) 10762
318(a) (3d sentence, 7th sentence less proviso, and 7th sentence proviso related to relief) 10761
318(b) 10704
318(c) (proviso) Rep.
318(c) (less proviso) 10708
319 10730, 11707
320(a) (1st and 2d sentences) 11145
320(a) (less 1st and 2d sentences) 10764
320(b) 11145
320(c) 11143
320(d) 11144
320(e) 11141
320(f) 504
320(g) 11144
321(a) 10329
321(b) 10324
321(c) 10330
321(d) (related to orders) 10324
321(d) (related to notice) 10329
321(d) (related to process) 10330
322(a) 11914
322(b)(1) 11702
322(b) (less (1)) 11708
322(c) (related to rate violations) 11904
322(c) (related to evasion of regulation) 11906
322(d)–(f) 11910
322(g) 11909
322(h) 11901
323 (1st sentence) 10743
323 (less 1st sentence) 10744
324 11106
324a 10747
325 31503
325a 11504
326, 327 Rep.
401–403 Rep.
421–422a Rep.
422b Elim.
423–427 Rep.
451–460 Rep.
461 Elim.
481–496 Rep.
521–524 Rep.
551–560 Rep.
581, 582 Rep.
601–603 Rep.
621–623 Rep.
641–649 Rep.
671–685 Rep.
701–705 Rep.
711–722 Rep.
751–758 Rep.
781 80302
782 80303
783 (1st sentence) 80304
783 (last sentence) 80303
784 (proviso) 80304
784 (less proviso) 80306
785 80305
786 80306
787(a)–(c) 80301
787(d)–(g) 80302
788, 789 80304
901 Rep.
902(a) 10102
902(b) Rep.
902(c), (d) (less exception) 10102
902(d) (words after 1st comma) 10502
902(e) (1st and 2d sentences) 10102
902(e) (3d–5th sentences) 10544
902(f)–(h) 10102
902(i) 10541
902(j)–(m) 10102
903(a) 10541
903(b)–(d) 10542
903(e)(1) 10544
903(e)(2) (last sentence) Rep.
903(e)(2) (less last sentence) 10544
903(e)(3) 10544
903(f) 10543
903(g), (h) 10544
903(i) 10721
903(j), (k) 10541
903(l) 10929
904(a) 10321
904(b) (words after last semicolon) 10311
904(b) (less words after last semicolon) 10321
904(c) 11102
904(d) 11108
904(e) 11701
905(a) (1st sentence related to standards and 2d sentence) 10701
905(a) (1st sentence 1st cl.) 11101
905(a) (less 1st sentence 1st cl. and last sentence) 10702
905(b) (4th sentence) 10701, 10702
905(b) (less 4th sentence) 10703
905(c) 10741
905(d) (1st sentence 2d cl., 2d sentence related to facilities) 10701
905(d) (less 1st sentence 2d cl., 2d sentence related to standards) 10742
906(a), (b) 10762
906(c) (proviso) 10103, 10721–10724
906(c) (less proviso) 10761
906(d) (1st sentence) 10761
906(d) (less 1st sentence) 10762
906(e) (1st sentence related to standards) 10701
906(e) (1st sentence and 7th sentence proviso related to relief) 10702
906(e) (2d, 4th, 5th, and 6th sentences, and 7th sentence provision, related to general requirements) 10762
906(e) (3d sentence, and 7th sentence less proviso, and 7th sentence proviso related to relief) 10761
907(a) 11701
907(b) 10704
907(c) 10701
907(d), (e) 10705
907(f) 10704
907(g) (proviso) Rep.
907(g) (less proviso) 10708
907(h) 10704
907(i) (proviso) Rep.
907(i) (less proviso) 10708
908(a)–(e), (f)(4) 11705
908(f) (less (4)) 11706
908(g) 11705
909(a) (words before 1st proviso) 10921
909(a) (words after 1st colon) Rep.
909(b)–(e) 10922
909(f) (words before 1st proviso) 10921
909(f) (words after 1st colon) Rep.
909(g) 10923
910 10930
911(a) 10928
911(b) 11349
912 10926
912a 10925
913(a) 11145
913(b) 10764
913(c) 11142
913(d) 11143
913(e)–(g) 11144
913 (less (a)–(g)) 11141
914 10747
915(a) 10329
915(b) 11701
915(c), (d) 10324
915(e) 11914
916(a) 10301–10306, 10308, 10309, 10321–10325, 10328, 11703, 11913
916(b) (related to Commission action) 11702
916(b) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
916(b) (related to action by private person) 11705
916(c) 10310
916(d) 10303
917(a) 11914
917(b), (c) 11904
917(d) 11909
917(e) 11910
917(f) (1st and 2d sentences) 11910
917 (less (a)–(e) and (f) (1st and 2d sentences)) 11910
918 (1st sentence) 10743
918 (less 1st sentence) 10744
919 10301
920–922 Rep.
922a 11303
922b 11504
923 Rep.
1001 Rep.
1002(a)(2) Rep.
1002(a)(1), (3), (4), (5), (8) 10102
1002(a)(6), (7) 10561
1002(b), (c) 10562
1003(a) 10321
1003(b) 11101
1003(c), (d) 10927
1003(e) (words after last semicolon) 10311
1003(e) (less words after last semicolon) 10321
1003(f) 11701
1004(a) (1st cl.) 11101
1004(a) (related to standards) 10701
1004(a) (related to carrier authority) 10702
1004(b), (c) 10741
1004(d) 10766
1005(a), (b) 10762
1005(c) (proviso) 10103, 10721–10724
1005(c) (less proviso) 10761
1005(d) 10762
1005(e) 10761
1006(a) 11701
1006(b) 10704
1006(c) 10701
1006(d) 10704
1006(e) (proviso) Rep.
1006(e) (less proviso) 10708
1006(f) (2d and 3d sentences) 10502
1006(f) (less 2d last sentences) 11502
1006(f) (4th and last sentences) 11501
1006a(5), (6) 11705
1006a (less (5), (6), (7)) 11706
1006a(7) Rep.
1007, 1008 10725
1009 10766
1010(a)(1) (words before semicolon) 10921
1010(a) (less words before semicolon in par. (1)) Rep.
1010(b) 10923
1010(c) (less 2d sentence, words before semicolon) 10923
1010(c) (2d sentence, words before semicolon) 10930
1010(d), (e) 10923
1010(f) 10925
1010(g) 10926
1010(h) 10930
1010(i) (1st sentence) 10933
1010(i) (less 1st sentence and 2d sentence words before semicolon) 11908
1010(i) (related to Commission action) 11702
1010(i) (related to enforcement by the United States) 11703
1010(i) (related to private enforcement) 11704
1010(i) (related to State enforcement) 11505
1011(a) 11323
1011(b) (last proviso) Rep.
1011(b) (less last proviso) 10930
1011(c) 11323
1011(d) 11701
1011(e) 11702
1011(f) 11701
1011(g) 11323
1012(a) (1st and 2d sentences) 11145
1012(a) (3d sentence) 11142
1012(a) (last sentence) 10764
1012(b) 11145
1012(c)–(e) 11144
1012(f) 11141
1013 (1st sentence related to released value) 10730
1013 11707
1014 10743
1015 10747
1016(a) 10329
1016(b), (c) 10324
1016(d) 11914
1017(a) 10301–10306, 10308, 10309, 10311, 10321–10325, 10328, 11703, 11705, 11913
1017(b)(1) (related to Commission action) 11702
1017(b)(1) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
1017(b)(1) (related to action by private person) 11705
1017(b) (less (1)) 11708
1017(c) 10310
1017(d) 10303
1018 10749
1019 Rep.
1020 (related to service) 11127
1020 (related to penalties) 11901
1021(a) 11914
1021(b), (c) 11904
1021(d) 11909
1021(e), (f) 11910
1021 (less (a)–(f)) 11703
1022 Rep.
1101–1103 Rep.
1103a Elim.
1104–1120 Rep.
1151 47301
1152 47302
1153 47303
1154 47302
1155–1157(b) 47304
1157(c) Rep.
1158 47304
1159(a) (1st sentence) 47305
1159(a) (last sentence) 47306
1159(b)–(d) 47305
1159a, 1159b 41310
1160 47305
1181–1185 Rep.
1201–1203 80504
1211–1215 Rep.
1231–1240 Rep.
1301(1) Rep.
1301(2), (3) (less proviso) 40102
1301(3) (proviso) 40109
1301(4)–(12) 40102
1301(13) Rep.
1301(14) (related to certificate) 41101
1301(14) (less certificate)–(37) 40102
1301(38) 46501
1301(39)–(41) 40102
1302, 1303 40101
1303 note 44111, 44713, 45302, 46301, 46306, 46315
1304 40103
1305(a), (b)(1) 41713
1305(b)(2) 40102
1305(c), (d) (related to (a), (b)(1)) 41713
1305(d) (related to (b)(2)) 40102
1305(d) (related to (c)) 41713
1306–1308 Rep.
1321–1323 Rep.
1324(a) 40113
1324(b), (c) 41711
1324(d) 40114
1325 Rep.
1341(a), (b) 106
1341(c) Rep.
1342 106
1343(a)(1), (2) (related to cooperative agreements) 324
1343(a)(2) (related to Deputy Administrator) 106
1343(b) 329
1343(c) 40107
1343(d) 323
1343(e) Rep.
1343(f), (g) (1st sentence 33d–43d words) 323
1343(g) (less 1st sentence 33d–43d words) 325
1343(h) Rep.
1343(i) 322
1344(a)–(d) 40110
1344(a) 322
1344(b) 331
1344(c)(1) 326
1344(d) (less words after semicolon) 322
1344(d) (words after semicolon) (See former section 1348(b).)
1344(e) 322, 40111
1344(f) 40112
1344(g) 40110
1344(h) 47124
1345 40107
1346, 1346a 40104
1347 40101
1348(a) 40103
1348(b) (1st sentence cl. (3)) 44721
1348(b) (1st sentence less cl. (3), 2d sentence) 44502
1348(b) (3d, last sentences) 44721
1348(c), (d) 40103
1348(e) 40109
1348(f) 40106
1348 notes 44506, 44514, 44719
1348a 44506
1349(a) (1st, 2d sentences) 44502
1349(a) (3d, last sentences) 40103
1349(b), 1350 44502
1351 44720
1352 329
1353(a) 44501
1353(b) 44504
1353(c) 44505
1353(d) 44501
1353(e) 44507
1353(f) 44508
1353(g) 44511
1353(h) 44512
1353(i) 44513
1353 notes 44506, 48102
1354(a) 40113
1354(b) 40114
1354(c) (related to this chapter) 46104
1354(c) (related to Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982) 47122
1354(c) (related to Federal Airport Act and Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970) Rep.
1354(d) 40108
1354(e) 308(b), 40113
1354(f) 45302
1354 note 44515, 48110
1354a (1st sentence) 44510
1354a (2d sentence) 48106
1354a (3d, last sentences) 44510
1355 (less (a) (last sentence related to fees)) 44702
1355(a) (last sentence related to fees) 45303
1356(a) (1st, 2d sentences) 44901
1356(a) (3d sentence 1st–18th words) 44938
1356(a) (3d sentence 19th–last words) 44901
1356(a) (last sentence), (b) 44938
1356(c) 44901
1356a Rep.
1356b 44903
1357(a), (b) 44903
1357(c) 44935
1357(d)(1), (2) 40119
1357(d)(3)–(8) 44912
1357(d)(9) 48107
1357(e)(1) 40119, 44937
1357(e)(2), (3), (f), (g) 44903
1357(g) 44936
1357(h)–(j) 44935
1357(k)(1)–(3) 44906
1357(k)(4) 44938
1357 notes 44904, 44906, 44914, 44936, 44938
1358 44915
1358a 44932
1358b(a) 44933
1358b(b) 44934
1358b(c) Rep.
1358c 44913
1358d 44905
1358d note 44910
1359 Rep.
1371(a) 41101
1371(b), (c) 41108
1371(d)(1)–(3) 41102
1371(d)(4)(A)(i), (ii) (related to joint services) 41101
1371(d)(4)(A)(ii) (related to joint rates, fares), (B) 41503
1371(d)(5)–(7) Rep.
1371(d)(8) (1st sentence) 41102
1371(d)(8) (last sentence) 41110
1371(d)(9) 41108
1371(e)(1)–(4) 41109
1371(e)(5)–(7)(A) Rep.
1371(e)(7)(B) 41109
1371(e)(7)(C) Rep.
1371(f), (g) 41110
1371(h) 41105
1371(i) 41101
1371(j) 41312
1371(k) 42112
1371(l) 41903
1371(m) 41107
1371(n)(1) Rep.
1371(n)(2)–(6) 41104
1371(o) 41106
1371(p) 41111
1371(q) 41112
1371(r) 41110
1371a (related to certificate) 41110
1371a (related to permit) 41304
1372(a) 41301
1372(b) 41302
1372(c), (d) 41305
1372(e) (related to duration of permits) 41304
1372(e) (related to terms, conditions, or limitations of permits) 41305
1372(f) 41304
1372(g) 41303
1372(h) 41306
1373(a) 41504
1373(b)(1) (1st sentence) 41510
1373(b)(1) (2d–last sentences) 41511
1373(b)(2) 41510
1373(c)(1), (2) 41504
1373(c)(3) 41509
1373(d) 41506
1374(a)(1) 41702
1374(a)(2) 41501
1374(b) 41310
1374(c) 41705
1374(d)(1) 41706
1374(d)(2) 46301
1374 note 41706
1375(a) Rep.
1375(b) 41902
1375(c), (d) 41903
1375(e)(1) 41912
1375(e)(2) 41904
1375(f)(1) (1st sentence) 41905
1375(f)(1) (2d–last sentences), (2) 41908
1375(g) 41911
1375(h) 41906
1375(i) Rep.
1375(j) T. 39 §5007
1376(a)–(e) 41901
1376(f) 41910
1376(g) Rep.
1376(h)(1) 41907
1376(h)(2) 41909
1376(h)(3) 41907
1376a, 1376b Rep.
1377(a) 41708
1377(b), (c) Rep.
1377(d), (e) (1st–3d sentences) 41709
1377(e) (last sentence) 41708
1378, 1379 Rep.
1380, 1380 note 44909
1381(a) 41712
1381(b) 41707
1382(a), (b) 41309
1382(c) 42111
1383 40102
1384 41308
1385 41711
1386(a) 41701
1386(b) 40109
1387, 1388(a)(1)–(3) Rep.
1388(a)(4) 41103
1388(b)(1)(A) Rep.
1388(b)(1)(B), (2) 41103
1388(b)(3) Rep.
1388(b)(4) 41110
1388(c), (d) 41103
1389(a) 41731
1389(b)(1) 41733
1389(b)(2) 41734
1389(b)(3), (4) 41733
1389(b)(5)–(8) 41734
1389(b)(9) 41733
1389(c) 41735
1389(d) 41736
1389(e)(1) 41738
1389(e)(2)–(g) 41737
1389(h) 41741
1389(i) 41739
1389(j) 41740
1389(k)(1) 41732
1389(k)(2)–(5) 41731
1389(l) 41737
1389(m) 41742
1401(a) 44101
1401(b) 44102
1401(c), (d) 44103
1401(e)(1) 44105
1401(e)(2)(A)–(C) 44106
1401(e)(2)(D), (E) 44103
1401(e)(2)(F) 44106
1401(f), (g) 44103
1401(h) 44111
1401 note 44111, 44703, 44713
1402 44104
1403(a), (b) 44107
1403(c), (d) 44108
1403(e), (f) 44107
1403(g) 44110
1403(h) 44704
1404 44112
1405 (1st sentence) 44104
1405 (2d sentence) 44103
1405 (last sentence) 46301
1406, 1406 note 44108
1421(a), (b) (1st sentence related to standards, rules, and regulations) 44701
1421(b) (1st sentence related to issuing certificates) 44702
1421(b) (2d sentence) 44702
1421(b) (last sentence), (c) 44701
1421(d) 44712
1421(e) 44714
1421(f) 44716
1421 notes 44716, 44717, 44722
1422(a) (1st–10th words) 44702
1422(a) (11th–last words), (b)(1), (2)(A), (B) 44703
1422(b)(2)(C) 44710
1422(c), (d) 44703
1423(a)(1) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1423(a)(1) (related to regulations for appliances), (2) 44704
1423(b) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1423(b) (related to basis for issuing, and contents of, certificates) 44704
1423(c) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1423(c) (related to basis for issuing, and contents of, certificates) 44704
1424(a) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1424(a) (related to standards) 44701
1424(b) 44705
1425 44713
1426 (1st sentence) 44708
1426 (last sentence) 44702
1427 (1st sentence) 44707
1427 (last sentence), 1428 44702
1429(a) (1st–7th sentences) 44709
1429(a) (8th–last sentences related to Administrator under subchapter VII) 1153
1429(a) (8th–last sentences less Administrator under subchapter VII), (b) 44709
1429(c) 44710
1430 44711
1431(a)–(d) 44715
1431(e) 44709
1432(a) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1432(a) (related to standards) 44701
1432(b), (c) 44706
1432(d) 44914
1433(a), (b) 40103 note
1433(c) Rep.
1434(a) 45102
1434(b) 45103
1434(c) 45105
1434(d) 45104
1434(e) 45106
1434(f) 45101
1441(a)(1), (2) 1132
1441(a)(3) 1116
1441(a)(4) 1131
1441(a)(5) 1116
1441(b) 1113
1441(c) (1st sentence) 1132
1441(c) (2d, last sentences), (d) 1134
1441(e) 1154
1441(f) 1131
1441(g), 1442 1132
1443 1112
1461(a) 41307
1461(b) 41509
1462 40105
1463 44720
1471(a)(1) (related to subchapter VII) 1155
1471(a)(1) (less subchapter VII), (2) (related to subchapter III, V, VI, or XII, §1501, 1514, or 1515(e)(2)(B), and Postal Service) 46301
1471(a)(2) (related to 1471(c)) 46302
1471(a)(2) (related to 1471(d)) 46303
1471(a)(2) (related to subchapter VII) 1155
1471(a)(3) (less (D)(v) (related to Administrator under subchapter VII)) 46301
1471(a)(3)(D)(v) (related to Administrator under subchapter VII) 1153
1471(b) 46304
1471(c) 46302
1471(d) 46303
1472(a) 46316
1472(b) 46306
1472(c) 46308
1472(d) 46309
1472(e) 46310
1472(f) 46311
1472(g) 46313
1472(h)(1) 40113
1472(h)(2) 46312
1472(h)(3) 40113
1472(i) 46502
1472(j) 46504
1472(k) 46506
1472(l) 46505
1472(m) 46507
1472(n)(1) 46502
1472(n)(2) 46501
1472(n)(3) 46502
1472(n)(4) 46501
1472(o) T. 28 §538
1472(p) 1155
1472(q) 46315
1472(r) 46314
1473(a) Rep.
1473(b)(1) 1155, 46305
1473(b)(2), (3) 46304
1473(b)(4) 1155, 46305
1473(c) 46503
1474 T. 19 §1644a
1475 Rep.
1481 46102
1482(a)–(c) 46101
1482(d), (e) Rep.
1482(f) 41507
1482(g) Rep.
1482(h) 41508
1482(i) Rep.
1482(j)(1)–(7) 41509
1482(j)(8) Rep.
1482(j)(9), (10) 41509
1482(k) Rep.
1482a 41505
1483(a) Rep.
1483(b) 41502
1483(c)–(e) Rep.
1484 46104
1485(a) 46105
1485(b), (c) 46103
1485(d)–(f) 46105
1486 (related to CAB) 1153, 46110
1486 (related to Secretary) 46110
1487(a) (related to CAB) 1151, 46106
1487(a) (related to Attorney General) 46107
1487(a) (related to party in interest) 46108
1487(a) (related to Secretary) 46106
1487(b) (related to CAB) 1151, 46107
1487(b) (related to Secretary) 46107
1488 (related to CAB) 1151, 46107
1488 (related to Secretary) 46107
1489 1152, 46109
1490 41710
1501 44718
1502(a) 40105
1502(b) 40101
1502(c), (d) 40105
1503 40114
1504 40115
1505 40113
1506 40120
1507 44502
1508(a) 40103
1508(b) 41703
1509(a) 40120
1509(b)–(e) T. 19 §1644a
1509(f), 1509 note 44109
1510 40120
1511 44902
1512, 1513(a), (b) 40116
1513(c) Rep.
1513(d) 40116
1513(e) 40117
1513(f) 40116
1514 40106
1515 44907
1515 note 44910
1515a 44908
1516 41704
1517, 1518 40118
1519 44721
1521, 1522 40103
1523 46307
1531 44301
1532(a) 44302
1532(b), (c) 44306
1533 44303
1534 44305
1535 44304
1536(a)–(d) 44307
1536(e) Rep.
1536(f) 44307
1537(a) (1st sentence) 44308
1537(a) (last sentence words between 2d and 3d commas) 44302
1537(a) (last sentence less words between 2d and 3d commas) 44306
1537(b)–(d) 44308
1537(e) Rep.
1537(f) 44308
1538, 1539 Rep.
1540 44309
1541 44302
1542 44310
1551(a)(1)(A) 41102
1551(a)(1)(B) 41102, 41110
1551(a)(1)(C) 41109
1551(a)(1)(D) 41312
1551(a)(1)(E) (related to 49:1371(n)(1)) Rep.
1551(a)(1)(E) (related to 49:1371(n)(4)) 41104
1551(a)(1)(F), (G), (2), (3) Rep.
1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49:1371(l)) 41903
1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49:1371(m)) 41107
1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49:1375(b)) 41902
1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49:1375(c), (d)) 41903
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(a)) 41504
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(b)) 41510, 41511
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(c)(1), (2)) 41504
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(c)(3)) 41509
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(d)) 41506
1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49:1374(a)(1)) 41702
1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49:1374(a)(2)) Rep.
1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49:1374(b)) 41310
1551(a)(5)(A)–(C), (D) (related to 49:1482(d), (e), (g)) Rep.
1551(a)(5)(D) (related to 49:1482(h)) 41508
1551(a)(5)(D) (related to 49:1482(i)) Rep.
1551(a)(6) (related to 49:1382) 41309
1551(a)(6) (related to 49:1384) 41308
1551(a)(7) Rep.
1551(a)(8) 41107, 41901–41903
1551(b)(1)(A) Rep.
1551(b)(1)(B) 40105
1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49:1378, 1379) Rep.
1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49:1382(a), (b)) 41309
1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49:1382(c)) 42111
1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49:1384) 41308
1551(b)(1)(D) 41901; T. 39 §5402
1551(b)(1)(E) 10526, 10749, 40101–40103, 40105, 40106, 40109, 40113, 40114, 40118, 41102–41112, 41302–41307, 41312, 41502–41511, 41701, 41703, 41704, 41708–41713, 41901–41903, 41907, 41910, 44712, 46101–46107, 46109, 46110, 46301–46305, 46309, 46311, 46313, 46316, 47501; T. 18 §6001; T. 39 §5007
1551(b)(2) Rep.
1551(b)(3) 41107, 41901–41903
1551(c)–(e) Rep.
1552(a)(1) (1st sentence) 42102
1552(a)(1) (last sentence) 42101
1552(a)(2)–(c) 42102
1552(d)(1), (2) (1st–3d sentences) 42103
1552(d)(2)(4th sentence) 42102
1552(d)(2) (last sentence), (3) 42103
1552(e) 42102
1552(f) 42104
1552(g) 42105
1552(h) 42101
1552(i) 42101–42103
1552(j) 42106
1553(a)(1)–(5) Rep.
1553(a)(6) T. 42 §6362
1553(a)(7) T. 2 §451
1553(a)(8)–(10), (b) Rep.
1553(c) 41901
1554–1557 Rep.
1601–1601b 5301
1601c 308(e)
1602(a)(1), (2)(A), (B) 5309
1602(a)(2)(C) 5323
1602(a)(3)–(5) 5309
1602(a)(6)–(8) 5328
1602(b), (c) 5309
1602(d)–(g) 5323
1602(h) 5337
1602(i)–(l) 5309
1602(m) (1st sentence) 5338
1602(m) (2d–last sentences) 5318
1602(n), 1602 note 5309
1602–1 Rep.
1602a 5323
1603(a) 5309
1603(b)(1) 5335
1603(b)(2) Rep.
1603(c) (1st sentence) 5312
1603(c) (last sentence) 5338
1603(d) 5309
1604, 1604a Rep.
1604b 5310
1605(a) 5312
1605(b), (c) Rep.
1605(d) 5312
1606(a) 5324
1606(b) Rep.
1607(a) (1st sentence) 5301
1607(a) (2d–last sentences), (b)–(g) 5303
1607(h) 5304
1607(i), (j) 5305
1607(k) 5334
1607(l) 5305
1607(m) 5306
1607(n) 5303
1607(o) 5306
1607(p) 5303
1607(q) 5323
1607a(a)–(d) 5336
1607a(e)(1) 5307, 5336
1607a(e)(2)–(k)(1) 5307
1607a(k)(2) 5336
1607a(k)(3), (l) Rep.
1607a(m)(1) 5307
1607a(m)(2)–(o) 5336
1607a(p) 5307
1607a(q) 5336
1607a(r) 5307
1607a(s), (t) 5336
1607a note 5307
1607a–1 Rep.
1607a–2(a), (b) 5308
1607a–2(c) 5338
1607b, 1607c(a) 5312
1607c(b)(1)–(8)(B)(ii) 5317
1607c(b)(8)(B)(iii) 5338
1607c(b)(8)(B)(iv)–(10)(B) 5317
1607c(b)(10)(C) 5338
1607c(b)(10)(D)–(12) 5317
1607c(b)(13) 5338
1607c(b)(14), (15) 5317
1607c(c)(1)–(5) 5316
1607c(c)(6) 5338
1607c(c)(7) 5316
1608(a) 5334
1608(b) 5325
1608(c) 5302
1608(d) 5324
1608(e) 5323
1608(f) 10531
1608(g), (h)(1) 5323
1608(h)(2) 5302
1608(i) 5334
1608(j) 5323
1608(k) 5334
1608(l) 5326
1608(m) 5323
1608 notes 5302, 5318
1608 note (related to authority and functions reserved to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development) 5334
1609 5333
1610(a) (1st sentence) 5301
1610(a) (last sentence)–(c) 5324
1611(a), (b) 5335
1611(c) Rep.
1612(a) 5301
1612(b) (1st sentence) 5310
1612(b) (last sentence) 5338
1612(c) 5310
1612(d) 5338
1612(e), (f) 5310
1613 Rep.
1614(a) (1st, 2d sentences) 5311
1614(a) (last sentence) 5338
1614(b)–(f) 5311
1614(g) (related to 1612(b)) 5310
1614(g) (related to this section)–(i) 5311
1615(a)[no (b)] 5332
1616 5322
1617 5338
1618 5329
1618a 5331
1619 5327
1620 5321
1621 5319
1622(a) 5313
1622(b)(1)–(8) (related to this subsection) 5314
1622(b)(8) (related to subsection (a)(1)) 5313
1622(c) 5320
1623 5335
1624 5330
1625(a)–(c) 5315
1625(d) 5338
1631–1633 Elim.
1634 329
1635–1641 Elim.
1642, 1643 Rep.
1651(a), (b)(1) 101
1651(b)(2) 303
1652(a)–(d) 102
1652(e) (related to FAA) 106
1652(e)(1) (related to FHWA) 104
1652(e)(1) (related to FRA) 103
1652(e)(3) (related to USCG) 108
1652(e)(3) (related to FHWA) 104
1652(e)(3) (related to FRA) 103
1652(e)(4) (related to FHWA) 104
1652(e)(4) (related to FRA) 103
1652(f) Rep.
1652a 103
1652b 44931
1652b note 337
1653(a) 301
1653(b) 302
1653(c) 351
1653(d) 352
1653(e) 307
1653(f) 303
1653(g) 304
1653(h) Rep.
1653(i)(1) 5562
1653(i)(2) 5563
1653(i)(3) 5564
1653(i)(4) 5562
1653(i)(5) 5565
1653(i)(6) Rep.
1653(i)(7) 5567
1653(i)(8) 5566
1653(i)(9) 5568
1653(i)(10) 5561
1653(i)(11) 5562
1653 note 335
1653a Rep.
1654(a)–(e) 333
1654(a) 22102
1654(b), (c) 22101
1654(d) 22106
1654(e) 22105
1654(f) 22103
1654(g) 22104
1654(h) 22108
1654(i) 22106
1654(j) 22105
1654(k)–(m) 22107
1654(n)–(p) 22101
1654(q) 22108
1654a 308(d)
1655(a)(1)(A) Rep.
1655(a)(1)(B), (C) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(a)(1)(D) Rep.
1655(a)(1)(E)–(M) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(a)(2)(A) (related to 49:1634) 329
1655(a)(2), (3) Rep.
1655(a)(4) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(a)(5) Rep.
1655(a)(6)(A) 30102
1655(a)(6)(B) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(b)(1), (2) 108
1655(b)(3) Rep.
1655(c)(1) (1st sentence proviso, 2d, last sentences) 106
1655(c)(1) 1116, 1131, 1132, 1153, 40101–40109, 40113, 40114, 44103–44105, 44107, 44110, 44501, 44502, 44504, 44505, 44701–44705, 44707–44709, 44711, 44713, 44720, 44721, 45303, 46101–46107, 46110, 46301, 46304, 46308, 46311, 46313, 46316, 47151–47153, 47302–47306
1655(c)(2) Rep.
1655(d) (1st sentence) 1112, 1113, 1116, 1131, 1132, 1134, 1151–1155
1655(d) (last sentence) 1153
1655(e)(1)(A) 20302, 21302
1655(e)(1)(B) 20302
1655(e)(1)(C) 20302, 21302
1655(e)(1)(D) Rep.
1655(e)(1)(E), (F) 20701–20703, 21302
1655(e)(1)(G) 20702, 20703, 21302
1655(e)(1)(H) Rep.
1655(e)(1)(I) 20305, 20504
1655(e)(1)(J) 20305
1655(e)(1)(K) 20901, 20902, 21302
1655(e)(2) Rep.
1655(e)(3) 80504
1655(e)(4) Rep.
1655(e)(5) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(e)(6)(A) 20502–20505, 21302
1655(e)(6)(B) 3103
1655(e)(6)(C) 3102, 3103
1655(e)(6)(D) (related to “Sec. 321(a), (c)”) 503
1655(e)(6)(D) (related to “Sec. 324”) 3104
1655(f)(1) Rep.
1655(f)(2) 501, 502, 504–507, 521–526
1655(f)(3)(A), (C) (related to FRA) 103
1655(f)(3)(B), (C) (related to FHWA) 104
1655(g)(1)–(3), (4)(A), (B), (E), (5), (6) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(h), (i) Rep.
1656(less (a) next-to-last par.) 305
1656(a) (next-to-last par.) (See T. 42 §1962a–2(a).)
1657(a), (b) 323
1657(c), (d) 324
1657(e)–(g) 322
1657(h), (i) Rep.
1657(j) 327
1657(k) 102
1657(l) 331
1657(m) 326
1657(n) 329
1657(o) 325
1657(p) 324
1657(q)(1)–(3) 330
1657(q)(4) Rep.
1657(r) 328
1657–1 353
1657a 332
1658 308(a)
1659 Rep.
1660 335
1671(1)–(4) (1st–32d words) 60101
1671(4) (33d–last words) 60104
1671(5), (6) 60101
1671(7) 60115
1671(8)–(17) 60101
1671 note 60101
1672(a)(1) (1st–5th sentences) 60102
1672(a)(1) (6th sentence) 60104
1672(a)(1) (7th, 8th sentences) 60102
1672(a)(1) (9th, last sentences) 60104
1672(a)(2), (3), (b) 60102
1672(c) 60104
1672(d) 60118
1672(e)–(g) 60102
1672(h) 60108
1672(i) 60109
1672(j) 60110
1672(k) 60113
1673 60115
1674(a) 60105
1674(b), (c) (related to agreement) 60106
1674(c) (related to certification) 60105
1674(d) 60107
1674(e) 60105
1674(f) 60106
1674a 60103
1674b(a) Rep.
1674b(b)(1)–(3) 60111
1674b(b)(4) 60119
1674b(c) 60111
1675 60119
1676(a) 60104
1676(b) 60117
1677(a), (b)(1) 60118
1677(b)(2), (c) 60120
1678, 1679 Rep.
1679a(a), (b) 60122
1679a(c) 60123
1679a(d) 60122
1679b(a) 60120
1679b(b) 60112
1680 60108
1681(a)–(e) 60117
1681(f) 60120
1682 60117
1682 note 60117
1682a 60301
1683 60124
1684(a) 60125
1684(b) Rep.
1684(c)–(e) 60125
1684(f) Rep.
1685(a) 60116
1685(b) 60113
1686 60121
1687(a)–(e) 60114
1687(f) 60125
1687(g) 60123
1687(h) 60114
1688 60101
1701–1703 Rep.
1704 44503
1711–1713 Rep.
1713a 47127
1714–1730 Rep.
1731 47106
1741 80503
1742 Rep.
1743 44502
1761, 1762 Rep.
1801 5101
1802 5102
1803, 1804(a)(1)–(3) 5103
1804(a)(4), (5) 5125
1804(b)(1)–(3) 5112
1804(b)(4) 5125
1804(b)(5)–(9), (c) 5112
1804(d) 5120
1804(e), (f) 5104
1804(g) 5110
1805(a) 5106
1805(b) 5107
1805(c) 5108
1805(d) 5109
1805(e), (f) Rep.
1805 note 5109
1806 5117
1807 5114
1808(a) (1st sentence, last sentence words before semicolon) 5121
1808(a) (last sentence words after semicolon) 5122
1808(b)–(e) 5121
1809(a) 5123
1809(b) 5124
1810 5122
1811(a)–(e) 5125
1811(f) 5126
1812 5127
1813 5105
1813 note 5105, 5118
1814 5113
1815(a)–(f) 5116
1815(g)(1)–(6) 5115
1815(g)(7) 5116
1815(g)(8) 5115
1815(g)(9) 5116
1815(h)(1)–(5) 5108
1815(h)(6) 5116
1815(i) 5127
1816(a)–(c) 5107
1816(d) 5127
1817 5111
1818 5126
1819(a)–(g) 5119
1819(h) 5127
1901 Rep.
1902 1111
1903(a)(1)(A) 1112, 1113, 1116, 1131, 1132, 1134, 1151, 1152, 1154, 1155
1903(a)(1)(B)–(2) 1131
1903(a)(3)–(8) 1116
1903(a)(9) 1133
1903(b)(1) 1113
1903(b)(2) 1134
1903(b)(3), (4) 1113
1903(b)(5) 1134
1903(b)(6)–(9) 1113
1903(b)(10) 1115
1903(b)(11) 1114
1903(b)(12) 1113
1903(c) 1154
1903(d) 1153
1904 1117
1905(a)–(c)(2) 1114
1905(c)(3) 1114, 1154
1905(d) 1154
1906 1135
1907 1118
2001(1)–(4) (1st–27th words) 60101
2001(4) (28th–last words) 60104
2001(5)–(9) 60101
2001(10) 60115
2001(11) 60101
2001 note 60101
2002(a)–(c) (4th sentence) 60102
2002(c) (last sentence), (d) 60104
2002(e), (f) 60102
2002(g) 60104
2002(h) 60118
2002(i)–(k) 60102
2002(l) 60108
2002(m) 60109
2002(n) 60102
2003 60115
2004(a) 60105
2004(b), (c) (related to agreement) 60106
2004(c) (related to certification) 60105
2004(d) 60107
2004(e), (f) 60105
2004(g) 60106
2005 60119
2006(a), (b)(1) 60118
2006(b)(2), (c) 60120
2007(a), (b) 60122
2007(c) 60123
2007(d) 60122
2008(a) 60120
2008(b) 60112
2009(a), (b) 60108
2009(c) Rep.
2009(d) 60108
2010(a)–(e) 60117
2010(f) 60120
2011 60117
2012 60124
2013(a) 60125
2013(b) Rep.
2014 60121
2015, 2015 note 60102
2016 60101
2101 47501
2102 47502
2103(a) 47503
2103(b) 47505
2104(a)–(d) 47504
2104(e), 2105 Rep.
2106 47507
2107 47506
2108 Rep.
2121 Rep.
2122(a) 47508
2122(b)–2124 Rep.
2125 47510
2151 47521
2152 47523
2153(a)–(g) 47524
2153(h) 47533
2154 47525
2155 47527
2156 47526
2157(a)–(c) 47528
2157(d) 47530
2157(e) 47531
2157(f) 47532
2157(g) 47528
2157(h) 47522
2157(i) 47528
2158 47529
2201 47101
2202(a)(1)–(5) 47102
2202(a)(6) 47107
2202(a)(7) 47102
2202(a)(8) 47102, 47106
2202(a)(9), (10) 47102
2202(a)(11) 47117
2202(a)(12)–(19) 47102
2202(a)(20) 47101
2202(a)(21)–(23) 47102
2202(a)(24) 47104, 47107, 48101–48104, 48108
2202(a)(25) Rep.
2202(b) 47102
2203(a) 47103
2203(b) 44501
2203(c), (d)(1) 47103
2203(d)(2) Rep.
2204(a) (1st sentence) 47104
2204(a) (2d sentence) 48103
2204(a) (last sentence) Rep.
2204(b)(1) 47104
2204(b)(2) 47107
2204(c) Rep.
2204(d) 47113
2204 note 47104
2205(a)(1), (2) 48101
2205(a)(3) 44502
2205(b)(1) 44509
2205(b)(2)–(5) 48102
2205(c) 48104
2205(d) 48105
2205(e)(1)–(3) 48108
2205(e)(4) 47117
2205(e)(5) 48108
2205(f) 48109
2205 note 44502
2206(a), (b)(1)–(5)(C) 47114
2206(b)(5)(D) 47117
2206(b)(5)(E), (F), (6), (7) 47114
2206(c) 47115
2206(d) 47116
2206(e), (f) 47114
2206 note 47115
2207(a)–(e)(2) 47117
2207(e)(3) Rep.
2207(f) 47118
2208(a)(1) 47105
2208(a)(2) Rep.
2208(a)(3) 47105
2208(b)(1)(A)–(D) 47106
2208(b)(1)(E) 47107
2208(b)(2)–(4) 47106
2208(b)(5) (1st sentence, last sentence words before 11th comma) 47101
2208(b)(5) (last sentence words after 11th comma)–(8) 47106
2208(b)(9) 47120
2208(c)–(e) 47105
2209 47109
2210(a), (b) 47107
2210(c) 47105
2210(d)–(h) 47107
2210 note 47107
2211 47108
2212(a), (b)(1) 47110
2212(b)(2)–(4) 47119
2212(b)(5) 47109
2212(b)(6), (c), (d) 47110
2213 47111
2214 47112
2215 47125
2216 47126
2217 47121
2218(a) 47122
2218(b) (related to application) 47106
2218(b) (related to payment) 47111
2219 47123
2220 47129
2221 Rep.
2222, 2222 note 47124
2223 Rep.
2224 44514
2225 44913
2226 49104
2226a 49101
2226b 49105
2226c 49102
2226d 49103
2227 47128
2301 31101
2302 31102
2302 notes 31104, 31307
2303 31103
2304, 2304 note 31104
2305 31105
2306 31106
2307 31107
2311(a)–(i) 31111
2311(j) 31112
2312 31114
2313 31115
2314, 2315 Rep.
2316 31113
2401–2407 Elim.
2421–2433 Elim.
2451–2461 49101–49109
2501 31131
2501 notes 5113, 31161
2502 31131
2503 31132
2504 31135
2505 31136
2505 note 31137
2506 31140
2507 31141
2508 31134
2509 31142
2510 31133
2511 31143
2511a 31162
2512 31144
2513–2517(a) Rep.
2517(b) 31145
2518 31146
2519 31147
2520 Rep.
2521 31137
2601, 2602 70101
2603 70102
2604(a)(1) 70103
2604(a)(2) 70116
2604(b) 70103
2605(a), (b) 70104
2605(c) 70117
2606 (1st sentence) 70105
2606 (last sentence) 70107
2607, 2608(a), (b) 70105
2608(c) 70114
2609 70107
2610 70108
2611 70110
2612 Rep.
2613 70106
2614(a), (b)(1)–(3) 70111
2614(b)(4) 70109
2614(c) 70112
2614(d) 70111
2615(a) 70112
2615(b) 70113
2615(c) 70112
2616–2618 70115
2619 70116
2620 70117
2621, 2622 Rep.
2623 (last sentence) 70118
2623 (less last sentence) 70119
2701 31302
2702 31303
2703 31304
2704(a), (b) 31305
2704(c)–(e) 31312
2705 31308
2706, 2706 note 31309
2707 31310
2708 31311
2709 31313
2710 31314
2711 31315
2712, 2713 Rep.
2714 31316
2715 31317
2716 31301
2717 31306
2718 31310
2801 5701
2801 note 5713
2802 5702
2803 5703
2804 5704
2805 5705
2806 5706
2807 5707
2808 5708
2809 5710
2810 5711
2811 5712
2812 5714

Enacting Clauses

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745, provided that: “Certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to transportation, are revised, codified, and enacted by subsections (c)–(e) of this section without substantive change as subtitles II, III, and V–X of title 49, United States Code, ‘Transportation’. Those laws may be cited as ‘49 U.S.C. ————’.”

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413, provided that: “Certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to transportation, are revised, codified, and enacted by subsection (b) of this section without substantive change as subtitle I and chapter 31 of subtitle II of title 49, United States Code, ‘Transportation’. Those laws may be cited as ‘49 U.S.C. §————’.”

Section 1 of Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1337, provided in part: “That certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to transportation, are revised, codified, and enacted as [subtitle IV of] title 49, United States Code, ‘Transportation’.”

Clarification of Congressional Intent

Pub. L. 100–561, title III, §308, Oct. 31, 1988, 102 Stat. 2817, which provided that Pub. L. 95–473 did not repeal and had no substantive effect on any rights, obligations, liabilities, or remedies of oil pipelines, including those arising under any provisions of the Interstate Commerce Act or the Pomerene Bills of Lading Act, before any Federal department or agency or official thereof or a court of competent jurisdiction, was repealed and reenacted as section 60503 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1329, 1379.

Legislative Purpose and Construction

Section 4 of Pub. L. 105–102, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2216, provided that:

“(a) No Substantive Change.—This Act restates, without substantive change, laws enacted before May 1, 1997, that were replaced by this Act. This Act may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after April 30, 1997, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) References.—A reference to a law replaced by this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) Continuing Effect.—An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) Actions and Offenses Under Prior Law.—An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) Inferences.—An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of a caption or catch line of the provision.

“(f) Severability.—If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Section 9 of Pub. L. 104–287, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400, provided that:

“(a) No Substantive Change.—This Act restates, without substantive change, laws enacted before March 1, 1996, that were replaced by this Act. This Act may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after February 29, 1996, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) References.—A reference to a law replaced by this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) Continuing Effect.—An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) Actions and Offenses Under Prior Law.—An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) Inferences.—An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of a caption or catchline of the provision.

“(f) Severability.—If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Section 10 of Pub. L. 103–429, Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4391, provided that:

“(a) No Substantive Change.—This Act restates, without substantive change, laws enacted before September 26, 1994, that were replaced by this Act. This Act may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after September 25, 1994, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) References.—A reference to a law replaced by this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) Continuing Effect.—An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) Actions and Offenses Under Prior Law.—An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) Inferences.—An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of a caption or catchline of the provision.

“(f) Severability.—If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Section 6 of Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, provided that:

“(a) Sections 1–4 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before July 1, 1993, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after June 30, 1993, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) An inference of legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of a caption or catch line of the provision.

“(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Section 5 of Pub. L. 98–216, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, provided that:

“(a) Sections 1–4 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before April 1, 1983, that were replaced by those sections. Sections 1–4 may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after March 31, 1983, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision.

“(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Section 6 of Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2443, provided that:

“(a) Sections 1–5 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before November 15, 1982, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after November 14, 1982, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–5 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–5 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–5 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline thereof.

“(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Section 2 of Pub. L. 96–258, June 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 427, provided that:

“(a) Section 1 of this Act [enacting section 11351 of this title and amending sections 10324, 10327, 10382, 10525, 10526, 10544, 10706, 10784, 10923, 11101, 11121, 11304, 11707, 11909, 11912, and 11914 of this title] restates, without substantive change, laws enacted before April 24, 1979, that were replaced by that section. That section may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after April 23, 1979, that are inconsistent with this Act are considered as superseding it to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) A reference to a law replaced by section 1 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by section 1 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by section 1 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline thereof.

“(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Section 3 of Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1466, provided that:

“(a) Sections 1 and 2 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before May 16, 1978, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after May 15, 1978, that are inconsistent with this Act are considered as superseding it to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline thereof.

“(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Repeals and Savings Provisions

Section 5(a) of Pub. L. 105–102, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2216, provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 5(b) of Pub. L. 105–102, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2217, as amended by Pub. L. 105–225, §7(c)(2), Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1511, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Nov. 20, 1997.

Section 10(a) of Pub. L. 104–287, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3401, provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 10(b) of Pub. L. 104–287, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3401, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Oct. 11, 1996.

Section 11(a) of Pub. L. 103–429, Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4391, provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 11(b) of Pub. L. 103–429, Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4391, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Oct. 31, 1994.

Section 7(a) of Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379, provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative implication that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 7(b) of Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379, as amended by Pub. L. 103–429, §7(a)(5), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4389, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before July 5, 1994.

Section 6(a) of Pub. L. 98–216, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, provided that: “The repeal of a law enacted [the word “enacted” probably should not appear] by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 98–216, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Feb. 14, 1984.

Section 7(a) of Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2443, provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 7(b) of Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2443, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Jan. 12, 1983.

Section 3(a) of Pub. L. 96–258, June 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 427, provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 96–258, June 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 427, repealed certain sections and parts of sections of the Interstate Commerce Act and certain other provisions relating to applicability of such Act, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before June 3, 1980.

Section 4(a) of Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1466, provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1466, repealed the sections and parts of sections of the Interstate Commerce Act and certain other provisions relating to the applicability of such Act, except as provided in section 4(c) of Pub. L. 95–473 and except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Oct. 17, 1978.

Section 4(c) of Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1470, which provided that the laws specified in the schedule in section 4(b) of Pub. L. 95–473, as they existed on Oct. 1, 1977, were not repealed to the extent those laws (A) vested functions in the Interstate Commerce Commission, or in the chairman or members of the Commission, related to transportation of oil by pipeline, and (B) vested functions and authority in the Commission, or an officer or component of the Commission, related to the establishment of rates or charges for transportation of oil by pipeline or valuation of any such pipeline, and those functions and authority were transferred by sections 7155 and 7172(b) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, was repealed and reenacted in sections 60501 and 60502 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1329, 1379.

Effective Date of Certain Repeals

Section 4(d) of Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1470, as amended by Pub. L. 97–449, §4(b)(3), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2441, provided that: “The repeals, by subsection (b) of this section, of section 1(a)(25), (26) of the Act of July 3, 1952, chapter 570, the Act of June 30, 1953, chapter 165, and the Act of July 31, 1953, chapter 292, are effective on September 14, 1978.”

Title Referred to in Other Sections

This title is referred to in title 26 section 9502; title 31 section 3726; title 42 section 9607.

SUBTITLE I—DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Organization
101
3.
General Duties and Powers
301
5.
Special Authority
501
7.
Surface Transportation Board
701

        

Amendments

1995—Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(b), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 940, added item for chapter 7.

CHAPTER 1—ORGANIZATION

Sec.
101.
Purpose.
102.
Department of Transportation.
103.
Federal Railroad Administration.
104.
Federal Highway Administration.
105.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
106.
Federal Aviation Administration.
107.
Federal Transit Administration.
108.
Coast Guard.
109.
Maritime Administration.
110.
Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.
111.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics.
112.
Research and Special Programs Administration.
113.
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

        

Amendments

1999—Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §101(c)(1), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1751, added item 113.

1994—Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(5)(B), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366, as amended by Pub. L. 103–429, §7(a)(3)(C), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388, struck out first item 110 “St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–508, title IV, §401(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3310, added item 112.

1991—Pub. L. 102–240, title III, §3004(c)(3), title VI, §6006(c), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2088, 2174, substituted “Federal Transit Administration” for “Urban Mass Transportation Administration” in item 107 and added second item 110 and item 111.

§101. Purpose

(a) The national objectives of general welfare, economic growth and stability, and security of the United States require the development of transportation policies and programs that contribute to providing fast, safe, efficient, and convenient transportation at the lowest cost consistent with those and other national objectives, including the efficient use and conservation of the resources of the United States.

(b) A Department of Transportation is necessary in the public interest and to—

(1) ensure the coordinated and effective administration of the transportation programs of the United States Government;

(2) make easier the development and improvement of coordinated transportation service to be provided by private enterprise to the greatest extent feasible;

(3) encourage cooperation of Federal, State, and local governments, carriers, labor, and other interested persons to achieve transportation objectives;

(4) stimulate technological advances in transportation, through research and development or otherwise;

(5) provide general leadership in identifying and solving transportation problems; and

(6) develop and recommend to the President and Congress transportation policies and programs to achieve transportation objectives considering the needs of the public, users, carriers, industry, labor, and national defense.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 102–240, title VI, §6018, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2183.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
101(a) 49:1651(a). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §2(a), (b)(1), 80 Stat. 931.
101(b) 49:1651(b)(1).

In subsections (a) and (b), the introductory declaratory words are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a), the words “national objectives of” are inserted for clarity. The words “United States” are substituted for “Nation” and “Nation's”, respectively, for consistency. The word “contribute” is substituted for “conducive” because the substituted word is more commonly used. The word “those” is substituted for “utilization”.

In subsection (b)(2), the word “greatest” is substituted for “maximum” for consistency.

In subsection (b)(3) and (6), the word “national” is omitted before “transportation” as unnecessary and for consistency.

In subsection (b)(3), the word “persons” is substituted for “parties” as being more precise.

In subsection (b)(6), the words “transportation objectives” are substituted for “these objectives” for clarity and consistency. The words “full and appropriate” and “for approval” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–240 inserted “, through research and development or otherwise” after “advances in transportation”.

Short Title of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–159, §1(a), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1748, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999’.”

Short Title of 1995 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–88, §1(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 803, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘ICC Termination Act of 1995’.”

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–411, §1, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4236, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 1118, 1131, and 40102 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1131 and 40109 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Independent Safety Board Act Amendments of 1994’.”

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 102–240 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991’.”

Congressional Declaration of Policy Regarding National Intermodal Transportation System

Section 2 of Pub. L. 102–240, which provided that it was the policy of the United States to develop a National Intermodal Transportation System consisting of all forms of transportation in a unified, interconnected manner, a National Highway System, improvements in public transportation achieving goals for improved air quality, energy conservation, international competitiveness, and mobility for elderly persons, persons with disabilities, and economically disadvantaged persons, was repealed and reenacted as section 5501 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(d), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 848, 1379.

“Secretary” Defined

Pub. L. 106–159, §2, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1749, provided that: “In this Act [see Tables for classification], the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Transportation.”

Section 3 of Pub. L. 102–240 provided that: “As used in this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note set out above], the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Transportation.”

§102. Department of Transportation

(a) The Department of Transportation is an executive department of the United States Government at the seat of Government.

(b) The head of the Department is the Secretary of Transportation. The Secretary is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(c) The Department has a Deputy Secretary of Transportation appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary—

(1) shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary; and

(2) acts for the Secretary when the Secretary is absent or unable to serve or when the office of Secretary is vacant.


(d) The Department has an Associate Deputy Secretary appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Associate Deputy Secretary shall carry out powers and duties prescribed by the Secretary.

(e) The Department has 4 Assistant Secretaries and a General Counsel appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Department also has an Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Administration appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. They shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary. An Assistant Secretary or the General Counsel, in the order prescribed by the Secretary, acts for the Secretary when the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary are absent or unable to serve, or when the offices of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary are vacant.

(f) The Department shall have a seal that shall be judicially recognized.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 98–557, §26(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2873; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(1), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1365.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
102(a) 49:1652(a) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §3(a), (c), (d), 80 Stat. 931.
102(b) 49:1652(a) (less 1st sentence).
102(c) 49:1652(b) (less words between parentheses). Oct 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §3(b), 80 Stat. 931; Oct. 28, 1974, Pub. L. 93–496, §16(a), 88 Stat. 1533.
102(d) 49:1652(b) (words between parentheses), (c), (d).
102(e) 49:1657(k). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(k), 80 Stat. 946.

In subsection (a), the words “There is hereby established” and “to be known as” are omitted as executed. The words “(hereafter referred to in this chapter as the ‘Department’)” are omitted as unnecessary because of the style used in codifying the revised title. The words “of the United States Government” are added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words “(hereafter referred to in this chapter as the ‘Secretary’)” are omitted as unnecessary because of the style used in codifying the revised title.

In subsection (c), the words “carry out duties and powers” and “acts for” are substituted for “act for and exercise the powers of” and “perform such functions, powers, and duties”, respectively, for consistency and to eliminate surplus words. The words “unable to serve” are substituted for “disability” for consistency and clarity.

In subsection (d), the words “in the competitive service” are substituted for “under the classified civil service” to conform to 5:2102. The words “from time to time” are omitted as surplus. The words “acts for” are substituted for “act for, and exercise the powers of” for consistency and to eliminate surplus words. The words “when the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary are absent or unable to serve, or when the offices of Secretary and Deputy Secretary are vacant” are substituted for “during the absence or disability of the Deputy Secretary, or in the event of a vacancy in the office of a Deputy Secretary” as being more precise and for consistency.

In subsection (e), the words “The Secretary shall cause a . . . of office” and “of such device” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The words “as he shall approve” are omitted as unnecessary because subsection (b) of the section establishes the Secretary of Transportation as the head of the Department of Transportation.

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 103–272 redesignated subsec. (e), relating to judicial recognition of Department seal, as (f).

1984—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 98–557 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d), relating to Assistant Secretaries and General Counsel, as (e).

Notice

Pub. L. 105–178, title V, §5003, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 422, provided that:

“(a) Notice of Reprogramming.—If any funds authorized for carrying out this title [see Tables for classification] or the amendments made by this title are subject to a reprogramming action that requires notice to be provided to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate, notice of such action shall concurrently be provided to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate.

“(b) Notice of Reorganization.—On or before the 15th day preceding the date of any major reorganization of a program, project, or activity of the Department of Transportation for which funds are authorized by this title or the amendments made by this title, the Secretary shall provide notice of such reorganization to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate.”

Surface Transportation Administration

Pub. L. 102–240, title V, §5004, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2160, provided that:

“(a) Study.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1991], the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Public Administration to continue a study of options for organizing the Department of Transportation to increase the effectiveness of program delivery, reduce costs, and improve intermodal coordination among surface transportation-related agencies.

“(b) Report.—The Secretary shall report to Congress on the findings of the study continued under subsection (a) and recommend appropriate organizational changes no later than January 1, 1993. No organizational changes shall be implemented until such changes are approved by law.”

Person Holding Position of Associate Deputy Secretary Until April 15, 1985

Section 26(c) of Pub. L. 98–557 provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, until April 15, 1985, the position created by subsection (a) of this section [adding subsec. (d) of this section] may be held by a person named by the President alone from among qualified individuals.”

Ex. Ord. No. 11340. Effective Date

Ex. Ord. No. 11340, Mar. 30, 1967, 32 F.R. 5453, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by Section 15 [renumbered section 16] of the Department of Transportation Act (Public Law 89–670, approved October 15, 1966; 80 Stat. 950) April 1, 1967, is hereby prescribed as the date on which the Department of Transportation Act shall take effect.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

§103. Federal Railroad Administration

(a) The Federal Railroad Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation. To carry out all railroad safety laws of the United States, the Administration is divided on a geographical basis into at least 8 safety offices. The Secretary of Transportation is responsible for all acts taken under those laws and for ensuring that the laws are uniformly administered and enforced among the safety offices.

(b) The head of the Administration is the Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administrator reports directly to the Secretary.

(c) The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers related to railroad safety vested in the Secretary by section 20134(c) and chapters 203–211 of this title, and chapter 213 of this title in carrying out chapters 203–211; and

(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(d) A duty or power specified by subsection (c)(1) of this section may be transferred to another part of the Department only when specifically provided by law or a reorganization plan submitted under chapter 9 of title 5. A decision of the Administrator in carrying out those duties or powers and involving notice and hearing required by law is administratively final.

(e) Subject to the provisions of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 471 et seq.), the Secretary of Transportation may make, enter into, and perform such contracts, grants, leases, cooperative agreements, and other similar transactions with Federal or other public agencies (including State and local governments) and private organizations and persons, and make such payments, by way of advance or reimbursement, as the Secretary may determine to be necessary or appropriate to carry out functions of the Federal Railroad Administration. The authority of the Secretary granted by this subsection shall be carried out by the Administrator. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no authority to enter into contracts or to make payments under this subsection shall be effective, except as provided for in appropriations Acts.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(1), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §216, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4624.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
103(a) 49:1652(e)(1) (1st sentence related to FRA). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §§3(e) (related to FRA) (1), (3), (4), 6(f)(3)(C) (related to FRA), 80 Stat. 932, 940.
  49:1652a. July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §6, 90 Stat. 820.
103(b) 49:1652(e) (related to FRA) (1) (2d, last sentences), (3) (last sentence).
103(c) 49:1655(f)(3)(A). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(3)(A), 80 Stat. 940; Aug. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–401, §6, 86 Stat. 617; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §113(e)(1), 88 Stat. 2163.
  49:1652(e)(3) (related to FRA) (less last sentence).
103(d) 49:1652(e)(4) (related to FRA).
  49:1655(f)(3)(C) (related to FRA).

In subsection (a), the words “To carry out” are substituted for “for purposes of administering and enforcing” in 49:1652a for consistency and to eliminate surplus words. The words “under those laws” are substituted for “pursuant to Federal railroad safety laws” to eliminate surplus words. The words “is responsible” are substituted for “shall retain full and final responsibility” and “shall be responsible” to eliminate surplus words. The words “and for the establishment of all policies with respect to implementation of such laws” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “Each of these components” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “vested in the Secretary” are substituted for “as set forth in the statutes transferred to the Secretary” in 49:1655(f)(3)(A) for clarity and consistency. The words “section 6(e)(1), (2), and (6)(A) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1655(e)(1), (2), and (6)(A))” are substituted for “subsection (e) of this section (other than subsection (e)(4) of this section)” in 49:1655(f)(3)(A) for clarity.

In subsection (d), the word “law” is substituted for “statute” in 49:1652(e)(4) for consistency. The words after “administratively final” in 49:1655(f)(3)(C) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the revised title and those laws giving a right to appeal.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 5(m)(1) amends 49:103(c)(1) to include a reference to section 20134(c) of the revised title. The reference is included because 45:445 on which section 20134(c) is based provides that the duties and powers under that provision are to be carried out by the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration rather than the Secretary of Transportation.

References in Text

The Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (e), is act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, 63 Stat. 377, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 471 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “section 20134(c) and chapters 203–211 of this title, and chapter 213 of this title in carrying out chapters 203–211” for “section 6(e)(1), (2), and (6)(A) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 App. U.S.C. 1655(e)(1), (2), and (6)(A))”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–440 added subsec. (e).

1984—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “49 App. U.S.C.” for “49 U.S.C.”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 322 of this title.

§104. Federal Highway Administration

(a) The Federal Highway Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b)(1) The head of the Administration is the Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administrator reports directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(2) The Administration has a Deputy Federal Highway Administrator who is appointed by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(3) The Administration has an Assistant Federal Highway Administrator appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. The Assistant Administrator is the chief engineer of the Administration. The Assistant Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(c) The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers vested in the Secretary by chapter 4 of title 23 for highway safety programs, research, and development related to highway design, construction and maintenance, traffic control devices, identification and surveillance of accident locations, and highway-related aspects of pedestrian safety; and

(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 101(d) and 144 of title 23, highway bridges determined to be unreasonable obstructions to navigation under the Truman-Hobbs Act may be funded from amounts set aside from the discretionary bridge program. The Secretary shall transfer these allocations and the responsibility for administration of these funds to the United States Coast Guard.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2415; Pub. L. 103–272, §§4(j)(2), 5(m)(2), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1365, 1375; Pub. L. 104–324, title I, §101(b)(1), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3905; Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §101(c)(2), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1751.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
104(a) 49:1652(e)(1) (1st sentence related to FHWA). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §§3(e) (related to FHWA) (1), (3), (4), 6(f)(3)(C) (related to FHWA), 80 Stat. 932, 940.
104(b)(1) 49:1652(e) (related to FHWA) (1) (less 1st sentence), (3) (last sentence).
104(b)(2) 23:303(a)(1) (1st, 2d sentences).
104(b)(3) 23:303(a)(1) (last sentence), (b), (c).
104(c) 49:1655(f)(3)(B). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(3)(B), 80 Stat. 940; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §113(e)(2), 88 Stat. 2163.
  23:401 (note). Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L. 89–564, §201(b)(1), 80 Stat. 735; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §8(h), 80 Stat. 943; restated Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–605, §202(a), 84 Stat. 1740.
  49:1652(e)(3) (related to FHWA) (less last sentence).
104(d) 49:1652(e)(4) (related to FHWA).
  49:1655(f)(3)(C) (related to FHWA).

In subsection (b)(1), the words “Each of these components” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “In addition to the Administrator of the Federal Highway Administration authorized by section 3(e) of the Department of Transportation Act” in 23:303(a)(1) (1st sentence) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the words “in the competitive service” are substituted for “under the classified civil service” to conform to 5:2102. The text of 23:303(b), (c) is omitted as unnecessary because sections 322 and 323 of the revised title restate the authority of the Secretary of Transportation.

In subsection (c), the source provisions are consolidated. The words “The Administrator shall carry out duties and powers” are substituted for “The Secretary shall carry out through the Federal Highway Administration those provisions of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 . . . for” in 23:401 (note) and “carry out the functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary” in 49:1655(f)(3)(B) as being more precise, to eliminate unnecessary words, and for consistency. The words “vested in the Secretary” are substituted for “as set forth in the statutes transferred to the Secretary” in 49:1655(f)(3)(B) for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (d), the word “law” is substituted for “statute” in 49:1652(e)(4) for consistency. The words after “administratively final” in 49:1655(f)(3)(C) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the revised title and those laws giving the right to appeal.

References in Text

The Truman-Hobbs Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act June 21, 1940, ch. 409, 54 Stat. 497, as amended, also known as the Hobbs Bridge Act, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§511 et seq.) of chapter 11 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–159, §101(c)(2)(A), substituted “; and” for the semicolon at end of par. (1), redesignated par. (3) as (2), and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “duties and powers related to motor carrier safety vested in the Secretary by chapters 5 and 315 of this title; and”.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 106–159, §101(c)(2)(B), (C), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: “A duty or power specified by subsection (c)(2) of this section may be transferred to another part of the Department only when specifically provided by law or a reorganization plan submitted under chapter 9 of title 5. A decision of the Administrator in carrying out those duties or powers and involving notice and hearing required by law is administratively final.”

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–324 added subsec. (e).

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(2), substituted “Administrator” for “Admininstrator” before “who is”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(2), substituted “315” for “31”.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §107(a), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1758, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 9, 1999]; except that the amendments made by section 101 [enacting section 113 of this title and amending this section, sections 5314 and 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 104 of Title 23, Highways] shall take effect on January 1, 2000.”

Elimination of Regional Office Responsibilities

Pub. L. 105–178, title I, §1220, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 221, provided that:

“(a) In General.—

“(1) Elimination.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall eliminate any programmatic decisionmaking responsibility of the regional offices of the Federal Highway Administration for the Federal-aid highway program as part of the Administration's efforts to restructure its field organization.

“(2) Activities.—In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall eliminate regional offices, create technical resource centers, and, to the maximum extent practicable, delegate authority to State offices of the Federal Highway Administration.

“(b) Preference.—In locating the technical resource centers, the Secretary shall give preference to cities that house, on the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998], the Federal Highway Administration regional offices and are in locations that minimize the travel distance between the technical resource centers and the Federal Highway Administration division offices that will be served by the new technical resource centers.

“(c) Report to Congress.—The Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate a detailed implementation plan to carry out this section not later than September 30, 1998, and thereafter provide periodic progress reports on carrying out this section to such Committees.

“(d) Implementation.—The Secretary shall begin implementation of the plan transmitted under subsection (c) not later than December 31, 1998.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 322 of this title.

§105. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

(a) The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) The head of the Administration is the Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administration has a Deputy Administrator who is appointed by the Secretary of Transportation, with the approval of the President.

(c) The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers vested in the Secretary by chapter 4 of title 23, except those related to highway design, construction and maintenance, traffic control devices, identification and surveillance of accident locations, and highway-related aspects of pedestrian safety; and

(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(d) The Secretary may carry out chapter 301 of this title through the Administrator.

(e) The Administrator shall consult with the Federal Highway Administrator on all matters related to the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of highways.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2415; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(3), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
105 23:401 (note). Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L. 89–564, §201(a) (less pay of Administrator and Deputy Administrator), (b)(2), (c), (d), 80 Stat. 735; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §8(h), 80 Stat. 943; restated Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–605, §202(a), 84 Stat. 1739.

In subsection (a), the words “The . . . is an administration in the” are substituted for “There is hereby established within the”, in section 201(a) (1st sentence) of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 (Pub. L. 89–564, 80 Stat. 731) to conform to other sections of the revised title. The words “(hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Administration’)” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c), the words “carry out . . . duties and powers . . . prescribed by the Secretary” are substituted for “perform such duties as are delegated to him by the Secretary” to eliminate surplus words and for consistency. The list of excepted programs in clause (1) is substituted for “highway safety programs, research and development not specifically referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection”, in section 201(b)(2) of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 for clarity.

In subsection (d), the words “Administration . . . authorized by this section” are omitted as surplus.

The text of section 201(d) of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 is omitted as executed.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “chapter 301 of this title” for “the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.)”.

§106. Federal Aviation Administration

(a) The Federal Aviation Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) The head of the Administration is the Administrator. The Administration has a Deputy Administrator. They are appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. When making an appointment, the President shall consider the fitness of the individual to carry out efficiently the duties and powers of the office. Except as provided in subsection (f) or in other provisions of law, the Administrator reports directly to the Secretary of Transportation. The term of office for any individual appointed as Administrator after August 23, 1994, shall be 5 years.

(c) The Administrator must—

(1) be a citizen of the United States;

(2) be a civilian; and

(3) have experience in a field directly related to aviation.


(d)(1) The Deputy Administrator must be a citizen of the United States and have experience in a field directly related to aviation. An officer on active duty in an armed force may be appointed as Deputy Administrator. However, if the Administrator is a former regular officer of an armed force, the Deputy Administrator may not be an officer on active duty in an armed force, a retired regular officer of an armed force, or a former regular officer of an armed force.

(2) An officer on active duty or a retired officer serving as Deputy Administrator is entitled to hold a rank and grade not lower than that held when appointed as Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator may elect to receive (A) the pay provided by law for the Deputy Administrator, or (B) the pay and allowances or the retired pay of the military grade held. If the Deputy Administrator elects to receive the military pay and allowances or retired pay, the Administration shall reimburse the appropriate military department from funds available for the expenses of the Administration.

(3) The appointment and service of a member of the armed forces as a Deputy Administrator does not affect the status, office, rank, or grade held by that member, or a right or benefit arising from the status, office, rank, or grade. The Secretary of a military department does not control the member when the member is carrying out duties and powers of the Deputy Administrator.

(e) The Administrator and the Deputy Administrator may not have a pecuniary interest in, or own stock in or bonds of, an aeronautical enterprise, or engage in another business, vocation, or employment.

(f) Authority of the Secretary and the Administrator.—

(1) Authority of the secretary.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Transportation shall carry out the duties and powers, and controls the personnel and activities, of the Administration. Neither the Secretary nor the Administrator may submit decisions for the approval of, or be bound by the decisions or recommendations of, a committee, board, or organization established by executive order.

(2) Authority of the administrator.—The Administrator—

(A) is the final authority for carrying out all functions, powers, and duties of the Administration relating to—

(i) the appointment and employment of all officers and employees of the Administration (other than Presidential and political appointees);

(ii) the acquisition and maintenance of property and equipment of the Administration;

(iii) except as otherwise provided in paragraph (3), the promulgation of regulations, rules, orders, circulars, bulletins, and other official publications of the Administration; and

(iv) any obligation imposed on the Administrator, or power conferred on the Administrator, by the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996 (or any amendment made by that Act);


(B) shall offer advice and counsel to the President with respect to the appointment and qualifications of any officer or employee of the Administration to be appointed by the President or as a political appointee;

(C) may delegate, and authorize successive redelegations of, to an officer or employee of the Administration any function, power, or duty conferred upon the Administrator, unless such delegation is prohibited by law; and

(D) except as otherwise provided for in this title, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, shall not be required to coordinate, submit for approval or concurrence, or seek the advice or views of the Secretary or any other officer or employee of the Department of Transportation on any matter with respect to which the Administrator is the final authority.


(3) Regulations.—

(A) In general.—In the performance of the functions of the Administrator and the Administration, the Administrator is authorized to issue, rescind, and revise such regulations as are necessary to carry out those functions. The issuance of such regulations shall be governed by the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5. The Administrator shall act upon all petitions for rulemaking no later than 6 months after the date such petitions are filed by dismissing such petitions, by informing the petitioner of an intention to dismiss, or by issuing a notice of proposed rulemaking or advanced notice of proposed rulemaking. The Administrator shall issue a final regulation, or take other final action, not later than 16 months after the last day of the public comment period for the regulations or, in the case of an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking, if issued, not later than 24 months after the date of publication in the Federal Register of notice of the proposed rulemaking. On February 1 and August 1 of each year the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a letter listing each deadline the Administrator missed under this subparagraph during the 6-month period ending on such date, including an explanation for missing the deadline and a projected date on which the action that was subject to the deadline will be taken.

(B) Approval of secretary of transportation.—(i) The Administrator may not issue a proposed regulation or final regulation that is likely to result in the expenditure by State, local, and tribal governments in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $250,000,000 or more (adjusted annually for inflation beginning with the year following the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century) in any year, or any regulation which is significant, unless the Secretary of Transportation approves the issuance of the regulation in advance. For purposes of this paragraph, a regulation is significant if the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary (as appropriate), determines that the regulation is likely to—

(I) have an annual effect on the economy of $250,000,000 or more or adversely affect in a substantial and material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal governments or communities; or

(II) raise novel or significant legal or policy issues arising out of legal mandates that may substantially and materially affect other transportation modes.


(ii) In an emergency, the Administrator may issue a regulation described in clause (i) without prior approval by the Secretary, but any such emergency regulation is subject to ratification by the Secretary after it is issued and shall be rescinded by the Administrator within 5 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays) after issuance if the Secretary fails to ratify its issuance.

(iii) Any regulation that does not meet the criteria of clause (i), and any regulation or other action that is a routine or frequent action or a procedural action, may be issued by the Administrator without review or approval by the Secretary.

(iv) The Administrator shall submit a copy of any regulation requiring approval by the Secretary under clause (i) to the Secretary, who shall either approve it or return it to the Administrator with comments within 45 days after receiving it.

(C) Periodic review.—(i) Beginning on the date which is 3 years after the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996, the Administrator shall review any unusually burdensome regulation issued by the Administrator after such date of enactment beginning not later than 3 years after the effective date of the regulation to determine if the cost assumptions were accurate, the benefit of the regulations, and the need to continue such regulations in force in their present form.

(ii) The Administrator may identify for review under the criteria set forth in clause (i) unusually burdensome regulations that were issued before the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996 and that have been in force for more than 3 years.

(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “unusually burdensome regulation” means any regulation that results in the annual expenditure by State, local, and tribal governments in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $25,000,000 or more (adjusted annually for inflation beginning with the year following the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Act of 1996) in any year.

(iv) The periodic review of regulations may be performed by advisory committees and the Management Advisory Council established under subsection (p).


(4) Definition of political appointee.—For purposes of this subsection, the term “political appointee” means any individual who—

(A) is employed in a position listed in sections 5312 through 5316 of title 5 (relating to the Executive Schedule);

(B) is a limited term appointee, limited emergency appointee, or noncareer appointee in the Senior Executive Service, as defined under paragraphs (5), (6), and (7), respectively, of section 3132(a) of title 5; or

(C) is employed in a position in the executive branch of the Government of a confidential or policy-determining character under schedule C of subpart C of part 213 of title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations.


(g) Duties and Powers of Administrator.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the Administrator shall carry out—

(A) duties and powers of the Secretary of Transportation under subsection (f) of this section related to aviation safety (except those related to transportation, packaging, marking, or description of hazardous material) and stated in sections 308(b), 1132(c) and (d), 40101(c), 40103(b), 40106(a), 40108, 40109(b), 40113(a), 40113(c), 40113(d), 40113(e), 40114(a), and 40119, chapter 445 (except sections 44501(b), 44502(a)(2), 44502(a)(3), 44502(a)(4), 44503, 44506, 44509, 44510, 44514, and 44515), chapter 447 (except sections 44717, 44718(a), 44718(b), 44719, 44720, 44721(b), 44722, and 44723), chapter 449 (except sections 44903(d), 44904, 44905, 44907–44911, 44913, 44915, and 44931–44934), chapter 451, chapter 453, sections 46104, 46301(d) and (h)(2), 46303(c), 46304–46308, 46310, 46311, and 46313–46316, chapter 465, and sections 47504(b) (related to flight procedures), 47508(a), and 48107 of this title; and

(B) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation.


(2) In carrying out sections 40119, 44901, 44903(a)–(c) and (e), 44906, 44912, 44935–44937, 44938(a) and (b), and 48107 of this title, paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection does not apply to duties and powers vested in the Director of Intelligence and Security by section 44931 of this title.

(h) Section 40101(d) of this title applies to duties and powers specified in subsection (g)(1) of this section. Any of those duties and powers may be transferred to another part of the Department only when specifically provided by law or a reorganization plan submitted under chapter 9 of title 5. A decision of the Administrator in carrying out those duties or powers is administratively final.

(i) The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator acts for the Administrator when the Administrator is absent or unable to serve, or when the office of the Administrator is vacant.

(j) There is established within the Federal Aviation Administration an institute to conduct civil aeromedical research under section 44507 of this title. Such institute shall be known as the “Civil Aeromedical Institute”. Research conducted by the institute should take appropriate advantage of capabilities of other government agencies, universities, or the private sector.

(k) Authorization of Appropriations for Operations.—

(1) In general.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation for operations of the Administration—

(A) such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2000;

(B) $6,592,235,000 for fiscal year 2001;

(C) $6,886,000,000 for fiscal year 2002; and

(D) $7,357,000,000 for fiscal year 2003.


Such sums shall remain available until expended.

(2) Authorized expenditures.—Out of amounts appropriated under paragraph (1), the following expenditures are authorized:

(A) $450,000 for each of fiscal years 2000 through 2003 for wildlife hazard mitigation measures and management of the wildlife strike database of the Federal Aviation Administration.

(B) $9,100,000 for the 3-fiscal-year period beginning with fiscal year 2001 to support a university consortium established to provide an air safety and security management certificate program, working cooperatively with the Federal Aviation Administration and United States air carriers, except that funds under this subparagraph—

(i) may not be used for the construction of a building or other facility; and

(ii) may only be awarded on the basis of open competition.


(C) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2000 through 2003 to support infrastructure systems development for both general aviation and the vertical flight industry.

(D) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2000 through 2003 to establish helicopter approach procedures using current technologies (such as the Global Positioning System) to support all-weather, emergency medical service for trauma patients.

(E) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2000 through 2003 to revise existing terminal and en route procedures and instrument flight rules to facilitate the takeoff, flight, and landing of tiltrotor aircraft and to improve the national airspace system by separating such aircraft from congested flight paths of fixed-wing aircraft.

(F) $3,300,000 for fiscal year 2000 and $3,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2003 to implement the 1998 airport surface operations safety action plan of the Federal Aviation Administration.

(G) $9,100,000 for fiscal year 2001 to support air safety efforts through payment of United States membership obligations in the International Civil Aviation Organization, to be paid as soon as practicable.

(H) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2000 through 2003 for the Secretary to hire additional inspectors in order to enhance air cargo security programs.

(I) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2000 through 2003 to develop and improve training programs (including model training programs and curriculum) for security screening personnel at airports that will be used by airlines to meet regulatory requirements relating to the training and testing of such personnel.


(l) Personnel and Services.—

(1) Officers and employees.—Except as provided in subsections (a) and (g) of section 40122, the Administrator is authorized, in the performance of the functions of the Administrator, to appoint, transfer, and fix the compensation of such officers and employees, including attorneys, as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Administrator and the Administration. In fixing compensation and benefits of officers and employees, the Administrator shall not engage in any type of bargaining, except to the extent provided for in section 40122(a), nor shall the Administrator be bound by any requirement to establish such compensation or benefits at particular levels.

(2) Experts and consultants.—The Administrator is authorized to obtain the services of experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5.

(3) Transportation and per diem expenses.—The Administrator is authorized to pay transportation expenses, and per diem in lieu of subsistence expenses, in accordance with chapter 57 of title 5.

(4) Use of personnel from other agencies.—The Administrator is authorized to utilize the services of personnel of any other Federal agency (as such term is defined under section 551(1) of title 5).

(5) Voluntary services.—

(A) General rule.—In exercising the authority to accept gifts and voluntary services under section 326 of this title, and without regard to section 1342 of title 31, the Administrator may not accept voluntary and uncompensated services if such services are used to displace Federal employees employed on a full-time, part-time, or seasonal basis.

(B) Incidental expenses.—The Administrator is authorized to provide for incidental expenses, including transportation, lodging, and subsistence, for volunteers who provide voluntary services under this subsection.

(C) Limited treatment as federal employees.—An individual who provides voluntary services under this subsection shall not be considered a Federal employee for any purpose other than for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, relating to compensation for work injuries, and chapter 171 of title 28, relating to tort claims.


(6) Contracts.—The Administrator is authorized to enter into and perform such contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, or other transactions as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Administrator and the Administration. The Administrator may enter into such contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, and other transactions with any Federal agency (as such term is defined in section 551(1) of title 5) or any instrumentality of the United States, any State, territory, or possession, or political subdivision thereof, any other governmental entity, or any person, firm, association, corporation, or educational institution, on such terms and conditions as the Administrator may consider appropriate.


(m) Cooperation by Administrator.—With the consent of appropriate officials, the Administrator may, with or without reimbursement, use or accept the services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of any other Federal agency (as such term is defined in section 551(1) of title 5) and any other public or private entity. The Administrator may also cooperate with appropriate officials of other public and private agencies and instrumentalities concerning the use of services, equipment, personnel, and facilities. The head of each Federal agency shall cooperate with the Administrator in making the services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of the Federal agency available to the Administrator. The head of a Federal agency is authorized, notwithstanding any other provision of law, to transfer to or to receive from the Administration, without reimbursement, supplies and equipment other than administrative supplies or equipment.

(n) Acquisition.—

(1) In general.—The Administrator is authorized—

(A) to acquire (by purchase, lease, condemnation, or otherwise), construct, improve, repair, operate, and maintain—

(i) air traffic control facilities and equipment;

(ii) research and testing sites and facilities; and

(iii) such other real and personal property (including office space and patents), or any interest therein, within and outside the continental United States as the Administrator considers necessary;


(B) to lease to others such real and personal property; and

(C) to provide by contract or otherwise for eating facilities and other necessary facilities for the welfare of employees of the Administration at the installations of the Administration, and to acquire, operate, and maintain equipment for these facilities.


(2) Title.—Title to any property or interest therein acquired pursuant to this subsection shall be held by the Government of the United States.


(o) Transfers of Funds.—The Administrator is authorized to accept transfers of unobligated balances and unexpended balances of funds appropriated to other Federal agencies (as such term is defined in section 551(1) of title 5) to carry out functions transferred by law to the Administrator or functions transferred pursuant to law to the Administrator on or after the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996.

(p) Management Advisory Council.—

(1) Establishment.—Within 3 months after the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996, the Administrator shall establish an advisory council which shall be known as the Federal Aviation Management Advisory Council (in this subsection referred to as the “Council”). With respect to Administration management, policy, spending, funding, and regulatory matters affecting the aviation industry, the Council may submit comments, recommended modifications, and dissenting views to the Administrator. The Administrator shall include in any submission to Congress, the Secretary, or the general public, and in any submission for publication in the Federal Register, a description of the comments, recommended modifications, and dissenting views received from the Council, together with the reasons for any differences between the views of the Council and the views or actions of the Administrator.

(2) Membership.—The Council shall consist of 18 members, who shall consist of—

(A) a designee of the Secretary of Transportation;

(B) a designee of the Secretary of Defense;

(C) 10 members representing aviation interests, appointed by—

(i) in the case of initial appointments to the Council, the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and

(ii) in the case of subsequent appointments to the Council, the Secretary of Transportation;


(D) 1 member appointed, from among individuals who are the leaders of their respective unions of air traffic control system employees, by—

(i) in the case of initial appointments to the Council, the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and

(ii) in the case of subsequent appointments to the Council, the Secretary of Transportation; and


(E) 5 members appointed by the Secretary after consultation with the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.


(3) Qualifications.—

(A) No federal officer or employee.—No member appointed under paragraph (2)(C) or (2)(E) may serve as an officer or employee of the United States Government while serving as a member of the Council.

(B) Air traffic services subcommittee.—Members appointed under paragraph (2)(E) shall—

(i) have a fiduciary responsibility to represent the public interest;

(ii) be citizens of the United States; and

(iii) be appointed without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of their professional experience and expertise in one or more of the following areas:

(I) Management of large service organizations.

(II) Customer service.

(III) Management of large procurements.

(IV) Information and communications technology.

(V) Organizational development.

(VI) Labor relations.


At least one of such members should have a background in managing large organizations successfully. In the aggregate, such members should collectively bring to bear expertise in all of the areas described in subclauses (I) through (VI).

(C) Prohibitions on members of subcommittee.—No member appointed under paragraph (2)(E) may—

(i) have a pecuniary interest in, or own stock in or bonds of, an aviation or aeronautical enterprise, except an interest in a diversified mutual fund or an interest that is exempt from the application of section 208 of title 18;

(ii) engage in another business related to aviation or aeronautics; or

(iii) be a member of any organization that engages, as a substantial part of its activities, in activities to influence aviation-related legislation.


(4) Functions.—

(A) In general.—(i) The Council shall provide advice and counsel to the Administrator on issues which affect or are affected by the operations of the Administrator. The Council shall function as an oversight resource for management, policy, spending, and regulatory matters under the jurisdiction of the Administration.

(ii) The Council shall review the rulemaking cost-benefit analysis process and develop recommendations to improve the analysis and ensure that the public interest is fully protected.

(iii) The Council shall review the process through which the Administration determines to use advisory circulars and service bulletins.

(B) Meetings.—The Council shall meet on a regular and periodic basis or at the call of the chairman or of the Administrator.

(C) Access to documents and staff.—The Administration may give the Council appropriate access to relevant documents and personnel of the Administration, and the Administrator shall make available, consistent with the authority to withhold commercial and other proprietary information under section 552 of title 5 (commonly known as the “Freedom of Information Act”), cost data associated with the acquisition and operation of air traffic service systems. Any member of the Council who receives commercial or other proprietary data from the Administrator shall be subject to the provisions of section 1905 of title 18, pertaining to unauthorized disclosure of such information.


(5) Federal advisory committee act not to apply.—The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) does not apply to the Council or such aviation rulemaking committees as the Administrator shall designate.

(6) Administrative matters.—

(A) Terms of members appointed under paragraph (2)(c).—Members of the Council appointed under paragraph (2)(C) shall be appointed for a term of 3 years. Of the members first appointed by the President under paragraph (2)(C)—

(i) 3 shall be appointed for terms of 1 year;

(ii) 4 shall be appointed for terms of 2 years; and

(iii) 3 shall be appointed for terms of 3 years.


(B) Term for air traffic control representative.—The member appointed under paragraph (2)(D) shall be appointed for a term of 3 years, except that the term of such individual shall end whenever the individual no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(D).

(C) Terms for air traffic services subcommittee members.—The member appointed under paragraph (2)(E) shall be appointed for a term of 5 years, except that of the members first appointed under paragraph (2)(E)—

(i) 2 members shall be appointed for a term of 3 years;

(ii) 2 members shall be appointed for a term of 4 years; and

(iii) 1 member shall be appointed for a term of 5 years.


(D) Reappointment.—An individual may not be appointed under paragraph (2)(E) to more than two 5-year terms.

(E) Vacancy.—Any vacancy on the Council shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment, except that any vacancy caused by a member appointed by the President under paragraph (2)(C)(i) shall be filled by the Secretary in accordance with paragraph (2)(C)(ii). Any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which the member's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of that term.

(F) Continuation in office.—A member whose term expires shall continue to serve until the date on which the member's successor takes office.

(G) Removal.—Any member of the Council appointed under paragraph (2)(D) may be removed for cause by the President or Secretary whoever makes the appointment. Any member of the Council appointed under paragraph (2)(E) may be removed for cause by the Secretary.

(H) Claims against members of subcommittee.—

(i) In general.—A member appointed under paragraph (2)(E) shall have no personal liability under Federal law with respect to any claim arising out of or resulting from an act or omission by such member within the scope of service as a member of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee.

(ii) Effect on other law.—This subparagraph shall not be construed—

(I) to affect any other immunity or protection that may be available to a member of the Subcommittee under applicable law with respect to such transactions;

(II) to affect any other right or remedy against the United States under applicable law; or

(III) to limit or alter in any way the immunities that are available under applicable law for Federal officers and employees.


(I) Ethical considerations.—

(i) Financial disclosure.—During the entire period that an individual appointed under paragraph (2)(E) is a member of the Subcommittee, such individual shall be treated as serving as an officer or employee referred to in section 101(f) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 for purposes of title I of such Act; except that section 101(d) of such Act shall apply without regard to the number of days of service in the position.

(ii) Restrictions on post-employment.—For purposes of section 207(c) of title 18, an individual appointed under paragraph (2)(E) shall be treated as an employee referred to in section 207(c)(2)(A)(i) of such title during the entire period the individual is a member of the Subcommittee; except that subsections (c)(2)(B) and (f) of section 207 of such title shall not apply.


(J) Chairman; vice chairman.—The Council shall elect a chair and a vice chair from among the members appointed under paragraph (2)(C), each of whom shall serve for a term of 1 year. The vice chair shall perform the duties of the chairman in the absence of the chairman.

(K) Travel and per diem.—Each member of the Council shall be paid actual travel expenses, and per diem in lieu of subsistence expenses when away from his or her usual place of residence, in accordance with section 5703 of title 5.

(L) Detail of personnel from the administration.—The Administrator shall make available to the Council such staff, information, and administrative services and assistance as may reasonably be required to enable the Council to carry out its responsibilities under this subsection.


(7) Air traffic services subcommittee.—

(A) In general.—The Management Advisory Council shall have an air traffic services subcommittee (in this paragraph referred to as the “Subcommittee”) composed of the five members appointed under paragraph (2)(E).

(B) General responsibilities.—

(i) Oversight.—The Subcommittee shall oversee the administration, management, conduct, direction, and supervision of the air traffic control system.

(ii) Confidentiality.—The Subcommittee shall ensure that appropriate confidentiality is maintained in the exercise of its duties.


(C) Specific responsibilities.—The Subcommittee shall have the following specific responsibilities:

(i) Strategic plans.—To review, approve, and monitor the strategic plan for the air traffic control system, including the establishment of—

(I) a mission and objectives;

(II) standards of performance relative to such mission and objectives, including safety, efficiency, and productivity; and

(III) annual and long-range strategic plans.


(ii) Modernization and improvement.—To review and approve—

(I) methods to accelerate air traffic control modernization and improvements in aviation safety related to air traffic control; and

(II) procurements of air traffic control equipment in excess of $100,000,000.


(iii) Operational plans.—To review the operational functions of the air traffic control system, including—

(I) plans for modernization of the air traffic control system;

(II) plans for increasing productivity or implementing cost-saving measures; and

(III) plans for training and education.


(iv) Management.—To—

(I) review and approve the Administrator's appointment of a Chief Operating Officer under section 106(r);

(II) review the Administrator's selection, evaluation, and compensation of senior executives of the Administration who have program management responsibility over significant functions of the air traffic control system;

(III) review and approve the Administrator's plans for any major reorganization of the Administration that would impact on the management of the air traffic control system;

(IV) review and approve the Administrator's cost accounting and financial management structure and technologies to help ensure efficient and cost-effective air traffic control operation; and

(V) review the performance and compensation of managers responsible for major acquisition projects, including the ability of the managers to meet schedule and budget targets.


(v) Budget.—To—

(I) review and approve the budget request of the Administration related to the air traffic control system prepared by the Administrator;

(II) submit such budget request to the Secretary; and

(III) ensure that the budget request supports the annual and long-range strategic plans.


The Secretary shall submit the budget request referred to in clause (v)(II) for any fiscal year to the President who shall transmit such request, without revision, to the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Appropriations of the Senate, together with the President's annual budget request for the Federal Aviation Administration for such fiscal year.

(D) Subcommittee personnel matters.—

(i) Compensation of members.—Each member of the Subcommittee shall be compensated at a rate of $25,000 per year.

(ii) Compensation of chairperson.—Notwithstanding clause (i), the chairperson of the Subcommittee shall be compensated at a rate of $40,000 per year.

(iii) Staff.—The chairperson of the Subcommittee may appoint and terminate any personnel that may be necessary to enable the Subcommittee to perform its duties.

(iv) Procurement of temporary and intermittent services.—The chairperson of the Subcommittee may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code.


(E) Administrative matters.—

(i) Term of chair.—The members of the Subcommittee shall elect for a 2-year term a chairperson from among the members of the Subcommittee.

(ii) Powers of chair.—Except as otherwise provided by a majority vote of the Subcommittee, the powers of the chairperson shall include—

(I) establishing committees;

(II) setting meeting places and times;

(III) establishing meeting agendas; and

(IV) developing rules for the conduct of business.


(iii) Meetings.—The Subcommittee shall meet at least quarterly and at such other times as the chairperson determines appropriate.

(iv) Quorum.—Three members of the Subcommittee shall constitute a quorum. A majority of members present and voting shall be required for the Subcommittee to take action.


(F) Reports.—

(i) Annual.—The Subcommittee shall each year report with respect to the conduct of its responsibilities under this title to the Administrator, the Council, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

(ii) Additional report.—If a determination by the Subcommittee under subparagraph (B)(i) that the organization and operation of the air traffic control system are not allowing the Administration to carry out its mission, the Subcommittee shall report such determination to the Administrator, the Council, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

(iii) Action of administrator on report.—Not later than 60 days after the date of a report of the Subcommittee under this subparagraph, the Administrator shall take action with respect to such report. If the Administrator overturns a recommendation of the Subcommittee, the Administrator shall report such action to the President, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

(iv) Comptroller general's report.—Not later than April 30, 2003, the Comptroller General of the United States shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the success of the Subcommittee in improving the performance of the air traffic control system.


(8) Air traffic control system defined.—In this section, the term “air traffic control system” has the meaning such term has under section 40102(a).


(q) Aircraft Noise Ombudsman.—

(1) Establishment.—There shall be in the Administration an Aircraft Noise Ombudsman.

(2) General duties and responsibilities.—The Ombudsman shall—

(A) be appointed by the Administrator;

(B) serve as a liaison with the public on issues regarding aircraft noise; and

(C) be consulted when the Administration proposes changes in aircraft routes so as to minimize any increases in aircraft noise over populated areas.


(3) Number of full-time equivalent employees.—The appointment of an Ombudsman under this subsection shall not result in an increase in the number of full-time equivalent employees in the Administration.


(r) Chief Operating Officer.—

(1) In general.—

(A) Appointment.—There shall be a Chief Operating Officer for the air traffic control system to be appointed by the Administrator, with the approval of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Council. The Chief Operating Officer shall report directly to the Administrator and shall be subject to the authority of the Administrator.

(B) Qualifications.—The Chief Operating Officer shall have a demonstrated ability in management and knowledge of or experience in aviation.

(C) Term.—The Chief Operating Officer shall be appointed for a term of 5 years.

(D) Removal.—The Chief Operating Officer shall serve at the pleasure of the Administrator, except that the Administrator shall make every effort to ensure stability and continuity in the leadership of the air traffic control system.

(E) Vacancy.—Any individual appointed to fill a vacancy in the position of Chief Operating Officer occurring before the expiration of the term for which the individual's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of that term.


(2) Compensation.—

(A) In general.—The Chief Operating Officer shall be paid at an annual rate of basic pay equal to the annual rate of basic pay of the Administrator. The Chief Operating Officer shall be subject to the post-employment provisions of section 207 of title 18 as if this position were described in section 207(c)(2)(A)(i) of that title.

(B) Bonus.—In addition to the annual rate of basic pay authorized by subparagraph (A), the Chief Operating Officer may receive a bonus for any calendar year not to exceed 30 percent of the annual rate of basic pay, based upon the Administrator's evaluation of the Chief Operating Officer's performance in relation to the performance goals set forth in the performance agreement described 1 paragraph (3).


(3) Annual performance agreement.—The Administrator and the Chief Operating Officer, in consultation with the Air Traffic Control Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Committee, shall enter into an annual performance agreement that sets forth measurable organization and individual goals for the Chief Operating Officer in key operational areas. The agreement shall be subject to review and renegotiation on an annual basis.

(4) Annual performance report.—The Chief Operating Officer shall prepare and transmit to the Secretary of Transportation and Congress an annual management report containing such information as may be prescribed by the Secretary.

(5) Responsibilities.—The Administrator may delegate to the Chief Operating Officer, or any other authority within the Administration responsibilities, including the following:

(A) Strategic plans.—To develop a strategic plan of the Administration for the air traffic control system, including the establishment of—

(i) a mission and objectives;

(ii) standards of performance relative to such mission and objectives, including safety, efficiency, and productivity;

(iii) annual and long-range strategic plans; and

(iv) methods of the Administration to accelerate air traffic control modernization and improvements in aviation safety related to air traffic control.


(B) Operations.—To review the operational functions of the Administration, including—

(i) modernization of the air traffic control system;

(ii) increasing productivity or implementing cost-saving measures; and

(iii) training and education.


(C) Budget.—To—

(i) develop a budget request of the Administration related to the air traffic control system prepared by the Administrator;

(ii) submit such budget request to the Administrator and the Secretary of Transportation; and

(iii) ensure that the budget request supports the annual and long-range strategic plans developed under subparagraph (A) of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2416; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 100–591, §5(a), Nov. 3, 1988, 102 Stat. 3013; Pub. L. 101–508, title IX, §9106, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–355; Pub. L. 101–604, title I, §101(c), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3068; Pub. L. 102–581, title I, §104, Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4877; Pub. L. 103–272, §§4(j)(3), 5(m)(4), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1365, 1375; Pub. L. 103–305, title I, §103, title II, §201, Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1571, 1581; Pub. L. 104–264, title I, §103(a), title II, §§223(a), 224–230, 276(c), title XII, §1210, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3216, 3229–3234, 3282; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3388; Pub. L. 105–102, §3(c)(3), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2215; Pub. L. 106–6, §4, Mar. 31, 1999, 113 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 106–181, title I, §103(a), title III, §§302(a)–(c), 303, 305, 306, 307(c)(1), title VII, §701, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 66, 115–118, 121, 123, 124, 126, 154; Pub. L. 106–528, §8(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2522.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
106(a) 49:1341(a) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§301(a), (b), 302(a), (b), 72 Stat. 744; Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, §305(16) (B), (C), 78 Stat. 424.
  49:1652(e)(1) (related to FAA). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §3(e) (related to FAA), 80 Stat. 932.
106(b) 49:1341(a) (2d sentence), (b) (1st sentence less 1st–10th words).
  49:1342(a) (1st sentence), (b) (1st sentence less 1st–11th words).
  49:1652(e) (related to FAA) (1) (less 1st sentence), (3) (last sentence).
106(c) 49:1341(b) (1st sentence 1st–10th words, 2d sentence).
  49:1652(e)(2) (related to Administrator).
106(d) 49:1342(b) (1st sentence 1st–11th words, 2d sentence, 4th–6th sentences).
  49:1652(e)(2) (1st sentence less Administrator).
  49:1343(a)(2) (related to Deputy Administrator). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §302(c)(2) (related to Deputy Administrator), 72 Stat. 745.
106(e) 49:1341(b) (less 1st, 2d sentences).
  49:1342(b) (3d sentence).
106(f) 49:1341(a) (less 1st, 2d sentences).
106(g) 49:1652(e)(3) (related to FAA) (less last sentence).
  49:1655(c)(1) (1st sentence proviso). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1) (1st sentence proviso, 2d, last sentences), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §113(d), 88 Stat. 2163.
106(h) 49:1652(e)(4) (related to FAA).
  49:1655(c)(1) (2d, last sentences).
106(i) 49:1342(a) (2d, last sentences).

In subsections (a) and (b), the source provisions are combined for clarity.

In subsection (a), the words “referred to in this chapter as the ‘Administration’ ” are omitted because of the style of the revised title.

In subsection (b), the word “due” in 49:1342(b) (1st sentence less 1st–11th words) is omitted as surplus. The words “the duties and powers” are substituted for “the powers and duties vested in and imposed upon him by this chapter” to eliminate surplus words and for consistency. The word “consider” is substituted for “with . . . regard to” for clarity.

In subsections (c) and (d), the words “At the time of his nomination” are omitted as unnecessary and for consistency.

In subsection (c), the text of 49:1652(e)(2) (last sentence) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (d)(1), the words “Nothing in this chapter or other law shall preclude” in 49:1342(b) (4th sentence) are omitted as unnecessary because of the positive statement of authority. The words “armed force” are substituted for “armed services” to conform to title 10. The words “to the position of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(2), the word “continue” is omitted as surplus. The words “pay provided by law for the Deputy Administrator” are substituted for “compensation provided for the Deputy Administrator” in 49:1342(b) because the pay provisions were repealed and replaced by 5:5315. The words “(including personal money allowance)” are omitted as being within the meaning of “allowance” in title 37. The words “as the case may be” are omitted as surplus. The words “of the military grade held” are substituted for “military . . . payable to a commissioned officer of his grade and length of service” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “Administration” and “military” are added for clarity. The words “to defray” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(3), the words “acceptance of, and” are omitted as unnecessary. The word “held” is substituted for “may occupy or hold” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “right or benefit” are substituted for “emolument, perquisite, right, privilege, or benefit” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “incident to or” before “arising” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), the word “Secretary” is substituted for “Administrator” because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1). The words “In the exercise of his duties and the discharge of his responsibilities under this chapter” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (g), the words “are hereby transferred to” in 49:1655(c)(1) are omitted as executed. The words “carry out” are substituted for “it shall be his duty to exercise” in 49:1655(c)(1) for clarity, consistency, and to eliminate surplus words. The words “In addition to such functions, powers, and duties as are specified in this chapter” in 49:1652(e)(3) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

In subsection (h), the first sentence is substituted for 49:1655(c)(1) (2d sentence) for clarity and consistency. The word “law” is substituted for “statute” in 49:1652(e)(4) for consistency. The words “carrying out” in 49:1655(c)(1) (last sentence) are substituted for “the exercise of” for consistency. The words after “administratively final” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the revised title and those laws giving a right of appeal.

In subsection (i), the words “and exercise the powers of” are omitted as surplus. The words “when the office of the Administrator is vacant” are inserted to conform to section 102 of the revised title.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 4(j)(3)(B) amends 49:106(g) to list the duties and powers of the Secretary of Transportation that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration carries out. The duties and powers are derived from 2 sources. Some were transferred by former 49 App.:1655(c)(1), restated as 49:106 in section 1 of the Act of January 12, 1983 (Public Law 97–449, 96 Stat. 2417). The others are from laws enacted after October 15, 1966, in which the duties and powers are to be carried out by the Administrator rather than the Secretary.

References in Text

The Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(A)(iv), is title II of Pub. L. 104–264, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3227. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 40101 of this title and Tables.

The date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, referred to in subsec. (f)(3)(B)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

The date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996, referred to in subsecs. (f)(3)(C), (o), and (p)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–264, which was approved Oct. 9, 1996.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (p)(5), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Ethics in Government Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (p)(6)(I)(i), is Pub. L. 95–521, Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1824, as amended. Title I of the Act is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of Pub. L. 95–521 in the Appendix to Title 5 and Tables.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (f)(3)(A). Pub. L. 106–181, §306, inserted at end “On February 1 and August 1 of each year the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a letter listing each deadline the Administrator missed under this subparagraph during the 6-month period ending on such date, including an explanation for missing the deadline and a projected date on which the action that was subject to the deadline will be taken.”

Subsec. (f)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 106–181, §305(1), (2), in introductory provisions, substituted “$250,000,000” for “$100,000,000” and “Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century” for “Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 106–181, §305(1), (3), substituted “$250,000,000” for “$100,000,000” and inserted “substantial and” before “material” and “or” after semicolon at end.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B)(i)(II) to (IV). Pub. L. 106–181, §305(4), added subcl. (II) and struck out former subcls. (II) to (IV) which read as follows:

“(II) create a serious inconsistency or otherwise interfere with an action taken or planned by another agency;

“(III) materially alter the budgetary impact of entitlements, grants, user fees, or loan programs or the rights and obligations of recipients thereof; or

“(IV) raise novel legal or policy issues arising out of legal mandates.”

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–181, §701, substituted “40113(a), 40113(c), 40113(d), 40113(e), 40114(a), and 40119, chapter 445 (except sections 44501(b), 44502(a)(2), 44502(a)(3), 44502(a)(4), 44503, 44506, 44509, 44510, 44514, and 44515), chapter 447 (except sections 44717, 44718(a), 44718(b), 44719, 44720, 44721(b), 44722, and 44723), chapter 449 (except sections 44903(d), 44904, 44905, 44907–44911, 44913, 44915, and 44931–44934), chapter 451, chapter 453, sections” for “40113(a), (c), and (d), 40114(a), 40119, 44501(a) and (c), 44502(a)(1), (b), and (c), 44504, 44505, 44507, 44508, 44511–44513, 44701–44716, 44718(c), 44721(a), 44901, 44902, 44903(a)–(c) and (e), 44906, 44912, 44935–44937, and 44938(a) and (b), chapter 451, sections 45302–45304,”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 106–181, §103(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (k) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation for operations of the Administration $5,632,000,000 for fiscal year 1999.”

Subsec. (l)(1). Pub. L. 106–181, §307(c)(1), substituted “subsections (a) and (g) of section 40122” for “section 40122(a) of this title and section 347 of Public Law 104–50”.

Subsec. (p)(2). Pub. L. 106–528, which directed the substitution of “18” for “15” in section 106(p)(2), without specifying the Code title to be amended, was executed by making the substitution in the introductory provisions of subsec. (p)(2) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (p)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 106–181, §302(a)(1), added subpars. (C) to (E) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “13 members representing aviation interests, appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.”

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 106–181, §302(a)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted subpar. heading, realigned margins, inserted “or (2)(E)” after “paragraph (2)(C)”, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (p)(6). Pub. L. 106–181, §302(b), added subpars. (A) to (I), redesignated former subpars. (B) to (D) as (J) to (L), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which related to terms of members appointed to the Advisory Council.

Subsec. (p)(7), (8). Pub. L. 106–181, §302(c), added pars. (7) and (8).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 106–181, §303, added subsec. (r).

1999—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 106–6 substituted “$5,632,000,000 for fiscal year 1999.” for “$5,158,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 and $5,344,000,000 for fiscal year 1998.”

1997—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–102 added Pub. L. 104–264, §276(c). See 1996 Amendment note below.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted “August 23, 1994,” for “the date of the enactment of this sentence”.

Pub. L. 104–264, §223(a)(1), substituted “Except as provided in subsection (f) or in other provisions of law, the Administrator” for “The Administrator”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–264, §223(a)(2), inserted subsec. heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary” for “The Secretary”, realigned margins, substituted “Neither the Secretary nor the Administrator may” for “The Secretary may not” and “or be bound” for “nor be bound”, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 104–264, §224(2), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 104–264, §224(1), redesignated par. (3) as (4).

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–264, §276(c), as added by Pub. L. 105–102, substituted “45302–45304” for “45302, 45303”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 104–264, §103(a), substituted “$5,158,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 and $5,344,000,000 for fiscal year 1998.” for “$4,088,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, $4,412,600,000 for fiscal year 1992, $4,716,500,000 for fiscal year 1993, $4,576,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, $4,674,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and $4,810,000,000 for fiscal year 1996.”

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 104–264, §225, added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (l)(6). Pub. L. 104–264, §226, added par. (6).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 104–264, §227, added subsec. (m).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 104–264, §228, added subsec. (n).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 104–264, §229, added subsec. (o).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 104–264, §230, added subsec. (p).

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 104–264, §1210, added subsec. (q).

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–305, §201, inserted at end “The term of office for any individual appointed as Administrator after the date of the enactment of this sentence shall be 5 years.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(3)(A), substituted “Secretary of Transportation shall” for “Secretary shall”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(3)(B), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Administrator shall carry out—

“(1) duties and powers of the Secretary related to aviation safety (except those related to transportation, packaging, marking, or description of hazardous materials) and vested in the Secretary by section 308(b) of this title and sections 306–309, 312–314, 315–316 (except for the duties and powers vested in the Director of Intelligence and Security by or under section 101 of the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990), 1101, 1105, and 1111 and titles VI, VII, IX, and XII of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 App. U.S.C. 1347–1350, 1353–1355, 1421 et seq., 1441 et seq., 1471 et seq., 1501, 1505, 1511, and 1521 et seq.); and

“(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(4)(A), substituted “Section 40101(d) of this title” for “Section 103 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 App. U.S.C. 1303)”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(4)(B), substituted “section 44507 of this title” for “section 312(e) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–305, §103, substituted “, $4,576,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, $4,674,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and $4,810,000,000 for fiscal year 1996” for “, $5,100,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, and $5,520,000,000 for fiscal year 1995”.

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(3)(C), inserted “to the Secretary of Transportation” after “appropriated”.

1992—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 102–581 substituted “1991,” for “1991 and” and inserted before period at end “, $4,716,500,000 for fiscal year 1993, $5,100,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, and $5,520,000,000 for fiscal year 1995”.

1990—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–604 inserted “315–316 (except for the duties and powers vested in the Director of Intelligence and Security by or under section 101 of the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990),” after “312–314,”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 101–508 added subsec. (k).

1988—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–591 added subsec. (j).

1984—Subsecs. (g)(1), (h). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “49 App. U.S.C.” for “49 U.S.C.”.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendments

Pub. L. 106–528, §9, Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2523, provided that: “Except as otherwise expressly provided, this Act [amending this section and sections 41104, 44903, 44935, and 44936 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 40101, 44903, and 44936 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 40128 and 47501 of this title] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 22, 2000].”

Pub. L. 106–181, §3, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 64, provided that: “Except as otherwise specifically provided, this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act shall apply only to fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1999.”

Pub. L. 106–181, title III, §302(d), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 121, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000].

“(2) Initial nominations to air traffic services subcommittee.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall make the initial appointments of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Council not later than 3 months after the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(3) Effect on actions prior to appointment of subcommittee.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to invalidate the actions and authority of the Federal Aviation Administration prior to the appointment of the members of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–102, §3(c), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2215, provided that the amendment made by section 3(c)(3) is effective Oct. 9, 1996.

Pub. L. 105–102, §3(f), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2216, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) through (d) of this section [amending this section and sections 5302, 30501 to 30504, 45301, 46301, 46316, 47117, and 47128 of this title, renumbering section 40121 of this title as 40124 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 5303 and 47117 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Acts to which the amendments relate.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as otherwise specifically provided, this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act apply only to fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1996.

“(b) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this Act or any amendment made by this Act shall be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before October 1, 1996.”

Section 203 of title II of Pub. L. 104–264 provided that: “The provisions of this title [enacting sections 40121, 40122, 45301, 45303, 48111, and 48201 of this title, amending this section and section 41742 of this title, renumbering section 45303 of this title as section 45304, repealing section 45301 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 40101, 40110, and 41742 of this title] and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on the date that is 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1996].”

Internet Availability of Information

Pub. L. 106–181, title IX, §903, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 196, provided that: “The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall make available through the Internet home page of the Federal Aviation Administration the abstracts relating to all research grants and awards made with funds authorized by the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification]. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require or permit the release of any information prohibited by law or regulation from being released to the public.”

Findings

Section 221 of Pub. L. 104–264 provided that: “Congress finds the following:

“(1) In many respects the Administration is a unique agency, being one of the few non-defense government agencies that operates 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year, while continuing to rely on outdated technology to carry out its responsibilities for a state-of-the-art industry.

“(2) Until January 1, 1996, users of the air transportation system paid 70 percent of the budget of the Administration, with the remaining 30 percent coming from the General Fund. The General Fund contribution over the years is one measure of the benefit received by the general public, military, and other users of Administration's services.

“(3) The Administration must become a more efficient, effective, and different organization to meet future challenges.

“(4) The need to balance the Federal budget means that it may become more and more difficult to obtain sufficient General Fund contributions to meet the Administration's future budget needs.

“(5) Congress must keep its commitment to the users of the national air transportation system by seeking to spend all moneys collected from them each year and deposited into the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. Existing surpluses representing past receipts must also be spent for the purposes for which such funds were collected.

“(6) The aviation community and the employees of the Administration must come together to improve the system. The Administration must continue to recognize who its customers are and what their needs are, and to design and redesign the system to make safety improvements and increase productivity.

“(7) The Administration projects that commercial operations will increase by 18 percent and passenger traffic by 35 percent by the year 2002. Without effective airport expansion and system modernization, these needs cannot be met.

“(8) Absent significant and meaningful reform, future challenges and needs cannot be met.

“(9) The Administration must have a new way of doing business.

“(10) There is widespread agreement within government and the aviation industry that reform of the Administration is essential to safely and efficiently accommodate the projected growth of aviation within the next decade.

“(11) To the extent that Congress determines that certain segments of the aviation community are not required to pay all of the costs of the government services which they require and benefits which they receive, Congress should appropriate the difference between such costs and any receipts received from such segment.

“(12) Prior to the imposition of any new charges or user fees on segments of the industry, an independent review must be performed to assess the funding needs and assumptions for operations, capital spending, and airport infrastructure.

“(13) An independent, thorough, and complete study and assessment must be performed of the costs to the Administration and the costs driven by each segment of the aviation system for safety and operational services, including the use of the air traffic control system and the Nation's airports.

“(14) Because the Administration is a unique Federal entity in that it is a participant in the daily operations of an industry, and because the national air transportation system faces significant problems without significant changes, the Administration has been authorized to change the Federal procurement and personnel systems to ensure that the Administration has the ability to keep pace with new technology and is able to match resources with the real personnel needs of the Administration.

“(15) The existing budget system does not allow for long-term planning or timely acquisition of technology by the Administration.

“(16) Without reforms in the areas of procurement, personnel, funding, and governance, the Administration will continue to experience delays and cost overruns in its major modernization programs and needed improvements in the performance of the air traffic management system will not occur.

“(17) All reforms should be designed to help the Administration become more responsive to the needs of its customers and maintain the highest standards of safety.”

Purposes

Section 222 of title II of Pub. L. 104–264 provided that: “The purposes of this title [see Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note set out above] are—

“(1) to ensure that final action shall be taken on all notices of proposed rulemaking of the Administration within 18 months after the date of their publication;

“(2) to permit the Administration, with Congressional review, to establish a program to improve air traffic management system performance and to establish appropriate levels of cost accountability for air traffic management services provided by the Administration;

“(3) to establish a more autonomous and accountable Administration within the Department of Transportation; and

“(4) to make the Administration a more efficient and effective organization, able to meet the needs of a dynamic, growing industry, and to ensure the safety of the traveling public.”

Preservation of Existing Authority

Section 223(b) of title II of Pub. L. 104–264 provided that: “Nothing in this title [see Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note set out above] or the amendments made by this title limits any authority granted to the Administrator by statute or by delegation that was in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1996].”

Personnel Management System for Federal Aviation Administration

Pub. L. 104–50, title III, §347, Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 460, as amended by Pub. L. 104–122, Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 105–339, §5, Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3187, which required the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to develop and implement, not later than Jan. 1, 1996, a personnel management system, exempt from most provisions of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, to provide for greater flexibility in the hiring, training, compensation, and location of personnel, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–181, title III, §307(d), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 126.

Dependents of Federal Aviation Administration Personnel

Provisions authorizing the expenditure of certain funds appropriated for the Federal Aviation Administration for (1) except as otherwise authorized by title VIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, see 20 U.S.C. 7701 et seq., expenses of primary and secondary schooling for dependents of Federal Aviation Administration personnel stationed outside the continental United States at costs for any given area not in excess of those of the Department of Defense for the same area, when it is determined by the Secretary that the schools, if any, available in the locality are unable to provide adequately for the education of such dependents, and (2) transportation of said dependents between schools serving the area which they attend and their places of residence when the Secretary, under such regulations as may be prescribed, determines that such schools are not accessible by public means of transportation on a regular basis, were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 106–346, §101(a) [title III, §303], Oct. 23, 2000, 114 Stat. 1356, 1356A–23.

Pub. L. 106–69, title III, §303, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1015.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(g) [title III, §303], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681–464.

Pub. L. 105–66, title III, §303, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1441.

Pub. L. 104–205, title III, §303, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 2968.

Pub. L. 104–50, title III, §303, Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 453.

Pub. L. 103–331, title III, §303, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2488.

Pub. L. 103–122, title III, §303, Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1219.

Pub. L. 102–388, title III, §303, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1543.

Pub. L. 102–143, title III, §303, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 939.

Pub. L. 101–516, title III, §303, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2178.

Pub. L. 101–164, title III, §303, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1091.

Pub. L. 100–457, title III, §303, Sept. 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 2146.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(l) [title III, §303], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–358, 1329–377.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(l) [H.R. 5205, title III, §303], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–308, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(l), Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–308.

Pub. L. 99–190, §101(e) [title III, §303], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1267, 1284.

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(i) [title III, §303], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1944, 1961.

Pub. L. 98–78, title III, §303, Aug. 15, 1983, 97 Stat. 470.

Pub. L. 97–369, title III, §306, Dec. 18, 1982, 96 Stat. 1781.

Pub. L. 97–102, title III, §306, Dec. 23, 1981, 95 Stat. 1458.

Pub. L. 96–400, title III, §306, Oct. 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 1695.

Pub. L. 96–131, title III, §307, Nov. 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 1037.

Pub. L. 95–335, title III, §310, Aug. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 448.

Pub. L. 95–85, title III, §310, Aug. 2, 1977, 91 Stat. 416.

Pub. L. 94–387, title III, §312, Aug. 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 1185.

Pub. L. 94–134, title III, §310, Nov. 24, 1975, 89 Stat. 711.

Pub. L. 93–391, title III, §311, Aug. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 780.

Pub. L. 93–98, title III, §313, Aug. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 340.

Pub. L. 92–398, title III, §313, Aug. 22, 1972, 86 Stat. 591.

Pub. L. 92–74, title I, Aug. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 203.

Pub. L. 91–168, title I, Dec. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 455.

Pub. L. 90–464, title I, Aug. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 655.

Pub. L. 90–112, title II, Oct. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 312.

Pub. L. 89–474, title I, June 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 223.

Pub. L. 89–57, title I, June 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 197.

Pub. L. 88–392, title I, Aug. 1, 1964, 78 Stat. 369.

Pub. L. 88–39, title I, June 13, 1963, 77 Stat. 59.

Pub. L. 87–575, title I, Aug. 6, 1962, 76 Stat. 311.

Pub. L. 87–159, title I, Aug. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 395.

Pub. L. 86–561, title I, June 30, 1960, 74 Stat. 285.

Pub. L. 86–39, title I, June 11, 1959, 73 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 85–354, title I, Mar. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 63.

Pub. L. 85–37, title I, May 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 37.

Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 161, title I, 70 Stat. 94.

June 1, 1955, ch. 113, title I, 69 Stat. 74.

May 28, 1954, ch. 242, title I, 68 Stat. 146.

June 18, 1953, ch. 132, title I, 67 Stat. 69.

Aviation Safety Commission

Pub. L. 99–500, title V, §§501–507, Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–370 to 1783–373, and Pub. L. 99–591, title V, §§501–507, Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–373 to 3341–376, known as the Aviation Safety Commission Act of 1986, established Aviation Safety Commission, directed Commission to study organization and functions of Federal Aviation Administration and means by which it could most efficiently and effectively perform its responsibilities and increase aviation safety and to submit reports to the President and the two houses of Congress within 9 months after Oct. 18, 1986, and within 18 months after Oct. 18, 1986, and provided that Commission was to cease to exist 18 months after Oct. 18, 1986.

Appointment of Retired Military Officer as Administrator

Pub. L. 102–308, June 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 273, provided: “That notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 of title 49, United States Code, or any other provision of law, the President, acting by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, is authorized to appoint General Thomas C. Richards, United States Air Force, Retired, to the Office of Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. General Richards’ appointment to, acceptance of, and service in that Office shall in no way affect the status, rank, and grade which he shall hold as an officer on the retired list of the United States Air Force, or any emolument, perquisite, right, privilege, or benefit incident to or arising out of any such status, office, rank, or grade, except to the extent that subchapter IV of chapter 55 of title 5, United States Code, affects the amount of retired pay to which he is entitled by law during his service as Administrator. So long as he serves as Administrator, General Richards shall receive the compensation of that Office at the rate which would be applicable if he were not an officer on the retired list of the United States Air Force, shall retain the status, rank, and grade which he now holds as an officer on the retired list of the United States Air Force, shall retain all emoluments, perquisites, rights, privileges, and benefits incident to or arising out of such status, office, rank, or grade, and shall in addition continue to receive the retired pay to which he is entitled by law, subject to the provisions of subchapter IV of chapter 55 of title 5, United States Code.

Sec. 2. In the performance of his duties as Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, General Richards shall be subject to no supervision, control, restriction, or prohibition (military or otherwise) other than would be operative with respect to him if he were not an officer on the retired list of the United States Air Force.

Sec. 3. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as approval by the Congress of any future appointments of military persons to the Office of Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.”

Prior provisions authorizing the appointment of a retired military officer as Administrator were contained in the following acts:

Pub. L. 102–223, Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1678.

Pub. L. 101–47, June 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 134.

Pub. L. 98–256, Apr. 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 125.

Pub. L. 89–46, June 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 171.

Definitions

Section 202 of title II of Pub. L. 104–264 provided that: “In this title [see Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note set out above], the following definitions apply:

“(1) Administration.—The term ‘Administration’ means the Federal Aviation Administration.

“(2) Administrator.—The term ‘Administrator’ means the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.

“(3) Secretary.—The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Transportation.”

Ex. Ord. No. 13180. Air Traffic Performance-Based Organization

Ex. Ord. No. 13180, Dec. 7, 2000, 65 F.R. 77493, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to further improve the provision of air traffic services, an inherently governmental function, in ways that increase efficiency, take better advantage of new technologies, accelerate modernization efforts, and respond more effectively to the needs of the traveling public, while enhancing the safety, security, and efficiency of the Nation's air transportation system, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of the Air Traffic Organization. (a) The Secretary of Transportation (Secretary) shall, consistent with his legal authorities, move to establish within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) a performance-based organization to be known as the “Air Traffic Organization” (ATO).

(b) The ATO shall be composed of those elements of the FAA's Air Traffic Services and Research and Acquisition organizations that have direct connection and give support to the provision of day-to-day operational air traffic services, as determined by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration (Administrator). The Administrator may delegate responsibility for any operational activity of the air traffic control system to the head of the ATO. The Administrator's responsibility for general safety, security, and policymaking functions for the National Airspace System is unaffected by this order.

(c) The Chief Operating Officer (COO) of the Air Traffic Control System, established by the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (Air-21) (Public Law 106–181) [see Short Title of 2000 Amendments note set out under section 40101 of this title], shall head the ATO and shall report directly to the Administrator and be subject to the authority of the Administrator. The COO, in consultation with the Air Traffic Control Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Committee, shall enter into an annual performance agreement with the Administrator that sets forth measurable organization and individual goals in key operational areas and describes specific targets and how such goals will be achieved. The COO may receive an annual bonus not to exceed 30 percent of the annual rate of basic pay, based upon the Administrator's evaluation of the COO's performance in relation to the targets and goals described above.

(d) The COO shall develop a 5-year strategic plan for the air traffic control system, including a clear statement of the mission and objectives for the system's safety, efficiency, and productivity. This strategic plan must ensure that ATO actions are consistent with long-term FAA strategies for the aviation system as a whole.

(e) The COO shall also enter into a framework agreement with the Administrator that will establish the relationship of the ATO with the other organizations of the FAA.

Sec. 2. Purpose. The FAA's primary mission is to ensure the safety, security, and efficiency of the National Airspace System. The purpose of this order is to enhance that mission and further improve the delivery of air traffic services to the American public by reorganizing the FAA's air traffic services and related offices into a performance-based, results-oriented, organization. The ATO will be better able to make use of the unique procurement and personnel authorities that the FAA currently has and to better use the additional management reforms enacted by the Congress this year under Air-21. Specifically, the ATO shall:

(a) optimize use of existing management flexibilities and authorities to improve the efficiency of air traffic services and increase the capacity of the system;

(b) develop methods to accelerate air traffic control modernization and to improve aviation safety related to air traffic control;

(c) develop agreements with the Administrator of the FAA and users of the products, services, and capabilities it will provide;

(d) operate in accordance with safety performance standards developed by the FAA and rapidly respond to FAA safety and security oversight findings;

(e) consult with its customers, the traveling public, including direct users such as airlines, cargo carriers, manufacturers, airports, general aviation, and commercial space transportation providers, and focus on producing results that satisfy the FAA's external customer needs;

(f) consult with appropriate Federal, State, and local public agencies, including the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to determine the best practices for meeting the diverse needs throughout the National Airspace System;

(g) establish strong incentives to managers for achieving results; and

(h) formulate and recommend to the Administrator any management, fiscal, or legislative changes necessary for the organization to achieve its performance goals.

Sec. 3. Aviation Management Advisory Committee. The Air Traffic Control Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Committee shall provide, consistent with its responsibilities under Air-21, general oversight to ATO regarding the administration, management, conduct, direction, and supervision of the air traffic control system.

Sec. 4. Evaluation and Report. Not later than 5 years after the date of this order, the Aviation Management Advisory Committee shall provide to the Secretary and the Administrator a report on the operation and effectiveness of the ATO, together with any recommendations for management, fiscal, or legislative changes to enable the organization to achieve its goals.

Sec. 5. Definitions. The term “air traffic control system” has the same meaning as the term defined by section 40102(a)(42) of title 49, United States Code.

Sec. 6. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

William J. Clinton.      

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 322, 41766, 44507, 47124, 48113, 50101, 50102, 50105 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by “in”.

§107. Federal Transit Administration

(a) The Federal Transit Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) The head of the Administration is the Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administrator reports directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(c) The Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2417; Pub. L. 102–240, title III, §3004(c)(1), (2), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2088.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
107 49:1608 (note). Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1968, eff. July 1, 1968, §3, 82 Stat. 1369.

In subsection (b), the words “and shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for Level III of the Executive Schedule Pay Rates (5 U.S.C. 5314)” are omitted as surplus because of 5:5314.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–240 substituted “Federal Transit Administration” for “Urban Mass Transportation Administration” in section catchline and subsec. (a).

Change of Name

Section 3004(a), (b) of Pub. L. 102–240 provided that:

“(a) Redesignation of UMTA.—The Urban Mass Transportation Administration of the Department of Transportation shall be known and designated as the ‘Federal Transit Administration’.

“(b) References.—Any reference in a law, map, regulation, document, paper, or other record of the United States to the Urban Mass Transportation Administration shall be deemed to be a reference to the ‘Federal Transit Administration’.”

§108. Coast Guard

(a)(1) The Coast Guard is a part of the Department of Transportation. The Secretary of Transportation exercises all duties and powers related to the Coast Guard vested in the Secretary of the Treasury, and other officers and offices of the Department of Treasury, immediately before April 1, 1967.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Coast Guard, together with the duties and powers of the Coast Guard, shall operate as a service in the Navy as provided under section 3 of title 14.

(b) The Commandant is the Chief of the Coast Guard. In addition to carrying out the duties and powers specified by law, the Commandant shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation. The Commandant reports directly to the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2417; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(4), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1365.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
108(a) 49:1655(b)(1), (2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §§3(e)(3) (related to USCG), 6(b)(1), (2), 80 Stat. 932, 938.
108(b) 49:1652(e)(3) (related to USCG).

Subsection (a) reflects the transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Transportation as provided by the source provisions and 14:1. The words “Except when operating as a service of the Navy” are substituted for 49:1655(b)(2) because of 14:3. The words “The Secretary of Transportation exercises . . . vested in the Secretary of the Treasury . . . immediately before April 1, 1967” are substituted for “and there are hereby transferred to and vested in the Secretary . . . of the Secretary of the Treasury” to reflect the transfer of duties and powers to the Secretary of Transportation on April 1, 1967, the effective date of the Department of Transportation Act (Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931).

In subsection (b), the first sentence is included to provide the name of the officer in charge of the Coast Guard, as reflected in 14:44. In the 2d sentence, the words “carrying out the duties and powers specified by law” are substituted for “such functions, powers, and duties as are specified in this chapter to be carried out”, and the words “carry out duties and powers prescribed” are substituted for “carry out such additional functions, powers, and duties as”, for consistency.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 4(j)(4) amends 49:108(a) to reflect the intent of 49 App.:1655(b)(2), on which 49:108(a) was based.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–272 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “The Coast Guard” for “Except when operating as a service in the Navy, the Coast Guard”, and added par. (2).

§109. Maritime Administration

(a) The Maritime Administration transferred by section 2 of the Maritime Act of 1981 (46 App. U.S.C. 1601) is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) The Administrator of the Administration appointed under section 4 of the Maritime Act of 1981 (46 App. U.S.C. 1603) reports directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2417; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(5), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
109 (no source).

The section is included to provide in chapter 1 of the revised title a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Department of Transportation or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of Transportation.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–272 inserted “App.” after “(46” in subsecs. (a) and (b).

§110. Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation

(a) The Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation established under section 1 of the Act of May 13, 1954 (33 U.S.C. 981), is subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of Transportation.

(b) The Administrator of the Corporation appointed under section 2 of the Act of May 13, 1954 (33 U.S.C. 982), reports directly to the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2418; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(5)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
110(a) (no source).
110(b) 33:981 (note). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §8(g)(2), 80 Stat. 943.

Subsection (a) is included to provide in chapter 1 of the revised title a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Department of Transportation or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of Transportation.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “Saint Lawrence” for “St. Lawrence”.

§111. Bureau of Transportation Statistics

(a) Establishment.—There is established in the Department of Transportation a Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

(b) Director.—

(1) Appointment.—The Bureau shall be headed by a Director who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) Qualifications.—The Director shall be appointed from among individuals who are qualified to serve as the Director by virtue of their training and experience in the compilation and analysis of transportation statistics.

(3) Reporting.—The Director shall report directly to the Secretary.

(4) Term.—The term of the Director shall be 4 years. The Director may continue to serve after the expiration of the term until a successor is appointed and confirmed.


(c) Responsibilities.—The Director of the Bureau shall be responsible for carrying out the following duties:

(1) Compiling transportation statistics.—Compiling, analyzing, and publishing a comprehensive set of transportation statistics to provide timely summaries and totals (including industrywide aggregates and multiyear averages) of transportation-related information. Such statistics shall be suitable for conducting cost-benefit studies (including comparisons among individual transportation modes and intermodal transport systems) and shall include information on—

(A) productivity in various parts of the transportation sector;

(B) traffic flows;

(C) travel times;

(D) vehicle weights;

(E) variables influencing traveling behavior, including choice of transportation mode;

(F) travel costs of intracity commuting and intercity trips;

(G) availability of mass transit and the number of passengers served by each mass transit authority;

(H) frequency of vehicle and transportation facility repairs and other interruptions of transportation service;

(I) accidents;

(J) collateral damage to the human and natural environment;

(K) the condition of the transportation system; and

(L) transportation-related variables that influence global competitiveness.


(2) Implementing long-term data collection program.—Establishing and implementing, in cooperation with the modal administrators, the States, and other Federal officials a comprehensive, long-term program for the collection and analysis of data relating to the performance of the transportation systems of the United States. Such program shall—

(A) be coordinated with efforts to measure outputs and outcomes of the Department of Transportation and the transportation systems of the United States under the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (107 Stat. 285 et seq.) and the amendments made by such Act;

(B) ensure that data is collected under this subsection in a manner which will maximize the ability to compare data from different regions and for different time periods; and

(C) ensure that data collected under this subsection is controlled for accuracy, made relevant to the States and metropolitan planning organizations, and disseminated to the States and other interested parties.


(3) Issuing guidelines.—Issuing guidelines for the collection of information by the Department of Transportation required for statistics to be compiled under paragraph (1) in order to ensure that such information is accurate, reliable, relevant, and in a form that permits systematic analysis. The Bureau shall review and report to the Secretary of Transportation on the sources and reliability of the statistics proposed by the heads of the operating administrations of the Department to measure outputs and outcomes as required by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, and the amendments made by such Act, and shall carry out such other reviews of the sources and reliability of other data collected by the heads of the operating administrations of the Department as shall be requested by the Secretary.

(4) Coordinating collection of information.—Coordinating the collection of information by the Department of Transportation required for statistics to be compiled under paragraph (1) with related information-gathering activities conducted by other Federal departments and agencies and collecting appropriate data not elsewhere gathered.

(5) Making statistics accessible.—Making the statistics published under this subsection readily accessible.

(6) Identifying information needs.—Identifying information that is needed under paragraph (1) but which is not being collected, reviewing such needs at least annually with the Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics, and making recommendations to appropriate Department of Transportation research officials concerning extramural and intramural research programs to provide such information.

(7) Supporting transportation decisionmaking.—Ensuring that the statistics compiled under paragraph (1) are relevant for transportation decisionmaking by the Federal Government, State and local governments, transportation-related associations, private businesses, and consumers.


(d) Intermodal Transportation Data Base.—

(1) In general.—In consultation with the Associate Deputy Secretary, the Assistant Secretaries, and the heads of the operating administrations of the Department of Transportation, the Director shall establish and maintain a transportation data base for all modes of transportation.

(2) Use.—The data base shall be suitable for analyses carried out by the Federal Government, the States, and metropolitan planning organizations.

(3) Contents.—The data base shall include—

(A) information on the volumes and patterns of movement of goods, including local, interregional, and international movement, by all modes of transportation and intermodal combinations, and by relevant classification;

(B) information on the volumes and patterns of movement of people, including local, interregional, and international movements, by all modes of transportation (including bicycle and pedestrian modes) and intermodal combinations, and by relevant classification;

(C) information on the location and connectivity of transportation facilities and services; and

(D) a national accounting of expenditures and capital stocks on each mode of transportation and intermodal combination.


(e) National Transportation Library.—

(1) In general.—The Director shall establish and maintain a National Transportation Library, which shall contain a collection of statistical and other information needed for transportation decisionmaking at the Federal, State, and local levels.

(2) Access.—The Director shall facilitate and promote access to the Library, with the goal of improving the ability of the transportation community to share information and the ability of the Director to make statistics readily accessible under subsection (c)(5).

(3) Coordination.—The Director shall work with other transportation libraries and other transportation information providers, both public and private, to achieve the goal specified in paragraph (2).


(f) National Transportation Atlas Data Base.—

(1) In general.—The Director shall develop and maintain geospatial data bases that depict—

(A) transportation networks;

(B) flows of people, goods, vehicles, and craft over the networks; and

(C) social, economic, and environmental conditions that affect or are affected by the networks.


(2) Intermodal network analysis.—The data bases shall be able to support intermodal network analysis.


(g) Research and Development Grants.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may make grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements or contracts with, public and nonprofit private entities (including State transportation departments, metropolitan planning organizations, and institutions of higher education) for—

(A) investigation of the subjects specified in subsection (c)(1) and research and development of new methods of data collection, management, integration, dissemination, interpretation, and analysis;

(B) development of electronic clearinghouses of transportation data and related information, as part of the National Transportation Library under subsection (e); and

(C) development and improvement of methods for sharing geographic data, in support of the national transportation atlas data base under subsection (f) and the National Spatial Data Infrastructure developed under Executive Order No. 12906.


(2) Limitation.—Not more than $500,000 of the amounts made available to carry out this section in a fiscal year may be used to carry out this subsection.


(h) Limitations on Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) to authorize the Bureau to require any other department or agency to collect data; or

(2) to reduce the authority of any other officer of the Department of Transportation to collect and disseminate data independently.


(i) Prohibition on Certain Disclosures.—

(1) In general.—An officer or employee of the Bureau may not—

(A) make any disclosure in which the data provided by an individual or organization under subsection (c)(2) can be identified;

(B) use the information provided under subsection (c)(2) for a nonstatistical purpose; or

(C) permit anyone other than an individual authorized by the Director to examine any individual report provided under subsection (c)(2).


(2) Prohibition on requests for certain data.—

(A) Government agencies.—No department, bureau, agency, officer, or employee of the United States (except the Director in carrying out this section) may require, for any reason, a copy of any report that has been filed under subsection (c)(2) with the Bureau or retained by an individual respondent.

(B) Courts.—Any copy of a report described in subparagraph (A) that has been retained by an individual respondent or filed with the Bureau or any of its employees, contractors, or agents—

(i) shall be immune from legal process; and

(ii) shall not, without the consent of the individual concerned, be admitted as evidence or used for any purpose in any action, suit, or other judicial or administrative proceeding.


(C) Applicability.—This paragraph shall apply only to reports that permit information concerning an individual or organization to be reasonably inferred by direct or indirect means.


(3) Data collected for nonstatistical purposes.—In a case in which the Bureau is authorized by statute to collect data or information for a nonstatistical purpose, the Director shall clearly distinguish the collection of the data or information, by rule and on the collection instrument, so as to inform a respondent that is requested or required to supply the data or information of the nonstatistical purpose.


(j) Transportation Statistics Annual Report.—The Director shall transmit to the President and Congress a Transportation Statistics Annual Report which shall include information on items referred to in subsection (c)(1), documentation of methods used to obtain and ensure the quality of the statistics presented in the report, and recommendations for improving transportation statistical information.

(k) Proceeds of Data Product Sales.—Notwithstanding section 3302 of title 31, United States Code, funds received by the Bureau from the sale of data products, for necessary expenses incurred, may be credited to the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) for the purpose of reimbursing the Bureau for the expenses.

(Added Pub. L. 102–240, title VI, §6006(a), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2172; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(2), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 104–324, title XI, §1131, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3985; Pub. L. 105–130, §4(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1997, 111 Stat. 2556; Pub. L. 105–178, title V, §5109(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 437.)

References in Text

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), (3), is Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285, which enacted sections 1115 to 1119, 9703, and 9704 of Title 31, Money and Finance, section 306 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 2801 to 2805 of Title 39, Postal Service, amended section 1105 of Title 31, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1115 of Title 31. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of Title 31 and Tables.

Executive Order No. 12906, referred to in subsec. (g)(1)(C), is set out as a note under section 1457 of Title 43, Public Lands.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(1), struck out after first sentence “The term of the first Director to be appointed shall begin on the 180th day after December 18, 1991.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(L). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(2)(A), added subpar. (L).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(2)(B)(i), substituted “transportation systems of the United States” for “national transportation system” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(2)(B)(ii), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “be coordinated with efforts to develop performance indicators for the national transportation system undertaken pursuant to section 307(b)(3) of title 23, United States Code;”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(2)(B)(iii), inserted “, made relevant to the States and metropolitan planning organizations,” after “accuracy”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(2)(C), inserted at end “The Bureau shall review and report to the Secretary of Transportation on the sources and reliability of the statistics proposed by the heads of the operating administrations of the Department to measure outputs and outcomes as required by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, and the amendments made by such Act, and shall carry out such other reviews of the sources and reliability of other data collected by the heads of the operating administrations of the Department as shall be requested by the Secretary.”

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(2)(D), added par. (7).

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(5), added subsecs. (d) to (f). Former subsecs. (d) to (f) redesignated (h) to (j), respectively.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(4), (5), added subsec. (g) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (g). Text read as follows: “An individual who, on December 18, 1991, is performing any function required by this section to be performed by the Director may continue to perform such function until such function is undertaken by the Director.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(6), added subsec. (i) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (i). Text read as follows: “Information compiled by the Bureau shall not be disclosed publicly in a manner that would reveal the personal identity of any individual, consistent with the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), or to reveal trade secrets or allow commercial or financial information provided by any person to be identified with such person.”

Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(7), substituted “The Director” for “On or before January 1, 1994, and annually thereafter, the Director”.

Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (f) as (j).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–178, §5109(a)(8), added subsec. (k).

1997—Pub. L. 105–130 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 102–240, §6006(a), which enacted this section.

1996—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–324 inserted at end “The Director may continue to serve after the expiration of the term until a successor is appointed and confirmed.”

Pub. L. 104–287 substituted “December 18, 1991” for “the date of the enactment of this section”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted “December 18, 1991” for “the date of the enactment of this section”.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which the 7th item on page 138 identifies a report to Congress in a provision which, as subsequently amended, is contained in subsec. (j) of this section), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Office of Airline Information

Pub. L. 106–181, title I, §103(b), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 67, provided that: “There is authorized to be appropriated from the Airport and Airway Trust Fund to the Secretary [of Transportation] $4,000,000 for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 2000, to fund the activities of the Office of Airline Information in the Bureau of Transportation Statistics of the Department of Transportation.”

International Trade Traffic

Pub. L. 105–178, title V, §5115, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 446, as amended by Pub. L. 105–206, title IX, §9011(e), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 864, provided that:

“(a) Study.—The Director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics shall carry out a study—

“(1) to measure the ton-miles and value-miles of international trade traffic carried by highway for each State;

“(2) to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of such measures for use in the formula for highway apportionments;

“(3) to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the use of diesel fuel data as a measure of international trade traffic by State; and

“(4) to identify needed improvements in long-term data collection programs to provide accurate and reliable measures of international traffic for use in the formula for highway apportionments.

“(b) Basis for Evaluations.—The study shall evaluate the accuracy and reliability of measures for use as formula factors based on statistical quality standards developed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, in consultation with the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academy of Sciences.

“(c) Report.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998], the Director shall submit to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the results of the study carried out under subsection (a), including recommendations for changes in law necessary to implement the identified needs for improvements in long-term data collection programs.”

Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics

Section 6007 of Pub. L. 102–240 provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—The Director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics shall establish an Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics.

“(b) Function.—It shall be the function of the advisory council established under this section to advise the Director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics on transportation statistics and analyses, including whether or not the statistics and analysis disseminated by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics are of high quality and are based upon the best available objective information.

“(c) Membership.—The advisory council established under this section shall be composed of not more than 6 members appointed by the Director who are not officers or employees of the United States and who (except for 1 member who shall have expertise in economics and 1 member who shall have expertise in statistics) have expertise in transportation statistics and analysis.

“(d) Applicability of Federal Advisory Committee Act.—The Federal Advisory Committee Act [5 App. U.S.C.] shall apply to the advisory council established under this section, except that section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act shall not apply to the Advisory Committee established under this section.”

Study of Data Collection Procedures and Capabilities of Department of Transportation

Section 6008 of Pub. L. 102–240 provided that:

“(a) Study.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the establishment of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study on the adequacy of data collection procedures and capabilities of the Department of Transportation.

“(b) Consultation.—The Secretary shall enter into the agreement under subsection (a) in consultation with the Director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

“(c) Contents.—The study under subsection (a) shall include an evaluation of the Department of Transportation's data collection resources, needs, and requirements and an assessment and evaluation of the systems, capabilities, and procedures established by the Department to meet such needs and requirements, including the following:

“(1) Data collection procedures and capabilities.

“(2) Data analysis procedures and capabilities.

“(3) Ability of data bases to integrate with one another.

“(4) Computer hardware and software capabilities.

“(5) Information management systems, including the ability of information management systems to integrate with one another.

“(6) Availability and training of the personnel of the Department.

“(7) Budgetary needs and resources of the Department for data collection.

“(d) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the agreement under subsection (a), the National Academy of Sciences shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study under this section, including recommendations for improving the Department of Transportation's data collection systems, capabilities, procedures, and analytical hardware and software and recommendations for improving the Department's management information systems.”

§112. Research and Special Programs Administration

(a) Establishment.—There is established in the Department of Transportation a Research and Special Programs Administration.

(b) Administrator.—

(1) Appointment.—The Administration shall be headed by an Administrator who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) Reporting.—The Administrator shall report directly to the Secretary.


(c) Deputy Administrator.—The Administration shall have a Deputy Administrator who shall be appointed by the Secretary of Transportation. The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(d) Responsibilities of Administrator.—The Administrator of the Administration shall be responsible for carrying out the following:

(1) Hazmat transportation safety.—Duties and powers vested in the Secretary of Transportation with respect to hazardous materials transportation safety, except as otherwise delegated by the Secretary.

(2) Pipeline safety.—Duties and powers vested in the Secretary with respect to pipeline safety.

(3) Activities of volpe national transportation systems center.—Duties and powers vested in the Secretary with respect to activities of the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center.

(4) Other.—Such other duties and powers as the Secretary shall prescribe, including such multimodal and intermodal duties as are appropriate.


(e) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section shall affect any delegation of authority, regulation, order, approval, exemption, waiver, contract, or other administrative act of the Secretary with respect to laws administered through the Research and Special Programs Administration of the Department of Transportation on October 24, 1992.

(Added Pub. L. 102–508, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3310; amended Pub. L. 103–429, §6(1), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted “October 24, 1992” for “the date of the enactment of this section”.

Development of Underground Utility Location Technologies

Section 306 of Pub. L. 102–508 provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall carry out a research and development program on underground utility location technologies.

“(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $500,000 for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1992. Such sums shall remain available until expended.”

§113. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

(a) In General.—The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall be an administration of the Department of Transportation.

(b) Safety as Highest Priority.—In carrying out its duties, the Administration shall consider the assignment and maintenance of safety as the highest priority, recognizing the clear intent, encouragement, and dedication of Congress to the furtherance of the highest degree of safety in motor carrier transportation.

(c) Administrator.—The head of the Administration shall be the Administrator who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be an individual with professional experience in motor carrier safety. The Administrator shall report directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(d) Deputy Administrator.—The Administration shall have a Deputy Administrator appointed by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(e) Chief Safety Officer.—The Administration shall have an Assistant Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. The Assistant Administrator shall be the Chief Safety Officer of the Administration. The Assistant Administrator shall carry out the duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(f) Powers and Duties.—The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers related to motor carriers or motor carrier safety vested in the Secretary by chapters 5, 51, 55, 57, 59, 133 through 149, 311, 313, 315, and 317 and by section 18 of the Noise Control Act of 1972 (42 U.S.C. 4917; 86 Stat. 1249–1250); except as otherwise delegated by the Secretary to any agency of the Department of Transportation other than the Federal Highway Administration, as of October 8, 1999; and

(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(g) Limitation on Transfer of Powers and Duties.—A duty or power specified in subsection (f)(1) may only be transferred to another part of the Department when specifically provided by law.

(h) Effect of Certain Decisions.—A decision of the Administrator involving a duty or power specified in subsection (f)(1) and involving notice and hearing required by law is administratively final.

(i) Consultation.—The Administrator shall consult with the Federal Highway Administrator and with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator on matters related to highway and motor carrier safety.

(Added Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §101(a), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1750.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2000, see section 107(a) of Pub. L. 106–159, set out as an Effective Date of 1999 Amendment note under section 104 of this title.

Findings

Pub. L. 106–159, §3, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1749, provided that: “Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) The current rate, number, and severity of crashes involving motor carriers in the United States are unacceptable.

“(2) The number of Federal and State commercial motor vehicle and operator inspections is insufficient and civil penalties for violators must be utilized to deter future violations.

“(3) The Department of Transportation is failing to meet statutorily mandated deadlines for completing rulemaking proceedings on motor carrier safety and, in some significant safety rulemaking proceedings, including driver hours-of-service regulations, extensive periods have elapsed without progress toward resolution or implementation.

“(4) Too few motor carriers undergo compliance reviews and the Department's data bases and information systems require substantial improvement to enhance the Department's ability to target inspection and enforcement resources toward the most serious safety problems and to improve States’ ability to keep dangerous drivers off the roads.

“(5) Additional safety inspectors and inspection facilities are needed in international border areas to ensure that commercial motor vehicles, drivers, and carriers comply with United States safety standards.

“(6) The Department should rigorously avoid conflicts of interest in federally funded research.

“(7) Meaningful measures to improve safety must be implemented expeditiously to prevent increases in motor carrier crashes, injuries, and fatalities.

“(8) Proper use of Federal resources is essential to the Department's ability to improve its research, rulemaking, oversight, and enforcement activities related to commercial motor vehicles, operators, and carriers.”

Purposes

Pub. L. 106–159, §4, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1749, provided that: “The purposes of this Act [see Tables for classification] are—

“(1) to improve the administration of the Federal motor carrier safety program and to establish a Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration in the Department of Transportation; and

“(2) to reduce the number and severity of large-truck involved crashes through more commercial motor vehicle and operator inspections and motor carrier compliance reviews, stronger enforcement measures against violators, expedited completion of rulemaking proceedings, scientifically sound research, and effective commercial driver's license testing, recordkeeping and sanctions.”

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §106, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1756, provided that:

“(a) Transfer of Assets and Personnel.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act, those personnel, property, and records employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with a function transferred to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration by this Act shall be transferred to the Administration for use in connection with the functions transferred, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Office of Motor Carrier Safety (including any predecessor entity) shall also be transferred to the Administration.

“(b) Legal Documents.—All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, permits, grants, loans, contracts, settlements, agreements, certificates, licenses, and privileges—

“(1) that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective by the Office, any officer or employee of the Office, or any other Government official, or by a court of competent jurisdiction, in the performance of any function that is transferred by this Act or the amendments made by this Act; and

“(2) that are in effect on the effective date of such transfer (or become effective after such date pursuant to their terms as in effect on such effective date),

shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law by the Administration, any other authorized official, a court of competent jurisdiction, or operation of law.

“(c) Proceedings.—

“(1) In general.—The provisions of this Act shall not affect any proceedings or any application for any license pending before the Office at the time this Act takes effect [see Effective Date of 1999 Amendment note set out under section 104 of this title], insofar as those functions are transferred by this Act; but such proceedings and applications, to the extent that they relate to functions so transferred, shall be continued. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals shall be taken therefrom, and payments shall be made pursuant to such orders, as if this Act had not been enacted; and orders issued in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified, terminated, superseded, or revoked by a duly authorized official, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law.

“(2) Statutory construction.—Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to prohibit the discontinuance or modification of any proceeding described in paragraph (1) under the same terms and conditions and to the same extent that such proceeding could have been discontinued or modified if this Act had not been enacted.

“(3) Orderly transfer.—The Secretary is authorized to provide for the orderly transfer of pending proceedings from the Office.

“(d) Suits.—

“(1) In general.—This Act shall not affect suits commenced before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 9, 1999], except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3). In all such suits, proceeding shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been enacted.

“(2) Suits by or against omcs.—Any suit by or against the Office begun before January 1, 2000, shall be continued, insofar as it involves a function retained and transferred under this Act, with the Administration (to the extent the suit involves functions transferred to the Administration under this Act) substituted for the Office.

“(3) Remanded cases.—If the court in a suit described in paragraph (1) remands a case to the Administration, subsequent proceedings related to such case shall proceed in accordance with applicable law and regulations as in effect at the time of such subsequent proceedings.

“(e) Continuance of Actions Against Officers.—No suit, action, or other proceeding commenced by or against any officer in his official capacity as an officer of the Office shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act. No cause of action by or against the Office, or by or against any officer thereof in his official capacity, shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act.

“(f) Exercise of Authorities.—Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer or employee of the Administration may, for purposes of performing a function transferred by this Act or the amendments made by this Act, exercise all authorities under any other provision of law that were available with respect to the performance of that function to the official responsible for the performance of the function immediately before the effective date of the transfer of the function under this Act or the amendments made by this Act.

“(g) References.—Any reference to the Office in any Federal law, Executive order, rule, regulation, or delegation of authority, or any document of or pertaining to the Office or an officer or employee of the Office is deemed to refer to the Administration or a member or employee of the Administration, as appropriate.”

CHAPTER 3—GENERAL DUTIES AND POWERS

SUBCHAPTER I—DUTIES OF THE SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION

Sec.
301.
Leadership, consultation, and cooperation.
302.
Policy standards for transportation.
303.
Policy on lands, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and historic sites.
303a.
Development of water transportation.
304.
Joint activities with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
305.
Transportation investment standards and criteria.
306.
Prohibited discrimination.
307.
Safety information and intervention in Interstate Commerce Commission proceedings.
308.
Reports.
309.
High-speed ground transportation.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

321.
Definitions.
322.
General powers.
323.
Personnel.
324.
Members of the armed forces.
325.
Advisory committees.
326.
Gifts.
327.
Administrative working capital fund.
328.
Transportation Systems Center working capital fund.
329.
Transportation information.
330.
Research contracts.
331.
Service, supplies, and facilities at remote places.
332.
Minority Resource Center.
333.
Responsibility for rail transportation unification and coordination projects.
[334, 335.
Repealed.]
336.
Civil penalty procedures.
337.
Budget request for the Director of Intelligence and Security.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—MISCELLANEOUS

351.
Judicial review of actions in carrying out certain transferred duties and powers.
352.
Authority to carry out certain transferred duties and powers.
353.
Toxicological testing of officers and employees.

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(6)(B), (9)(B), (10)(B), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366–1368, added item 303a, struck out items 334 “Limit on aviation charges” and 335 “Authorization of appropriations”, and added item 337, subchapter III heading, and items 351 to 353.

1991—Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1036(c)(2), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1985, added item 309.

1989—Pub. L. 101–225, title III, §305(2), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1925, added item 336.

1984—Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(B), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5, substituted “Reports” for “Annual reports” in item 308.

SUBCHAPTER I—DUTIES OF THE SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION

§301. Leadership, consultation, and cooperation

The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) under the direction of the President, exercise leadership in transportation matters, including those matters affecting national defense and those matters involving national or regional emergencies;

(2) provide leadership in the development of transportation policies and programs, and make recommendations to the President and Congress for their consideration and implementation;

(3) coordinate Federal policy on intermodal transportation and initiate policies to promote efficient intermodal transportation in the United States;

(4) promote and undertake the development, collection, and dissemination of technological, statistical, economic, and other information relevant to domestic and international transportation;

(5) consult and cooperate with the Secretary of Labor in compiling information regarding the status of labor-management contracts and other labor-management problems and in promoting industrial harmony and stable employment conditions in all modes of transportation;

(6) promote and undertake research and development related to transportation, including noise abatement, with particular attention to aircraft noise, and including basic highway vehicle science;

(7) consult with the heads of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government on the transportation requirements of the Government, including encouraging them to establish and observe policies consistent with maintaining a coordinated transportation system in procuring transportation or in operating their own transport services;

(8) consult and cooperate with State and local governments, carriers, labor, and other interested persons, including, when appropriate, holding informal public hearings; and

(9) develop and coordinate Federal policy on financing transportation infrastructure, including the provision of direct Federal credit assistance and other techniques used to leverage Federal transportation funds.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2418; Pub. L. 102–240, title V, §5002(a), title VI, §6017, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2158, 2183; Pub. L. 105–178, title I, §1504, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 251.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
301 49:1653(a). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(a), 80 Stat. 933.

In the introductory clause before “shall”, the words “in carrying out the purposes of this chapter . . . among his responsibilities” are omitted as surplus.

In clause (4), the word “compiling” is substituted for “gathering” for consistency.

Amendments

1998—Par. (9). Pub. L. 105–178 added par. (9).

1991—Pars. (3) to (5). Pub. L. 102–240, §5002(a), added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively. Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Par. (6). Pub. L. 102–240, §§5002(a), 6017, redesignated par. (5) as (6) and inserted “, and including basic highway vehicle science”. Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Pars. (7), (8). Pub. L. 102–240, §5002(a), redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (7) and (8), respectively.

Coordinated Transportation Services

Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §3034, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 386, provided that:

“(a) Study.—The Comptroller General shall conduct a study of Federal departments and agencies (other than the Department of Transportation) that receive Federal financial assistance for non-emergency transportation services.

“(b) Contents.—In conducting the study, the Comptroller General shall—

“(1) identify each Federal department and agency (other than the Department of Transportation) that has received Federal financial assistance for non-emergency transportation services in any of the 3 fiscal years preceding the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998];

“(2) identify the amount of such assistance received by each Federal department and agency in such fiscal years; and

“(3) identify the projects and activities funded using such financial assistance.

“(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate a report containing the results of the study and any recommendations for enhanced coordination between the Department of Transportation and other Federal departments and agencies that provide funding for non-emergency transportation.”

Establishment of Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System

Pub. L. 105–66, title III, §346, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1449, provided that:

“(a) As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1997], the Secretary of Transportation, acting for the Department of Transportation, may take receipt of such equipment and sites of the Ground Wave Emergency Network (referred to in this section as ‘GWEN’) as the Secretary of Transportation determines to be necessary for the establishment of a nationwide system to be known as the ‘Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System’ (referred to in this section as ‘NDGPS’).

“(b) As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1997], the Secretary of Transportation may establish the NDGPS. In establishing the NDGPS, the Secretary of Transportation may—

“(1) if feasible, reuse GWEN equipment and sites transferred to the Department of Transportation under subsection (a);

“(2) to the maximum extent practicable, use contractor services to install the NDGPS;

“(3) modify the positioning system operated by the Coast Guard at the time of the establishment of the NDGPS to integrate the reference stations made available pursuant to subsection (a);

“(4) in cooperation with the Secretary of Commerce, ensure that the reference stations referred to in paragraph (3) are compatible with, and integrated into, the Continuously Operating Reference Station (commonly referred to as ‘CORS’) system of the National Geodetic Survey of the Department of Commerce; and

“(5) in cooperation with the Secretary of Commerce, investigate the use of the NDGPS reference stations for the Global Positioning System Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor System of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

“(c) The Secretary of Transportation may—

“(1) manage and operate the NDGPS;

“(2) ensure that the service of the NDGPS is provided without the assessment of any user fee; and

“(3) in cooperation with the Secretary of Defense, ensure that the use of the NDGPS is denied to any enemy of the United States.

“(d) In any case in which the Secretary of Transportation determines that contracting for the maintenance of 1 or more NDGPS reference stations is cost-effective, the Secretary of Transportation may enter into a contract to provide for that maintenance.

“(e) The Secretary of Transportation may—

“(1) in cooperation with appropriate representatives of private industries and universities and officials of State governments—

“(A) investigate improvements (including potential improvements) to the NDGPS;

“(B) develop standards for the NDGPS; and

“(C) sponsor the development of new applications for the NDGPS; and

“(2) provide for the continual upgrading of the NDGPS to improve performance and address the needs of—

“(A) the Federal Government;

“(B) State and local governments; and

“(C) the general public.”

Intermodal Transportation Advisory Board and Office of Intermodalism

Section 5002(b), (c) of Pub. L. 102–240, which provided for establishment within the Office of the Secretary of Transportation of an Intermodal Transportation Advisory Board to make recommendations for carrying out responsibilities of the Secretary concerning the coordination of Federal policy on intermodal transportation, and for establishment within the Office of the Secretary of an Office of Intermodalism to develop intermodal transportation data, to coordinate Federal research on intermodal transportation, to provide technical assistance to States and metropolitan planning organizations, and to provide administrative and clerical support to the Intermodal Transportation Advisory Board, was repealed and reenacted as sections 5502 and 5503 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(d), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 849, 850, 1379.

Model Intermodal Transportation Plans

Section 5003 of Pub. L. 102–240, which directed Secretary of Transportation to make grants to States, representing a variety of geographic regions and transportation needs, patterns, and modes, for purpose of developing model State intermodal transportation plans consistent with policy of United States to encourage and promote development of national intermodal transportation system, was repealed and reenacted as section 5504 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(d), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 850, 1379.

National Commission on Intermodal Transportation

Section 5005 of Pub. L. 102–240 provided for establishment of a National Commission on Intermodal Transportation, consisting of 11 appointed members, to make a complete investigation and study of intermodal transportation in the United States and internationally and to send a report to Congress not later than Sept. 30, 1993, containing recommendations for implementing the policy set out in section 302(e) of this title, with the Commission to terminate on the 180th day following transmittal of the report, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–287, §7(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400.

Border Crossings

Section 6015 of Pub. L. 102–240 directed Secretary of Transportation to identify existing and emerging trade corridors and transportation subsystems that facilitate trade between United States, Canada, and Mexico and to recommend changes to improve and integrate corridor subsystems in order to achieve increased productivity and use of innovative marketing techniques, and directed Secretary to report to Congress not later than 18 months after Dec. 18, 1991, on transportation infrastructure needs and associated costs and to propose an agenda to develop systemwide integration of services for national benefits.

Underground Pipelines

Section 6020 of Pub. L. 102–240 directed Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study to evaluate feasibility, costs, and benefits of constructing and operating pneumatic capsule pipelines for underground movement of commodities other than hazardous liquids and gas, and to submit, not later than 2 years after Dec. 18, 1991, a report to Congress on the results of the study, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–287, §7(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400.

Long-Range National Transportation Strategic Planning Study

Pub. L. 100–457, title III, §317(b), Sept. 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 2149, directed Department of Transportation to undertake a long-range, multi-modal national transportation strategic planning study, such study to forecast long-term needs and costs for developing and maintaining facilities and services to achieve a desired national transportation program for moving people and goods in the year 2015 and to include detailed analyses of transportation needs within six to nine metropolitan areas that have diverse population, development, and demographic patterns, including at least one interstate metropolitan area, with study to be submitted to Congress on or before Oct. 1, 1989. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act: Pub. L. 100–202, §101(l) [title III, §317(b)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–358, 1329–381.

Commercial Expendable Launch Vehicle Activities

Designation of Department of Transportation as lead agency and duties of the Secretary for encouraging, facilitating, and developing commercial expendable launch vehicle operations by private enterprise, see Ex. Ord. No. 12465, Feb. 24, 1984, 49 F.R. 7211, set out under section 70101 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 305 of this title.

§302. Policy standards for transportation

(a) The Secretary of Transportation is governed by the transportation policy of sections 10101 and 13101 of this title in addition to other laws.

(b) This subtitle and chapters 221 and 315 of this title do not authorize, without appropriate action by Congress, the adoption, revision, or implementation of a transportation policy or investment standards or criteria.

(c) The Secretary shall consider the needs—

(1) for effectiveness and safety in transportation systems; and

(2) of national defense.


(d)(1) It is the policy of the United States to promote the construction and commercialization of high-speed ground transportation systems by—

(A) conducting economic and technological research;

(B) demonstrating advancements in high-speed ground transportation technologies;

(C) establishing a comprehensive policy for the development of such systems and the effective integration of the various high-speed ground transportation technologies; and

(D) minimizing the long-term risks of investors.


(2) It is the policy of the United States to establish in the shortest time practicable a United States designed and constructed magnetic levitation transportation technology capable of operating along Federal-aid highway rights-of-way, as part of a national transportation system of the United States.

(e) Intermodal Transportation.—It is the policy of the United States Government to encourage and promote development of a national intermodal transportation system in the United States to move people and goods in an energy-efficient manner, provide the foundation for improved productivity growth, strengthen the Nation's ability to compete in the global economy, and obtain the optimum yield from the Nation's transportation resources.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2419; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1036(a), title V, §5001, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1978, 2158; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(6), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 946.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
302(a) 49:1653(b)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(b), 80 Stat. 933.
302(b) 49:1653(b)(2).
302(c) 49:1653(b)(3).

In subsection (a), the words “In carrying out his duties and responsibilities under this chapter” before “Secretary of Transportation” are omitted as surplus. The words “the transportation policy of sections 10101 and 10101a of this title in addition to other laws” are substituted for “all applicable statutes including the policy standards set forth in the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended [49 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.]; the national transportation policy of the Interstate Commerce Act, as amended; title 23, relating to Federal-aid highways; and title 14, titles 52 and 53 of the Revised Statutes, the Act of April 25, 1940, as amended, and the Act of September 2, 1958, as amended, relating to the United States Coast Guard” because each of the omitted laws is now applicable to the Secretary of Transportation and the Department of Transportation as the result of the restatement of those laws, and the Secretary is therefore bound to follow those laws by their own terms.

In subsection (c), the words “In exercising the functions, powers, and duties conferred on and transferred to the Secretary by this chapter” before “Secretary” are omitted as surplus. The word “consider” is substituted for “give full consideration to” to eliminate surplus words. The words “for operational continuity of the functions transferred” after “the needs” are omitted as executed.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted “13101” for “10101a”.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “This subtitle and chapters 221 and 315 of this title” for “Subtitle I and chapter 31 of subtitle II of this title and the Department of Transportation Act (49 App. U.S.C. 1651 et seq.)”.

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–240, §1036(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–240, §5001, added subsec. (e).

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “49 App. U.S.C.” for “49 U.S.C.”.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by section 1036(a) of Pub. L. 102–240 effective Dec. 18, 1991, and applicable to funds authorized to be appropriated or made available after Sept. 30, 1991, and, with certain exceptions, not applicable to funds appropriated or made available on or before Sept. 30, 1991, see section 1100 of Pub. L. 102–240, set out as a note under section 104 of Title 23, Highways.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 305 of this title.

§303. Policy on lands, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and historic sites

(a) It is the policy of the United States Government that special effort should be made to preserve the natural beauty of the countryside and public park and recreation lands, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and historic sites.

(b) The Secretary of Transportation shall cooperate and consult with the Secretaries of the Interior, Housing and Urban Development, and Agriculture, and with the States, in developing transportation plans and programs that include measures to maintain or enhance the natural beauty of lands crossed by transportation activities or facilities.

(c) The Secretary may approve a transportation program or project (other than any project for a park road or parkway under section 204 of title 23) requiring the use of publicly owned land of a public park, recreation area, or wildlife and waterfowl refuge of national, State, or local significance, or land of an historic site of national, State, or local significance (as determined by the Federal, State, or local officials having jurisdiction over the park, area, refuge, or site) only if—

(1) there is no prudent and feasible alternative to using that land; and

(2) the program or project includes all possible planning to minimize harm to the park, recreation area, wildlife and waterfowl refuge, or historic site resulting from the use.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2419; Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §133(d), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 173.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
303(a) 49:1651(b)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §2(b)(2), 80 Stat. 931.
  49:1653(f) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(f), 80 Stat. 934; restated Aug. 23, 1968, Pub. L. 90–495, §18(b), 82 Stat. 824.
303(b) 49:1653(f) (2d sentence).
303(c) 49:1653(f) (less 1st, 2d sentences).

In subsection (a), the words “hereby declared to be” before “the policy” are omitted as surplus. The words “of the United States Government” are substituted for “national” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), the words “crossed by transportation activities or facilities” are substituted for “traversed” for clarity.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “After August 23, 1968” after “Secretary” are omitted as executed. The word “transportation” is inserted before “program” for clarity. In clause (2), the words “or project” are added for consistency.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–17 inserted “(other than any project for a park road or parkway under section 204 of title 23)” after “program or project”.

Treatment of Military Flight Operations

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1079, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1916, provided that: “No military flight operation (including a military training flight), or designation of airspace for such an operation, may be treated as a transportation program or project for purposes of section 303(c) of title 49, United States Code.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 305 of this title; title 16 section 460kkk; title 23 sections 108, 206; title 45 sections 1116, 1212.

§303a. Development of water transportation

(a) Policy.—It is the policy of Congress—

(1) to promote, encourage, and develop water transportation, service, and facilities for the commerce of the United States; and

(2) to foster and preserve rail and water transportation.


(b) Definition.—In this section, “inland waterway” includes the Great Lakes.

(c) Requirements.—The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) investigate the types of vessels suitable for different classes of inland waterways to promote, encourage, and develop inland waterway transportation facilities for the commerce of the United States;

(2) investigate water terminals, both for inland waterway traffic and for through traffic by water and rail, including the necessary docks, warehouses, and equipment, and investigate railroad spurs and switches connecting with those water terminals, to develop the types most appropriate for different locations and for transferring passengers or property between water carriers and rail carriers more expeditiously and economically;

(3) consult with communities, cities, and towns about the location of water terminals, and cooperate with them in preparing plans for terminal facilities;

(4) investigate the existing status of water transportation on the different inland waterways of the United States to learn the extent to which—

(A) the waterways are being used to their capacity and are meeting the demands of traffic; and

(B) water carriers using those waterways are interchanging traffic with rail carriers;


(5) investigate other matters that may promote and encourage inland water transportation; and

(6) compile, publish, and distribute information about transportation on inland waterways that the Secretary considers useful to the commercial interests of the United States.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(6)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
303a 49 App.:142. Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §500, 41 Stat. 499; Aug. 6, 1981, Pub. L. 97–31, §12(9), 95 Stat. 154.

Section 4(j)(6)(A) amends 49:ch. 3 by restating 49 App.:142 as section 303a because the provision more appropriately belongs in chapter 3.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “in full vigor both” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “be construed to” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the word “appropriate” is omitted as surplus. The word “vessels” is substituted for “boats” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “the subject of”, “apparatus”, “appliances in connection therewith”, and “or interchange” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(3), the words “appropriate” and “suitable” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(6), the words “province and”, “from time to time”, and “useful statistics, data, and” are omitted as surplus.

§304. Joint activities with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

(a) The Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall—

(1) consult and exchange information about their respective transportation policies and activities;

(2) carry out joint planning, research, and other activities;

(3) coordinate assistance for local transportation projects; and

(4) jointly study methods by which policies and programs of the United States Government can ensure that urban transportation systems most effectively serve both transportation needs of the United States and the comprehensively planned development of urban areas.


(b) The Secretaries shall report on April 1 of each year to the President, for submission to Congress, on their studies and other activities under this section, including legislative recommendations they consider desirable.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2419.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
304(a) 49:1653(g) (less 3d sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(g), 80 Stat. 934.
304(b) 49:1653(g) (3d sentence).

In subsection (a), the text of 49:1653(g) (last sentence) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (a)(4), the word “ensure” is substituted for “assure” as being more precise. The words “of the United States Government” are substituted for “Federal”, and the words “United States” are substituted for “national”, for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), the words “The Secretaries shall report on April 1 of each year” are substituted for “They shall, within one year after the effective date of the Act, and annually thereafter, report” to omit executed words and to specify the date of April 1 because the President prescribed April 1, 1967, as the effective date of the Department of Transportation Act (Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931) by Executive Order No. 11340, March 30, 1967 (32 F.R. 5443). The word “consider” is substituted for “determine” for consistency.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (b) of this section relating to the requirement to submit an annual report to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 4th item on page 150 of House Document No. 103–7.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 305 of this title.

§305. Transportation investment standards and criteria

(a) Subject to sections 301–304 of this title, the Secretary of Transportation shall develop standards and criteria to formulate and economically evaluate all proposals for investing amounts of the United States Government in transportation facilities and equipment. Based on experience, the Secretary shall revise the standards and criteria. When approved by Congress, the Secretary shall prescribe standards and criteria developed or revised under this subsection. This subsection does not apply to—

(1) the acquisition of transportation facilities or equipment by a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government to provide transportation for its use;

(2) an inter-oceanic canal located outside the 48 contiguous States;

(3) defense features included at the direction of the Department of Defense in designing and constructing civil air, sea, or land transportation;

(4) foreign assistance programs;

(5) water resources projects; or

(6) grant-in-aid programs authorized by law.


(b) A department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government preparing a survey, plan, or report that includes a proposal about which the Secretary has prescribed standards and criteria under subsection (a) of this section shall—

(1) prepare the survey, plan, or report under those standards and criteria and on the basis of information provided by the Secretary on the—

(A) projected growth of transportation needs and traffic in the affected area;

(B) the relative efficiency of various modes of transportation;

(C) the available transportation services in the area; and

(D) the general effect of the proposed investment on existing modes of transportation and on the regional and national economy;


(2) coordinate the survey, plan, or report—

(A) with the Secretary and include the views and comments of the Secretary; and

(B) as appropriate, with other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, States, and local governments, and include their views and comments; and


(3) send the survey, plan, or report to the President for disposition under law and procedure established by the President.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2420.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
305(a) 49:1656(a) (less next-to-last par.). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §7 (less (a) next-to-last par.), 80 Stat. 941.
305(b) 49:1656 (less (a)).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “consistent with national transportation policies” after “develop standards and criteria” are omitted as unnecessary because of section 302 of the revised title. The words “Based on experience” are substituted for “in the light of experience”, and the words “shall prescribe” are substituted for “be promulgated by the”, to conform to other sections of the revised title. The words “from time to time” after “shall revise” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “This subsection does not apply to” are substituted for “except such proposals as are concerned with” for clarity. In clause (1), the words “a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government” are substituted for “Federal agencies” for clarity and consistency. Similar conforming changes are made throughout the section. The word “services” after “provide transportation” is omitted as unnecessary. In clause (2), the words “48 contiguous States” are substituted for “contiguous United States” for clarity.

The text of 49:1656(a) (last par.) that provided that the Secretary of Transportation was a member of the Water Resources Council on matters pertaining to navigation features of water resource projects is omitted as superseded because 42:1962(a) gave the Secretary membership on the Council without limitation.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “unit of” before “governments” are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the word “thereafter” after “send” is omitted as surplus.

§306. Prohibited discrimination

(a) In this section, “financial assistance” includes obligation guarantees.

(b) A person in the United States may not be excluded from participating in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under, a project, program, or activity because of race, color, national origin, or sex when any part of the project, program, or activity is financed through financial assistance under section 332 or 333 or chapter 221 or 249 of this title, section 211 or 216 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 721, 726), or title V of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 821 et seq.).

(c) When the Secretary of Transportation decides that a person receiving financial assistance under a law referred to in subsection (b) of this section has not complied with that subsection, a Federal civil rights law, or an order or regulation issued under a Federal civil rights law, the Secretary shall notify the person of the decision and require the person to take necessary action to ensure compliance with that subsection.

(d) If a person does not comply with subsection (b) of this section within a reasonable time after receiving a notice under subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary shall take at least one of the following actions:

(1) direct that no more Federal financial assistance be provided the person.

(2) refer the matter to the Attorney General with a recommendation that a civil action be brought against the person.

(3) carry out the duties and powers provided by title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.).

(4) take other action provided by law.


(e) When a matter is referred to the Attorney General under subsection (d)(2) of this section, or when the Attorney General has reason to believe that a person is engaged in a pattern or practice violating this section, the Attorney General may begin a civil action in a district court of the United States for appropriate relief.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2421; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(3), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(7), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1376.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
306(a) 45:803(f). Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §905, 90 Stat. 148.
306(b) 45:803(a).
306(c), (d) 45:803(b).
306(e) 45:803(c)–(e).

In subsection (b), the enumerated laws are substituted for “through financial assistance under this Act”, meaning the Rail Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94–210, 90 Stat. 31) and laws amended by that Act. The laws cited in the subsection are substituted for “through financial assistance under this Act” for clarity. The enumerated laws include provisions of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 that amend other laws as well as provisions that are not amendments to other laws. A reference to the Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88–365, 78 Stat. 302) is omitted because this section related to that Act is superseded by 49:1615.

In subsection (c), the word “decides” is substituted for “determines” for consistency. The word “ensure” is substituted for “assure” as being more precise.

In subsection (d), the words “at least one of the following actions” are substituted for “and/or” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (e), the text of 45:803(d) is omitted as unnecessary because section 322 of the revised title gives the Secretary of Transportation general authority to prescribe regulations and other provisions of the revised title give the Secretary general authority to carry out his duties and powers. The text of 45:803(e) is omitted as unnecessary.

Pub. L. 98–216

This is necessary to correct a cross-reference in section 306(b) and to reflect the transfer of the non-positive law provisions of title 49 to title 49 appendix.

References in Text

The Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 94–210, Feb. 5, 1976, 90 Stat. 31, as amended. Title V of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§821 et seq.) of chapter 17 of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 45 and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “section 332 or 333 or chapter 221 or 249 of this title, section 211 or 216 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 721, 726), or title V of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 821 et seq.)” for “section 332 or 333 of this title, section 211 or 216 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 721, 726), title V or VII of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 821 et seq., 851 et seq.), or section 4(i) or 5 of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1653(i), 1654)”.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “section 332 or 333 of this title” for “section 332 of this title” and “49 App. U.S.C.” for “49 U.S.C.”.

§307. Safety information and intervention in Interstate Commerce Commission proceedings

(a) The Secretary of Transportation shall inspect promptly the safety compliance record in the Department of Transportation of each person applying to the Interstate Commerce Commission for authority to provide transportation or freight forwarder service. The Secretary shall report the findings of the inspection to the Commission.

(b) When the Secretary is not satisfied with the safety record of a person applying for permanent authority to provide transportation or freight forwarder service, or for approval of a proposed transfer of permanent authority, the Secretary shall intervene and present evidence of the fitness of the person to the Commission in its proceedings.

(c) When requested by the Commission, the Secretary shall—

(1) provide the Commission with a complete report on the safety compliance of a carrier providing transportation or freight forwarder service subject to its jurisdiction;

(2) provide promptly a statement of the safety record of a person applying to the Commission for temporary authority to provide transportation;

(3) intervene and present evidence in a proceeding in which a finding of fitness is required; and

(4) make additional safety compliance surveys and inspections the Commission decides are desirable to allow it to act on an application or to make a finding on the fitness of a carrier.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2421.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
307(a) 49:1653(e)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(e), 80 Stat. 934.
307(b) 49:1653(e)(2).
307(c) 49:1653(e)(3), (4).

In the section, the words “be the duty of” before “Secretary shall” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a), the word “inspect” is substituted for “investigate” as being more appropriate. The words “person applying to the Interstate Commerce Commission for authority to provide transportation or freight forwarder service” are substituted for “applicant seeking operating authority from the Interstate Commerce Commission” as being more precise and to conform to subtitle IV of the revised title. The words “of the inspection” are inserted for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words “person applying for permanent authority to provide transportation or freight forwarder service” are substituted for “applicant for permanent operating authority” as being more precise and to conform to subtitle IV of the revised title. The words “proposed transfer of permanent authority” are substituted for “proposed transaction involving transfer of operating authority” to eliminate surplus words and for clarity because the transfer only involves permanent authority.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “providing transportation or freight forwarder service subject to its jurisdiction” are inserted for clarity.

Subsection (c)(2) is substituted for 49:1653(e)(3) for clarity and to conform to subtitle IV of the revised title. The words “freight forwarder service” are not used because the law does not provide for temporary authority for freight forwarders.

In subsection (c)(3) and (4), the word “finding” is substituted for “determination” to conform to subtitle IV of the revised title.

In subsection (c)(3), the words “necessary or” before “desirable” are omitted as surplus.

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission and Transfer of Functions

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 702 of this title, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title.

§308. Reports

(a) As soon as practicable after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary of Transportation shall report to the President, for submission to Congress, on the activities of the Department of Transportation during the prior fiscal year.

(b) The Secretary shall submit to the President and Congress each year a report on the aviation activities of the Department. The report shall include—

(1) collected information the Secretary considers valuable in deciding questions about—

(A) the development and regulation of civil aeronautics;

(B) the use of airspace of the United States; and

(C) the improvement of the air navigation and traffic control system; and


(2) recommendations for additional legislation and other action the Secretary considers necessary.


(c) The Secretary shall submit to Congress each year a report on the conditions of the public ports of the United States, including the—

(1) economic and technological development of the ports;

(2) extent to which the ports contribute to the national welfare and security; and

(3) factors that may impede the continued development of the ports.


[(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(h), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724.]

(e)(1) The Secretary shall submit to Congress in March 1998, and in March of each even-numbered year thereafter, a report of estimates by the Secretary on the current performance and condition of public mass transportation systems with recommendations for necessary administrative or legislative changes.

(2) In reporting to Congress under this subsection, the Secretary shall prepare a complete assessment of public transportation facilities in the United States. The Secretary also shall assess future needs for those facilities and estimate future capital requirements and operation and maintenance requirements for one-year, 5-year, and 10-year periods at specified levels of service.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2422; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(A), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 4; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(h), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 105–362, title XV, §1502(c), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3295.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
308(a) 45:792. Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–236, §602, 87 Stat. 1022.
  49:1658. Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §12, 80 Stat. 949; Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §906(1), 90 Stat. 149.
308(b) 49:1354(e). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §313(e), 72 Stat. 753.
308(c) 15:1519a. Oct. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–371, §2, 94 Stat. 1362; Aug. 6, 1981, Pub. L. 97–31, §12(8), 95 Stat. 154.

In subsection (a), the words “As part of his annual report each year” in 45:792 are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the source provisions.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “aviation activities of the Department” are substituted for “work performed under this chapter” because of the restatement. The words “The report shall include” are substituted for “Such report shall contain” for consistency. In clause (1), the words “and data” after “information” are omitted as surplus. The words “airspace of the United States” are substituted for “National airspace” for clarity and consistency. In clause (2), the words “the Secretary considers necessary” are substituted for “as may be considered” for clarity.

Pub. L. 98–216
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
308(d) 49 App.:1654a. Oct. 14, 1980, Pub. L. 96–448, §409, 94 Stat. 1948; Dec. 21, 1982, Pub. L. 97–375, §210(a), 96 Stat. 1825.
308(e) 49 App.:1601c. Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §310, 96 Stat. 2151.

This [deletion of the last sentence of subsection (a)] is necessary because section 111(b) of the Congressional Reports Elimination Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97–375, 96 Stat. 1821) repealed section 602 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93–236, 87 Stat. 1022), which was restated as section 308(a) (last sentence) of title 49 by section 1 of the Act of January 12, 1983 (Pub. L. 97–449, 96 Stat. 2413).

In subsection (e)(1), the words “January of each even-numbered year” are substituted for “January of 1984 and in January of every second year thereafter” to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–362 substituted “submit to Congress in March 1998, and in March of each even-numbered year thereafter, a report” for “submit a report to Congress in January of each even-numbered year”.

1995—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out subsec. (d) which related to reports to Congress listing assistance provided by Government to railroad industry.

1984—Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(A)(i), substituted “Reports” for “Annual reports” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(A)(ii), struck out requirement that the report include a complete statement on the effectiveness of the United States Railway Association and the Consolidated Rail Corporation in carrying out the purposes of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(A)(iii), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which reporting provisions contained in subsecs. (a), (b), and (c) of this section and, as subsequently amended, subsec. (e) of this section, are listed, respectively, as the 11th item on page 133, the last item on page 132, the 12th item on page 136, and the 5th item on page 138), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Annual Report on Safety Enforcement Activities of Federal Aviation Administration

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(l) [title III, §317(a)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–358, 1329–380, and Pub. L. 100–457, title III, §317(a), Sept. 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 2148, which required Secretary of Transportation to transmit to Congress an annual report on Federal Aviation Administration's prior safety enforcement activities including staffing level comparisons, inspector experience and training schedules, criteria used to set annual work programs, annual inspection comparisons, statement of adequacy of internal management controls, status of regulatory changes, list of specific operational measures of effectiveness, schedule showing number of civil penalty cases closed, schedule showing number of enforcement actions taken, and schedules showing aviation industry's safety record, were repealed and reenacted as section 44723 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1202, 1379.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 106 of this title; title 33 section 535h.

§309. High-speed ground transportation

(a) The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretaries of Commerce, Energy, and Defense, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Public Works, and the heads of other interested agencies, shall lead and coordinate Federal efforts in the research and development of high-speed ground transportation technologies in order to foster the implementation of magnetic levitation and high-speed steel wheel on rail transportation systems as alternatives to existing transportation systems.

(b)(1) The Secretary may award contracts and grants for demonstrations to determine the contributions that high-speed ground transportation could make to more efficient, safe, and economical intercity transportation systems. Such demonstrations shall be designed to measure and evaluate such factors as the public response to new equipment, higher speeds, variations in fares, improved comfort and convenience, and more frequent service. In connection with grants and contracts for demonstrations under this section, the Secretary shall provide for financial participation by private industry to the maximum extent practicable.

(2)(A) In connection with the authority provided under paragraph (1), there is established a national high-speed ground transportation technology demonstration program, which shall be separate from the national magnetic levitation prototype development program established under section 1036(b) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 and shall be managed by the Secretary of Transportation.

(B)(i) Any eligible applicant may submit to the Secretary a proposal for demonstration of any advancement in a high-speed ground transportation technology or technologies to be incorporated as a component, subsystem, or system in any revenue service high-speed ground transportation project or system under construction or in operation at the time the application is made.

(ii) Grants or contracts shall be awarded only to eligible applicants showing demonstrable benefit to the research and development, design, construction, or ultimate operation of any maglev technology or high-speed steel wheel on rail technology. Criteria to be considered in evaluating the suitability of a proposal under this paragraph shall include—

(I) feasibility of guideway or track design and construction;

(II) safety and reliability;

(III) impact on the environment in comparison to other high-speed ground transportation technologies;

(IV) minimization of land use;

(V) effect on human factors related to high-speed ground transportation;

(VI) energy and power consumption and cost;

(VII) integration of high-speed ground transportation systems with other modes of transportation;

(VIII) actual and projected ridership; and

(IX) design of signaling, communications, and control systems.


(C) For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “eligible applicant” means any United States private business, State government, local government, organization of State or local government, or any combination thereof. The term does not include any business owned in whole or in part by the Federal Government.

(D) The amount and distribution of grants or contracts made under this paragraph shall be determined by the Secretary. No grant or contract may be awarded under this paragraph to demonstrate a technology to be incorporated into a project or system located in a State that prohibits under State law the expenditure of non-Federal public funds or revenues on the construction or operation of such project or system.

(E) Recipients of grants or contracts made pursuant to this paragraph shall agree to submit a report to the Secretary detailing the results and benefits of the technology demonstration proposed, as required by the Secretary.

(c)(1) In carrying out the responsibilities of the Secretary under this section, the Secretary is authorized to enter into 1 or more cooperative research and development agreements (as defined by section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a)), and 1 or more funding agreements (as defined by section 201(b) of title 35, United States Code), with United States companies for the purpose of—

(A) conducting research to overcome technical and other barriers to the development and construction of practicable high-speed ground transportation systems and to help advance the basic generic technologies needed for these systems; and

(B) transferring the research and basic generic technologies described in subparagraph (A) to industry in order to help create a viable commercial high-speed ground transportation industry within the United States.


(2) In a cooperative agreement or funding agreement under paragraph (1), the Secretary may agree to provide not more than 80 percent of the cost of any project under the agreement. Not less than 5 percent of the non-Federal entity's share of the cost of any such project shall be paid in cash.

(3) The research, development, or utilization of any technology pursuant to a cooperative agreement under paragraph (1), including the terms under which such technology may be licensed and the resulting royalties may be distributed, shall be subject to the provisions of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.).

(4) The research, development, or utilization of any technology pursuant to a funding agreement under paragraph (1), including the determination of all licensing and ownership rights, shall be subject to the provisions of chapter 18 of title 35, United States Code.

(5) At the conclusion of fiscal year 1993 and again at the conclusion of fiscal year 1996, the Secretary shall submit reports to Congress regarding research and technology transfer activities conducted pursuant to the authorization contained in paragraph (1).

(d)(1) Not later than June 1, 1995, the Secretary shall complete and submit to Congress a study of the commercial feasibility of constructing 1 or more high-speed ground transportation systems in the United States. Such study shall consist of—

(A) an economic and financial analysis;

(B) a technical assessment; and

(C) recommendations for model legislation for State and local governments to facilitate construction of high-speed ground transportation systems.


(2) The economic and financial analysis referred to in paragraph (1)(A) shall include—

(A) an examination of the potential market for a nationwide high-speed ground transportation network, including a national magnetic levitation ground transportation system;

(B) an examination of the potential markets for short-haul high-speed ground transportation systems and for intercity and long-haul high-speed ground transportation systems, including an assessment of—

(i) the current transportation practices and trends in each market; and

(ii) the extent to which high-speed ground transportation systems would relieve the current or anticipated congestion on other modes of transportation;


(C) projections of the costs of designing, constructing, and operating high-speed ground transportation systems, the extent to which such systems can recover their costs (including capital costs), and the alternative methods available for private and public financing;

(D) the availability of rights-of-way to serve each market, including the extent to which average and maximum speeds would be limited by the curvature of existing rights-of-way and the prospect of increasing speeds through the acquisition of additional rights-of-way without significant relocation of residential, commercial, or industrial facilities;

(E) a comparison of the projected costs of the various competing high-speed ground transportation technologies;

(F) recommendations for funding mechanisms, tax incentives, liability provisions, and changes in statutes and regulations necessary to facilitate the development of individual high-speed ground transportation systems and the completion of a nationwide high-speed ground transportation network;

(G) an examination of the effect of the construction and operation of high-speed ground transportation systems on regional employment and economic growth;

(H) recommendations for the roles appropriate for local, regional, and State governments to facilitate construction of high-speed ground transportation systems, including the roles of regional economic development authorities;

(I) an assessment of the potential for a high-speed ground transportation technology export market;

(J) recommendations regarding the coordination and centralization of Federal efforts relating to high-speed ground transportation;

(K) an examination of the role of the National Railroad Passenger Corporation in the development and operation of high-speed ground transportation systems; and

(L) any other economic or financial analyses the Secretary considers important for carrying out this section.


(3) The technical assessment referred to in paragraph (1)(B) shall include—

(A) an examination of the various technologies developed for use in the transportation of passengers by high-speed ground transportation, including a comparison of the safety (including dangers associated with grade crossings), energy efficiency, operational efficiencies, and environmental impacts of each system;

(B) an examination of the potential role of a United States designed maglev system, developed as a prototype under section 1036(b) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, in relation to the implementation of other high-speed ground transportation technologies and the national transportation system;

(C) an examination of the work being done to establish safety standards for high-speed ground transportation as a result of the enactment of section 7 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 1988;

(D) an examination of the need to establish appropriate technological, quality, and environmental standards for high-speed ground transportation systems;

(E) an examination of the significant unresolved technical issues surrounding the design, engineering, construction, and operation of high-speed ground transportation systems, including the potential for the use of existing rights-of-way;

(F) an examination of the effects on air quality, energy consumption, noise, land use, health, and safety as a result of the decreases in traffic volume on other modes of transportation that are expected to result from the full-scale development of high-speed ground transportation systems; and

(G) any other technical assessments the Secretary considers important for carrying out this section.


(e)(1) Within 12 months after the submission of the study required by subsection (d), the Secretary shall establish the national high-speed ground transportation policy (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Policy”).

(2) The Policy shall include—

(A) provisions to promote the design, construction, and operation of high-speed ground transportation systems in the United States;

(B) a determination whether the various competing high-speed ground transportation technologies can be effectively integrated into a national network and, if not, whether 1 or more such technologies should receive preferential encouragement from the Federal Government to enable the development of such a national network;

(C) a strategy for prioritizing the markets and corridors in which the construction of high-speed ground transportation systems should be encouraged; and

(D) provisions designed to promote American competitiveness in the market for high-speed ground transportation technologies.


(3) The Secretary shall solicit comments from the public in the development of the Policy and may consult with other Federal agencies as appropriate in drafting the Policy.

(Added Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1036(c)(1), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1982.)

References in Text

Section 1036(b) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2)(A) and (d)(3)(B), is section 1036(b) of Pub. L. 102–240, which is set out below.

The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), is Pub. L. 96–480, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2311, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 63 (§3701 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3701 of Title 15 and Tables.

Section 7 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(C), is section 7 of Pub. L. 100–342, which amended section 431 of Title 45, Railroads.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 18, 1991, and applicable to funds authorized to be appropriated or made available after Sept. 30, 1991, and, with certain exceptions, not applicable to funds appropriated or made available on or before Sept. 30, 1991, see section 1100 of Pub. L. 102–240, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 104 of Title 23, Highways.

National Magnetic Levitation Prototype Development Program

Section 1036(b) of Pub. L. 102–240 provided that:

“(1) Management of program.—There is hereby established a national magnetic levitation prototype development program to be managed by a program director appointed jointly by the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the ‘Assistant Secretary’). To carry out such program, the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall establish a national maglev joint project office (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the ‘Maglev Project Office’), which shall be headed by the program director, and shall enter into such arrangements as may be necessary for funding, staffing, office space, and other requirements that will allow the Maglev Project Office to carry out its functions. In carrying out such program, the program director shall consult with appropriate Federal officials, including the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

“(2) Phase one contracts.—

“(A) Request for proposals.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1991], the Maglev Project Office shall release a request for proposals for development of conceptual designs for a maglev system and for research to facilitate the development of such conceptual designs.

“(B) Award of contracts.—Not later than 15 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall, based on the recommendations of the program director, award 1-year contracts for research and development to no fewer than 5 eligible applicants. If fewer than 5 complete applications have been received, contracts shall be awarded to as many eligible applicants as is practical.

“(C) Factors and conditions to be considered.—The Secretary and the Assistant Secretary may approve contracts under subparagraph (B) only after consideration of factors relating to the construction and operation of a magnetic levitation system, including the cost-effectiveness, ease of maintenance, safety, limited environmental impact, ability to achieve sustained high speeds, ability to operate along the Interstate highway rights-of-way, the potential for the guideway design to be a national standard, the applicant's resources, capabilities, and history of successfully designing and developing systems of similar complexity, and the desirability of geographic diversity among contractors and only if the applicant agrees to submit a report to the Maglev Project Office detailing the results of the research and development and agrees to provide for matching of the phase one contract at a 90 percent Federal, 10 percent non-Federal, cost share.

“(3) Phase two contracts.—Within 3 months of receiving the final reports of contract activities under paragraph (2), and based only on such reports and the recommendations of the program director, the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall select not more than 3 eligible applicants from among the contract recipients submitting reports under paragraph (2) to receive 18-month contracts for research and development leading to a detailed design for a prototype maglev system. The Secretary and the Assistant Secretary may only award contracts under this paragraph if—

“(A) they determine that the applicant has demonstrated technical merit for the conceptual design and the potential for further development of such design into an operational prototype as described in paragraph (4),

“(B) the applicant agrees to submit the detailed design within such 18-month period to the Maglev Project Office and the selection committee described in paragraph (4), and

“(C) the applicant agrees to provide for matching of the phase two contract at an 80 percent Federal, 20 percent non-Federal, cost share.

“(4) Prototype.—

“(A) Selection of design.—Within 6 months of receiving the detailed designs developed under paragraph (3), the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall, based on the recommendations of the selection committee described in this subparagraph, select 1 design for development into a full-scale prototype, unless the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary determine jointly that no design shall be selected, based on an assessment of technical feasibility and projected cost of construction and operation of the prototype. A selection committee of 8 members, consisting of—

“(i) 1 member to be appointed by the Secretary,

“(ii) 1 member to be appointed by the Assistant Secretary,

“(iii) 3 members to be appointed by the Senate majority and minority leaders, and

“(iv) 3 members to be appointed by the Speaker of the House and the minority leader of the House,

shall be appointed not later than 1 year following the award of contracts under paragraph (3). The selection committee, within 3 months of receiving the detailed designs developed under paragraph (3), shall make a recommendation to the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary as to the best prototype design or the unsuitability of any design. The program director shall provide technical reviews of the phase two contract reports to the selection committee and otherwise provide any technical assistance that the committee requires to assist it in making a recommendation. In the event that the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary determine jointly not to select a design for development under this subsection, they shall report to Congress on the basis for such determination, together with recommendations for future action, including further research, development, or design, termination of the program, or such other action as may be appropriate.

“(B) Award of construction grant or contract.—Unless the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary determine not to proceed pursuant to subparagraph (A), they shall, not later than 3 months after selection of a design for development into a full-scale prototype, and based on the recommendations of the program director, award 1 construction grant or contract to the applicant whose detailed design was selected under subparagraph (A) for the purpose of constructing a prototype maglev system in accordance with the selected design. Not more than 75 percent of the cost of the project shall be borne by the United States.

“(C) Factors to be considered in selection.—Selection of the detailed design under this paragraph shall be based on consideration of the following factors, among others:

“(i) The project shall be capable of utilizing Interstate highway rights-of-way along or above a significant portion of its route, and may also use railroad rights-of-way along or above any portion of the railroad route.

“(ii) The total length of guideway shall be at least 19 miles and allow significant full-speed operations between stops.

“(iii) The project shall be constructed and ready for operational testing within 3 years after the award of the contract or grant.

“(iv) The project shall provide for the conversion of the prototype to commercial operation after testing and technical evaluation is completed.

“(v) The project shall be located in an area that provides a potential ridership base for future commercial operation.

“(vi) The project shall utilize a technology capable of being applied in commercial service in most parts of the contiguous United States.

“(vii) The project shall have at least 1 switch.

“(viii) The project shall be intermodal in nature connecting a major metropolitan area with an airport, port, passenger rail station, or other transportation mode.

“(D) Additional factors for consideration.—In awarding a grant or contract under this paragraph, the Secretary shall encourage the development of domestic manufacturing capabilities. In selecting among eligible applicants, the Secretary shall consider existing railroads and equipment manufacturers with excess production capacity, including railroads that have experience in advanced technologies (including self-propelled cars).

“(5) Licensing.—

“(A) Proprietary rights.—No trade secrets or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential, under the meaning of section 552(b)(4) of title 5, United States Code, which is obtained from a United States business, research, or education entity as a result of activities under this subsection shall be disclosed.

“(B) Commercial information.—The research, development, and use of any technology developed pursuant to an agreement reached pursuant to this subsection, including the terms under which any technology may be licensed and the resulting royalties may be distributed, shall be subject to the provisions of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701–3714). In addition, the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary may require any grant or contract recipient to assure that research and development be performed substantially in the United States and that the products embodying the inventions made under any agreement pursuant to this subsection or produced through the use of such inventions be manufactured substantially in the United States.

“(6) Reports.—The Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall provide periodic reports to Congress on progress made under this subsection.

“(7) Eligible applicant defined.—For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘eligible applicant’ means a United States private business, United States public or private education and research organization, Federal laboratory, or a consortium of such businesses, organizations, and laboratories.”

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

§321. Definitions

In this subchapter, “aeronautics”, “air commerce”, and “air navigation facility” have the same meanings given those terms in section 40102(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2422; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(8), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1376; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(2), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
321 (no source).

A number of the source provisions of the subchapter are taken from 49:ch. 20. The text of 49:ch. 20 contains general definitions, some of which are used in those source provisions. The section includes those definitions from 49:ch. 20 that are used in the source provisions included in the subchapter.

Pub. L. 103–429

This makes a clarifying amendment to 49:321.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–429 struck out “, respectively” after “of this title”.

Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “section 40102(a) of this title” for “section 101(2), (4), and (8) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 App. U.S.C. 1301(2), (4), (8))”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “49 App. U.S.C.” for “49 U.S.C.”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429 provided that: “The amendments made by sections 6(2)–(15), (19)–(35), (37)–(39), (41), (44)–(52), (54)–(62), (65), (66)(B), (70), (73)–(76), and (78)–(81) of this Act [enacting section 41312 of this title and amending this section and sections 5103, 5104, 5115, 5125, 5307, 5318, 5320, 5323, 5326, 5327, 5331, 5337, 5565, 20136, 22108, 24501, 24904, 30141, 30165, 30166, 30308, 31501, 32101, 32304, 32309, 32505, 32703, 32705, 32706, 32908 to 32910, 32913, 33101, 33106, 40102, 40104, 40110, 41103, 41110, 41734, 44502, 44701, 44711, 44937, 45105, 45302, 46301, 46310, 46502, 47101, 47113, 47114, 47128, 47531, 47532, 60109, and 60112 of this title] shall take effect on July 5, 1994.”

§322. General powers

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers of the Secretary. An officer of the Department of Transportation may prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers of the officer.

(b) The Secretary may delegate, and authorize successive delegations of, duties and powers of the Secretary to an officer or employee of the Department. An officer of the Department may delegate, and authorize successive delegations of, duties and powers of the officer to another officer or employee of the Department. However, the duties and powers specified in sections 103(c)(1), 104(c)(1), and 106(g)(1) of this title may not be delegated to an officer or employee outside the Administration concerned.

(c) On a reimbursable basis when appropriate, the Secretary may, in carrying out aviation duties and powers—

(1) use the available services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of other civilian or military departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, with their consent;

(2) cooperate with those departments, agencies, and instrumentalities in establishing and using aviation services, equipment, and facilities of the Department; and

(3) confer and cooperate with, and use the services, records, and facilities of, State, territorial, municipal, and other agencies.


(d) The Secretary may make expenditures to carry out aviation duties and powers, including expenditures for—

(1) rent and personal services;

(2) travel expenses;

(3) office furniture, equipment, supplies, lawbooks, newspapers, periodicals, and reference books, including exchanges;

(4) printing and binding;

(5) membership in and cooperation with domestic or foreign organizations related to, or a part of, the civil aeronautics industry or the art of aeronautics;

(6) payment of allowances and other benefits to employees stationed in foreign countries to the same extent authorized for members of the Foreign Service of comparable grade;

(7) investigations and studies about aeronautics; and

(8) acquiring, exchanging, operating, and maintaining passenger-carrying aircraft and automobiles and other property.


(e) The Secretary may negotiate, without advertising, the purchase of technical or special property related to air navigation when the Secretary decides that—

(1) making the property would require a substantial initial investment or an extended period of preparation; and

(2) procurement by advertising would likely result in additional cost to the Government by duplication of investment or would result in duplication of necessary preparation that would unreasonably delay procuring the property.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2422.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
322(a) 49:1657(e)(1) (last 19 words), (2) (last 19 words), (f), (g). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(e)–(g), 80 Stat. 944.
322(b) 49:1344(d) (less words after semicolon). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§302(k), 303(a), (d) (less words after semicolon), 80 Stat. 747, 749.
  49:1657(e)(1) (less last 19 words), (2) (less last 19 words), (3).
  5 App. U.S.C. Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1968, eff. July 1, 1968, §2, 82 Stat. 1369.
322(c) 49:1343(i).
322(d) 49:1344(a).
322(e) 49:1344(e). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §303(e); added May 21, 1970, Pub. L. 91–258, §51(a)(1), 84 Stat. 234; July 12, 1976, Pub. L. 94–353, §16, 90 Stat. 882; Oct. 19, 1980, Pub. L. 96–470, §112(e), 94 Stat. 2240.

In the chapter, the words “Secretary of Transportation” and “Secretary” are substituted for “Administrator” in the provisions of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731) restated in the revised chapter because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1).

In subsection (a), the words “may prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers” are substituted for “may make such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out . . . functions, powers, and duties” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 49:1657(f) and (g) is omitted as executed because the transfer of personnel, assets, and liabilities, etc., has been accomplished.

In subsection (b), the words “Except where this chapter vests in any administration, agency or board, specific functions, powers, and duties” before “the Secretary may” in 49:1657(e)(1) are omitted because of the specific wording of sections 103, 104, and 106 of the revised title. The words “in addition to the authority to delegate and redelegate contained in any other Act in the exercise of the functions transferred to or vested in the Secretary in this chapter” before “delegate” in 49:1657(e)(1) are omitted because the authority of the Secretary to delegate is consolidated in the subsection. The words “the duties and powers of the Secretary” are substituted for “any of his residual functions, powers, and duties” in 49:1657(e)(1) and “any of the functions transferred to him by this reorganization plan” in section 2 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1968 (eff. July 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 1369), for clarity and consistency. The words “as he may designate” and “of such functions, powers, and duties as he may deem desirable” are omitted as surplus each place they appear in 49:1657(e)(1) and (2). The text of section 322(b) (1st sentence) of the revised title is substituted for 49:1344(d) (less words after semicolon) for clarity and because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary of Transportation under 49:1655(c)(1). The text of 49:1657(e)(2) (words before 2d comma) is omitted as unnecessary because the authority of an officer to delegate is consolidated in the subsection. The words “the duties and powers of the officer” are substituted for “such functions, powers, and duties” in 49:1657(e)(2) for clarity and consistency. The words “the duties and powers specified in sections 103(c)(1), 104(c)(1), and 106(g)(1) of this title” are substituted for “any of the statutory duties and responsibilities specifically assigned to them by this chapter” in 49:1657(e)(3) for clarity. The words “may not be delegated to an officer or employee outside the Administration concerned” are substituted for “The Administrators established by section 1652(e) of this title . . . may not delegate . . . outside of their respective administrations” in 49:1657(e)(3) for clarity and because of the restatement of the section.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “aviation duties and powers” are added because the source provisions being restated only applies to carrying out duties and powers related to the Federal Aviation Administration. In clause (2), the words “those departments, agencies, and instrumentalities” are substituted for “such other agencies and instrumentalities” in 49:1343(i) for clarity and consistency. The words “aviation . . . Department” are substituted for “Administration” in 49:1343(i) because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1).

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words “aviation duties and powers” are substituted for “for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties vested in and imposed upon him by law” in 49:1344(a) because the source provisions being restated only applies to carrying out duties and powers related to the Federal Aviation Administration. The words “at the seat of government and elsewhere as may be necessary” after “expenditures” and “and as from time to time may be appropriated for by Congress” are omitted as surplus. In clause (8), the words “passenger-carrying aircraft and automobiles” are substituted for “passenger-carrying automobiles and aircraft” in 49:1344(a) for clarity. The words “such . . . as is necessary in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the Secretary” after “aircraft” in 49:1344(a) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the section. The text of 49:1344(a) (proviso) is omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (e), before clause (1), the words “or in support of” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “making the property” are substituted for “for manufacture” for clarity. In clause (2), the word “formal” is omitted as unnecessary. The word “unreasonably” is substituted for “unduly” for consistency.

Availability of Receipts From Fitness Centers For Operation and Maintenance of Facilities

Pub. L. 106–69, title III, §329, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1021, provided that: “Hereafter, notwithstanding any other provision of law, receipts, in amounts determined by the Secretary, collected from users of fitness centers operated by or for the Department of Transportation shall be available to support the operation and maintenance of those facilities.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(g) [title III, §332], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681–471.

Pub. L. 105–66, title III, §332, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1447.

Pub. L. 104–205, title III, §344, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 2976.

Executive Order No. 11382

Ex. Ord. No. 11382, Nov. 28, 1967, 32 F.R. 16247, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11428, Sept. 5, 1968, 32 F.R. 12719, upon establishment of Department of Transportation amended and revoked certain executive orders relating to transportation, and, in addition to any other authority, authorized Secretary of Transportation and Federal Aviation Administrator to redelegate and authorize successive redelegations of any authority conferred in the order or the orders amended by it.

§323. Personnel

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may appoint and fix the pay of officers and employees of the Department of Transportation and may prescribe their duties and powers.

(b) The Secretary may procure services under section 3109 of title 5. However, an individual may be paid not more than $100 a day for services.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2423.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
323(a) 49:1343(d). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §302(f), 72 Stat. 746; Oct. 4, 1961, Pub. L. 87–367, §205(b), 75 Stat. 791; Oct. 11, 1962, Pub. L. 87–793, §1001(h), 76 Stat. 864.
  49:1343(f). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §302(h), 72 Stat. 746; Oct. 4, 1961, Pub. L. 87–367, §205(a), 75 Stat. 791.
  49:1657(a). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(a), (b), 80 Stat. 944; Mar. 27, 1978, Pub. L. 95–251, §2(a)(12), 92 Stat. 183.
323(b) 49:1343(g) (1st sentence 33d–43d words). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §302(i) (1st sentence 31st–41st words), 72 Stat. 747.
  49:1657(b).

In the section, the word “pay” is substituted for “compensation” for consistency with title 5.

In subsection (a), the words “In addition to the authority contained in any other Act which is transferred to and vested in the Secretary, the National Transportation Safety Board, or any other officer in the Department” before “the Secretary” and “subject to the civil service and classification laws” before “to select” in 49:1657(a) are omitted as unnecessary because of title 5, especially sections 3301, 5101, and 5331. The word “appoint” is substituted for “select, employ, appoint” because it is inclusive. The words “attorneys, and agents” after “employees” in 49:1343(d) and “including investigators, attorneys, and administrative law judges” after “employees” in 49:1657(a) are omitted as included in “officers and employees”. The words “of the Department of Transportation” are substituted for “as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter” for consistency.

The text of 49:1343(d) (words after 1st comma) is omitted because of section 414(a)(1)(B) of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95–454, 92 Stat. 1177). The text of 49:1343(f) is omitted because of section 414(a)(2)(A) of that Act.

In subsection (b), the word “procure” is substituted for “obtain” to conform to 5:3109. The words “unless otherwise specified in an appropriation Act” after “individuals” in 49:1657(b) are omitted as surplus.

§324. Members of the armed forces

(a) The Secretary of Transportation—

(1) to ensure that national defense interests are safeguarded properly and that the Secretary is advised properly about the needs and special problems of the armed forces, shall provide for participation of members of the armed forces in carrying out the duties and powers of the Secretary related to the regulation and protection of air traffic, including providing for, and research and development of, air navigation facilities, and the allocation of airspace; and

(2) may provide for participation of members of the armed forces in carrying out other duties and powers of the Secretary.


(b) A member of the Coast Guard on active duty may be appointed, detailed, or assigned to a position in the Department of Transportation, except the position of Secretary, Deputy Secretary, or Assistant Secretary for Administration. A retired member of the Coast Guard may be appointed, detailed, or assigned to a position in the Department.

(c) The Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of a military department may make cooperative agreements, including agreements on reimbursement as may be considered appropriate by the Secretaries, under which a member of the armed forces may be appointed, detailed, or assigned to the Department of Transportation under this section. The Secretary of Transportation shall send a report each year to the appropriate committees of Congress on agreements made to carry out subsection (a)(2) of this section, including the number, rank, and position of each member appointed, detailed, or assigned under those agreements.

(d) The Secretary of a military department does not control the duties and powers of a member of the armed forces appointed, detailed, or assigned under this section when those duties and powers pertain to the Department of Transportation. A member of the armed forces appointed, detailed, or assigned under subsection (a)(2) of this section may not be charged against a statutory limitation on grades or strengths of the armed forces. The appointment, detail, or assignment and service of a member under this section to a position in the Department of Transportation does not affect the status, office, rank, or grade held by that member, or a right or benefit arising from that status, office, rank, or grade.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2423.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
324(a)(1) 49:1343(a)(1) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §302(c)(1), (2) (related to cooperative agreements), 72 Stat. 745.
324(a)(2) 49:1657(c) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(c), (d), 80 Stat. 944.
324(b) 49:1657(p). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(p), 80 Stat. 947; Oct. 28, 1974, Pub. L. 93–496, §16(b), 88 Stat. 1533.
324(c) 49:1343(a)(1) (less 1st sentence).
  49:1657(c) (less 1st sentence), (d)(2).
324(d) 49:1343(a)(2) (related to cooperative agreements).
  49:1657(d)(1).

In the section, the words “members of the armed forces” are substituted for “military personnel”, “Members of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, or the Marine Corps”, and “members of the armed services” for clarity and to conform to title 10.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “other duties and powers of the Secretary” are substituted for “the functions of the Department” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), the words “Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter or other law” before “a member” and “Subject to the provisions of title 5” before “a retired” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c), the words “The Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of a military department may make cooperative agreements under which” are substituted for “by the appropriate Secretary, pursuant to cooperative agreements with the Secretary of Transportation” in 49:1343(a)(1) and 49:1657(c) for clarity. The words “or the Coast Guard” before “may be detailed” in 49:1343(a)(1) (2d sentence) are omitted because of the transfer of the Coast Guard to the Secretary under 49:1655(b) and the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1). The words “may be appointed, detailed, or assigned” are substituted for “may be detailed” for clarity and consistency in 49:1343(a)(1) and 49:1657(c). The words “to the Department of Transportation” are substituted for “for service in the Administration to effect such participation” in 49:1343(a)(1) because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1) and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “in writing” after “annually” in 49:1657(d)(2) are omitted as unnecessary. The words “each member appointed, detailed, or assigned” are substituted for “personnel appointed” and “members of the armed services detailed” in 49:1657(d)(2) for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (d), the words “The Secretary of a military department” are substituted for “his armed force or any officer thereof” in 49:1657(d)(1) and “the department from which detailed or appointed or by any agency or officer thereof” in 49:1343(a)(2) for clarity and consistency. The words “directly or indirectly” before “with respect to” are omitted as surplus. The words “the duties and powers of . . . when those duties and powers pertain to the Department of Transportation” are substituted for “with respect to his responsibilities under this chapter or within the Administration” in 49:1343(a)(2) and “with respect to the responsibilities exercised in the position to which appointed, detailed, or assigned” in 49:1657(d)(1) for consistency and because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1). The words “does not control” are substituted for “No . . . shall be subject to direction or control by” in 49:1343(a)(2) and “shall not be subject to direction by or control by” 49:1657(d)(1) for clarity. The words “the acceptance of” before “and service” and “any appointive or other” before “position” in 49:1657(d)(1) are omitted as unnecessary. The words “a member” are added because of the restatement of the section. The words “that member” are substituted for “commissioned officers or enlisted men” in 49:1343(a)(2) and “officers and enlisted men” in 49:1657(d)(1) because of the restatement of the section and to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “held” is substituted for “may occupy or hold” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “right or benefit” are substituted for “emolument, perquisite, right, privilege, or benefit” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “incident to or” before “arising” are omitted as surplus.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which a report required under subsec. (c) of this section is listed as the 5th item on page 132), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 14 section 42.

§325. Advisory committees

(a) Without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointment in the competitive service, the Secretary of Transportation may appoint advisory committees to consult with and advise the Secretary in carrying out the duties and powers of the Secretary.

(b) While attending a committee meeting or otherwise serving at the request of the Secretary, a member of an advisory committee may be paid not more than $100 a day. A member is entitled to reimbursement for expenses under section 5703 of title 5. This subsection does not apply to individuals regularly employed by the United States Government.

(c) A member of an advisory committee advising the Secretary in carrying out aviation duties and powers may serve for not more than 100 days in a calendar year.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2424.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
325(a) 49:1343(g) (1st sentence 1st–32d words). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §302(i) (less 1st sentence 31st–41st words), 72 Stat. 747.
  49:1657(o) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(o), 80 Stat. 947.
325(b) 49:1343(g) (1st sentence 44th–53d words, last sentence).
  49:1657(o) (last sentence).
325(c) 49:1343(g) (1st sentence 54th–last words).

In subsection (a), the words “provisions of title 5 governing appointment in the competitive service” are substituted for “civil service laws” in 49:1657(o) for clarity and consistency. The words “as shall be appropriate for the purpose of” before “consultation” in 49:1657(o) are omitted as surplus. The words “the Secretary in carrying out the duties and powers of the Secretary” are substituted for “the Department in performance of its functions” in 49:1657(o) and “the Administration in performance of its functions hereunder” in 49:1343(g) for clarity and consistency because the duties and powers are vested in the Secretary of Transportation.

In subsection (b), the word “compensation” after “may be paid” in 49:1657(o) is omitted as surplus. The words “not more than $100 a day” are substituted for “at rates not exceeding those authorized for individuals under subsection (b) of this section” in 49:1657(o) for clarity because that is the rate under 49:1657(b). The words “A member is entitled to reimbursement for expenses under section 5703 of title 5” are substituted for 49:1343(g) (last sentence) and 49:1657(o) (last sentence words after 4th comma) for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words “A member of an advisory committee advising the Secretary” are substituted for “in the case of any individual” in 49:1343(g) for clarity. The words “may serve” are added for clarity and because of the restatement of the section. The words “in carrying out aviation duties and powers” are added because the source provisions being restated only applies to carrying out duties and powers related to the Federal Aviation Administration.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§326. Gifts

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may accept and use conditional or unconditional gifts of property for the Department of Transportation. The Secretary may accept a gift of services in carrying out aviation duties and powers. Property accepted under this section and proceeds from that property must be used, as nearly as possible, under the terms of the gift.

(b) The Department has a fund in the Treasury. Disbursements from the fund are made on order of the Secretary. The fund consists of—

(1) gifts of money;

(2) income from property accepted under this section and proceeds from the sale of that property; and

(3) income from securities under subsection (c) of this section.


(c) On request of the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of the Treasury may invest and reinvest amounts in the fund in securities of, or in securities whose principal and interest is guaranteed by, the United States Government.

(d) Property accepted under this section is a gift to or for the use of the Government under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2424; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
326(a) 49:1344(c)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §303(c)(1), 72 Stat. 748.
  49:1657(m)(1) (1st, 3d sentences). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(m), 80 Stat. 946.
326(b) 49:1657(m)(1) (2d sentence), (3) (less 1st sentence).
326(c) 49:1657(m)(3) (1st sentence).
326(d) 49:1657(m)(2).

In the section, the word “gifts” is substituted for “gifts and bequests” in 49:1657(m)(1) because it is inclusive.

In subsection (a), the words “accept and use” are substituted for “accept, hold, administer, and utilize”, and the words “for the Department” are substituted for “for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Department” in 49:1657(m)(1), to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “property” is substituted for “property, both real and personal” in 49:1657(m)(1), and “gift or donation of money or other property, real and personal” in 49:1344(c)(1) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “aviation duties and powers” are added because the source provisions being restated only applies to carrying out duties and powers related to the Federal Aviation Administration. The words “under this section and proceeds from that property” are substituted for “pursuant to this paragraph, and the proceeds thereof” in 49:1657(m)(1) for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words “The Department has a” and “The fund consists of” are added for clarity and because of the restatement of the section. The word “separate” before “fund” is omitted as unnecessary and for consistency. The words “from the fund” are added for clarity. The words “accepted under this section” are substituted for “held by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1)” for clarity. The words “that property” are substituted for “other property received as gifts or bequests” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “from securities under subsection (c) of this section” are substituted for “accruing from such securities” for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words “amounts in the fund” are substituted for “any moneys contained in the fund provided for in paragraph (1)” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (d), the words “under this section” are substituted for “under paragraph (1)” because of the restatement of the section. The words “the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.)” are substituted for “For the purpose of Federal income, estate, and gift taxes” for consistency.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 106 of this title.

§327. Administrative working capital fund

(a) The Department of Transportation has an administrative working capital fund. Amounts in the fund are available for expenses of operating and maintaining common administrative services the Secretary of Transportation decides are desirable for the efficiency and economy of the Department. The services may include—

(1) a central supply service for stationery and other supplies and equipment through which adequate stocks may be maintained to meet the requirements of the Department;

(2) central messenger, mail, telephone, and other communications services;

(3) office space;

(4) central services for document reproduction, and for graphics and visual aids; and

(5) a central library service.


(b) Amounts in the fund are available without regard to fiscal year limitation. Amounts may be appropriated to the fund.

(c) The fund consists of—

(1) amounts appropriated to the fund;

(2) the reasonable value of stocks of supplies, equipment, and other assets and inventories on order that the Secretary transfers to the fund, less the related liabilities and unpaid obligations;

(3) amounts received from the sale or exchange of property; and

(4) payments received for loss or damage to property of the fund.


(d) The fund shall be reimbursed, in advance, from amounts available to the Department or from other sources, for supplies and services at rates that will approximate the expenses of operation, including the accrual of annual leave and the depreciation of equipment. Amounts in the fund, in excess of amounts transferred or appropriated to maintain the fund, shall be deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. All assets, liabilities, and prior losses are considered in determining the amount of the excess.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2425.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
327(a) 49:1657(j) (1st sentence less 11th–17th words). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(j), 80 Stat. 945.
327(b) 49:1657(j) (1st sentence 11th–17th words, 2d sentence, 18th–22d words).
327(c) 49:1657(j) (2d sentence less 18th–22d words, 4th sentence).
327(d) 49:1657(j) (less 1st, 2d, 4th sentences).

In subsection (a), the words “Department of Transportation has” are substituted for “Secretary is authorized to establish” because the working capital fund has been established. The words “administrative” before “working” and “Amounts in the fund are available” are added for clarity. The words “the Secretary of Transportation decides are” are substituted for “as he shall find to be” for clarity. The words “desirable for the economy” are substituted for “desirable in the interest of economy” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “such services as” before “a central supply service” and “in whole or in part” before “the requirements of the Department” are omitted as surplus. The words “the requirements of the Department” are substituted for “the requirements of the Department and its agencies” because they are inclusive.

In subsection (b), the words “Amounts in the fund” are added for clarity. The words “Amounts may be appropriated to the fund” are substituted for “(which appropriations are hereby authorized)” for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words “The fund consists of” are substituted for “The capital of the fund shall consist of” and “The fund shall also be credited with” for clarity. The word “reasonable” is substituted for “fair and reasonable” because it is inclusive. The words “amounts appropriated to the fund” are substituted for “of any appropriations made for the purpose of providing capital” for clarity. The words “amounts received from the sale” are substituted for “receipts from the sale”, and the words “payments received for loss” are substituted for “receipts in payment for”, as being more precise.

In subsection (d), the words “agencies and offices in” after “available funds of” are omitted because they are included in “Department”. The words “Amounts in the fund, in excess of amounts” are added for clarity. The words “any surplus found in the fund . . . above the” after “miscellaneous receipts” are omitted because of the restatement of this section. The words “to establish and” before “maintain” are omitted because the working capital fund has been established. The words “deposited in the Treasury” are substituted for “covered into the United States Treasury” for consistency. The words “are . . . in determining the amount of the excess” are added for clarity.

§328. Transportation Systems Center working capital fund

(a) The Department of Transportation has a Transportation Systems Center working capital fund. Amounts in the fund are available for financing the activities of the Center, including research, development, testing, evaluation, analysis, and related activities the Secretary of Transportation approves, for the Department, other agencies, State and local governments, other public authorities, private organizations, and foreign countries.

(b) Amounts in the fund are available without regard to fiscal year limitation. Amounts may be appropriated to the fund.

(c) The capital of the fund consists of—

(1) amounts appropriated to the fund;

(2) net assets of the Center as of October 1, 1980, including unexpended advances made to the Center for which valid obligations were incurred before October 1, 1980;

(3) the reasonable value of property and other assets transferred to the fund after September 30, 1980, less the related liabilities and unpaid obligations; and

(4) the reasonable value of property and other assets donated to the fund.


(d) The fund shall be reimbursed or credited with—

(1) advance payments from applicable funds or appropriations of the Department and other agencies, and with advance payments from other sources, the Secretary authorizes, for—

(A) services at rates that will recover the expenses of operation, including the accrual of annual leave and overhead; and

(B) acquiring property and equipment under regulations the Secretary prescribes; and


(2) receipts from the sale or exchange of property or in payment for loss or damage of property held by the fund.


(e) The Secretary shall deposit at the end of each fiscal year, in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts, amounts accruing in the fund that the Secretary decides are in excess of the needs of the fund.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2425.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
328(a) 49:1657(r)(1) (1st sentence, 2d sentence words before last comma, last sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §9(r); added May 30, 1980, Pub. L. 96–254, §207, 94 Stat. 413.
328(b) 49:1657(r)(1) (2d sentence words after last comma), (2)(B) (words after last comma).
328(c) 49:1657(r)(2)(A), (B) (words before last comma), (C).
328(d) 49:1657(r)(3).
328(e) 49:1657(r)(4).

In subsection (a), the words “Department of Transportation has” are substituted for “Secretary is authorized to establish” because the working capital fund has been established. The text of 49:1657(r)(1) (2d sentence words before last comma) are omitted as executed. The words “The Transportation Systems Center is authorized to perform” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The word “approves” is substituted for “direct . . . and, when approved by the Secretary” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “or his designee” are omitted because of section 322(b) of the revised title.

In subsection (c)(3) and (4), the words “fair and” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(3), the words “by the Department and other agencies of the Government” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(4), the words “from other sources” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the words “or his designee” are omitted because of section 322(b) of the revised title.

In subsection (e), the words “The Secretary shall deposit” are substituted for “there shall be transferred” for clarity and consistency. The words “in the fund” are added for clarity.

§329. Transportation information

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may collect and collate transportation information the Secretary decides will contribute to the improvement of the transportation system of the United States. To the greatest practical extent, the Secretary shall use information available from departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government and other sources. To the extent practical, the Secretary shall make available to other Government departments, agencies, and instrumentalities and to the public the information collected under this subsection.

(b) The Secretary shall—

(1) collect and disseminate information on civil aeronautics (other than that collected and disseminated by the National Transportation Safety Board under chapter 11 of this title) including, at a minimum, information on (A) the origin and destination of passengers in interstate air transportation (as that term is used in part A of subtitle VII of this title), and (B) the number of passengers traveling by air between any two points in interstate air transportation; except that in no case shall the Secretary require an air carrier to provide information on the number of passengers or the amount of cargo on a specific flight if the flight and the flight number under which such flight operates are used solely for interstate air transportation and are not used for providing essential air transportation under subchapter II of chapter 417 of this title;

(2) study the possibilities of developing air commerce and the aeronautical industry; and

(3) exchange information on civil aeronautics with governments of foreign countries through appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government.


(c)(1) On the written request of a person, a State, territory, or possession of the United States, or a political subdivision of a State, territory, or possession, the Secretary may—

(A) make special statistical studies on foreign and domestic transportation;

(B) make special studies on other matters related to duties and powers of the Secretary;

(C) prepare, from records of the Department of Transportation, special statistical compilations; and

(D) provide transcripts of studies, tables, and other records of the Department.


(2) The person or governmental authority requesting information under paragraph (1) of this subsection must pay the actual cost of preparing the information. Payments shall be deposited in the Treasury in an account that the Secretary shall administer. The Secretary may use amounts in the account for the ordinary expenses incidental to getting and providing the information.

(d) To assist in carrying out duties and powers under part A of subtitle VII of this title, the Secretary of Transportation shall maintain separate cooperative agreements with the Secretary of Defense and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for the timely exchange of information on their programs, policies, and requirements directly related to carrying out that part.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2426; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 98–443, §5(a), Oct. 4, 1984, 98 Stat. 1705; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(7), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
329(a) 49:1634. Sept. 30, 1965, Pub. L. 89–220, §4, 79 Stat. 893.
  49:1655(a)(2)(A) (related to 49:1634). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §§6(a)(2)(A) (related to §4 of the Act of Sept. 30, 1965), 9(n), 80 Stat. 937, 946.
329(b) 49:1352. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §311, 72 Stat. 751.
329(c)(1) 49:1657(n)(1) (less last 17 words).
329(c)(2) 49:1657(n)(1) (last 17 words), (2).
329(d) 49:1343(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §302(d), 72 Stat. 746.

In subsection (a), the word “information” is substituted for “data, statistics, and other information” in 49:1634 to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “transportation system of the United States” are substituted for “national transportation system” in 49:1634 for clarity and consistency. The words “in carrying out this activity” before “the Secretary shall” in 49:1634 are omitted as surplus. The words “departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government” are substituted for “Federal agencies” in 49:1634 for clarity and consistency. The words “To the greatest extent practical” are substituted for “insofar as practicable” in 49:1634 for consistency. The words “The Secretary shall” are added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words “by the National Transportation Safety Board under title VII of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1441 et seq.) or the Civil Aeronautics Board under title IV of that Act (49 U.S.C. 1371 et seq.)” are substituted for “the Board under subchapter IV and VII of this chapter)” in 49:1352 because 49:1655(d) (1st sentence) transferred duties of the Civil Aeronautics Board under 49:ch. 20, subch. VII to the Secretary of Transportation to be carried out through the National Transportation Safety Board. The reference to the National Transportation Safety Board is to the independent Board established by section 303(a) of the Independent Safety Board Act of 1974 (Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2167) outside the Department of Transportation and not to the prior Board that was a part of the Department. The words “departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government” are substituted for “government channels” in 49:1352 for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “of the United States” are added for clarity and consistency. The words “of a State, territory, or possession” are substituted for “thereof” after “subdivision” for clarity. The words “related to the duties and powers of the Secretary” are substituted for “falling within the province of the Department” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “governmental authority requesting information under paragraph (1) of this subsection” are substituted for “body requesting it” for clarity and consistency. The word “separate” before “account” is omitted as unnecessary and for consistency. The words “must pay” are substituted for “upon the payment” after “other records” for clarity. The words “preparing the information” are substituted for “such work” after “actual cost of” for clarity. The word “payments” is substituted for “All moneys received by the Department in payment of the cost of work under paragraph (1)” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “in the Treasury” are added for clarity and consistency. The words “The Secretary may use amounts in the account” are substituted for “These moneys may be used, in the discretion of the Secretary” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “to getting and providing the information” are substituted for “to the work and/or to secure in connection therewith the special services of persons who are neither officers nor employees of the United States” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), the words “in carrying out duties and powers under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.)” are substituted for “in discharge of responsibilities under this chapter” in 49:1343(b) because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1) and for consistency. The words “directly related to carrying out that part” are substituted for “directly relating to such responsibilities” in 49:1343(b) because of the restatement of the source provisions.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 4(j)(7) amends 49:329 to omit references to overseas air transportation because there no longer is a distinction between interstate air transportation and overseas air transportation.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:329 to make conforming amendments necessary because of the codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 745).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(3)(A), substituted “(as that term is used in part A of subtitle VII of this title)” for “(as those terms are used in such Act)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(3)(B), substituted “that part” for “that Act”.

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(7)(A), substituted “chapter 11 of this title” for “title VII of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1441 et seq.)”, “in interstate air transportation” for “in interstate and overseas air transportation” in two places, “for interstate air transportation” for “for interstate or overseas air transportation”, and “subchapter II of chapter 417 of this title” for “section 419 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(7)(B), substituted “part A of subtitle VII of this title” for “the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 App. U.S.C. 1301 et seq.)”.

1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–443 struck out reference to information collected and disseminated by the Civil Aeronautics Board under section 1371 et seq. of this title, and added cls. (A) and (B).

Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “49 App. U.S.C.” for “49 U.S.C.”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “49 App. U.S.C.” for “49 U.S.C.”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 5(b) of Pub. L. 98–443 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1985.”

§330. Research contracts

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may make contracts with educational institutions, public and private agencies and organizations, and persons for scientific or technological research into a problem related to programs carried out by the Secretary. Before making a contract, the Secretary must require the institution, agency, organization, or person to show that it is able to carry out the contract.

(b) In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) give advice and assistance the Secretary believes will best carry out the duties and powers of the Secretary;

(2) participate in coordinating all research started under this section;

(3) indicate the lines of inquiry most important to the Secretary; and

(4) encourage and assist in establishing and maintaining cooperation by and between contractors and between them and other research organizations, the Department of Transportation, and other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government.


(c) The Secretary may distribute publications containing information the Secretary considers relevant to research carried out under this section.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2427.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
330(a) 49:1657(q)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(q)(1)–(3), 80 Stat. 947.
  49:1657(q)(2) (1st sentence).
330(b) 49:1657(q)(2) (less 1st sentence).
330(c) 49:1657(q)(3).

In subsection (a), the words “may make contracts” are substituted for “is authorized to enter into contracts” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the conduct of” before “scientific” are omitted as surplus. The words “a problem” are substituted for “any aspect of the problems” because of the style of the revised title. The words “carried out by the Secretary” are substituted for “of the Department which are authorized by statute” because the Secretary of Transportation is vested with all duties and powers. The words “Before making a contract” are substituted for “with which he expects to enter into contracts pursuant to this subsection” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “is able to carry out the contract” are substituted for “have the capability of doing effective work” for clarity.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “In carrying out this section” are added for clarity. In clause (1), the word “give” is substituted for “furnish” before “such advice” for consistency. The words “duties and powers of the Secretary” are substituted for “mission of the Department” for clarity and consistency. In clause (4), the word “contractors” is substituted for “the institutions, agencies, organizations, or persons” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government” are substituted for “Federal agencies” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (c), the words “considers relevant” are substituted for “as he deems pertinent” as more precise. The words “from time to time” before “disseminate” and “in the form of reports or . . . to public or private agencies or organizations, or individuals” before “such information” are omitted as unnecessary.

Conflicts of Interest

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §101(g), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1752, provided that:

“(1) Compliance with regulation.—In awarding any contract for research, the Secretary shall comply with section 1252.209–70 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section [Dec. 9, 1999]. The Secretary shall require that the text of such section be included in any request for proposal and contract for research made by the Secretary.

“(2) Study.—

“(A) In general.—The Secretary shall conduct a study to determine whether or not compliance with the section referred to in paragraph (1) is sufficient to avoid conflicts of interest in contracts for research awarded by the Secretary and to evaluate whether or not compliance with such section unreasonably delays or burdens the awarding of such contracts.

“(B) Consultation.—In conducting the study under this paragraph, the Secretary shall consult, as appropriate, with the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation, the Comptroller General, the heads of other Federal agencies, research organizations, industry representatives, employee organizations, safety organizations, and other entities.

“(C) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 9, 1999], the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the results of the study conducted under this paragraph.”

§331. Service, supplies, and facilities at remote places

(a) When necessary and not otherwise available, the Secretary of Transportation may provide for, construct, or maintain the following for officers and employees of the Department of Transportation and their dependents stationed in remote places:

(1) emergency medical services and supplies.

(2) food and other subsistence supplies.

(3) messing facilities.

(4) motion picture equipment and film for recreation and training.

(5) living and working quarters and facilities.

(6) reimbursement for food, clothing, medicine, and other supplies provided by an officer or employee in an emergency for the temporary relief of individuals in distress.


(b) The Secretary shall prescribe reasonable charges for medical treatment provided under subsection (a)(1) of this section and for supplies and services provided under subsection (a)(2) and (3) of this section. Amounts received under this subsection shall be credited to the appropriation from which the expenditure was made.

(c) When appropriations for a fiscal year for aviation duties and powers have not been made before June 1 immediately before the beginning of the fiscal year, the Secretary may designate an officer, and authorize that officer, to incur obligations to buy and transport supplies to carry out those duties and powers at installations outside the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia. The amount obligated under this subsection in a fiscal year may be not more than 75 percent of the amount available for buying and transporting supplies to those installations for the then current fiscal year. Payment of obligations under this subsection shall be made from appropriations for the next fiscal year when available.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2427; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(8), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1367.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
331(a) 49:1657(l) (less last sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(l), 80 Stat. 946.
331(b) 49:1657(l) (last sentence).
331(c) 49:1344(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §303(b), 72 Stat. 748.

In subsection (a), the text of 49:1657(l) (words before 3d comma) is omitted as unnecessary. The words “of the Department of Transportation” are added for clarity. In clause (6), the words “individuals in distress” are substituted for “distressed persons” as being more precise.

In subsection (b), the words “The Secretary shall prescribe reasonable charges” are substituted for “shall be at prices reflecting reasonable value as determined by the Secretary” for clarity and to eliminate surplus words. The words “services, supplies, and facilities provided under subsection (a)(1), (2), and (3) of this section” are substituted for “The furnishing of medical treatment under paragraph (1) and the furnishing of services and supplies under paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection” to eliminate surplus words. The words “Amounts received under this subsection” are substituted for “and the proceeds therefrom” for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words “aviation duties and powers” are substituted for “the Administration” in 49:1344(b) because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary of Transportation under 49:1655(c)(1). The words “before June 1” are substituted for “prior to the first day of March” in 49:1344(b) to conform to the change in the start of the fiscal year from July 1 to October 1 under 31:1020(a)(2). The words “and materials necessary” after “supplies” in 49:1344(b) are omitted as surplus. The words “to carry out those duties and powers” are substituted for “necessary to the proper execution of the Secretary of Transportation's functions” in 49:1344(b) for clarity and consistency. The words “the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia” are substituted for “the continental United States” in 49:1344(b) for clarity. The words “including those in Alaska” before “in amounts” in 49:1344(b) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the section. The words “The amount obligated under this subsection in a fiscal year” in 49:1344(b) are added for clarity. The words “available for buying and transporting supplies to those installations” are substituted for “made available for such purposes” in 49:1344(b) for clarity. The word “succeeding” after “next” in 49:1344(b) is omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 4(j)(8) amends 49:331(b) to follow more closely the language in former 49:1657(l) on which it was based.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “medical treatment provided under subsection (a)(1) of this section and for supplies and services provided under subsection (a)(2) and (3) of this section” for “services, supplies, and facilities provided under subsection (a)(1), (2), and (3) of this section”.

§332. Minority Resource Center

(a) In this section, “minority” includes women.

(b) The Department of Transportation has a Minority Resource Center. The Center may—

(1) include a national information clearinghouse for minority entrepreneurs and businesses to disseminate information to them on business opportunities related to the maintenance, rehabilitation, restructuring, improvement, and revitalization of the railroads of the United States;

(2) carry out market research, planning, economic and business analyses, and feasibility studies to identify those business opportunities;

(3) assist minority entrepreneurs and businesses in obtaining investment capital and debt financing;

(4) design and carry out programs to encourage, promote, and assist minority entrepreneurs and businesses in getting contracts, subcontracts, and projects related to those business opportunities;

(5) develop support mechanisms (including venture capital, surety and bonding organizations, and management and technical services) that will enable minority entrepreneurs and businesses to take advantage of those business opportunities;

(6) participate in, and cooperate with, United States Government programs and other programs designed to provide financial, management, and other forms of support and assistance to minority entrepreneurs and businesses; and

(7) make arrangements to carry out this section.


(c) The Center has an advisory committee of 5 individuals appointed by the Secretary of Transportation. The Secretary shall make the appointments from lists of qualified individuals recommended by minority-dominated trade associations in the minority business community. Each of those trade associations may submit a list of not more than 3 qualified individuals.

(d) The United States Railway Association, the Consolidated Rail Corporation, and the Secretary shall provide the Center with relevant information (including procurement schedules, bids, and specifications on particular maintenance, rehabilitation, restructuring, improvement, and revitalization projects) the Center requests in carrying out this section.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2428.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
332(a) 49:1657a(e). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §11; added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §906(2), 90 Stat. 149.
332(b) 49:1657a(a), (c).
332(c) 49:1657a(b).
332(d) 49:1657a(d).

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the word “has” is substituted for “The Secretary shall, within 180 days after February 5, 1976, establish” because the time for establishing the Center has expired and the Center has been established. The words “The Department of Transportation” are added because of the restatement of the section. The words “(hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Center’)” after “Minority Resource Center” are omitted because of the style of the revised title.

In subsection (b)(1), the word “include” is substituted for “establish and maintain”, and the words “to disseminate information” are substituted for “and disseminate information from”, for clarity. The words “to them . . . related to” are substituted for “to such entrepreneurs and businesses . . . with respect to” to omit unnecessary words. The words “for purposes of furnishing . . . information” before “with respect to” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “those business opportunities” are substituted for “such opportunities” after “identify” for clarity.

In subsection (b)(4), the words “those business opportunities” are substituted for “the maintenance, rehabilitation, restructuring, improvement, and revitalization of the Nation's railroads” to eliminate surplus words.

In subsection (b)(5), the words “related to the maintenance, rehabilitation, restructuring, improvement, and revitalization of the nation's railroads” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(7), the words “make arrangements” are substituted for “enter into such contracts, cooperative agreements, or other transactions” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “as may be necessary” after “transactions” are omitted as surplus. The words “to carry out this section” are substituted for “in the conduct of its functions and duties” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (c), the words “The Secretary shall make the appointments” and the words “Each of those trade associations may submit a list of not more than” are added for clarity and because of the restatement of the section.

In subsection (d), the words “in carrying out this section” are substituted for “in connection with the performance of its functions” for clarity and consistency.

Abolition of United States Railway Association and Transfer of Functions and Securities

The United States Railway Association abolished effective Apr. 1, 1987, all powers, duties, rights, and obligations of Association relating to Consolidated Rail Corporation under the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 701 et seq.) transferred to Secretary of Transportation on Jan. 1, 1987, and any securities of Corporation held by Association transferred to Secretary of Transportation on Oct. 21, 1986, see section 1341 of Title 45, Railroads.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 306 of this title.

§333. Responsibility for rail transportation unification and coordination projects

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may develop and make available to interested persons any plans, proposals, and recommendations for mergers, consolidations, reorganizations, and other unification or coordination projects for rail transportation (including arrangements for joint use of tracks and other facilities and acquisition or sale of assets) that the Secretary believes will result in a rail system that is more efficient and consistent with the public interest.

(b) To achieve a more efficient, economical, and viable rail system in the private sector, the Secretary, when requested by a rail carrier and under this section, may assist in planning, negotiating, and carrying out a unification or coordination of operations and facilities of at least 2 rail carriers.

(c)(1) The Secretary may conduct studies to determine the potential cost savings and possible improvements in the quality of rail transportation that are likely to result from unification or coordination of at least 2 rail carriers, through—

(A) elimination of duplicating or overlapping operations and facilities;

(B) reducing switching operations;

(C) using the shortest or more efficient and economical routes;

(D) exchanging trackage rights;

(E) combining trackage and terminal or other facilities;

(F) upgrading tracks and other facilities used by at least 2 rail carriers;

(G) reducing administrative and other expenses; and

(H) other measures likely to reduce costs and improve rail transportation.


(2) When the Secretary requests information for a study under this section, a rail carrier shall provide the information requested. In carrying out this section, the Secretary may designate an officer or employee to get from a rail carrier information on the kind, quality, origin, destination, consignor, consignee, and routing of property. This information may be obtained without the consent of the consignor or consignee notwithstanding section 11904 of this title. When appropriate, the designated officer or employee has the powers described in section 203(c) of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 to carry out this section, but a subpena must be issued under the signature of the Secretary.

(d)(1) When requested by a rail carrier, the Secretary may hold conferences on and mediate disputes resulting from a proposed unification or coordination project. The Secretary may invite to a conference—

(A) officers and directors of an affected rail carrier;

(B) representatives of rail carrier employees who may be affected;

(C) representatives of the Interstate Commerce Commission;

(D) State and local government officials, shippers, and consumer representatives; and

(E) representatives of the Federal Trade Commission and the Attorney General.


(2) A person attending or represented at a conference on a proposed unification or coordination project is not liable under the antitrust laws of the United States for any discussion at the conference and for any agreements reached at the conference, that are entered into with the approval of the Secretary to achieve or determine a plan of action to carry out the unification or coordination project.

(e) When the approval of a proposal submitted by a rail carrier for a merger or other action is subject to the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission under section 11323(a) of this title, the Secretary may study the proposal to decide whether it satisfies section 11324(b) of this title. When the proposal is the subject of an application and proceeding before the Commission, the Secretary may appear in any proceeding related to the application.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2429; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(b), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 946.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
333(a) 49:1654(a). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §5(a)–(e); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §401, 90 Stat. 61.
333(b) 49:1654(b).
333(c) 49:1654(c).
333(d) 49:1654(d).
333(e) 49:1654(e).

In the section, the word “transportation” is substituted for “services” for consistency.

In subsection (a), the words “feasible” and “but not limited to” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “In order” are omitted as surplus. The words “at least 2” are substituted for “two or more” for consistency.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “as are deemed” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “and the study described in section 901 of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976” and “or such section 901” are omitted as executed. The word “nature” is omitted as covered by “kind”. The word “When” is substituted for “to the extent” for consistency. The word “necessary” is omitted as being included in “appropriate”. A cross-reference to section 203(c) of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 is included even though the law is unclear because section 1149 of the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Pub. L. 97–35, 95 Stat. 675) amended section 203 to repeal the powers referred to in the source provisions. No position is taken as to whether the powers described in section 203(c) are still in existence.

In subsection (d)(1)(A), the word “appropriate” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1)(C), the words “representatives of” are added for consistency in the section.

In subsection (e), the words “in his judgment” are omitted as unnecessary and covered by “decide”. The word “satisfies” is substituted for “is in accordance with the standards set forth in” to eliminate unnecessary words.

References in Text

Section 203 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), which is classified to section 713 of Title 45, Railroads, was amended generally by Pub. L. 97–35, title XI, §1149, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 675, and as so amended does not contain a subsec. (c). For further details, see the fifth par. of Historical and Revision Notes above.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–88, §308(b)(1), substituted “11904” for “11910(a)(1)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–88, §308(b)(2), substituted “11323(a)” for “11343(a)” and “11324(b)” for “11344(b)”.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 701 of this title.

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission and Transfer of Functions

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 702 of this title, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 306, 11324 of this title; title 45 section 903.

[§§334, 335. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(9)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1367]

Section 334, Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2430; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 100–223, title III, §304, Dec. 30, 1987, 101 Stat. 1525; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7207(c)(3), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4428, related to a limit on aviation charges. See section 45301 of this title.

Section 335, Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2430, authorized appropriations to the Secretary of Transportation for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984.

§336. Civil penalty procedures

(a) After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, a person found by the Secretary of Transportation to have violated a provision of law that the Secretary carries out through the Maritime Administrator or the Commandant of the Coast Guard or a regulation prescribed under that law by the Secretary for which a civil penalty is provided, is liable to the United States Government for the civil penalty provided. The amount of the civil penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary by written notice. In determining the amount of the penalty, the Secretary shall consider the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and other matters that justice requires.

(b) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without consideration, a civil penalty until the assessment is referred to the Attorney General.

(c) If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become final, the Secretary may refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection in an appropriate district court of the United States.

(d) The Secretary may refund or remit a civil penalty collected under this section if—

(1) application has been made for refund or remission of the penalty within one year from the date of payment; and

(2) the Secretary finds that the penalty was unlawfully, improperly, or excessively imposed.

(Added Pub. L. 101–225, title III, §305(1), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1924.)

§337. Budget request for the Director of Intelligence and Security

The annual budget the Secretary of Transportation submits shall include a specific request for the Office of the Director of Intelligence and Security. In deciding on the budget request for the Office, the Secretary shall consider recommendations in the annual report submitted under section 44938(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(10)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1367.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
337 49 App.:1652b (note). Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–604, §102(d), 104 Stat. 3069.

The words “the Secretary of Transportation submits” are substituted for “submission for the Department of Transportation”, and the words “budget request for the Office” are substituted for “budget request for the Director”, for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

SUBCHAPTER III—MISCELLANEOUS

§351. Judicial review of actions in carrying out certain transferred duties and powers

(a) Judicial Review.—An action of the Secretary of Transportation in carrying out a duty or power transferred under the Department of Transportation Act (Public Law 89–670, 80 Stat. 931), or an action of the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, or the Federal Aviation Administration in carrying out a duty or power specifically assigned to the Administrator by that Act, may be reviewed judicially to the same extent and in the same way as if the action had been an action by the department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government carrying out the duty or power immediately before the transfer or assignment.

(b) Application of Procedural Requirements.—A statutory requirement related to notice, an opportunity for a hearing, action on the record, or administrative review that applied to a duty or power transferred by the Act applies to the Secretary or Administrator when carrying out the duty or power.

(c) Nonapplication.—This section does not apply to a duty or power transferred from the Interstate Commerce Commission to the Secretary under section 6(e)(1)–(4) and (6)(A) of the Act.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(10)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1367.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
351 49 App.:1653(c). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(c), 80 Stat. 933.

In this subchapter, the words “duty or power” are substituted for “functions, powers, and duties” for clarity and consistency. The words “department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government” are substituted for “department or agency” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the word “orders” is omitted as being included in “action”.

References in Text

The Department of Transportation Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is Pub. L. 89–670, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 931, as amended, which was classified principally to sections 1651 to 1660 of former Title 49, Transportation. The Act was repealed and the provisions thereof reenacted in Title 49, Transportation, by Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413, and Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745. The Act was also repealed by Pub. L. 104–287, §7(5), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400. For disposition of sections of former Title 49, see Table at the beginning of Title 49.

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission and Transfer of Functions

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 702 of this title, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title.

§352. Authority to carry out certain transferred duties and powers

In carrying out a duty or power transferred under the Department of Transportation Act (Public Law 89–670, 80 Stat. 931), the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrators of the Federal Railroad Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the Federal Aviation Administration have the same authority that was vested in the department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government carrying out the duty or power immediately before the transfer. An action of the Secretary or Administrator in carrying out the duty or power has the same effect as when carried out by the department, agency, or instrumentality.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(10)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1368.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
352 49 App.:1653(d). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(d), 80 Stat. 934.

The words “force and” are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The Department of Transportation Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 89–670, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 931, as amended, which was classified principally to sections 1651 to 1660 of former Title 49, Transportation. The Act was repealed and the provisions thereof reenacted in Title 49, Transportation, by Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413, and Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745. The Act was also repealed by Pub. L. 104–287, §7(5), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400. For disposition of sections of former Title 49, see Table at the beginning of Title 49.

§353. Toxicological testing of officers and employees

(a) Collecting Specimens.—When the Secretary of Transportation or the head of a component of the Department of Transportation conducts post-accident or post-incident toxicological testing of an officer or employee of the Department, the Secretary or head shall collect the specimen from the officer or employee as soon as practicable after the accident or incident. The Secretary or head shall try to collect the specimen not later than 4 hours after the accident or incident.

(b) Reports.—The head of each component shall submit a report to the Secretary on the circumstances about the amount of time required to collect the specimen for a toxicological test conducted on an officer or employee who is reasonably associated with the circumstances of an accident or incident under the investigative jurisdiction of the National Transportation Safety Board.

(c) Noncompliance Not a Defense.—An officer or employee required to submit to toxicological testing may not assert failure to comply with this section as a claim, cause of action, or defense in an administrative or judicial proceeding.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(10)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1368.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
353 49 App.:1657–1. Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §5, 104 Stat. 4656.

In this section, the words “officer or employee” are substituted for “employee” for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the words “Secretary of Transportation or the head of a component of the Department of Transportation” are substituted for “Department of Transportation, including any of its agencies” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (b), the word “Secretary” is substituted for “Office of the Secretary of Transportation” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “within that agency” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c), the words “An officer or employee required to submit to toxicological testing may not assert” are substituted for “may not be asserted” for clarity.

CHAPTER 5—SPECIAL AUTHORITY

SUBCHAPTER I—POWERS

Sec.
501.
Definitions and application.
502.
General authority.
503.
Service of notice and process on certain motor carriers of migrant workers and on motor private carriers.
504.
Reports and records.
505.
Arrangements and public records.
506.
Authority to investigate.
507.
Enforcement.
508.
Safety performance history of new drivers; limitation on liability.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—PENALTIES

521.
Civil penalties.
522.
Reporting and record keeping violations.
523.
Unlawful disclosure of information.
524.
Evasion of regulation of motor carriers.
525.
Disobedience to subpenas.
526.
General criminal penalty when specific penalty not provided.

        

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4014(a)(2), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 411, added item 508.

1997—Pub. L. 105–102, §2(1), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2204, struck out “DUTIES AND” before “POWERS” in item for heading of subchapter I.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 113, 13905, 31148 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER I—POWERS

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–102, §2(2), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2204, struck out “AND” before “POWERS”.

1995—Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(c)(1), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947, struck out “DUTIES” before “AND”.

§501. Definitions and application

(a) In this chapter—

(1) the definitions in sections 10102 and 13102 of this title apply.

(2) “migrant worker” has the same meaning given that term in section 31501 of this title.

(3) “motor carrier of migrant workers” means a motor carrier of migrant workers subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Transportation under section 31502(c) of this title.


(b) Application.—This chapter only applies in carrying out sections 20302(a)(1)(B) and (C), (2), and (3), (c), and (d)(1) and 20303 and chapters 205 (except section 20504(b)), 211, 213 (in carrying out those sections and chapters), and 315 of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2431; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 102–548, §2(c), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3648; Pub. L. 103–272, §§4(j)(11)(A), 5(m)(9), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1368, 1376; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(c)(2), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
501(a) (no source).
501(b) 45:15. Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §6, 36 Stat. 299.
  49:26(g). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(g); added Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 837; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919.
  49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.

In the chapter, the source provisions are those in effect on March 31, 1967, the day before the effective date of the Department of Transportation Act (Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931), because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the Secretary of Transportation the same powers enumerated in 49:1655(f)(2) that the Interstate Commerce Commission had before certain duties and powers under 49:1655(e) were transferred on April 1, 1967, from the Commission to the Secretary. All references to brokers in the source provisions are omitted as not being applicable to the duties and powers transferred to the Secretary of Transportation.

Subsection (a) is included to ensure that the identical definitions that are relevant are used without repeating them. The source provisions for the definitions are found in the revision notes for sections 3101, 3102(c), and 10102 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), the provisions of law to which the chapter applies are only certain laws listed in 49:1655(e). Those laws include the source provisions restated in chapter 31 of the revised title and 45:4, 5, 6 (in carrying out 45:4 and 5), 11, 12, 13 (proviso), 13 (less proviso in carrying out 45:11, 12, and 13 (proviso)), and 61–64b, and 49:26(a)–(f) (words before last semicolon) and (h). The administrative powers of the Secretary under the chapter are based on the administrative powers of 49:1655(f)(2). That provision lists administrative powers the Commission had under the Interstate Commerce Act (ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379) to carry out the Act, and certain other laws authorized the Commission to use its powers under the Act to carry out those other laws. The administrative powers listed in 49:1655(f)(2) and codified in the chapter therefore apply only to a law listed in 49:1655(e) that was a part of the Interstate Commerce Act or to which the powers of the Commission under the Act were applied. The text of 45:61–64b is included because section 4 of the Act of March 4, 1907 (ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1417), stated, “It shall be the duty of the Interstate Commerce Commission to execute and enforce the provisions of this Act, and all powers granted to the Interstate Commerce Commission are hereby extended to it in the execution of this Act”. The transfer to the Secretary was executed on March 31, 1967. The Act of March 4, 1907, was restated by the Act of December 26, 1969 (Pub. L. 91–169, 83 Stat. 463); section 4 was not included in the restatement. However, repeal by implication is not favored and the transfer was completed on March 31, 1967. Therefore, the text of 45:61–64b is included within the scope of the chapter. The text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 4(j)(11) makes conforming amendments to 49:ch. 5 to reflect the restatement of 49:508 and related provisions in chapter 59 of the revised title.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted “sections 10102 and 13102” for “section 10102”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(9)(A), substituted “section 31501” for “section 3101”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(9)(B), substituted “section 31502(c)” for “section 3102(c)”.

Subsec. (a)(4) to (9). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(11)(A), struck out pars. (4) to (9) which defined “beneficial owner”, “carrier”, “container”, “initial carrier”, “intermodal transportation”, and “trailer”, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(9)(C), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “This chapter only applies in carrying out—

“(1) chapter 31 of this title; and

“(2) other duties and powers transferred to the Secretary under section 6(e) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 App. U.S.C. 1655(e)) and vested in the Interstate Commerce Commission before October 15, 1966.”

1992—Subsec. (a)(4) to (9). Pub. L. 102–548 added pars. (4) to (9).

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “49 App. U.S.C.” for “49 U.S.C.”.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 701 of this title.

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 102–548 provided that: “This Act [enacting section 508 of this title, amending this section and section 521 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 508 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Intermodal Safe Container Transportation Act of 1992’.”

§502. General authority

(a) The Secretary of Transportation shall carry out this chapter.

(b) The Secretary may—

(1) inquire into and report on the management of the business of rail carriers and motor carriers;

(2) inquire into and report on the management of the business of a person controlling, controlled by, or under common control with those carriers to the extent that the business of the person is related to the management of the business of that carrier; and

(3) obtain from those carriers and persons information the Secretary determines to be necessary.


(c) In carrying out this chapter as it applies to motor carriers, motor carriers of migrant workers, and motor private carriers, the Secretary may—

(1) confer and hold joint hearings with State authorities;

(2) cooperate with and use the services, records, and facilities of State authorities; and

(3) make cooperative agreements with a State to enforce the safety laws and regulations of a State and the United States related to highway transportation.


(d) The Secretary may subpena witnesses and records related to a proceeding or investigation under this chapter from a place in the United States to the designated place of the proceeding or investigation. If a witness disobeys a subpena, the Secretary, or a party to a proceeding or investigation before the Secretary, may petition the district court for the judicial district in which the proceeding or investigation is conducted to enforce the subpena. The court may punish a refusal to obey an order of the court to comply with a subpena as a contempt of court.

(e)(1) In a proceeding or investigation, the Secretary may take testimony of a witness by deposition and may order the witness to produce records. A party to a proceeding or investigation pending before the Secretary may take the testimony of a witness by deposition and may require the witness to produce records at any time after a proceeding or investigation is at issue on petition and answer. If a witness fails to be deposed or to produce records under this subsection, the Secretary may subpena the witness to take a deposition, produce the records, or both.

(2) A deposition may be taken before a judge of a court of the United States, a United States magistrate judge, a clerk of a district court, or a chancellor, justice, or judge of a supreme or superior court, mayor or chief magistrate of a city, judge of a county court, or court of common pleas of any State, or a notary public who is not counsel or attorney of a party or interested in the proceeding or investigation.

(3) Before taking a deposition, reasonable notice must be given in writing by the party or the attorney of that party proposing to take a deposition to the opposing party or the attorney of record of that party, whoever is nearest. The notice shall state the name of the witness and the time and place of taking the deposition.

(4) The testimony of a person deposed under this subsection shall be taken under oath. The person taking the deposition shall prepare, or cause to be prepared, a transcript of the testimony taken. The transcript shall be subscribed by the deponent.

(5) The testimony of a witness who is in a foreign country may be taken by deposition before an officer or person designated by the Secretary or agreed on by the parties by written stipulation filed with the Secretary. The deposition shall be filed with the Secretary promptly.

(f) Each witness summoned before the Secretary or whose deposition is taken under this section and the individual taking the deposition are entitled to the same fees and mileage paid for those services in the courts of the United States.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2431; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(12), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1368.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
502 49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.
502(c)–(f) 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 305”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 205”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 305”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 205”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 50249 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a), (b) 12(1)(a) (1st sentence, 2d sentence, and last sentence words before 1st semicolon). 10321
  304(a) (matter before (1)), (6), (7) (less words after semicolon). 10321
(c) 305(f). 11502
(d) 12(1)(a) (last sentence words after last semicolon), (2), (3). 10321
  305(d) (related to Commission subpena power). 10321
(e)(1)–(3) 12(4). 10321
  305(d) (related to depositions taken by Commission). 10321
(e)(4) and (5) 12(5), (6). 10321
  305(d) (related to depositions taken by Commission). 10321
(f) 12(7). 10321
  18(1) (last sentence). 10321
  305(d) (related to depositions taken by Commission). 10321

See the revision notes for the revised sections for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

The text of 49:305(a)–(c), (e), and (g)–(j) is not included for motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because those provisions, while included in the enumeration in 49:304(a)(3) and (3a), are not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii).

In subsection (b), the text of 49:12(1)(a) (2d sentence words after semicolon) is omitted as unnecessary because the Secretary of Transportation already has authority under chapter 3 of the revised title to make recommendations to Congress.

In subsections (c)–(f), the text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (c), the words “economic and” are omitted as not being transferred to the Secretary. The text of 49:305(f) (last sentence) is omitted as not applicable to this chapter.

In subsection (d), the reference to joint boards in 49:305(d) is omitted as not applicable to this chapter because 49:305(a) (establishing joint boards) is not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii).

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 4(j)(12) amends 49:502(e)(2) and 10321(d)(3) to reflect the change in the name of United States magistrates to United States magistrate judges made by section 321 of the Judicial Improvements Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–650, 104 Stat. 5117).

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 103–272 inserted “judge” after “United States magistrate”.

§503. Service of notice and process on certain motor carriers of migrant workers and on motor private carriers

(a) Each motor carrier of migrant workers (except a motor contract carrier) and each motor private carrier shall designate an agent by name and post office address on whom service of notices in a proceeding before, and actions of, the Secretary of Transportation may be made. The designation shall be in writing and filed with the Secretary. The carrier also shall file the designation with the authority of each State in which it operates having jurisdiction to regulate transportation by motor vehicle in intrastate commerce on the highways of that State. The designation may be changed at any time in the same manner as originally made.

(b) A notice of the Secretary to a carrier under this section is served personally or by mail on that carrier or its designated agent. Service by mail on the designated agent is made at the address filed for the agent. When notice is given by mail, the date of mailing is considered to be the time when the notice is served. If the carrier does not have a designated agent, service may be made by posting a copy of the notice in the office of the secretary or clerk of the authority having jurisdiction to regulate transportation by motor vehicle in intrastate commerce on the highways of the State in which the carrier maintains headquarters and with the Secretary.

(c) Each of those carriers, including such a carrier operating in the United States while providing transportation between places in a foreign country or between a place in one foreign country and a place in another foreign country, shall designate an agent in each State in which it operates by name and post office address on whom process issued by a court with subject matter jurisdiction may be served in an action brought against that carrier. The designation shall be in writing and filed with the Secretary and with the authority of each State in which the carrier operates having jurisdiction to regulate transportation by motor vehicle in intrastate commerce on the highways of that State. If a designation under this subsection is not made, service may be made on any agent of the carrier in that State. The designation may be changed at any time in the same manner as originally made.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2432.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
503 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 321”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 221”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 321”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 221”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.
  49:1655(e)(6)(D) (related to “Sec. 321(a), (c)”). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(6)(D) (related to “Sec. 221(a), (c)”), 80 Stat. 940.

The section is included because 49:1655(e)(6)(D) transferred to the Secretary of Transportation all functions, powers, and duties of the Interstate Commerce Commission under 49:321(a) and (c) to the extent those subsections relate to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers. The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 50349 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a), (b) 321(a). 10329
(c) 321(c). 10330

See the revision notes for the revised sections for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

In the section, the words “motor carriers” are omitted because 49:1655(e)(6)(D) applies 49:321(a) and (c) only to motor carriers of migrant workers, other than motor contract carriers, and to motor private carriers, and 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii) contains no reference to 49:321. The text of 49:321(b) and (d) is not included because those provisions, while included in the enumeration in 49:304(a)(3) and (3a), are not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(e)(6)(D).

In subsection (b), the text of 49:321(a) (less 1st–5th sentences) is omitted as not applicable to this chapter.

§504. Reports and records

(a) In this section—

(1) “association” means an organization maintained by or in the interest of a group of rail carriers, motor carriers, motor carriers of migrant workers, or motor private carriers that performs a service, or engages in activities, related to transportation of that carrier.

(2) “carrier” means a motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, motor private carrier, and rail carrier.

(3) “lessor” means a person owning a railroad that is leased to and operated by a rail carrier, and a person leasing a right to operate as a motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier to another.

(4) “lessor” and “carrier” include a receiver or trustee of that lessor or carrier, respectively.


(b)(1) The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe the form of records required to be prepared or compiled under this section by—

(A) carriers and lessors; and

(B) a person furnishing cars or protective service against heat or cold to or for a rail carrier.


(2) The Secretary may require—

(A) carriers, lessors, associations, or classes of them as the Secretary may prescribe, to file annual, periodic, and special reports with the Secretary containing answers to questions asked by the Secretary; and

(B) a person furnishing cars or protective service against heat or cold to a rail carrier to file reports with the Secretary containing answers to questions about those cars or service.


(c) The Secretary, or an employee (and, in the case of a motor carrier, a contractor) designated by the Secretary, may on demand and display of proper credentials—

(1) inspect the equipment of a carrier or lessor; and

(2) inspect and copy any record of—

(A) a carrier, lessor, or association;

(B) a person controlling, controlled by, or under common control with a carrier, if the Secretary considers inspection relevant to that person's relation to, or transaction with, that carrier; and

(C) a person furnishing cars or protective service against heat or cold to or for a rail carrier if the Secretary prescribed the form of that record.


(d) The Secretary may prescribe the time period during which records must be preserved by a carrier, lessor, and person furnishing cars or protective service.

(e)(1) An annual report shall contain an account, in as much detail as the Secretary may require, of the affairs of a carrier, lessor, or association for the 12-month period ending on the 31st day of December of each year. The annual report shall be filed with the Secretary by the end of the 3d month after the end of the year for which the report is made unless the Secretary extends the filing date or changes the period covered by the report.

(2) The annual report and, if the Secretary requires, any other report made under this section shall be made under oath.

(f) No part of a report of an accident occurring in operations of a motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier and required by the Secretary, and no part of a report of an investigation of the accident made by the Secretary, may be admitted into evidence or used in a civil action for damages related to a matter mentioned in the report or investigation.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2433; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4006(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 401.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
504 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 320(a) (1st, 2d sentences), (b)–(g)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 220(a) (1st, 2d sentences), (b)–(g)”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 320(a) (1st, 2d sentences), (b)–(g)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 220(a) (1st, 2d sentences), (b)–(g)”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.
  49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.
504(f) 49:320(f). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §220(f); added Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §24, 54 Stat. 926.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 50449 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a)(1), (3), and (4) 20(8). 3501, 11141
  320(e). 11141
(a)(2) (no source).
(b)(1) 20(5) (1st sentence), (6) (2d sentence, 1st cl.), (7)(b) (proviso). 11144
  320(d) (1st sentence). 11144
(b)(2) 20(1) (1st sentence less manner and form of reports), (6) (2d sentence, 2d cl.). 11145
  320(a) (1st sentence). 11145
(c) 20(5) (less 1st sentence), (6) (less 2d sentence). 11144
  320(d) (3d and 4th sentences). 11144
(d) 20(7)(b) (proviso). 11144
  320(d) (less 1st, 3d, and 4th sentences). 11144
(e) 20(1) (1st sentence related to manner and form of reports). 11145
  320(a) (2d sentence), (b). 11145

See the revision notes for the revised sections for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

The provisions of 49:320(c) are not included for motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because those provisions, while included in the enumeration in 49:304(a)(3) and (3a), are not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii).

In the section, the text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed. The text of 49:320(b) (related to 13-period accounting year) and (g) is not included because it was enacted after the effective date of the transfer authority under 49:1655.

In subsection (a), references to “water line” and “pipe line” are omitted as not applicable to this chapter. Clause (2) is added to provide a simple phrase to refer to all types of carriers to which the section applies.

In subsection (f), the words “the course of the” are omitted as surplus. The words “civil action” are substituted for “suit or action” because of rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–178 inserted “(and, in the case of a motor carrier, a contractor)” after “employee” in introductory provisions.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 505, 521, 522, 523, 14303 of this title.

§505. Arrangements and public records

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may require a motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier to file a copy of each arrangement related to a matter under this chapter that it has with another person. The Secretary may disclose the existence or contents of an arrangement between a motor contract carrier and a shipper filed under this section only if the disclosure is consistent with the public interest and is made as part of the record in a formal proceeding.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section, all arrangements and statistics, tables, and figures contained in reports filed with the Secretary by a motor carrier under this chapter are public records. Such a public record, or a copy or extract of it, certified by the Secretary under seal is competent evidence in a proceeding of the Secretary, and, except as provided in section 504(f) of this title, in a judicial proceeding.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2434.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
505 49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.
505(a) 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 320(a) (less 1st, 2d sentences)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 220(a) (less 1st, 2d sentences)”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 320(a) (less 1st, 2d sentences)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 220(a) (less 1st, 2d sentences)”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 50549 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a) 320(a) (less 1st, 2d sentences). 10764
(b) 16(13). 10303
  304(d) (related to administrative matters). 10303

See the revision notes for the revised sections for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

In subsection (a), the text of 49:320(a) (proviso) is not included for motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because that provision, while included in the enumeration in 49:304(a)(3) and (3a), is not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii). The text of 40:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed. The words “also” and “with it” are omitted as surplus. The words “contract, agreement, or” are omitted as covered by “arrangement”. The words “carrier or” are omitted as covered by “person”. The words “related to a matter under this chapter” are substituted for “in relation to any traffic affected by the provisions of this chapter” for clarity because of section 501 of the revised title.

Subsection (b) does not apply to reports made to the Secretary by a rail carrier because 49:16(13) is not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii). The subsection does not apply to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because 49:304(d) only applies to motor carriers and 49:304(a)(3) and (3a) do not apply 49:304(d) to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers. References to schedules, classifications, and tariffs are omitted as not applicable to this chapter. The words “Except as provided in subsection (a) of this section” are added for clarity. The words “except as provided in section 504(f) of this title” are added for clarity and consistency because of the restatement of the chapter.

§506. Authority to investigate

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may begin an investigation under this chapter on the initiative of the Secretary or on complaint. If the Secretary finds that a rail carrier, motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier is violating this chapter, the Secretary shall take appropriate action to compel compliance with this chapter. The Secretary may take action only after giving the carrier notice of the investigation and an opportunity for a proceeding.

(b) A person, including a governmental authority, may file with the Secretary a complaint about a violation of this chapter by a carrier referred to in subsection (a) of this section. The complaint must state the facts that are the subject of the violation. The Secretary may dismiss a complaint the Secretary determines does not state reasonable grounds for investigation and action. However, the Secretary may not dismiss a complaint made against a rail carrier because of the absence of direct damage to the complainant.

(c) The Secretary shall make a written report of each proceeding involving a rail carrier or motor carrier conducted and furnish a copy to each party to that proceeding. The report shall include the findings, conclusions, and the order of the Secretary. The Secretary may have the reports published for public use. A published report of the Secretary is competent evidence of its contents.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2434.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
506 49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.
506(a), (b) 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 304(c)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 204(c)”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §20(b)(4), 54 Stat. 922.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 304(c)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 204(c)”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 50649 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a) 13(1) (1st sentence less words before semicolon, last sentence), (2) (1st, 2d sentences). 11701
  304(c) (1st sentence words after 5th comma, 2d sentence). 11701
(b) 13(1) (1st sentence words before semicolon). 11701
  13(2) (less 1st, 2d sentences). 11701
  304(c) (less 1st sentence words after 5th comma, 2d sentence). 11701
(c) 14. 10310
  304(d) (related to reports). 10310

See the revision notes for the revised sections for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

In subsections (a) and (b), the text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed.

Subsection (a) is patterned after 49:304(c). The words “violating this chapter” are substituted for “failed to comply with any such provision or requirement” for clarity.

In subsection (b), the text of 49:13(2) (last sentence) is omitted because 49:13(3) is not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii). The words “referred to in subsection (a) of this section” are added for clarity.

Subsection (c) does not apply to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because 49:304(d) applies only to motor carriers and 49:304(a)(3) and (3a) do not apply 49:304(d) to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers. The word “proceeding” is substituted for “investigation” for clarity and to conform to other sections of the revised title. The word “findings” is added for clarity. The word “decision” is omitted as covered by “conclusions”. The words “or requirement” are omitted as covered by “order”. The words “in the premises” are omitted as surplus. The words “and in case damages are awarded, such report shall include the findings of fact on which the award is made” are omitted as not applicable to this chapter. The words “entered of record”, “and decisions in such form and manner as may be best adapted for public information and use”, and “in all courts of the United States and of the several States without any further proof or authentication thereof” are omitted as surplus. The text of 49:14(3) (last sentence) is omitted as unnecessary.

§507. Enforcement

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may bring a civil action to enforce—

(1) an order of the Secretary under this chapter when violated by a rail carrier; and

(2) this chapter or a regulation or order of the Secretary under this chapter when violated by a motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, motor private carrier, or freight forwarder.


(b) The Attorney General may, and on request of the Secretary shall, bring court proceedings to enforce this chapter or a regulation or order of the Secretary under this chapter and to prosecute a person violating this chapter or a regulation or order of the Secretary.

(c) The Attorney General, at the request of the Secretary, may bring an action in an appropriate district court of the United States for equitable relief to redress a violation by any person of a provision of subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31502 of this title, or an order or regulation issued under any of those provisions. Such district court shall have jurisdiction to determine any such action and may grant such relief as is necessary or appropriate, including mandatory or prohibitive injunctive relief, interim equitable relief, and punitive damages.

(d) A person injured because a rail carrier or freight forwarder does not obey an order of the Secretary under this chapter may bring a civil action to enforce that order under this subsection.

(e) In a civil action brought under subsection (a)(2) of this section against a motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier—

(1) trial is in the judicial district in which the carrier operates;

(2) process may be served without regard to the territorial limits of the district or of the State in which the action is brought; and

(3) a person participating with the carrier in a violation may be joined in the civil action without regard to the residence of the person.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2435; Pub. L. 98–554, title II, §213(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2841; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(10), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1376.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
507 49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.
507(a), (d) 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(b)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 222(b)”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(b)”). Feb 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 222(b)”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 50749 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a) 16(12) (related to Commission action). 11702
  322(b)(1) (less 1st sentence last 18 words, 2d sentence, last sentence). 11702
  1017(b)(1) (related to Commission action). 11702
(b) 12(1)(a) (last sentence less words before 1st semicolon and after last semicolon). 11703
  16(12) (related to action by the Attorney General). 11703
  20(9). 11703
(c) 16(12) (related to action by private person). 11705
  1017(b)(1) (related to action by the Attorney General). 11703
(d) 322(b)(1) (1st sentence last 18 words, 2d sentence, last sentence). 11702
  1017(b)(1) (related to action by private person). 11705

See the revision notes for the revised sections for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

In the section, the text of 49:322(b)(2) and (3) is not included for motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because those provisions, while included in the enumeration in 49:304(a)(3) and (3a), are not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii).

In subsections (a) and (d), the text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (a), the words “or of any term or condition of any certificate or permit” are omitted as not applicable to this chapter.

In subsection (a)(1), reference to a civil action to enforce an order for the payment of money is omitted as not applicable to this chapter.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31502 of this title” for “section 3102 of this title or the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984” and “any of those provisions” for “such section or Act”.

1984—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 98–554 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

DOT Implementation Plan

Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4026, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 416, provided that:

“(a) Assessment.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this section [June 9, 1998], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall assess the scope of the problem of shippers, freight forwarders, brokers, consignees, or other persons (other than rail carriers, motor carriers, motor carriers of migrant workers, or motor private carriers) encouraging violations of chapter 5 of title 49, United States Code, or a regulation or order issued by the Secretary under such chapter.

“(b) Submission of Implementation Plan.—After completion of the assessment under subsection (a), the Secretary may submit to the Congress a plan for implementing authority (if subsequently provided by law) to investigate and bring civil actions to enforce chapter 5 of title 49, United States Code, or regulations or orders issued by the Secretary under such chapter with respect to persons described in subsection (a).

“(c) Contents of Implementation Plan.—In developing the implementation plan under subsection (b), the Secretary shall consider, as appropriate—

“(1) in what circumstances the Secretary would exercise the new authority;

“(2) how the Secretary would determine that shippers, freight forwarders, brokers, consignees, or other persons committed violations described in subsection (a), including what types of evidence would be conclusive;

“(3) what procedures would be necessary during investigations to ensure the confidentiality of shipper contract terms prior to the Secretary's findings of violations;

“(4) what impact the exercise of the new authority would have on the Secretary's resources, including whether additional investigative or legal resources would be necessary and whether the staff would need specialized education or training to exercise properly such authority;

“(5) to what extent the Secretary would conduct educational activities for persons who would be subject to the new authority; and

“(6) any other information that would assist the Congress in determining whether to provide the Secretary the new authority.”

§508. Safety performance history of new drivers; limitation on liability

(a) Limitation on Liability.—No action or proceeding for defamation, invasion of privacy, or interference with a contract that is based on the furnishing or use of safety performance records in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary may be brought against—

(1) a motor carrier requesting the safety performance records of an individual under consideration for employment as a commercial motor vehicle driver as required by and in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary;

(2) a person who has complied with such a request; or

(3) the agents or insurers of a person described in paragraph (1) or (2).


(b) Restrictions on Applicability.—

(1) Motor carrier requesting.—Subsection (a) does not apply to a motor carrier requesting safety performance records unless—

(A) the motor carrier and any agents of the motor carrier have complied with the regulations issued by the Secretary in using the records, including the requirement that the individual who is the subject of the records be afforded a reasonable opportunity to review and comment on the records;

(B) the motor carrier and any agents and insurers of the motor carrier have taken all precautions reasonably necessary to protect the records from disclosure to any person, except for such an insurer, not directly involved in deciding whether to hire that individual; and

(C) the motor carrier has used those records only to assess the safety performance of the individual who is the subject of those records in deciding whether to hire that individual.


(2) Person complying with requests.—Subsection (a) does not apply to a person complying with a request for safety performance records unless—

(A) the complying person and any agents of the complying person have taken all precautions reasonably necessary to ensure the accuracy of the records and have complied with the regulations issued by the Secretary in furnishing the records, including the requirement that the individual who is the subject of the records be afforded a reasonable opportunity to review and comment on the records; and

(B) the complying person and any agents and insurers of the complying person have taken all precautions reasonably necessary to protect the records from disclosure to any person, except for such an insurer, not directly involved in forwarding the records.


(3) Persons knowingly furnishing false information.—Subsection (a) does not apply to persons who knowingly furnish false information.


(c) Preemption of State and Local Law.—No State or political subdivision thereof may enact, prescribe, issue, continue in effect, or enforce any law (including any regulation, standard, or other provision having the force and effect of law) that prohibits, penalizes, or imposes liability for furnishing or using safety performance records in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary to carry out this section. Notwithstanding any provision of law, written authorization shall not be required to obtain information on the motor vehicle driving record of an individual under consideration for employment with a motor carrier.

(Added Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4014(a)(1), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 409.)

Codification

Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4014(a)(1), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 409, which directed the addition of section 508 at end of this chapter, was executed by adding this section at the end of subchapter I of this chapter to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 508, added Pub. L. 102–548, §2(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3646, related to certification of weights and description, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(11)(B), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1368. See chapter 59 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4014(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 411, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall take effect on January 31, 1999.”

SUBCHAPTER II—PENALTIES

§521. Civil penalties

(a)(1) A person required under section 504 of this title to make, prepare, preserve, or submit to the Secretary of Transportation a record about rail carrier transportation, that does not make, prepare, preserve, or submit that record as required under that section, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $500 for each violation.

(2) A rail carrier, and a lessor, receiver, or trustee of that carrier, violating section 504(c)(1) of this title, is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $100 for each violation.

(3) A rail carrier, a lessor, receiver, or trustee of that carrier, a person furnishing cars or protective service against heat or cold, and an officer, agent, or employee of one of them, required to make a report to the Secretary or answer a question, that does not make a report to the Secretary or does not specifically, completely, and truthfully answer the question, is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $100 for each violation.

(4) A separate violation occurs for each day a violation under this subsection continues.

(5) Trial in a civil action under this subsection is in the judicial district in which the rail carrier has its principal operating office or in a district through which the railroad of the rail carrier runs.

(b)(1)(A) If the Secretary finds that a violation of a provision of subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31302, 31303, 31304, 31305(b), 31310(g)(1)(A),1 or 31502 of this title, or a violation of a regulation issued under any of those provisions, has occurred, the Secretary shall issue a written notice to the violator. Such notice shall describe with reasonable particularity the nature of the violation found and the provision which has been violated. The notice shall specify the proposed civil penalty, if any, and suggest actions which might be taken in order to abate the violation. The notice shall indicate that the violator may, within 15 days of service, notify the Secretary of the violator's intention to contest the matter. In the event of a contested notice, the Secretary shall afford such violator an opportunity for a hearing, pursuant to section 554 of title 5, following which the Secretary shall issue an order affirming, modifying, or vacating the notice of violation.

(B) Nonapplicability to reporting and recordkeeping violations.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to reporting and recordkeeping violations.

(2) Civil Penalty.—

(A) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, any person who is determined by the Secretary, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, to have committed an act that is a violation of regulations issued by the Secretary under subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31502 of this title shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $10,000 for each offense. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section (except subparagraph (C)), no civil penalty shall be assessed under this section against an employee for a violation in an amount exceeding $2,500.

(B) Recordkeeping and reporting violations.—A person required to make a report to the Secretary, answer a question, or make, prepare, or preserve a record under section 504 of this title or under any regulation issued by the Secretary pursuant to subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31502 of this title about transportation by motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier, or an officer, agent, or employee of that person—

(i) who does not make that report, does not specifically, completely, and truthfully answer that question in 30 days from the date the Secretary requires the question to be answered, or does not make, prepare, or preserve that record in the form and manner prescribed by the Secretary, shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $500 for each offense, and each day of the violation shall constitute a separate offense, except that the total of all civil penalties assessed against any violator for all offenses related to any single violation shall not exceed $5,000; or

(ii) who knowingly falsifies, destroys, mutilates, or changes a required report or record, knowingly files a false report with the Secretary, knowingly makes or causes or permits to be made a false or incomplete entry in that record about an operation or business fact or transaction, or knowingly makes, prepares, or preserves a record in violation of a regulation or order of the Secretary, shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $5,000 for each violation, if any such action can be shown to have misrepresented a fact that constitutes a violation other than a reporting or recordkeeping violation.


(C) Violations pertaining to cdls.—Any person who is determined by the Secretary, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, to have committed an act which is a violation of section 31302, 31303, 31304, 31305(b), or 31310(g)(1)(A) of this title shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty not to exceed $2,500 for each offense.

(D) Determination of amount.—The amount of any civil penalty, and a reasonable time for abatement of the violation, shall by written order be determined by the Secretary, taking into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, history of prior offenses, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, and such other matters as justice and public safety may require. In each case, the assessment shall be calculated to induce further compliance.


(3) The Secretary may require any violator served with a notice of violation to post a copy of such notice or statement of such notice in such place or places and for such duration as the Secretary may determine appropriate to aid in the enforcement of subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31302, 31303, 31304, 31305(b), or 31502 of this title, as the case may be.

(4) Such civil penalty may be recovered in an action brought by the Attorney General on behalf of the United States in the appropriate district court of the United States or, before referral to the Attorney General, such civil penalty may be compromised by the Secretary.

(5)(A) If, upon inspection or investigation, the Secretary determines that a violation of a provision of subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31302, 31303, 31304, 31305(b), or 31502 of this title or a regulation issued under any of those provisions, or combination of such violations, poses an imminent hazard to safety, the Secretary shall order a vehicle or employee operating such vehicle out of service, or order an employer to cease all or part of the employer's commercial motor vehicle operations. In making any such order, the Secretary shall impose no restriction on any employee or employer beyond that required to abate the hazard. Subsequent to the issuance of the order, opportunity for review shall be provided in accordance with section 554 of title 5, except that such review shall occur not later than 10 days after issuance of such order.

(B) In this paragraph, “imminent hazard” means any condition of vehicle, employee, or commercial motor vehicle operations which substantially increases the likelihood of serious injury or death if not discontinued immediately.

(6) Criminal Penalties.—

(A) In general.—Any person who knowingly and willfully violates any provision of subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31502 of this title, or a regulation issued under any of those provisions shall, upon conviction, be subject for each offense to a fine not to exceed $25,000 or imprisonment for a term not to exceed one year, or both, except that, if such violator is an employee, the violator shall only be subject to penalty if, while operating a commercial motor vehicle, the violator's activities have led or could have led to death or serious injury, in which case the violator shall be subject, upon conviction, to a fine not to exceed $2,500.

(B) Violations pertaining to cdls.—Any person who knowingly and willfully violates—

(i) any provision of section 31302, 31303(b) or (c), 31304, 31305(b), or 31310(g)(1)(A) of this title or a regulation issued under such section, or

(ii) with respect to notification of a serious traffic violation as defined under section 31301 of this title, any provision of section 31303(a) of this title or a regulation issued under section 31303(a),


shall, upon conviction, be subject for each offense to a fine not to exceed $5,000 or imprisonment for a term not to exceed 90 days, or both.


(7) The Secretary shall issue regulations establishing penalty schedules designed to induce timely compliance for persons failing to comply promptly with the requirements set forth in any notices and orders under this subsection.

(8) Prohibition on operation in interstate commerce after nonpayment of penalties.—

(A) In general.—An owner or operator of a commercial motor vehicle against whom a civil penalty is assessed under this chapter or chapter 51, 149, or 311 of this title and who does not pay such penalty or fails to arrange and abide by an acceptable payment plan for such civil penalty may not operate in interstate commerce beginning on the 91st day after the date specified by order of the Secretary for payment of such penalty. This paragraph shall not apply to any person who is unable to pay a civil penalty because such person is a debtor in a case under chapter 11 of title 11, United States Code.

(B) Regulations.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this paragraph, the Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for public comment, shall issue regulations setting forth procedures for ordering commercial motor vehicle owners and operators delinquent in paying civil penalties to cease operations until payment has been made.


(9) Any aggrieved person who, after a hearing, is adversely affected by a final order issued under this section may, within 30 days, petition for review of the order in the United States Court of Appeals in the circuit wherein the violation is alleged to have occurred or where the violator has his principal place of business or residence, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Review of the order shall be based on a determination of whether the Secretary's findings and conclusions were supported by substantial evidence, or were otherwise not in accordance with law. No objection that has not been urged before the Secretary shall be considered by the court, unless reasonable grounds existed for failure or neglect to do so. The commencement of proceedings under this subsection shall not, unless ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the order of the Secretary.

(10) All penalties and fines collected under this section shall be deposited into the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account).

(11) In any action brought under this section, process may be served without regard to the territorial limits of the district of the State in which the action is brought.

(12) In any proceeding for criminal contempt for violation of an injunction or restraining order issued under this section, trial shall be by the court, or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury, conducted in accordance with the provisions of rule 42(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(13) The provisions of this subsection shall not affect chapter 51 of this title or any regulation promulgated by the Secretary under chapter 51.

(14) As used in this subsection, the terms “commercial motor vehicle”, “employee”, “employer”, and “State” have the meaning such terms have under section 31132 of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2435; Pub. L. 98–554, title II, §213(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2842; Pub. L. 99–570, title XII, §12012, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–184; Pub. L. 101–500, §15(e)(2), Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1220; Pub. L. 102–548, §2(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3648; Pub. L. 103–272, §§4(j)(11)(D), 5(m)(11), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1368, 1376; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(4), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4015(a), (b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 106–159, title II, §§206(b), 208, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1763, 1764.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
521 49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 52149 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a) 20(7)(a), (c)–(e). 11901
(b) 322(h). 11901

See the revision notes for the revised section for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

In subsection (a)(3), the words “against heat and cold” are inserted for consistency with sections 11105 and 11901 of the revised title.

Subsection (b) does not apply to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because 49:322(h) (1st sentence) only applies to motor carriers and 49:304(a)(3) and (3a) do not apply 49:322(h) (1st sentence) to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers. The reference to 49:303(c), 306(a)(1), and 309(a)(1) is omitted as not applicable to this chapter.

References in Text

Section 31310(g)(1)(A), referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), was redesignated section 31310(i)(1)(A), by Pub. L. 106–159, title II, §201(b)(1), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1759.

The date of the enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (b)(8)(B), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–159, which was approved Dec. 9, 1999.

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b)(12), are set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (b)(5)(B). Pub. L. 106–159, §208, substituted “substantially increases the likelihood of” for “is likely to result in”.

Subsec. (b)(8) to (14). Pub. L. 106–159, §206(b), added par. (8) and redesignated former pars. (8) to (13) as (9) to (14), respectively.

1998—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–178, §4015(a)(1), struck out “fix a reasonable time for abatement of the violation,” before “specify the proposed civil penalty”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–178, §4015(a)(2), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “The Secretary shall, not later than 60 days after November 3, 1990, establish operational procedures to require a highway safety specialist or other appropriate representative of the Secretary to initiate, at the time of a safety review, compliance review, or other inspection or audit activity, or within a reasonable time thereafter, an enforcement action whenever any of the offenses referred to in paragraph (2)(A) and (B) can be documented, except recordkeeping violations not specified by the Secretary as serious. The procedures shall—

“(i) specify those serious recordkeeping violations for which an enforcement action shall be initiated, including instances in which the falsification of records of duty status or drivers’ medical certificates is required or permitted, and such other recordkeeping violations as the Secretary determines to be serious; and

“(ii) authorize, but not require, initiation of an enforcement action for recordkeeping violations not specified by the Secretary as serious.”

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–178, §4015(b)(1), added subpar. (A) and struck out heading and text of former subpar. (A). Text read as follows: “Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, any person who is determined by the Secretary, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, to have committed an act which is a violation of a recordkeeping requirement issued by the Secretary under subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31502 of this title or which is a violation of chapter 59 of this title shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty not to exceed $500 for each offense. Each day of a violation shall constitute a separate offense, except that the total of all civil penalties assessed against any violator for all offenses relating to any single violation shall not exceed $2,500. If the Secretary determines that a serious pattern of safety violations, other than recordkeeping requirements, exists or has occurred, the Secretary may assess a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for each offense; except that the maximum fine for each such pattern of safety violations shall not exceed $10,000. If the Secretary determines that a substantial health or safety violation exists or has occurred which could reasonably lead to, or has resulted in, serious personal injury or death, the Secretary may assess a civil penalty not to exceed $10,000 for each offense. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section (other than subparagraph (B)), except for recordkeeping violations, no civil penalty shall be assessed under this section against an employee for a violation unless the Secretary determines that such employee's actions constituted gross negligence or reckless disregard for safety, in which case such employee shall be liable for a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000.”

Subsec. (b)(2)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 105–178, §4015(b)(2), (3), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpars. (B) and (C) as (C) and (D), respectively.

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted “November 3, 1990” for “the date of enactment of this subparagraph” in introductory provisions.

1994—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(A), substituted “a provision of subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31302, 31303, 31304, 31305(b), 31310(g)(1)(A), or 31502 of this title” for “section 3102 of this title or the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984 or section 12002, 12003, 12004, 12005(b), or 12008(d)(2) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986” and “any of those provisions” for “such sections or Act”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(B), substituted “under subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31502 of this title” for “pursuant to section 3102 of this title or the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984”.

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(11)(D), substituted “chapter 59 of this title” for “section 508 of this title”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(C), substituted “section 31302, 31303, 31304, 31305(b), or 31310(g)(1)(A) of this title” for “section 12002, 12003, 12004, 12005(b), or 12008(d)(2) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(D), substituted “subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31302, 31303, 31304, 31305(b), or 31502 of this title” for “section 3102 of this title or the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984 or section 12002, 12003, 12004, or 12005(b) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986”.

Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(E), substituted “a provision of subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31302, 31303, 31304, 31305(b), or 31502 of this title” for “section 3102 of this title or the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984 or section 12002, 12003, 12004, or 12005(b) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986” and “any of those provisions” for “such sections or Act”.

Subsec. (b)(6)(A). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(F), substituted “subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139) or section 31502 of this title” for “section 3102 of this title, the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984”, “any of those provisions” for “such section or Act”, and “shall be subject” for “shall be liable”.

Subsec. (b)(6)(B)(i). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(G), substituted “section 31302, 31303(b) or (c), 31304, 31305(b), or 31310(g)(1)(A) of this title” for “section 12002, 12003(b), 12003(c), 12004, 12005(b), or 12008(d)(2) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986”.

Subsec. (b)(6)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(H), substituted “section 31301 of this title” for “section 12019 of such Act”, “section 31303(a) of this title” for “section 12003(a) of such Act”, and “section 31303(a)” for “such section 12003(a)”.

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(I), substituted “chapter 51 of this title” for “any provision of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. App. 1801–1812)” and “chapter 51” for “such Act”.

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(11)(J), substituted “section 31132 of this title” for “section 204 of the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984”.

1992—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–548 inserted “or which is a violation of section 508 of this title” after “Act of 1984”.

1990—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–500 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1986—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–570, §12012(a), inserted “or section 12002, 12003, 12004, 12005(b), or 12008(d)(2) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986” after “the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984” and substituted “such sections” for “such section”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–570, §12012(b), (f)(1), inserted heading, designated existing provisions as subpars. (A) and (C) with corresponding headings, added subpar. (B), in subpar. (A) indented such subparagraph and aligned it with subpar. (B), and inserted exception relating to subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–570, §12012(c), inserted “or section 12002, 12003, 12004, or 12005(b) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986” after “the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984”.

Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 99–570, §12012(d), inserted “or section 12002, 12003, 12004, or 12005(b) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986” after “the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984” and substituted “such sections” for “such section”.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 99–570, §12012(e), (f)(2), (g)(1), inserted heading, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) with corresponding heading, added subpar. (B), in subpar. (A) indented such subparagraph and aligned it with subpar. (B), and substituted “to a fine” for “for a fine” in two places.

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 99–570, §12012(g)(2), substituted “section 204” for “section 4”.

1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–554 substituted provisions relating to notice to violators and opportunity for hearings for former provisions which set forth penalties for failure to make reports and keep records.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–554 substituted provisions setting forth amount of civil penalties for former provisions which related to the place of trial and manner of service of process for violations of recordkeeping and reporting provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3) to (13). Pub. L. 98–554 added pars. (3) to (13).

Minimum and Maximum Assessments

Pub. L. 106–159, title II, §222, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1769, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation should ensure that motor carriers operate safely by imposing civil penalties at a level calculated to ensure prompt and sustained compliance with Federal motor carrier safety and commercial driver's license laws.

“(b) Establishment.—The Secretary—

“(1) should establish and assess minimum civil penalties for each violation of a law referred to in subsection (a); and

“(2) shall assess the maximum civil penalty for each violation of a law referred to in subsection (a) by any person who is found to have committed a pattern of violations of critical or acute regulations issued to carry out such a law or to have previously committed the same or a related violation of critical or acute regulations issued to carry out such a law.

“(c) Extraordinary Circumstances.—If the Secretary determines and documents that extraordinary circumstances exist which merit the assessment of any civil penalty lower than any level established under subsection (b), the Secretary may assess such lower penalty. In cases where a person has been found to have previously committed the same or a related violation of critical or acute regulations issued to carry out a law referred to in subsection (a), extraordinary circumstances may be found to exist when the Secretary determines that repetition of such violation does not demonstrate a failure to take appropriate remedial action.

“(d) Report to Congress.—

“(1) In general.—The Secretary shall conduct a study of the effectiveness of the revised civil penalties established in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century [Pub. L. 105–178, see Tables for classification] and this Act [see Tables for classification] in ensuring prompt and sustained compliance with Federal motor carrier safety and commercial driver's license laws.

“(2) Submission to congress.—The Secretary shall transmit the results of such study and any recommendations to Congress by September 30, 2002.”

Report; Penalties; Effectiveness

Section 213(d) of Pub. L. 98–554 directed Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study of effectiveness of civil and criminal penalties established by amendments made by section 213 of Pub. L. 98–554 in deterring violations of commercial motor vehicle safety regulations issued under title II of Pub. L. 98–554 and in effectively prosecuting such violations when they occur, which study was to examine the effectiveness of penalties in effect before Oct. 30, 1984, in comparison to the penalties established by the amendments made by title II of Pub. L. 98–554, and was to further investigate the need for, and make recommendations concerning, increased fine levels for civil and criminal penalties, and the need for additional categories of civil and criminal penalties to deter further, and prosecute effectively, violations of such commercial motor vehicle safety regulations, and further directed Secretary to submit to Congress a report on the findings of this study, together with legislative recommendations, not later than 2 years after Oct. 30, 1984.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 31144 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§522. Reporting and record keeping violations

A person required to make a report to the Secretary of Transportation, or make, prepare, or preserve a record, under section 504 of this title about transportation by rail carrier, that knowingly and willfully (1) makes a false entry in the report or record, (2) destroys, mutilates, changes, or by another means falsifies the record, (3) does not enter business related facts and transactions in the record, (4) makes, prepares, or preserves the record in violation of a regulation or order of the Secretary, or (5) files a false report or record with the Secretary, shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2436; Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, §4015(c), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 412.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
522 49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.
522(b) 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(g)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 222(g)”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(g)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 222(g)”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 52249 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a) 20(7)(b) (less proviso). 11909
(b) 322(g). 11909

See the revision notes for the revised section for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

The text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed.

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–178 struck out “(a)” before “A person required to make a report to the Secretary of Transportation” and struck out subsec. (b) which read as follows: “A person required to make a report to the Secretary, answer a question, or make, prepare, or preserve a record under section 504 of this title about transportation by motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier, or an officer, agent, or employee of that person, that (1) willfully does not make that report, (2) willfully does not specifically, completely, and truthfully answer that question in 30 days from the date the Secretary requires the question to be answered, (3) willfully does not make, prepare, or preserve that record in the form and manner prescribed by the Secretary, (4) knowingly and willfully falsifies, destroys, mutilates, or changes that report or record, (5) knowingly and willfully files a false report or record with the Secretary, (6) knowingly and willfully makes a false or incomplete entry in that record about a business related fact or transaction, or (7) knowingly and willfully makes, prepares, or preserves a record in violation of a regulation or order of the Secretary, shall be fined not more than $5,000.”

§523. Unlawful disclosure of information

(a) A motor carrier, or an officer, receiver, trustee, lessee, or employee of that carrier, or another person authorized by that carrier to receive information from that carrier, may not knowingly disclose to another person (except the shipper or consignee), and another person may not solicit, or knowingly receive, information about the nature, kind, quantity, destination, consignee, or routing of property tendered or delivered to that carrier without the consent of the shipper or consignee if that information may be used to the detriment of the shipper or consignee or may disclose improperly to a competitor the business transactions of the shipper or consignee.

(b) This chapter does not prevent a motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier from giving information—

(1) in response to legal process issued under authority of a court of the United States or a State;

(2) to an officer, employee, or agent of the United States Government, a State, or a territory or possession of the United States; and

(3) to another motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier, or its agent, to adjust mutual traffic accounts in the ordinary course of business.


(c) An employee of the Secretary of Transportation delegated to make an inspection under section 504 of this title who knowingly discloses information acquired during that inspection, except as directed by the Secretary, a court, or a judge of that court, shall be fined not more than $500, imprisoned for not more than 6 months, or both.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2436.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
523 49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.
523(b) 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(f)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 222(d), (f)”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(f)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 222(d), (f)”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.
523(c) 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(d)”).
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(d)”).

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 52349 U.S. CodeRevised Section
(a) 322(e). 11910
(b) 322(f). 11910
(c) 20(7)(f). 11910
  322(d). 11910

See the revision notes for the revised section for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

Subsection (a) does not apply to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because 49:322(e) only applies to motor carriers and 49:304(a)(3) and (3a) do not apply 49:322(e) to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers. The words “engaged in interstate or foreign commerce” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the chapter.

In subsections (b) and (c), the text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed.

§524. Evasion of regulation of motor carriers

A person, or an officer, employee, or agent of that person, that by any means knowingly and willfully tries to evade regulation of motor carriers under this chapter shall be fined at least $200 but not more than $500 for the first violation and at least $250 but not more than $2,000 for a subsequent violation.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2437.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
524 49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 52449 U.S. CodeRevised Section
  322(c) (related to evasion of regulation). 11906

See the revision notes for the revised section for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

The section does not apply to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers because 49:322(c) (related to evasion of regulation) only applies to motor carriers and 49:304(a)(3) and (3a) do not apply 49:322(c) (related to evasion of regulation) to motor carriers of migrant workers and motor private carriers.

§525. Disobedience to subpenas

A motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier not obeying a subpena or requirement of the Secretary of Transportation under this chapter to appear and testify or produce records shall be fined at least $100 but not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2437.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
525 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 305(d) (related to liability)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat., 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 205(d) (related to liability)”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 305(d) (related to liability)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 205(d) (related to liability)”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.
  49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 52549 U.S. CodeRevised Section
  305(d) (related to liability). 11913

See the revision notes for the revised section for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

The section does not apply to the liability of a rail carrier because 49:46 is not included in the specific enumeration of 49:1655(f)(2)(B)(ii). The text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed. The words “under this chapter” are added for clarity.

§526. General criminal penalty when specific penalty not provided

When another criminal penalty is not provided under a provision of this chapter, subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139), or section 31502 of this title, a person that knowingly and willfully violates any of those provisions or a regulation or order of the Secretary of Transportation under any of those provisions, related to transportation by motor carrier, motor carrier of migrant workers, or motor private carrier, shall be fined at least $100 but not more than $500 for the first violation and at least $200 but not more than $500 for a subsequent violation. A separate violation occurs each day the violation continues.

(Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2437; Pub. L. 98–554, title II, §213(c), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2844; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(12), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1377.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
526 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(a)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 222(a)”); added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 546.
  49:304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 322(a)”). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §204(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to “Sec. 222(a)”); added Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 905, §2, 70 Stat. 958.
  49:1655(f)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(2), 80 Stat. 940.

The section is included because 49:1655(f)(2) gave the same administrative powers exercised by the Interstate Commerce Commission under certain sections of title 49 to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out duties transferred to the Secretary by 49:1655(e). See the revision notes for section 501 of the revised title for an explanation of the transfer under 49:1655(f)(2). The powers of the Commission have been codified in subtitle IV of the revised title. The comparable provisions of title 49 that are represented by the section may be found as follows:

 
Section 52649 U.S. CodeRevised Section
  322(a). 11914

See the revision notes for the revised section for an explanation of changes made in the text. Changes not accounted for in those revision notes are as follows:

The reference to a certificate, permit, or licence is omitted as not applicable to this chapter. The text of 49:304(a)(3) (last sentence 1st–7th words) and (3a) (last sentence 1st–5th words) is omitted as executed.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “a provision of this chapter, subchapter III of chapter 311 (except sections 31138 and 31139), or section 31502 of this title, a person that knowingly and willfully violates any of those provisions or a regulation or order of the Secretary of Transportation under any of those provisions” for “this chapter, section 3102 of this title, or the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984, a person that knowingly and willfully violates a provision of this chapter or such section or Act, or a regulation or order of the Secretary of Transportation under this chapter or such section or Act”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–554 inserted “, section 3102 of this title, or the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1984” after “chapter” the first place it appears and inserted “or such section or Act” after “chapter” the second and third places it appears.

CHAPTER 7—SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD

SUBCHAPTER I—ESTABLISHMENT

Sec.
701.
Establishment of Board.
702.
Functions.
703.
Administrative provisions.
704.
Annual report.
705.
Authorization of appropriations.
706.
Reporting official action.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

721.
Powers.
722.
Board action.
723.
Service of notice in Board proceedings.
724.
Service of process in court proceedings.
725.
Administrative support.
726.
Railroad-Shipper Transportation Advisory Council.
727.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—ESTABLISHMENT

§701. Establishment of Board

(a) Establishment.—There is hereby established within the Department of Transportation the Surface Transportation Board.

(b) Membership.—(1) The Board shall consist of 3 members, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Not more than 2 members may be appointed from the same political party.

(2) At any given time, at least 2 members of the Board shall be individuals with professional standing and demonstrated knowledge in the fields of transportation or transportation regulation, and at least one member shall be an individual with professional or business experience (including agriculture) in the private sector.

(3) The term of each member of the Board shall be 5 years and shall begin when the term of the predecessor of that member ends. An individual appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which the predecessor of that individual was appointed, shall be appointed for the remainder of that term. When the term of office of a member ends, the member may continue to serve until a successor is appointed and qualified, but for a period not to exceed one year. The President may remove a member for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office.

(4) On January 1, 1996, the members of the Interstate Commerce Commission serving unexpired terms on December 29, 1995, shall become members of the Board, to serve for a period of time equal to the remainder of the term for which they were originally appointed to the Interstate Commerce Commission. Any member of the Interstate Commerce Commission whose term expires on December 31, 1995, shall become a member of the Board, subject to paragraph (3).

(5) No individual may serve as a member of the Board for more than 2 terms. In the case of an individual who becomes a member of the Board pursuant to paragraph (4), or an individual appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which the predecessor of that individual was appointed, such individual may not be appointed for more than one additional term.

(6) A member of the Board may not have a pecuniary interest in, hold an official relation to, or own stock in or bonds of, a carrier providing transportation by any mode and may not engage in another business, vocation, or employment.

(7) A vacancy in the membership of the Board does not impair the right of the remaining members to exercise all of the powers of the Board. The Board may designate a member to act as Chairman during any period in which there is no Chairman designated by the President.

(c) Chairman.—(1) There shall be at the head of the Board a Chairman, who shall be designated by the President from among the members of the Board. The Chairman shall receive compensation at the rate prescribed for level III of the Executive Schedule under section 5314 of title 5.

(2) Subject to the general policies, decisions, findings, and determinations of the Board, the Chairman shall be responsible for administering the Board. The Chairman may delegate the powers granted under this paragraph to an officer, employee, or office of the Board. The Chairman shall—

(A) appoint and supervise, other than regular and full-time employees in the immediate offices of another member, the officers and employees of the Board, including attorneys to provide legal aid and service to the Board and its members, and to represent the Board in any case in court;

(B) appoint the heads of offices with the approval of the Board;

(C) distribute Board business among officers and employees and offices of the Board;

(D) prepare requests for appropriations for the Board and submit those requests to the President and Congress with the prior approval of the Board; and

(E) supervise the expenditure of funds allocated by the Board for major programs and purposes.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 932; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(5), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted “January 1, 1996” for “the effective date of this section” and “December 29, 1995,” for “the date of the enactment of the ICC Termination Act of 1995”.

Effective Date

Section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification], this Act shall take effect on January 1, 1996.”

Savings Provision

Section 204 of Pub. L. 104–88 provided that:

“(a) Legal Documents.—All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, permits, grants, loans, contracts, agreements, certificates, licenses, and privileges—

“(1) that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective by the Interstate Commerce Commission, any officer or employee of the Interstate Commerce Commission, or any other Government official, or by a court of competent jurisdiction, in the performance of any function that is transferred by this Act [see Tables for classification] or the amendments made by this Act; and

“(2) that are in effect on the effective date of such transfer (or become effective after such date pursuant to their terms as in effect on such effective date),

shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law by the Board [Surface Transportation Board], any other authorized official, a court of competent jurisdiction, or operation of law. The Board shall promptly rescind all regulations established by the Interstate Commerce Commission that are based on provisions of law repealed and not substantively reenacted by this Act.

“(b) Proceedings.—(1) The provisions of this Act shall not affect any proceedings or any application for any license pending before the Interstate Commerce Commission at the time this Act takes effect [see Effective Date note above], insofar as those functions are retained and transferred by this Act; but such proceedings and applications, to the extent that they relate to functions so transferred, shall be continued. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals shall be taken therefrom, and payments shall be made pursuant to such orders, as if this Act had not been enacted; and orders issued in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified, terminated, superseded, or revoked by a duly authorized official, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law. Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to prohibit the discontinuance or modification of any such proceeding under the same terms and conditions and to the same extent that such proceeding could have been discontinued or modified if this Act had not been enacted.

“(2) The Board and the Secretary are authorized to provide for the orderly transfer of pending proceedings from the Interstate Commerce Commission.

“(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), in the case of a proceeding under a provision of law repeal [repealed], and not reenacted, by this Act such proceeding shall be terminated.

“(B) Any proceeding involving a pipeline carrier under subtitle IV of title 49, United States Code, shall be continued to be heard by the Board under such subtitle, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this section [see Effective Date note above], until completion of such proceeding.

“(C) Any proceeding involving the merger of a motor carrier property under subtitle IV of title 49, United States Code, shall continue to be heard by the Board under such subtitle, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this section, until completion of such proceeding.

“(4) Any proceeding with respect to any tariff, rate charge, classification, rule, regulation, or service that was pending under the Intercoastal Shipping Act, 1933 [former 46 App. U.S.C. 843 et seq.] or the Shipping Act, 1916 [46 App. U.S.C. 801 et seq.] before the Federal Maritime Commission on November 1, 1995, shall continue to be heard until completion or issuance of a final order thereon under all applicable laws in effect as of November 1, 1995.

“(c) Suits.—(1) This Act shall not affect suits commenced before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 29, 1995], except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3). In all such suits, proceeding shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been enacted.

“(2) Any suit by or against the Interstate Commerce Commission begun before the effective date of this Act shall be continued, insofar as it involves a function retained and transferred under this Act, with the Board (to the extent the suit involves functions transferred to the Board under this Act) or the Secretary (to the extent the suit involves functions transferred to the Secretary under this Act) substituted for the Commission.

“(3) If the court in a suit described in paragraph (1) remands a case to the Board or the Secretary, subsequent proceedings related to such case shall proceed in accordance with applicable law and regulations as in effect at the time of such subsequent proceedings.

“(d) Continuance of Actions Against Officers.—No suit, action, or other proceeding commenced by or against any officer in his official capacity as an officer of the Interstate Commerce Commission shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act. No cause of action by or against the Interstate Commerce Commission, or by or against any officer thereof in his official capacity, shall abate by reason of enactment of this Act.

“(e) Exercise of Authorities.—Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer or employee of the Board may, for purposes of performing a function transferred by this Act or the amendments made by this Act, exercise all authorities under any other provision of law that were available with respect to the performance of that function to the official responsible for the performance of the function immediately before the effective date of the transfer of the function under this Act or the amendments made by this Act.”

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission

Section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88 provided that: “The Interstate Commerce Commission is abolished.”

Organization of Functions of Surface Transportation Board

Section 202 of title II of Pub. L. 104–88 provided that: “The Chairman of the Surface Transportation Board (in this Act [see Tables for classification] referred to as the ‘Board’) may allocate or reallocate any function of the Board, consistent with this title [see Tables for classification] and subchapter I of chapter 7 [49 U.S.C. 701 et seq.], as amended by section 201 of this title, among the members or employees of the Board, and may establish, consolidate, alter, or discontinue in the Board any organizational entities that were entities of the Interstate Commerce Commission, as the Chairman considers necessary or appropriate.”

Transfer of Assets and Personnel

Section 203 of Pub. L. 104–88 provided that:

“(a) To Board.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act, those personnel, property, and records employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with a function transferred to the Board [Surface Transportation Board] by this Act shall be transferred to the Board for use in connection with the functions transferred, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Interstate Commerce Commission shall also be transferred to the Board. Such unexpended balances, allocations, and other funds, together with any unobligated balances from user fees collected by the Commission during fiscal year 1996, may be used to pay for the closedown of the Commission and severance costs for Commission personnel, regardless of whether those costs are incurred at the Commission or at the Board.

“(b) To Secretary.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act and the amendments made by this Act, those personnel, property, and records employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with a function transferred to the Secretary by this Act shall be transferred to the Secretary for use in connection with the functions transferred.

“(c) Separated Employees.—Notwithstanding all other laws and regulations, the Department of Transportation shall place all Interstate Commerce Commission employees separated from the Commission as a result of this Act on the DOT reemployment priority list (competitive service) or the priority employment list (excepted service).”

References to Interstate Commerce Commission Deemed To Be References to Surface Transportation Board

Section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88 provided that: “Any reference to the Interstate Commerce Commission in any other Federal law, Executive order, rule, regulation, or delegation of authority, or any document of or pertaining to the Interstate Commerce Commission or an officer or employee of the Interstate Commerce Commission, is deemed to refer to the Board [Surface Transportation Board], a member or employee of the Board, or the Secretary, as appropriate.”

§702. Functions

Except as otherwise provided in the ICC Termination Act of 1995, or the amendments made thereby, the Board shall perform all functions that, immediately before January 1, 1996, were functions of the Interstate Commerce Commission or were performed by any officer or employee of the Interstate Commerce Commission in the capacity as such officer or employee.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 933; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(6), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389.)

References in Text

The ICC Termination Act of 1995, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 104–88, Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 803. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1995 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–287 substituted “January 1, 1996” for “the effective date of such Act”.

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished by section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title.

§703. Administrative provisions

(a) Executive Reorganization.—Chapter 9 of title 5, United States Code, shall apply to the Board in the same manner as it does to an independent regulatory agency, and the Board shall be an establishment of the United States Government.

(b) Open Meetings.—For purposes of section 552b of title 5, United States Code, the Board shall be deemed to be an agency.

(c) Independence.—In the performance of their functions, the members, employees, and other personnel of the Board shall not be responsible to or subject to the supervision or direction of any officer, employee, or agent of any other part of the Department of Transportation.

(d) Representation by Attorneys.—Attorneys designated by the Chairman of the Board may appear for, and represent the Board in, any civil action brought in connection with any function carried out by the Board pursuant to this chapter or subtitle IV or as otherwise authorized by law.

(e) Admission To Practice.—Subject to section 500 of title 5, the Board may regulate the admission of individuals to practice before it and may impose a reasonable admission fee.

(f) Budget Requests.—In each annual request for appropriations by the President, the Secretary of Transportation shall identify the portion thereof intended for the support of the Board and include a statement by the Board—

(1) showing the amount requested by the Board in its budgetary presentation to the Secretary and the Office of Management and Budget; and

(2) an assessment of the budgetary needs of the Board.


(g) Direct Transmittal to Congress.—The Board shall transmit to Congress copies of budget estimates, requests, and information (including personnel needs), legislative recommendations, prepared testimony for congressional hearings, and comments on legislation at the same time they are sent to the Secretary of Transportation. An officer of an agency may not impose conditions on or impair communications by the Board with Congress, or a committee or Member of Congress, about the information.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 934.)

§704. Annual report

The Board shall annually transmit to the Congress a report on its activities.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 934.)

§705. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated for the activities of the Board—

(1) $8,421,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(2) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

(3) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 1998.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 934.)

§706. Reporting official action

(a) Reports on Proceedings.—The Board shall make a written report of each proceeding conducted on complaint or on its own initiative and furnish a copy to each party to that proceeding. The report shall include the findings, conclusions, and the order of the Board and, if damages are awarded, the findings of fact supporting the award. The Board may have its reports published for public use. A published report of the Board is competent evidence of its contents.

(b) Special Rules for Matters Related to Rail Carriers.—(1) When action of the Board in a matter related to a rail carrier is taken by the Board, an individual member of the Board, or another individual or group of individuals designated to take official action for the Board, the written statement of that action (including a report, order, decision and order, vote, notice, letter, policy statement, or regulation) shall indicate—

(A) the official designation of the individual or group taking the action;

(B) the name of each individual taking, or participating in taking, the action; and

(C) the vote or position of each participating individual.


(2) If an individual member of a group taking an official action referred to in paragraph (1) does not participate in it, the written statement of the action shall indicate that the member did not participate. An individual participating in taking an official action is entitled to express the views of that individual as part of the written statement of the action. In addition to any publication of the written statement, it shall be made available to the public under section 552(a) of title 5.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 934.)

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

§721. Powers

(a) In General.—The Board shall carry out this chapter and subtitle IV. Enumeration of a power of the Board in this chapter or subtitle IV does not exclude another power the Board may have in carrying out this chapter or subtitle IV. The Board may prescribe regulations in carrying out this chapter and subtitle IV.

(b) Inquiries, Reports, and Orders.—The Board may—

(1) inquire into and report on the management of the business of carriers providing transportation and services subject to subtitle IV;

(2) inquire into and report on the management of the business of a person controlling, controlled by, or under common control with those carriers to the extent that the business of that person is related to the management of the business of that carrier;

(3) obtain from those carriers and persons information the Board decides is necessary to carry out subtitle IV; and

(4) when necessary to prevent irreparable harm, issue an appropriate order without regard to subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.


(c) Subpoena Witnesses.—(1) The Board may subpoena witnesses and records related to a proceeding of the Board from any place in the United States, to the designated place of the proceeding. If a witness disobeys a subpoena, the Board, or a party to a proceeding before the Board, may petition a court of the United States to enforce that subpoena.

(2) The district courts of the United States have jurisdiction to enforce a subpoena issued under this section. Trial is in the district in which the proceeding is conducted. The court may punish a refusal to obey a subpoena as a contempt of court.

(d) Depositions.—(1) In a proceeding, the Board may take the testimony of a witness by deposition and may order the witness to produce records. A party to a proceeding pending before the Board may take the testimony of a witness by deposition and may require the witness to produce records at any time after a proceeding is at issue on petition and answer.

(2) If a witness fails to be deposed or to produce records under paragraph (1), the Board may subpoena the witness to take a deposition, produce the records, or both.

(3) A deposition may be taken before a judge of a court of the United States, a United States magistrate judge, a clerk of a district court, or a chancellor, justice, or judge of a supreme or superior court, mayor or chief magistrate of a city, judge of a county court, or court of common pleas of any State, or a notary public who is not counsel or attorney of a party or interested in the proceeding.

(4) Before taking a deposition, reasonable notice must be given in writing by the party or the attorney of that party proposing to take a deposition to the opposing party or the attorney of record of that party, whoever is nearest. The notice shall state the name of the witness and the time and place of taking the deposition.

(5) The testimony of a person deposed under this subsection shall be taken under oath. The person taking the deposition shall prepare, or cause to be prepared, a transcript of the testimony taken. The transcript shall be subscribed by the deponent.

(6) The testimony of a witness who is in a foreign country may be taken by deposition before an officer or person designated by the Board or agreed on by the parties by written stipulation filed with the Board. A deposition shall be filed with the Board promptly.

(e) Witness Fees.—Each witness summoned before the Board or whose deposition is taken under this section and the individual taking the deposition are entitled to the same fees and mileage paid for those services in the courts of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 935.)

§722. Board action

(a) Effective Date of Actions.—Unless otherwise provided in subtitle IV, the Board may determine, within a reasonable time, when its actions, other than an action ordering the payment of money, take effect.

(b) Terminating and Changing Actions.—An action of the Board remains in effect under its own terms or until superseded. The Board may change, suspend, or set aside any such action on notice. Notice may be given in a manner determined by the Board. A court of competent jurisdiction may suspend or set aside any such action.

(c) Reconsidering Actions.—The Board may, at any time on its own initiative because of material error, new evidence, or substantially changed circumstances—

(1) reopen a proceeding;

(2) grant rehearing, reargument, or reconsideration of an action of the Board; or

(3) change an action of the Board.


An interested party may petition to reopen and reconsider an action of the Board under this subsection under regulations of the Board.

(d) Finality of Actions.—Notwithstanding subtitle IV, an action of the Board under this section is final on the date on which it is served, and a civil action to enforce, enjoin, suspend, or set aside the action may be filed after that date.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 936.)

§723. Service of notice in Board proceedings

(a) Designation of Agent.—A carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under subtitle IV shall designate an agent in the District of Columbia, on whom service of notices in a proceeding before, and of actions of, the Board may be made.

(b) Filing and Changing Designations.—A designation under subsection (a) shall be in writing and filed with the Board. The designation may be changed at any time in the same manner as originally made.

(c) Service of Notice.—Except as otherwise provided, notices of the Board shall be served on its designated agent at the office or usual place of residence in the District of Columbia of that agent. A notice of action of the Board shall be served immediately on the agent or in another manner provided by law. If that carrier does not have a designated agent, service may be made by posting the notice in the office of the Board.

(d) Special Rule for Rail Carriers.—In a proceeding involving the lawfulness of classifications, rates, or practices of a rail carrier that has not designated an agent under this section, service of notice of the Board on an attorney in fact for the carrier constitutes service of notice on the carrier.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 937.)

§724. Service of process in court proceedings

(a) Designation of Agent.—A carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under subtitle IV shall designate an agent in the District of Columbia on whom service of process in an action before a district court may be made. Except as otherwise provided, process in an action before a district court shall be served on the designated agent of that carrier at the office or usual place of residence in the District of Columbia of that agent. If the carrier does not have a designated agent, service may be made by posting the notice in the office of the Board.

(b) Changing Designation.—A designation under this section may be changed at any time in the same manner as originally made.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 937.)

§725. Administrative support

The Secretary of Transportation shall provide administrative support for the Board.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 937.)

§726. Railroad-Shipper Transportation Advisory Council

(a) Establishment; Membership.—There is established the Railroad-Shipper Transportation Advisory Council (in this section referred to as the “Council”) to be composed of 19 members, of which 15 members shall be appointed by the Chairman of the Board, after recommendation from rail carriers and shippers, within 60 days after December 29, 1995. The members of the Council shall be appointed as follows:

(1) The members of the Council shall be appointed from among citizens of the United States who are not regular full-time employees of the United States and shall be selected for appointment so as to provide as nearly as practicable a broad representation of the various segments of the railroad and rail shipper industries.

(2) Nine of the members shall be appointed from senior executive officers of organizations engaged in the railroad and rail shipping industries, which 9 members shall be the voting members of the Council. Council action and Council positions shall be determined by a majority vote of the members present. A majority of such voting members shall constitute a quorum. Of such 9 voting members—

(A) at least 4 shall be representative of small shippers (as determined by the Chairman); and

(B) at least 4 shall be representative of Class II or III railroads.


(3) The remaining 6 members of the Council shall serve in a nonvoting advisory capacity only, but shall be entitled to participate in Council deliberations. Of the remaining members—

(A) 3 shall be representative of Class I railroads; and

(B) 3 shall be representative of large shipper organizations (as determined by the Chairman).


(4) The Secretary of Transportation and the members of the Board shall serve as ex officio, nonvoting members of the Council. The Council shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act. A list of the members appointed to the Council shall be forwarded to the Chairmen and ranking members of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

(5) Each ex officio member of the Council may designate an alternate, who shall serve as a member of the Council whenever the ex officio member is unable to attend a meeting of the Council. Any such designated alternate shall be selected from individuals who exercise significant decision-making authority in the Federal agency involved.


(b) Term of Office.—The members of the Council shall be appointed for a term of office of 3 years, except that of the members first appointed—

(1) 5 members shall be appointed for terms of 1 year; and

(2) 5 members shall be appointed for terms of 2 years,


as designated by the Chairman at the time of appointment. Any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which the member's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed only for the remainder of such term. A member may serve after the expiration of his term until his successor has taken office. Vacancies on the Council shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointments were made. No member of the Council shall be eligible to serve in excess of two consecutive terms.

(c) Election and Duties of Officers.—The Council Chairman and Vice Chairman and other appropriate officers of the Council shall be elected by and from the voting members of the Council. The Council Chairman shall serve as the Council's executive officer and shall direct the administration of the Council, assign officer and committee duties, and shall be responsible for issuing and communicating the reports, policy positions and statements of the Council. In the event that the Council Chairman is unable to serve, the Vice Chairman shall act as Council Chairman.

(d) Expenses.—(1) The members of the Council shall receive no compensation for their services as such, but upon request by the Council Chairman, based on a showing of significant economic burden, the Secretary of Transportation or the Chairman of the Board, to the extent provided in advance in appropriation Acts, may provide reasonable and necessary travel expenses for such individual Council members from Department or Board funding sources in order to foster balanced representation on the Council.

(2) Upon request by the Council Chairman, the Secretary or Chairman of the Board, to the extent provided in advance in appropriations Acts, may pay the reasonable and necessary expenses incurred by the Council in connection with the coordination of Council activities, announcement and reporting of meetings, and preparation of such Council documents as are required or permitted by this section.

(3) The Council may solicit and use private funding for its activities, subject to this subsection.

(4) Prior to making any Federal funding requests, the Council Chairman shall undertake best efforts to fund such activities privately unless the Council Chairman determines that such private funding would create a conflict of interest, or the appearance thereof, or is otherwise impractical. The Council Chairman shall not request funding from any Federal agency without providing written justification as to why private funding would create any such conflict or appearance, or is otherwise impractical.

(5) To enable the Council to carry out its functions—

(A) the Council Chairman may request directly from any Federal agency such personnel, information, services, or facilities, on a compensated or uncompensated basis, as the Council Chairman determines necessary to carry out the functions of the Council;

(B) each Federal agency may, in its discretion, furnish the Council with such information, services, and facilities as the Council Chairman may request to the extent permitted by law and within the limits of available funds; and

(C) each Federal agency may, in its discretion, detail to temporary duty with the Council, such personnel as the Council Chairman may request for carrying out the functions of the Council, each such detail to be without loss of seniority, pay, or other employee status.


(e) Meetings.—The Council shall meet at least semi-annually and shall hold other meetings at the call of the Council Chairman. Appropriate Federal facilities, where available, may be used for such meetings. Whenever the Council, or a committee of the Council, considers matters that affect the jurisdictional interests of Federal agencies that are not represented on the Council, the Council Chairman may invite the heads of such agencies, or their designees, to participate in the deliberations of the Council.

(f) Functions and Duties; Annual Report.—(1) The Council shall advise the Secretary, the Chairman, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives with respect to rail transportation policy issues it considers significant, with particular attention to issues of importance to small shippers and small railroads, including car supply, rates, competition, and effective procedures for addressing legitimate shipper and other claims.

(2) To the extent the Council addresses specific grain car issues, it shall coordinate such activities with the National Grain Car Council. The Secretary and Chairman shall cooperate with the Council to provide research, technical and other reasonable support in developing any reports and policy statements required or authorized by this subsection.

(3) The Council shall endeavor to develop within the private sector mechanisms to prevent, or identify and effectively address, obstacles to the most effective and efficient transportation system practicable.

(4) The Council shall prepare an annual report concerning its activities and the results of Council efforts to resolve industry issues, and propose whatever regulatory or legislative relief it considers appropriate. The Council shall include in the annual report such recommendations as it considers appropriate with respect to the performance of the Secretary and Chairman under this chapter, and with respect to the operation and effectiveness of meetings and industry developments relating to the Council's efforts, and such other information as it considers appropriate. Such annual reports shall be reviewed by the Secretary and Chairman, and shall include the Secretary's and Chairman's views or comments relating to—

(A) the accuracy of information therein;

(B) Council efforts and reasonableness of Council positions and actions; and

(C) any other aspects of the Council's work as they may consider appropriate.


The Council may prepare other reports or develop policy statements as the Council considers appropriate. An annual report shall be submitted for each fiscal year and shall be submitted to the Secretary and Chairman within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year. Other such reports and statements may be submitted as the Council considers appropriate.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 937; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(7), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted “December 29, 1995” for “the date of enactment of the ICC Termination Act of 1995” in introductory provisions.

§727. Definitions

All terms used in this chapter that are defined in subtitle IV shall have the meaning given those terms in that subtitle.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 940.)

SUBTITLE II—OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

Chapter
Sec.
11.
National Transportation Safety Board
1101

        

CHAPTER 11—NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

Sec.
1101.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE

1111.
General organization.
1112.
Special boards of inquiry on air transportation safety.
1113.
Administrative.
1114.
Disclosure, availability, and use of information.
1115.
Training.
1116.
Reports and studies.
1117.
Annual report.
1118.
Authorization of appropriations.
1119.
Accident and safety data classification and publication.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—AUTHORITY

1131.
General authority.
1132.
Civil aircraft accident investigations.
1133.
Review of other agency action.
1134.
Inspections and autopsies.
1135.
Secretary of Transportation's responses to safety recommendations.
1136.
Assistance to families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents.
1137.
Authority of the Inspector General.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—ENFORCEMENT AND PENALTIES

1151.
Aviation enforcement.
1152.
Joinder and intervention in aviation proceedings.
1153.
Judicial review.
1154.
Discovery and use of cockpit and surface vehicle recordings and transcripts.
1155.
Aviation penalties.

        

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–424, §§5(c)(2), 12(b), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1885, 1887, added item 1137 and substituted “and surface vehicle recordings and transcripts” for “voice and other material” in item 1154.

1996—Pub. L. 104–264, title IV, §407(a)(2), title VII, §702(a)(2), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3258, 3267, added items 1119 and 1136.

1994—Pub. L. 103–272, §1(c), (d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745, added subtitle II (comprised of chapter 11, §§1101–1155) and struck out former subtitle II, except that chapter 31 (comprised of §§3101–3104) of subtitle II was redesignated and restated as chapter 315 (comprised of §§31501–31504) of subtitle VI, as enacted by Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e).

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in section 329 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

§1101. Definitions

Section 2101(17a) of title 46 and section 40102(a) of this title apply to this chapter. In this chapter, the term “accident” includes damage to or destruction of vehicles in surface or air transportation or pipelines, regardless of whether the initiating event is accidental or otherwise.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 746; Pub. L. 106–424, §2, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1101 (no source)

A number of the source provisions of the chapter are taken from 49 App.:ch. 20. The text of 49 App.:ch. 20 contains general definitions, some of which are used in those source provisions.

This section is included to ensure that the identical definitions that are relevant are used without repeating them. The source provisions for the definitions are found in the revision note for section 40102(a) of the revised title.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–424 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Section 40102(a) of this title applies to this chapter.”

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–424, §1(a), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1883, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1137 of this title, amending this section and sections 1111, 1113 to 1115, 1118, 1131, 1154, 44721, and 46301 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1111, 1113, 1131, 44703, and 44721 of this title] may be cited as the ‘National Transportation Safety Board Amendments Act of 2000’.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–291, title I, §101, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3452, provided that: “This title [amending sections 1114, 1115, and 1118 of this title] may be cited as the ‘National Transportation Safety Board Amendments of 1996’.”

SUBCHAPTER II—ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE

§1111. General organization

(a) Organization.—The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent establishment of the United States Government.

(b) Appointment of Members.—The Board is composed of 5 members appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Not more than 3 members may be appointed from the same political party. At least 3 members shall be appointed on the basis of technical qualification, professional standing, and demonstrated knowledge in accident reconstruction, safety engineering, human factors, transportation safety, or transportation regulation.

(c) Terms of Office and Removal.—The term of office of each member is 5 years. An individual appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which the predecessor of that individual was appointed, is appointed for the remainder of that term. When the term of office of a member ends, the member may continue to serve until a successor is appointed and qualified. The President may remove a member for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office.

(d) Chairman and Vice Chairman.—The President shall designate, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a Chairman of the Board. The President also shall designate a Vice Chairman of the Board. The terms of office of both the Chairman and Vice Chairman are 2 years. When the Chairman is absent or unable to serve or when the position of Chairman is vacant, the Vice Chairman acts as Chairman.

(e) Duties and Powers of Chairman.—The Chairman is the chief executive and administrative officer of the Board. Subject to the general policies and decisions of the Board, the Chairman shall—

(1) appoint, supervise, and fix the pay of officers and employees necessary to carry out this chapter;

(2) distribute business among the officers, employees, and administrative units of the Board; and

(3) supervise the expenditures of the Board.


(f) Quorum.—Three members of the Board are a quorum in carrying out duties and powers of the Board.

(g) Offices, Bureaus, and Divisions.—The Board shall establish offices necessary to carry out this chapter, including an office to investigate and report on the safe transportation of hazardous material. The Board shall establish distinct and appropriately staffed bureaus, divisions, or offices to investigate and report on accidents involving each of the following modes of transportation:

(1) aviation.

(2) highway and motor vehicle.

(3) rail and tracked vehicle.

(4) pipeline.


(h) Chief Financial Officer.—The Chairman shall designate an officer or employee of the Board as the Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall—

(1) report directly to the Chairman on financial management and budget execution;

(2) direct, manage, and provide policy guidance and oversight on financial management and property and inventory control; and

(3) review the fees, rents, and other charges imposed by the Board for services and things of value it provides, and suggest appropriate revisions to those charges to reflect costs incurred by the Board in providing those services and things of value.


(i) Seal.—The Board shall have a seal that shall be judicially recognized.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 746; Pub. L. 106–424, §10, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1886.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1111(a) 49 App.:1902(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §303(a), (b)(2)– (c), 88 Stat. 2167, 2168.
1111(b) 49 App.:1902(b)(1) (1st sentence words before comma, 2d–last sentences). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §303(b)(1), 88 Stat. 2167; Oct. 14, 1982, Pub. L. 97–309, §1 (1st sentence), 96 Stat. 1453.
1111(c) 49 App.:1902(b)(2).
1111(d) 49 App.:1902(b)(1) (1st sentence words after comma), (3) (1st, 2d, 4th sentences).
1111(e) 49 App.:1902(b)(3) (3d, last sentences), (c)(3).
1111(f) 49 App.:1902(b)(4).
1111(g) 49 App.:1902(b)(5), (c)(1).
1111(h) 49 App.:1902(c)(2).

In subsection (a), the words “previously established within the Department of Transportation” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “in accordance with this section, on and after April 1, 1975” are omitted as executed.

In subsection (c), the words “except as otherwise provided in this paragraph” are omitted as surplus. The text of 49 App.:1902(b)(2) (4th sentence) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (d), the words “On or before January 1, 1976” are omitted as executed. The words “(and thereafter as required)” and “(hereafter in this chapter referred to as the ‘Chairman’)” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (e), before clause (1), the words “is the chief executive and administrative officer of the Board” are substituted for “shall be the chief executive officer of the Board and shall exercise the executive and administrative functions of the Board” for clarity. The words “Subject to the general policies and decisions of the Board, the Chairman shall” are substituted for 49 App.:1902(b)(3) (last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words “Subject to the civil service and classification laws” are omitted as unnecessary because of title 5, United States Code, especially sections 3301, 5101, and 5331. The words “the Board is authorized” are omitted for consistency because the authority to appoint officers and employees is vested in the Chairman subject to the “general policies and decisions of the Board” as provided in the source provisions. The words “including investigators, attorneys, and administrative law judges” are omitted as covered by “officers and employees”. The words “carry out this chapter” are substituted for “carry out its powers and duties under this chapter” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (3), the words “expenditures of the Board” are substituted for “the use and expenditure of funds” for clarity.

In subsection (f), the words “duties and powers” are substituted for “function” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (g), the text of 49 App.:1902(c)(1) is omitted as unnecessary because of 40:ch. 10.

Amendments

2000—Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 106–424 added subsec. (h) and redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i).

Improved Audit Procedures

Pub. L. 106–424, §11, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1887, provided that: “The National Transportation Safety Board, in consultation with the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation, shall develop and implement comprehensive internal audit controls for its financial programs based on the findings and recommendations of the private sector audit firm contract entered into by the Board in March, 2000. The improved internal audit controls shall, at a minimum, address Board asset management systems, including systems for accounting management, debt collection, travel, and property and inventory management and control.”

§1112. Special boards of inquiry on air transportation safety

(a) Establishment.—If an accident involves a substantial question about public safety in air transportation, the National Transportation Safety Board may establish a special board of inquiry composed of—

(1) one member of the Board acting as chairman; and

(2) 2 members representing the public, appointed by the President on notification of the establishment of the special board of inquiry.


(b) Qualifications and Conflicts of Interest.—The public members of a special board of inquiry must be qualified by training and experience to participate in the inquiry and may not have a pecuniary interest in an aviation enterprise involved in the accident to be investigated.

(c) Authority.—A special board of inquiry has the same authority that the Board has under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 747.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1112 49 App.:1443. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §703, 72 Stat. 782.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), 88 Stat. 2168.

In subsection (c), the words “when convened to investigate an accident certified to it by the National Transportation Safety Board” are omitted as surplus.

§1113. Administrative

(a) General Authority.—(1) The National Transportation Safety Board, and when authorized by it, a member of the Board, an administrative law judge employed by or assigned to the Board, or an officer or employee designated by the Chairman of the Board, may conduct hearings to carry out this chapter, administer oaths, and require, by subpena or otherwise, necessary witnesses and evidence.

(2) A witness or evidence in a hearing under paragraph (1) of this subsection may be summoned or required to be produced from any place in the United States to the designated place of the hearing. A witness summoned under this subsection is entitled to the same fee and mileage the witness would have been paid in a court of the United States.

(3) A subpena shall be issued under the signature of the Chairman or the Chairman's delegate but may be served by any person designated by the Chairman.

(4) If a person disobeys a subpena, order, or inspection notice of the Board, the Board may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to enforce the subpena, order, or notice. An action under this paragraph may be brought in the judicial district in which the person against whom the action is brought resides, is found, or does business. The court may punish a failure to obey an order of the court to comply with the subpena, order, or notice as a contempt of court.

(b) Additional Powers.—(1) The Board may—

(A) procure the temporary or intermittent services of experts or consultants under section 3109 of title 5;

(B) make agreements and other transactions necessary to carry out this chapter without regard to section 3709 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5);

(C) use, when appropriate, available services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government on a reimbursable or other basis;

(D) confer with employees and use services, records, and facilities of State and local governmental authorities;

(E) appoint advisory committees composed of qualified private citizens and officials of the Government and State and local governments as appropriate;

(F) accept voluntary and uncompensated services notwithstanding another law;

(G) accept gifts of money and other property;

(H) make contracts with nonprofit entities to carry out studies related to duties and powers of the Board; and

(I) negotiate and enter into agreements with individuals and private entities and departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, State and local governments, and governments of foreign countries for the provision of facilities, accident-related and technical services or training in accident investigation theory and techniques, and require that such entities provide appropriate consideration for the reasonable costs of any facilities, goods, services, or training provided by the Board.


(2) The Board shall deposit in the Treasury amounts received under paragraph (1)(I) of this subsection to be credited as offsetting collections to the appropriation of the Board. The Board shall maintain an annual record of collections received under paragraph (1)(I) of this subsection.

(c) Submission of Certain Copies to Congress.—When the Board submits to the President or the Director of the Office of Management and Budget a budget estimate, budget request, supplemental budget estimate, other budget information, a legislative recommendation, prepared testimony for congressional hearings, or comments on legislation, the Board must submit a copy to Congress at the same time. An officer, department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government may not require the Board to submit the estimate, request, information, recommendation, testimony, or comments to another officer, department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government for approval, comment, or review before being submitted to Congress.

(d) Liaison Committees.—The Chairman may determine the number of committees that are appropriate to maintain effective liaison with other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, State and local governmental authorities, and independent standard-setting authorities that carry out programs and activities related to transportation safety. The Board may designate representatives to serve on or assist those committees.

(e) Inquiries.—The Board, or an officer or employee of the Board designated by the Chairman, may conduct an inquiry to obtain information related to transportation safety after publishing notice of the inquiry in the Federal Register. The Board or designated officer or employee may require by order a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government, a State or local governmental authority, or a person transporting individuals or property in commerce to submit to the Board a written report and answers to requests and questions related to a duty or power of the Board. The Board may prescribe the time within which the report and answers must be given to the Board or to the designated officer or employee. Copies of the report and answers shall be made available for public inspection.

(f) Regulations.—The Board may prescribe regulations to carry out this chapter.

(g) Overtime Pay.—

(1) In general.—Subject to the requirements of this section and notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 5542(a) of title 5, for an employee of the Board whose basic pay is at a rate which equals or exceeds the minimum rate of basic pay for GS–10 of the General Schedule, the Board may establish an overtime hourly rate of pay for the employee with respect to work performed at the scene of an accident (including travel to or from the scene) and other work that is critical to an accident investigation in an amount equal to one and one-half times the hourly rate of basic pay of the employee. All of such amount shall be considered to be premium pay.

(2) Limitation on overtime pay to an employee.—An employee of the Board may not receive overtime pay under paragraph (1), for work performed in a calendar year, in an amount that exceeds 15 percent of the annual rate of basic pay of the employee for such calendar year.

(3) Limitation on total amount of overtime pay.—The Board may not make overtime payments under paragraph (1) for work performed in any fiscal year in a total amount that exceeds 1.5 percent of the amount appropriated to carry out this chapter for that fiscal year.

(4) Basic pay defined.—In this subsection, the term “basic pay” includes any applicable locality-based comparability payment under section 5304 of title 5 (or similar provision of law) and any special rate of pay under section 5305 of title 5 (or similar provision of law).

(5) Annual report.—Not later than January 31, 2002, and annually thereafter, the Board shall transmit to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee a report identifying the total amount of overtime payments made under this subsection in the preceding fiscal year, and the number of employees whose overtime pay under this subsection was limited in that fiscal year as a result of the 15 percent limit established by paragraph (2).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 747; Pub. L. 106–424, §§3(a), (b)(1), 4, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1883, 1884.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1113(a) 49 App.:1903(b)(1), (3). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), (b)(1), (3), (4), (7)–(9), 88 Stat. 2168, 2169, 2170; July 19, 1988, Pub. L. 100–372, §4, 102 Stat. 876.
1113(b)(1)(A) 49 App.:1441(b) (words before semicolon). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §701(b), 72 Stat. 781.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A), (b)(6)(C).
1113(b)(1)(B) 49 App.:1903(b)(4).
1113(b)(1)(C) 49 App.:1441(b) (words after semicolon).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).
  49 App.:1903(b)(6)(A). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(b)(6), 88 Stat. 2170; July 19, 1988, Pub. L. 100–372, §5, 102 Stat. 877.
1113(b) (1)(D)–(I), (2) 49 App.:1903(b)(6)(B), (D)–(H).
1113(c) 49 App.:1903(b)(7).
1113(d) 49 App.:1903(b)(8).
1113(e) 49 App.:1903(b)(9).
1113(f) 49 App.:1903(b)(12). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(b)(12), 88 Stat. 2171; July 19, 1988, Pub. L. 100–372, §4, 102 Stat. 876; Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §6, 104 Stat. 4656.

In subsection (a)(1), the words “sit and act at such times and places” are omitted as unnecessary. The word “necessary” is substituted for “as the Board or such officer or employee deems advisable” because it is more accurate.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “the witness would have been” are added for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(4), the words “If a person disobeys” are substituted for “In case of contumacy or refusal to obey” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “of the Board” are substituted for “of the Board, or of any duly designated employee thereof” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the Board may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States” are substituted for “such district court shall, upon the request of the Board, have jurisdiction” for consistency in the revised title and because of 28:1331. The word “forthwith” is omitted as surplus. The words “An action under this paragraph may be brought in the judicial district” are added for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1)(A), the text of 49 App.:1441(b) (words before semicolon) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:1903(b)(6)(C).

In subsection (b)(1)(B), the words “make agreements and other transactions” are substituted for “enter into . . . such contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, or other transactions” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “to carry out this chapter” are substituted for “in the conduct of the functions and the duties of the Board under this chapter” for consistency. The words “with any government entity or any person” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1)(C), the words “Department of Transportation and of other” are omitted as surplus. The words “department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government” are substituted for “civilian or military agencies and instrumentalities of the Federal Government” in 49 App.:1903(b)(6)(A) for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The text of 49 App.:1441(b) (words after semicolon) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:1903(b)(6)(A).

In subsection (b)(1)(D), the word “available” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1)(E), the words “one or more” are omitted as surplus because the authority to appoint advisory committees is discretionary and unlimited on its face. The word “appropriate” is substituted for “necessary or appropriate” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act” are omitted as surplus because that Act applies unless specifically excluded. (See 5 App. U.S.C.)

In subsection (b)(1)(G), the words “gifts of money and other property” are substituted for “gifts or donations of money or property (real, personal, mixed, tangible, or intangible)” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1)(H), the words “public or private” are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (b)(2) is substituted for “and to apply the funds received to the Board's appropriations” for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c), the word “submits” is substituted for “submits or transmits” for consistency. The words “Director of the Office of Management and Budget” are substituted for “Office of Management and Budget” because of 31:502(a).

In subsection (d), the word “appropriate” is substituted for “necessary or appropriate” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e), the words “officer or employee” are substituted for “employee” for consistency in the revised title. The words “by order” are substituted for “by special or general orders” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “individuals” is substituted for “people” for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (f), the words “prescribe regulations to carry out this chapter” are substituted for “rules and regulations as may be necessary to the exercise of its functions” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code and because “rule” and “regulation” are synonymous.

References in Text

GS–10 of the General Schedule, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), is set out under section 5332 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (b)(1)(I). Pub. L. 106–424, §3(a), amended subpar. (I) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (I) read as follows: “require that the departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, State and local governments, and governments of foreign countries provide appropriate consideration for the reasonable costs of goods and services supplied by the Board.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–424, §3(b)(1), inserted “as offsetting collections” after “to be credited” and “The Board shall maintain an annual record of collections received under paragraph (1)(I) of this subsection.” at end.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–424, §4, added subsec. (g).

Travel Budgets

Pub. L. 106–424, §9, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1886, provided that: “The Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board shall establish annual fiscal year budgets for non-accident-related travel expenditures for Board members which shall be approved by the Board and submitted to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and to the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure together with an annual report detailing the non-accident-related travel of each Board member. The report shall include separate accounting for foreign and domestic travel, including any personnel or other expenses associated with that travel.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1131, 1132 of this title.

§1114. Disclosure, availability, and use of information

(a) General.—(1) Except as provided in subsections (b), (c), (d), and (f) of this section, a copy of a record, information, or investigation submitted or received by the National Transportation Safety Board, or a member or employee of the Board, shall be made available to the public on identifiable request and at reasonable cost. This subsection does not require the release of information described by section 552(b) of title 5 or protected from disclosure by another law of the United States.

(2) The Board shall deposit in the Treasury amounts received under paragraph (1) to be credited to the appropriation of the Board as offsetting collections.

(b) Trade Secrets.—(1) The Board may disclose information related to a trade secret referred to in section 1905 of title 18 only—

(A) to another department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government when requested for official use;

(B) to a committee of Congress having jurisdiction over the subject matter to which the information is related, when requested by that committee;

(C) in a judicial proceeding under a court order that preserves the confidentiality of the information without impairing the proceeding; and

(D) to the public to protect health and safety after giving notice to any interested person to whom the information is related and an opportunity for that person to comment in writing, or orally in closed session, on the proposed disclosure, if the delay resulting from notice and opportunity for comment would not be detrimental to health and safety.


(2) Information disclosed under paragraph (1) of this subsection may be disclosed only in a way designed to preserve its confidentiality.

(3) Protection of Voluntary Submission of Information.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, neither the Board, nor any agency receiving information from the Board, shall disclose voluntarily provided safety-related information if that information is not related to the exercise of the Board's accident or incident investigation authority under this chapter and if the Board finds that the disclosure of the information would inhibit the voluntary provision of that type of information.

(c) Cockpit Recordings and Transcripts.—(1) The Board may not disclose publicly any part of a cockpit voice or video recorder recording or transcript of oral communications by and between flight crew members and ground stations related to an accident or incident investigated by the Board. However, the Board shall make public any part of a transcript or any written depiction of visual information the Board decides is relevant to the accident or incident—

(A) if the Board holds a public hearing on the accident or incident, at the time of the hearing; or

(B) if the Board does not hold a public hearing, at the time a majority of the other factual reports on the accident or incident are placed in the public docket.


(2) This subsection does not prevent the Board from referring at any time to cockpit voice or video recorder information in making safety recommendations.

(d) Surface Vehicle Recordings and Transcripts.—

(1) Confidentiality of recordings.—The Board may not disclose publicly any part of a surface vehicle voice or video recorder recording or transcript of oral communications by or among drivers, train employees, or other operating employees responsible for the movement and direction of the vehicle or vessel, or between such operating employees and company communication centers, related to an accident investigated by the Board. However, the Board shall make public any part of a transcript or any written depiction of visual information that the Board decides is relevant to the accident—

(A) if the Board holds a public hearing on the accident, at the time of the hearing; or

(B) if the Board does not hold a public hearing, at the time a majority of the other factual reports on the accident are placed in the public docket.


(2) References to information in making safety recommendations.—This subsection does not prevent the Board from referring at any time to voice or video recorder information in making safety recommendations.


(e) Drug Tests.—(1) Notwithstanding section 503(e) of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1987 (Public Law 100–71, 101 Stat. 471), the Secretary of Transportation shall provide the following information to the Board when requested in writing by the Board:

(A) any report of a confirmed positive toxicological test, verified as positive by a medical review officer, conducted on an officer or employee of the Department of Transportation under post-accident, unsafe practice, or reasonable suspicion toxicological testing requirements of the Department, when the officer or employee is reasonably associated with the circumstances of an accident or incident under the investigative jurisdiction of the Board.

(B) any laboratory record documenting that the test is confirmed positive.


(2) Except as provided by paragraph (3) of this subsection, the Board shall maintain the confidentiality of, and exempt from disclosure under section 552(b)(3) of title 5—

(A) a laboratory record provided the Board under paragraph (1) of this subsection that reveals medical use of a drug allowed under applicable regulations; and

(B) medical information provided by the tested officer or employee related to the test or a review of the test.


(3) The Board may use a laboratory record made available under paragraph (1) of this subsection to develop an evidentiary record in an investigation of an accident or incident if—

(A) the fitness of the tested officer or employee is at issue in the investigation; and

(B) the use of that record is necessary to develop the evidentiary record.


(f) Foreign Investigations.—

(1) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, neither the Board, nor any agency receiving information from the Board, shall disclose records or information relating to its participation in foreign aircraft accident investigations; except that—

(A) the Board shall release records pertaining to such an investigation when the country conducting the investigation issues its final report or 2 years following the date of the accident, whichever occurs first; and

(B) the Board may disclose records and information when authorized to do so by the country conducting the investigation.


(2) Safety recommendations.—Nothing in this subsection shall restrict the Board at any time from referring to foreign accident investigation information in making safety recommendations.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 749; Pub. L. 104–291, title I, §§102, 103, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3452; Pub. L. 106–424, §§3(b)(2), 5(a), (b), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1884, 1885.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1114(a) 49 App.:1905(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §306(a), (b), 88 Stat. 2172; Oct. 14, 1982, Pub. L. 97–309, §2, 96 Stat. 1453.
1114(b) 49 App.:1905(b).
1114(c) 49 App.:1905(c). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §306(c); added Oct. 14, 1982, Pub. L. 97–309, §2, 96 Stat. 1453; restated Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §4, 104 Stat. 4654.
1114(d)(1) 49 App.:1903(b) (11)(A). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §304(b)(11); added Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §6, 104 Stat. 4656.
1114(d)(2) 49 App.:1903(b) (11)(B).
1114(d)(3) 49 App.:1903(b) (11)(C).

In subsection (a), the words “record, information, or investigation” are substituted for “communication, document, investigation, or other report, or information” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “of the United States” are added for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words “Notwithstanding any other provision of law” are omitted as surplus. The word “relevant” is substituted for “relevant and pertinent” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), the words “officer or employee” are substituted for “employee” for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (d)(2), before clause (A), the words “maintain the confidentiality of” are substituted for “maintain in confidence” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. In clause (A), the words “of a confirmed and verified toxicological test” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the source provisions in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

In subsection (d)(3), the words “laboratory record made available under paragraph (1) of this subsection” are substituted for “such a laboratory record” for clarity.

References in Text

Section 503(e) of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1987, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is section 503(e) of Pub. L. 100–71, which is set out as a note under section 7301 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–424, §§3(b)(2), 5(b)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “(d), and (f)” for “and (e)” in first sentence, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–424, §5(a)(1), struck out “Voice” after “Cockpit” in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–424, §5(a)(2), (3), substituted “cockpit voice or video recorder” for “cockpit voice recorder” in first sentence and inserted “or any written depiction of visual information” after “transcript” in second sentence.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 106–424, §5(a)(2), substituted “cockpit voice or video recorder” for “cockpit voice recorder”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–424, §5(b)(1)(B), which directed the addition of subsec. (d) after subsec. (e), was executed by adding subsec. (d) before subsec. (e) to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 106–424, §5(b)(1)(A), redesignated subsecs. (d) and (e) as (e) and (f), respectively.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–291, §102(1), substituted “(b), (c), and (e)” for “(b) and (c)”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–291, §103, added par. (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–291, §102(2), added subsec. (e).

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1154 of this title.

§1115. Training

(a) Definition.—In this section, “Institute” means the Transportation Safety Institute of the Department of Transportation and any successor organization of the Institute.

(b) Use of Institute Services.—The National Transportation Safety Board may use, on a reimbursable basis, the services of the Institute. The Secretary of Transportation shall make the Institute available to—

(1) the Board for safety training of employees of the Board in carrying out their duties and powers; and

(2) other safety personnel of the United States Government, State and local governments, governments of foreign countries, interstate authorities, and private organizations the Board designates in consultation with the Secretary.


(c) Fees.—(1) Training at the Institute for safety personnel (except employees of the Government) shall be provided at a reasonable fee established periodically by the Board in consultation with the Secretary. The fee shall be paid directly to the Secretary, and the Secretary shall deposit the fee in the Treasury. The amount of the fee—

(A) shall be credited to the appropriate appropriation (subject to the requirements of any annual appropriation); and

(B) is an offset against any annual reimbursement agreement between the Board and the Secretary to cover all reasonable costs of providing training under this subsection that the Secretary incurs in operating the Institute.


(2) The Board shall maintain an annual record of offsets under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection.

(d) Training of board employees and others.—The Board may conduct training of its employees in those subjects necessary for the proper performance of accident investigation. The Board may also authorize attendance at courses given under this subsection by other government personnel, personnel of foreign governments, and personnel from industry or otherwise who have a requirement for accident investigation training. The Board may require non-Board personnel to reimburse some or all of the training costs, and amounts so reimbursed shall be credited to the appropriation of the Board as offsetting collections.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 750; Pub. L. 104–291, title I, §104, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3453; Pub. L. 106–424, §3(b)(3), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1884.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1115(a) (no source).
1115(b) 49 App.:1903(b)(10) (1st, 2d sentences). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(b)(10), 88 Stat. 2156; added July 19, 1988, Pub. L. 100–372, §4, 102 Stat. 876.
1115(c) 49 App.:1903(b)(10) (3d–last sentences).

In subsections (b) and (c), the words “or successor organization” are omitted as unnecessary because of subsection (a) of this section.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “(established for the purpose of developing courses and conducting training in safety and security for all modes of transportation)” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “carrying out their duties and powers” are substituted for “in the performance of all of their authorized functions” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (2), the words “of the United States Government, State and local governments, governments of foreign countries, interstate authorities, and private organizations” are substituted for “of Federal, interstate, State, local, and foreign governments and non-governmental organizations” for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words “the Secretary shall deposit the fee in the Treasury” are added for clarity. In clause (B), the words “direct and indirect” are omitted as surplus. The word “administration” is omitted as being included in “operating”. The text of 49 App.:1903(b)(10) (last sentence) is omitted because 5:ch. 41 applies to the National Transportation Safety Board by its own terms.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–424 substituted “of the Board” for “of the ‘National Transportation Safety Board, Salaries and Expenses’ ”.

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–291 added subsec. (d).

§1116. Reports and studies

(a) Periodic Reports.—The National Transportation Safety Board shall report periodically to Congress, departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government and State and local governmental authorities concerned with transportation safety, and other interested persons. The report shall—

(1) advocate meaningful responses to reduce the likelihood of transportation accidents similar to those investigated by the Board; and

(2) propose corrective action to make the transportation of individuals as safe and free from risk of injury as possible, including action to minimize personal injuries that occur in transportation accidents.


(b) Studies, Investigations, and Other Reports.—The Board also shall—

(1) carry out special studies and investigations about transportation safety, including avoiding personal injury;

(2) examine techniques and methods of accident investigation and periodically publish recommended procedures for accident investigations;

(3) prescribe requirements for persons reporting accidents and aviation incidents that—

(A) may be investigated by the Board under this chapter; or

(B) involve public aircraft (except aircraft of the armed forces and the intelligence agencies);


(4) evaluate, examine the effectiveness of, and publish the findings of the Board about the transportation safety consciousness of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government and their effectiveness in preventing accidents; and

(5) evaluate the adequacy of safeguards and procedures for the transportation of hazardous material and the performance of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government responsible for the safe transportation of that material.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 751.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1116(a) 49 App.:1441(a)(3), (5) (related to reducing accidents). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §701(a)(3), (5), 72 Stat. 781.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A), (3). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), (3)–(5), (7), (8), 88 Stat. 2168, 2169.
1116(b)(1) 49 App.:1441(a)(5) (related to studies).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A), (4).
1116(b) (2)–(5) 49 App.:1903(a)(5).
  49 App.:1903(a)(6). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(6), 88 Stat. 2169; Nov. 3, 1981, Pub. L. 97–74, §4, 95 Stat. 1065; Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, §311(a), 101 Stat. 1528.
  49 App.:1903(a)(7), (8).

In subsection (a)(1), the word “recommending” is omitted as being included in “advocate” in 49 App.:1903(a)(3). The word “recurrence” is omitted as surplus. The text of 49 App.:1441(a)(3) and (5) (related to reducing accidents) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:1903(a)(3).

In subsection (b)(1), the words “carry out” are substituted for “initiate and conduct” in 49 App.:1903(a)(4) for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The text of 49 App.:1441(a)(5) (related to studies) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:1903(a)(4).

In subsection (b)(2), the word “examine” is substituted for “assess and reassess” for clarity. The words “prepare and” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the words “by regulation” are omitted as unnecessary because of section 1113(f) of the revised title.

In subsection (b)(4), the word “effectiveness” is substituted for “efficacy” for clarity.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1131 of this title.

§1117. Annual report

The National Transportation Safety Board shall submit a report to Congress on July 1 of each year. The report shall include—

(1) a statistical and analytical summary of the transportation accident investigations conducted and reviewed by the Board during the prior calendar year;

(2) a survey and summary of the recommendations made by the Board to reduce the likelihood of recurrence of those accidents together with the observed response to each recommendation; and

(3) a detailed appraisal of the accident investigation and accident prevention activities of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government and State and local governmental authorities having responsibility for those activities under a law of the United States or a State.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 751; Pub. L. 104–66, title II, §2151, Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 731.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1117 49 App.:1904. Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §305, 88 Stat. 2171.

In this section, before clause (1), the words “but need not be limited to” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words “in such detail as the Board deems advisable” are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the words “departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government and State and local governmental authorities” are substituted for “other government agencies” for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “for those activities” are substituted for “in this field” for clarity. In clause (4), the word “evaluation” is substituted for “appraisal and evaluation and review” because it is inclusive.

Amendments

1995—Par. (4). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “an evaluation conducted every 2 years of transportation safety and recommendations for legislative and administrative action and change.”

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which the 9th item on page 185 identifies a reporting provision which, as subsequently amended, is contained in this section), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

§1118. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In General.—There are authorized to be appropriated for the purposes of this chapter $57,000,000 for fiscal year 2000, $65,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, and $72,000,000 for fiscal year 2002, such sums to remain available until expended.

(b) Emergency Fund.—The Board has an emergency fund of $2,000,000 available for necessary expenses of the Board, not otherwise provided for, for accident investigations. Amounts equal to the amounts expended annually out of the fund are authorized to be appropriated to the emergency fund.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 752; Pub. L. 103–411, §2, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4236; Pub. L. 104–291, title I, §105, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3453; Pub. L. 106–424, §13, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1888.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1118(a) 49 App.:1907(a) (1st–6th, last sentences). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §309(a), 88 Stat. 2173; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–481, 90 Stat. 2080; Sept. 11, 1978, Pub. L. 95–363, §2, 92 Stat. 597; Nov. 3, 1981, Pub. L. 97–74, §2, 95 Stat. 1065; June 6, 1983, Pub. L. 98–37, 97 Stat. 204; July 19, 1988, Pub. L. 100–372, §2, 102 Stat. 876; Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §2, 104 Stat. 4654.
1118(b) 49 App.:1907(b) (1st, 2d sentences). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §309(b); added July 19, 1988, Pub. L. 100–372, §2(b), 102 Stat. 876.
1118(c) 49 App.:1907(a) (7th sentence), (b) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words “to the National Transportation Safety Board” are added for clarity and consistency in the revised title. References to the fiscal years ending June 30, 1975, through September 30, 1992, are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “amounts equal to amounts expended annually out of the fund” are substituted for “to replenish the fund annually” for clarity.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–424 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(a) In General.—There is authorized to be appropriated for the purposes of this chapter $37,580,000 for fiscal year 1994, $44,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, $45,100,000 for fiscal year 1996, $42,400,00 for fiscal year 1997, $44,400,000 for fiscal year 1998, and $46,600,000 for fiscal year 1999. Such sums shall remain available until expended.

“(b) Emergency Fund.—The Board has an emergency fund of $1,000,000 available for necessary expenses of the Board, not otherwise provided for, for accident investigations. The following amounts may be appropriated to the fund:

“(1) $1,000,000 to establish the fund.

“(2) amounts equal to amounts expended annually out of the fund.

“(c) Availability of Amounts.—Amounts appropriated under this section remain available until expended.”

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–291 struck out “and” after “1995,” and inserted “, $42,400,00 for fiscal year 1997, $44,400,000 for fiscal year 1998, and $46,600,000 for fiscal year 1999.” before period at end of first sentence.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–411 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Not more than $38,800,000 may be appropriated to the National Transportation Safety Board for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993, to carry out this chapter.”

§1119. Accident and safety data classification and publication

(a) In General.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this section, the National Transportation Safety Board shall, in consultation and coordination with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, develop a system for classifying air carrier accident data maintained by the Board.

(b) Requirements for Classification System.—

(1) In general.—The system developed under this section shall provide for the classification of accident and safety data in a manner that, in comparison to the system in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, provides for safety-related categories that provide clearer descriptions of accidents associated with air transportation, including a more refined classification of accidents which involve fatalities, injuries, or substantial damage and which are only related to the operation of an aircraft.

(2) Public comment.—In developing a system of classification under paragraph (1), the Board shall provide adequate opportunity for public review and comment.

(3) Final classification.—After providing for public review and comment, and after consulting with the Administrator, the Board shall issue final classifications. The Board shall ensure that air travel accident covered under this section is classified in accordance with the final classifications issued under this section for data for calendar year 1997, and for each subsequent calendar year.

(4) Publication.—The Board shall publish on a periodic basis accident and safety data in accordance with the final classifications issued under paragraph (3).

(5) Recommendations of the administrator.—The Administrator may, from time to time, request the Board to consider revisions (including additions to the classification system developed under this section). The Board shall respond to any request made by the Administrator under this section not later than 90 days after receiving that request.

(Added Pub. L. 104–264, title IV, §407(a)(1), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3257.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–264, which was approved Oct. 9, 1996.

Effective Date

Except as otherwise specifically provided, section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 106 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—AUTHORITY

§1131. General authority

(a) General.—(1) The National Transportation Safety Board shall investigate or have investigated (in detail the Board prescribes) and establish the facts, circumstances, and cause or probable cause of—

(A) an aircraft accident the Board has authority to investigate under section 1132 of this title or an aircraft accident involving a public aircraft as defined by section 40102(a)(37) of this title other than an aircraft operated by the Armed Forces or by an intelligence agency of the United States;

(B) a highway accident, including a railroad grade crossing accident, the Board selects in cooperation with a State;

(C) a railroad accident in which there is a fatality or substantial property damage, or that involves a passenger train;

(D) a pipeline accident in which there is a fatality, substantial property damage, or significant injury to the environment;

(E) a major marine casualty (except a casualty involving only public vessels) occurring on the navigable waters or territorial sea of the United States, or involving a vessel of the United States, under regulations prescribed jointly by the Board and the head of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating; and

(F) any other accident related to the transportation of individuals or property when the Board decides—

(i) the accident is catastrophic;

(ii) the accident involves problems of a recurring character; or

(iii) the investigation of the accident would carry out this chapter.


(2)(A) Subject to the requirements of this paragraph, an investigation by the Board under paragraph (1)(A)–(D) or (F) of this subsection has priority over any investigation by another department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government. The Board shall provide for appropriate participation by other departments, agencies, or instrumentalities in the investigation. However, those departments, agencies, or instrumentalities may not participate in the decision of the Board about the probable cause of the accident.

(B) If the Attorney General, in consultation with the Chairman of the Board, determines and notifies the Board that circumstances reasonably indicate that the accident may have been caused by an intentional criminal act, the Board shall relinquish investigative priority to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The relinquishment of investigative priority by the Board shall not otherwise affect the authority of the Board to continue its investigation under this section.

(C) If a Federal law enforcement agency suspects and notifies the Board that an accident being investigated by the Board under subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (1) may have been caused by an intentional criminal act, the Board, in consultation with the law enforcement agency, shall take necessary actions to ensure that evidence of the criminal act is preserved.

(3) This section and sections 1113, 1116(b), 1133, and 1134(a) and (c)–(e) of this title do not affect the authority of another department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government to investigate an accident under applicable law or to obtain information directly from the parties involved in, and witnesses to, the accident. The Board and other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities shall ensure that appropriate information developed about the accident is exchanged in a timely manner.

(b) Accidents Involving Public Vessels.—(1) The Board or the head of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall investigate and establish the facts, circumstances, and cause or probable cause of a marine accident involving a public vessel and any other vessel. The results of the investigation shall be made available to the public.

(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection and subsection (a)(1)(E) of this section do not affect the responsibility, under another law of the United States, of the head of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.

(c) Accidents Not Involving Government Misfeasance or Nonfeasance.—(1) When asked by the Board, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(A) investigate an accident described under subsection (a) or (b) of this section in which misfeasance or nonfeasance by the Government has not been alleged; and

(B) report the facts and circumstances of the accident to the Board.


(2) The Board shall use the report in establishing cause or probable cause of an accident described under subsection (a) or (b) of this section.

(d) Accidents Involving Public Aircraft.—The Board, in furtherance of its investigative duties with respect to public aircraft accidents under subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section, shall have the same duties and powers as are specified for civil aircraft accidents under sections 1132(a), 1132(b), and 1134(a), (b), (d), and (f) of this title.

(e) Accident Reports.—The Board shall report on the facts and circumstances of each accident investigated by it under subsection (a) or (b) of this section. The Board shall make each report available to the public at reasonable cost.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 752; Pub. L. 103–411, §3(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4237; Pub. L. 106–424, §§6(a), 7, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1885, 1886.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1131(a)(1) 49 App.:1903(a) (1)(A)–(E) (less last sentence of (E)), (F). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A)–(F), 88 Stat. 2168; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §303, 106 Stat. 3307.
1131(a)(2) 49 App.:1903(a)(1) (2d, 3d sentences). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1) (less (A)–(F)), 88 Stat. 2168; Nov. 3, 1981, Pub. L. 97–74, §3, 95 Stat. 1065.
1131(a)(3) 49 App.:1903(a)(1) (4th, 5th sentences).
1131(b) 49 App.:1903(a)(1)(E) (last sentence).
1131(c) 49 App.:1441(f). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §701(a)(4), (f), 72 Stat. 781.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A) (6th, last sentences).
1131(d) 49 App.:1441(a)(4).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).
  49 App.:1903(a)(2). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(2), 88 Stat. 2168; July 19, 1988, Pub. L. 100–372, §3(a), 102 Stat. 876.

In this section, the word “conditions” is omitted as being included in “circumstances”. The words “head of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating” are substituted for “Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(1)(A), the words “the Board has authority to investigate under section 1132 of this title” are substituted for “which is within the scope of the functions, powers, and duties transferred from the Civil Aeronautics Board under section 1655(d) of this Appendix pursuant to title VII of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended [49 App. U.S.C. 1441 et seq.]” because of the restatement.

In subsection (a)(1)(F), before subclause (i), the word “decides” is substituted for “in the judgment of” for clarity. The word “individuals” is substituted for “people” for consistency in the revised title. In subclause (iii), the words “the investigation of” are added as being more precise.

In subsection (a)(3), the word “developed” is substituted for “obtained or developed” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(2), the word “affect” is substituted for “eliminate or diminish” for clarity.

In subsection (c), the text of 49 App.:1441(f) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:1903(a)(1) (6th, last sentences).

In subsection (d), the words “in writing” in 49 App.:1903(a)(2) are omitted as surplus. The words “by it” are added for clarity. The text of 49 App.:1441(a)(4) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A) and (2).

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–424, §6(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “Subject to the requirements of this paragraph, an investigation” for “An investigation”, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–424, §7, substituted “1134(a), (b), (d), and (f)” for “1134(b)(2)”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–411, §3(c)(1), inserted before semicolon at end “or an aircraft accident involving a public aircraft as defined by section 40102(a)(37) of this title other than an aircraft operated by the Armed Forces or by an intelligence agency of the United States”.

Subsec. (d), (e). Pub. L. 103–411, §3(c)(2), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 3(d) of Pub. L. 103–411 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (c) [amending this section and section 40102 of this title] shall take effect on the 180th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994].”

Revision of 1977 Agreement

Pub. L. 106–424, §6(b), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1886, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000], the National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall revise their 1977 agreement on the investigation of accidents to take into account the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 2000 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title].”

Memorandum of Understanding

Pub. L. 106–424, §8, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1886, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000], the National Transportation Safety Board and the United States Coast Guard shall revise their Memorandum of Understanding governing major marine accidents—

“(1) to redefine or clarify the standards used to determine when the National Transportation Safety Board will lead an investigation; and

“(2) to develop new standards to determine when a major marine accident involves significant safety issues relating to Coast Guard safety functions.”

Territorial Sea of United States

For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

§1132. Civil aircraft accident investigations

(a) General Authority.—(1) The National Transportation Safety Board shall investigate—

(A) each accident involving civil aircraft; and

(B) with the participation of appropriate military authorities, each accident involving both military and civil aircraft.


(2) A person employed under section 1113(b)(1) of this title that is conducting an investigation or hearing about an aircraft accident has the same authority to conduct the investigation or hearing as the Board.

(b) Notification and Reporting.—The Board shall prescribe regulations governing the notification and reporting of accidents involving civil aircraft.

(c) Participation of Secretary.—The Board shall provide for the participation of the Secretary of Transportation in the investigation of an aircraft accident under this chapter when participation is necessary to carry out the duties and powers of the Secretary. However, the Secretary may not participate in establishing probable cause.

(d) Accidents Involving Only Military Aircraft.—If an accident involves only military aircraft and a duty of the Secretary is or may be involved, the military authorities shall provide for the participation of the Secretary. In any other accident involving only military aircraft, the military authorities shall give the Board or Secretary information the military authorities decide would contribute to the promotion of air safety.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 753.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1132(a)(1) 49 App.:1441(a)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§701(a)(1), (2), (c) (1st sentence), (g), 702, 72 Stat. 781, 782.
  49 App.:1442(a).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), 88 Stat. 2168.
1132(a)(2) 49 App.:1441(c) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).
1132(b) 49 App.:1441(a)(1).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).
1132(c) 49 App.:1441(g).
  49 App.:1655(c)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).
1132(d) 49 App.:1442(b), (c).
  49 App.:1655(c)(1), (d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).

In subsection (a)(1)(A), the words “and report the facts, conditions, and circumstances related to each accident and the probable cause thereof” in 49 App.:1441(a)(2) are omitted as unnecessary because of section 1131(d) of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1)(B), the words “provide for” in 49 App.:1442(a) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “any member of the National Transportation Safety Board or any officer or employee of the National Transportation Safety Board” in 49 App.:1441(c) are omitted as unnecessary because of sections 1113 and 1134 of the revised title.

In subsections (c) and (d), the words “Secretary of Transportation” and “Secretary” are substituted for “Administrator” in sections 701(g) and 702(b) and (c) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 782) for consistency. Section 6(c)(1) of the Department of Transportation Act (Public Law 89–670, 80 Stat. 938) transferred all duties and powers of the Federal Aviation Agency and the Administrator to the Secretary of Transportation. However, the Secretary was to carry out certain provisions through the Administrator. In addition, various laws enacted since then have vested duties and powers in the Administrator. All provisions of law the Secretary is required to carry out through the Administrator are included in 49:106(g).

In subsection (c), the words “and his representatives” in 49 App.:1441(g) are omitted because of 49:322(b). The words “when participation is necessary to carry out the duties and powers” are substituted for “In order to assure the proper discharge . . . of his duties and responsibilities” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “or his representatives” are omitted because of 49:322(b).

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 106, 1131, 1151, 1152, 1155 of this title.

§1133. Review of other agency action

The National Transportation Safety Board shall review on appeal—

(1) the denial, amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of a certificate issued by the Secretary of Transportation under section 44703, 44709, or 44710 of this title;

(2) the revocation of a certificate of registration under section 44106 of this title;

(3) a decision of the head of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating on an appeal from the decision of an administrative law judge denying, revoking, or suspending a license, certificate, document, or register in a proceeding under section 6101, 6301, or 7503, chapter 77, or section 9303 of title 46; and

(4) under section 46301(d)(5) of this title, an order imposing a penalty under section 46301.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 754.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1133(1)–(3) 49 App.:1903(a)(9). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(9), 88 Stat. 2169; Oct. 19, 1984, Pub. L. 98–499, §4(b), 98 Stat. 2315.
1133(4) (no source).

In clause (1), the word “certificate” is substituted for “operating certificate” for consistency in the revised title. The words “or license” are omitted as unnecessary because only certificates are issued under the sections cited in this section.

In clause (3), the words “head of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating” are substituted for “Commandant of the Coast Guard” for consistency with 14:5 and 46:2101(34).

Clause (4) is added to reflect all the appellate responsibilities of the National Transportation Safety Board.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 1131 of this title.

§1134. Inspections and autopsies

(a) Entry and Inspection.—An officer or employee of the National Transportation Safety Board—

(1) on display of appropriate credentials and written notice of inspection authority, may enter property where a transportation accident has occurred or wreckage from the accident is located and do anything necessary to conduct an investigation; and

(2) during reasonable hours, may inspect any record, process, control, or facility related to an accident investigation under this chapter.


(b) Inspection, Testing, Preservation, and Moving of Aircraft and Parts.—(1) In investigating an aircraft accident under this chapter, the Board may inspect and test, to the extent necessary, any civil aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or property on an aircraft involved in an accident in air commerce.

(2) Any civil aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or property on an aircraft involved in an accident in air commerce shall be preserved, and may be moved, only as provided by regulations of the Board.

(c) Avoiding Unnecessary Interference and Preserving Evidence.—In carrying out subsection (a)(1) of this section, an officer or employee may examine or test any vehicle, vessel, rolling stock, track, or pipeline component. The examination or test shall be conducted in a way that—

(1) does not interfere unnecessarily with transportation services provided by the owner or operator of the vehicle, vessel, rolling stock, track, or pipeline component; and

(2) to the maximum extent feasible, preserves evidence related to the accident, consistent with the needs of the investigation and with the cooperation of that owner or operator.


(d) Exclusive Authority of Board.—Only the Board has the authority to decide on the way in which testing under this section will be conducted, including decisions on the person that will conduct the test, the type of test that will be conducted, and any individual who will witness the test. Those decisions are committed to the discretion of the Board. The Board shall make any of those decisions based on the needs of the investigation being conducted and, when applicable, subsections (a), (c), and (e) of this section.

(e) Promptness of Tests and Availability of Results.—An inspection, examination, or test under subsection (a) or (c) of this section shall be started and completed promptly, and the results shall be made available.

(f) Autopsies.—(1) The Board may order an autopsy to be performed and have other tests made when necessary to investigate an accident under this chapter. However, local law protecting religious beliefs related to autopsies shall be observed to the extent consistent with the needs of the accident investigation.

(2) With or without reimbursement, the Board may obtain a copy of an autopsy report performed by a State or local official on an individual who died because of a transportation accident investigated by the Board under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 754.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1134(a) 49 App.:1903(b)(2) (1st sentence words before 3d comma, 3d sentence). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(b)(2), 88 Stat. 2170; Nov. 3, 1981, Pub. L. 97–74, §5, 95 Stat. 1065; Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §3, 104 Stat. 4654.
1134(b) 49 App.:1441(c) (2d sentence), (d). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §701(c) (2d, last sentences), (d), 72 Stat. 781; Oct. 15, 1962, Pub. L. 87–810, §§1, 2, 76 Stat. 921.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), (b)(5), 88 Stat. 2168, 2170.
1134(c) 49 App.:1903(b)(2) (1st sentence words after 3d comma, 2d sentence).
1134(d) 49 App.:1903(b)(2) (5th, last sentences).
1134(e) 49 App.:1903(b)(2) (4th sentence).
1134(f) 49 App.:1441(c) (last sentence).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A), (b)(5).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word “officer” is added for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “investigating an aircraft accident” are substituted for “carrying out its duties” in 49 App.:1441(c) for clarity. The words “inspect and test” are substituted for “examine and test” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “In carrying out subsection (a)(1) of this section, an officer or employee” are added because of the restatement. The words “or any part of any such item” are omitted as surplus. The words “when such examination or testing is determined to be required for purposes of such investigation” are omitted as unnecessary because of the words “do anything necessary to conduct an investigation” in subsection (a)(1) of this section. In clause (1), the word “obstruct” is omitted as being included in “interfere”.

In subsection (d), the word “individuals” is substituted for “persons” the 2d time that word is used for clarity. The words “The Board shall make any of those decisions” are substituted for “and shall be made” because of the restatement.

In subsection (e), the word “promptly” is substituted for “with reasonable promptness” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (f)(1), the words “In the case of any fatal accident” in 49 App.:1441(c) are omitted as surplus. The words “to examine the remains of any deceased person aboard the aircraft at the time of the accident, who dies as a result of the accident” are omitted as unnecessary because of the authority of the Board to conduct autopsies.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1131, 1151, 1152, 1155 of this title.

§1135. Secretary of Transportation's responses to safety recommendations

(a) General.—When the National Transportation Safety Board submits a recommendation about transportation safety to the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary shall give a formal written response to each recommendation not later than 90 days after receiving the recommendation. The response shall indicate whether the Secretary intends—

(1) to carry out procedures to adopt the complete recommendation;

(2) to carry out procedures to adopt a part of the recommendation; or

(3) to refuse to carry out procedures to adopt the recommendation.


(b) Timetable for Completing Procedures and Reasons for Refusals.—A response under subsection (a)(1) or (2) of this section shall include a copy of a proposed timetable for completing the procedures. A response under subsection (a)(2) of this section shall detail the reasons for the refusal to carry out procedures on the remainder of the recommendation. A response under subsection (a)(3) of this section shall detail the reasons for the refusal to carry out procedures.

(c) Public Availability.—The Board shall make a copy of each recommendation and response available to the public at reasonable cost.

(d) Reports to Congress.—The Secretary shall submit to Congress on January 1 of each year a report containing each recommendation on transportation safety made by the Board to the Secretary during the prior year and a copy of the Secretary's response to each recommendation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 755.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1135(a), (b) 49 App.:1906(a) (less last sentence). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §307(a), 88 Stat. 2172; Nov. 3, 1981, Pub. L. 97–74, §6, 95 Stat. 1066; July 19, 1988, Pub. L. 100–372, §3(b), 102 Stat. 876.
1135(c) 49 App.:1906(a) (last sentence).
1135(d) 49 App.:1906(b). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §307(b); added Nov. 3, 1981, Pub. L. 97–74, §6, 95 Stat. 1066.

In subsections (a) and (b), the words “carry out” are substituted for “initiate and conduct” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(1), the word “complete” is substituted for “in full” for consistency in the revised title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in subsec. (d) of this section, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 4th item on page 138 of House Document No. 103–7.

§1136. Assistance to families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents

(a) In General.—As soon as practicable after being notified of an aircraft accident within the United States involving an air carrier or foreign air carrier and resulting in a major loss of life, the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board shall—

(1) designate and publicize the name and phone number of a director of family support services who shall be an employee of the Board and shall be responsible for acting as a point of contact within the Federal Government for the families of passengers involved in the accident and a liaison between the air carrier or foreign air carrier and the families; and

(2) designate an independent nonprofit organization, with experience in disasters and posttrauma communication with families, which shall have primary responsibility for coordinating the emotional care and support of the families of passengers involved in the accident.


(b) Responsibilities of the Board.—The Board shall have primary Federal responsibility for facilitating the recovery and identification of fatally-injured passengers involved in an accident described in subsection (a).

(c) Responsibilities of Designated Organization.—The organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2) shall have the following responsibilities with respect to the families of passengers involved in the accident:

(1) To provide mental health and counseling services, in coordination with the disaster response team of the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved.

(2) To take such actions as may be necessary to provide an environment in which the families may grieve in private.

(3) To meet with the families who have traveled to the location of the accident, to contact the families unable to travel to such location, and to contact all affected families periodically thereafter until such time as the organization, in consultation with the director of family support services designated for the accident under subsection (a)(1), determines that further assistance is no longer needed.

(4) To communicate with the families as to the roles of the organization, government agencies, and the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved with respect to the accident and the post-accident activities.

(5) To arrange a suitable memorial service, in consultation with the families.


(d) Passenger Lists.—

(1) Requests for passenger lists.—

(A) Requests by director of family support services.—It shall be the responsibility of the director of family support services designated for an accident under subsection (a)(1) to request, as soon as practicable, from the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved in the accident a list, which is based on the best available information at the time of the request, of the names of the passengers that were aboard the aircraft involved in the accident.

(B) Requests by designated organization.—The organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2) may request from the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved in the accident a list described in subparagraph (A).


(2) Use of information.—The director of family support services and the organization may not release to any person information on a list obtained under paragraph (1) but may provide information on the list about a passenger to the family of the passenger to the extent that the director of family support services or the organization considers appropriate.


(e) Continuing Responsibilities of the Board.—In the course of its investigation of an accident described in subsection (a), the Board shall, to the maximum extent practicable, ensure that the families of passengers involved in the accident—

(1) are briefed, prior to any public briefing, about the accident, its causes, and any other findings from the investigation; and

(2) are individually informed of and allowed to attend any public hearings and meetings of the Board about the accident.


(f) Use of Air Carrier Resources.—To the extent practicable, the organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2) shall coordinate its activities with the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved in the accident so that the resources of the carrier can be used to the greatest extent possible to carry out the organization's responsibilities under this section.

(g) Prohibited Actions.—

(1) Actions to impede the board.—No person (including a State or political subdivision) may impede the ability of the Board (including the director of family support services designated for an accident under subsection (a)(1)), or an organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2), to carry out its responsibilities under this section or the ability of the families of passengers involved in the accident to have contact with one another.

(2) Unsolicited communications.—In the event of an accident involving an air carrier providing interstate or foreign air transportation and in the event of an accident involving a foreign air carrier that occurs within the United States, no unsolicited communication concerning a potential action for personal injury or wrongful death may be made by an attorney (including any associate, agent, employee, or other representative of an attorney) or any potential party to the litigation to an individual injured in the accident, or to a relative of an individual involved in the accident, before the 45th day following the date of the accident.

(3) Prohibition on actions to prevent mental health and counseling services.—No State or political subdivision thereof may prevent the employees, agents, or volunteers of an organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2) from providing mental health and counseling services under subsection (c)(1) in the 30-day period beginning on the date of the accident. The director of family support services designated for the accident under subsection (a)(1) may extend such period for not to exceed an additional 30 days if the director determines that the extension is necessary to meet the needs of the families and if State and local authorities are notified of the determination.


(h) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Aircraft accident.—The term “aircraft accident” means any aviation disaster regardless of its cause or suspected cause.

(2) Passenger.—The term “passenger” includes—

(A) an employee of an air carrier or foreign air carrier aboard an aircraft; and

(B) any other person aboard the aircraft without regard to whether the person paid for the transportation, occupied a seat, or held a reservation for the flight.


(i) Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed as limiting the actions that an air carrier may take, or the obligations that an air carrier may have, in providing assistance to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident.

(Added Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §702(a)(1), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3265; amended Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §401(a)(1), (b)–(d), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 129.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 106–181, §401(a)(1), substituted “transportation and in the event of an accident involving a foreign air carrier that occurs within the United States,” for “transportation,”, inserted “(including any associate, agent, employee, or other representative of an attorney)” after “attorney”, and substituted “45th day” for “30th day”.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 106–181, §401(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 106–181, §401(c), amended heading and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘passenger’ includes an employee of an air carrier aboard an aircraft.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–181, §401(d), added subsec. (i).

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date

Except as otherwise specifically provided, section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 106 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1151, 1155, 41113, 41313 of this title.

§1137. Authority of the Inspector General

(a) In General.—The Inspector General of the Department of Transportation, in accordance with the mission of the Inspector General to prevent and detect fraud and abuse, shall have authority to review only the financial management, property management, and business operations of the National Transportation Safety Board, including internal accounting and administrative control systems, to determine compliance with applicable Federal laws, rules, and regulations.

(b) Duties.—In carrying out this section, the Inspector General shall—

(1) keep the Chairman of the Board and Congress fully and currently informed about problems relating to administration of the internal accounting and administrative control systems of the Board;

(2) issue findings and recommendations for actions to address such problems; and

(3) report periodically to Congress on any progress made in implementing actions to address such problems.


(c) Access to Information.—In carrying out this section, the Inspector General may exercise authorities granted to the Inspector General under subsections (a) and (b) of section 6 of the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.).

(d) Reimbursement.—The Inspector General shall be reimbursed by the Board for the costs associated with carrying out activities under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 106–424, §12(a), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1887.)

References in Text

Section 6 of the Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (c), is section 6 of Pub. L. 95–452, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

SUBCHAPTER IV—ENFORCEMENT AND PENALTIES

§1151. Aviation enforcement

(a) Civil Actions by Board.—The National Transportation Safety Board may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States against a person to enforce section 1132, 1134(b) or (f)(1) (related to an aircraft accident), 1136(g)(2), or 1155(a) of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those sections. An action under this subsection may be brought in the judicial district in which the person does business or the violation occurred.

(b) Civil Actions by Attorney General.—On request of the Board, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in an appropriate court—

(1) to enforce section 1132, 1134(b) or (f)(1) (related to an aircraft accident), 1136(g)(2), or 1155(a) of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those sections; and

(2) to prosecute a person violating those sections or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those sections.


(c) Participation of Board.—On request of the Attorney General, the Board may participate in a civil action to enforce section 1132, 1134(b) or (f)(1) (related to an aircraft accident), 1136(g)(2), or 1155(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 756; Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §401(a)(2), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 129.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1151(a) 49 App.:1487(a) (related to CAB). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§1007 (related to CAB), 1008 (related to CAB), 72 Stat. 796.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), 88 Stat. 2168.
1151(b) 49 App.:1487(b) (related to CAB).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).
1151(c) 49 App.:1488 (related to CAB).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).

In this section, the words “section 1132, 1134(b) or (f)(1) (related to an aircraft accident), or 1155(a) of this title” are substituted for “issued under this chapter” and “provisions of this chapter” because those sections restate the relevant provisions of 49 App.:ch. 20 carried out by the National Transportation Safety Board.

In subsections (a) and (b), the word “rule” is omitted as being synonymous with “regulation”. The word “requirement” is omitted as being included in “order”. The words “or any term, condition, or limitation of any certificate or permit” are omitted because the National Transportation Safety Board does not have authority to issue certificates or permits.

In subsection (a), the words “their duly authorized agents” are omitted as surplus. The words “may bring a civil action” are substituted for “may apply” in 49 App.:1487(a) for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “An action under this subsection may be brought in the judicial district in which” are substituted for “for any district wherein” for clarity. The text of 49 App.:1487(a) (words after semicolon) is omitted as unnecessary because of rule 81(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “Attorney General” are substituted for “any district attorney of the United States” in 49 App.:1487(b) because of 28:509. The words “to whom the Board or Secretary of Transportation may apply” are omitted as surplus. The words “may bring a civil action” are substituted for “is authorized to institute . . . all necessary proceedings” for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “under the direction of the Attorney General” are omitted as unnecessary because of 28:516. The text of 49 App.:1487(b) (words after last comma) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c), the words “civil action” are substituted for “proceeding in court” for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–181 inserted “1136(g)(2),” before “or 1155(a)” in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), and (c).

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§1152. Joinder and intervention in aviation proceedings

A person interested in or affected by a matter under consideration in a proceeding or a civil action to enforce section 1132, 1134(b) or (f)(1) (related to an aircraft accident), or 1155(a) of this title, or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those sections, may be joined as a party or permitted to intervene in the proceeding or civil action.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 756.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1152 49 App.:1489. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1009, 72 Stat. 796.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), 88 Stat. 2168.

The words “civil action” are substituted for “proceedings . . . begun originally in any court of the United States” for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “section 1132, 1134(b) or (f)(1) (related to an aircraft accident), or 1155(a) of this title” are substituted for “the provisions of this chapter” in 49 App.:1489 because 49 App.:1489 is taken from 49 App.:ch. 20 and the sections in quotations restate the relevant provisions of 49 App.:ch. 20 carried out by the National Transportation Safety Board. The remaining relevant provisions of 49 App.:ch. 20 are restated in part A of subtitle VII of the revised title, and provisions comparable to this section are included as section 46109 of the revised title. The word “rule” is omitted as being synonymous with “regulation”. The word “requirement” is omitted as included in “order”. The words “or any term, condition, or limitation of any certificate or permit” are omitted because the Board does not have authority to issue certificates or permits. The words “may be joined as a party or permitted to intervene” are substituted for “it shall be lawful to include as parties, or to permit the intervention of” for clarity. The text of 49 App.:1489 (words after semicolon) is omitted as surplus.

§1153. Judicial review

(a) General.—The appropriate court of appeals of the United States or the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit may review a final order of the National Transportation Safety Board under this chapter. A person disclosing a substantial interest in the order may apply for review by filing a petition not later than 60 days after the order of the Board is issued.

(b) Persons Seeking Judicial Review of Aviation Matters.—(1) A person disclosing a substantial interest in an order related to an aviation matter issued by the Board under this chapter may apply for review of the order by filing a petition for review in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or in the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which the person resides or has its principal place of business. The petition must be filed not later than 60 days after the order is issued. The court may allow the petition to be filed after the 60 days only if there was a reasonable ground for not filing within that 60-day period.

(2) When a petition is filed under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the clerk of the court immediately shall send a copy of the petition to the Board. The Board shall file with the court a record of the proceeding in which the order was issued.

(3) When the petition is sent to the Board, the court has exclusive jurisdiction to affirm, amend, modify, or set aside any part of the order and may order the Board to conduct further proceedings. After reasonable notice to the Board, the court may grant interim relief by staying the order or taking other appropriate action when cause for its action exists. Findings of fact by the Board, if supported by substantial evidence, are conclusive.

(4) In reviewing an order under this subsection, the court may consider an objection to an order of the Board only if the objection was made in the proceeding conducted by the Board or if there was a reasonable ground for not making the objection in the proceeding.

(5) A decision by a court under this subsection may be reviewed only by the Supreme Court under section 1254 of title 28.

(c) Administrator Seeking Judicial Review of Aviation Matters.—When the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration decides that an order of the Board under section 44709 or 46301(d)(5) of this title will have a significant adverse impact on carrying out this chapter related to an aviation matter, the Administrator may obtain judicial review of the order under section 46110 of this title. The Administrator shall be made a party to the judicial review proceedings. Findings of fact of the Board are conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 756.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1153(a) 49 App.:1655(d) (last sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(d). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(d), 88 Stat. 2171.
1153(b)(1) 49 App.:1486(a), (b) (as 1486(a), (b) relates to CAB). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1006(a), (b), (e), (f) (as §1006(a), (b), (e), (f) relates to CAB), 72 Stat. 795.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
1153(b)(2) 49 App.:1486(c) (related to CAB). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1006(c) (related to CAB), 72 Stat. 795; restated June 29, 1960, Pub. L. 86–546, §1, 74 Stat. 255.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
1153(b)(3) 49 App.:1486(d), (e) (1st sentence) (as 1486(d), (e) (1st sentence) relates to CAB). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1006(d) (related to CAB), 72 Stat. 795; restated Sept. 13, 1961, Pub. L. 87–225, §2, 75 Stat. 497.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
1153(b)(4) 49 App.:1486(e) (last sentence related to CAB).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
1153(b)(5) 49 App.:1486(f) (related to CAB).
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
1153(c) 49 App.:1429(a) (8th–last sentences related to Administrator under subch. VII). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §609(a) (8th–last sentences related to Administrator under title VII), 72 Stat. 779; Nov. 18, 1971, Pub. L. 92–159, §2(a), 85 Stat. 481; Aug. 26, 1992, Pub. L. 102–345, §3(a)(2), 106 Stat. 925.
  49 App.:1471(a) (3)(D)(v) (related to Administrator under subch. VII). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §901(a) (3)(D)(v) (related to Administrator under title VII); added Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100–690, §7208(b), 102 Stat. 4429; restated Aug. 26, 1992, Pub. L. 102–345, §2(a), 106 Stat. 923.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.

In subsection (a), the text of 49 App.:1903(d) (last sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because 5:ch. 7 applies by its own terms. The words “final order” are substituted for “order, affirmative or negative” in 49 App.:1903(d) and “Decisions of the National Transportation Safety Board made pursuant to the exercise of the functions, powers, and duties enumerated in this subsection shall be administratively final” in 49 App.:1655(d) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “is issued” are substituted for “after the entry” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The text of 49 App.:1655(d) (last sentence words after last comma) is omitted as unnecessary because of 49 App.:1903(d).

In subsection (b)(1), the words “affirmative or negative” are omitted as surplus. The words “related to an aviation matter” are added because the source provisions being restated only apply to aviation matters. The words “is issued” are substituted for “the entry of” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “if any” are omitted as surplus. The words “of the proceeding” are added for clarity. The words “complained of” and “as provided in section 2112 of title 28” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the word “amend” is added for consistency in the revised title. The word “interim” is substituted for “interlocutory” for clarity. The words “taking other appropriate action” are substituted for “by such mandatory or other relief as may be appropriate” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(4), the words “made in the proceeding conducted by” are substituted for “urged before” for clarity.

In subsection (c), the source provisions are combined to eliminate unnecessary words and are restated in this chapter to alert the reader to the authority of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to seek judicial review of an order of the National Transportation Safety Board under section 44709 or 46301(d) of the revised title that the Administrator decides will have a significant adverse impact on carrying out source provisions restated in this chapter that are derived from title VII of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 781).

§1154. Discovery and use of cockpit and surface vehicle recordings and transcripts

(a) Transcripts and Recordings.—(1) Except as provided by this subsection, a party in a judicial proceeding may not use discovery to obtain—

(A) any part of a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder transcript that the National Transportation Safety Board has not made available to the public under section 1114(c) or 1114(d) of this title; and

(B) a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder recording.


(2)(A) Except as provided in paragraph (4)(A) of this subsection, a court may allow discovery by a party of a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder transcript if, after an in camera review of the transcript, the court decides that—

(i) the part of the transcript made available to the public under section 1114(c) or 1114(d) of this title does not provide the party with sufficient information for the party to receive a fair trial; and

(ii) discovery of additional parts of the transcript is necessary to provide the party with sufficient information for the party to receive a fair trial.


(B) A court may allow discovery, or require production for an in camera review, of a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder transcript that the Board has not made available under section 1114(c) or 1114(d) of this title only if the cockpit or surface vehicle recorder recording is not available.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (4)(A) of this subsection, a court may allow discovery by a party of a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder recording if, after an in camera review of the recording, the court decides that—

(A) the parts of the transcript made available to the public under section 1114(c) or 1114(d) of this title and to the party through discovery under paragraph (2) of this subsection do not provide the party with sufficient information for the party to receive a fair trial; and

(B) discovery of the cockpit or surface vehicle recorder recording is necessary to provide the party with sufficient information for the party to receive a fair trial.


(4)(A) When a court allows discovery in a judicial proceeding of a part of a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder transcript not made available to the public under section 1114(c) or 1114(d) of this title or a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder recording, the court shall issue a protective order—

(i) to limit the use of the part of the transcript or the recording to the judicial proceeding; and

(ii) to prohibit dissemination of the part of the transcript or the recording to any person that does not need access to the part of the transcript or the recording for the proceeding.


(B) A court may allow a part of a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder transcript not made available to the public under section 1114(c) or 1114(d) of this title or a cockpit or surface vehicle recorder recording to be admitted into evidence in a judicial proceeding, only if the court places the part of the transcript or the recording under seal to prevent the use of the part of the transcript or the recording for purposes other than for the proceeding.

(5) This subsection does not prevent the Board from referring at any time to cockpit or surface vehicle recorder information in making safety recommendations.

(6) In this subsection:

(A) Recorder.—The term “recorder” means a voice or video recorder.

(B) Transcript.—The term “transcript” includes any written depiction of visual information obtained from a video recorder.


(b) Reports.—No part of a report of the Board, related to an accident or an investigation of an accident, may be admitted into evidence or used in a civil action for damages resulting from a matter mentioned in the report.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 757; Pub. L. 106–424, §5(c)(1), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1885.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1154(a) 49 App.:1905(c)(3), (d). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, 88 Stat. 2156, §306(c)(3), (d); added Oct. 14, 1982, Pub. L. 97–309, §2, 96 Stat. 1453; restated Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §4, 104 Stat. 4655.
1154(b) 49 App.:1441(e). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §701(e), 72 Stat. 781.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A), (c). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), (c), 88 Stat. 2168, 2171.

In subsection (a), the word “transcript” is substituted for “transcriptions” for clarity.

In subsection (a)(1)(A), the words “that the National Transportation Safety Board has not made available to the public” are substituted for “other than such portions made available to the public by the Board” for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2)(B), the words “prepared by or under the direction of the Board” are omitted as unnecessary and for consistency with the source provisions restated in this subsection.

In subsection (b), the words “civil action” are substituted for “suit or action” in 49 App.:1441(e) and 1903(c) for consistency with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–424, §5(c)(1)(A), substituted “and surface vehicle recordings and transcripts” for “voice and other material” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–424, §5(c)(1)(B), substituted “cockpit or surface vehicle recorder” for “cockpit voice recorder” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 106–424, §5(c)(1)(C), substituted “section 1114(c) or 1114(d)” for “section 1114(c)” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 106–424, §5(c)(1)(D), which directed the amendment of this section by adding par. (6) at the end, was executed by adding par. (6) at the end of subsec. (a) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

§1155. Aviation penalties

(a) Civil Penalty.—(1) A person violating section 1132, section 1134(b), section 1134(f)(1), or section 1136(g) (related to an aircraft accident) of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those sections is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000. A separate violation occurs for each day a violation continues.

(2) This subsection does not apply to a member of the armed forces of the United States or an employee of the Department of Defense subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice when the member or employee is performing official duties. The appropriate military authorities are responsible for taking necessary disciplinary action and submitting to the National Transportation Safety Board a timely report on action taken.

(3) The Board may compromise the amount of a civil penalty imposed under this subsection.

(4) The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty imposed or compromised under this subsection from amounts it owes the person liable for the penalty.

(5) A civil penalty under this subsection may be collected by bringing a civil action against the person liable for the penalty. The action shall conform as nearly as practicable to a civil action in admiralty.

(b) Criminal Penalty.—A person that knowingly and without authority removes, conceals, or withholds a part of a civil aircraft involved in an accident, or property on the aircraft at the time of the accident, shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 10 years, or both.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 758; Pub. L. 104–264, title VII, §702(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3267.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1155(a)(1), (2) 49 App.:1471(a)(1) (related to subchapter VII). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §901(a)(1) (related to title VII), 72 Stat. 783; restated July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §12, 76 Stat. 149; Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–366, §107, 88 Stat. 414; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §113(b), 88 Stat. 2162.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(d) (1st sentence), 80 Stat. 938.
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §304(a)(1)(A), 88 Stat. 2168.
1155(a)(3), (4) 49 App.:1471(a)(2) (related to subchapter VII). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §901(a)(2) (related to title VII), 72 Stat. 784; July 10, 1962, Pub. L. 87–528, §12, 76 Stat. 150; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §35(b), 92 Stat. 1740.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).
1155(a)(5) 49 App.:1473(b)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §903(b)(1), 72 Stat. 786; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §36, 92 Stat. 1741.
  49 App.:1473(b)(4). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §903(b)(4), 72 Stat. 787.
  49 App.:1655(d) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:1903(a)(1)(A).
1155(b) 49 App.:1472(p). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §902(p); added Oct. 15, 1962, Pub. L. 87–810, §4, 76 Stat. 921; Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–366, §103(b), 88 Stat. 410; Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, §204(e), 101 Stat. 1520.

In subsection (a)(1), the words “section 1132 or 1134(b) or (f)(1) (related to an aircraft accident) of this title” are substituted for “any provision of subchapter . . . VII . . . of this chapter” in 49 App.:1471(a)(1) because those sections restate the relevant source provisions of 49 App.:ch. 20 carried out by the Board. The words “regulation prescribed or order issued under either of those sections” are substituted for “rule, regulation, or order issued thereunder” for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code and because “rule” and “regulation” are synonymous. The words “liable to the United States Government” are substituted for “subject to” for clarity. The words “for each such violation” are omitted as unnecessary because of 18:1.

In subsection (a)(2), the word “civilian” is omitted as unnecessary. The words “with respect thereto” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(4), the words “imposed or compromised” are substituted for “finally determined or fixed by order of the Board, or the amount agreed upon in compromise” in 49 App.:1471(a)(2) for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(5), the words “imposed or assessed” are omitted as surplus. The words “civil action against the person” are substituted for “proceedings in personam against the person” in 49 App.:1473(b)(1) for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.) and to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 49 App.:1473(b)(1) (1st sentence words after 1st comma and last sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because penalties imposed by the National Transportation Safety Board do not involve liens on aircraft. The text of 49 App.:1473(b)(4) is omitted as unnecessary because of 28:ch. 131.

References in Text

The Uniform Code of Military Justice, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is classified generally to chapter 47 (§801 et seq.) of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Prior Provisions

Prior chapter 31 (§§3101–3104) of subtitle II redesignated and restated as chapter 315 (§§31501–31504) of subtitle VI of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §1(c), (e).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–264 substituted “, section 1134(b), section 1134(f)(1), or section 1136(g)” for “or 1134(b) or (f)(1)” and “any of” for “either of”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Except as otherwise specifically provided, amendment by Pub. L. 104–264 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1151, 1152 of this title.

SUBTITLE III—GENERAL AND INTERMODAL PROGRAMS

Chapter
Sec.
51.
Transportation of Hazardous Material
5101
53.
Mass Transportation
5301
55.
Intermodal Transportation
5501
57.
Sanitary Food Transportation
5701
59.
Intermodal Safe Container Transportation
5901
61.
One-Call Notification Programs
6101

        

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, §7302(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 482, added item for chapter 61.

CHAPTER 51—TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL

Sec.
5101.
Purpose.
5102.
Definitions.
5103.
General regulatory authority.
5104.
Representation and tampering.
5105.
Transporting certain highly radioactive material.
5106.
Handling criteria.
5107.
Hazmat employee training requirements and grants.
5108.
Registration.
5109.
Motor carrier safety permits.
5110.
Shipping papers and disclosure.
5111.
Rail tank cars.
5112.
Highway routing of hazardous material.
5113.
Unsatisfactory safety rating.
5114.
Air transportation of ionizing radiation material.
5115.
Training curriculum for the public sector.
5116.
Planning and training grants, monitoring, and review.
5117.
Exemptions and exclusions.
5118.
Inspectors.
5119.
Uniform forms and procedures.
5120.
International uniformity of standards and requirements.
5121.
Administrative.
5122.
Enforcement.
5123.
Civil penalty.
5124.
Criminal penalty.
5125.
Preemption.
5126.
Relationship to other laws.
5127.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 113, 521, 5710, 5908, 13905, 20109, 20111, 20114, 31144, 31146, 31305 of this title; title 18 section 844; title 42 sections 6912, 6921, 6923, 9656.

§5101. Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to provide adequate protection against the risks to life and property inherent in the transportation of hazardous material in commerce by improving the regulatory and enforcement authority of the Secretary of Transportation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 759.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5101 49 App.:1801. Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §102, 88 Stat. 2156.

The words “It is declared to be the policy of Congress”, “the Nation”, and “which are” are omitted as surplus.

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §3001, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 338, provided that: “This title [amending sections 5302 to 5305, 5307 to 5315, 5317 to 5320, 5323, 5325 to 5328, and 5333 to 5338 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 301, 5301, 5307 to 5310, 5323, 5336, and 5338 of this title and sections 138 and 322 of Title 23, Highways] may be cited as the ‘Federal Transit Act of 1998’.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–291, title II, §201, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3453, provided that: “This title [enacting section 5908 of this title and amending sections 5901 to 5903 and 5905 to 5907 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Intermodal Safe Container Transportation Amendments Act of 1996’.”

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §101, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1673, provided that: “This title [amending sections 5102 to 5104, 5107, 5108, 5110, 5116, 5117, 5121, and 5125 to 5127 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 5103, 5112, and 5121 of this title, and section 307 of Title 23, Highways] may be cited as the ‘Hazardous Materials Transportation Authorization Act of 1994’.”

Buy American

Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §123, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1682, provided that:

“(a) Compliance With Buy American Act.—None of the funds made available under this title [see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note above] may be expended in violation of sections 2 through 4 of the Act of March 3, 1933 (41 U.S.C. 10a–10c [41 U.S.C. 10a, 10b, former 10b–1]; popularly known as the ‘Buy American Act’), which are applicable to those funds.

“(b) Sense of Congress; Requirement Regarding Notice.—

“(1) In the case of any equipment or products that may be authorized to be purchased with financial assistance provided under this title, it is the sense of Congress that entities receiving such assistance should, in expending such assistance, purchase only American-made equipment and products.

“(2) In providing financial assistance under this title, the Secretary of Transportation shall provide to each recipient of the assistance a notice describing the statement made in paragraph (1) by Congress.

“(c) Prohibition of Contracts.—If it has been finally determined by a court or Federal agency that any person intentionally affixed a label bearing a ‘Made in America’ inscription, or any inscription with the same meaning, to any product sold in or shipped to the United States that is not made in the United States, such person shall be ineligible to receive any contract or subcontract made with funds provided pursuant to this title, pursuant to the debarment, suspension, and ineligibility procedures described in sections 9.400 through 9.409 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations.

“(d) Reciprocity.—

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), no contract or subcontract may be made with funds authorized under this title to a company organized under the laws of a foreign country unless the Secretary of Transportation finds that such country affords comparable opportunities to companies organized under laws of the United States.

“(2)(A) The Secretary of Transportation may waive the provisions of paragraph (1) if the products or services required are not reasonably available from companies organized under the laws of the United States. Any such waiver shall be reported to Congress.

“(B) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent that to do so would violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or any other international agreement to which the United States is a party.”

§5102. Definitions

In this chapter—

(1) “commerce” means trade or transportation in the jurisdiction of the United States—

(A) between a place in a State and a place outside of the State; or

(B) that affects trade or transportation between a place in a State and a place outside of the State.


(2) “hazardous material” means a substance or material the Secretary of Transportation designates under section 5103(a) of this title.

(3) “hazmat employee”—

(A) means an individual—

(i) employed by a hazmat employer; and

(ii) who during the course of employment directly affects hazardous material transportation safety as the Secretary decides by regulation;


(B) includes an owner-operator of a motor vehicle transporting hazardous material in commerce; and

(C) includes an individual, employed by a hazmat employer, who during the course of employment—

(i) loads, unloads, or handles hazardous material;

(ii) manufactures, reconditions, or tests containers, drums, and packagings represented as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material;

(iii) prepares hazardous material for transportation;

(iv) is responsible for the safety of transporting hazardous material; or

(v) operates a vehicle used to transport hazardous material.


(4) “hazmat employer”—

(A) means a person using at least one employee of that person in connection with—

(i) transporting hazardous material in commerce;

(ii) causing hazardous material to be transported in commerce; or

(iii) manufacturing, reconditioning, or testing containers, drums, and packagings represented as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material;


(B) includes an owner-operator of a motor vehicle transporting hazardous material in commerce; and

(C) includes a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, or an authority of a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe, carrying out an activity described in subclause (A)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this clause (4).


(5) “imminent hazard” means the existence of a condition that presents a substantial likelihood that death, serious illness, severe personal injury, or a substantial endangerment to health, property, or the environment may occur before the reasonably foreseeable completion date of a formal proceeding begun to lessen the risk of that death, illness, injury, or endangerment.

(6) “Indian tribe” has the same meaning given that term in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b).

(7) “motor carrier” means a motor carrier, motor private carrier, and freight forwarder as those terms are defined in section 13102 of this title.

(8) “national response team” means the national response team established under the national contingency plan established under section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9605).

(9) “person”, in addition to its meaning under section 1 of title 1—

(A) includes a government, Indian tribe, or authority of a government or tribe offering hazardous material for transportation in commerce or transporting hazardous material to further a commercial enterprise; but

(B) does not include—

(i) the United States Postal Service; and

(ii) in sections 5123 and 5124 of this title, a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government.


(10) “public sector employee”—

(A) means an individual employed by a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe and who during the course of employment has responsibilities related to responding to an accident or incident involving the transportation of hazardous material;

(B) includes an individual employed by a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe as a firefighter or law enforcement officer; and

(C) includes an individual who volunteers to serve as a firefighter for a State, political subdivision of a State, or Indian tribe.


(11) “State” means—

(A) except in section 5119 of this title, a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and any other territory or possession of the United States designated by the Secretary; and

(B) in section 5119 of this title, a State of the United States and the District of Columbia.


(12) “transports” or “transportation” means the movement of property and loading, unloading, or storage incidental to the movement.

(13) “United States” means all of the States.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 759; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §117(a)(1), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(d), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5102(1) 49 App.:1802(1)–(3), (13). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §103, 88 Stat. 2156; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §3(a), 104 Stat. 3245; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §§501, 502, 106 Stat. 3311.
5102(2) 49 App.:1802(4).
5102(3) 49 App.:1802(5).
5102(4) 49 App.:1802(6).
5102(5) 49 App.:1802(7).
5102(6) 49 App.:1802(8).
5102(7) 49 App.:1802(9).
5102(8) 49 App.:1802(10).
5102(9) 49 App.:1802(11).
5102(10) 49 App.:1802(12).
5102(11) 49 App.:1802(14).
5102(12) 49 App.:1802(15).
5102(13) 49 App.:1802(16).

In this chapter, the words “or shipped” are omitted as being included in “transported”.

In clause (1), before subclause (A), the text of 49 App.:1802(1), (3), and (13) is omitted because the complete names of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Secretary of Transportation are used the first time the terms appear in a section. The words “traffic, commerce” are omitted as surplus. In subclause (B), the words “between a place in a State and a place outside of the State” are substituted for “described in clause (A)” for clarity.

In clauses (3)(C) and (10)(B), the words “at a minimum” are omitted as surplus.

In clause (5), the words “administrative hearing or other” are omitted as surplus.

In clause (9), before subclause (A), the words “including any trustee, receiver, assignee, or similar representative thereof” are omitted as surplus.

In clause (12), the words “by any mode” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1995—Par. (7). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted “motor carrier, motor private” for “motor common carrier, motor contract carrier, motor private” and “section 13102” for “section 10102”.

1994—Pars. (3)(C)(ii), (4)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 103–311 substituted “packagings” for “packages”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 31301, 31310 of this title.

§5103. General regulatory authority

(a) Designating Material as Hazardous.—The Secretary of Transportation shall designate material (including an explosive, radioactive material, etiologic agent, flammable or combustible liquid or solid, poison, oxidizing or corrosive material, and compressed gas) or a group or class of material as hazardous when the Secretary decides that transporting the material in commerce in a particular amount and form may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety or property.

(b) Regulations for Safe Transportation.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for the safe transportation of hazardous material in intrastate, interstate, and foreign commerce. The regulations—

(A) apply to a person—

(i) transporting hazardous material in commerce;

(ii) causing hazardous material to be transported in commerce; or

(iii) manufacturing, fabricating, marking, maintaining, reconditioning, repairing, or testing a packaging or a container that is represented, marked, certified, or sold by that person as qualified for use in transporting hazardous material in commerce; and


(B) shall govern safety aspects of the transportation of hazardous material the Secretary considers appropriate.


(2) A proceeding to prescribe the regulations must be conducted under section 553 of title 5, including an opportunity for informal oral presentation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(d), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 103–311, title I, §117(a)(2), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1678; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(3), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5103(a) 49 App.:1803. Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §104, 88 Stat. 2156.
5103(b) 49 App.:1804(a) (1)–(3). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §105(a)(1)–(3), 88 Stat. 2157; restated Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §4, 104 Stat. 3247.

In subsection (a), the words “such quantity and form of material” and “in his discretion” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words “in accordance with section 553 of title 5” are omitted because 5:553 applies unless otherwise stated. In clause (A)(i), the words “hazardous material in commerce”, and in clause (A)(ii), the words “hazardous material . . . in commerce”, are added for consistency in this chapter.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:5103(b)(2) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1804(a)(2) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 761).

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 103–311 substituted “a packaging or a” for “a package or”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted “be conducted under section 553 of title 5, including” for “include” and “presentation” for “presentations”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Safe Placement of Train Cars

Section 111 of Pub. L. 103–311 provided that: “The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a study of existing practices regarding the placement of cars on trains, with particular attention to the placement of cars that carry hazardous materials. In conducting the study, the Secretary shall consider whether such placement practices increase the risk of derailment, hazardous materials spills, or tank ruptures or have any other adverse effect on safety. The results of the study shall be submitted to Congress within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 26, 1994].”

Fiber Drum Packaging

Pub. L. 104–88, title IV, §406, Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 957, provided that:

“(a) In General.—In the administration of chapter 51 of title 49, United States Code, the Secretary of Transportation shall issue a final rule within 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 29, 1995] authorizing the continued use of fiber drum packaging with a removable head for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials with respect to those liquid hazardous materials transported by such drums pursuant to regulations in effect on September 30, 1991, if—

“(1) the packaging is in compliance with regulations of the Secretary under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act [former 49 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.] as in effect on September 30, 1991; and

“(2) the packaging will not be used for the transportation of hazardous materials that include materials which are poisonous by inhalation or materials in Packing Groups I and II.

“(b) Expiration.—The regulation referred to in subsection (a) shall expire on the later of September 30, 1997, or the date on which funds are authorized to be appropriated to carry out chapter 51 of title 49, United States Code (relating to transportation of hazardous materials), for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1997.

“(c) Study.—

“(1) In general.—Within 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 29, 1995], the Secretary shall contract with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study—

“(A) to determine whether the requirements of section 5103(b) of title 49, United States Code (relating to regulations for safe transportation), as they pertain to fiber drum packaging with a removable head can be met for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials (with respect to those liquid hazardous materials transported by such drums pursuant to regulations in effect on September 30, 1991) with standards (including fiber drum industry standards set forth in a June 8, 1992, exemption application submitted to the Department of Transportation), other than the performance-oriented packaging standards adopted under docket number HM–181 contained in part 178 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations; and

“(B) to determine whether a packaging standard (including such fiber drum industry standards), other than such performance-oriented packaging standards, will provide an equal or greater level of safety for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials than would be provided if such performance-oriented packaging standards were in effect.