TITLE 10—ARMED FORCES

This title was enacted by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §1, 70A Stat. 1

Subtitle
Sec.
A.
General Military Law
101
B.
Army
3001
C.
Navy and Marine Corps
5001
D.
Air Force
8001
E.
Reserve Components
10001

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3013, added item for subtitle E.

Table I
(Showing disposition of all sections of former Title 10)
Title 10

Former Sections

Title 10

New Sections

1 Rep.
1a(a) 3001
1a(b) 101
1a(c), (d) Rep.
1b 3062
1c 3075
1d, 1e 3074
1f Rep.
1g(a) 3063
1g(b) 3064
1g(c)–(f) 3065
2–10 Rep.
11 3536
12–14 Rep.
15 T. 18 §1385
15a 4711, 9711
16 3061, 8061
16a 3492, 8492
17, 17a Rep.
18 T. 37 §31a (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
19 1031
19a 4833
20 3062, 8062
20a 4503, 4531, 9503, 9531
20b 122
20c Rep.
20i 3062
20j(a) 3201
20j(b) 3205, 3213
20j(c) 3225
20j(d) 3222, 3223
20r 8062
20s(a) 8201
20s(b) 8205, 8213
20s(c) 8225
20s(d) 8222, 8223
20t 8062
21 Rep.
21a 3031
21b 3034
21c 3035
21d 3034
21e 3032
21f 3036
21g 3039
21h 3037, 3040
22, 22a Rep.
23, 23a Rep.
24–32a Rep.
33, 33a Rep.
34–37 Rep.
38 3033, 3034, 8033, 8034
41, 42 Rep.
51 Rep.
52 4024
53 Rep.
61 Rep.
61–1 3072, 3209, 3210
61a 3037
62 3037, 8072
62a 3037
63, 64 Rep.
65 3292
66–70c Rep.
71, 72 Rep.
72a (See former 1195a)
73 (See former 1377)
74 Elim.
75 (See former 1259d)
76 (See former 1259e)
77 Elim.
81, 81a Rep.
81–1 3067–3070
81–2 3311, 3685, 3818, 8067, 8685, 8818
82 3579, 8579
83 Rep.
91 Rep.
91a (less (c)–(f)) 3294, 8294
91a(c) 3294 nt.
91a(d) 3444, 8444
91a(e) 3452, 8452
91a(f) 5652a
91b Rep.
92, 92a Rep.
93 3289, 8289
94 Rep.
95 (See former 82)
96 3546, 8546
97–100 Rep.
101–103 3302, 8302
104 Rep.
105, 106 3539
107, 108 4022, 9022
121 Rep.
121a (less (c)–(f)) 3294, 8294
121a(c) 3294 nt.
121a(d) 3444, 8444
121a(e) 3452, 8452
121a(f) 5652a
121b Rep.
122–124 Rep.
125 3302
126–131 Rep.
141 Rep.
142 Rep. in part. Elim. in part.
143 Rep.
143a 3302, 8302
144, 145 Rep.
145a, 145a–1 Rep.
146 Rep.
151 Rep.
152 Rep. in part. Elim. in part.
153–156 Rep.
156a 3068, 3209
156b 3068
156c 3504, 3962, 3991
156d 3068
156e 3287, 3290
156f–156i Rep.
161–165 Rep.
166(a) 3069, 3206, 8206
166(b) 3069
166(c) 3291, 8291
166(d) Rep. See 3291(c)
166a(a) 3070, 3207, 8207
166a(b) 3070
166a(c) 3291, 8291
166a(d) Rep. See 3291(c)
166b to 166b–2 Rep.
166b–3 8067, 8209, 8296, 8579, 8683, 8963
166c to 166d–1 Rep.
166e(a) 3574, 3579, 8574, 8579
166e(b), (c) Rep.
166f 3206, 3207, 3212, 3304, 8206, 8207, 8212, 8304
166g(a), (b) 3504, 3881, 3882, 3887, 3912, 3928, 3962, 3991, 8881, 8882, 8887, 8912, 8928, 8891
166g(c) Rep.
166h Rep.
166i 3683, 8683
166j 3818, 8818
166k 3205
166l Rep.
171–177 Rep.
181 3036, 3040, 3074, 3209, 3216
181a 3040, 3209, 3493; T. 33 §583a
181b 3038
181c 3535
181d 3535 nt.
182–186 Rep.
187 Elim.
188 Rep.
189 (1st sent.) Elim.
189 (less 1st sent.) 3534
190 3534
190a T. 33 §§575, 701b–9
190b T. 33 §§576, 701b–10
191–196 Rep.
197, 197a Elim.
198 T. 50 §64a
199 (See former 190a)
211, 212 Rep.
213 Elim.
214, 215 Rep.
221, 222 Rep.
223 Elim.
231 Rep.
231a 3073
232 3293, 8293
233 Rep. in part. Elim. in part.
234 Rep.
235 3581, 8581
236, 237 Rep.
238, 239 3547, 8547
240 Rep.
251–253 Rep.
261, 262 Rep.
271–277 Rep.
281–283 Rep.
291–291b Rep.
291c, 291c–1 3691, 8691
291d 3692, 8692
291e 3691, 8691
291f, 291f–1 Rep.
291f–2 8257
291g Rep.
292 Rep.
292–1, 292a Rep.
292a–1, 292a–3 Rep.
292b to 292b–3 Rep.
292c 8537
292c–1 9305
292d, 293 Rep.
294 8577
295 Rep.
296, 296a 9303
297 Rep.
297a 8257
298, 298a Rep.
298a–1 9304
298b 4656, 9656
298c 4628, 9628
299 8257, 8356, 8817
299a–299d Rep.
299e 8356
300 Rep.
300a–300c Elim.
301, 302 Rep.
303 Rep.
304 Rep. See T. 37 §402(a)–(c)
304a Rep.
304b Rep. See T. 37 §402(a)–(c)
305, 306 Rep.
307 Elim.
308, 308a Rep.
309 Elim.
310(a), (b) 2271
310(c) 2272
310(d) 2273
310(e) 2271, 2272
310(f), (g) 2272
310(h) 2271
310(i) 2273
310(j) 2272, 2279
310(k) 2274
310(l), (m) 2276
310(n) 2272
310(o) 2277
310(p) 2276
310(q) Rep.
310(r) Elim.
310(s) 2271
310(t) 2275
311 2382
312 2278
313 Rep.
316, 316–1 3071
316a 3209, 3215
316b 3071, 3504, 3962, 3991
316c(a) 3311
316c(b) Rep.
316c(c) 3211
316d 3580
316e 3685
321 Rep. See 3063 nt.
321a Elim.
322–332 Rep.
333 Elim.
334, 335 Rep.
336 Elim.
337–343 Rep.
351–353 Rep.
354 3355, 8355
355, 355a Rep.
356–359a Rep.
360, 361 Rep.
361a Rep.
361b Rep.
362, 362a Rep.
363–365 Rep.
366 Rep.
367 Elim.
367a, 368 Rep.
369, 369a Rep.
369b 684
370 Rep.
371 Rep. See T. 5 §§3551, 6323(a), (b)
371a Rep. See T. 5 §6323(a), (b)
371b Rep. See T. 5 §§502, 5534
371c Elim.
372–375 Rep.
376 3357
377, 378 Rep.
381, 382 4382, 9382
383, 384 4383, 9383
385 4384, 9384
385a 4387, 9387
385b 4387
386 3540, 8540
386a 4387, 9387
387, 387a 4387, 9387
388 Rep.
389 4386, 9386. Rep. in part.
390 4386, 9386
391 Elim.
421–424 Rep.
425 (See former 628–1)
426, 427 Rep.
441 4385, 9385
442 4411–4414, 9411–9414
443 4385, 9385
444 (See former 387a)
445 Rep.
451–455 Rep.
455a–455c 3722, 8722
455d Rep.
455e 3723, 8723; T. 32 §320
455f Rep.
456 3687, 3688, 3721, 8687, 8688, 8721
456–1 3687 nt.
456–2 Rep.
456a, 457 Rep.
481 3205
481a Rep.
481b Rep.
482–482c Rep.
483, 484 Rep.
484a 3814, 8814
485, 486 Rep.
486a 4353, 9353. Rep. in part. See 4353 nt.
487, 487a Rep.
488, 489 Rep.
490, 491 3302, 8302
491a–491c 1521
491c–1 1521 nt.
491d 1523
492–494 Rep.
495 3544, 8544
496 Rep.
497 3545, 8545
498 3543, 8543
498a Rep.
499 3446, 8446
499a, 499b Rep.
500 3681, 8681
501 Elim.
502–504 Rep.
505–505e Rep.
506(a) 3281, 3284, 8281, 8284
506(b) 3282, 3283
506(c) 3283, 3533
506(d) 3209, 8209
506(e), (f) Rep.
506a(a) 3210, 8210
506a(b), (c) 3573, 8573
506b(a) Rep.
506b(b) 3066, 3531, 8066, 8531
506b(c) 711. Rep. in part. See T. 37 §414
506b(d) 3962, 3991, 8962, 8991. Rep. in part. See 3962 nt.
506c(a) 3284, 8284
506c(b) 3285, 8285
506c(c) 3287, 8287
506c(d) 3288, 3295, 8288, 8295
506c(e) 3286, 8286
506c(f) 3212, 3287, 3574, 4353, 8212, 8287, 8574, 9353
506c(g) Rep.
506c–1 Rep.
506c–2(a) Rep. See 3284
506c–2(b) 3285
506c–3 3286
506c–4(a) 3287. Rep. in part. See 3287 nt.
506c–4(b) 3287
506c–4(c) 3212, 3287, 3574, 4353
506c–5 3288, 3295
506c–6 3888, 3927
506c–7 3285–3288, 3295, 3314. Rep. in part. See 3287 nt.
506c–8 Rep.
506c–9 3314
506c–10 Rep. See 3287 nt.
506d(a), (b) 3442, 8442
506d(c) 3442, 3572, 8442, 8572
506d(d) 3443, 8443
506d(e) 3444, 8444
506d(f) 3447, 8447
506d(g) Rep.
506d(h) 3491, 8491
506d(i) 3441, 8441
506d–1 to 506d–3 3202
506d–4 686
507 3578, 8578
507a 3576, 5954, 8576
511 3571, 8571
512, 512a Rep.
513 3395, 3445, 3447, 8395, 8445, 8447
514 Rep.
515 744
516 Rep.
517 741
521–528 Rep.
531–534 Rep.
535, 535a 4301
536–539 Rep.
540 712
541 Elim.
551, 551a Rep.
552–552c Rep.
553–553b Rep.
554, 555 Rep.
555a 3302, 3309, 8302, 8309
556 3309, 8309
556a 3302, 3309, 8302, 8309
557 Rep.
558 3312, 3394, 3451, 8312, 8394, 8451
559(a) 3296, 8296
559(b) 3211, 3212, 8211, 8212
559(c) 3296, 8296
559(d) 3296, 3574, 8296, 8574
559(e) Rep.
559a(a) 3297, 3308, 8297, 8308
559a(b) 3313, 8313
559a(c) 3297, 8297
559a(d) Rep.
559b 3212, 3298, 8212, 8298
559c(a)–(d) 3299, 8299
559c(e) 3300, 8300
559c(f) 3299, 8299
559c(g) 3303, 8303
559c(h) 3303, 3913, 8303, 8913
559c(i) 3913, 8913
559c(j) 3299, 8299
559c(k) 3212, 3299, 8212, 8299
559c(l) 8301
559c(m) Rep.
559c–1 3299
559d 3305, 8305
559e 3306, 8306
559f 3307, 8307
559g 3036, 3212
559h, 559i Rep.
559j 3296
559k 3818
559l–559o Rep.
571–575 Rep.
576 3544, 8544
576a Rep.
577 3544, 8544
578, 579 Rep.
580 3784, 8784
581 3781, 8781
582 3782, 8782
583 3782–3784, 3786, 8782–8784, 8786
584 3785, 8785
585 3786, 8786
586 Elim.
587 Rep.
591 3310, 8310
591–1 3311, 3818
591a 3448, 8448
592 Rep.
593 3548, 3575, 8548, 8575
593a Rep.
594 3964, 3992, 8964, 8992
595 Elim.
596, 597 Rep.
598 (See former 631a)
599 Rep.
600(a), (b) 101
600(c) 564
600(d) 564, 1166, 1167, 1255, 1263, 1293, 1305. Rep. in part. See 1164 nt.
600a 555, 597, 745, 3445, 3448, 8445, 8448
600b Rep.
600c 555, 556, 597, 3448, 8448
600d 515, 1165
600e 557, 598, 3449, 8449
600f 558
600g 559, 561
600h 560, 562
600i 562, 563
600j 557
600k 564
600l(a) 1293
600l(b) 1255, 1263, 1305. Rep. in part. See 1164 nt.
600l(c) 1164
600l(d) 1371, 1401
600l(e) 564, 1164, 1166, 1255, 1263, 1305
600l(f) 1371, 1401
600l(g) Elim.
600m 515, 1166
600n 1167
600o Rep.
600p 565, 599, 3450, 8450
600q Rep.
600r 564, 1164, 1255, 1263, 1305
602 Rep.
603–604a Rep.
605–607 Rep.
608 3639, 8639
609 3635, 8635
610 3690, 8690
611 Rep.
612 1522
621 3256, 8256
621a Rep.
621b 3256, 3818
621c, 621d Elim.
622–625 3253, 8253
626, 626a Rep.
627 3256, 8256
628 3256, 3815, 3816, 8256, 8815, 8816
628–1 3256, 8256
628a 3262, 8262
628b 3263, 8263
629 3638, 8638
629a 972
630, 631 Rep.
631a 3258, 3684, 8258, 8684
632, 633 Rep.
634 3254, 3812, 8254, 8812
635 3255, 8255
636 3256, 8256
636a Rep.
637 Elim.
641–642a Rep.
643, 644 Rep.
645 Elim.
651 Rep.
652 3813, 8813
652a 3811, 8811
653, 653a Rep.
654, 654a Rep.
654b, 655 Elim.
656 Rep.
657 Elim.
658 Rep.
661 Elim.
662 Rep.
663 4023, 9023
664, 665 Rep.
671 Elim.
671a Rep.
672, 673 Elim.
681, 682 Elim.
683, 683a Rep.
684 T. 37 §4c (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
685 Elim.
686 Rep.
691, 692 Rep.
693 Elim.
694 T. 37 §235a (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
695–699 Rep.
711–716 Elim.
716a Rep.
716b 4561, 9561
717–722 Rep.
723 4593, 9593
724–726 4561, 9561
727 Elim.
728 4775, 9775
729 Rep.
741 Elim.
742–748a Rep.
749 4743, 9743
757 Elim.
758–760 Rep.
771, 772 Rep.
781 Elim.
782–786 Rep.
787 Elim.
801–811 Rep.
821–823 Rep.
824 T. 5 §73c (See Rev. T. 5 Table)
825 4748, 9748
831 4562, 9562
832 Elim.
833 Rep.
834 4563, 9563
835 Rep.
841, 842 Rep.
843 4306, 9306
844, 845 Rep.
846 Rep.
847 Rep.
847a 3632, 8632
847b Rep.
847c, 847d 3632, 8632
848 Rep.
849 3633, 8633
850–852 Rep.
861, 861a Rep.
862 T. 37 §310b (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
862a T. 31 §493b
862b Rep.
863–866j Rep.
867 Rep.
868 2771
869 T. 31 §492d
870 Rep.
871, 872 4837, 9837
873, 874 Rep.
875–875c 4837, 9837
876 3636, 8636
877 2772
878 4840, 9840
891–894 3689, 8689
895 Elim.
902, 902a Rep.
903, 903a 3688, 8688
904 4621, 9621
904a–904d Rep.
905 3634, 8634
906–906a Rep.
907, 908 Rep.
908a–908c 1035
909 Elim.
910 Rep.
911 Elim.
912–914 Rep.
914a Elim.
915–916d Rep.
917 Rep.
918 Elim.
919 Rep.
920 1584 nt.
921 3532
931–938 Rep.
938a (See former 984)
939–940a Rep.
941 Rep.
941a(a) 3883, 3885, 3886, 3961, 3991, 8883, 8885, 8886, 8961, 8991
941a(b) 3888, 3927, 8888, 8927
941a(c) 3919, 8919
941a(d) 3211, 3913, 3915, 3916, 3921–3923, 8211, 8913, 8916, 8921–8923
941a(e) 3303, 3888, 3913, 3927, 3961, 3991, 8303, 8888, 8913, 8927, 8961, 8991
941a(f) 3313, 8313
942 3924, 8924
943 3918, 8918
943a 3911, 8911
944–946 Rep.
947 3917, 3925, 8917, 8925
947a 3917, 3961, 8917, 8961
948 3914, 3991, 8914, 8991
948a 3914, 8914
951 3887, 3926, 3928, 8887, 8926, 8928
951a 3926, 8926
951b 3887, 3926, 3928, 8887, 8926, 8928
952 Elim.
953 Rep.
953a 3926, 8926
954, 955 Rep.
956 3914 nt.
957 Rep.
958 3925, 8925
961–966 Rep.
970 Rep.
971 3991, 8991
971a Rep.
971b 3911, 3991, 8911, 8991. Elim. in part.
971c 3963 nt.
972–973a Rep.
974–979 Rep.
980 3991, 8991
981–982a Rep.
983–985h Rep.
986 Rep.
990–996 Rep.
997 3504
998 T. 32 §314
999 3503, 8503
1001 3966, 8966
1002, 1003 3963, 3991, 8963, 8991
1004 3964, 3992, 8964, 8992
1005 Elim.
1006 3965, 8965
1007 Rep.
1011–1013 Rep.
1014 1375
1015 Rep.
1021, 1022 Rep.
1023 772, 3681, 8681
1024 3582, 8582
1025 3961, 8961
1026 3961, 3962, 3991
1026a Rep.
1026b T. 33 §642a
1026b–1, 1026c Rep.
1027–1028a Rep.
1028b 772
1028c Elim.
1028d Rep.
1028e Elim.
1029–1035 Rep.
1036 3966, 8966
1036a 676, 1331, 1332. Rep. in part. See 1331
1036b 1333, 1401
1036c 1001, 1334
1036d 1331, 1336
1036e 101, 1332, 1333
1036f Rep.
1036g 1334, 1335
1036h 1337
1036i Rep.
1041 4334
1042 4334, 9334
1043, 1044 4349, 9349
1051–1052a Rep.
1053–1054a Rep.
1055–1060 4355, 9355
1061 4331, 9331
1061a 4332, 9332
1062, 1063 4333, 9333
1064 4333
1065 4334
1066 Rep.
1067 4340
1068–1070 Rep.
1071 4331
1072 Rep.
1073 4331
1074–1076 Rep.
1077, 1077a 4331
1078 Rep.
1078a 4331
1079 4334, 9334
1079a(a) 4336, 9336
1079a(b) 3962, 3991, 8962, 8991
1079a(c) 3886, 3920, 8886, 8920
1080–1082 Rep.
1083 4337, 9337
1084, 1085 Rep.
1086 4338
1087 4331, 4332, 9331, 9332
1088 4331
1089 4331, 4335, 9331, 9335
1091 Rep.
1091–1 4347, 9347
1091a–1091e Rep.
1092 Rep.
1092a 4342, 9342
1092b 4342, 4346, 4351, 9342, 9346, 9351
1092c 4348, 9348
1092c–1 541
1092d 4343, 9343
1093 4345, 9345
1093a, 1093b Rep.
1093c 4344, 9344
1093d T. 20 §221a
1094 Rep.
1095, 1096 4346, 9346
1097 Rep.
1098 4342, 9342
1099 4346
1100, 1101 Rep.
1102 4349, 9349
1103, 1104 4351, 9351
1105 4349, 9349
1106 4350, 9350
1111, 1112 Rep.
1121, 1121a Elim.
1122–1124 Rep.
1125 4354
1126 4354, 9354
1127 Rep.
1131–1136 Rep.
1137 4337, 9337
1138, 1139 4339
1140–1143 Rep.
1144 4341, 9341
1145 Elim.
1146–1149 Rep.
1149a 4350, 9350
1150 T. 37 §308a (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
1151 Rep.
1161 Rep.
1161a 4333 nt.
1162 T. 44 §87 (See Rev. T. 44 Table)
1163 4352, 9352
1171 Rep.
1172 4302, 9302
1173, 1174 Rep.
1175 Elim.
1176 4302, 9302
1177–1178a Rep.
1179 4627, 4629, 9627, 9629
1180 4651, 9651
1180a, 1180b Rep.
1181 3540, 8540
1182 4654, 9654
1182a Rep.
1183 4653, 9653
1184 Rep.
1185 4652, 9652
1186–1186b Rep.
1191, 1192 Rep.
1192a 4506, 9506
1193–1195 Rep.
1195a 4533, 4561
1196 4621, 9621
1197 4535, 9535
1198 4534, 9534
1199, 1199a Rep.
1200–1203 Rep.
1204 Elim.
1205, 1206 Rep.
1206a 4539
1207 2384
1208 Rep.
1209, 1210 4538
1210a Rep.
1211 Elim.
1212 Rep.
1213, 1214 2421
1221–1225 Rep.
1231 Rep.
1232 4622, 9622
1233–1235 4621, 9621
1236 4624, 9624
1237, 1238 4621, 9621
1239 4623, 9623
1240 Rep.
1241 4621, 9621
1251, 1252 Rep.
1253 4621, 9621
1254 4624, 9624
1255, 1256 2542
1257 Rep.
1257a T. 5 §150p (See Rev. T. 5 Table)
1257b 2573
1258 Rep.
1259 4682, 9682
1259a–1259c Rep.
1259d, 1259e 4564, 9564
1261 Rep.
1262 4681, 9681
1262a Rep.
1262b 2574
1263–1267 Rep.
1268 Elim.
1269–1269b 2481
1270 2667
1270a–1270c Rep.
1270d 2667
1271, 1271a Rep.
1272–1274 Rep.
1281–1286 Rep.
1287 4591, 9591
1288 Rep.
1289 Rep.
1301 4832, 9832
1302 4838, 9838
1303 4839, 9839. See T. 18 §702
1304 4835
1305 9835
1311 Rep.
1312 4834. Rep. in part.
1313 4834
1314 Rep.
1315 3631, 8631
1316, 1317 4836, 9836
1318 Rep.
1319 4592, 9592
1320 Rep.
1331 Rep.
1332 4779, 9779
1333 Rep.
1334 4536, 9536
1335 4779, 9779
1336, 1336a Rep.
1337 Rep.
1337a 4774, 9774
1337b 4774
1337c Elim.
1337d Rep.
1337e Elim.
1338 Rep.
1339 4774, 9774
1340 Rep.
1341 4772, 9772
1342 4771, 9771
1343 Rep.
1343a–1343c 9773
1343d 9774
1344 4771, 9771
1345 4779, 9779
1346 4778, 9778
1347 T. 36 §12
1348 4777, 9777
1349 Rep.
1350 Elim.
1351 2669
1352–1354 Rep.
1361 4742, 9742
1362 T. 49 §6
1363 4741, 9741
1364 Rep.
1365 2631
1366 Rep.
1367 4745
1368 4747
1369, 1370 4744
1371 4744, 4747
1371a 4746, 9746
1372–1375b Rep.
1376 Rep.
1377 4749
1391 3611, 8611
1392 Rep.
1393 771–774, 3612, 6297, 8612
1394 Rep.
1395 4621, 4629, 9621, 9629
1401, 1402 Rep.
1403 3741, 8741
1404, 1405 Rep.
1406 3742, 8742
1407 3743, 8743
1408, 1408a Rep.
1408b 1121, 1122
1409 3744, 3752, 8744, 8752
1410 3745, 8745
1411 3744, 8744
1412 3746, 8746
1413, 1413a Elim.
1414, 1414a Elim.
1415 Elim.
1415a 3751, 3752, 8751, 8752. Rep. in part. See 3751 nt.
1415b, 1415c 3751, 8751. Rep. in part. See 3751 nt.
1416 3747, 8747
1417–1421 Rep.
1422, 1423 Elim.
1423a, 1423b Rep.
1423c Elim.
1424 3748, 8748
1425 Rep. See T. 18 §704
1426 Elim.
1427 1123
1428 3750, 8750
1429 3749, 3752, 8749, 8752
1430–1430b Rep.
1430c–1430h Elim.
1431 807 nt.
1432 3637, 8637
1433 Rep.
1434–1443 Elim.
1451 3661
1452 Rep.
1453–1455 3661
1456 3662, 8662
1457–1457b 3663, 8663
1458, 1459 3661
1460 858 nt.
1461 Elim.
1471–1578 Rep.
1579 (See former 629)
1580 (See former 652a)
1581–1583 Rep.
1584–1584c T. 5 §150j to 150j–3 (See Rev. T. 5 Table)
1585 (See former 15a)
1586–1590 Rep.
1591 (See former 507)
1592 (See former 507a)
1593, 1593a Rep.
1594–1594b Rep.
1595–1597a Rep.
1598–1605 Rep.
1701–1710 Rep.
1711 Elim.
1712–1719 Rep.
1801 (less (b)) Rep.
1801(b) 101
1802–1804 Rep.
1805 9833
1806 Rep.
1811 8031
1812 8034
1813 8035
1814 8034
1815 8032
1831 8062
1832 8075
1833 8076
1834 Rep.
1835 101, 8078; T. 32 §101
1836 Rep.
1837 8067, 8211, 8296, 8574
1838, 1839 8074
1840 8072. Elim. in part.
1843–1849 8202
1850 686
1850a 8285, 8287. Rep. in part. See 8284
1850b 8286
1850c(a) 8287, 8888, 8927
1850c(b) 8287
1850c(c) 8287, 8888, 8927
1850c(d) 8287
1850c(e) 8212, 8287, 8574, 9353. Rep. in part. See 8212 nt.
1850d 8288, 8295
1850e Rep.
1850f 8314
1850g (less (c)) Rep.
1850g(c) Rep. See 8299 nt.
1850h Rep. See 8287 nt.
1850i Rep. See 8287 nt., 8299 nt.
1850j 8285–8288, 8295, 8314
1850k 8285
1851 9331
1852(a) Rep.
1852(b) Elim.
1853 9331 nt.
1854 9331
1855 Elim.
1856 541
1857 9331 nt.
1861 4802, 4806, 9802, 9806
1862 4803, 4806, 9803, 9806
1863 4804, 9804
1864, 1865 4805, 9805
1866 4802, 4803, 9802, 9803
Table II
(Showing disposition of all sections of former Title 34)
Title 34

Former Sections

Title 10

New Sections

1 5501
2 5403, 5405
3 5404
3a(a), (b) 5447, 5448
3a(c) 5701 nt.
3a(d) 6387
3a(e) 5701 nt.
3b(a), (b) 5449
3b(c) 5701 nt.
3b(d) 6388
3b(e) 5701 nt.
3c(a) 5442–5444, 5446, 5596, 5652–5661, 5663, 5711, 5786, 6386. Rep. in part.
3c(b) 5442–5444, 5666, 5786, 6371–6380, 6382, 6383, 6385
3c(c) 5596
3c(d) 5784, 5788
3c(e) 5596, 5784, 6326
3c(f) See T. 37 §415
3c(g) 5596
3c(h) 5596, 5784, 5786, 5788
3c(i) Rep.
3c(j) 6381, 6383, 6400
3d 5445, 5546, 5596, 5662, 5711, 5784, 5785, 6386
3e 5234, 5451, 5662, 5711, 5785, 6386
3f 5442 nt.
4(a) 5447, 5448
4(b–e) 5447
4(f) 5447, 5448, 5455
4(g) 5454
5 5449, 5454, 5455
5a(a)–(e) 5442
5a(f) 5444
5a(g) 5442, 5443
5a(h) 5444
5a(i) 5442–5444, 5447–5449
5a(j) 5454, 5507
5a(k) 5442–5444
5a–1 5451
5a–2 686
5b 5591–5594
6–10 Rep.
10a 5501. Rep. in part.
11 5572
12 5572, 5573
13, 14 5572, 5582
15 Rep.
16 Elim.
17 5573a
17a–17c Rep.
21 5599
21a Rep.
21b 5574
21c(c) 3294 nt.
21c(d) 3444, 8444
21c(e) 5787a
21c(f) 5652a
21c (less (c)–(f)) 5572, 5574
21d 5574
21e 5446, 5574, 5578, 5579, 5581, 5663, 5702, 5707, 5708, 5710, 5711, 5753, 5762, 5766, 5773, 5776, 6033, 6393
22, 23 5574
24, 25 Rep.
26 5987
30a 5404, 6027, 6028. Rep. in part.
30a–1 5139
30b, 30c Rep.
30d Elim.
30e 5579
30f 5572
30g 6392
30h 5579, 5945
30i Rep.
30j 5579
30k–30m 5579 nt.
31 Rep.
32 Rep.
33 Rep.
34 5412, 6013, 6014
34a 6014
35–37 Rep.
41, 42 Rep.
43 5572, 6027. Rep. in part.
43a 5140
43b Rep.
43b–1 Elim.
43c 5580, 6392
43c–1 5601
43d 5945, 6030
43e, 43f Rep.
43g(a) 6396
43g(b) 5140
43g(c) 6151
43g(d) 6325, 6396
43g(e) Rep.
43g(f) 6151, 6325, 6396
43g(g) 6151, 6329, 6404
43g(h) 6324, 6396
43g(i) 772
43h(a) (provisos) 6033, 6086, 7577
43h (less provisos of (a)) Rep.
43i 6393
43j Elim.
43k–43o Rep.
51 5578, 6027
51a Rep.
51b(c) 3294 nt.
51b(d) 3444, 8444
51b(e) 5787a
51b(f) 5652a
51b (less (c)–(f)) 5572, 5578
51c 5578, 5787a
52 5578
53, 54 T. 5 §§456b, 456c (See Rev. T. 5 Table)
55 T. 5 §456d (See Rev. T. 5 Table)
61 5575
61a–63 Rep.
64–66 6026
67 6113
71 5587
71a, 71b Rep.
72 5406
73 5587
74, 74a Rep.
75, 76 Rep.
77 5572, 5587
78 5407, 5587
79 Rep.
81 Rep.
82–86 Rep.
91 5576
92, 93 Rep.
93a 5572, 5576
94 Rep.
95, 96 6031
97 5142
101 Elim.
102 Rep.
105 5532–5534, 5572, 5590
105a (proviso) Rep.
105a (less proviso) 5410
105b (1st sent.) Rep.
105b (less 1st sent.) 5452–5455
105c 5590
105d 5143
105e (proviso) Rep.
105e (less proviso) 5777
105f Rep.
105g 6015
105h 6033
105i 6294, 6393
105j 5446, 5504, 5596, 5663, 5704–5707, 5710, 5711, 5784
105k 5446, 5504, 5590, 5663, 5664, 5711, 5753, 5763, 5774
111, 112 Rep.
121–132a Rep.
133, 134 Rep.
135(a), (b) 101
135(c) 564
135(d) 564, 1166, 1167, 1255, 1263, 1293, 1305. Rep. in part. See 1164 nt.
135a 555, 597, 5503, 5596–5593, 5787; T. 14 §§435–438
135b Rep.
135c 555, 556, 597, 5596–5598, 5787; T. 14 §§435–438
135d 515, 1165
135e, 135f Rep.
135g T. 14 §§435–438
141–146 Rep.
151 5401
152 Rep.
153 5401, 5402
161 5532, 5533
161a (See former 206)
162 5535
163 5532
171–175 Rep.
176 6013
177 Rep.
181 5533, 5534, 5538, 6293
181a 5538
182 5534
183, 183a 5536
183b 972
184 5539
185 5537
186 5538
187 5531. Rep in part. See T. 14 §350
188 5534. Rep. in part. See T. 14 §351
189 Rep. See T. 14 §§350, 351
191 5401, 5410, 5412, 6296
192, 193 6291
194 Rep.
195 6295
196 Rep.
197 6297
197a, 198 Rep.
199 6298
200 Rep.
201–201b 5540
202 Rep.
203 6293
204 Rep.
205, 206 Elim.
211 6019
211a(a) (1st proviso of 2d sent.) Rep.
211a(a) (less 1st proviso of 2d sent.) 5504, 5786
211a(b)–(d) Rep.
211a(e) (words before 2d proviso) Rep.
211a(e) (less words before 2d proviso) Elim.
211a(f)–(h) Rep.
211a(i) (less 1st proviso) 5504
211a(j) Rep.
211a(k) (1st, 2d, 4th, 5th provisos) Elim.
211a(k) (less 1st, 2d, 4th, 5th provisos) Rep.
211a(l), (m) Rep.
211a(n) 5597, 5787
211a(o) 5504, 5505, 5786
211a(p) Rep.
211a(q) 5780–5782
211a(r) 6371
211a(s) Rep.
211a(t) Elim.
211b 5408, 5587
211b–1 to 211b–5 Elim.
211c(a) 5572, 5589
211c(e)–(g) 5409
211c(h) Rep.
211c (less (e)–(h)) 5589
211d 5231, 5501
211e 5450
212, 212a Rep.
213–215 Rep.
216 5981
217 5948
217a, 217a–1 Rep.
217a–2 1031
217b 7476
218 5950
219 6143
220 5949
221 Rep.
222 6018
223, 224 Rep.
225 5133
226 6405
227 Rep.
228 6406
228a Elim.
228b, 229 Rep.
230 T. 37 §4c–1 (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
231, 232 Rep.
233 5862
234, 235 Rep.
241, 241a 741
242–244a Rep.
245 Rep.
246 5946
247, 248 5953
249–251 Rep.
251a 744
252 Rep.
253 5945
254, 255 Rep.
256 5577
257 Rep.
258 5504
259 Rep.
259a 745
260–263 Rep.
264 5951
265 5947
266 6031
271, 272 5861
272a Elim.
273 Rep.
274, 275 5862
276–279 5863
280 5866
281, 282 5863
283 5865
284, 285 5862
285a 5442, 5444, 5447, 5449, 5452
285b–285d 1521
285e 1522
285e–1 1521 nt.
285f 1523
286 to 286h–2 Rep.
286i–294a Rep.
295–297b Rep.
298–303 Rep.
304–304g 5701 nt.
305–305g 5701 nt.
306 5701–5703
306a 5705
306b(a)(1) 6371
306b(a)(2) 6378
306b(a)(3) 5751, 5754
306b(a)(4), (5) 5751
306b(b)(1) 6378
306b(b)(2) 5753, 5754
306b(b)(3) 5753
306c(a)(1) 5706
306c(a)(2) 5756
306c(a)(3) 5757
306c(a)(4), (5) 5758, 5759
306c(a)(6), (7) 5758
306c(a)(8) 6371
306c(a)(9) 5707
306c(a)(10)–(12) 5764, 5765
306c(a)(13), (14) 5768
306c(b)(1) 5706
306c(b)(2)–(8) 5762
306c(b)(9) 5761
306c(b)(10) 5707
306c(b)(11), (12) 5766
306c(c) 5755, 6407
306d(a) 5707, 5776. Rep. in part.
306d(b) 5707, 5776
306d(c)(1) 5707
306d(c)(2) 5708, 6384
306e 5708, 5710
306f(a)(1) 5769, 5771
306f(a)(2) 5769, 5771, 5775
306f(a)(3) 5770
306f(b)(1), (2) 5773, 5775
306f(b)(3) 5772, 5775
306f(c)(1) 5777
306f(c)(2) 5780, 5791
306f(c)(3) 5781, 5791
306f(c)(4) 5782, 5791
306f(c)(5), (6) 5783
306f(d)(1) Rep.
306f(d)(2) 5508
306f(d)(3) 5652, 5652b
306f(d)(4) 5653
306f(d)(5) 5655
306f(d)(6) 5654
306f(d)(7) 5656
306f(d)(8) 5657
306f(d)(9) 5658
306f(d)(10) 5659
306f(d)(11) 5660
306f(d)(12) 5661
306f(d)(13) 5651
306f(d)(14) 5507
306g 5788
306h 5596, 5779, 5784
306i–306k Rep.
306l 5862
306m Rep.
306n Elim.
306o 5788
306p 5861, 5862
306q 5751, 6371, 6376, 6377
306r Rep.
306s 5767
306t Rep.
307(a) 5704, 5754, 5755, 5771
307(b) 5787b, 5788
307(c) 5704
307(d) 5752, 5754
307(e) 5664
307(f) 5753
307(g), (h) 5707
307(i) 5760. Rep. in part. See 6401 nt.
307(j) 5707, 5760, 5771, 5775
307(k) 5707, 5763. Rep. in part. See 6401 nt.
307(l) 5707, 5708
307(m) 5710
307(n) 5775
307(o) 5774, 5775
307(p) (1st sent.) 5403–5405, 5447–5449
307(p) (less 1st sent.) Rep.
307(q) 5770
307(r) Rep.
311–313a Rep.
314 5788
321–324 Rep.
330 557, 598, 5596–5598, 5787; T. 14 §§435–438
330a 558
330b 559, 561
330c 560, 562
330d 562, 563
330e 557
330f 564
330g 565, 599
331–331b Rep.
332–332c Rep.
333–335b Rep.
336, 337 Rep.
338 5572, 5586
338a (provisos) Rep.
338a (less provisos) 5586
338b 5586
338c (proviso) Rep.
338c (less proviso) 5504
338d 5586
338e Rep.
338f (proviso) 5586
338f (less proviso) Rep.
338g 5504, 5586
339(a), (b) 5586
339(c) Elim.
341–343 5790
344 Rep.
345–347 5789
348–348u Rep.
349–349k Rep.
350, 350a 5597, 5787; T. 14 §§435–438
350b 5787; T. 14 §§435–438
350c(a) 5597, 5787; T. 14 §§435–438
350c(b) Rep.
350d 5597, 5787, 6395; T. 14 §§435–438
350e 5501, 5597, 5787; T. 14 §§435–438
350f(a) (1st, 3d, 4th provisos) Rep.
350f(a) (less 1st, 3d, 4th provisos) 5597, 5787, 6326; T. 14 §§435–438
350f(b) Rep. See T. 37 §414
350g Rep.
350h 5442–5444, 5447–5449; T. 14 §§758a, 759a
350i(a) 5597, 5787, 6488; T. 14 §§435–438, 758a, 759a
350i(b)(1) Rep.
350i(b)(2) 6151. Rep. in part. See T. 42 §212(g)
350i(c) Rep.
350i(d) 6488
350i(e) 6161, 6326
350j 5597, 5787. Rep. in part. See T. 14 §351; T. 42 §212(g)
350k 5597, 5787. Rep. in part. See T. 42 §212(g)
351–353 Rep.
354 6241
355 6243
356 6242
356a 6244
356b 6246
357 Rep.
358 6247
358a 6255
359 6253, 6254
360 6248
361 Elim.
362 6249
363 6250
364 6245, 6247, 6249–6252
364a T. 14 §492a. Rep. in part. See T. 14 §§494, 497
364b Rep.
365 T. 38 §§391–394 (See Rev. T. 38 Table)
366 Elim.
367 7218
371 1123
372–375 (See former 371)
381 6321
382 Rep.
383 6322
384 Rep.
385 6329
386 5864
387–388a Rep.
389 772, 6016, 6325, 6381, 6383, 6394, 6400
390–393 Rep.
394 1375
395–396a Rep.
397 Rep.
399 to 399c–1 Rep.
399d 772
399e Elim.
399f Rep.
399g (See former 399c–1)
399h Rep.
400 Rep.
401 5955
402, 402a Rep.
403–405 Rep.
405a 6392
406–410 Rep.
410a 6394
410b, 410b–1 6323
410c 6151, 6325, 6328, 6404
410d 6390, 6404
410e Rep.
410f–410i 5701 nt.
410j(a) 6376–6384
410j(b) 6376–6378
410j(c) 6379
410j(d) 6383
410j(e) 6380
410j(f) 6383
410j(g) 6381, 6383, 6400, 6404
410j(h) 6382–6384, 6404
410j(i) Rep.
410j(j) 5865
410j(k) 6381
410j(l) Elim.
410j(m) 6382–6384. Elim. in part.
410k Elim.
410l(a) 6371, 6381
410l(b) 5709, 5710, 6372, 6381
410l(c) 6381
410l(d)–(k) Rep.
410m 6325, 6326, 6381
410n 6150, 6483
410o (last proviso) Elim.
410o (less last proviso) 5233
410p(a) 6390
410p(b) Rep.
410q 6149
410r(a) 5776, 6151, 6380, 6382, 6400
410r(b) 5143, 6398
410r(c) 6399
410r(d) 5143
410r(e) 5143, 6398, 6399
410r(f) Rep.
410r(g) 5143, 6151, 6325
410r(h) 5143, 6151, 6328, 6404
410r(i) 6400
410r(j) 6401, 6402, 6404. Rep. in part. See 6401 nt.
410r(k) 5143, 6398, 6399
410s–418 Rep.
419–419b 6394
421–423 6481
423a Rep.
424–426 5982
427 Rep.
428 5507, 6487. Rep. in part. See T. 42 §212(g)
429 (proviso) Rep.
429 (less proviso) 5507
430(a) 1293
430(b)(1) 1255
430(b)(2) 1305
430(b)(3) Rep. See 1164 nt.
430(b) (less (1)–(3)) 1263
430(c) 1164
430(d) 1371, 1401
430(e) 564, 1164, 1166, 1255, 1263, 1305
430(f) 1371, 1401, 6325
430(g) Elim.
430a 515, 1166
430b 1167
430c 564, 1164, 1255, 1263, 1305
430d 565, 599, 6409
431, 432 6326
433 6482
434 6484
435–440a Rep.
440h 6017
440h–1 6323. Rep. in part.
440i 676, 1331, 1332
440j 1333, 1401
440k 1001, 1334
440l 1331, 1336
440m 101, 1332, 1333
440n 6034
440o 1334, 1335
440p 1337
440q, 441 Rep.
441a 712
442–448 Rep.
448a, 448b Elim.
449 6114
450 Rep.
450a, 450b Elim.
450b–1 Rep.
450c Elim.
451 5941
452 7293
453 Rep.
461–463 7292
471–473 Rep.
474 7224
481–486a Rep.
487 Rep.
488 7301
489 Elim.
490 7297
491 7304
492 7305
493, 493a Rep.
493a–1 7307
493b 7306
493c 7298
494 Elim.
495 (2d proviso of 1st par.) Rep.
495 (1st par., less 2d proviso) Elim.
495 (less 1st par.) 7342, 7343
495a 7342
496 2382, 7300
496a Rep.
496b Elim.
497 Rep.
498 to 498–5 Elim.
498a to 498a–2 Elim.
498a–3, 498a–4 Rep.
498a–5 Elim.
498b (See former 749b)
498c to 498c–3 Elim.
498c–4 Rep.
498c–5, 498c–6 Elim.
498c–7 to 498c–13 Rep.
498c–14, 498c–15 Elim.
498d Rep.
498d–1 7296
498d–2 Elim.
498e Rep.
498f to 498f–2 Elim.
498g Rep.
498g–1 7295
498h 7294, 7344
498i Rep.
498j 7302
498k Rep.
498l 7299
498m (2d sent. of 3d par.) 7296
498m (less 2d sent of 3d par.) Elim.
498n–498q Elim.
501 5943
502–504 Rep.
505 7474
506–508 Rep.
509 7475
510–514 Rep.
520 T. 33 §733; T. 40 §255; T. 50 §175
520a Rep.
521 7219
522 Rep.
522a 2667
522b–522d Rep.
522e 2667
523 7223
524 (1st par.) 7421–7423, 7426, 7430
524 (2d par.) 7426, 7430
524 (3d par.) 7430, 7432
524 (4th par.) 7424, 7431
524 (5th par.) 7425, 7432, 7434
524 (6th par.) 7428, 7429
524 (7th par.) Rep.
524 (8th par.) 7435
524 (9th par.) 7436
524 (10th par.) 7433
524 (11th par.) 7437, 7438
524a 7421
525 Rep.
526 Elim.
527 7580
528 2631
528a Rep.
529–531a Rep.
532–532a Rep.
533, 533a 7601
534 Rep.
535 Rep. See T. 14 §§144, 145
536 7603
537 6155
538 7602
539 4621, 9621
540 4625, 9625
540a Rep.
541 4564, 9564
542 7604
543, 544 Rep.
544a T. 31 §495a
545 2574
546 T. 5 §150p (See Rev. T. 5 Table)
546a Rep.
546b 7541
546c Rep.
546d 7542
546e 7307. Rep. in part.
546f 7308
546g 7545
546h 7545, 7546
546i 7544
546j Elim.
546k 7308, 7545
546l–546n Rep.
547, 548 Rep.
549, 550 2542
551–551a Rep.
551b 2573
552 7605
553 Rep.
553a–553c 2481
554, 555 Rep.
555a, 555b 2421
555c Elim.
555d, 555e 7227
555f 7228
556 7212
557 7213
558 7575
559 7206
560–567 Rep.
568 2383
569–579 Rep.
580 7229
580a Elim.
581 Rep.
582 7521
583 2384
584 7210
591 6011
592, 593 Rep.
593a 5792
594 Rep.
595 6202
596 6221, 6224
597 1551
598, 599 Rep.
600 7625
600a 7623
600b 7624
600c, 600d 7623
601–603 Rep.
604 T. 37 §31a (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
605 7215
606 7214
607 Rep.
608 6156
609 122
610 Rep.
621 5201
622 5201, 5502
623 Rep.
623a 5202
623b 5232, 5233, 5502
623c 5952
624–625b Rep.
625c 5588, 5707
625d 5588
625e, 625f 5204
625g 6020
625h(a) 5405, 5448, 5453–5455, 5532–5534, 5572, 5590, 5596, 5704–5708, 5711, 5752, 5755, 5760, 5771, 5775, 5777, 5784, 5787b, 5788, 6015, 6033, 6151, 6325, 6328, 6380, 6382, 6398–6402, 6404
625h(b) (proviso) Rep.
625h(b) (less proviso) 5410
625h(c) (proviso) Rep.
625h(c) (less proviso) 5411
625h(d) 5206, 5453, 5787b
625h(f) Rep. See 5760
625h(g) Rep. See 6401, 6402, 6404
626(a) 5405, 5448, 5454, 5455, 6387
626(b)–(d) 5448
626(e)–(n) 5701 nt.
626(o), (p) 5448
626(q)–(y) 5701 nt.
626 5405, 5448, 5454, 5455, 6387.
626–1(a) 5443, 5445, 5454, 5504, 5505, 5703, 5705, 5707, 5708, 5711, 5751, 5755, 5756, 5765, 5768, 5769, 5775, 5777, 5780, 5783, 5785, 5786, 5788, 5791, 5862, 5865, 6321, 6322, 6325, 6329, 6376, 6377, 6379–6384, 6386
626–1(b)–(d) 5443
626–1(e) 5770
626–1(f) 5703, 5707
626–1(g) 5703
626–1(h) 5751, 5769, 5775
626–1(i) 5765
626–1(j) 741
626–1(k) 5703, 5709
626–1(l) 5709, 5710, 6373, 6381
626–1(m) 5709, 6373
626–1(n) 6374, 6381
626–1(o) 5443, 5703, 5707, 5708, 5757, 5765, 5769, 5775, 6383
626–1(p) 5703, 5707, 5708, 5759, 5765, 5769, 5775, 6377, 6378
626–1(q) 5709, 5710, 6375, 6381
626–1(r) 5709, 6375
626–1(s) 5706, 6378
626–1(t) 5707
626–1(u) Rep.
626–1(v) Elim.
626–1(w) (See former 626–1(t))
626–1(x) (See former 626–1(u))
626–1(y) Rep.
626a, 626b Rep.
627, 627a Rep.
628 Rep.
629 5502
630–632a Rep.
632b (1st par.) Rep.
632b (less 1st par.) 5203
632c Rep.
632d 5588
633 Rep.
634 5583, 5585
635 5595
636 Rep.
637 5584
638 Rep.
639 5504, 5572, 5584
639a–646 Rep.
651 741, 5502
651a–654 Rep.
661–662c Rep.
663, 664 Rep.
665, 666 5861
667–667f Rep.
668–669b Rep.
670, 671 5790
671a 5443, 5448, 5453
672 5789
681–685 Rep.
685a 5201
685b 5205
686–688 Rep.
691, 691–1 Rep.
691a Rep.
691b Elim.
691c, 691d Rep.
692 5533, 5534, 5538, 6293
692a 5538
693 5531
694 Rep.
695 6158
696, 697 Elim.
701 6222, 6224
701–1 to 701–5 6222 nt.
701a Rep.
702 6223
711, 712 Rep.
713 5944
714 6012
715–718 Rep.
721–723 Rep.
724 7581
725 6032
731 Rep.
732, 732a 6021
733, 734 Rep.
735 (par. 1) 6023
735 (par. 2) 6025
735 (par. 3) 6024
735 (pars. 4, 5) 5942
735 (par. 6) Rep.
735 (par. 7) 5942
735 (par. 8) Rep.
735a Rep.
735b 6911
736 6022
737, 737a 6914
738 (last sent.) 6914
738 (less last sent.) Rep.
741–748 Rep.
749 (2d proviso of par. 7) 7341
749 (less 2d proviso of par. 7) Rep.
749a to 749c–1 Rep.
749d, 749e 7341
749f Rep.
751, 751a Rep.
752–770 Rep.
771, 772 6115
773, 774 Rep.
781–783b Rep.
784–790 Rep.
801–805 Rep.
811 Rep.
821(a), (b) 6901
821(c), (d) Rep.
822 6901
831 Rep.
841 Rep.
841a–841e 6915; T. 14 §§758a, 759a
841f Rep.
841g T. 14 §§758a, 759a
841h 6915; T. 14 §§758a, 759a
842–843a Rep.
844 to 849d–1 Rep.
849e–849i Rep.
850 Rep.
850a, 850b 6911
850c 6912. Rep. in part. See T. 37 §402(a)–(c)
850d Rep.
850e 6912
850f, 850g 6913
850h 5788
850i, 850j Rep.
850k to 850k–2 Elim.
850l, 850m Rep.
851 to 853a–1 Rep.
835b to 853c–1 Rep.
853c–2 to 853c–2a 6902
853c–3 6902
853c–4 (proviso) 6902
853c–4 (less proviso) Rep.
853c–5 Rep.
853c–6 Elim.
853d, 853e Rep.
853e–1 684
853f to 853g–1 Rep.
853h–853j Rep.
854 (proviso) Rep.
854 (less proviso) 6330
854a 6330, 6332
854b Elim.
854c 6330, 6331. Rep. in part.
854c–1 to 854c–5 6330 nt.
854d 6485, 6486. Rep. in part.
854e (2d, 4th provisos) 6331
854e (3d, 5th provisos) Elim.
854e (less 3d–5th provisos) 6485
854f 6201
854g Rep.
855–855b Rep.
855c(a) 6148
855c (less (a)) Elim.
855c–1 6148
855c–2 Rep.
855c–3 8687 nt.
855c–4 Rep.
855d to 855i–1 Rep.
855j–855s Rep.
856 to 857c–1 Rep.
857d–857g Rep.
858–858c Rep.
861–861f (See former 842, 843, 844–848)
862, 863 6141
864 Rep.
864a 5701 nt.
864b 5507
865 Rep.
865a T. 37 §257 (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
865b 5062
866–869 Rep.
870 5788
870a Elim.
871–875 Rep.
875a T. 37 §310c (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
875b T. 37 §310d (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
876–877a Rep.
878 Rep.
879 6321, 6322, 6326
879a Elim.
879b, 880 Rep.
881 6406
882 Rep.
882a 6111
882b Rep.
882c, 882d 6111
883 6112
884 Rep.
885 6152
886, 887 Rep.
887a–889 Rep.
890 2772
891 6154
892–894a Rep.
895–895a Rep.
896–896b Rep.
897 Rep.
898 6157; T. 14 §471a
899 Rep.
899a 7523
900 Rep.
900a 6292
900b, 901 Rep.
901a 6081, 6086
902 Rep.
902a–902c 6082
902d 6083
903–907 Rep.
908 6084
909 6085
911 7571
911a 7571, 7572
911b–911d 7574
911e Rep.
912–914 Rep.
915 7572
915a 7576
915b 6087, 7578, 7579
915c Elim.
916, 916a Rep.
917, 919 Rep.
921 Rep.
921a, 921b 6203
922–929 Rep.
931 6146
932 6142
933, 933a Rep.
935–936 Rep.
937–939 1035
941 Rep.
941a 2771
942 6522
943, 944 6521
945 Elim.
951 T. 37 §243 (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
952 T. 37 §244 (See Rev. T. 37 Table)
953 6145
954 6144
961 6147
962 Rep.
963 6147
971–977 Rep.
981–984a Rep.
985–989 Rep.
991–993d Rep.
993e Elim.
994–995a Rep.
996–1001 Rep.
1011 Rep.
1012–1017 Elim.
1020, 1020a 6903
1020b, 1020c 6904–6906
1020d 6023, 6906
1020e(a) 6904, 6906
1020e(b) 6909
1020e(c) 6904, 6909
1020e(d) (1st sent.) 5504, 6904, 6906, 6909
1020e(d) (less 1st sent.) Rep.
1020f 6907, 6909
1020g, 1020h 6907–6909
1020i 6910
1020j 6913
1020k Rep.
1020l 6901
1020m Rep.
1021 6951
1031 Rep.
1032 6954, 6958
1032–1 6955
1032a, 1033 Rep.
1033a, 1034 6954
1035 Rep.
1035a 6954
1036 to 1036–2 6957
1036a–1039 6954
1040, 1041 6956
1042, 1043 6958
1044–1045a Rep.
1046 Rep.
1047 6956, 6958
1048 6959
1049 6956
1051, 1052 Rep.
1052a 6960
1053 6963
1054 6966
1055 Rep.
1056 6966
1057 (Proviso of 3d sent.) Rep.
1057 (3d sent. less proviso) 5504
1057 (less 3d sent.) 5573
1057–1 541
1057a (last sent.) Rep. See 4353 nt., 6967 nt.; T. 46 §1126a–1 nt.
1057a (less last sent.) 6976
1057a–1 (See former 1076f)
1057b Rep.
1061 Rep.
1062 6961
1062a 6962
1063–1067 6964
1068 6965
1071 6952, 7478
1072 Rep.
1073 7082
1073a 7083
1073b 7084
1073c 7081
1073c–1 7081, 7085
1073c–2 7086
1073c–3 7087
1073d 7081
1073e 7088
1073f Rep. See 7085 nt.
1074 7043, 7081
1076 7041
1076a 7042
1076b 7044, 7081
1076c 7043
1076d 7046
1076e 7045
1076f 7047
1081, 1082 Rep.
1083–1088 6968
1091 Rep.
1091a 6969
1101–1103 6970
1104 Elim.
1105 Rep.
1106 6971
1107, 1108 Rep.
1108a Elim.
1108b (last proviso) Elim.
1108b (less last proviso) 6971
1109 Rep.
1109a Elim.
1110 Rep.
1111 6972
1115–1115c 6973
1116 Rep.
1117 Elim.
1118–1120 6974
1121 T. 46 §1335
1122 T. 46 §1336
1123 5985. Rep. in part. See T. 46 §1337
1123a T. 46 §1337
1123b T. 46 §1338
1123c T. 46 §1339
1123d T. 46 §1340
1123e T. 46 §1341
1123f–1125 Rep.
1126 5986
1127 Rep.
1128 7547
1129, 1130 5984
1131, 1132 7651
1133 7657
1134 7658
1135 7659
1136 7656
1137 7655, 7676
1138 7660, 7661
1139 7662
1140 7663
1141 7653, 7654
1142 7664
1143 7665
1144 7666
1145 7667
1146 7680
1147 7679
1148 7669
1149 7670
1150 7670, 7671
1151 7668
1152 7677
1153 7673
1154, 1155 7676
1156 7675
1157 7674
1158 7651, 7672
1158a Rep.
1159 7651, 7652
1160 7653
1161 7652
1162 7663
1163 7655, 7676
1164 (1st sent.) Rep.
1164 (less 1st sent.) 7652
1165 7681
1166 7652
1167 7678
1200, 1201 Rep.

Positive Law; Citation

This title has been enacted into positive law by section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 1, which provided in part that: “Title 10 of the United States Code, entitled ‘Armed Forces’, is revised, codified, and enacted into law, and may be cited as ‘Title 10, United States Code, §—.’ ”

Repeals

Section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641, repealed the sections or parts of sections of the Revised Statutes or Statutes at large covering provisions codified in this act, “except with respect to rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun, before the effective date of this act [Aug. 10, 1956] and except as provided in section 49.”

Savings Provision and Separability

Section 49 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 640, provided that:

“(a) In sections 1–48 of this Act [see Tables for classification], it is the legislative purpose to restate, without substantive change, the law replaced by those sections on the effective date of this Act [Aug. 10, 1956]. However, laws effective after March 31, 1955, that are inconsistent with this Act shall be considered as superseding it to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) References that other laws, regulations, and orders make to the replaced law shall be considered to be made to the corresponding provisions of sections 1–48.

“(c) Actions taken and offenses committed under the replaced law shall be considered to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provisions of sections 1–48.

“(d) If a part of this Act is invalid, all valid parts that are severable from the invalid part remain in effect. If a part of this Act is invalid in one or more of its applications, the part remains in effect in all valid applications that are severable from the invalid applications.

“(e) In chapter 47 of title 10, United States Code, enacted by section 1 of this Act, no inference of a legislative construction is to be drawn from the part in which any article is placed nor from the catchlines of the part or the article as set out in that chapter.

“(f) The enactment of this Act does not increase or decrease the pay or allowances, including retired pay and retainer pay, of any person.

“(g) The enactment of this Act does not affect the status of persons who, on the effective date of this Act [Aug. 10, 1956], have the status of warrant officers of the Army Mine Planter Service.”

Effective Date of Uniform Code of Military Justice

Section 51 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 640, provided that chapter 47 of this title takes effect January 1, 1957.

Restatement of Suspended or Temporarily Superseded Provisions

Section 50 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 640, provided that: “If on the effective date of this Act [Aug. 10, 1956] a provision of law that is restated in this Act and repealed by section 53 would have been in a suspended or temporarily superseded status but for its repeal, the provisions of this Act that restate that provision have the same suspended or temporarily superseded status.”

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 85–861; Legislative Purpose; Repeal of Inconsistent Provisions; Corresponding Provisions; Savings Provision and Separability; Status; Repeals

Section 34 of Pub. L. 85–861 provided that:

“(a) In sections 1–32 of this Act [see Tables for classification], it is the legislative purpose to restate, without substantive change, the law replaced by those sections on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 2, 1958]. However, laws effective after December 31, 1957, that are inconsistent with this Act shall be considered as superseding it to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) References that other laws, regulations, and orders make to the replaced law shall be considered to be made to the corresponding provisions of sections 1–32.

“(c) Actions taken under the replaced law shall be considered to have been taken under the corresponding provisions of sections 1–32.

“(d) If a part of this Act is invalid, all valid parts that are severable from the invalid part remain in effect. If a part of this Act is invalid in one or more of its applications, the part remains in effect in all valid applications that are severable from the invalid applications.

“(e) The enactment of this Act does not increase or decrease the pay or allowances, including retired and retainer pay, of any person.”

Section 35 of Pub. L. 85–861 provided that: “If on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 2, 1958] a provision of law that is restated in this Act and repealed by section 36 would have been in a suspended or temporarily superseded status but for its repeal, the provisions of this Act that restate that provision have the same suspended or temporarily superseded status.”

Section 36 of Pub. L. 85–861 repealed certain laws except with respect to rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun, before Sept. 2, 1958.

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 87–651; Inconsistent Provisions Superseded; Corresponding Provisions

Section 306 of Pub. L. 87–651 provided that:

“(a) Laws becoming effective after January 9, 1962, that are inconsistent with this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be considered as superseding it to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) References made by other laws, regulations and orders to the laws shall be considered to be made to the corresponding provisions of this Act.

“(c) Actions taken under the replaced law shall be considered to have been taken under the corresponding provisions of this Act.

“(d) The enactment of this Act, except section 108 [amending section 1334 [now 12734] of this title], does not increase or decrease the pay or allowances, including retired and retainer pay, of any person.”

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 89–718; Inconsistent Provisions Superseded; Corresponding Provisions

Section 74 of Pub. L. 89–718 provided that:

“(a) Laws becoming effective after June 1, 1965, that are inconsistent with this Act shall be considered as superseding it to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) References made by other laws, regulations, and orders to the laws restated by this Act shall be considered to be made to the corresponding provisions of this Act.

“(c) Actions taken under the laws restated by this Act shall be considered to have been taken under the corresponding provisions of this Act.”

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 97–295; Legislative Purpose; Repeal of Inconsistent Provisions; Corresponding Provisions; Savings Provision and Separability

Pub. L. 97–295, §5, Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1313, provided that:

“(a) Sections 1–4 of this Act [see Tables for classification] restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before December 2, 1981, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after December 1, 1981, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

“(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision.

“(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications.”

Section 6(a) of Pub. L. 97–295 provided that: “The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal.”

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 97–295 repealed certain sections or parts of sections of the Statutes at Large, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Oct. 12, 1982.

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 100–370; Corresponding Provisions; Savings Provision

Pub. L. 100–370, §4, July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 856, provided that:

“(a) References to Replaced Laws.—A reference to a law replaced by the provisions of title 10, United States Code, enacted by this Act [see Tables for classification] (including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law) shall be treated as referring to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

“(b) Savings Provision for Regulations.—A regulation, rule, or order in effect under a law replaced by the provisions of title 10, United States Code, enacted by this Act shall continue in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(c) General Savings Provision.—An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by the provisions of title 10, United States Code, enacted by this Act shall be treated as having been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.”

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 101–510; Corresponding Provisions; Savings Provision

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1481(k), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1709, provided that:

“(1) A reference to a law replaced by the provisions of title 10, United States Code, enacted by this section [enacting sections 129b, 1056, 2245, 2549, 2550, 2678, and 2732 of this title, amending sections 114, 1584, 1593, 2701, 2734, 2734a, and 2734b of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1056 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 113, 114, 1584, 1593, 2241, and 2701 of this title] (including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law) shall be treated as referring to the corresponding provision enacted by this section.

“(2) A regulation, rule, or order in effect under a law replaced by the provisions of title 10, United States Code, enacted by this section shall continue in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this title until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(3) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by the provisions of title 10, United States Code, enacted by this section shall be treated as having been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this title.”

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 103–337; Corresponding Provisions; Savings Provision

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1665, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3012, provided that:

“(a) References to Transferred or Replaced Provisions.—A reference to a provision of title 10, United States Code, transferred or replaced by the provisions of sections 1661 through 1664 [see Tables for classification] (including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law) shall be treated as referring to that provision as transferred or to the corresponding provision as so enacted by this subtitle [subtitle C (§§1661–1665) of title XVI of div. A of Pub. L. 103–337].

“(b) Savings Provision for Regulations.—A regulation, rule, or order in effect under a provision of title 10, United States Code, replaced by a provision of that title enacted by sections 1661 through 1664 shall continue in effect under the corresponding provision so enacted until repealed, amended, or superseded.

“(c) General Savings Provision.—An action taken, or a right that matured, under a provision of title 10, United States Code, replaced by a provision of that title enacted by sections 1661 through 1664 shall be treated as having been taken, or having matured, under the corresponding provision so enacted.”

Title Referred to in Other Sections

This title is referred to in title 20 sections 9303, 9304; title 22 section 2715c; title 31 section 3702; title 36 section 40727; title 37 section 211; title 42 sections 1320d, 1395ggg, 14405; title 49 section 40125; title 50 sections 415, 2031.

Subtitle A—General Military Law

PART I—ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Definitions
101
2.
Department of Defense
111
3.
General Powers and Functions
121
4.
Office of the Secretary of Defense
131
5.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
151
6.
Combatant Commands
161
7.
Boards, Councils, and Committees
171
8.
Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities
191
9.
Defense Budget Matters
221
11.
Reserve Components
261
13.
The Militia
311
15.
Insurrection
331
17.
Arming of American Vessels
351
18.
Military Support for Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies
371
20.
Humanitarian and Other Assistance
401
21.
Department of Defense Intelligence Matters
421
22.
National Imagery and Mapping Agency
441
23.
Miscellaneous Studies and Reports
481 1

        

PART II—PERSONNEL

31.
Enlistments
501
32.
Officer Strength and Distribution in Grade
521
33.
Original Appointments of Regular Officers in Grades Above Warrant Officer Grades
531
33A.
Appointment, Promotion, and Involuntary Separation and Retirement for Members on the Warrant Officer Active-Duty List
571
34.
Appointments as Reserve Officers
591
35.
Temporary Appointments in Officer Grades
601
36.
Promotion, Separation, and Involuntary Retirement of Officers on the Active-Duty List
611
37.
General Service Requirements
651
38.
Joint Officer Management
661
39.
Active Duty
671
40.
Leave
701
41.
Special Appointments, Assignments, Details, and Duties
711
43.
Rank and Command
741
45.
The Uniform
771
47.
Uniform Code of Military Justice
801
48.
Military Correctional Facilities
951
49.
Miscellaneous Prohibitions and Penalties
971
50.
Miscellaneous Command Responsibilities
991
51.
Reserve Components: Standards and Procedures for Retention and Promotion
1001
53.
Miscellaneous Rights and Benefits
1031
54.
Commissary and Exchange Benefits
1061
55.
Medical and Dental Care
1071
56.
Department of Defense Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Care Fund
1111
57.
Decorations and Awards
1121
58.
Benefits and Services for Members Being Separated or Recently Separated
1141
59.
Separation
1161
60.
Separation of Regular Officers for Substandard Performance of Duty or for Certain Other Reasons
1181
61.
Retirement or Separation for Physical Disability
1201
63.
Retirement for Age
1251
65.
Retirement of Warrant Officers for Length of Service
1293
67.
Retired Pay for Non-Regular Service
1331
69.
Retired Grade
1370
71.
Computation of Retired Pay
1401
73.
Annuities Based on Retired or Retainer Pay
1431
74.
Department of Defense Military Retirement Fund
1461
75.
Deceased Personnel
1471
76.
Missing Persons
1501
77.
Posthumous Commissions and Warrants
1521
79.
Correction of Military Records
1551
80.
Miscellaneous Investigation Requirements and Other Duties
1561
81.
Civilian Employees
1581
83.
Civilian Defense Intelligence Employees
1601
[85.
Repealed.]
87.
Defense Acquisition Workforce
1701
88.
Military Family Programs and Military Child Care
1781
[89.
Repealed.]

        

PART III—TRAINING AND EDUCATION

101.
Training Generally
2001
102.
Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps
2031
103.
Senior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps
2101
104.
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
2112
105.
Armed Forces Health Professions Financial Assistance Programs
2120
106.
Educational Assistance for Members of the Selected Reserve
2131
107.
Educational Assistance for Persons Enlisting for Active Duty
2141
108.
Department of Defense Schools
2161
109.
Educational Loan Repayment Programs
2171
110.
Educational Assistance for Members Held as Captives and Their Dependents
2181
111.
Support of Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education
2191
112.
Information Security Scholarship Program
2200

        

PART IV—SERVICE, SUPPLY, AND PROCUREMENT

131.
Planning and Coordination
2201
133.
Facilities for Reserve Components
2231
134.
Miscellaneous Administrative Provisions
2241
135.
Space Programs
2271
136.
Provisions Relating to Specific Programs
2281
137.
Procurement Generally
2301
138.
Cooperative Agreements with NATO Allies and Other Countries
2341
139.
Research and Development
2351
140.
Procurement of Commercial Items
2375
141.
Miscellaneous Procurement Provisions
2381
142.
Procurement Technical Assistance Cooperative Agreement Program
2411
143.
Production by Military Agencies
2421
144.
Major Defense Acquisition Programs
2430
145.
Cataloging and Standardization
2451
146.
Contracting for Performance of Civilian Commercial or Industrial Type Functions
2460
147.
Commissaries and Exchanges and Other Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Activities
2481
148.
National Defense Technology and Industrial Base, Defense Reinvestment, and Defense Conversion
2500
[149.
Repealed.]
[150.
Repealed.]
152.
Issue of Supplies, Services, and Facilities
2541
153.
Exchange of Material and Disposal of Obsolete, Surplus, or Unclaimed Property
2571
155.
Acceptance of Gifts and Services
2601
157.
Transportation
2631
159.
Real Property; Related Personal Property; and Lease of Non-Excess Property
2661
160.
Environmental Restoration
2701
161.
Property Records and Report of Theft or Loss of Certain Property
2721
163.
Military Claims
2731
165.
Accountability and Responsibility
2771
[167.
Repealed.]
169.
Military Construction and Military Family Housing
2801
[171.
Repealed.]
172.
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program
2901

        

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IX, §911(b), title X, §1048(a)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1196, 1222, struck out period after “1111” in item for chapter 56 and added item for chapter 135.

2000—Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VII, §713(a)(2), title IX, §922(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–184, 1654A–236, added items for chapters 56 and 112.

1999—Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §586(c)(1), title VII, §721(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 638, 694, added item for chapter 50 and substituted “Deceased Personnel” for “Death Benefits” and “1471” for “1475” in item for chapter 75.

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title III, §§355(c)(2), 371(a)(2), (c)(5), title V, §591(a)(2), title X, §§1073(a)(1), (2), 1074(d)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1694, 1705, 1762, 1900, 1910, substituted “481” for “471” in item for chapter 23, added items for chapters 80 and 136, and substituted “2460” for “2461” in item for chapter 146, “Commissaries and Exchanges and Other Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Activities” for “Utilities and Services” in item for chapter 147, “2500” for “2491” in item for chapter 148, and “2541” for “2540” in item for chapter 152.

1996—Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XI, §1123(a)(1), (2), title XVI, §1633(c)(3), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2687, 2688, 2751, substituted “National Imagery and Mapping Agency” for “Miscellaneous Studies and Reports” and “441” for “451” in item for chapter 22, added item for chapter 23, substituted “Civilian Defense Intelligence Employees” for “Defense Intelligence Agency and Central Imagery Office Civilian Personnel” in item for chapter 83, and struck out item for chapter 167 “Defense Mapping Agency”.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §§568(a)(2), 569(b)(2), title X, §1061(a)(2), (b)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 335, 351, 442, added items for chapters 76 and 88 and struck out items for chapters 89 “Volunteers Investing in Peace and Security” and 171 “Security and Control of Supplies”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–359, title V, §501(b)(2), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3429, substituted “Defense Intelligence Agency and Central Imagery Office Civilian Personnel” for “Defense Intelligence Agency Civilian Personnel” in item for chapter 83.

Pub. L. 103–355, title VIII, §8101(b), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3389, added item for chapter 140.

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §554(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2773, added item for chapter 22.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §828(b)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1713, struck out item for chapter 135 “Encouragement of Aviation”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XIII, §1322(a)(2), div. D, title XLII, §4271(b)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2553, 2695, added items for chapters 89 and 148 and struck out former items for chapters 148 “Defense Industrial Base”, 149 “Manufacturing Technology”, and 150 “Development of Dual-Use Critical Technologies”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(a)(26)(C)(ii), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1474, effective Oct. 1, 1993, struck out item for chapter 85 “Procurement Management Personnel”.

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §821(f), title X, §§1002(a)(2), 1061(a)(27)(A), title XI, §1112(b)(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1432, 1455, 1474, 1501, substituted “Defense Budget Matters” for “Regular Components” and inserted “221” in item for chapter 9, substituted “Original Appointments of Regular Officers in Grades Above Warrant Officer Grades” for “Appointments in Regular Components” in item for chapter 33, added item for chapter 33A, substituted “Manufacturing” for “Maufacturing” in item for chapter 149, added items for chapters 150 and 152, struck out item for former chapter 150 “Issue to Armed Forces” and struck out item for former chapter 151 “Issue of Serviceable Material Other Than to Armed Forces”.

Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(e)(1), (2), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 114, added item for chapter 85 and in item for chapter 108 inserted “2161”.

1990—Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title II, §247(a)(2)(B), title V, §502(a)(2), title VIII, §823(b)(1), title IX, §911(b)(3), title XII, §1202(b), title XVIII, §1801(a)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1523, 1557, 1602, 1626, 1656, 1757, added item for chapter 58, struck out item for chapter 85 “Procurement Management Personnel”, added item for chapter 87, substituted “Department of Defense Schools” for “Granting of Advanced Degrees at Department of Defense Schools” in item for chapter 108, substituted “Support of Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education” for “National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowships” in item for chapter 111, added item for chapter 149 and redesignated former item for chapter 149 as item for chapter 150, and added item for chapter 172.

1989—Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §843(d)(2), title IX, §931(e)(2), title XVI, §1622(d)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1517, 1535, 1605, substituted “Training and Education” for “Training” in item for part III, added item for chapter 111, and substituted “Cooperative Agreements” for “Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreements” in item for chapter 138.

1988—Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title III, §§342(a)(2), 344(b)(2), title VIII, §821(b)(2), title XI, §1104(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1961, 1962, 2016, 2046, substituted “Support for” for “Cooperation With” and “Agencies” for “Officials” in item for chapter 18, substituted “Defense Industrial Base” for “Buy American Requirements” in item for chapter 148, substituted “Property Records and Report of Theft or Loss of Certain Property” for “Property Records” in item for chapter 161, and added item for chapter 171.

Pub. L. 100–370, §§1(c)(3), (e)(2), 2(a)(2), 3(a)(2), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 841, 845, 854, 855, added items for chapters 54, 134, 146, and 148.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title III, §332(c), title VII, §711(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1080, 1111, substituted “Humanitarian and Other Assistance” for “Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Provided in Conjunction With Military Operations” in item for chapter 20 and “Financial Assistance Programs” for “Scholarship Program” in item for chapter 105.

Pub. L. 100–26, §§7(c)(1), 9(b)(4), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 280, 287, added item for chapter 21, substituted “Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreements with NATO Allies and Other Countries” for “North Atlantic Treaty Organization Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreements” in item for chapter 138, substituted “Major Defense Acquisition Programs” for “Oversight of Cost Growth in Major Programs” and “2430” for “2431” in item for chapter 144, and substituted “2721” for “2701” in item for chapter 161.

1986—Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title III, §333(a)(2), title XIII, §1343(a)(22), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3859, 3994, added item for chapter 20 and substituted “2341” for “2321” in item for chapter 138.

Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §211(a)(2), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1725, added item for chapter 160.

Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(b), title VI, §605, Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1030, 1075a, added items for chapters 2, 6, 38, and 144, inserted “and Functions” in item for chapter 3, substituted “Office of the Secretary of Defense” for “Department of Defense” in item for chapter 4, substituted “151” for “141” as the section number in the item for chapter 5, reenacted item for chapter 7 without change, and inserted “and Department of Defense Field Activities” in item for chapter 8.

Pub. L. 99–399, title VIII, §806(d)(2), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 888, added item for chapter 110.

1985—Pub. L. 99–145, title VI, §671(a)(2), title IX, §924(a)(2), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 663, 698, added items for chapters 85 and 109.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §705(a)(2), title XII, §1241(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2567, 2606, substituted “Members of the Selected Reserve” for “Enlisted Members of the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve” in item for chapter 106 and added item for chapter 142.

1983—Pub. L. 98–94, title IX, §925(a)(2), title XII, §1268(15), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 648, 707, added item for chapter 74, and substituted “or” for “and” in item for chapter 60.

1982—Pub. L. 97–295, §1(50)(D), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1300, added item for chapter 167.

Pub. L. 97–269, title V, §501(b), Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1145, added item for chapter 8.

Pub. L. 97–214, §2(b), July 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 169, added item for chapter 169.

1981—Pub. L. 97–89, title VII, §701(a)(2), Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1160, added item for chapter 83.

Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §905(a)(2), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116, added item for chapter 18.

1980—Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §§501(1), 511(29), (54)(B), (99), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2907, 2922, 2925, 2929, added item for chapter 32, substituted “531” for “541” as section number in item for chapter 33, substituted “34” for “35” as chapter number of chapter relating to appointments as reserve officers, added items for chapters 35 and 36, substituted “Reserve Components: Standards and Procedures for Retention and Promotion” for “Retention of Reserves” in item for chapter 51, added item for chapter 60, substituted “1251” for “1255” as section number in item for chapter 63, substituted “Retirement of Warrant Officers” for “Retirement” in item for chapter 65, substituted “1370” for “1371” as section number in item for chapter 69, amended item for chapter 73 to read: “Annuities Based on Retired or Retainer Pay”, and capitalized “Assistance”, “Persons”, “Enlisting”, “Active”, and “Duty” in item for chapter 107.

Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §406(b), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1981, added item for chapter 108.

Pub. L. 96–342, title IX, §901(b), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1114, added item for chapter 107.

Pub. L. 96–323, §2(b), Aug. 4, 1980, 94 Stat. 1019, added item for chapter 138.

1977—Pub. L. 95–79, title IV, §402(b), July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 330, added item for chapter 106.

1972—Pub. L. 92–426, §2(b), Sept. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 719, added items for chapters 104 and 105.

Pub. L. 92–425, §2, Sept. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 711, amended item for chapter 73 by inserting “; Survivor Benefit Plan” after “Pay” which could not be executed as directed in view of amendment by Pub. L. 87–381. See 1961 Amendment note below.

1968—Pub. L. 90–377, §2, July 5, 1968, 82 Stat. 288, added item for chapter 48.

1967—Pub. L. 90–83, §3(2), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 220, struck out item for chapter 80 “Exemplary Rehabilitation Certificates”.

1966—Pub. L. 89–690, §2, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 1017, added item for chapter 80.

1964—Pub. L. 88–647, title I, §101(2), title II, §201(2), Oct. 13, 1964, 78 Stat. 1064, 1069, added items for chapters 102 and 103.

1962—Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §203, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 519, added item for chapter 4.

Pub. L. 87–649, §3(2), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 493, added item for chapter 40.

1961—Pub. L. 87–381, §1(2), Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 810, substituted “Retired Serviceman's Family Protection Plan” for “Annuities Based on Retired or Retainer Pay” in item for chapter 73.

1958—Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(21), (26), (33), 33(a)(4)(B), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1443, 1450, 1455, 1564, substituted “General Service Requirements” for “Service Requirements for Reserves” in item for chapter 37, “971” for “[No present sections]” in item for chapter 49, “Medical and Dental Care” for “Voting by Members of Armed Forces” in item for chapter 55, and struck out “Care of the Dead” and substituted “1475” for “1481” in item for chapter 75.

1 Chapter 23 amended by Pub. L. 107–107 by adding section 480 without corresponding amendment of subtitle analysis.

PART I—ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL MILITARY POWERS

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Definitions
101
2.
Department of Defense
111
3.
General Powers and Functions
121
4.
Office of the Secretary of Defense
131
5.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
151
6.
Combatant Commands
161
7.
Boards, Councils, and Committees
171
8.
Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities
191
9.
Defense Budget Matters
221
11.
Reserve Components
261
13.
The Militia
311
15.
Insurrection
331
17.
Arming of American Vessels
351
18.
Military Support for Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies
371
20.
Humanitarian and Other Assistance
401
21.
Department of Defense Intelligence Matters
421
22.
National Imagery and Mapping Agency
441
23.
Miscellaneous Studies and Reports
481 1

        

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1900, substituted “481” for “471” in item for chapter 23.

1996—Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XI, §1123(a)(2), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2688, substituted “National Imagery and Mapping Agency” for “Miscellaneous Studies and Reports” and “441” for “451” in item for chapter 22 and added item for chapter 23.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §554(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2773, added item for chapter 22.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1002(a)(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1455, substituted “Defense Budget Matters” for “Regular Components” and inserted “221” in item for chapter 9.

1988—Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1104(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2046, substituted “Support for” for “Cooperation With” and “Agencies” for “Officials” in item for chapter 18.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title III, §332(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1080, substituted “Humanitarian and Other Assistance” for “Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Provided in Conjunction With Military Operations” in item for chapter 20.

Pub. L. 100–26, §9(b)(4), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 287, added item for chapter 21.

1986—Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title III, §333(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3859, added item for chapter 20.

Pub. L. 99–433, title VI, §605(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1075a, added items for chapters 2 and 6, inserted “and Functions” in item for chapter 3, substituted “Office of the Secretary of Defense” for “Department of Defense” in item for chapter 4, substituted “151” for “141” as section number in item for chapter 5, reenacted item for chapter 7 without change, and inserted “and Department of Defense Field activities” in item for chapter 8.

1982—Pub. L. 97–269, title V, §501(b), Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1145, added item for chapter 8.

1981—Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §905(a)(2), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1116, added item for chapter 18.

1962—Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §203, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 519, added item for chapter 4.

1 Chapter 23 amended by Pub. L. 107–107 by adding section 480 without corresponding amendment of part analysis.

CHAPTER 1—DEFINITIONS

Sec.
101.
Definitions.

        

§101. Definitions

(a) In General.—The following definitions apply in this title:

(1) The term “United States”, in a geographic sense, means the States and the District of Columbia.

(2) The term “Territory” (except as provided in section 101(1) of title 32 for laws relating to the militia, the National Guard, the Army National Guard of the United States, and the Air National Guard of the United States) means any Territory organized after August 10, 1956, so long as it remains a Territory.

(3) The term “possessions” includes the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Guano Islands, so long as they remain possessions, but does not include any Territory or Commonwealth.

(4) The term “armed forces” means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.

(5) The term “uniformed services” means—

(A) the armed forces;

(B) the commissioned corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and

(C) the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service.


(6) The term “department”, when used with respect to a military department, means the executive part of the department and all field headquarters, forces, reserve components, installations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the department. When used with respect to the Department of Defense, such term means the executive part of the department, including the executive parts of the military departments, and all field headquarters, forces, reserve components, installations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of Defense, including those of the military departments.

(7) The term “executive part of the department” means the executive part of the Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, or Department of the Air Force, as the case may be, at the seat of government.

(8) The term “military departments” means the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force.

(9) The term “Secretary concerned” means—

(A) the Secretary of the Army, with respect to matters concerning the Army;

(B) the Secretary of the Navy, with respect to matters concerning the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard when it is operating as a service in the Department of the Navy;

(C) the Secretary of the Air Force, with respect to matters concerning the Air Force; and

(D) the Secretary of Transportation, with respect to matters concerning the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy.


(10) The term “service acquisition executive” means the civilian official within a military department who is designated as the service acquisition executive for purposes of regulations and procedures providing for a service acquisition executive for that military department.

(11) The term “Defense Agency” means an organizational entity of the Department of Defense—

(A) that is established by the Secretary of Defense under section 191 of this title (or under the second sentence of section 125(d) of this title (as in effect before October 1, 1986)) to perform a supply or service activity common to more than one military department (other than such an entity that is designated by the Secretary as a Department of Defense Field Activity); or

(B) that is designated by the Secretary of Defense as a Defense Agency.


(12) The term “Department of Defense Field Activity” means an organizational entity of the Department of Defense—

(A) that is established by the Secretary of Defense under section 191 of this title (or under the second sentence of section 125(d) of this title (as in effect before October 1, 1986)) to perform a supply or service activity common to more than one military department; and

(B) that is designated by the Secretary of Defense as a Department of Defense Field Activity.


(13) The term “contingency operation” means a military operation that—

(A) is designated by the Secretary of Defense as an operation in which members of the armed forces are or may become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities against an enemy of the United States or against an opposing military force; or

(B) results in the call or order to, or retention on, active duty of members of the uniformed services under section 688, 12301(a), 12302, 12304, 12305, or 12406 of this title, chapter 15 of this title, or any other provision of law during a war or during a national emergency declared by the President or Congress.


(14) The term “supplies” includes material, equipment, and stores of all kinds.

(15) The term “pay” includes basic pay, special pay, retainer pay, incentive pay, retired pay, and equivalent pay, but does not include allowances.


(b) Personnel Generally.—The following definitions relating to military personnel apply in this title:

(1) The term “officer” means a commissioned or warrant officer.

(2) The term “commissioned officer” includes a commissioned warrant officer.

(3) The term “warrant officer” means a person who holds a commission or warrant in a warrant officer grade.

(4) The term “general officer” means an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps serving in or having the grade of general, lieutenant general, major general, or brigadier general.

(5) The term “flag officer” means an officer of the Navy or Coast Guard serving in or having the grade of admiral, vice admiral, rear admiral, or rear admiral (lower half).

(6) The term “enlisted member” means a person in an enlisted grade.

(7) The term “grade” means a step or degree, in a graduated scale of office or military rank, that is established and designated as a grade by law or regulation.

(8) The term “rank” means the order of precedence among members of the armed forces.

(9) The term “rating” means the name (such as “boatswain's mate”) prescribed for members of an armed force in an occupational field. The term “rate” means the name (such as “chief boatswain's mate”) prescribed for members in the same rating or other category who are in the same grade (such as chief petty officer or seaman apprentice).

(10) The term “original”, with respect to the appointment of a member of the armed forces in a regular or reserve component, refers to that member's most recent appointment in that component that is neither a promotion nor a demotion.

(11) The term “authorized strength” means the largest number of members authorized to be in an armed force, a component, a branch, a grade, or any other category of the armed forces.

(12) The term “regular”, with respect to an enlistment, appointment, grade, or office, means enlistment, appointment, grade, or office in a regular component of an armed force.

(13) The term “active-duty list” means a single list for the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps (required to be maintained under section 620 of this title) which contains the names of all officers of that armed force, other than officers described in section 641 of this title, who are serving on active duty.

(14) The term “medical officer” means an officer of the Medical Corps of the Army, an officer of the Medical Corps of the Navy, or an officer in the Air Force designated as a medical officer.

(15) The term “dental officer” means an officer of the Dental Corps of the Army, an officer of the Dental Corps of the Navy, or an officer of the Air Force designated as a dental officer.


(c) Reserve Components.—The following definitions relating to the reserve components apply in this title:

(1) The term “National Guard” means the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard.

(2) The term “Army National Guard” means that part of the organized militia of the several States and Territories, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, active and inactive, that—

(A) is a land force;

(B) is trained, and has its officers appointed, under the sixteenth clause of section 8, article I, of the Constitution;

(C) is organized, armed, and equipped wholly or partly at Federal expense; and

(D) is federally recognized.


(3) The term “Army National Guard of the United States” means the reserve component of the Army all of whose members are members of the Army National Guard.

(4) The term “Air National Guard” means that part of the organized militia of the several States and Territories, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, active and inactive, that—

(A) is an air force;

(B) is trained, and has its officers appointed, under the sixteenth clause of section 8, article I, of the Constitution;

(C) is organized, armed, and equipped wholly or partly at Federal expense; and

(D) is federally recognized.


(5) The term “Air National Guard of the United States” means the reserve component of the Air Force all of whose members are members of the Air National Guard.

(6) The term “reserve”, with respect to an enlistment, appointment, grade, or office, means enlistment, appointment, grade, or office held as a Reserve of one of the armed forces.

(7) The term “reserve active-status list” means a single list for the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps (required to be maintained under section 14002 of this title) that contains the names of all officers of that armed force except warrant officers (including commissioned warrant officers) who are in an active status in a reserve component of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps and are not on an active-duty list.


(d) Duty Status.—The following definitions relating to duty status apply in this title:

(1) The term “active duty” means full-time duty in the active military service of the United States. Such term includes full-time training duty, annual training duty, and attendance, while in the active military service, at a school designated as a service school by law or by the Secretary of the military department concerned. Such term does not include full-time National Guard duty.

(2) The term “active duty for a period of more than 30 days” means active duty under a call or order that does not specify a period of 30 days or less.

(3) The term “active service” means service on active duty or full-time National Guard duty.

(4) The term “active status” means the status of a member of a reserve component who is not in the inactive Army National Guard or inactive Air National Guard, on an inactive status list, or in the Retired Reserve.

(5) The term “full-time National Guard duty” means training or other duty, other than inactive duty, performed by a member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States in the member's status as a member of the National Guard of a State or territory, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia under section 316, 502, 503, 504, or 505 of title 32 for which the member is entitled to pay from the United States or for which the member has waived pay from the United States.

(6)(A) The term “active Guard and Reserve duty” means active duty or full-time National Guard duty performed by a member of a reserve component of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or full-time National Guard duty performed by a member of the National Guard, pursuant to an order to active duty or full-time National Guard duty for a period of 180 consecutive days or more for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components.

(B) Such term does not include the following:

(i) Duty performed as a member of the Reserve Forces Policy Board provided for under section 10301 of this title.

(ii) Duty performed as a property and fiscal officer under section 708 of title 32.

(iii) Duty performed for the purpose of interdiction and counter-drug activities for which funds have been provided under section 112 of title 32.

(iv) Duty performed as a general or flag officer.

(v) Service as a State director of the Selective Service System under section 10(b)(2) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 460(b)(2)).


(7) The term “inactive-duty training” means—

(A) duty prescribed for Reserves by the Secretary concerned under section 206 of title 37 or any other provision of law; and

(B) special additional duties authorized for Reserves by an authority designated by the Secretary concerned and performed by them on a voluntary basis in connection with the prescribed training or maintenance activities of the units to which they are assigned.


Such term includes those duties when performed by Reserves in their status as members of the National Guard.


(e) Rules of Construction.—In this title—

(1) “shall” is used in an imperative sense;

(2) “may” is used in a permissive sense;

(3) “no person may * * *” means that no person is required, authorized, or permitted to do the act prescribed;

(4) “includes” means “includes but is not limited to”; and

(5) “spouse” means husband or wife, as the case may be.


(f) Reference to Title 1 Definitions.—For other definitions applicable to this title, see sections 1 through 5 of title 1.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 3; Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(1), 33(a)(1), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1437, 1564; Pub. L. 86–70, §6(a), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 142; Pub. L. 86–624, §4(a), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 87–649, §6(f)(1), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 494; Pub. L. 90–235, §7(a)(1), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 90–623, §2(1), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1314; Pub. L. 92–492, §1, Oct. 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 810; Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §§101, 115(a), title V, §501(2), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2839, 2877, 2907; Pub. L. 97–22, §2(a), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 124; Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §414(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2518; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 99–348, title III, §303, July 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 99–433, title III, §302, Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1022; Pub. L. 100–26, §7(i), (k)(1), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 282, 283; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §§1231(1), (20), 1233(a)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1160, 1161; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1234(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2059; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XII, §1204, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1658; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VI, §631(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1380; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1051(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2494; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §514, title XVI, §§1621, 1671(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2753, 2960, 3014; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(c)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §522, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2517.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
101(1)

101(2)

101(3)

101(4)

101(5)

 

 

 

 

101(6)

101(7)

50:351 (clause (b)).

32:4c (1st 33 words).

[No source].

50:901(e).

5:181–1(c) (for definition purposes); 5:411a(a) (for definition purposes); 5:626(c) (for definition purposes).

[No source].

5:171(b) (last 23 words of clause (1), for definition purposes).

Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §401 (clause (b)); added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, §401 (clause (b)); restated Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, §401 (clause (b)), 60 Stat. 102.

July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §101(d) (less 2d sentence), (e), (g), §702 (for definition purposes), 66 Stat. 481, 482, 501.

101(8)

101(9)

101(10)

 

 

101(11)

10:600(a); 34:135(a).

[No source].

32:2 (for definition purposes); 32:4b (for definition purposes).

50:1112(a) (for definition purposes).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §§205(c) (for definition purposes), 206(a) (for definition purposes), 207(c) (for definition purposes), 61 Stat. 501, 502.
101(12)

 

 

 

 

 

101(13)

 

101(14)

10:1835 (less last 16 words, for definition purposes); 32:2 (for definition purposes); 32:4b (for definition purposes).

50:1112(b) (for definition purposes).

5:181–3(b) (less last sentence); 10:1a(b) (less last sentence); 10:1801(b) (less last sentence); 37:231(c) (1st sentence, for definition purposes); 50:901(g).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §201(b) (last 31 words of clause (1), for definition purposes); restated Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §4 (last 31 words of clause (1) of 201(b), for definition purposes), 63 Stat. 579.

June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §62 (1st 36 words of last proviso), 39 Stat. 198.

June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §117 (for definition purposes), 39 Stat. 212.

101(15) [No source].
101(16)

101(17)

 

 

 

101(18)

101(19)

101(20)

101(21)

101(22)

10:600(b); 34:135(b).

5:181–3(b) (last sentence); 10:1a(b) (last sentence); 10:1801(b) (last sentence); 50:551(9).

[No source].

[No source].

[No source].

[No source].

10:1036e(d) (for definition purposes); 34: 440m(d) (for definition purposes).

June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §71 (for definition purposes); added June 15, 1933, ch. 87, §9 (for definition purposes), 48 Stat. 157; Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, §530 (for definition purposes), 63 Stat. 837; July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §803 (9th par., for definition purposes), 66 Stat. 505.
101(23)

101(24)

101(26)

101(27)

101(28)

[No source].

[No source].

[No source].

[No source].

[No source].

Sept. 19, 1951, ch. 407, §§2(b), 305 (less last 16 words, for definition purposes), 65 Stat. 326, 330.
101(29)

101(30)

101(31)

[No source].

[No source].

50:901(d) (less 2d sentence).

June 28, 1950, ch. 383, §2(b), 64 Stat. 263; July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §807(a), 66 Stat. 508.
101(32)

101(33)

101(34)

[No source].

[No source].

[No source].

Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, §102(c) (1st sentence, for definition purposes), 63 Stat. 804.
  May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §1 (Art. 1 (clause (9))), 64 Stat. 108.
  May 29, 1954, ch. 249, §2(a), (b), 68 Stat. 157.
  June 29, 1948, ch. 708, §306(d) (for definition purposes), 62 Stat. 1089.

The definitions in clauses (3), (15), (18)–(21), (23)–(30), and (31)–(33) reflect the adoption of terminology which, though undefined in the source statutes restated in this title, represents the closest practicable approximation of the ways in which the terms defined have been most commonly used. A choice has been made where established uses conflict.

In clause (2), the definition of “Territory” in 32:4c is executed throughout this revised title by specific reference, where applicable, to the Territories, Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone.

In clause (4), the definition of “armed forces” is based on the source statute instead of 50:551(2), which does not include an express reference to the Marine Corps. The words “including all components thereof” are omitted as surplusage.

In clause (5), the term “Department” is defined to give it the broad sense of “Establishment”, to conform to the source statute and the usage preferred by the Department of Defense, instead of the more limited sense defined by 5:421g(a) and 423a(a), and 10:1a(d) and 1801(d).

In clause (6), the term “executive part of the department” is created for convenience in referring to what is described in the source statutes for this title as “department” in the limited sense of the executive part at the seat of government. This is required by the adoption of the word “department” in clause (5) to cover the broader concept of “establishment”.

In clause (8), the term “Secretary concerned” is created and defined for legislative convenience.

In clause (9), a definition of “National Guard” is inserted for clarity.

In clause (10)(A), the words “a land force” are substituted for 32:2 (as applicable to Army National Guard). The National Defense Act of 1916, §117 (last 66 words), 39 Stat. 212, is not contained in 32:2. It is also omitted from the revised section as repealed by the Act of February 28, 1925, ch. 374, §3, 43 Stat. 1081.

In clauses (10) and (11), the word “Army” is inserted to distinguish the organizations defined from their Air Force counterparts.

In clauses (10) and (12), the words “unless the context or subject matter otherwise requires” and “as provided in this title”, in 32:4b, are omitted as surplusage.

In clauses (10)(B) and (12)(B), the words “has its officers appointed” are substituted for the word “officered”, in 32:4b.

In clauses (11) and (13), only that much of the description of the composition of the Army National Guard of the United States and the Air National Guard of the United States is used as is necessary to distinguish these reserve components, respectively, from the other reserve components.

In clause (12)(A), the words “an air force” are substituted for the words “for which Federal responsibility has been vested in the Secretary of the Air Force or the Department of the Air Force pursuant to law”, in 10:1835, and for 32:2 (as applicable to Air National Guard), to make the definition of “Air National Guard” parallel with the definition of “Army National Guard”, and to make explicit the intent of Congress, in creating the Air National Guard, that the organized militia henceforth should consist of three mutually exhaustive classes comprising the Army, Air, and Naval militia.

In clause (14), the definition of “officer” is based on the source statutes instead of 50:551(5), which excludes warrant officers. The reference to appointment in 10:1a(b) (2d sentence and 10:1801(b) (2d sentence), and the words “commissioned warrant officer”, “flight officer”, and “either permanent or temporary”, in 37:231(c) (1st sentence), are omitted as surplusage. 5:181–3(b) (1st sentence), 10:1a(b) (1st sentence), and 10:1801(b) (1st sentence) are omitted as covered by the definitions in clauses (14) and (16) of the revised section and by section 3062(c) and section 8062(d) of this title.

In clause (16), the words “unless otherwise qualified”, “permanent or temporary”, and “in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, including any component thereof” are omitted as surplusage. The word “person” is substituted for the word “officer”.

In clause (22), the definition of “active duty” is based on the definition of “active Federal service” in the source statute, since it is believed to be closer to general usage than the definition in 50:901(b), which excludes active duty for training from the general concept of active duty.

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
101(25) 50:1181(6). Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §102(6), 68 Stat. 1150.

The words “, other than a commissioned warrant officer,” are inserted to reflect 50:1181(1).

[Clause (35).] The word “original” is defined to make clear that when used in relation to an appointment it refers to the member's first appointment in his current series of appointments and excludes any appointment made before a lapse in service.

References in Text

Section 125(d) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(12)(A), was repealed by Pub. L. 99–433, title III, §301(b)(1), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1022.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “a member of a reserve component” for “a reserve commissioned officer, other than a commissioned warrant officer,”.

Subsec. (d)(6)(B)(i). Pub. L. 104–160 substituted “section 10301” for “section 175”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(13)(B). Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(1), substituted “688, 12301(a), 12302, 12304, 12305, or 12406” for “672(a), 673, 673b, 673c, 688, 3500, or 8500”.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 103–337, §1621, added par. (7).

Subsec. (d)(6), (7). Pub. L. 103–337, §514, added par. (6) and redesignated former par. (6) as (7).

1992—Pub. L. 102–484 amended section generally, substituting subsecs. (a) to (f) for former pars. (1) to (47) which defined terms for purposes of this title.

1991—Par. (47). Pub. L. 102–190 added par. (47).

1990—Par. (46). Pub. L. 101–510 added par. (46).

1988—Pars. (3), (10), (12). Pub. L. 100–456 struck out “the Canal Zone,” after “the Virgin Islands,” in par. (3) and after “Puerto Rico,” in pars. (10) and (12).

1987—Par. (1). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(1)(A), inserted “The term” after par. designation.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(1)(k)(B), inserted “the term” after “Air National Guard of the United States,”.

Pub. L. 100–180, §1233(a)(2), amended directory language of Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(1)(C), by adding par. (2) to those pars. excepted from direction that initial letter of first word after open quotation marks in each par. be made lowercase rather than uppercase.

Pars. (3) to (7). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(1)(A), (C), inserted “The term” after par. designation and struck out uppercase letter of first word after open quotation marks and substituted lowercase letter.

Pars. (8) to (13). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(1)(A), inserted “The term” after par. designation.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 100–180, §1231(1), inserted “a” after “means”.

Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(1)(A), (C), inserted “The term” after par. designation and struck out uppercase letter of first word after open quotation marks and substituted lowercase letter.

Pars. (15) to (19). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(1)(A), (C), inserted “The term” after par. designation and struck out uppercase letter of first word after open quotation marks and substituted lowercase letter.

Par. (20). Pub. L. 100–180, §1231(20), substituted “The term ‘rate” for “ ‘Rate” in second sentence.

Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(1)(A), (C), inserted “The term” after par. designation and struck out uppercase letter of first word after open quotation marks and substituted lowercase letter.

Pars. (21) to (43). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(1)(A), (C), inserted “The term” after par. designation and struck out uppercase letter of first word after open quotation marks and substituted lowercase letter.

Pars. (44), (45). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(i)(1), (k)(1)(A), inserted “The term” after par. designation and substituted “October 1, 1986” for “the date of the enactment of the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986”.

1986—Par. (43). Pub. L. 99–348 added par. (43).

Pars. (44), (45). Pub. L. 99–433 added pars. (44) and (45).

1985—Par. (41). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore”.

1984—Par. (22). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(1)(A), inserted “It does not include full-time National Guard duty.”

Par. (24). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(1)(B), inserted “or full-time National Guard duty”.

Par. (42). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(1)(C), added par. (42).

1981—Par. (41). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Pub. L. 97–22 inserted “or Coast Guard” after “Navy”.

1980—Par. (22). Pub. L. 96–513, §501(2), struck out “duty on the active list,” after “It includes”.

Par. (36). Pub. L. 96–513, §115(a), struck out par. (36) which provided that “dependent”, with respect to a female member of an armed force, did not include her husband, unless he was in fact dependent on her for his chief support, or her child, unless his father was dead or he was in fact dependent on her for his chief support.

Pars. (37) to (41). Pub. L. 96–513, §101, added pars. (37) to (41).

1972—Par. (2). Pub. L. 92–492 inserted “Except as provided in section 101(1) of title 32 for laws relating to the militia, the National Guard, the Army National Guard of the United States,” before “Territory”.

1968—Par. (8)(D). Pub. L. 90–623 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.

Par. 36. Pub. L. 90–235 added par. (36).

1962—Par. (31)(A). Pub. L. 87–649 substituted “section 206 of title 37” for “section 301 of title 37”.

1960—Par. (2). Pub. L. 80–624 struck out reference to Hawaii.

1959—Par. (2). Pub. L. 80–70 struck out reference to Alaska.

1958—Par. (25). Pub. L. 85–861, §1(1), added par. (25).

Par. (35). Pub. L. 85–861, §33(a)(1), added par. (35).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1501(c) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Dec. 1, 1994, and as if included as an amendment made by the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as originally enacted.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 1671(c)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, and amendment by section 1621 of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 1233(c)[(1)] of Pub. L. 100–180 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section, section 2432 of this title, and section 406b of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services] shall apply as if included in the enactment of the Defense Technical Corrections Act of 1987 (Public Law 100–26).”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 525, 601, 611, 612, 619, 625, 634, 635, 637, 638, 645, 741, 5138, 5149, 5155, 5442, 5444, 5457, 5501, and 6389 of this title, section 201 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services, and a provision set out as a note under section 611 of this title] shall take effect as of September 15, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513 provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), this Act and the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on September 15, 1981.

“(b)(1) The authority to prescribe regulations under the amendments made by titles I through IV and under the provisions of title VI shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 1980].

“(2) The amendment made by section 415 [enacting section 302(h) of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services] shall take effect as of July 1, 1980.

“(3) The amendments made by part B of title V shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 1980].

“(4) Part D of title VI shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 1980].”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–623 intended to restate without substantive change the law in effect on Oct. 22, 1968, see section 6 of Pub. L. 90–623, set out as a note under section 5334 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–649 effective Nov. 1, 1962, see section 15 of Pub. L. 87–649, set out as an Inconsistent Provisions note preceding section 101 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Section 33(g) of Pub. L. 85–861 provided that: “This section [see Tables for classification] is effective as of August 10, 1956, for all purposes.”

Short Title of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–38, §1, July 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 205, provided that: “This Act [enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2431 of this title and section 5901 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse] may be cited as the ‘National Missile Defense Act of 1999’.”

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–25, §1, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 75, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Persian Gulf Conflict Supplemental Authorization and Personnel Benefits Act of 1991’.”

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 100–26 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Defense Technical Corrections Act of 1987’.”

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 97–22 provided that: “this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Defense Officer Personnel Management Act Technical Corrections Act’.”

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 96–513 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Defense Officer Personnel Management Act’.”

Savings Provision

Section 703 of Pub. L. 96–513 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the provisions of this Act and the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] do not affect rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note above].”

Laws in Suspended Status Prior to 1980 Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513

Section 702 of Pub. L. 96–513 provided that: “If a provision of law that is in a suspended status on the day before the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note above] is amended by this Act [see Tables for classification], the suspended status of that provision is not affected by that amendment.”

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Authority vested by this title in “military departments”, “the Secretary concerned”, or “the Secretary of Defense” to be exercised, with respect to Coast and Geodetic Survey [now commissioned officer corps of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration], by Secretary of Commerce or his designee, see section 857a of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

Public Health Service

Authority vested by this title in “military departments”, “the Secretary concerned”, or “the Secretary of Defense” to be exercised, with respect to commissioned officers of Public Health Service, by Secretary of Health and Human Services or his designee, see section 213a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Coordination of Certain Sections of an Act With Other Provisions of That Act

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(j), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1230, provided that: “For purposes of applying amendments made by provisions of this Act other than provisions of this section [see Tables for classification], this section shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(h)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–294, provided that: “For purposes of applying amendments made by provisions of this Act other than provisions of this section [section 1087 of H.R. 5408, as enacted by section 1 of Pub. L. 106–398, see Tables for classification], this section shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(e), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 773, provided that: “For purposes of applying amendments made by provisions of this Act other than provisions of this section [see Tables for classification], this section shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1069(e), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2137, provided that: “For purposes of applying amendments made by provisions of this Act other than provisions of this section [see Tables for classification], this section shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(i), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1907, provided that: “For purposes of applying amendments made by provisions of this Act other than provisions of this section [see Tables for classification], this section shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Section 1074(e) of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that: “For purposes of applying amendments made by provisions of this Act other than provisions of this section [see Tables for classification], this section shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Section 1506 of title XV of div. A of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that: “For purposes of applying amendments made by provisions of this Act other than provisions of this title [see Tables for classification], this title shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Section 1070(h) of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that: “For purposes of applying amendments made by provisions of this Act other than this section [see Tables for classification], this section shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(h), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1774, provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by provisions of this Act other than this section [see Tables for classification], this section shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Section 1055 of Pub. L. 102–484 provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by provisions of this Act other than sections 1052, 1053, and 1054 [see Tables for classification], those sections shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the other provisions of this Act.”

Definitions for Purposes of Pub. L. 102–25

Pub. L. 102–25, §3, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 77, as amended by Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XII, §1203(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1508, provided that: “For the purposes of this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above]:

“(1) The term ‘Operation Desert Storm’ means operations of United States Armed Forces conducted as a consequence of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq (including operations known as Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, and Operation Provide Comfort).

“(2) The term ‘incremental costs associated with Operation Desert Storm’ means costs referred to in section 251(b)(2)(D)(ii) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (2 U.S.C. 901(b)(2)(D)(ii)).

“(3) The term ‘Persian Gulf conflict’ means the period beginning on August 2, 1990, and ending thereafter on the date prescribed by Presidential proclamation or by law.

“(4) The term ‘congressional defense committees’ has the meaning given that term in section 3 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101–510; 104 Stat. 1498).”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3750, 6246, 8750 of this title; title 5 sections 8331, 8401, 8906; title 8 section 1154; title 14 section 423; title 15 section 636; title 18 sections 232, 3267; title 20 sections 1078, 1087dd; title 31 section 3711; title 33 sections 853o, 857–1; title 37 sections 101, 308; title 39 section 3401; title 41 section 259; title 42 sections 2651, 5170b, 7235, 12639; title 46 App. section 1187b; title 49 section 40125; title 50 App. section 592.

CHAPTER 2—DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

Sec.
111.
Executive department.
112.
Department of Defense: seal.
113.
Secretary of Defense.
114.
Annual authorization of appropriations.
[114a.
Renumbered.]
115.
Personnel strengths: requirement for annual authorization.
115a.
Annual manpower requirements report.
[115b.
Renumbered.]
116.
Annual operations and maintenance report.
117.
Readiness reporting system: establishment; reporting to congressional committees.
118.
Quadrennial defense review.
119.
Special access programs: congressional oversight.

        

Amendments

1999—Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §901(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 717, added item 118.

1998—Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title III, §373(a)(2), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1992, added item 117.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3013, struck out item 115b “Annual report on National Guard and reserve component equipment”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1002(d)(1), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2480, struck out item 114a “Multiyear Defense Program: submission to Congress; consistency in budgeting”.

1990—Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1402(a)(3)(B), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1674, which directed amendment of item 114a by substituting “Multiyear” for “Five-year”, was executed by substituting “Multiyear” for “Five-Year” as the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1331(1), title XIV, §1483(c)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1673, 1715, substituted “Personnel strengths: requirement for annual authorization” for “Annual authorization of personnel strengths; annual manpower requirements report” in item 115, added items 115a and 115b, and struck out items 117 “Annual report on North Atlantic Treaty Organization readiness” and 118 “Sale or transfer of defense articles: reports to Congress”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XVI, §1602(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1597, added item 114a.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XI, §1132(a)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1152, added item 119.

1986—Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §101(a)(1), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, added chapter heading and analysis of sections for chapter 2, consisting of items 111 to 118.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in title 20 section 1087vv.

§111. Executive department

(a) The Department of Defense is an executive department of the United States.

(b) The Department is composed of the following:

(1) The Office of the Secretary of Defense.

(2) The Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(3) The Joint Staff.

(4) The Defense Agencies.

(5) Department of Defense Field Activities.

(6) The Department of the Army.

(7) The Department of the Navy.

(8) The Department of the Air Force.

(9) The unified and specified combatant commands.

(10) Such other offices, agencies, activities, and commands as may be established or designated by law or by the President.

(11) All offices, agencies, activities, and commands under the control or supervision of any element named in paragraphs (1) through (10).


(c) If the President establishes or designates an office, agency, activity, or command in the Department of Defense of a kind other than those described in paragraphs (1) through (9) of subsection (b), the President shall notify Congress not later than 60 days thereafter.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §202, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 517, §131; renumbered §111 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §101(a)(2), (b), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 995.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
131 5:171(a) (less last 10 words), (b). July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §201(a) (less last 10 words), (b); restated Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §4 (1st (less last 10 words) and 2d pars.), 63 Stat. 579.

The words “There is established”, in 5 U.S.C. 171(a), are omitted as executed. 5 U.S.C. 171(b) (1st 26 words) is omitted as covered by the definitions of “department” and “military departments” in section 101(5) and (7), respectively, of this title. 5 U.S.C. 171(b) (27th through 49th words) is omitted as executed. 5 U.S.C. 171(b) (last 18 words) is omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–433 renumbered section 131 of this title as this section, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Change of Name

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §908, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 406, provided that:

“(a) Redesignation.—The agency in the Department of Defense known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency shall after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996] be designated as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

“(b) References.—Any reference in any law, regulation, document, record, or other paper of the United States or in any provision of this Act to the Advanced Research Projects Agency shall be considered to be a reference to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986’.”

Transfer of Functions

Missions and functions of elements of Department of Defense as specified in classified annex to Pub. L. 104–201, and related personnel, assets, and balances of appropriations and authorizations of appropriations, transferred to National Imagery and Mapping Agency, see sections 1111 and 1113 of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as notes under section 441 of this title.

Commission To Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title XVI, subtitle C, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 813, as amended by Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1091], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–300, established Commission To Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization for purpose of assessing (1) manner in which military space assets may be exploited to provide support for United States military operations, (2) current interagency coordination process regarding operation of national security space assets, (3) relationship between intelligence and nonintelligence aspects of national security space, and potential costs and benefits of partial or complete merger of programs, projects, (4) manner in which military space issues are addressed by professional military education institutions, (5) potential costs and benefits of establishing changes to existing organizational structure of Department of Defense for national security space management and organization, and (6) advisability of certain actions relating to assignment of specified officers in United States Space Command; and further provided for report to Congress and Secretary of Defense on its findings and conclusions not later than six months after first meeting, submission to Congress by Secretary of Defense of assessment of Commission's report not later than 90 days after submission of Commission's report, and for termination of Commission 60 days after submission of its report to Congress.

Commission on National Military Museum

Pub. L. 106–65, div. B, title XXIX, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 881, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(g)(9), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1228, provided that:

“SEC. 2901. ESTABLISHMENT.

“(a) Establishment.—There is hereby established a commission to be known as the ‘Commission on the National Military Museum’ (in this title referred to as the ‘Commission’).

“(b) Composition.—(1) The Commission shall be composed of 11 voting members appointed from among individuals who have an expertise in military or museum matters as follows:

“(A) Five shall be appointed by the President.

“(B) Two shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

“(C) One shall be appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the ranking member of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

“(D) Two shall be appointed by the majority leader of the Senate, in consultation with the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate.

“(E) One shall be appointed by the minority leader of the Senate, in consultation with the ranking member of the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate.

“(2) The following shall be nonvoting members of the Commission:

“(A) The Secretary of Defense.

“(B) The Secretary of the Army.

“(C) The Secretary of the Navy.

“(D) The Secretary of the Air Force.

“(E) The Secretary of Transportation.

“(F) The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

“(G) The Chairman of the National Capital Planning Commission.

“(H) The Chairperson of the Commission of Fine Arts.

“(c) Chairman.—The President shall designate one of the individuals first appointed to the Commission under subsection (b)(1)(A) as the chairman of the Commission.

“(d) Period of Appointment; Vacancies.—Members shall be appointed for the life of the Commission. Any vacancy in the Commission shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment.

“(e) Initial Organization Requirements.—(1) All appointments to the Commission shall be made not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999].

“(2) The Commission shall convene its first meeting not later than 60 days after the date as of which all members of the Commission have been appointed.

“SEC. 2902. DUTIES OF COMMISSION.

“(a) Study of National Military Museum.—The Commission shall conduct a study in order to make recommendations to Congress regarding an authorization for the construction of a national military museum in the National Capital Area.

“(b) Study Elements.—In conducting the study, the Commission shall do the following:

“(1) Determine whether existing military museums, historic sites, and memorials in the United States are adequate—

“(A) to provide in a cost-effective manner for display of, and interaction with, adequately visited and adequately preserved artifacts and representations of the Armed Forces and of the wars in which the United States has been engaged;

“(B) to honor the service to the United States of the active and reserve members of the Armed Forces and the veterans of the United States;

“(C) to educate current and future generations regarding the Armed Forces and the sacrifices of members of the Armed Forces and the Nation in furtherance of the defense of freedom; and

“(D) to foster public pride in the achievements and activities of the Armed Forces.

“(2) Determine whether adequate inventories of artifacts and representations of the Armed Forces and of the wars in which the United States has been engaged are available, either in current inventories or in private or public collections, for loan or other provision to a national military museum.

“(3) Develop preliminary proposals for—

“(A) the dimensions and design of a national military museum in the National Capital Area;

“(B) the location of the museum in that Area; and

“(C) the approximate cost of the final design and construction of the museum and of the costs of operating the museum.

“(c) Additional Duties.—If the Commission determines to recommend that Congress authorize the construction of a national military museum in the National Capital Area, the Commission shall also, as a part of the study under subsection (a), do the following:

“(1) Recommend not fewer than three sites for the museum ranked by preference.

“(2) Propose a schedule for construction of the museum.

“(3) Assess the potential effects of the museum on the environment, facilities, and roadways in the vicinity of the site or sites where the museum is proposed to be located.

“(4) Recommend the percentages of funding for the museum to be provided by the United States, State and local governments, and private sources, respectively.

“(5) Assess the potential for fundraising for the museum during the 20-year period following the authorization of construction of the museum.

“(6) Assess and recommend various governing structures for the museum, including a governing structure that places the museum within the Smithsonian Institution.

“(d) Requirements for Location on Navy Annex Property.—In the case of a recommendation under subsection (c)(1) to authorize construction of a national military museum on the Navy Annex property authorized for reservation for such purpose by section 2881(b) [113 Stat. 879], the design of the national military museum on such property shall be subject to the following requirements:

“(1) The design shall be prepared in consultation with the Superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery.

“(2) The design may not provide for access by vehicles to the national military museum through Arlington National Cemetery.

“SEC. 2903. REPORT.

“The Commission shall, not later than 12 months after the date of its first meeting, submit to Congress a report on its findings and conclusions under this title, including any recommendations under section 2902.

“SEC. 2904. POWERS.

“(a) Hearings.—The Commission or, at its direction, any panel or member of the Commission, may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this title, hold hearings, sit and act at times and places, take testimony, receive evidence, and administer oaths to the extent that the Commission or any panel or member considers advisable.

“(b) Information.—The Commission may secure directly from the Department of Defense and any other Federal department or agency information that the Commission considers necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its responsibilities under this title.

“SEC. 2905. COMMISSION PROCEDURES.

“(a) Meetings.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the chairman.

“(b) Quorum.—(1) Six of the members appointed under section 2901(b)(1) shall constitute a quorum other than for the purpose of holding hearings.

“(2) The Commission shall act by resolution agreed to by a majority of the members of the Commission.

“(c) Commission.—The Commission may establish panels composed of less than full membership of the Commission for the purpose of carrying out the Commission's duties. The actions of each such panel shall be subject to the review and control of the Commission. Any findings and determinations made by such a panel shall not be considered the findings and determinations of the Commission unless approved by the Commission.

“(d) Authority of Individuals To Act for Commission.—Any member or agent of the Commission may, if authorized by the Commission, take any action which the Commission is authorized to take under this title.

“SEC. 2906. PERSONNEL MATTERS.

“(a) Pay of Members.—Members of the Commission appointed under section 2901(b)(1) shall serve without pay by reason of their work on the Commission.

“(b) Travel Expenses.—The members of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission.

“(c) Staff.—(1) The chairman of the Commission may, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, appoint a staff director and such additional personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to perform its duties. The appointment of a staff director shall be subject to the approval of the Commission.

“(2) The chairman of the Commission may fix the pay of the staff director and other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates, except that the rate of pay fixed under this paragraph for the staff director may not exceed the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title and the rate of pay for other personnel may not exceed the maximum rate payable for grade GS–15 of the General Schedule.

“(d) Detail of Government Employees.—Upon request of the chairman of the Commission, the head of any Federal department or agency may detail, on a nonreimbursable basis, any personnel of that department or agency to the Commission to assist it in carrying out its duties.

“(e) Procurement of Temporary and Intermittent Services.—The chairman of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals which do not exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

“SEC. 2907. MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

“(a) Postal and Printing Services.—The Commission may use the United States mails and obtain printing and binding services in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the United States.

“(b) Miscellaneous Administrative and Support Services.—The Secretary of Defense shall furnish the Commission, on a reimbursable basis, any administrative and support services requested by the Commission.

“SEC. 2908. FUNDING.

“(a) In General.—Funds for activities of the Commission shall be provided from amounts appropriated for the Department of Defense for operation and maintenance for Defense-wide activities for fiscal year 2000.

“(b) Request.—Upon receipt of a written certification from the chairman of the Commission specifying the funds required for the activities of the Commission, the Secretary of Defense shall promptly disburse to the Commission, from such amounts, the funds required by the Commission as stated in such certification.

“(c) Availability of Certain Funds.—Of the funds available for activities of the Commission under this section, $2,000,000 shall be available for the activities, if any, of the Commission under section 2902(c).

“SEC. 2909. TERMINATION OF COMMISSION.

“The Commission shall terminate 60 days after the date of the submission of its report under section 2903.”

Prohibition on Restriction of Armed Forces Under Kyoto Protocol to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XII, §1232, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2155, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no provision of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, or any regulation issued pursuant to such protocol, shall restrict the training or operations of the United States Armed Forces or limit the military equipment procured by the United States Armed Forces.

“(b) Waiver.—A provision of law may not be construed as modifying or superseding the provisions of subsection (a) unless that provision of law—

“(1) specifically refers to this section; and

“(2) specifically states that such provision of law modifies or supersedes the provisions of this section.

“(c) Matters Not Affected.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude the Department of Defense from implementing any measure to achieve efficiencies or for any other reason independent of the Kyoto Protocol.”

Applicability of Certain Pay Authorities to Members of Specified Independent Study Organizations

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1081, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1916, provided that:

“(a) Applicability of Certain Pay Authorities.—(1) An individual who is a member of a commission or panel specified in subsection (b) and is an annuitant otherwise covered by section 8344 or 8468 of title 5, United States Code, by reason of membership on the commission or panel is not subject to the provisions of that section with respect to such membership.

“(2) An individual who is a member of a commission or panel specified in subsection (b) and is a member or former member of a uniformed service is not subject to the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of section 5532 of such title with respect to membership on the commission or panel.

“(b) Specified Entities.—Subsection (a) applies—

“(1) effective as of September 23, 1996, to members of the National Defense Panel established by section 924 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (Public Law 104–201; 110 Stat. 2626) [formerly set out below]; and

“(2) effective as of October 9, 1996, to members of the Commission on Servicemembers and Veterans Transition Assistance established by section 701 of the Veterans’ Benefits Improvements Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–275; 110 Stat. 3346; 38 U.S.C. 545 note).”

Mission of White House Communications Agency

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §912, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2623, provided that:

“(a) Telecommunications Support.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the activities of the White House Communications Agency in providing support services on a nonreimbursable basis for the President from funds appropriated for the Department of Defense for any fiscal year are limited to the provision of telecommunications support to the President and Vice President and to related elements (as defined in regulations of that agency and specified by the President with respect to particular individuals within those related elements).

“(b) Other Support.—Support services other than telecommunications support services described in subsection (a) may be provided by the Department of Defense for the President through the White House Communications Agency on a reimbursable basis.

“(c) White House Communications Agency.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘White House Communications Agency’ means the element of the Department of Defense within the Defense Communications Agency that is known on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 23, 1996] as the White House Communications Agency and includes any successor agency.

“(d) Report on Issues Raised by DOD Inspector General Review of White House Communications Agency.—Not later than October 1, 1996, or 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 23, 1996], whichever is later, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report setting forth the actions taken by the Secretary to address the issues raised by the report of the Department of Defense Inspector General reviewing the mission of the White House Communications Agency.

“(e) Quarterly Reports During Fiscal Year 1997.—Not later than 30 days after the end of each quarter of fiscal year 1997, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report describing the support services other than telecommunications support services described in subsection (a) that were provided during the preceding quarter by the Department of Defense for the President through the White House Communications Agency.

“(f) Effective Date.—This section takes effect on October 1, 1997, and applies to funds appropriated for the Department of Defense for any fiscal year after fiscal year 1997.”

Military Force Structure Review

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, subtitle B, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2623, directed Secretary of Defense, in consultation with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to complete in 1997 a review of defense program of United States, which was to include comprehensive examination of defense strategy, force structure, force modernization plans, infrastructure, budget plan, and other elements of defense program and policies with view toward determining and expressing defense strategy of United States and establishing revised defense program through year 2005, further established National Defense Panel to complete review and report to Secretary not later than Dec. 1, 1997, further directed Secretary to submit final report to Congress not later than Dec. 15, 1997, and provided for termination of Panel 30 days after submission of report to Secretary.

Commission on Roles and Missions of Armed Forces

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, subtitle E, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1738, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §923(a)(1), (2), (b)–(d), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2830, 2831, provided that:

“SEC. 951. FINDINGS.

“Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) The current allocation of roles and missions among the Armed Forces evolved from the practice during World War II to meet the Cold War threat and may no longer be appropriate for the post-Cold War era.

“(2) Many analysts believe that a realignment of those roles and mission [sic] is essential for the efficiency and effectiveness of the Armed Forces, particularly in light of lower budgetary resources that will be available to the Department of Defense in the future.

“(3) The existing process of a triennial review of roles and missions by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff pursuant to provisions of law enacted by the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 [see Short Title of 1986 Amendment note above] has not produced the comprehensive review envisioned by Congress.

“(4) It is difficult for any organization, and may be particularly difficult for the Department of Defense, to reform itself without the benefit and authority provided by external perspectives and analysis.

“SEC. 952. ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMISSION.

“(a) Establishment.—There is hereby established a commission to be known as the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces (hereinafter in this subtitle referred to as the ‘Commission’).

“(b) Composition and Qualifications.—(1) The Commission shall be composed of eleven members. Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the Secretary of Defense.

“(2) The Commission shall be appointed from among private United States citizens with appropriate and diverse military, organizational, and management experiences and historical perspectives.

“(3) The Secretary shall designate one of the members as chairman of the Commission.

“(c) Period of Appointment; Vacancies.—Members shall be appointed for the life of the Commission. Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment.

“(d) Initial Organizational Requirements.—(1) The Secretary shall make all appointments to the Commission within 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993].

“(2) The Commission shall convene its first meeting within 30 days after the first date on which all members of the Commission have been appointed. At that meeting, the Commission shall develop an agenda and a schedule for carrying out its duties.

“SEC. 953. DUTIES OF COMMISSION.

“(a) In General.—The Commission shall—

“(1) review the efficacy and appropriateness for the post-Cold War era of the current allocations among the Armed Forces of roles, missions, and functions;

“(2) evaluate and report on alternative allocations of those roles, missions, and functions; and

“(3) make recommendations for changes in the current definition and distribution of those roles, missions, and functions.

“(b) Review of Potential Military Operations.—The Commission shall review the types of military operations that may be required in the post-Cold War era, taking into account the requirements for success in various types of operations. As part of such review, the Commission shall take into consideration the official strategic planning of the Department of Defense. The types of operations to be considered by the Commission as part of such review shall include the following:

“(1) Defense of the United States.

“(2) Warfare against other national military forces.

“(3) Participation in peacekeeping, peace enforcement, and other nontraditional activities.

“(4) Action against nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons capabilities in hostile hands.

“(5) Support of law enforcement.

“(6) Other types of operations as specified by the chairman of the Commission.

“(c) Commission To Define Broad Mission Areas and Key Support Requirements.—As a result of the review under subsection (b), the Commission shall define broad mission areas and key support requirements for the United States military establishment as a whole.

“(d) Development of Conceptual Framework for Organizational Allocations.—The Commission shall develop a conceptual framework for the review of the organizational allocation among the Armed Forces of military roles, missions, and functions. In developing that framework, the Commission shall consider—

“(1) static efficiency (such as duplicative overhead and economies of scale);

“(2) dynamic effectiveness (including the benefits of competition and the effect on innovation);

“(3) interoperability, responsiveness, and other aspects of military effectiveness in the field;

“(4) gaps in mission coverage and so-called orphan missions that are inadequately served by existing organizational entities;

“(5) division of responsibility on the battlefield;

“(6) exploitation of new technology and operational concepts;

“(7) the degree of disruption that a change in roles and missions would entail;

“(8) the experience of other nations; and

“(9) the role of the Army National Guard of the United States, the Air National Guard of the United States, and the other reserve components.

“(e) Recommendations Concerning Military Roles and Missions.—Based upon the conceptual framework developed under subsection (d) to evaluate possible changes to the existing allocation among the Armed Forces of military roles, missions, and functions, the Commission shall recommend—

“(1) the functions for which each military department should organize, train, and equip forces;

“(2) the missions of combatant commands; and

“(3) the roles that Congress should assign to the various military elements of the Department of Defense, including the Army National Guard of the United States, the Air National Guard of the United States, and the other reserve components.

“(f) Recommendations Concerning Civilian Elements of Department of Defense.—The Commission may address the roles, missions, and functions of civilian portions of the Department of Defense and other national security agencies to the extent that changes in these areas are collateral to changes considered in military roles, missions, and functions.

“(g) Recommendations Concerning Process for Future Changes.—The Commission shall also recommend a process for continuing to adapt the roles, missions, and functions of the Armed Forces to future changes in technology and in the international security environment.

“(h) Recommendations Concerning Reserve Components.—The Commission shall also address the roles, missions, and functions of the Army National Guard of the United States, the Air National Guard of the United States, and the other reserve components within the total force of the Armed Forces, particularly in light of lower budgetary resources that will be available to the Department of Defense in the future.

“(i) Recommendations Concerning Programs and Force Structure.—The Commission may also recommend changes that would better align programs and force structure with projected missions and threats.

“SEC. 954. REPORTS.

“(a) Implementation Plan.—Not later than three months after the date on which all members of the Commission have been appointed, the Commission shall transmit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report setting forth its plan for the work of the Commission. The plan shall be developed following discussions with the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the chairmen of those committees.

“(b) Commission Report.—The Commission shall, not later than one year after the date of its first meeting, submit to the committees named in subsection (a) and to the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff a report setting forth the activities, findings, and recommendations of the Commission, including any recommendations for legislation that the Commission considers advisable.

“(c) Action by Secretary of Defense.—The Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall submit comments on the Commission's report to the committees referred to in subsection (b) not later than 90 days following receipt of the report.

“SEC. 955. POWERS.

“(a) Hearings.—The Commission or, at its direction, any panel or member of the Commission, may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this subtitle, hold hearings, sit and act at times and places, take testimony, receive evidence, and administer oaths to the extent that the Commission or any panel or member considers advisable.

“(b) Information.—The Commission may secure directly from the Department of Defense and any other Federal department or agency any information that the Commission considers necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its responsibilities under this subtitle. Upon request of the chairman of the Commission, the head of such department or agency shall furnish such information expeditiously to the Commission.

“SEC. 956. COMMISSION PROCEDURES.

“(a) Meetings.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the chairman.

“(b) Quorum.—(1) Seven members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may hold hearings.

“(2) The Commission shall act by resolution agreed to by a majority of the members of the Commission.

“(c) Panels.—The Commission may establish panels composed of less than the full membership of the Commission for the purpose of carrying out the Commission's duties. The actions of each such panel shall be subject to the review and control of the Commission. Any findings and determinations made by such a panel shall not be considered the findings and determinations of the Commission unless approved by the Commission.

“(d) Authority of Individuals To Act for Commission.—Any member or agent of the Commission may, if authorized by the Commission, take any action which the Commission is authorized to take under this subtitle.

“SEC. 957. PERSONNEL MATTERS; EXPERT SERVICES.

“(a) Pay of Members.—Each member of the Commission shall be paid at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel time) during which the member is engaged in the performance of the duties of the Commission. All members of the Commission who are officers or employees of the United States shall serve without pay in addition to that received for their services as officers or employees of the United States.

“(b) Travel Expenses.—The members of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission.

“(c) Staff.—(1) The chairman of the Commission may, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, appoint a staff director and such additional personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to perform its duties. The appointment of a staff director shall be subject to the approval of the Commission.

“(2) The chairman of the Commission may fix the pay of the staff director and other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates, except that the rate of pay fixed under this paragraph for the staff director may not exceed the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title and the rate of pay for other personnel may not exceed the maximum rate payable for grade GS–15 of the General Schedule.

“(d) Detail of Government Employees.—Upon request of the chairman of the Commission, the head of any Federal department or agency may detail, on a nonreimbursable basis, any personnel of that department or agency to the Commission to assist it in carrying out its duties.

“(e) Procurement of Temporary and Intermittent Services.—The chairman of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals which do not exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

“(f) FFRDC Support.—(1) Upon the request of the chairman of the Commission, the Secretary of Defense shall make available to the Commission, without reimbursement, the services of any federally funded research and development center that is covered by a sponsoring agreement of the Department of Defense. The cost of the services made available under this subsection may not exceed $20,000,000.

“(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any analytic support or related services provided by such a center to the Commission shall not be subject to any overall ceiling established by this or any other Act on the activities or budgets of such centers.

“SEC. 958. MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

“(a) Postal and Printing Services.—The Commission may use the United States mails and obtain printing and binding services in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

“(b) Miscellaneous Administrative and Support Services.—The Secretary of Defense shall furnish the Commission, on a reimbursable basis, any administrative and support services requested by the Commission.

“(c) Gifts.—The Commission may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or donations of services or property.

“(d) Travel.—To the maximum extent practicable, the members and employees of the Commission shall travel on military aircraft, military ships, military vehicles, or other military conveyances when travel is necessary in the performance of a responsibility of the Commission, except that no such aircraft, ship, vehicle, or other conveyance may be scheduled primarily for the transportation of any such member or employee when the cost of commercial transportation is less expensive.

“SEC. 959. PAYMENT OF COMMISSION EXPENSES.

“The compensation, travel expenses, and per diem allowances of members and employees of the Commission shall be paid out of funds available to the Department of Defense for the payment of compensation, travel allowances, and per diem allowances, respectively, of civilian employees of the Department of Defense. The other expenses of the Commission shall be paid out of funds available to the Department of Defense for the payment of similar expenses incurred by that Department.

“SEC. 960. TERMINATION OF THE COMMISSION.

“The Commission shall terminate on the last day of the sixteenth month that begins after the date of its first meeting, but not earlier than 30 days after the date of the Secretary of Defense's submission of comments on the Commission's report.”

[Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §923(a)(3), (4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2830, provided that:

[“(3) The additional members of the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces authorized by the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending section 952(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–160, set out above] shall be appointed by the Secretary of Defense not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1994].

[“(4) At least one of the additional members of the Commission appointed pursuant to the amendment made by paragraph (1) shall have previous military experience and management experience with the reserve components.”]

Termination of Department of Defense Reporting Requirements Determined by Secretary of Defense To Be Unnecessary or Incompatible With Efficient Management of Department of Defense

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1151, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1758, provided that:

“(a) Termination of Report Requirements.—Unless otherwise provided by a law enacted after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993], each provision of law requiring the submittal to Congress (or any committee of Congress) of any report specified in the list submitted under subsection (b) shall, with respect to that requirement, cease to be effective on October 30, 1995.

“(b) Preparation of List.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a list of each provision of law that, as of the date specified in subsection (c), imposes upon the Secretary of Defense (or any other officer of the Department of Defense) a reporting requirement described in paragraph (2). The list of provisions of law shall include a statement or description of the report required under each such provision of law.

“(2) Paragraph (1) applies to a requirement imposed by law to submit to Congress (or specified committees of Congress) a report on a recurring basis, or upon the occurrence of specified events, if the Secretary determines that the continued requirement to submit that report is unnecessary or incompatible with the efficient management of the Department of Defense.

“(3) The Secretary shall submit with the list an explanation, for each report specified in the list, of the reasons why the Secretary considers the continued requirement to submit the report to be unnecessary or incompatible with the efficient management of the Department of Defense.

“(c) Submission of List.—The list under subsection (a) shall be submitted not later than April 30, 1994.

“(d) Scope of Section.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘report’ includes a certification, notification, or other characterization of a communication.

“(e) Interpretation of Section.—This section does not require the Secretary of Defense to review each report required of the Department of Defense by law.”

Report Provisions Previously Terminated by Goldwater-Nichols Act

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1321, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1670, provided that section 1322 of Pub. L. 101–510, with respect to Goldwater-Nichols terminations, repeals certain provisions of law containing terminated report requirements and section 1323 of Pub. L. 101–510, with respect to such terminations, restores effectiveness of selected other provisions of law containing such requirements and described Goldwater-Nichols terminations for purposes of such repeals or restorations.

Restoration of Certain Reporting Requirements of Title 10 Terminated by Goldwater-Nichols Act

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1323, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1672, restored effectiveness of following report and notification provisions previously terminated by section 602(c) of the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–433, formerly set out below: (1) the quarterly report required by section 127(c) of this title relating to emergency and extraordinary expenses, (2) the notifications required by section 2672a(b) of this title relating to urgent acquisitions of interests in land, (3) the notifications required by section 7308(c) of this title relating to the transfer or gift of obsolete, condemned, or captured vessels, and (4) the notifications required by section 7309(b) of this title relating to construction or repair of vessels in foreign shipyards.

Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986; Congressional Declaration of Policy

Section 3 of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “In enacting this Act [see Short Title of 1986 Amendment note above], it is the intent of Congress, consistent with the congressional declaration of policy in section 2 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401)—

“(1) to reorganize the Department of Defense and strengthen civilian authority in the Department;

“(2) to improve the military advice provided to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense;

“(3) to place clear responsibility on the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands for the accomplishment of missions assigned to those commands;

“(4) to ensure that the authority of the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands is fully commensurate with the responsibility of those commanders for the accomplishment of missions assigned to their commands;

“(5) to increase attention to the formulation of strategy and to contingency planning;

“(6) to provide for more efficient use of defense resources;

“(7) to improve joint officer management policies; and

“(8) otherwise to enhance the effectiveness of military operations and improve the management and administration of the Department of Defense.”

Reduction of Reporting Requirements

Section 602 of Pub. L. 99–433, as amended by Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1314(a)(4), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1175; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title II, §243, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1402; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1324, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1673; Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, directed Secretary of Defense to compile a list of all provisions of law in effect on or after Oct. 1, 1986, and before Feb. 1, 1987, which require President or any official or employee of Department of Defense to submit a report, notification, or study to Congress or any committee of Congress and to submit this list not later than six months after Oct. 1, 1986, with any recommendation or draft of legislation to implement any changes in law recommended by the Secretary.

Legislation To Make Required Conforming Changes in Law

Section 604 of Pub. L. 99–433 directed Secretary of Defense, not later than six months after Oct. 1, 1986, to submit to Committees on Armed Services of Senate and House of Representatives a draft of legislation to make any technical and conforming changes to title 10, United States Code, and other provisions of law that are required or should be made by reason of the amendments made by Pub. L. 99–433.

Readiness Status of Military Forces of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; Assessment, Findings, and Report to Congressional Committees

Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §808, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 814, which directed Secretary of Defense to report annually to Congress on readiness of military forces of NATO, was repealed and restated as section 133a (renumbered §117 and repealed) of this title by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(2)(A), 6(b), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1287, 1314.

Defense Manpower Commission

Pub. L. 93–155, title VII, §§701–708, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 609–611, established the Commission; provided for its composition, duties, powers, compensation, staff, appropriations, and use of General Services Administration; and directed that interim reports to President and Congress be submitted and that Commission terminate 60 days after its final report which was to be submitted not more than 24 months after appointment of Commission.

Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard of United States; Study and Investigation of Relative Status; Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternatives; Modernization and Manpower Needs; Report to President and Congress

Pub. L. 93–155, title VIII, §810, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 618, directed the Secretary of Defense to study the relative status of the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard of the United States; to measure the effects on costs and combat capability as well as other advantages and disadvantages of (1) merging the Reserve into the Guard, (2) merging the Guard into the Reserve, and (3) retaining the status quo; and to consider the modernization needs and manpower problems of both; and also directed that a report of such study be submitted to the President and to the Congress no later than Jan. 31, 1975.

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 6 OF 1953

Eff. June 30, 1953, 18 F.R. 3743, 67 Stat. 638, as amended Aug. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–559, §10(b), 72 Stat. 521; Sept. 7, 1962, Pub. L. 87–651, title III, §307C, 76 Stat. 526


Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, April 30, 1953, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, approved June 20, 1949, as amended [see 5 U.S.C. 901 et seq.].

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

Section 1. Transfers of Functions

(a) All functions of the Munitions Board, the Research and Development Board, the Defense Supply Management Agency, and the Director of Installations are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Defense.

(b) The selection of the Director of the Joint Staff by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and his tenure, shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense.

(c) The selection of the members of the Joint Staff by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and their tenure, shall be subject to the approval of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(d) The functions of the Joint Chiefs of Staff with respect to managing the Joint Staff and the Director thereof are hereby transferred to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Sec. 2. Abolition of Agencies and Functions

(a) There are hereby abolished the Munitions Board, the Research and Development Board, and the Defense Supply Management Agency.

(b) The offices of Chairman of the Munitions Board, Chairman of the Research and Development Board, Director of the Defense Supply Management Agency, Deputy Director of the Defense Supply Management Agency, and Director of Installations are hereby abolished.

(c) The Secretary of Defense shall provide for winding up any outstanding affairs of the said abolished agency, boards, and offices, not otherwise provided for in this reorganization plan.

(d) The function of guidance to the Munitions Board in connection with strategic and logistic plans as required by section 213(c) of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended [section 171h(c) of former Title 5], is hereby abolished.

Sec. 3. Assistant Secretaries of Defense

[Repealed. Pub. L. 85–599, §10(b), Aug. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 521, eff. six months after Aug. 6, 1958. Section authorized appointment of six additional Assistant Secretaries and prescribed their duties and compensation.]

Sec. 4. General Counsel

[Repealed. Pub. L. 87–651, title III, §307C, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 526. Section authorized appointment of a General Counsel for the Department of Defense. See section 140 of this title.]

Sec. 5. Performance of Functions

[Repealed. Pub. L. 87–651, title III, §307C, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 526. Section authorized the Secretary of Defense from time to time to make such provisions as he deemed appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, or by any agency or employee, of the Department of any function of the Secretary. See section 113 of this title.]

Sec. 6. Miscellaneous Provisions

(a) The Secretary of Defense may from time to time effect such transfers within the Department of Defense of any of the records, property, and personnel affected by this reorganization plan, and such transfers of unexpended balances (available or to be made available for use in connection with any affected function or agency) of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of such Department, as he deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this reorganization plan.

(b) Nothing herein shall affect the compensation of the Chairman of the Military Liaison Committee (63 Stat. 762).

Executive Order No. 12049

Ex. Ord. No. 12049, Mar. 27, 1978, 43 F.R. 13363, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055; Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617, which provided for establishment of Defense Economic Adjustment Program and continued the Economic Adjustment Committee, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 12788, Jan. 15, 1992, 57 F.R. 2213, set out as a note under section 2391 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 2304 of this title.

§112. Department of Defense: seal

The Secretary of Defense shall have a seal for the Department of Defense. The design of the seal is subject to approval by the President. Judicial notice shall be taken of the seal.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §202, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 517, §132; renumbered §112 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(2), 110(d)(1), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 1002.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
132 5:171a(e). July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §202(e); added Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §5 (10th par.), 63 Stat. 580.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–433 renumbered section 132 of this title as this section and substituted “Department of Defense: seal” for “Seal” in section catchline.

§113. Secretary of Defense

(a) There is a Secretary of Defense, who is the head of the Department of Defense, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. A person may not be appointed as Secretary of Defense within 10 years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.

(b) The Secretary is the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense. Subject to the direction of the President and to this title and section 2 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401), he has authority, direction, and control over the Department of Defense.

(c)(1) The Secretary shall report annually in writing to the President and the Congress on the expenditures, work, and accomplishments of the Department of Defense during the period covered by the report, together with—

(A) a report from each military department on the expenditures, work, and accomplishments of that department;

(B) itemized statements showing the savings of public funds, and the eliminations of unnecessary duplications, made under sections 125 and 191 of this title; and

(C) such recommendations as he considers appropriate.


(2) At the same time that the Secretary submits the annual report under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall transmit to the President and Congress a separate report from the Reserve Forces Policy Board on the reserve programs of the Department of Defense and on any other matters that the Reserve Forces Policy Board considers appropriate to include in the report.

(d) Unless specifically prohibited by law, the Secretary may, without being relieved of his responsibility, perform any of his functions or duties, or exercise any of his powers through, or with the aid of, such persons in, or organizations of, the Department of Defense as he may designate.

(e)(1) The Secretary shall include in his annual report to Congress under subsection (c)—

(A) a description of the major military missions and of the military force structure of the United States for the next fiscal year;

(B) an explanation of the relationship of those military missions to that force structure; and

(C) the justification for those military missions and that force structure.


(2) In preparing the matter referred to in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall take into consideration the content of the annual national security strategy report of the President under section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 404a) for the fiscal year concerned.

(f) When a vacancy occurs in an office within the Department of Defense and the office is to be filled by a person appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, the Secretary of Defense shall inform the President of the qualifications needed by a person serving in that office to carry out effectively the duties and responsibilities of that office.

(g)(1) The Secretary of Defense, with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall provide annually to the heads of Department of Defense components written policy guidance for the preparation and review of the program recommendations and budget proposals of their respective components. Such guidance shall include guidance on—

(A) national security objectives and policies;

(B) the priorities of military missions; and

(C) the resource levels projected to be available for the period of time for which such recommendations and proposals are to be effective.


(2) The Secretary of Defense, with the approval of the President and after consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall provide to the Chairman written policy guidance for the preparation and review of contingency plans. Such guidance shall be provided every two years or more frequently as needed and shall include guidance on the specific force levels and specific supporting resource levels projected to be available for the period of time for which such plans are to be effective.

(h) The Secretary of Defense shall keep the Secretaries of the military departments informed with respect to military operations and activities of the Department of Defense that directly affect their respective responsibilities.

(i)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall transmit to Congress each year a report that contains a comprehensive net assessment of the defense capabilities and programs of the armed forces of the United States and its allies as compared with those of their potential adversaries.

(2) Each such report shall—

(A) include a comparison of the defense capabilities and programs of the armed forces of the United States and its allies with the armed forces of potential adversaries of the United States and allies of the United States;

(B) include an examination of the trends experienced in those capabilities and programs during the five years immediately preceding the year in which the report is transmitted and an examination of the expected trends in those capabilities and programs during the period covered by the future-years defense program submitted to Congress during that year pursuant to section 221 of this title;

(C) include a description of the means by which the Department of Defense will maintain the capability to reconstitute or expand the defense capabilities and programs of the armed forces of the United States on short notice to meet a resurgent or increased threat to the national security of the United States;

(D) reflect, in the overall assessment and in the strategic and regional assessments, the defense capabilities and programs of the armed forces of the United States specified in the budget submitted to Congress under section 1105 of title 31 in the year in which the report is submitted and in the five-year defense program submitted in such year; and

(E) identify the deficiencies in the defense capabilities of the armed forces of the United States in such budget and such five-year defense program.


(3) The Secretary shall transmit to Congress the report required for each year under paragraph (1) at the same time that the President submits the budget to Congress under section 1105 of title 31 in that year. Such report shall be transmitted in both classified and unclassified form.

(j)(1) Not later than April 8 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives a report on the cost of stationing United States forces outside of the United States. Each such report shall include a detailed statement of the following:

(A) Costs incurred in the United States and costs incurred outside the United States in connection with the stationing of United States forces outside the United States.

(B) The costs incurred outside the United States in connection with operating, maintaining, and supporting United States forces outside the United States, including all direct and indirect expenditures of United States funds in connection with such stationing.

(C) The effect of such expenditures outside the United States on the balance of payments of the United States.


(2) Each report under this subsection shall be prepared in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce.

(3) In this subsection, the term “United States”, when used in a geographic sense, includes the territories and possessions of the United States.

(k) The Secretary of Defense, with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall provide annually to the Secretaries of the military departments and to the commanders of the combatant commands written guidelines to direct the effective detection and monitoring of all potential aerial and maritime threats to the national security of the United States. Those guidelines shall include guidance on the specific force levels and specific supporting resources to be made available for the period of time for which the guidelines are to be in effect.

(l) The Secretary shall include in the annual report to Congress under subsection (c) the following:

(1) A comparison of the amounts provided in the defense budget for support and for mission activities for each of the preceding five fiscal years.

(2) A comparison of the number of military and civilian personnel, shown by major occupational category, assigned to support positions and to mission positions for each of the preceding five fiscal years.

(3) An accounting, shown by service and by major occupational category, of the number of military and civilian personnel assigned to support positions during each of the preceding five fiscal years.

(4) A listing of the number of military and civilian personnel assigned to management headquarters and headquarters support activities as a percentage of military end-strength for each of the preceding five fiscal years.


(m) Information To Accompany Funding Request for Contingency Operation.—Whenever the President submits to Congress a request for appropriations for costs associated with a contingency operation that involves, or likely will involve, the deployment of more than 500 members of the armed forces, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the objectives of the operation. The report shall include a discussion of the following:

(1) What clear and distinct objectives guide the activities of United States forces in the operation.

(2) What the President has identified on the basis of those objectives as the date, or the set of conditions, that defines the endpoint of the operation.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §202, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 517, §133; amended Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(3), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2920; Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1105, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 739; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(1), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1287; renumbered §113 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(2), 102, 110(b)(2), (d)(2), title III, §301(b)(2), title VI, §603(b), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 996, 1002, 1022, 1075; Pub. L. 100–26, §7(d)(1), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 280; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1214, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1157; Pub. L. 100–370, §1(o)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VII, §731, title XI, §1101, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2003, 2042; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XVI, §1622(c)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1604; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1322(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1671; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title III, §341, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1343; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(a)(1), title XVI, §1671(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2855, 3014; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §§1501(a)(8)(B), 1502(a)(3), 1503(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495, 502, 510; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XII, §1255(c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2698; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, §903, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1854; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IX, §915(a), title XII, §1212(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2101, 2152; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1962 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
133(a)

133(b)

133(c)

133(d)

5:171(a) (last 10 words).

5:171a(a).

5:171a(b).

5:171a(d).

5:171a–1.

5:171a(f).

5:171n(a) (as applicable to 5:171a(f)).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §§201(a) (last 10 words), 202(a),(b); restated Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §§4 (last 10 words of 1st par.), 5 (1st and 2d pars.), 63 Stat. 579, 580.
  [Uncodified: 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 6, §5, eff. June 30, 1953, 67 Stat. 639].

5:171n(a).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §202(d); added Apr. 2, 1949, ch. 47, §1; restated Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §5 (9th par.); restated Aug. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–599, §3(b), 72 Stat. 516.
  July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §202(f); added Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §5 (11th par.), 63 Stat. 581.
  July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §308(a) (as applicable to §202(f)), 61 Stat. 509.
  July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §257(e), 66 Stat. 497; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §702(c), 68 Stat. 1189.
  1953 Reorg. Plan No. 6, §5, eff. June 30, 1953, 67 Stat. 639.

In subsection (a), the last sentence is substituted for 5 U.S.C. 171a(a) (proviso).

In subsection (b), the words “this title and section 401 of title 50” are substituted for 5 U.S.C. 171a(b) (13th through 30th words of last sentence), since those words merely described the coverage of this title and section 401 of title 50.

In subsection (c), the words “during the period covered by the report” are inserted for clarity. The following substitutions are made: “under section 125 of this title” for “pursuant to the provisions of this Act” since 125 of this title relates to the duty of the Secretary of Defense to take action to save public funds and to eliminate duplication in the Department of Defense; and the last 22 words of clause (3) for 5 U.S.C. 171a–1 (last 13 words).

In subsection (d), section 5 of 1953 Reorganization Plan No. 6 is omitted as covered by 5 U.S.C. 171a(f).

1982 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
133(e) 10:133 (note). Oct. 7, 1975, Pub. L. 94–106, §812, 89 Stat. 540.

The words “prepare and” are omitted as surplus.

1988 Act

Subsection (k) is based on Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8042], 101 Stat. 1329–69.

Section 8042 of the FY88 Defense Appropriations Act (Public Law 100–202) established a requirement for the Secretary of Defense to submit an annual report on the cost of stationing United States forces overseas. Under that section, the annual report is to be sent to the Committees on Appropriations of the two Houses. In codifying that section as section 113(k) of title 10, the committee added the two Armed Services Committees as committees to be sent the annual report. This minor change from the source law does not change the nature of the report to be submitted.

The committee notes that the source section does not specify the period of time to be covered by the report. In the absence of statutory language specifying the period to be covered by the report, it would seem reasonable to conclude that the report should cover the previous fiscal year. The committee notes, however, that the report of the Senate Appropriations Committee on its FY88 defense appropriations bill (S. Rpt. 100–235) states that this new annual report “should cover the budget years and the 2 previous fiscal years” (page 54). The committee believes that such a requirement may be unnecessarily burdensome and in any case, if such a requirement is intended, should be stated in the statute. In the absence of clear intent, the provision is proposed to be codified without specifying the period of time to be covered by the annual report.

In codifying this provision, the committee also changed the term “United States troops” in the source law to “United States forces” for consistency in usage in title 10 and as being preferable usage. No change in meaning is intended. The committee also changed “overseas” to “outside the United States” and defined “United States” for this purpose to include the territories and possessions of the United States. The committee was concerned that the term “overseas” read literally could include Hawaii or Guam, an interpretation clearly not intended in enacting section 8042. The committee notes that the Senate report referred to above states “For the purposes of this report [meaning the new DOD annual report], U.S. forces stationed overseas are considered to be those outside of the United States and its territories.”. The committee extrapolates from this statement that provisions in the report requirement relating to expenditures “overseas” and costs incurred “overseas” are also to be construed as relating to matters outside the United States and its territories and has prepared the codified provision accordingly.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security” in introductory provisions.

1998—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–261, §915(a), added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 105–261, §1212(b), added subsec. (m).

1997—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 105–85 struck out “annually” after “Staff, shall provide” and inserted “be provided every two years or more frequently as needed and shall” after “Such guidance shall”.

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201, §1255(c)(2)–(5), inserted “(1)” after “(c)”, redesignated former pars. (1), (2), and (4) as subpars. (A), (B), and (C), respectively, inserted “and” at end of subpar. (B), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 104–201, §1255(c)(1), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “a report from the Reserve Forces Policy Board on the reserve programs of the Department of Defense, including a review of the effectiveness of chapters 51, 337, 361, 363, 549, 573, 837, 861 and 863 of this title, as far as they apply to reserve officers; and”.

Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(a)(8)(B), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(2). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(1), substituted “the period covered by the future-years defense program submitted to Congress during that year pursuant to section 221” for “the five years covered by the five-year defense program submitted to Congress during that year pursuant to section 114(g)”.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(a)(3), substituted “Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on National Security and the Committee on Appropriations of the” for “Committees on Armed Services and Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and”.

1994—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(a)(8)(B), which directed the substitution of “1219 and 1401 through 1411 of this title” for “51, 337, 361, 363, 549, 573, 837, 861 and 863 of this title, as far as they apply to reserve officers”, effective Oct. 1, 1996, could not be executed because of the intervening amendment by Pub. L. 104–201, §1255(c)(1). See 1996 Amendment note above.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 103–337, §1070(a)(1), substituted “section 108” for “section 104”.

1991—Subsec. (i)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 102–190 added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpars. (C) and (D) as (D) and (E), respectively.

1990—Subsecs. (i) to (l). Pub. L. 101–510 redesignated subsecs. (j) to (l) as (i) to (k), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (i) which read as follows: “The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a written report, not later than February 15 of each fiscal year, recommending the amount of funds to be appropriated to the Department of Defense for the next fiscal year for functions relating to the formulation and carrying out of Department of Defense policies on the control of technology transfer and activities related to the control of technology transfer. The Secretary shall include in that report the proposed allocation of the funds requested for such purpose and the number of personnel proposed to be assigned to carry out such activities during such fiscal year.”

1989—Subsec. (j)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “five-year defense program” for “Five-Year Defense Program”.

1988—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–456, §731, designated existing provisions as par. (1), struck out provision requiring that each report be transmitted in both a classified and an unclassified form, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 100–370 added subsec. (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–456, §1101, added subsec. (l).

1987—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 100–26 inserted “(50 U.S.C. 404a)” after “National Security Act of 1947”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (j).

1986—Pub. L. 99–433, §110(d)(2), struck out “: appointment; powers and duties; delegation by” at end of section catchline.

Subsecs. (a) to (e). Pub. L. 99–443, §101(a)(2), redesignated subsecs. (a) to (e) of section 133 of this title as subsecs. (a) to (e) of this section.

Pub. L. 99–433, §301(b)(2), substituted “sections 125 and 191” for “section 125” in subsec. (c)(2).

Pub. L. 99–433, §603(b), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “After consulting with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives before February 1 of each year a written report on—

“(1) the foreign policy and military force structure for the next fiscal year;

“(2) the relationship of that policy and structure to each other; and

“(3) the justification for the policy and structure.”

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 99–433, §102, added subsecs. (f) to (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–433, §§101(a)(2), 110(b)(2), successively redesignated subsec. (h) of section 138 of this title as subsec. (h) of section 114 of this title and then as subsec. (i) of this section.

1982—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–295 added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (i) [formerly §138(h)]. Pub. L. 97–252, §1105, added subsec. (h). See 1986 Amendment note above.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted “section 2 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401)” for “section 401 of title 50”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act [Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI] as enacted on October 5, 1994.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 1671(c)(2) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under various sections delegated to Secretary of Defense, see Ex. Ord. No. 10621, July 1, 1955, 20 F.R. 4759, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11294, Aug. 4, 1966, 31 F.R. 10601; see Ex. Ord. No. 10661, Feb. 27, 1956, 21 F.R. 1315; see Ex. Ord. No. 11390, Jan. 22, 1968, 33 F.R. 841; all set out as notes under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Emergency Preparedness Functions

For assignment of certain emergency preparedness functions to Secretary of Defense, see Parts 1, 2, and 5 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Policy Concerning Rights of Individuals Whose Names Have Been Entered Into Department of Defense Official Criminal Investigative Reports

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §552], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–125, provided that:

“(a) Policy Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a policy creating a uniform process within the Department of Defense that—

“(1) affords any individual who, in connection with the investigation of a reported crime, is designated (by name or by any other identifying information) as a suspect in the case in any official investigative report, or in a central index for potential retrieval and analysis by law enforcement organizations, an opportunity to obtain a review of that designation; and

“(2) requires the expungement of the name and other identifying information of any such individual from such report or index in any case in which it is determined the entry of such identifying information on that individual was made contrary to Department of Defense requirements.

“(b) Effective Date.—The policy required by subsection (a) shall be established not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000].”

Test of Ability of Reserve Component Intelligence Units and Personnel To Meet Current and Emerging Defense Intelligence Needs

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §576], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–138, provided that:

“(a) Test Program Required.—(1) Beginning not later than June 1, 2001, the Secretary of Defense shall conduct a three-year test program of reserve component intelligence units and personnel. The purpose of the test program shall be—

“(A) to determine the most effective peacetime structure and operational employment of reserve component intelligence assets for meeting current and future Department of Defense peacetime operational intelligence requirements; and

“(B) to establish a means to coordinate and transition that peacetime intelligence operational support network into use for meeting wartime requirements.

“(2) The test program shall be carried out using the Joint Reserve Intelligence Program and appropriate reserve component intelligence units and personnel.

“(3) In conducting the test program, the Secretary of Defense shall expand the current Joint Reserve Intelligence Program as needed to meet the objectives of the test program.

“(b) Oversight Panel.—The Secretary shall establish an oversight panel to structure the test program so as to achieve the objectives of the test program, ensure proper funding for the test program, and oversee the conduct and evaluation of the test program. The panel members shall include—

“(1) the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence;

“(2) the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs; and

“(3) representatives from the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, the Joint Staff, and the combatant commands.

“(c) Test Program Objectives.—The test program shall have the following objectives:

“(1) To identify the range of peacetime roles and missions that are appropriate for reserve component intelligence units and personnel, including the following missions: counterdrug, counterintelligence, counterterrorism, information operations, information warfare, and other emerging threats.

“(2) To recommend a process for justifying and validating reserve component intelligence force structure and manpower to support the peacetime roles and missions identified under paragraph (1) and to establish a means to coordinate and transition that peacetime operational support network and structure into wartime requirements.

“(3) To provide, pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2), the basis for new or revised intelligence and reserve component policy guidelines for the peacetime use, organization, management, infrastructure, and funding of reserve component intelligence units and personnel.

“(4) To determine the most effective structure, organization, manning, and management of Joint Reserve Intelligence Centers to enable them to be both reserve training facilities and virtual collaborative production facilities in support of Department of Defense peacetime operational intelligence requirements.

“(5) To determine the most effective uses of technology for virtual collaborative intelligence operational support during peacetime and wartime.

“(6) To determine personnel and career management initiatives or modifications that are required to improve the recruiting and retention of personnel in the reserve component intelligence specialties and occupational skills.

“(7) To identify and make recommendations for the elimination of statutory prohibitions and barriers to using reserve component intelligence units and individuals to carry out peacetime operational requirements.

“(d) Reports.—The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress—

“(1) interim reports on the status of the test program not later than July 1, 2002, and July 1, 2003; and

“(2) a final report, with such recommendations for changes as the Secretary considers necessary, not later than December 1, 2004.”

Study on Civilian Personnel Services

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title XI, §1105], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–311, provided that:

“(a) Study Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall assess the manner in which personnel services are provided for civilian personnel in the Department of Defense and determine whether—

“(1) administration of such services should continue to be centralized in individual military services and Defense Agencies or whether such services should be centralized within designated geographical areas to provide services to all Department of Defense elements;

“(2) offices that perform such services should be established to perform specific functions rather than cover an established geographical area;

“(3) processes and functions of civilian personnel offices should be reengineered to provide greater efficiency and better service to management and employees of the Department of Defense; and

“(4) efficiencies could be gained by public-private competition of the delivery of any of the personnel services for civilian personnel of the Department of Defense.

“(b) Report.—Not later than January 1, 2002, the Secretary of Defense shall submit a report on the study, including recommendations, to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The report shall include the Secretary's assessment of the items described in subsection (a), and, if appropriate, a proposal for a demonstration program to test the concepts developed under the study. The Secretary may also include any recommendations for legislation or other actions that the Secretary considers appropriate to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the delivery of personnel services with respect to civilian personnel of the Department of Defense.”

Pilot Program for Reengineering Equal Employment Opportunity Complaint Process

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title XI, §1111], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–312, provided that:

“(a) Pilot Program.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a pilot program to improve processes for the resolution of equal employment opportunity complaints by civilian employees of the Department of Defense. Complaints processed under the pilot program shall be subject to the procedural requirements established for the pilot program and shall not be subject to the procedural requirements of part 1614 of title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations or other regulations, directives, or regulatory restrictions prescribed by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

“(2) The pilot program shall include procedures to reduce processing time and eliminate redundancy with respect to processes for the resolution of equal employment opportunity complaints, reinforce local management and chain-of-command accountability, and provide the parties involved with early opportunity for resolution.

“(3) The Secretary may carry out the pilot program for a period of three years, beginning on January 1, 2001.

“(4)(A) Participation in the pilot program shall be voluntary on the part of the complainant. Complainants who participate in the pilot program shall retain the right to appeal a final agency decision to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and to file suit in district court. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall not reverse a final agency decision on the grounds that the agency did not comply with the regulatory requirements promulgated by the Commission.

“(B) Subparagraph (A) shall apply to all cases—

“(i) pending as of January 1, 2001, before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission involving a civilian employee who filed a complaint under the pilot program of the Department of the Navy to improve processes for the resolution of equal employment opportunity complaints; and

“(ii) hereinafter filed with the Commission under the pilot program established by this section.

“(5) The pilot program shall be carried out in at least one military department and two Defense Agencies.

“(b) Report.—Not later than 90 days following the end of the first and last full or partial fiscal years during which the pilot program is implemented, the Comptroller General shall submit to Congress a report on the pilot program. Such report shall contain the following:

“(1) A description of the processes tested by the pilot program.

“(2) The results of such testing.

“(3) Recommendations for changes to the processes for the resolution of equal employment opportunity complaints as a result of such pilot program.

“(4) A comparison of the processes used, and results obtained, under the pilot program to traditional and alternative dispute resolution processes used in the government or private industry.”

Work Safety Demonstration Program

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title XI, §1112], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–313, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a defense employees work safety demonstration program.

“(b) Private Sector Work Safety Models.—Under the demonstration program, the Secretary shall—

“(1) adopt for use in the workplace of civilian employees of the Department of Defense such work safety models used by employers in the private sector that the Secretary considers as being representative of the best work safety practices in use by private sector employers; and

“(2) determine whether the use of those practices in the Department of Defense improves the work safety record of Department of Defense employees.

“(c) Sites.—(1) The Secretary shall carry out the demonstration program—

“(A) at not fewer than two installations of each of the Armed Forces (other than the Coast Guard), for employees of the military department concerned; and

“(B) in at least two Defense Agencies (as defined in section 101(a)(11) of title 10, United States Code).

“(2) The Secretary shall select the installations and Defense Agencies from among the installations and Defense Agencies listed in the Federal Worker 2000 Presidential Initiative.

“(d) Period for Program.—The demonstration program shall begin not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000] and shall terminate on September 30, 2002.

“(e) Reports.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit an interim report on the demonstration program to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives not later than December 1, 2001. The interim report shall contain, at a minimum, for each site of the demonstration program the following:

“(A) A baseline assessment of the lost workday injury rate.

“(B) A comparison of the lost workday injury rate for fiscal year 2000 with the lost workday injury rate for fiscal year 1999.

“(C) The direct and indirect costs associated with all lost workday injuries.

“(2) The Secretary of Defense shall submit a final report on the demonstration program to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives not later than December 1, 2002. The final report shall contain, at a minimum, for each site of the demonstration program the following:

“(A) The Secretary's determination on the issue described in subsection (b)(2).

“(B) A comparison of the lost workday injury rate under the program with the baseline assessment of the lost workday injury rate.

“(C) The lost workday injury rate for fiscal year 2002.

“(D) A comparison of the direct and indirect costs associated with all lost workday injuries for fiscal year 2002 with the direct and indirect costs associated with all lost workday injuries for fiscal year 2001.

“(f) Funding.—Of the amount authorized to be appropriated under section 301(5) [114 Stat. 1654A–52], $5,000,000 shall be available for the demonstration program under this section.”

GAO Study on Benefits and Costs of United States Military Engagement in Europe

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title XII, §1223], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–328, provided that:

“(a) Comptroller General Study.—The Comptroller General shall conduct a study assessing the benefits and costs to the United States and United States national security interests of the engagement of United States forces in Europe and of United States military strategies used to shape the international security environment in Europe.

“(b) Matters To Be Included.—The study shall include an assessment of the following matters:

“(1) The benefits and costs to the United States of having forces stationed in Europe and assigned to areas of regional conflict such as Bosnia and Kosovo.

“(2) The benefits and costs associated with stationing United States forces in Europe and with assigning those forces to areas of regional conflict, including an analysis of the benefits and costs of deploying United States forces with the forces of European allies.

“(3) The amount and type of the following kinds of contributions to European security made by European allies in 1999 and 2000:

“(A) Financial contributions.

“(B) Contributions of military personnel and units.

“(C) Contributions of nonmilitary personnel, such as medical personnel, police officers, judicial officers, and other civic officials.

“(D) Contributions, including contributions in kind, for humanitarian and reconstruction assistance and infrastructure building or activities that contribute to regional stability, whether in lieu of or in addition to military-related contributions.

“(4) The extent to which a forward United States military presence compensates for existing shortfalls of air and sea lift capability in the event of regional conflict in Europe or the Middle East.

“(c) Report.—The Comptroller General shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the results of the study not later than December 1, 2001.”

Establishment of Logistics Standards for Sustained Military Operations

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title III, §366, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 578, provided that:

“(a) Establishment of Standards.—The Secretary of each military department shall establish, for deployable units of each of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary, standards regarding—

“(1) the level of spare parts that the units must have on hand; and

“(2) similar logistics and sustainment needs of the units.

“(b) Basis for Standards.—The standards to be established for a unit under subsection (a) shall be based upon the following:

“(1) The unit's wartime mission, as reflected in the war-fighting plans of the relevant combatant commanders.

“(2) An assessment of the likely requirement for sustained operations under each such war-fighting plan.

“(3) An assessment of the likely requirement for that unit to conduct sustained operations in an austere environment, while drawing exclusively on its own internal logistics capabilities.

“(c) Sufficiency Capabilities.—The standards to be established by the Secretary of a military department under subsection (a) shall reflect those spare parts and similar logistics capabilities that the Secretary considers sufficient for the units of each of the Armed Forces under the Secretary's jurisdiction to successfully execute their missions under the conditions described in subsection (b).

“(d) Relation to Readiness Reporting System.—The standards established under subsection (a) shall be taken into account in designing the comprehensive readiness reporting system for the Department of Defense required by section 117 of title 10, United States Code, and shall be an element in determining a unit's readiness status.

“(e) Relation to Annual Funding Needs.—The Secretary of Defense shall consider the standards established under subsection (a) in establishing the annual funding requirements for the Department of Defense.

“(f) Reporting Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense shall include in the annual report required by section 113(c) of title 10, United States Code, an analysis of the then current spare parts, logistics, and sustainment standards of the Armed Forces, as described in subsection (a), including any shortfalls and the cost of addressing these shortfalls.”

Use of Smart Card Technology in the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title III, §373(a)–(g), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 580, 581, provided that:

“(a) Department of Navy as Lead Agency.—The Department of the Navy shall serve as the lead agency for the development and implementation of a Smart Card program for the Department of Defense.

“(b) Cooperation of Other Military Departments.—The Department of the Army and the Department of the Air Force shall each establish a project office and cooperate with the Department of the Navy to develop implementation plans for exploiting the capability of Smart Card technology as a means for enhancing readiness and improving business processes throughout the military departments.

“(c) Senior Coordinating Group.—(1) Not later than November 30, 1999, the Secretary of Defense shall establish a senior coordinating group to develop and implement—

“(A) Department-wide interoperability standards for use of Smart Card technology; and

“(B) a plan to exploit Smart Card technology as a means for enhancing readiness and improving business processes.

“(2) The senior coordinating group shall be chaired by a representative of the Secretary of the Navy and shall include senior representatives from each of the Armed Forces and such other persons as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate.

“(3) Not later than March 31, 2000, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report containing a detailed discussion of the progress made by the senior coordinating group in carrying out its duties.

“(d) Role of Department of Defense Chief Information Office.—The senior coordinating group established under subsection (c) shall report to and receive guidance from the Department of Defense Chief Information Office.

“(e) Increased Use Targeted to Certain Naval Regions.—Not later than November 30, 1999, the Secretary of the Navy shall establish a business plan to implement the use of Smart Cards in one major Naval region of the continental United States that is in the area of operations of the United States Atlantic Command and one major Naval region of the continental United States that is in the area of operations of the United States Pacific Command. The regions selected shall include a major fleet concentration area. The implementation of the use of Smart Cards in each region shall cover the Navy and Marine Corps bases and all non-deployed units in the region. The Secretary of the Navy shall submit the business plan to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives].

“(f) Funding for Increased Use of Smart Cards.—Of the funds authorized to be appropriated for the Navy by section 102(a)(4) [113 Stat. 530] or 301(2) [113 Stat. 557], the Secretary of the Navy—

“(1) shall allocate such amounts as may be necessary, but not to exceed $30,000,000, to ensure that significant progress is made toward complete implementation of the use of Smart Card technology in the Department of the Navy; and

“(2) may allocate additional amounts for the conversion of paper-based records to electronic media for records systems that have been modified to use Smart Card technology.

“(g) Definitions.—In this section:

“(1) The term ‘Smart Card’ means a credit card-size device, normally for carrying and use by personnel, that contains one or more integrated circuits and may also employ one or more of the following technologies:

“(A) Magnetic stripe.

“(B) Bar codes, linear or two-dimensional.

“(C) Non-contact and radio frequency transmitters.

“(D) Biometric information.

“(E) Encryption and authentication.

“(F) Photo identification.

“(2) The term ‘Smart Card technology’ means a Smart Card together with all of the associated information technology hardware and software that comprise the system for support and operation.”

Secretary of Defense Review of Army Technician Costing Process

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §526, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 600, required Secretary of Defense to review process used by the Army to develop estimates of annual authorizations and appropriations required for civilian personnel of Department of the Army generally and for National Guard and Army Reserve technicians in particular and to report on results of review to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives not later than Mar. 31, 2000.

Survey of Members Leaving Military Service on Attitudes Toward Military Service

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §581, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 633, provided that:

“(a) Exit Survey.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop and implement, as part of outprocessing activities, a survey on attitudes toward military service to be completed by all members of the Armed Forces who during the period beginning on January 1, 2000, and ending on June 30, 2000, are voluntarily discharged or separated from the Armed Forces or transfer from a regular component to a reserve component.

“(b) Matters To Be Covered.—The survey shall, at a minimum, cover the following subjects:

“(1) Reasons for leaving military service.

“(2) Command climate.

“(3) Attitude toward leadership.

“(4) Attitude toward pay and benefits.

“(5) Job satisfaction during service as a member of the Armed Forces.

“(6) Plans for activities after separation (such as enrollment in school, use of Montgomery GI Bill benefits, and work).

“(7) Affiliation with a reserve component, together with the reasons for affiliating or not affiliating, as the case may be.

“(8) Such other matters as the Secretary determines appropriate to the survey concerning reasons why military personnel are leaving military service.

“(c) Report to Congress.—Not later than October 1, 2000, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report containing the results of the survey under subsection (a). The Secretary shall compile the information in the report so as to assist in assessing reasons why military personnel are leaving military service.”

Annual Report on United States Military Activities in Colombia

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1025, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 748, provided that: “Not later than January 1 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives a report detailing the number of members of the United States Armed Forces deployed or otherwise assigned to duty in Colombia at any time during the preceding year, the length and purpose of the deployment or assignment, and the costs and force protection risks associated with such deployments and assignments.”

Report on NATO Defense Capabilities Initiative

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1039, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 756, provided that:

“(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) At the meeting of the North Atlantic Council held in Washington, DC, in April 1999, the NATO Heads of State and Governments launched a Defense Capabilities Initiative.

“(2) The Defense Capabilities Initiative is designed to improve the defense capabilities of the individual nations of the NATO Alliance to ensure the effectiveness of future operations across the full spectrum of Alliance missions in the present and foreseeable security environment.

“(3) Under the Defense Capabilities Initiative, special focus will be given to improving interoperability among Alliance forces and to increasing defense capabilities through improvements in the deployability and mobility of Alliance forces, the sustainability and logistics of those forces, the survivability and effective engagement capability of those forces, and command and control and information systems.

“(4) The successful implementation of the Defense Capabilities Initiative will serve to enable all members of the Alliance to make a more equitable contribution to the full spectrum of Alliance missions, thereby increasing burdensharing within the Alliance and enhancing the ability of European members of the Alliance to undertake operations pursuant to the European Security and Defense Identity within the Alliance.

“(b) Annual Report.—(1) Not later than January 31 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services and Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committees on Armed Services and International Relations of the House of Representatives a report, to be prepared in consultation with the Secretary of State, on implementation of the Defense Capabilities Initiative by the nations of the NATO Alliance. The report shall include the following:

“(A) A discussion of the work of the temporary High-Level Steering Group, or any successor group, established to oversee the implementation of the Defense Capabilities Initiative and to meet the requirement of coordination and harmonization among relevant planning disciplines.

“(B) A description of the actions taken, including implementation of the Multinational Logistics Center concept and development of the C3 system architecture, by the Alliance as a whole to further the Defense Capabilities Initiative.

“(C) A description of the actions taken by each member of the Alliance other than the United States to improve the capabilities of its forces in each of the following areas:

“(i) Interoperability with forces of other Alliance members.

“(ii) Deployability and mobility.

“(iii) Sustainability and logistics.

“(iv) Survivability and effective engagement capability.

“(v) Command and control and information systems.

“(2) The report shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may also be submitted in classified form if necessary.”

Commemoration of the Victory of Freedom in the Cold War

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1053, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 764, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(g)(7), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1228, provided that:

“(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) The Cold War between the United States and its allies and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and its allies was the longest and most costly struggle for democracy and freedom in the history of mankind.

“(2) Whether millions of people all over the world would live in freedom hinged on the outcome of the Cold War.

“(3) Democratic countries bore the burden of the struggle and paid the costs in order to preserve and promote democracy and freedom.

“(4) The Armed Forces and the taxpayers of the United States bore the greatest portion of that burden and struggle in order to protect those principles.

“(5) Tens of thousands of United States soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines paid the ultimate price during the Cold War in order to preserve the freedoms and liberties enjoyed in democratic countries.

“(6) The Berlin Wall erected in Berlin, Germany, epitomized the totalitarianism that the United States struggled to eradicate during the Cold War.

“(7) The fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, was a major event of the Cold War.

“(8) The Soviet Union collapsed on December 25, 1991.

“(b) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that the President should issue a proclamation calling on the people of the United States to observe the victory in the Cold War with appropriate ceremonies and activities.

“(c) Participation of Armed Forces in Celebration of End of Cold War.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), amounts authorized to be appropriated by section 301 [113 Stat. 556] may be available for costs of the Armed Forces in participating in a celebration of the end of the Cold War to be held in Washington, District of Columbia.

“(2) The total amount of funds available under paragraph (1) for the purpose set forth in that paragraph shall not exceed $5,000,000.

“(3) The Secretary of Defense may accept contributions from the private sector for the purpose of reducing the costs of the Armed Forces described in paragraph (1). The amount of funds available under paragraph (1) for the purpose set forth in that paragraph shall be reduced by an amount equal to the amount of contributions accepted by the Secretary under the preceding sentence.

“(4) The funding authorized in paragraph (1) shall not be available until 30 days after the date upon which the plan required by subsection (d) is submitted.

“(d) Report.—(1) The President shall transmit to Congress—

“(A) a report on the content of the proclamation referred to in subsection (b); and

“(B) a plan for appropriate ceremonies and activities.

“(2) The plan submitted under paragraph (1) shall include the following:

“(A) A discussion of the content, location, date, and time of each ceremony and activity included in the plan.

“(B) The funding allocated to support those ceremonies and activities.

“(C) The organizations and individuals consulted while developing the plan for those ceremonies and activities.

“(D) A list of private sector organizations and individuals that are expected to participate in each ceremony and activity.

“(E) A list of local, State, and Federal agencies that are expected to participate in each ceremony and activity.

“(e) Commission on Victory in the Cold War.—(1) There is hereby established a commission to be known as the ‘Commission on Victory in the Cold War’.

“(2) The Commission shall be composed of twelve members, as follows:

“(A) Two shall be appointed by the President.

“(B) Three shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

“(C) Two shall be appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives.

“(D) Three shall be appointed by the majority leader of the Senate.

“(E) Two shall be appointed by the minority leader of the Senate.

“(3) The Commission shall review and make recommendations regarding the celebration of the victory in the Cold War, to include the date of the celebration, usage of facilities, participation of the Armed Forces, and expenditure of funds.

“(4) The Secretary shall—

“(A) consult with the Commission on matters relating to the celebration of the victory in the Cold War;

“(B) reimburse Commission members for expenses relating to participation of Commission members in Commission activities from funds made available under subsection (c); and

“(C) provide the Commission with administrative support.

“(5) The Commission shall be co-chaired by two members as follows:

“(A) One selected by and from among those appointed pursuant to subparagraphs (A), (C), and (E) of paragraph (2).

“(B) One selected by and from among those appointed pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (D) of paragraph (2).”

Annual Report on Military Power of the People's Republic of China

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title XII, §1202, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 781, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title XII, §1221, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1252, provided that:

“(a) Annual Report.—Not later than March 1 each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the specified congressional committees a report, in both classified and unclassified form, on the current and future military strategy of the People's Republic of China. The report shall address the current and probable future course of military-technological development on the People's Liberation Army and the tenets and probable development of Chinese grand strategy, security strategy, and military strategy, and of military organizations and operational concepts, through the next 20 years.

“(b) Matters To Be Included.—Each report under this section shall include analyses and forecasts of the following:

“(1) The goals of Chinese grand strategy, security strategy, and military strategy.

“(2) Trends in Chinese strategy that would be designed to establish the People's Republic of China as the leading political power in the Asia-Pacific region and as a political and military presence in other regions of the world.

“(3) The security situation in the Taiwan Strait.

“(4) Chinese strategy regarding Taiwan.

“(5) The size, location, and capabilities of Chinese strategic, land, sea, and air forces, including detailed analysis of those forces facing Taiwan.

“(6) Developments in Chinese military doctrine, focusing on (but not limited to) efforts to exploit a transformation in military affairs or to conduct preemptive strikes.

“(7) Efforts, including technology transfers and espionage, by the People's Republic of China to develop, acquire, or gain access to information, communication, space and other advanced technologies that would enhance military capabilities.

“(8) An assessment of any challenges during the preceding year to the deterrent forces of the Republic of China on Taiwan, consistent with the commitments made by the United States in the Taiwan Relations Act (Public Law 96–8) [22 U.S.C. 3301 et seq.].

“(c) Specified Congressional Committees.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘specified congressional committees’ means the following:

“(1) The Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.

“(2) The Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives.

“(d) Report on Significant Sales and Transfers to China.—(1) The report to be submitted under this section not later than March 1, 2002, shall include in a separate section a report describing any significant sale or transfer of military hardware, expertise, and technology to the People's Republic of China. The report shall set forth the history of such sales and transfers since 1995, forecast possible future sales and transfers, and address the implications of those sales and transfers for the security of the United States and its friends and allies in Asia.

“(2) The report shall include analysis and forecasts of the following matters related to military cooperation between selling states and the People's Republic of China:

“(A) The extent in each selling state of government knowledge, cooperation, or condoning of sales or transfers of military hardware, expertise, or technology to the People's Republic of China.

“(B) An itemization of significant sales and transfers of military hardware, expertise, or technology from each selling state to the People's Republic of China that have taken place since 1995, with a particular focus on command, control, communications, and intelligence systems.

“(C) Significant assistance by any selling state to key research and development programs of China, including programs for development of weapons of mass destruction and delivery vehicles for such weapons, programs for development of advanced conventional weapons, and programs for development of unconventional weapons.

“(D) The extent to which arms sales by any selling state to the People's Republic of China are a source of funds for military research and development or procurement programs in the selling state.

“(3) The report under paragraph (1) shall include, with respect to each area of analysis and forecasts specified in paragraph (2)—

“(A) an assessment of the military effects of such sales or transfers to entities in the People's Republic of China;

“(B) an assessment of the ability of the People's Liberation Army to assimilate such sales or transfers, mass produce new equipment, or develop doctrine for use; and

“(C) the potential threat of developments related to such effects on the security interests of the United States and its friends and allies in Asia.”

Nuclear Mission Management Plan

Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXI, §3163(d), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 945, provided that:

“(1) The Secretary of Defense shall develop and implement a plan to ensure the continued reliability of the capability of the Department of Defense to carry out its nuclear deterrent mission.

“(2) The plan shall do the following:

“(A) Articulate the current policy of the United States on the role of nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence in the conduct of defense and foreign relations matters.

“(B) Establish stockpile viability and capability requirements with respect to that mission, including the number and variety of warheads required.

“(C) Establish requirements relating to the contractor industrial base, support infrastructure, and surveillance, testing, assessment, and certification of nuclear weapons necessary to support that mission.

“(3) The plan shall take into account the following:

“(A) Requirements for the critical skills, readiness, training, exercise, and testing of personnel necessary to meet that mission.

“(B) The relevant programs and plans of the military departments and the Defense Agencies with respect to readiness, sustainment (including research and development), and modernization of the strategic deterrent forces.”

Report on Food Stamp Assistance for Members of Armed Forces

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8119, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2331, provided that:

“(a) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report on food stamp assistance for members of the Armed Forces. The Secretary shall submit the report at the same time that the Secretary submits to Congress, in support of the fiscal year 2001 budget, the materials that relate to the funding provided in that budget for the Department of Defense.

“(b) The report shall include the following:

“(1) The number of members of the Armed Forces and dependents of members of the Armed Forces who are eligible for food stamps.

“(2) The number of members of the Armed Forces and dependents of members of the Armed Forces who received food stamps in fiscal year 1998.

“(3) A proposal for using, as a means for eliminating or reducing significantly the need of such personnel for food stamps, the authority under section 2828 of title 10, United States Code, to lease housing facilities for enlisted members of the Armed Forces and their families when Government quarters are not available for such personnel.

“(4) A proposal for increased locality adjustments through the basic allowance for housing and other methods as a means for eliminating or reducing significantly the need of such personnel for food stamps.

“(5) Other potential alternative actions (including any recommended legislation) for eliminating or reducing significantly the need of such personnel for food stamps.

“(6) A discussion of the potential for each alternative action referred to in paragraph (3) or (4) to result in the elimination or a significant reduction in the need of such personnel for food stamps.

“(c) Each potential alternative action included in the report under paragraph (3) or (4) of subsection (b) shall meet the following requirements:

“(1) Apply only to persons referred to in paragraph (1) of such subsection.

“(2) Be limited in cost to the lowest amount feasible to achieve the objectives.

“(d) In this section:

“(1) The term ‘fiscal year 2001 budget’ means the budget for fiscal year 2001 that the President submits to Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code.

“(2) The term ‘food stamps’ means assistance under the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.).”

Defense Reform Initiative Enterprise Pilot Program for Military Manpower and Personnel Information

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §924, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 726, provided that:

“(a) Executive Agent.—The Secretary of Defense may designate the Secretary of the Navy as the Department of Defense executive agent for carrying out the pilot program described in subsection (c).

“(b) Implementing Office.—If the Secretary of Defense makes the designation referred to in subsection (a), the Secretary of the Navy, in carrying out that pilot program, shall act through the head of the Systems Executive Office for Manpower and Personnel of the Department of the Navy, who shall act in coordination with the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness and the Chief Information Officer of the Department of Defense.

“(c) Pilot Program.—The pilot program referred to in subsection (a) is the defense reform initiative enterprise pilot program for military manpower and personnel information established pursuant to section 8147 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law 105–262; 112 Stat. 2341; 10 U.S.C. 113 note).”

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8147, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2341, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall establish, through a revised Defense Integrated Military Human Resources System (DIMHRS), a defense reform initiative enterprise pilot program for military manpower and personnel information: Provided, That this pilot program should include all functions and systems currently included in DIMHRS and shall be expanded to include all appropriate systems within the enterprise of personnel, manpower, training, and compensation: Provided further, That in establishing a revised DIMHRS enterprise program for manpower and personnel information superiority the functions of this program shall include, but not be limited to: (1) an analysis and determination of the number and kinds of information systems necessary to support manpower and personnel within the Department of Defense; and (2) the establishment of programs to develop and implement information systems in support of manpower and personnel to include an enterprise level strategic approach, performance and results based management, business process improvement and other non-material solutions, the use of commercial or government off-the-shelf technology, the use of modular contracting as defined by Public Law 104–106 [see 41 U.S.C. 434], and the integration and consolidation of existing manpower and personnel information systems: Provided further, That the Secretary of Defense shall re-instate fulfillment standards designated as ADS–97–03–GD, dated January, 1997: Provided further, That the requirements of this section should be implemented not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1998].”

Oversight of Development and Implementation of Automated Identification Technology

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title III, §344, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1977, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title III, §373(h), title X, §1067(3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 581, 774, provided that:

“(a) Definitions.—In this section:

“(1) The term ‘automated identification technology program’ means a program in the Department of Defense, including any pilot program, employing one or more of the following technologies:

“(A) Magnetic stripe.

“(B) Bar codes, both linear and two-dimensional (including matrix symbologies).

“(C) Smart Card.

“(D) Optical memory.

“(E) Personal computer memory card international association carriers.

“(F) Any other established or emerging automated identification technology, including biometrics and radio frequency identification.

“(2) The term ‘Smart Card’ means a credit card size device that contains one or more integrated circuits.

“[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title III, §373(h), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 581.]

“(c) Funding for Increased Use of Smart Cards.—(1) Of the funds available for the Navy for fiscal year 1999 for operation and maintenance, the Secretary of the Navy shall allocate sufficient amounts, up to $25,000,000, for the purpose of making significant progress toward ensuring that Smart Cards with a multi-application, multi-technology automated reading capability are issued and used throughout the Navy and the Marine Corps for purposes for which Smart Cards are suitable.

“(2) Not later than June 30, 1999, the Secretary of the Navy shall equip with Smart Card technology at least one carrier battle group, one carrier air wing, and one amphibious readiness group (including the Marine Corps units embarked on the vessels of such battle and readiness groups) in each of the United States Atlantic Command and the United States Pacific Command.

“(3) None of the funds appropriated pursuant to any authorization of appropriations in this Act [see Tables for classification] may be expended after June 30, 1999, for the procurement of the Joint Uniformed Services Identification card for members of the Navy or the Marine Corps or for the issuance of such card to such members, until the Secretary of the Navy certifies in writing to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives that the Secretary has completed the issuance of Smart Cards in accordance with paragraph (2).

“(d) Defense-Wide Plan.—Not later than March 31, 1999, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of Senate and House of Representatives] a plan for the use of Smart Card technology by each military department. The Secretary shall include in the plan an estimate of the costs of the plan, the savings to be derived from carrying out the plan, and a description of the ways in which the Department of Defense will review and revise business practices to take advantage of Smart Card technology.”

Pilot Program for Acceptance and Use of Landing Fees Charged for Use of Domestic Military Airfields by Civil Aircraft

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title III, §377, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1993, as amended by Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §387], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–88, provided that:

“(a) Pilot Program Authorized.—The Secretary of each military department may carry out a pilot program to demonstrate the use of landing fees as a source of funding for the operation and maintenance of airfields of that department.

“(b) Landing Fee Defined.—In this section, the term ‘landing fee’ means any fee that is established under or in accordance with regulations of the military department concerned (whether prescribed in a fee schedule or imposed under a joint-use agreement) to recover costs incurred for use by civil aircraft of an airfield of the military department in the United States or in a territory or possession of the United States.

“(c) Use of Proceeds.—Amounts received in payment of landing fees for use of a military airfield in a fiscal year of the pilot program shall be credited to the appropriation that is available for that fiscal year for the operation and maintenance of the military airfield, shall be merged with amounts in the appropriation to which credited, and shall be available for that military airfield for the same period and purposes as the appropriation is available.

“(d) Report.—Not later than March 31, 2003, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the pilot programs carried out under this section by the Secretaries of the military departments. The report shall specify the amounts of fees received and retained by each military department under its pilot program as of December 31, 2002.”

“(e) Duration of Pilot Program.—The pilot program under this section may not be carried out after September 30, 2010.”

Report on Terminology for Annual Report Requirement

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IX, §915(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2102, provided that: “Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1998], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives [now Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives] a report setting forth the definitions of the terms ‘support’ and ‘mission’ that the Secretary proposes to use for purposes of the report requirement under section 113(l) of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a).”

Program To Investigate Fraud, Waste, and Abuse Within Department of Defense

Section 392 of Pub. L. 105–85, as amended by Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title III, §374, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1992, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall maintain a specific coordinated program for the investigation of evidence of fraud, waste, and abuse within the Department of Defense, particularly fraud, waste, and abuse regarding finance and accounting matters and any fraud, waste, and abuse occurring in connection with overpayments made to vendors by the Department of Defense, including overpayments identified under section 354 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 (Public Law 104–106; 10 U.S.C. 2461 note).”

Commission on Military Training and Gender-Related Issues

Subtitle F of title V of div. A of Pub. L. 105–85, as amended by Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §524, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2014; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 773, established a Commission on Military Training and Gender-Related Issues to review requirements and restrictions regarding cross-gender relationships of members of the Armed Forces, to review the basic training programs of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and to make recommendations on improvements to those programs, requirements, and restrictions, and further provided for composition, powers, and duties of Commission, administrative matters, funding, an interim report to Congress not later than Oct. 15, 1998, and a final report to Congress not later than Mar. 15, 1999, and for termination of Commission 60 days after submission of final report.

Coordination of Department of Defense Criminal Investigations and Audits

Section 907 of Pub. L. 105–85 provided that:

“(a) Military Department Criminal Investigative Organizations.—(1) The heads of the military department criminal investigative organizations shall take such action as may be practicable to conserve the limited resources available to the military department criminal investigative organizations by sharing personnel, expertise, infrastructure, training, equipment, software, and other resources.

“(2) The heads of the military department criminal investigative organizations shall meet on a regular basis to determine the manner in which and the extent to which the military department criminal investigative organizations will be able to share resources.

“(b) Defense Auditing Organizations.—(1) The heads of the defense auditing organizations shall take such action as may be practicable to conserve the limited resources available to the defense auditing organizations by sharing personnel, expertise, infrastructure, training, equipment, software, and other resources.

“(2) The heads of the defense auditing organizations shall meet on a regular basis to determine the manner in which and the extent to which the defense auditing organizations will be able to share resources.

“(c) Implementation Plan.—Not later than December 31, 1997, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a plan designed to maximize the resources available to the military department criminal investigative organizations and the defense auditing organizations, as required by this section.

“(d) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

“(1) The term ‘military department criminal investigative organizations’ means—

“(A) the Army Criminal Investigation Command;

“(B) the Naval Criminal Investigative Service; and

“(C) the Air Force Office of Special Investigations.

“(2) The term ‘defense auditing organizations’ means—

“(A) the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense;

“(B) the Defense Contract Audit Agency;

“(C) the Army Audit Agency;

“(D) the Naval Audit Service; and

“(E) the Air Force Audit Agency.”

Provision of Adequate Troop Protection Equipment for Armed Forces Personnel Engaged in Peace Operations; Report on Antiterrorism Activities and Protection of Personnel

Section 1052 of Pub. L. 105–85 provided that:

“(a) Protection of Personnel.—The Secretary of Defense shall take appropriate actions to ensure that units of the Armed Forces engaged in a peace operation are provided adequate troop protection equipment for that operation.

“(b) Specific Actions.—In taking actions under subsection (a), the Secretary shall—

“(1) identify the additional troop protection equipment, if any, required to equip a division (or the equivalent of a division) with adequate troop protection equipment for peace operations; and

“(2) establish procedures to facilitate the exchange or transfer of troop protection equipment among units of the Armed Forces.

“(c) Designation of Responsible Official.—The Secretary of Defense shall designate an official within the Department of Defense to be responsible for—

“(1) ensuring the appropriate allocation of troop protection equipment among the units of the Armed Forces engaged in peace operations; and

“(2) monitoring the availability, status or condition, and location of such equipment.

“(d) Troop Protection Equipment Defined.—In this section, the term ‘troop protection equipment’ means the equipment required by units of the Armed Forces to defend against any hostile threat that is likely during a peace operation, including an attack by a hostile crowd, small arms fire, mines, and a terrorist bombing attack.

“(e) Report on Antiterrorism Activities of the Department of Defense and Protection of Personnel.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1997], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report, in classified and unclassified form, on antiterrorism activities of the Department of Defense and the actions taken by the Secretary under subsections (a), (b), and (c). The report shall include the following:

“(1) A description of the programs designed to carry out antiterrorism activities of the Department of Defense, any deficiencies in those programs, and any actions taken by the Secretary to improve implementation of such programs.

“(2) An assessment of the current policies and practices of the Department of Defense with respect to the protection of members of the Armed Forces overseas against terrorist attack, including any modifications to such policies or practices that are proposed or implemented as a result of the assessment.

“(3) An assessment of the procedures of the Department of Defense for determining accountability, if any, in the command structure of the Armed Forces in instances in which a terrorist attack results in the loss of life at an overseas military installation or facility.

“(4) A detailed description of the roles of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Secretaries of the military departments, and the combatant commanders in providing guidance and support with respect to the protection of members of the Armed Forces deployed overseas against terrorist attack (both before and after the November 1995 bombing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) and how these roles have changed since the June 25, 1996, terrorist bombing at Khobar Towers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

“(5) A description of the actions taken by the Secretary of Defense under subsections (a), (b), and (c) to provide adequate troop protection equipment for units of the Armed Forces engaged in a peace operation.”

Study of Investigative Practices of Military Criminal Investigative Organizations Relating to Sex Crimes

Section 1072 of Pub. L. 105–85 provided that:

“(a) Independent Study Required.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall provide for an independent study of the policies, procedures, and practices of the military criminal investigative organizations for the conduct of investigations of complaints of sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct arising in the Armed Forces.

“(2) The Secretary shall provide for the study to be conducted by the National Academy of Public Administration. The amount of a contract for the study may not exceed $2,000,000.

“(3) The Secretary shall require that all components of the Department of Defense cooperate fully with the organization carrying out the study.

“(b) Matters To Be Included in Study.—The Secretary shall require that the organization conducting the study under this section specifically consider each of the following matters:

“(1) The need (if any) for greater organizational independence and autonomy for the military criminal investigative organizations than exists under current chain-of-command structures within the military departments.

“(2) The authority of each of the military criminal investigative organizations to investigate allegations of sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct and the policies of those organizations for carrying out such investigations.

“(3) The training (including training in skills and techniques related to the conduct of interviews) provided by each of those organizations to agents or prospective agents responsible for conducting or providing support to investigations of alleged sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct, including—

“(A) the extent to which that training is comparable to the training provided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other civilian law enforcement agencies; and

“(B) the coordination of training and investigative policies related to alleged sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct of each of those organizations with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other civilian Federal law enforcement agencies.

“(4) The procedures and relevant professional standards of each military criminal investigative organization with regard to recruitment and hiring of agents, including an evaluation of the extent to which those procedures and standards provide for—

“(A) sufficient screening of prospective agents based on background investigations; and

“(B) obtaining sufficient information about the qualifications and relevant experience of prospective agents.

“(5) The advantages and disadvantages of establishing, within each of the military criminal investigative organizations or within the Defense Criminal Investigative Service only, a special unit for the investigation of alleged sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct.

“(6) The clarity of guidance for, and consistency of investigative tactics used by, each of the military criminal investigative organizations for the investigation of alleged sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct, together with a comparison with the guidance and tactics used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other civilian law enforcement agencies for such investigations.

“(7) The number of allegations of agent misconduct in the investigation of sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct for each of those organizations, together with a comparison with the number of such allegations concerning agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other civilian law enforcement agencies for such investigations.

“(8) The procedures of each of the military criminal investigative organizations for administrative identification (known as ‘titling’) of persons suspected of committing sex crimes or other criminal sexual misconduct, together with a comparison with the comparable procedures of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other civilian Federal law enforcement agencies for such investigations.

“(9) The accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of reporting of sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct by each of the military criminal investigative organizations to the National Crime Information Center maintained by the Department of Justice.

“(10) Any recommendation for legislation or administrative action to revise the organizational or operational arrangements of the military criminal investigative organizations or to alter recruitment, training, or operational procedures, as they pertain to the investigation of sex crimes and other criminal sexual misconduct.

“(c) Report.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall require the organization conducting the study under this section to submit to the Secretary a report on the study not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1997]. The organization shall include in the report its findings and conclusions concerning each of the matters specified in subsection (b).

“(2) The Secretary shall submit the report under paragraph (1), together with the Secretary's comments on the report, to Congress not later than 30 days after the date on which the report is submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (1).

“(d) Military Criminal Investigative Organization Defined.—For the purposes of this section, the term ‘military criminal investigative organization’ means any of the following:

“(1) The Army Criminal Investigation Command.

“(2) The Naval Criminal Investigative Service.

“(3) The Air Force Office of Special Investigations.

“(4) The Defense Criminal Investigative Service.

“(e) Criminal Sexual Misconduct Defined.—For the purposes of this section, the term ‘criminal sexual misconduct’ means conduct by a member of the Armed Forces involving sexual abuse, sexual harassment, or other sexual misconduct that constitutes an offense under the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 801 et seq.].”

Program To Commemorate 50th Anniversary of the Korean War

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1052(b)(3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 764, provided that: “Any reference to the Department of Defense Korean War Commemoration in any law, regulation, document, record, or other paper of the United States shall be considered to be a reference to the United States of America Korean War Commemoration.”

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1067(b), (d), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2134, 2135, provided that:

“(b) Redesignation of Commemoration Account.—The account in the Treasury known as the ‘Department of Defense Korean Conflict Commemoration Account’ is redesignated as the ‘Department of Defense Korean War Commemoration Account’.

“(d) Cross References.—Any reference to the Department of Defense Korean Conflict Commemoration or the Department of Defense Korean Conflict Commemoration Account in any law, regulation, document, record, or other paper of the United States shall be considered to be a reference to the Department of Defense Korean War Commemoration or the Department of Defense Korean War Commemoration Account, respectively.”

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1083, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1918, as amended by Pub. L. 105–129, §1(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1997, 111 Stat. 2551; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1067(a), (c), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2134; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1052(a), (b)(1), (c), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(g)(6), (i)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1228, 1229, provided that:

“(a) Commemorative Program.—During fiscal years 2000 through 2004, the Secretary of Defense may conduct a program to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Korean War. In conducting the commemorative program, the Secretary may coordinate, support, and facilitate other programs and activities of the Federal Government, State and local governments, and other persons in commemoration of the Korean War.

“(b) Commemorative Activities.—The commemorative program may include activities and ceremonies—

“(1) to provide the people of the United States with a clear understanding and appreciation of the lessons and history of the Korean War;

“(2) to thank and honor veterans of the Korean War and their families;

“(3) to pay tribute to the sacrifices and contributions made on the home front by the people of the United States during the Korean War;

“(4) to highlight advances in technology, science, and medicine related to military research conducted during the Korean War;

“(5) to recognize the contributions and sacrifices made by the allies of the United States in the Korean War; and

“(6) to highlight the role of the Armed Forces of the United States, then and now, in maintaining world peace through strength.

“(c) Name and Symbols.—The Secretary of Defense shall have the sole and exclusive right to use the name ‘The United States of America Korean War Commemoration’, and such seal, emblems, and badges incorporating such name as the Secretary may lawfully adopt. Nothing in this section may be construed to supersede rights that are established or vested before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1997].

“(d) Commemorative Account.—(1) There is established in the Treasury an account to be known as the ‘Department of Defense Korean War Commemoration Account’, which shall be administered by the Secretary of Defense. There shall be deposited into the account all proceeds derived from the Secretary's use of the exclusive rights described in subsection (c). The Secretary may use funds in the account only for the purpose of conducting the commemorative program.

“(2) Not later than 60 days after completion of all activities and ceremonies conducted as part of the commemorative program, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report containing an accounting of all of the funds deposited into and expended from the account or otherwise expended under this section, and of any funds remaining in the account. Unobligated funds remaining in the account on that date shall be held in the account until transferred by law.

“(e) Acceptance of Voluntary Services.—(1) Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense may accept from any person voluntary services to be provided in furtherance of the commemorative program.

“(2) A person providing voluntary services under this subsection shall be considered to be a Federal employee for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, United States Code, relating to compensation for work-related injuries. The person shall also be considered a special governmental employee for purposes of standards of conduct and sections 202, 203, 205, 207, 208, and 209 of title 18, United States Code. A person who is not otherwise employed by the Federal Government shall not be considered to be a Federal employee for any other purpose by reason of the provision of voluntary services under this subsection.

“(3) The Secretary may provide for reimbursement of incidental expenses incurred by a person providing voluntary services under this subsection. The Secretary shall determine which expenses are eligible for reimbursement under this paragraph.

“(f) Use of Funds.—(1) Funds appropriated for the Army for fiscal years 2000 through 2004 for operation and maintenance shall be available for the commemorative program authorized under subsection (a).

“(2) The total amount expended by the Department of Defense through the Department of Defense 50th Anniversary of the Korean War Commemoration Committee, an entity within the Department of the Army, to carry out the commemorative program authorized under subsection (a) for fiscal years 2000 through 2004 may not exceed $7,000,000.”

[Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1052(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 764, provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending section 1083 of Pub. L. 105–85, set out above] may not be construed to supersede rights that are established or vested before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1995].”]

[Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1052(d), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 764, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending section 1083 of Pub. L. 105–85, set out above] shall take effect on October 1, 1999.”]

[Section 1(b)(2) of Pub. L. 105–129 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending section 1083 of Pub. L. 105–85, set out above] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 [Pub. L. 105–85] to which such amendment relates.”]

Annual Report on Moratorium on Use by Armed Forces of Antipersonnel Landmines

Section 1309 of Pub. L. 105–85 provided that:

“(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) The United States has stated its support for a ban on antipersonnel landmines that is global in scope and verifiable.

“(2) On May 16, 1996, the President announced that the United States, as a matter of policy, would eliminate its stockpile of non-self-destructing antipersonnel landmines, except those used for training purposes and in Korea, and that the United States would reserve the right to use self-destructing antipersonnel landmines in the event of conflict.

“(3) On May 16, 1996, the President also announced that the United States would lead an effort to negotiate an international treaty permanently banning the use of all antipersonnel landmines.

“(4) The United States is currently participating at the United Nations Conference on Disarmament in negotiations aimed at achieving a global ban on the use of antipersonnel landmines.

“(5) On August 18, 1997, the administration agreed to participate in international negotiations sponsored by Canada (the so-called ‘Ottawa process’) designed to achieve a treaty that would outlaw the production, use, and sale of antipersonnel landmines.

“(6) On September 17, 1997, the President announced that the United States would not sign the antipersonnel landmine treaty concluded in Oslo, Norway, by participants in the Ottawa process because the treaty would not provide a geographic exception to allow the United States to stockpile and use antipersonnel landmines in Korea or an exemption that would preserve the ability of the United States to use mixed antitank mine systems which could be used to deter an armored assault against United States forces.

“(7) The President also announced a change in United States policy whereby the United States—

“(A) would no longer deploy antipersonnel landmines, including self-destructing antipersonnel landmines, by 2003, except in Korea;

“(B) would seek to field alternatives by that date, or by 2006 in the case of Korea;

“(C) would undertake a new initiative in the United Nations Conference on Disarmament to establish a global ban on the transfer of antipersonnel landmines; and

“(D) would increase its current humanitarian demining activities around the world.

“(8) The President's decision would allow the continued use by United States forces of self-destructing antipersonnel landmines that are used as part of a mixed antitank mine system.

“(9) Under existing law (as provided in section 580 of Public Law 104–107; 110 Stat. 751), on February 12, 1999, the United States will implement a one-year moratorium on the use of antipersonnel landmines by United States forces except along internationally recognized national borders or in demilitarized zones within a perimeter marked area that is monitored by military personnel and protected by adequate means to ensure the exclusion of civilians.

“(b) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that—

“(1) the United States should not implement a moratorium on the use of antipersonnel landmines by United States Armed Forces in a manner that would endanger United States personnel or undermine the military effectiveness of United States Armed Forces in executing their missions; and

“(2) the United States should pursue the development of alternatives to self-destructing antipersonnel landmines.

“(c) Annual Report.—Not later than December 31 each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of Senate and House of Representatives] a report concerning antipersonnel landmines. Each such report shall include the Secretary's description of the following:

“(1) The military utility of the continued deployment and use by the United States of antipersonnel landmines.

“(2) The effect of a moratorium on the production, stockpiling, and use of antipersonnel landmines on the ability of United States forces to deter and defend against attack on land by hostile forces, including on the Korean peninsula.

“(3) Progress in developing and fielding systems that are effective substitutes for antipersonnel landmines, including an identification and description of the types of systems that are being developed and fielded, the costs associated with those systems, and the estimated timetable for developing and fielding those systems.

“(4) The effect of a moratorium on the use of antipersonnel landmines on the military effectiveness of current antitank mine systems.

“(5) The number and type of pure antipersonnel landmines that remain in the United States inventory and that are subject to elimination under the President's September 17, 1997, declaration on United States antipersonnel landmine policy.

“(6) The number and type of mixed antitank mine systems that are in the United States inventory, the locations where they are deployed, and their effect on the deterrence and warfighting ability of United States Armed Forces.

“(7) The effect of the elimination of pure antipersonnel landmines on the warfighting effectiveness of the United States Armed Forces.

“(8) The costs already incurred and anticipated of eliminating antipersonnel landmines from the United States inventory in accordance with the policy enunciated by the President on September 17, 1997.

“(9) The benefits that would result to United States military and civilian personnel from an international treaty banning the production, use, transfer, and stockpiling of antipersonnel landmines.”

Hate Crimes in the Military

Section 571(a), (b) of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that:

“(a) Human Relations Training.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the Secretary of each military department conducts ongoing programs for human relations training for all members of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. Matters to be covered by such training include race relations, equal opportunity, opposition to gender discrimination, and sensitivity to ‘hate group’ activity. Such training shall be provided during basic training (or other initial military training) and on a regular basis thereafter.

“(2) The Secretary of Defense shall also ensure that unit commanders are aware of their responsibilities in ensuring that impermissible activity based upon discriminatory motives does not occur in units under their command.

“(b) Information To Be Provided to Prospective Recruits.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that each individual preparing to enter an officer accession program or to execute an original enlistment agreement is provided information concerning the meaning of the oath of office or oath of enlistment for service in the Armed Forces in terms of the equal protection and civil liberties guarantees of the Constitution, and each such individual shall be informed that if supporting those guarantees is not possible personally for that individual, then that individual should decline to enter the Armed Forces.”

Annual Report on Operation Provide Comfort and Operation Enhanced Southern Watch

Section 1041 of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that:

“(a) Annual Report.—Not later than March 1 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on Operation Provide Comfort and Operation Enhanced Southern Watch.

“(b) Matters Relating to Operation Provide Comfort.—Each report under subsection (a) shall include, with respect to Operation Provide Comfort, the following:

“(1) A detailed presentation of the projected costs to be incurred by the Department of Defense for that operation during the fiscal year in which the report is submitted and projected for the following fiscal year, together with a discussion of missions and functions expected to be performed by the Department as part of that operation during each of those fiscal years.

“(2) A detailed presentation of the projected costs to be incurred by other departments and agencies of the Federal Government participating in or providing support to that operation during each of those fiscal years.

“(3) A discussion of options being pursued to reduce the involvement of the Department of Defense in those aspects of that operation that are not directly related to the military mission of the Department of Defense.

“(4) A discussion of the exit strategy for United States involvement in, and support for, that operation.

“(5) A description of alternative approaches to accomplishing the mission of that operation that are designed to limit the scope and cost to the Department of Defense of accomplishing that mission while maintaining mission success.

“(6) The contributions (both in-kind and actual) by other nations to the costs of conducting that operation.

“(7) A detailed presentation of significant Iraqi military activity (including specific violations of the no-fly zone) determined to jeopardize the security of the Kurdish population in northern Iraq.

“(c) Matters Relating to Operation Enhanced Southern Watch.—Each report under subsection (a) shall include, with respect to Operation Enhanced Southern Watch, the following:

“(1) The expected duration and annual costs of the various elements of that operation.

“(2) The political and military objectives associated with that operation.

“(3) The contributions (both in-kind and actual) by other nations to the costs of conducting that operation.

“(4) A description of alternative approaches to accomplishing the mission of that operation that are designed to limit the scope and cost of accomplishing that mission while maintaining mission success.

“(5) A comprehensive discussion of the political and military objectives and initiatives that the Department of Defense has pursued, and intends to pursue, in order to reduce United States involvement in that operation.

“(6) A detailed presentation of significant Iraqi military activity (including specific violations of the no-fly zone) determined to jeopardize the security of the Shiite population by air attack in southern Iraq or to jeopardize the security of Kuwait.

“(d) Termination of Report Requirement.—The requirement under subsection (a) shall cease to apply with respect to an operation named in that subsection upon the termination of United States involvement in that operation.

“(e) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

“(1) Operation enhanced southern watch.—The term ‘Operation Enhanced Southern Watch’ means the operation of the Department of Defense that as of October 30, 1995, is designated as Operation Enhanced Southern Watch.

“(2) Operation provide comfort.—The term ‘Operation Provide Comfort’ means the operation of the Department of Defense that as of October 30, 1995, is designated as Operation Provide Comfort.”

Annual Report on Emerging Operational Concepts

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1042, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2642, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(5), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774, directed Secretary of Defense to submit to Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report on emerging operational concepts not later than March 1 of each year through 2000, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title II, §241(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 550.

George C. Marshall European Center for Strategic Security Studies

Section 1065 of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that:

“(a) Authority To Accept Foreign Gifts and Donations.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may, on behalf of the George C. Marshall European Center for Strategic Security Studies (in this section referred to as the ‘Marshall Center’), accept foreign gifts or donations in order to defray the costs of, or enhance the operation of, the Marshall Center.

“(2) Funds received by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall be credited to appropriations available for the Department of Defense for the Marshall Center. Funds so credited shall be merged with the appropriations to which credited and shall be available for the Marshall Center for the same purposes and same period as the appropriations with which merged.

“(3) The Secretary of Defense shall notify Congress if the total amount of money accepted under paragraph (1) exceeds $2,000,000 in any fiscal year. Any such notice shall list each of the contributors of such amounts and the amount of each contribution in such fiscal year.

“(4) For purposes of this subsection, a foreign gift or donation is a gift or donation of funds, materials (including research materials), property, or services (including lecture services and faculty services) from a foreign government, a foundation or other charitable organization in a foreign country, or an individual in a foreign country.

“(b) Marshall Center Participation By Foreign Nations.—(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Defense may authorize participation by a European or Eurasian nation in Marshall Center programs if the Secretary determines, after consultation with the Secretary of State, that such participation is in the national interest of the United States.

“(2) Not later than January 31 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report setting forth the names of the foreign nations permitted to participate in programs of the Marshall Center during the preceding year under paragraph (1). Each such report shall be prepared by the Secretary with the assistance of the Director of the Marshall Center.

“(c) Exemptions for Members of Marshall Center Board of Visitors From Certain Requirements.—(1) In the case of any person invited to serve without compensation on the Marshall Center Board of Visitors, the Secretary of Defense may waive any requirement for financial disclosure that would otherwise apply to that person solely by reason of service on such Board.

“(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a member of the Marshall Center Board of Visitors may not be required to register as an agent of a foreign government solely by reason of service as a member of the Board.

“(3) Notwithstanding section 219 of title 18, United States Code, a non-United States citizen may serve on the Marshall Center Board of Visitors even though registered as a foreign agent.”

Participation of Members, Dependents, and Other Persons in Crime Prevention Efforts at Installations

Section 1070 of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that:

“(a) Crime Prevention Plan.—The Secretary of Defense shall prepare and implement an incentive-based plan to encourage members of the Armed Forces, dependents of members, civilian employees of the Department of Defense, and employees of defense contractors performing work at military installations to report to an appropriate military law enforcement agency any crime or criminal activity that the person reasonably believes occurred on a military installation or involves a member of the Armed Forces.

“(b) Incentives to Report Criminal Activity.—The Secretary of Defense shall include in the plan developed under subsection (a) incentives for members and other persons described in such subsection to provide information to appropriate military law enforcement agencies regarding any crime or criminal activity occurring on a military installation or involving a member of the Armed Forces.

“(c) Report Regarding Implementation.—Not later than February 1, 1997, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report describing the plan being developed under subsection (a).”

Enforcement of Child Support Obligations of Members of the Armed Forces

Pub. L. 104–193, title III, §363(a), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2247, provided that:

“(1) Maintenance of address information.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a centralized personnel locator service that includes the address of each member of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. Upon request of the Secretary of Transportation, addresses for members of the Coast Guard shall be included in the centralized personnel locator service.

“(2) Type of address.—

“(A) Residential address.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the address for a member of the Armed Forces shown in the locator service shall be the residential address of that member.

“(B) Duty address.—The address for a member of the Armed Forces shown in the locator service shall be the duty address of that member in the case of a member—

“(i) who is permanently assigned overseas, to a vessel, or to a routinely deployable unit; or

“(ii) with respect to whom the Secretary concerned makes a determination that the member's residential address should not be disclosed due to national security or safety concerns.

“(3) Updating of locator information.—Within 30 days after a member listed in the locator service establishes a new residential address (or a new duty address, in the case of a member covered by paragraph (2)(B)), the Secretary concerned shall update the locator service to indicate the new address of the member.

“(4) Availability of information.—The Secretary of Defense shall make information regarding the address of a member of the Armed Forces listed in the locator service available, on request, to the Federal Parent Locator Service established under section 453 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 653].”

Review of C4I by National Research Council

Section 262 of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that:

“(a) Review by National Research Council.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996], the Secretary of Defense shall request the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a comprehensive review of current and planned service and defense-wide programs for command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) with a special focus on cross-service and inter-service issues.

“(b) Matters To Be Assessed in Review.—The review shall address the following:

“(1) The match between the capabilities provided by current service and defense-wide C4I programs and the actual needs of users of these programs.

“(2) The interoperability of service and defense-wide C4I systems that are planned to be operational in the future.

“(3) The need for an overall defense-wide architecture for C4I.

“(4) Proposed strategies for ensuring that future C4I acquisitions are compatible and interoperable with an overall architecture.

“(5) Technological and administrative aspects of the C4I modernization effort to determine the soundness of the underlying plan and the extent to which it is consistent with concepts for joint military operations in the future.

“(c) Two-Year Period for Conducting Review.—The review shall be conducted over the two-year period beginning on the date on which the National Research Council and the Secretary of Defense enter into a contract or other agreement for the conduct of the review.

“(d) Reports.—(1) In the contract or other agreement for the conduct of the review, the Secretary of Defense shall provide that the National Research Council shall submit to the Department of Defense and Congress interim reports and progress updates on a regular basis as the review proceeds. A final report on the review shall set forth the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the Council for defense-wide and service C4I programs and shall be submitted to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate, the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives [now Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives], and the Secretary of Defense.

“(2) To the maximum degree possible, the final report shall be submitted in unclassified form with classified annexes as necessary.

“(e) Interagency Cooperation With Study.—All military departments, defense agencies, and other components of the Department of Defense shall cooperate fully with the National Research Council in its activities in carrying out the review under this section.

“(f) Expedited Processing of Security Clearances for Study.—For the purpose of facilitating the commencement of the study under this section, the Secretary of Defense shall expedite to the fullest degree possible the processing of security clearances that are necessary for the National Research Council to conduct the study.

“(g) Funding.—Of the amount authorized to be appropriated in section 201 [110 Stat. 216] for defense-wide activities, $900,000 shall be available for the study under this section.”

Strategy and Report on Automated Information Systems of Department of Defense

Section 366 of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that:

“(a) Development of Strategy.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop a strategy for the development or modernization of automated information systems for the Department of Defense.

“(b) Matters to Consider.—In developing the strategy required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consider the following:

“(1) The use of performance measures and management controls.

“(2) Findings of the Functional Management Review conducted by the Secretary.

“(3) Program management actions planned by the Secretary.

“(4) Actions and milestones necessary for completion of functional and economic analyses for—

“(A) the Automated System for Transportation data;

“(B) continuous acquisition and life cycle support;

“(C) electronic data interchange;

“(D) flexible computer integrated manufacturing;

“(E) the Navy Tactical Command Support System; and

“(F) the Defense Information System Network.

“(5) Progress made by the Secretary in resolving problems with respect to the Defense Information System Network and the Joint Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support System.

“(6) Tasks identified in the review conducted by the Secretary of the Standard Installation/Division Personnel System-3.

“(7) Such other matters as the Secretary considers appropriate.

“(c) Report on Strategy.—(1) Not later than April 15, 1996, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the development of the strategy required under subsection (a).

“(2) In the case of the Air Force Wargaming Center, the Air Force Command Exercise System, the Cheyenne Mountain Upgrade, the Transportation Coordinator Automated Command and Control Information Systems, and the Wing Command and Control Systems, the report required by paragraph (1) shall provide functional economic analyses and address waivers exercised for compelling military importance under section 381(d) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 (Public Law 103–337; 108 Stat. 2739) [set out below].

“(3) The report required by paragraph (1) shall also include the following:

“(A) A certification by the Secretary of the termination of the Personnel Electronic Record Management System or a justification for the continued need for such system.

“(B) Findings of the Functional Management Review conducted by the Secretary and program management actions planned by the Secretary for—

“(i) the Base Level System Modernization and the Sustaining Base Information System; and

“(ii) the Standard Installation/Division Personnel System-3.

“(C) An assessment of the implementation of migration systems and applications, including—

“(i) identification of the systems and applications by functional or business area, specifying target dates for operation of the systems and applications;

“(ii) identification of the legacy systems and applications that will be terminated;

“(iii) the cost of and schedules for implementing the migration systems and applications; and

“(iv) termination schedules.

“(D) A certification by the Secretary that each information system that is subject to review by the Major Automated Information System Review Committee of the Department is cost-effective and supports the corporate information management goals of the Department, including the results of the review conducted for each such system by the Committee.”

Report Concerning Appropriate Forum for Judicial Review of Department of Defense Personnel Actions

Section 551 of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish an advisory committee to consider issues relating to the appropriate forum for judicial review of Department of Defense administrative personnel actions.

“(b) Membership.—(1) The committee shall be composed of five members, who shall be appointed by the Secretary of Defense after consultation with the Attorney General and the Chief Justice of the United States.

“(2) All members of the committee shall be appointed not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996].

“(c) Duties.—The committee shall review, and provide findings and recommendations regarding, the following matters with respect to judicial review of administrative personnel actions of the Department of Defense:

“(1) Whether the existing forum for such review through the United States district courts provides appropriate and adequate review of such actions.

“(2) Whether jurisdiction to conduct judicial review of such actions should be established in a single court in order to provide a centralized review of such actions and, if so, in which court that jurisdiction should be vested.

“(d) Report.—(1) Not later than December 15, 1996, the committee shall submit to the Secretary of Defense a report setting forth its findings and recommendations, including its recommendations pursuant to subsection (c).

“(2) Not later than January 1, 1997, the Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the Attorney General, shall transmit the committee's report to Congress. The Secretary may include in the transmittal any comments on the report that the Secretary or the Attorney General consider appropriate.

“(e) Termination of Committee.—The committee shall terminate 30 days after the date of the submission of its report to Congress under subsection (d)(2).”

Requirements for Automated Information Systems of Department of Defense

Section 381 of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that:

“(a) Determination Required.—(1) Not later than March 15 in each of 1995, 1996, and 1997, the Secretary of Defense shall—

“(A) determine whether each automated information system described in paragraph (2) meets the requirements set forth in subsection (b); and

“(B) take appropriate action to end the modernization or development by the Department of Defense of any such system that the Secretary determines does not meet such requirements.

“(2) An automated information system referred to in paragraph (1) is an automated information system—

“(A) that is undergoing modernization or development by the Department of Defense;

“(B) that exceeds $50,000,000 in value; and

“(C) that is not a migration system, as determined by the Enterprise Integration Executive Board of the Department of Defense.

“(b) Requirements.—The use of an automated information system by the Department of Defense shall—

“(1) contribute to the achievement of Department of Defense strategies for the use of automated information systems;

“(2) as determined by the Secretary, provide an acceptable benefit from the investment in the system or make a substantial contribution to the performance of the defense mission for which the system is used;

“(3) comply with Department of Defense directives applicable to life cycle management of automated information systems; and

“(4) be based on guidance developed under subsection (c).

“(c) Guidance for Use.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop guidance for the use of automated information systems by the Department of Defense. In developing the guidance, the Secretary shall consider the following:

“(1) Directives of the Office of Management and Budget applicable to returns of investment for such systems.

“(2) A sound, functional economic analysis.

“(3) Established objectives for the Department of Defense information infrastructure.

“(4) Migratory assessment criteria, including criteria under guidance provided by the Defense Information Systems Agency.

“(d) Waiver.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirements of subsection (a) for an automated information system if the Secretary determines that the purpose for which the system is being modernized or developed is of compelling military importance.

“(2) If the Secretary exercises the waiver authority provided in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall include the following in the next report required by subsection (f):

“(A) The reasons for the failure of the automated information system to meet all of the requirements of subsection (b).

“(B) A determination of whether the system is expected to meet such requirements in the future, and if so, the date by which the system is expected to meet the requirements.

“(e) Performance Measures and Management Controls.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish performance measures and management controls for the supervision and management of the activities described in paragraph (2). The performance measures and management controls shall be adequate to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that the Department of Defense receives the maximum benefit possible from the development, modernization, operation, and maintenance of automated information systems.

“(2) The activities referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:

“(A) Accelerated implementation of migration systems.

“(B) Establishment of data standards.

“(C) Process improvement.

“(f) Reports.—Not later than March 15 in each of 1995, 1996, and 1997, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the establishment and implementation of the performance measures and management controls referred to in subsection (e)(1). Each such report shall also specify—

“(1) the automated information systems that, as determined under subsection (a), meet the requirements of subsection (b);

“(2) the automated information systems that, as determined under subsection (a), do not meet the requirements of subsection (b) and the action taken by the Secretary to end the use of such systems; and

“(3) the automated information systems that, as determined by the Enterprise Integration Executive Board, are migration systems.

“(g) Review by Comptroller General.—Not later than April 30, 1995, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to Congress a report that contains an evaluation of the following:

“(1) The progress made by the Department of Defense in achieving the goals of the corporate information management program of the Department.

“(2) The progress made by the Secretary of Defense in establishing the performance measures and management controls referred to in subsection (e)(1).

“(3) The progress made by the Department of Defense in using automated information systems that meet the requirements of subsection (b).

“(4) The report required by subsection (f) to be submitted in 1995.

“(h) Definitions.—In this section:

“(1) The term ‘automated information system’ means an automated information system of the Department of Defense described in the exhibits designated as ‘IT-43’ in the budget submitted to Congress by the President for fiscal year 1995 pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code.

“(2) The term ‘migration system’ has the meaning given such term in the document entitled ‘Department of Defense Strategy for Acceleration of Migration Systems and Data Standards’ attached to the memorandum of the Department of Defense dated October 13, 1993 (relating to accelerated implementation of migration systems, data standards, and process improvement).”

Section 830 of Pub. L. 104–201, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VIII, §808(c)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–394, provided that Secretary of Defense was to include in report submitted in 1997 under section 381(f) of Pub. L. 103–337 [set out above] a discussion of progress made in implementing div. E of Pub. L. 104–106 [see Short Title note set out under section 1401 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works] and strategy for development or modernization of automated information systems for Department of Defense, as required by section 366 of Pub. L. 104–106 [set out as a note above] and plans of Department of Defense for establishing an integrated framework for management of information resources within the Department, and provided further specifications of the elements to be included in the discussion.

Department of Defense Policies and Procedures on Discrimination and Sexual Harassment

Section 532 of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that:

“(a) Report of Task Force.—(1) The Department of Defense Task Force on Discrimination and Sexual Harassment, constituted by the Secretary of Defense on March 15, 1994, shall transmit a report of its findings and recommendations to the Secretary of Defense not later than October 1, 1994.

“(2) The Secretary shall transmit to Congress the report of the task force not later than October 10, 1994.

“(b) Secretarial Review.—Not later than 45 days after receiving the report under subsection (a), the Secretary shall—

“(1) review the recommendations for action contained in the report;

“(2) determine which recommendations the Secretary approves for implementation and which recommendations the Secretary disapproves; and

“(3) submit to Congress a report that—

“(A) identifies the approved recommendations and the disapproved recommendations; and

“(B) explains the reasons for each such approval and disapproval.

“(c) Comprehensive DOD Policy.—(1) Based on the approved recommendations of the task force and such other factors as the Secretary considers appropriate, the Secretary shall develop a comprehensive Department of Defense policy for processing complaints of sexual harassment and discrimination involving members of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary.

“(2) The Secretary shall issue policy guidance for the implementation of the comprehensive policy and shall require the Secretaries of the military departments to prescribe regulations to implement that policy not later than March 1, 1995.

“(3) The Secretary shall ensure that the policy is implemented uniformly by the military departments insofar as practicable.

“(4) Not later than March 31, 1995, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a proposal for any legislation necessary to enhance the capability of the Department of Defense to address the issues of unlawful discrimination and sexual harassment.

“(d) Military Department Policies.—(1) The Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary of the Air Force shall review and revise the regulations of the Department of the Navy and the Department of the Air Force, respectively, relating to equal opportunity policy and procedures in that Department for the making of, and responding to, complaints of unlawful discrimination and sexual harassment in order to ensure that those regulations are substantially equivalent to the regulations of the Department of the Army on such matters.

“(2) In revising regulations pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary of the Air Force may make such additions and modifications as the Secretary of Defense determines appropriate to strengthen those regulations beyond the substantial equivalent of the Army regulations in accordance with—

“(A) the approved recommendations of the Department of Defense Task Force on Discrimination and Sexual Harassment; and

“(B) the experience of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps regarding equal opportunity cases.

“(3) The Secretary of the Army shall review the regulations of the Department of the Army relating to equal opportunity policy and complaint procedures and revise the regulations as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate to strengthen the regulations in accordance with the recommendations and experience described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2).

“(e) Report of Advisory Board.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall direct the Advisory Board on the Investigative Capability of the Department of Defense, established by the Secretary of Defense in November 1993, to include in its report to the Secretary (scheduled to be transmitted to the Secretary during December 1994)—

“(A) the recommendations of the Advisory Board as to whether the current Department of Defense organizational structure is adequate to oversee all investigative matters related to unlawful discrimination, sexual harassment, and other misconduct related to the gender of the victim; and

“(B) recommendations as to whether additional data collection and reporting procedures are needed to enhance the ability of the Department of Defense to respond to unlawful discrimination, sexual harassment, and other misconduct related to the gender of the victim.

“(2) The Secretary shall transmit to Congress the report of the Advisory Board not later than 15 days after receiving the report.

“(f) Performance Evaluation Standards for Members of the Armed Forces.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that Department of Defense regulations governing consideration of equal opportunity matters in evaluations of the performance of members of the Armed Forces include provisions requiring as a factor in such evaluations consideration of a member's commitment to elimination of unlawful discrimination or of sexual harassment in the Armed Forces.”

Annual Report on Personnel Readiness Factors by Race and Gender

Section 533 of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that:

“(a) Required Assessment.—The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress an annual report on trends in recruiting, retention, and personnel readiness.

“(b) Data To Be Collected.—Each annual report under subsection (a) shall include the following information with respect to the preceding fiscal year for the active components of each of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary (as well as such additional information as the Secretary considers appropriate):

“(1) The numbers of members of the Armed Forces temporarily and permanently nondeployable and rates of temporary and permanent nondeployability, displayed by cause of nondeployability, rank, and gender.

“(2) The numbers and rates of complaints and allegations within the Armed Forces that involve gender and other unlawful discrimination and sexual harassment, and the rates of substantiation for those complaints and allegations.

“(3) The numbers and rates of disciplinary proceedings, displayed (A) by offense or infraction committed, (B) by gender, rank, and race, and (C) by the categories specified in paragraph (2).

“(4) The retention rates, by gender, rank, and race, with an analysis of factors influencing those rates.

“(5) The propensity of persons to enlist, displayed by gender and race, with an analysis of the factors influencing those propensities.

“(c) Submission to Congress.—The Secretary shall submit the report under this section for any fiscal year as part of the annual Department of Defense posture statement provided to Congress in connection with the Department of Defense budget request for that fiscal year.

“(d) Initial Submission.—The first report under this section shall be submitted in connection with the Department of Defense budget request for fiscal year 1996 and shall include data, to the degree such data already exists, for fiscal years after fiscal year 1991.”

Victims’ Advocates Programs in Department of Defense

Section 534 of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—(1) The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, shall revise policies and regulations of the Department of Defense with respect to the programs of the Department of Defense specified in paragraph (2) in order to establish within each of the military departments a victims’ advocates program.

“(2) Programs referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:

“(A) Victim and witness assistance programs.

“(B) Family advocacy programs.

“(C) Equal opportunity programs.

“(3) In the case of the Department of the Navy, separate victims’ advocates programs shall be established for the Navy and the Marine Corps.

“(b) Purpose.—A victims’ advocates program established pursuant to subsection (a) shall provide assistance described in subsection (d) to members of the Armed Forces and their dependents who are victims of any of the following:

“(1) Crime.

“(2) Intrafamilial sexual, physical, or emotional abuse.

“(3) Discrimination or harassment based on race, gender, ethnic background, national origin, or religion.

“(c) Interdisciplinary Councils.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall establish a Department of Defense council to coordinate and oversee the implementation of programs under subsection (a). The membership of the council shall be selected from members of the Armed Forces and officers and employees of the Department of Defense having expertise or experience in a variety of disciplines and professions in order to ensure representation of the full range of services and expertise that will be needed in implementing those programs.

“(2) The Secretary of each military department shall establish similar interdisciplinary councils within that military department as appropriate to ensure the fullest coordination and effectiveness of the victims’ advocates program of that military department. To the extent practicable, such a council shall be established at each significant military installation.

“(d) Assistance.—(1) Under a victims’ advocates program established under subsection (a), individuals working in the program shall principally serve the interests of a victim by initiating action to provide (A) information on available benefits and services, (B) assistance in obtaining those benefits and services, and (C) other appropriate assistance.

“(2) Services under such a program in the case of an individual who is a victim of family violence (including intrafamilial sexual, physical, and emotional abuse) shall be provided principally through the family advocacy programs of the military departments.

“(e) Staffing.—The Secretary of Defense shall provide for the assignment of personnel (military or civilian) on a full-time basis to victims’ advocates programs established pursuant to subsection (a). The Secretary shall ensure that sufficient numbers of such full-time personnel are assigned to those programs to enable those programs to be carried out effectively.

“(f) Implementation Deadline.—Subsection (a) shall be carried out not later than six months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1994].

“(g) Implementation Report.—Not later than 30 days after the date on which Department of Defense policies and regulations are revised pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the implementation (and plans for implementation) of this section.”

Assistance to Family Members of Korean Conflict and Cold War POW/MIAs Who Remain Unaccounted For

Section 1031 of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that:

“(a) Single Point of Contact.—The Secretary of Defense shall designate an official of the Department of Defense to serve as a single point of contact within the department—

“(1) for the immediate family members (or their designees) of any unaccounted-for Korean conflict POW/MIA; and

“(2) for the immediate family members (or their designees) of any unaccounted-for Cold War POW/MIA.

“(b) Functions.—The official designated under subsection (a) shall serve as a liaison between the family members of unaccounted-for Korean conflict POW/MIAs and unaccounted-for Cold War POW/MIAs and the Department of Defense and other Federal departments and agencies that may hold information that may relate to such POW/MIAs. The functions of that official shall include assisting family members—

“(1) with the procedures the family members may follow in their search for information about the unaccounted-for Korean conflict POW/MIA or unaccounted-for Cold War POW/MIA, as the case may be;

“(2) in learning where they may locate information about the unaccounted-for POW/MIA; and

“(3) in learning how and where to identify classified records that contain pertinent information and that will be declassified.

“(c) Assistance in Obtaining Declassification.—The official designated under subsection (a) shall seek to obtain the rapid declassification of any relevant classified records that are identified.

“(d) Repository.—The official designated under subsection (a) shall provide all documents relating to unaccounted-for Korean conflict POW/MIAs and unaccounted-for Cold War POW/MIAs that are located as a result of the official's efforts to the National Archives and Records Administration, which shall locate them in a centralized repository.

“(e) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

“(1) The term ‘unaccounted-for Korean conflict POW/MIA’ means a member of the Armed Forces or civilian employee of the United States who, as a result of service during the Korean conflict, was at any time classified as a prisoner of war or missing-in-action and whose person or remains have not been returned to United States control and who remains unaccounted for.

“(2) The term ‘unaccounted-for Cold War POW/MIA’ means a member of the Armed Forces or civilian employee of the United States who, as a result of service during the period from September 2, 1945, to August 21, 1991, was at any time classified as a prisoner of war or missing-in-action and whose person or remains have not been returned to United States control and who remains unaccounted for.

“(3) The term ‘Korean conflict’ has the meaning given such term in section 101(9) of title 38, United States Code.”

Plan Requiring Disbursing Officials of Department of Defense To Match Disbursements to Particular Obligations

Pub. L. 107–117, div. A, title VIII, §8118, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2273, provided that: “Section 8106 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997 (titles I through VIII of the matter under subsection 101(b) of Public Law 104–208; 110 Stat. 3009–111; 10 U.S.C. 113 note) shall continue in effect to apply to disbursements that are made by the Department of Defense in fiscal year 2002.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 106–259, title VIII, §8137, Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 704.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8106], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009–111, as amended by Pub. L. 105–56, title VIII, §8113, Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §143, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–609; Pub. L. 106–79, title VIII, §8135, Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1268, provided that:

“(a) The Secretary of Defense shall require each disbursement by the Department of Defense in an amount in excess of $500,000 be matched to a particular obligation before the disbursement is made.

“(b) The Secretary shall ensure that a disbursement in excess of the threshold amount applicable under section (a) is not divided into multiple disbursements of less than that amount for the purpose of avoiding the applicability of such section to that disbursement.”

[Section 8113 of Pub. L. 105–56 provided that the amendment made by that section [amending section 101(b) [title VIII, §8106] of Pub. L. 104–208] set out above, is effective June 30, 1998.]

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8102, Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 672.

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8137, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2654.

Notice to Congress of Proposed Changes in Combat Assignments to Which Female Members May Be Assigned

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §542, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1659, as amended by Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §573(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–136; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §591, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1125, provided that:

“(a) In General.—(1) Except in a case covered by subsection (b) or by section 6035 of title 10, United States Code, whenever the Secretary of Defense proposes to change military personnel policies in order to make available to female members of the Armed Forces assignment to any type of combat unit, class of combat vessel, or type of combat platform that is not open to such assignments, the Secretary shall, not less than 30 days before such change is implemented, transmit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives notice of the proposed change in personnel policy.

“(2) If before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993] the Secretary made any change to military personnel policies in order to make available to female members of the Armed Forces assignment to any type of combat unit, class of combat vessel, or type of combat platform that was not previously open to such assignments, the Secretary shall, not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, transmit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives notice of that change in personnel policy.

“(b) Special Rule for Ground Combat Exclusion Policy.—(1) If the Secretary of Defense proposes to make any change described in paragraph (2) to the ground combat exclusion policy, the Secretary shall, before any such change is implemented, submit to Congress a report providing notice of the proposed change. Such a change may then be implemented only after the end of a period of 30 days of continuous session of Congress (excluding any day on which either House of Congress is not in session) following the date on which the report is received.

“(2) A change referred to in paragraph (1) is a change that either—

“(A) closes to female members of the Armed Forces any category of unit or position that at that time is open to service by such members; or

“(B) opens to service by such members any category of unit or position that at that time is closed to service by such members.

“(3) The Secretary shall include in any report under paragraph (1)—

“(A) a detailed description of, and justification for, the proposed change to the ground combat exclusion policy; and

“(B) a detailed analysis of legal implication of the proposed change with respect to the constitutionality of the application of the Military Selective Service Act [50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.] to males only.

“(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘ground combat exclusion policy’ means the military personnel policies of the Department of Defense and the military departments, as in effect on January 1, 1993, by which female members of the Armed Forces are restricted from assignment to units and positions whose mission requires routine engagement in direct combat on the ground.

“(5) For purposes of this subsection, the continuity of a session of Congress is broken only by an adjournment of the Congress sine die.”

Gender-Neutral Occupational Performance Standards

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §543, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1660, provided that:

“(a) Gender Neutrality Requirement.—In the case of any military occupational career field that is open to both male and female members of the Armed Forces, the Secretary of Defense—

“(1) shall ensure that qualification of members of the Armed Forces for, and continuance of members of the Armed Forces in, that occupational career field is evaluated on the basis of common, relevant performance standards, without differential standards or evaluation on the basis of gender;

“(2) may not use any gender quota, goal, or ceiling except as specifically authorized by law; and

“(3) may not change an occupational performance standard for the purpose of increasing or decreasing the number of women in that occupational career field.

“(b) Requirements Relating To Use of Specific Physical Requirements.—(1) For any military occupational specialty for which the Secretary of Defense determines that specific physical requirements for muscular strength and endurance and cardiovascular capacity are essential to the performance of duties, the Secretary shall prescribe specific physical requirements for members in that specialty and shall ensure (in the case of an occupational specialty that is open to both male and female members of the Armed Forces) that those requirements are applied on a gender-neutral basis.

“(2) Whenever the Secretary establishes or revises a physical requirement for an occupational specialty, a member serving in that occupational specialty when the new requirement becomes effective, who is otherwise considered to be a satisfactory performer, shall be provided a reasonable period, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to meet the standard established by the new requirement. During that period, the new physical requirement may not be used to disqualify the member from continued service in that specialty.

“(c) Notice to Congress of Changes.—Whenever the Secretary of Defense proposes to implement changes to the occupational standards for a military occupational field that are expected to result in an increase, or in a decrease, of at least 10 percent in the number of female members of the Armed Forces who enter, or are assigned to, that occupational field, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report providing notice of the change and the justification and rationale for the change. Such changes may then be implemented only after the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date on which such report is submitted.”

Foreign Language Proficiency Test Program

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §575, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1675, provided that:

“(a) Test Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop and carry out a test program for improving foreign language proficiency in the Department of Defense through improved management and other measures. The test program shall be designed to evaluate the findings and recommendations of—

“(1) the June 1993 inspection report of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense on the Defense Foreign Language Program (report numbered 93–INS–10);

“(2) the report of the Sixth Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (August 1988); and

“(3) any other recent study of the foreign language proficiency program of the Department of Defense.

“(b) Evaluation of Prior Recommendations.—The test program shall include an evaluation of the following possible changes to current practice identified in the reports referred to in subsection (a):

“(1) Management of linguist billets and personnel for the active and reserve components from a Total Force perspective.

“(2) Improvement of linguist training programs, both resident and nonresident, to provide greater flexibility, to accommodate missions other than signals intelligence, and to improve the provision of resources for nonresident programs.

“(3) Centralized responsibility within the Office of the Secretary of Defense to provide coordinated oversight of all foreign language issues and programs, including a centralized process for determination, validation, and documentation of foreign language requirements for different services and missions.

“(4) Revised policies of each of the military departments to foster maintenance of highly perishable linguistic skills through improved management of the careers of language-trained personnel, including more effective use of language skills, improved career opportunities within the linguistics field, and specific linkage of language proficiency to promotions.

“(5) In the case of language-trained members of the reserve components—

“(A) the use of additional training assemblies (ATAs) as a means of sustaining linguistic proficiency and enhancing retention; and

“(B) the use of larger enlistment and reenlistment bonuses, Special Duty Assignment Pay, and educational incentives.

“(6) Such other management changes as the Secretary may consider necessary.

“(c) Evaluation of Adjustment in Foreign Language Proficiency Pay.—(1) The Secretary shall include in the test program an evaluation of adjustments in foreign language proficiency pay for active and reserve component personnel (which may be adjusted for purposes of the test program without regard to section 316(b) of title 37, United States Code).

“(2) Before any adjustment in foreign language proficiency pay is included in the test program as authorized by paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the committees named in subsection (d)(2) the following information related to proficiency pay adjustments:

“(A) The response of the Secretary to the findings of the Inspector General in the report on the Defense Foreign Language Program referred to in subsection (a)(1), specifically including the following matters raised in that report:

“(i) Inadequate centralized oversight of planning, policy, roles, responsibilities, and funding for foreign language programs.

“(ii) Inadequate management and validation of the requirements process for foreign language programs.

“(iii) Inadequate uniform career management of language-trained personnel, including failure to take sufficient advantage of language skills and to recoup investment of training dollars.

“(iv) Inadequate training programs, both resident and nonresident.

“(B) The current manning of linguistic billets (shown by service, by active or reserve component, and by career field).

“(C) The rates of retention in the service for language-trained personnel (shown by service, by active or reserve component, and by career field).

“(D) The rates of retention by career field for language-trained personnel (shown by service and by active or reserve component).

“(E) The rates of language proficiency for personnel serving in linguistic billets (shown by service, by active or reserve component, and by career field).

“(F) Trends in performance ratings for personnel serving in linguistic billets (shown by service, by active or reserve component, and by career field).

“(G) Promotion rates for personnel serving in linguistic billets (shown by service, by active or reserve component, and by career field).

“(H) The estimated cost of foreign language proficiency pay as proposed to be paid at the adjusted rates for the test program under paragraph (1)—

“(i) for each year of the test program; and

“(ii) for five years, if those rates are subsequently applied to the entire Department of Defense.

“(3) The rates for adjusted foreign language proficiency pay as proposed to be paid for the test program under paragraph (1) may not take effect for the test program unless the senior official responsible for personnel matters in the Office of the Secretary of Defense determines that—

“(A) the foreign language proficiency pay levels established for the test program are consistent with proficiency pay levels for other functions throughout the Department of Defense; and

“(B) the terms and conditions for receiving foreign language proficiency pay conform to current policies and practices within the Department of Defense.

“(d) Report on Plan for Test Program.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the committees named in paragraph (2) a report containing a plan for the test program required in subsection (a), an explanation of the plan, and a discussion of the matters stated in subsection (c)(2). The report shall be submitted not later than April 1, 1994.

“(2) The committees referred to in paragraph (1) are—

“(A) the Committee on Armed Services and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives; and

“(B) the Committee on Armed Services and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

“(e) Period of Test Program.—(1) The test program required by subsection (a) shall begin on October 1, 1994. However, if the report required by subsection (d) is not submitted by the date specified in that subsection for the submission of the report, the test program shall begin at the end of a period of 180 days (as computed under paragraph (2)) beginning on the date on which such report is submitted.

“(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain or because of an adjournment sine die shall be excluded in the computation of such 180-day period.

“(3) The test program shall terminate two years after it begins.”

Security Clearances

Section 1041 of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress, not later than 90 days after the close of each of fiscal years 1995 through 2000, a report concerning the denial, revocation, or suspension of security clearances for Department of Defense military and civilian personnel, and for Department of Defense contractor employees, for that fiscal year.

“(b) Matter To Be Included in Report.—The Secretary shall include in each such report the following information with respect to the fiscal year covered by the report (shown separately for members of the Armed Forces, civilian officers and employees of the Department of Defense, and employees of contractors of the Department of Defense):

“(1) The number of denials, revocations, and suspensions of a security clearance, including clearance for special access programs and for sensitive compartmented information.

“(2) For cases involving the denial or revocation of a security clearance, the average period from the date of the initial determination and notification to the individual concerned of the denial or revocation of the clearance to the date of the final determination of the denial or revocation, as well as the shortest and longest period in such cases.

“(3) For cases involving the suspension of a security clearance, the average period from the date of the initial determination and notification to the individual concerned of the suspension of the clearance to the date of the final determination of the suspension, as well as the shortest and longest period of such cases.

“(4) The number of cases in which a security clearance was suspended in which the resolution of the matter was the restoration of the security clearance, and the average period for such suspensions.

“(5) The number of cases (shown only for members of the Armed Forces and civilian officers and employees of the Department of Defense) in which an individual who had a security clearance denied or revoked remained a member of the Armed Forces or a civilian officer or employee, as the case may be, at the end of the fiscal year.

“(6) The number of cases in which an individual who had a security clearance suspended, and in which no final determination had been made, remained a member of the Armed Forces, a civilian officer or employee, or an employee of a contractor, as the case may be, at the end of the fiscal year.

“(7) The number of cases in which an appeal was made from a final determination to deny or revoke a security clearance and, of those, the number in which the appeal resulted in the granting or restoration of the security clearance.”

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1183, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1774, provided that:

“(a) Review of Security Clearance Procedures.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a review of the procedural safeguards available to Department of Defense civilian employees who are facing denial or revocation of security clearances.

“(2) Such review shall specifically consider—

“(A) whether the procedural rights provided to Department of Defense civilian employees should be enhanced to include the procedural rights available to Department of Defense contractor employees;

“(B) whether the procedural rights provided to Department of Defense civilian employees should be enhanced to include the procedural rights available to similarly situated employees in those Government agencies that provide greater rights than the Department of Defense; and

“(C) whether there should be a difference between the rights provided to both Department of Defense civilian and contractor employees with respect to security clearances and the rights provided with respect to sensitive compartmented information and special access programs.

“(b) Report.—The Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the results of the review required by subsection (a) not later than March 1, 1994.

“(c) Regulations.—The Secretary shall revise the regulations governing security clearance procedures for Department of Defense civilian employees not later than May 15, 1994.”

Investigations of Deaths of Members of Armed Forces From Self-Inflicted Causes

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1185, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1774, provided that:

“(a) Secretary of Defense To Review Death Investigation Procedures.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall review the procedures of the military departments for investigating deaths of members of the Armed Forces that may have resulted from self-inflicted causes. The Secretary shall complete the review not later than June 30, 1994.

“(2) Not later than July 15, 1994, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the results of such review. The report may include any recommendations for legislation that the Secretary considers appropriate.

“(3) Not later than October 1, 1994, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations governing the investigation of deaths of members of the Armed Forces that may have resulted from self-inflicted causes. The regulations shall include a date by which the Secretaries of the military departments are required to implement the regulations.

“(b) Inspector General To Review Certain Death Investigations.—(1) Upon a request that meets the requirements of paragraph (3), the Inspector General of the Department of Defense shall review each investigation conducted by a Department of Defense investigative organization of the death of a member of the Armed Forces who, while serving on active duty during the period described in paragraph (2), died from a cause determined to be self-inflicted.

“(2) The period referred to in paragraph (1) is the period that—

“(A) begins on January 1, 1982; and

“(B) ends on the date specified in the regulations prescribed under subsection (a)(3) as the deadline for the implementation of such regulations by the Secretaries of the military departments.

“(3) Any of the family members of a member of the Armed Forces referred to in paragraph (1) may request a review under paragraph (1). The request must be received by the Secretary of the military department concerned not later than one year after the date referred to in paragraph (2)(B) and shall contain or describe specific evidence of a material deficiency in the previous investigation.

“(4) If the Inspector General determines that a previous investigation of a death was deficient in a material respect, the Inspector General shall conduct any additional investigation that the Inspector General considers necessary to determine the cause of that death.

“(5) The Inspector General shall submit to the Secretary of the military department concerned a report on the results of each review conducted under paragraph (1) and each additional investigation conducted under paragraph (4) as a result of that review.

“(6) The Secretary of the military department concerned, consistent with other applicable law, shall take such corrective actions with regard to matters contained in the report as the Secretary considers appropriate.

“(7) To the same extent that fatality reports may be furnished to family members under section 1072 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993 (Public Law 102–484; 106 Stat. 2508; 10 U.S.C. 113 note), the Inspector General, after consultation with the Secretary of the military department concerned, shall provide a copy of the Inspector General's report on the review of a death investigation to each of the family members who requested the review.

“(c) Definitions.—In this section:

“(1) The term ‘active duty’ has the meaning given such term in section 101(d)(1) of title 10, United States Code.

“(2) The term ‘family members’ has the meaning given such term in section 1072(c)(2) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993 (Public Law 102–484; 106 Stat. 2510; 10 U.S.C. 133 note [set out below]).

“(d) Applicability to Coast Guard.—The Secretary of Transportation shall implement with respect to the Coast Guard the requirements that are imposed by this section on the Secretary of Defense and the Inspector General of the Department of Defense.”

Program To Commemorate World War II

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title III, §378, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2387, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title III, §382(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2740, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense may, during fiscal years 1993 through 1996, conduct a program to commemorate the 50th anniversary of World War II and to coordinate, support, and facilitate other such commemoration programs and activities of the Federal Government, State and local governments, and other persons.

“(b) Use of Funds.—During fiscal years 1993 through 1996, funds appropriated to the Department of Defense for operation and maintenance of Defense Agencies shall be available to conduct the program referred to in subsection (a).

“(c) Program Activities.—The program referred to in subsection (a) may include activities and ceremonies—

“(1) to provide the people of the United States with a clear understanding and appreciation of the lessons and history of World War II;

“(2) to thank and honor veterans of World War II and their families;

“(3) to pay tribute to the sacrifices and contributions made on the home front by the people of the United States;

“(4) to foster an awareness in the people of the United States that World War II was the central event of the 20th century that defined the postwar world;

“(5) to highlight advances in technology, science, and medicine related to military research conducted during World War II;

“(6) to inform wartime and postwar generations of the contributions of the Armed Forces of the United States to the United States;

“(7) to recognize the contributions and sacrifices made by World War II allies of the United States; and

“(8) to highlight the role of the Armed Forces of the United States, then and now, in maintaining world peace through strength.

“(d) Authority of the Secretary.—(1) In connection with the program referred to in subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may adopt, use, and register as trademarks and service marks, emblems, signs, insignia, or words. The Secretary shall have the exclusive right to use such emblems, signs, insignia or words, subject to the preexisting rights described in paragraph (3), and may grant exclusive or nonexclusive licenses in connection therewith.

“(2) Without the consent of the Secretary of Defense, any person who uses any emblem, sign, insignia, or word adopted, used, or registered as a trademark or service mark by the Secretary in accordance with paragraph (1), or any combination or simulation thereof tending to cause confusion, to cause mistake, to deceive, or to falsely suggest a connection with the program referred to in subsection (a), shall be subject to suit in a civil action by the Attorney General, upon complaint by the Secretary of Defense, for the remedies provided in the Act of July 5, 1946, as amended (60 Stat. 427; popularly known as the Trademark Act of 1945 [1946]) (15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.).

“(3) Any person who actually used an emblem, sign, insignia, or word adopted, used, or registered as a trademark or service mark by the Secretary in accordance with paragraph (1), or any combination or simulation thereof, for any lawful purpose before such adoption, use, or registration as a trademark or service mark by the Secretary shall not be prohibited by this section from continuing such lawful use for the same purpose and for the same goods or services.

“(e) Establishment of Account.—(1) There is established in the Treasury of the United States an account to be known as the ‘Department of Defense 50th Anniversary of World War II Commemoration Account’ which shall be administered by the Secretary of Defense as a single account. There shall be deposited into the account all proceeds derived from activities described in subsection (d).

“(2) The Secretary may use the funds in the account established in paragraph (1) only for the purpose of conducting the program referred to in subsection (a).

“(3) Not later than 60 days after the termination of the authority of the Secretary to conduct the commemoration program referred to in subsection (a), the Secretary shall transmit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report containing an accounting of all the funds deposited into and expended from the account or otherwise expended under this section, and of any amount remaining in the account. Unobligated funds which remain in the account after termination of the authority of the Secretary under this section shall be held in the account until transferred by law after the Committees receive the report.

“(f) Provision of Voluntary Services.—(1) Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense may accept from any person voluntary services to be provided in furtherance of the program referred to in subsection (a).

“(2) A person providing voluntary services under this subsection shall be considered to be an employee for the purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, relating to compensation for work-related injuries. Such a person who is not otherwise employed by the Federal Government shall not be considered to be a Federal employee for any other purposes by reason of the provision of such service.

“(3) The Secretary of Defense may provide for reimbursement of incidental expenses which are incurred by a person providing voluntary services under this subsection. The Secretary of Defense shall determine which expenses are eligible for reimbursement under this paragraph.”

Review of Military Flight Training Activities at Civilian Airfields

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title III, §383, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2392, provided that:

“(a) Review Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall provide for a review of the practices and procedures of the military departments regarding the use of civilian airfields in flight training activities of the Armed Forces.

“(b) Purpose.—The purpose of the review is to determine whether the practices and procedures referred to in subsection (a) should be modified to better protect the public safety while meeting training requirements of the Armed Forces.

“(c) Special Requirement.—In the conduct of the review, particular consideration shall be given to the practices and procedures regarding the use of civilian airfields in heavily populated areas.”

Report on Actions To Reduce Disincentives for Dependents To Report Abuse by Members of Armed Forces

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VI, §653(d), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2429, provided that:

“(1) Not later than December 15, 1993, the Secretary of Defense shall transmit to the Congress a report on the actions taken and planned to be taken in the Department of Defense to reduce or eliminate disincentives for a dependent of a member of the Armed Forces abused by the member to report the abuse to appropriate authorities.

“(2) The actions considered by the Secretary should include the provision of treatment, child care services, health care services, job training, job placement services, and transitional financial assistance for dependents of members of the Armed Forces referred to in paragraph (1).”

Survivor Notification and Access to Reports Relating to Service Members Who Die

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1072, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2508, provided that:

“(a) Availability of Fatality Reports and Records.—

“(1) Requirement.—The Secretary of each military department shall ensure that fatality reports and records pertaining to any member of the Armed Forces who dies in the line of duty shall be made available to family members of the service member in accordance with this subsection.

“(2) Information to be provided after notification of death.—Within a reasonable period of time after family members of a service member are notified of the member's death, but not more than 30 days after the date of notification, the Secretary concerned shall ensure that the family members—

“(A) in any case in which the cause or circumstances surrounding the death are under investigation, are informed of that fact, of the names of the agencies within the Department of Defense conducting the investigations, and of the existence of any reports by such agencies that have been or will be issued as a result of the investigations; and

“(B) are furnished, if the family members so desire, a copy of any completed investigative report and any other completed fatality reports that are available at the time family members are provided the information described in subparagraph (A) to the extent such reports may be furnished consistent with sections 552 and 552a of title 5, United States Code.

“(3) Assistance in obtaining reports.—(A) In any case in which an investigative report or other fatality reports are not available at the time family members of a service member are provided the information described in paragraph (2)(A) about the member's death, the Secretary concerned shall ensure that a copy of such investigative report and any other fatality reports are furnished to the family members, if they so desire, when the reports are completed and become available, to the extent such reports may be furnished consistent with sections 552 and 552a of title 5, United States Code.

“(B) In any case in which an investigative report or other fatality reports cannot be released at the time family members of a service member are provided the information described in paragraph (2)(A) about the member's death because of section 552 or 552a of title 5, United States Code, the Secretary concerned shall ensure that the family members—

“(i) are informed about the requirements and procedures necessary to request a copy of such reports; and

“(ii) are assisted, if the family members so desire, in submitting a request in accordance with such requirements and procedures.

“(C) The requirement of subparagraph (B) to inform and assist family members in obtaining copies of fatality reports shall continue until a copy of each report is obtained, or access to any such report is denied by competent authority within the Department of Defense.

“(4) Waiver.—The requirements of paragraph (2) or (3) may be waived on a case-by-case basis, but only if the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that compliance with such requirements is not in the interests of national security.

“(b) Review of Combat Fatality Notification Procedures.—

“(1) Review.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a review of the fatality notification procedures used by the military departments. Such review shall examine the following matters:

“(A) Whether uniformity in combat fatality notification procedures among the military departments is desirable, particularly with respect to—

“(i) the use of one or two casualty notification and assistance officers;

“(ii) the use of standardized fatality report forms and witness statements;

“(iii) the use of a single center for all military departments through which combat fatality information may be processed; and

“(iv) the use of uniform procedures and the provision of a dispute resolution process for instances in which members of one of the Armed Forces inflict casualties on members of another of the Armed Forces.

“(B) Whether existing combat fatality report forms should be modified to include a block or blocks with which to identify the cause of death as ‘friendly fire’, ‘U.S. ordnance’, or ‘unknown’.

“(C) Whether the existing ‘Emergency Data’ form prepared by members of the Armed Forces should be revised to allow members to specify provision for notification of additional family members in cases such as the case of a divorced service member who leaves children with both a current and a former spouse.

“(D) Whether the military departments should, in all cases, provide family members of a service member who died as a result of injuries sustained in combat with full and complete details of the death of the service member, regardless of whether such details may be graphic, embarrassing to the family members, or reflect negatively on the military department concerned.

“(E) Whether, and when, the military departments should inform family members of a service member who died as a result of injuries sustained in combat about the possibility that the death may have been the result of friendly fire.

“(F) The criteria and standards which the military departments should use in deciding when disclosure is appropriate to family members of a member of the military forces of an allied nation who died as a result of injuries sustained in combat when the death may have been the result of fire from United States armed forces and an investigation into the cause or circumstances of the death has been conducted.

“(2) Report.—The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the review conducted under paragraph (1). Such report shall be submitted not later than March 31, 1993, and shall include recommendations on the matters examined in the review and on any other matters the Secretary determines to be appropriate based upon the review or on any other reviews undertaken by the Department of Defense.

“(c) Definitions.—In this section:

“(1) The term ‘fatality reports’ includes investigative reports and any other reports pertaining to the cause or circumstances of death of a member of the Armed Forces in the line of duty (such as autopsy reports, battlefield reports, and medical reports).

“(2) The term ‘family members’ means parents, spouses, adult children, and such other relatives as the Secretary concerned considers appropriate.

“(d) Applicability.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), this section applies with respect to deaths of members of the Armed Forces occurring after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992].

“(2) With respect to deaths of members of the Armed Forces occurring before the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary concerned shall provide fatality reports to family members upon request as promptly as practicable.”

Limitation on Support for United States Contractors Selling Arms Overseas

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1082, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2516, provided that:

“(a) Support for Contractors.—In the event that a United States defense contractor or industrial association requests the Department of Defense or a military department to provide support in the form of military equipment for any airshow or trade exhibition to be held outside the United States, such equipment may not be supplied unless the contractor or association agrees to reimburse the Treasury of the United States for—

“(1) all incremental costs of military personnel accompanying the equipment, including food, lodging, and local transportation;

“(2) all incremental transportation costs incurred in moving such equipment from its normally assigned location to the airshow or trade exhibition and return; and

“(3) any other miscellaneous incremental costs not included under paragraphs (1) and (2) that are incurred by the Federal Government but would not have been incurred had military support not been provided to the contractor or industrial association.

“(b) Department of Defense Exhibitions.—(1) A military department may not participate directly in any airshow or trade exhibition held outside the United States unless the Secretary of Defense—

“(A) determines that it is in the national security interests of the United States for the military department to do so; and

“(B) provides to the congressional defense committees at least 45 days before the opening of the airshow or trade exhibition a report detailing—

“(i) why the show or exhibition is in the national security interest;

“(ii) a description of the implications that promoting the sale of the weapons in question will have on arms control; and

“(iii) an estimate of any costs to be incurred.

“(2) The Secretary of Defense may not delegate the authority to make the determination referred to in paragraph (1)(A) below the level of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

“(c) Definition.—In this section, the term ‘incremental transportation cost’ includes the cost of transporting equipment to an airshow or trade exhibition only to the extent that the provision of transportation by the Department of Defense described in subsection (a)(2) does not fulfill legitimate training requirements that would otherwise have to be met.”

Overseas Military End Strength

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XIII, §1302, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2545, which provided that on and after Sept. 30, 1996, no appropriated funds may be used to support an end strength level of members of the Armed Forces of the United States assigned to permanent duty ashore in nations outside the United States at any level in excess of 60 percent of the end strength level of such members on Sept. 30, 1992, with exceptions in the event of declarations of war or emergency, was repealed and restated as section 123b of this title by Pub. L. 103–337, §1312(a), (c).

Reports on Overseas Basing

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XIII, §1304, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2546, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. B, title XXIX, §2924(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1931; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(c)(2)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 506, provided that:

“(a) Annual Report.—The Secretary of Defense shall, not later than March 31 of each year through 1997, submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives [now Committee on Armed Services of House of Representatives], either separately or as part of another relevant report, a report that specifies—

“(1) the stationing and basing plan by installation for United States military forces outside the United States;

“(2) the status of closures of United States military installations located outside the United States;

“(3) both—

“(A) the status of negotiations, if any, between the United States and the host government as to (i) United States claims for compensation for the fair market value of the improvements made by the United States at each installation referred to in paragraph (2), and (ii) any claims of the host government for damages or restoration of the installation; and

“(B) the representative of the United States in any such negotiations;

“(4) the potential savings to the United States resulting from such closures;

“(5) the cost to the United States of any improvements made at each installation referred to in paragraph (2) and the fair market value of such improvements, expressed in constant dollars based on the date of completion of the improvements;

“(6) in each case in which negotiations between the United States and a host government have resulted in an agreement for the payment to the United States by the host government of the value of improvements to an installation made by the United States, the amount of such payment, the form of such payment, and the expected date of such payment; and

“(7) efforts and progress toward achieving host nation offsets under section 1301(e) [106 Stat. 2545] and reduced end strength levels under section 1302 [set out above].

“(b) Report on Budget Implications of Overseas Basing Agreements.—Whenever the Secretary of Defense enters into a basing agreement between the United States and a foreign country with respect to United States military forces outside the United States, the Secretary of Defense shall, in advance of the signing of the agreement, submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the Federal budget implications of the agreement.”

Commission on Assignment of Women in Armed Forces

Sections 541–550 of Pub. L. 102–190 provided for the creation of a Commission on the Assignment of Women in the Armed Forces to assess the laws and policies restricting the assignment of female service members and the implications, if any, for the combat readiness of the Armed Forces of permitting female members to qualify for assignment to positions in some or all categories of combat positions, with a report to be submitted to the President no later than Nov. 15, 1992, and to the Congress no later than Dec. 15, 1992, containing recommendations as to what roles female members should have in combat and what laws and policies restricting such assignments should be repealed or modified, and further provided for powers and procedures of the Commission, personnel matters, payment of Commission expenses and other miscellaneous administrative provisions, termination of the Commission 90 days after submission of its final report, and test assignments of female service members to combat positions.

Requirements Relating to European Military Procurement Practices

Section 832 of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that:

“(a) European Procurement Practices.—The Secretary of Defense shall—

“(1) compute the total value of American-made military goods and services procured each year by European governments or companies;

“(2) review defense procurement practices of European governments to determine what factors are considered in the selection of contractors and to determine whether American firms are discriminated against in the selection of contractors for purchases by such governments of military goods and services; and

“(3) establish a procedure for discussion with European governments about defense contract awards made by them that American firms believe were awarded unfairly.

“(b) Defense Trade and Cooperation Working Group.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a defense trade and cooperation working group. The purpose of the group is to evaluate the impact of, and formulate United States positions on, European initiatives that affect United States defense trade, cooperation, and technology security. In carrying out the responsibilities of the working group, members of the group shall consult, as appropriate, with personnel in the Departments of State and Commerce and in the Office of the United States Trade Representative.

“(c) GAO Review.—The Comptroller General shall conduct a review to determine how the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization are implementing their bilateral reciprocal defense procurement memoranda of understanding with the United States. The Comptroller General shall complete the review, and submit to Congress a report on the results of the review, not later than February 1, 1992.”

Department of Defense Use of National Intelligence Collection Systems

Section 924 of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that:

“(a) Procedures for Use.—The Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence, shall prescribe procedures for regularly and periodically exercising national intelligence collection systems and exploitation organizations that would be used to provide intelligence support, including support of the combatant commands, during a war or threat to national security.

“(b) Use in Joint Training Exercises.—In accordance with procedures prescribed under subsection (a), the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall provide for the use of the national intelligence collection systems and exploitation organizations in joint training exercises to the extent necessary to ensure that those systems and organizations are capable of providing intelligence support, including support of the combatant commands, during a war or threat to national security.

“(c) Report.—Not later than May 1, 1992, the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence shall submit to the congressional defense committees, the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives a joint report—

“(1) describing the procedures prescribed under subsection (a); and

“(2) stating the assessment of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the performance in joint training exercises of the national intelligence collection systems and the Chairman's recommendations for any changes that the Chairman considers appropriate to improve that performance.”

Family Support Center for Families of Prisoners of War and Persons Missing in Action

Section 1083 of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that:

“(a) Request for Establishment.—The President is authorized and requested to establish in the Department of Defense a family support center to provide information and assistance to members of the families of persons who at any time while members of the Armed Forces were classified as prisoners of war or missing in action in Southeast Asia and who have not been accounted for. Such a support center should be located in a facility in the National Capital region.

“(b) Duties.—The center should be organized and provided with such personnel as necessary to permit the center to assist family members referred to in subsection (a) in contacting the departments and agencies of the Federal Government having jurisdiction over matters relating to such persons.”

Reports on Foreign Contributions and Costs of Operation Desert Storm

Pub. L. 102–25, title IV, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 99, directed Director of Office of Management and Budget to submit to Congress a number of reports on incremental costs associated with Operation Desert Storm and amounts of contributions made to United States by foreign countries to offset those costs, with a final report due not later than Nov. 15, 1992, and directed Secretary of State and Secretary of the Treasury to jointly submit to Congress a number of reports on contributions made by foreign countries as part of international response to Persian Gulf crisis, with a final report due not later than Nov. 15, 1992.

Child Care Assistance to Families of Members Serving on Active Duty During Persian Gulf Conflict

Pub. L. 102–25, title VI, §601, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 105, as amended by Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1063(d)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1476; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1053(8), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2502, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense may provide assistance for families of members of the Armed Forces and of members of the National Guard who served on active duty during the Persian Gulf conflict in order to ensure that the children of such families obtain needed child care services. The assistance authorized by this section should be directed primarily toward providing needed child care services for children of such personnel who are serving in the Persian Gulf area or who were otherwise deployed, assigned, or ordered to active duty in connection with Operation Desert Storm.

“(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated from the Defense Cooperation Account for fiscal year 1991 under section 101(a) [105 Stat. 78], $20,000,000 shall be available to carry out the provisions of this section. The costs of carrying out such provisions are incremental costs associated with Operation Desert Storm.

“(c) Supplementation of Other Public Funds.—Funds appropriated pursuant to subsection (b) that are made available to carry out this section may be used only to supplement, and not to supplant, the amount of any other Federal, State, or local government funds otherwise expended or authorized for the support of child care programs for members of the Armed Forces.”

Family Education and Support Services to Families of Members Serving on Active Duty in Operation Desert Storm

Pub. L. 102–25, title VI, §602, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 106, as amended by Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1063(d)(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1476, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense may provide assistance in accordance with this section to families of members of the Armed Forces and members of the National Guard who served on active duty during the Persian Gulf conflict in order to ensure that those families receive educational assistance and family support services necessary to meet needs arising out of Operation Desert Storm.

“(b) Types of Assistance.—The assistance authorized by this section may be provided to families directly or through the awarding of grants, contracts, or other forms of financial assistance to appropriate private or public entities.

“(c) Geographic Areas Assisted.—(1) Such assistance shall be provided primarily in geographic areas—

“(A) in which a substantial number of members of the active components of the Armed Forces of the United States are permanently assigned and from which a significant number of such members are being deployed, or have been deployed, in connection with Operation Desert Storm; or

“(B) from which a significant number of members of the reserve components of the Armed Forces ordered to, or retained on, active duty pursuant to section 672(a) [now 12301(a)], 672(d) [now 12301(d)], 673 [now 12302], 673b [now 12304], or 688 of title 10, United States Code, are being deployed, or have been deployed, in connection with Operation Desert Storm.

“(2) The Secretary of Defense shall determine which areas meet the criteria set out in paragraph (1).

“(d) Educational Assistance.—Educational assistance authorized by this section may be used for the furnishing of one or more of the following forms of assistance:

“(1) Individual or group counseling for children and other members of the families of members of the Armed Forces of the United States who have been deployed in connection with, or are casualties of, Operation Desert Storm.

“(2) Training and technical assistance to better prepare teachers and other school employees to address questions and concerns of children of such members of the Armed Forces.

“(3) Other appropriate programs, services, and information designed to address the special needs of children and other members of the families of members of the Armed Forces referred to in paragraph (1) resulting from the deployment, the return from deployment, or the medical or rehabilitation needs of such members.

“(e) Family Support Assistance.—Family support assistance authorized by this section may be used for the following purposes:

“(1) Family crisis intervention.

“(2) Family counseling.

“(3) Family support groups.

“(4) Expenses for volunteer activities.

“(5) Respite care.

“(6) Housing protection and advocacy.

“(7) Food assistance.

“(8) Employment assistance.

“(9) Child care.

“(10) Benefits eligibility determination services.

“(11) Transportation assistance.

“(12) Adult day care for dependent elderly and disabled adults.

“(13) Temporary housing assistance for immediate family members visiting soldiers wounded during Operation Desert Storm and receiving medical treatment at military hospitals and facilities in the United States.

“(f) Authorization of Appropriations.—Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated from the Defense Cooperation Account for fiscal year 1991 under section 101(a) [105 Stat. 78], $30,000,000 shall be available to carry out the provisions of this section. The costs of carrying out such provisions are incremental costs of Operation Desert Storm.”

Withholding of Payments to Indirect-Hire Civilian Personnel of Nonpaying Pledging Nations

Pub. L. 102–25, title VI, §608, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 112, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—Effective as of the end of the six-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 6, 1991], the Secretary of Defense shall withhold payments to any nonpaying pledging nation that would otherwise be paid as reimbursements for expenses of indirect-hire civilian personnel of the Department of Defense in that nation.

“(b) Nonpaying Pledging Nation Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘nonpaying pledging nation’ means a foreign nation that has pledged to the United States that it will make contributions to assist the United States in defraying the incremental costs of Operation Desert Shield and which has not paid to the United States the full amount so pledged.

“(c) Release of Withheld Amounts.—When a nation affected by subsection (a) has paid to the United States the full amount pledged, the Secretary of Defense shall release the amounts withheld from payment pursuant to subsection (a).

“(d) Waiver Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement in subsection (a) upon certification to Congress that the waiver is required in the national security interests of the United States.”

Programming Language for Department of Defense Software

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9070, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1918, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, where cost effective, all Department of Defense software shall be written in the programming language Ada, in the absence of special exemption by an official designated by the Secretary of Defense.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8073, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1188.

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8092, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1896.

Contributions by Japan to Support of United States Forces in Japan

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8105, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1902, as amended by Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1063(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1476, provided that:

“(a) Permanent Ceiling on United States Armed Forces in Japan.—After September 30, 1990, funds appropriated pursuant to an appropriation contained in this Act or any subsequent Act may not be used to support an end strength level of all personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States stationed in Japan at any level in excess of 50,000.

“(b) Annual Reduction in Ceiling Unless Support Furnished.—Unless the President certifies to Congress before the end of each fiscal year that Japan has agreed to offset for that fiscal year the direct costs incurred by the United States related to the presence of all United States military personnel in Japan, excluding the military personnel title costs, the end strength level for that fiscal year of all personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States stationed in Japan may not exceed the number that is 5,000 less than such end strength level for the preceding fiscal year.

“(c) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that all those countries that share the benefits of international security and stability should share in the responsibility for that stability and security commensurate with their national capabilities. The Congress also recognizes that Japan has made a substantial pledge of financial support to the effort to support the United Nations Security Council resolutions on Iraq. The Congress also recognizes that Japan has a greater economic capability to contribute to international security and stability than any other member of the international community and wishes to encourage Japan to contribute commensurate with that capability.

“(d) Exceptions.—(1) This section shall not apply in the event of a declaration of war or an armed attack on Japan.

“(2) The President may waive the limitation in this section for any fiscal year if he declares that it is in the national interest to do so and immediately informs Congress of the waiver and the reasons for the waiver.

“(e) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990].”


Section 1455 of Pub. L. 101–510 provided that:

“(a) Purpose.—It is the purpose of this section to require Japan to offset the direct costs (other than pay and allowances for United States military and civilian personnel) incurred by the United States related to the presence of United States military personnel in Japan.

“(b) Permanent Ceiling on United States Armed Forces in Japan.—Funds appropriated pursuant to an authorization contained in this Act or any subsequent Act may not be used to support an end strength level of all personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States stationed in Japan at any level in excess of 50,000.

“(c) Sense of Congress on Allied Burden Sharing.—(1) Congress recognizes that Japan has made a substantial pledge of financial support to the effort to support the United Nations Security Council resolutions on Iraq.

“(2) It is the sense of Congress that—

“(A) all countries that share the benefits of international security and stability should, commensurate with their national capabilities, share in the responsibility for maintaining that security and stability; and

“(B) given the economic capability of Japan to contribute to international security and stability, Japan should make contributions commensurate with that capability.

“(d) Negotiations.—At the earliest possible date after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990], the President shall enter into negotiations with Japan for the purpose of achieving an agreement before September 30, 1991, under which Japan offsets all direct costs (other than pay and allowances for United States military and civilian personnel) incurred by the United States related to the presence of all United States military personnel stationed in Japan.

“(e) Exceptions.—(1) This section shall not apply in the event of a declaration of war or an armed attack on Japan.

“(2) This section may be waived by the President if the President—

“(A) declares an emergency or determines that such a waiver is required by the national security interests of the United States; and

“(B) immediately informs the Congress of the waiver and the reasons for the waiver.”

National Military Strategy Reports

Section 901 of Pub. L. 101–510 provided that:

“(a) Reports by the Secretary of Defense.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a national military strategy report during each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Each such report shall be submitted with the Secretary's annual report to Congress for that year under section 113(j) of title 10, United States Code.

“(b) Matters To Be Covered in Reports.—Each such report shall cover a period of at least ten years and shall address the following:

“(1) The threats facing the United States and its allies.

“(2) The degree to which military forces can contribute to the achievement of national objectives.

“(3) The strategic military plan for applying those forces to the achievement of national objectives.

“(4) The risk to the national security of the United States and its allies that ensues.

“(5) The organization and structure of military forces to implement the strategy.

“(6) The broad mission areas for various components of the forces and the broad support requirements to implement the strategy.

“(7) The functions for which each military department should organize, train, and equip forces for the combatant commands responsible for implementing the strategy.

“(8) The priorities assigned to major weapons and equipment acquisitions and to research and development programs in order to fill the needs and eliminate deficiencies of the combatant commands.

“(c) Relationship of Plans to Budget.—The strategic military plans and other matters covered by each report shall be fiscally constrained and shall relate to the current Department of Defense Multiyear Defense Plan and resource levels projected by the Secretary of Defense to be available over the period covered by the report.

“(d) Effects of Alternative Budget Levels.—Each such report shall also include an assessment of the effect on the risk and the other components of subsection (b) in the event that (1) an additional $50,000,000,000 is available in budget authority in the fiscal year which is addressed by the budget request that the report accompanies, and (2) budget authority for that fiscal year is reduced by $50,000,000,000. For these assessments the Secretary of Defense shall make appropriate assumptions about the funds available for the remainder of the period covered by the report.

“(e) Role of Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff.—In accordance with his role as principal military adviser to the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall participate fully in the development of each such report. The Secretary of Defense shall provide the Chairman such additional guidance as is necessary to enable the Chairman to develop and recommend fiscally constrained strategic plans for the Secretary's consideration in accordance with section 153(a)(2) of title 10, United States Code. In accordance with additional responsibilities of the Chairman set out in section 153, the Chairman shall provide recommendations to the Secretary on the other components of paragraph (2).

“(f) Classification of Reports.—The reports submitted to Congress under subsection (a) shall be submitted in both classified and (to the extent practicable) unclassified versions.”

Annual Report on Balanced Technology Initiative

Section 211(e) of Pub. L. 101–189, which required Secretary of Defense to submit annual report to congressional defense committees on Balanced Technology Initiative, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1061(l), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 443.

Military Relocation Assistance Programs

Section 661 of Pub. L. 101–189, which related to establishment by Secretary of Defense of programs to provide relocation assistance to members of Armed Forces and their families, was repealed and restated in section 1056 of this title by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1481(c)(1), (3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1705.

Military Child Care

Title XV of div. A of Pub. L. 101–189, which provided that such title could be cited as the “Military Child Care Act of 1989”, and which related to funding for military child care for fiscal year 1990, child care employees, parent fees, child abuse prevention and safety at facilities, parent partnerships with child development centers, report on 5-year demand for child care, subsidies for family home day care, early childhood education demonstration program, and deadline for regulations, was repealed and restated in subchapter II (§1791 et seq.) of chapter 88 of this title by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §568(a)(1), (e)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 331, 336.

Lead Agency for Detection of Transit of Illegal Drugs

Section 1102 of Pub. L. 100–456, which designated the Department of Defense as the single lead agency of the Federal Government for detection and monitoring of aerial and maritime transit of illegal drugs into the United States, was repealed and restated as section 124 of this title by Pub. L. 101–189, §1202(a)(1), (b).

Annual Assessment of Security at United States Bases in Philippines

Section 1309 of Pub. L. 100–456 directed Secretary of Defense to submit to Congress annual reports assessing security at United States military facilities in Republic of Philippines, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1074, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2511.

Department of Defense Overseas Personnel; Actions Resulting in More Balanced Sharing of Defense and Foreign Assistance Spending Burdens by United States and Allies; Reports to Congress; Limitation on Active Duty Armed Forces Members in Japan and Republic of Korea

Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8125, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–41, as amended by Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XVI, §1623, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1606; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(j), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 408; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(f)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(14), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775, provided that:

“(a)(1) Not later than March 1, 1989, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the assignment of military missions among the member countries of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and on the prospects for the more effective assignment of such missions among such countries.

“(2) The report shall include a discussion of the following:

“(A) The current assignment of military missions among the member countries of NATO.

“(B) Military missions for which there is duplication of capability or for which there is inadequate capability within the current assignment of military missions within NATO.

“(C) Alternatives to the current assignment of military missions that would maximize the military contributions of the member countries of NATO.

“(D) Any efforts that are underway within NATO or between individual member countries of NATO at the time the report is submitted that are intended to result in a more effective assignment of military missions within NATO.

“(b) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State shall (1) conduct a review of the long-term strategic interests of the United States overseas and the future requirements for the assignment of members of the Armed Forces of the United States to permanent duty ashore outside the United States, and (2) determine specific actions that, if taken, would result in a more balanced sharing of defense and foreign assistance spending burdens by the United States and its allies. Not later than August 1, 1989, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State shall transmit to Congress a report containing the findings resulting from the review and their determinations.

“(c) [Repealed. Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(j), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 408.]

“(d) The President shall specify (separately by appropriation account) in the Department of Defense items included in each budget submitted to Congress under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, (1) the amounts necessary for payment of all personnel, operations, maintenance, facilities, and support costs for Department of Defense overseas military units, and (2) the costs for all dependents who accompany Department of Defense personnel outside the Unied [sic] States.

“(e) Not later than May 1, 1989, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services and on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report that sets forth the total costs required to support the dependents who accompany Department of Defense personnel assigned to permanent duty overseas.

“(f) As of September 30 of each fiscal year, the number of members of the Armed Forces on active duty assigned to permanent duty ashore in Japan and the Republic of Korea may not exceed 94,450 (the number of members of the Armed Forces on active duty assigned to permanent duty ashore in Japan and the Republic of Korea on September 30, 1987). The limitation in the preceding sentence may be increased if and when (1) a major reduction of United States forces in the Republic of the Philippines is required because of a loss of basing rights in that nation, and (2) the President determines and certifies to Congress that, as a consequence of such loss, an increase in United States forces stationed in Japan and the Republic of Korea is necessary.

“(g)(1) After fiscal year 1990, budget submissions to Congress under section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, shall identify funds requested for Department of Defense personnel and units in permanent duty stations ashore outside the United States that exceed the amount of such costs incurred in fiscal year 1989 and shall set forth a detailed description of (A) the types of expenditures increased, by appropriation account, activity and program; and (B) specific efforts to obtain allied host nations’ financing for these cost increases.

“(2) The Secretary of Defense shall notify in advance the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives, through existing notification procedures, when costs of maintaining Department of Defense personnel and units in permanent duty stations ashore outside the United States will exceed the amounts as defined in the Department of Defense budget as enacted for that fiscal year. Such notification shall describe: (A) the type of expenditures that increased; and (B) the source of funds (including prior year unobligated balances) by appropriation account, activity and program, proposed to finance these costs.

“(3) In computing the costs incurred for maintaining Department of Defense personnel and forces in permanent duty stations ashore outside the United States compared with the amount of such costs incurred in fiscal year 1989, the Secretary shall—

“(A) exclude increased costs resulting from increases in the rates of pay provided for members of the Armed Forces and civilian employees of the United States Government and exclude any cost increases in supplies and services resulting from inflation; and

“(B) include (i) the costs of operation and maintenance and of facilities for the support of Department of Defense overseas personnel, and (ii) increased costs resulting from any decline in the foreign exchange rate of the United States dollar.

“(h) The provisions of subsections (f) and (g) shall not apply in time of war or during a national emergency declared by the President or Congress.

“(i) In this section—

“(1) the term ‘personnel’ means members of the Armed Forces of the United States and civilian employees of the Department of Defense;

“(2) the term ‘Department of Defense overseas personnel’ means those Department of Defense personnel who are assigned to permanent duty ashore outside the United States; and

“(3) the term ‘United States’ includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States.”

Annual Report on Costs of Stationing United States Troops Overseas

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8042], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329–69, which required Secretary of Defense to submit annual report on full costs of stationing United States troops overseas, etc., was repealed and restated in subsec. (k) [now (j)] of this section by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(o).

Regulations Regarding Employment and Volunteer Work of Spouses of Military Personnel

Section 637 of Pub. L. 100–180 provided that: “Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 1987], the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to establish the policy that—

“(1) the decision by a spouse of a member of the Armed Forces to be employed or to voluntarily participate in activities relating to the Armed Forces should not be influenced by the preferences or requirements of the Armed Forces; and

“(2) neither such decision nor the marital status of a member of the Armed Forces should have an effect on the assignment or promotion opportunities of the member.”

Test Program for Reimbursement for Adoption Expenses

Section 638 of Pub. L. 100–180, as amended by Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §662, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1465; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1484(l)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1719, provided that:

“(a) Test Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a test program under which a member of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary may be reimbursed, as provided in this section, for qualifying adoption expenses incurred by the member. The Secretary of Transportation shall carry out a similar test program under which a member of the Coast Guard may be reimbursed, as provided in this section, for qualifying adoption expenses incurred by the member.

“(b) Adoptions Covered.—An adoption for which expenses may be reimbursed under this section includes an adoption by a single person, an infant adoption, an intercountry adoption, and an adoption of a child with special needs (as defined in section 473(c) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 673(c)).

“(c) Benefits Paid After Adoption is Final.—Benefits paid under this section in the case of an adoption may be paid only after the adoption is final.

“(d) Treatment of Other Benefits.—A benefit may not be paid under this section for any expense paid to or for a member of the Armed Forces under any other adoption benefits program administered by the Federal Government or under any such program administered by a State or local government.

“(e) Limitations.—(1) Not more than $2,000 may be paid to a member of the Armed Forces under this section for expenses incurred in the adoption of a child.

“(2) Not more than $5,000 may be paid to a member of the Armed Forces under this section for adoptions by such member in any calendar year.

“(f) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section with respect to members of the Armed Forces under the Secretary's jurisdiction. The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section with respect to members of the Coast Guard.

“(g) Definitions.—In this section:

“(1) The term ‘qualifying adoption expenses’ means reasonable and necessary expenses that are directly related to the legal adoption of a child under 18 years of age, but only if such adoption is arranged—

“(A) by a State or local government agency which has responsibility under State or local law for child placement through adoption;

“(B) by a nonprofit, voluntary adoption agency which is authorized by State or local law to place children for adoption; or

“(C) through a private placement.

“(2) The term ‘qualifying adoption expenses’ does not include any expense incurred—

“(A) for any travel performed outside the United States by an adopting parent, unless such travel—

“(i) is required by law as a condition of a legal adoption in the country of the child's origin, or is otherwise necessary for the purpose of qualifying for the adoption of a child;

“(ii) is necessary for the purpose of assessing the health and status of the child to be adopted; or

“(iii) is necessary for the purpose of escorting the child to be adopted to the United States or the place where the adopting member of the Armed Forces is stationed; or

“(B) in connection with an adoption arranged in violation of Federal, State, or local law.

“(3) The term ‘reasonable and necessary expenses’ includes—

“(A) public and private agency fees, including adoption fees charged by an agency in a foreign country;

“(B) placement fees, including fees charged adoptive parents for counseling;

“(C) legal fees, including court costs;

“(D) medical expenses, including hospital expenses of a newborn infant, for medical care furnished the adopted child before the adoption, and for physical examinations for the adopting parents;

“(E) expenses relating to pregnancy and childbirth for the biological mother, including counseling, transportation, and maternity home costs;

“(F) temporary foster care charges when payment of such charges is required to be made immediately before the child's placement; and

“(G) except as provided in paragraph (2)(A), transportation expenses relating to the adoption.

“(h) Duration of Test Program.—The test program under this section shall apply with respect to qualifying adoption expenses incurred for adoption proceedings initiated—

“(1) in the case of a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps, after September 30, 1987, and before October 1, 1990; and

“(2) in the case of a member of the Coast Guard, after September 30, 1989, and before October 1, 1990.”

Counterintelligence Polygraph Program

Section 1121 of Pub. L. 100–180, as amended by Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(d)(5), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1906, provided that:

“(a) Authority for Program.—The Secretary of Defense may carry out a program for the administration of counterintelligence polygraph examinations to persons described in subsection (b). The program shall be based on Department of Defense Directive 5210.48, dated December 24, 1984.

“(b) Persons Covered.—Except as provided in subsection (d), the following persons whose duties involve access to information that has been classified at the level of top secret or designated as being within a special access program under section 4.2(a) of Executive Order 12356 [set out as a note under section 435 of Title 50, War and National Defense] (or a successor Executive order) are subject to this section:

“(1) Military and civilian personnel of the Department of Defense.

“(2) Personnel of defense contractors.

“(c) Limitation on Number of Examinations.—The number of counterintelligence polygraph examinations that may be administered under this section may not exceed 5,000 during any fiscal year for which a specific number is not otherwise provided by law.

“(d) Exceptions From Coverage for Certain Intelligence Agencies and Functions.—This section does not apply—

“(1) to a person assigned or detailed to the Central Intelligence Agency or to an expert or consultant under a contract with the Central Intelligence Agency;

“(2) to (A) a person employed by or assigned or detailed to the National Security Agency, (B) an expert or consultant under contract to the National Security Agency, (C) an employee of a contractor of the National Security Agency, or (D) a person applying for a position in the National Security Agency;

“(3) to a person assigned to a space where sensitive cryptographic information is produced, processed, or stored; or

“(4) to a person employed by, or assigned or detailed to, an office within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance programs or a contractor of such an office.

“(e) Polygraph Research Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a continuing research program to support the polygraph activities of the Department of Defense. The program shall include—

“(1) an on-going evaluation of the validity of polygraph techniques used by the Department;

“(2) research on polygraph countermeasures and anti-countermeasures; and

“(3) developmental research on polygraph techniques, instrumentation, and analytic methods.

“(f) Annual Report on Polygraph Programs.—(1) Not later than January 15 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on polygraph examinations administered by or for the Department of Defense during the previous fiscal year (whether administered under this section or any other authority).

“(2) Each such report shall include the following with regard to the program authorized by subsection (a):

“(A) A statement of the number of polygraph examinations administered by or for the Department of Defense during such fiscal year.

“(B) A description of the purposes and results of such examinations.

“(C) A description of the criteria used for selecting programs and persons for such examination.

“(D) A statement of the number of persons who refused to submit to such an examination and a description of the actions taken as a result of the refusals.

“(E) A statement of the number of persons for which such an examination indicated deception and the action taken as a result of the examinations.

“(F) A detailed accounting of those cases in which more than two such examinations were needed to attempt to resolve discrepancies and those cases in which the examination of a person extended over more than one day.

“(3) Each such report shall also include the following:

“(A) A description of any plans to expand the use of polygraph examinations in the Department of Defense.

“(B) A discussion of any plans of the Secretary for recruiting and training additional polygraph operators together with statistical data on the employment turnover of Department of Defense polygraph operators.

“(C) A description of the results during the preceding fiscal year of the research program under subsection (e).

“(D) A statement of the number of polygraph examinations administered to persons described in subsection (d) (which number may be set forth in a classified annex to the report).

“(g) Repeal.—Section 1221 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1986 (Public Law 99–145; 99 Stat. 726) [not classified to the Code], is repealed.

“(h) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect as of October 1, 1987.”

Coordination of Permanent Change of Station Moves With School Year

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title VI, §612, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3878, provided that: “The Secretary of each military department shall establish procedures to ensure that, to the maximum extent practicable within operational and other military requirements, permanent change of station moves for members of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary who have dependents in elementary or secondary school occur at times that avoid disruption of the school schedules of such dependents.”

Comparable Budgeting for Similar Systems

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §955], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–173, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §955], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–173; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §955, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3953, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, which provided that in preparing the defense budget for any fiscal year, the Secretary of Defense was to specifically identify each common procurement weapon system included in the budget, take all feasible steps to minimize variations in procurement unit costs for any such system as shown in the budget requests of the different armed forces requesting procurement funds for the system, and identify and justify in the budget all such variations in procurement unit costs for common procurement weapon systems, and that the Secretary of Defense carry out this section through the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), was repealed and restated in section 2217 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(d)(3).

Annual Report to Congress on Implementation of Joint Officer Personnel Policy

Section 405 of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall include in the annual report of the Secretary to Congress under section 113(c) of title 10, United States Code (as redesignated by section 101(a)), for each year from 1987 through 1991 a detailed report on the implementation of this title and the amendments made by this title [enacting chapter 38 of this title, amending sections 601, 612, 615, 618, and 619 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 113, 612, 661, 663, and 664 of this title].”

Initial Report to Congress

Section 406(g) of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “The first report submitted by the Secretary of Defense after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 1, 1986] under section 113(c) of title 10, United States Code (as redesignated by section 101), shall contain as much of the information required by section 667 of such title (as added by section 401) as is available to the Secretary at the time of the preparation of the report.”

Security at Military Bases Abroad

Pub. L. 99–399, title XI, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 894, provided that:

“SEC. 1101. FINDINGS.

“The Congress finds that—

“(1) there is evidence that terrorists consider bases and installations of United States Armed Forces outside the United States to be targets for attack;

“(2) more attention should be given to the protection of members of the Armed Forces, and members of their families, stationed outside the United States; and

“(3) current programs to educate members of the Armed Forces, and members of their families, stationed outside of the United States to the threats of terrorist activity and how to protect themselves should be substantially expanded.

“SEC. 1102. RECOMMENDED ACTIONS BY THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE.

“It is the sense of the Congress that—

“(1) the Secretary of Defense should review the security of each base and installation of the Department of Defense outside the United States, including the family housing and support activities of each such base or installation, and take the steps the Secretary considers necessary to improve the security of such bases and installations; and

“(2) the Secretary of Defense should institute a program of training for members of the Armed Forces, and for members of their families, stationed outside the United States concerning security and antiterrorism.

“SEC. 1103. REPORT TO THE CONGRESS.

“No later than June 30, 1987, the Secretary of Defense shall report to the Congress on any actions taken by the Secretary described in section 1102.”

Surcharge for Sales by Animal Disease Prevention and Control Centers; Fee for Veterinary Services

Pub. L. 99–145, title VI, §685(a), (b), (d), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 666, provided that:

“(a) Required Surcharge.—The Secretary of Defense shall require that each time a sale is recorded at a military animal disease prevention and control center the person to whom the sale is made shall be charged a surcharge of $2.

“(b) Deposit of Receipts in Treasury.—Amounts received from surcharges under this section shall be deposited in the Treasury in accordance with section 3302 of title 31.”

“(d) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on October 1, 1985.”

Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1033, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 672, as amended by Pub. L. 98–525, title VI, §656, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2553, effective Oct. 1, 1985, required payment by a member of the Armed Forces of a $10 fee for veterinary services, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–145, title VI, §685(c), (d), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 666, effective Oct. 1, 1985.

Military Family Policy and Programs

Pub. L. 99–145, title VIII, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 678, as amended by Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title VI, §653, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3890; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VI, §635, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1106; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §524, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1975, which provided that such title could be cited as the “Military Family Act of 1985”, and which related to Office of Family Policy, transfer of Military Family Resource Center, surveys of military families, family members serving on advisory committees, employment opportunities for military spouses, youth sponsorship program, dependent student travel within United States, relocation and housing, food programs, reporting of child abuse, miscellaneous reporting requirements, and effective date, was repealed and restated in subchapter I (§1781 et seq.) of chapter 88 of this title by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §568(a)(1), (e)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 329, 336.

Academic Institutions Eligible To Provide Educational Services; Prohibition of Certain Restrictions

Pub. L. 99–145, title XII, §1212, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 726, as amended by Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title V, §518, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1443, provided that:

“(a) No solicitation, contract, or agreement for the provision of off-duty postsecondary education services for members of the Armed Forces of the United States, civilian employees of the Department of Defense, or the dependents of such members or employees may discriminate against or preclude any accredited academic institution authorized to award one or more associate degrees from offering courses within its lawful scope of authority solely on the basis of such institution's lack of authority to award a baccalaureate degree.

“(b) No solicitation, contract, or agreement for the provision of off-duty postsecondary education services for members of the Armed Forces of the United States, civilian employees of the Department of Defense, or the dependents of such members or employees, other than those for services at the graduate or postgraduate level, may limit the offering of such services or any group, category, or level of courses to a single academic institution. However, nothing in this section shall prohibit such actions taken in accordance with regulations of the Secretary of Defense which are uniform for all armed services as may be necessary to avoid unnecessary duplication of offerings, consistent with the purpose of this provision of ensuring the availability of alternative offerors of such services to the maximum extent feasible.

“(c)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a study to determine the current and future needs of members of the Armed Forces, civilian employees of the Department of Defense, and the dependents of such members and employees for postsecondary education services at overseas locations. The Secretary shall determine on the basis of the results of that study whether the policies and procedures of the Department in effect on the date of the enactment of the Department of Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 [probably means date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–189, Nov. 29, 1989] with respect to the procurement of such services are—

“(A) consistent with the provisions of subsections (a) and (b);

“(B) adequate to ensure the recipients of such services the benefit of a choice in the offering of such services; and

“(C) adequate to ensure that persons stationed at geographically isolated military installations or at installations with small complements of military personnel are adequately served.

The Secretary shall complete the study in such time as necessary to enable the Secretary to submit the report required by paragraph (2)(A) by the deadline specified in that paragraph.

“(2)(A) The Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report on the results of the study referred to in paragraph (1), together with a copy of any revisions in policies and procedures made as a result of such study. The report shall be submitted not later than March 1, 1990.

“(B) The Secretary shall include in the report an explanation of how determinations are made with regard to—

“(i) affording members, employees, and dependents a choice in the offering of courses of postsecondary education; and

“(ii) whether the services provided under a contract for such services should be limited to an installation, theater, or other geographic area.

“(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no contract for the provision of services referred to in subsection (a) may be awarded, and no contract or agreement entered into before the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Nov. 29, 1989] may be renewed or extended on or after such date, until the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the report referred to in paragraph (2)(A) is received by the committees named in that paragraph.

“(B) A contract or an agreement in effect on October 1, 1989, for the provision of postsecondary education services in the European Theater for members of the Armed Forces, civilian employees of the Department of Defense, and the dependents of such members and employees may be renewed or extended without regard to the limitation in subparagraph (A).

“(C) In the case of a contract for services with respect to which a solicitation is pending on the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Nov. 29, 1989], the contract may be awarded—

“(i) on the basis of the solicitation as issued before the date of the enactment of this paragraph;

“(ii) on the basis of the solicitation issued before the date of the enactment of this paragraph modified so as to conform to any changes in policies and procedures the Secretary determines should be made as a result of the study required under paragraph (1); or

“(iii) on the basis of a new solicitation.

“(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require more than one academic institution to be authorized to offer courses aboard a particular naval vessel.”

Report of Unobligated Balances

Pub. L. 99–145, title XIV, §1407, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 745, required reports on unobligated balances, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1307(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3981. See section 2215 of this title.

Defense Industrial Base for Textile and Apparel Products

Pub. L. 99–145, title XIV, §1456, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 762, which directed Secretary of Defense to monitor capability of domestic textile and apparel industrial base to support defense mobilization requirements and to make annual reports to Congress on status of such industrial base, was repealed and restated in section 2510 of this title by Pub. L. 101–510, §826(a)(1), (b).

Hotline Between United States and Soviet Union

Pub. L. 99–85, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 286, as amended by Pub. L. 103–199, title IV, §404(a), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2325, provided: “That the Secretary of Defense may provide to Russia, as provided in the Exchange of Notes Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Direct Communications Link Upgrade, concluded on July 17, 1984, such equipment and services as may be necessary to upgrade or maintain the Russian part of the Direct Communications Link agreed to in the Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and the Soviet Union signed June 20, 1963. The Secretary shall provide such equipment and services to Russia at the cost thereof to the United States.

Sec. 2. (a) The Secretary of Defense may use any funds available to the Department of Defense for the procurement of the equipment and providing the services referred to in the first section.

“(b) Funds received from Russia as payment for such equipment and services shall be credited to the appropriate account of Department of Defense.”

[Pub. L. 103–199, title IV, §404(b), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2325, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending section 2(b) of Pub. L. 99–85, set out above] does not affect the applicability of section 2(b) of that joint resolution to funds received from the Soviet Union.”]

Consolidation of Functions of Military Transportation Commands Prohibited

Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1110, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 747, provided that none of funds appropriated pursuant to an authorization of appropriations could be used for purpose of consolidating any functions being performed on Sept. 8, 1982, by Military Traffic Management Command of Army, Military Sealift Command of Navy, or Military Airlift Command of Air Force with any function being performed on such date by either or both of the other commands, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §213(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1018.

Reports to Congress on Recommendations With Respect to Elimination of Waste, Fraud, Abuse, and Mismanagement in Department of Defense

Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §918, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1132, directed Secretary of Defense, not later than Jan. 15, 1982 and 1983, to submit to Congress reports containing recommendations to improve efficiency and management of, and to eliminate waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement in, operation of Department of Defense, and to include each recommendation by Comptroller General since Jan. 1, 1979, for elimination of waste, fraud, abuse, or mismanagement in Department of Defense with a statement as to which have been adopted and, to extent practicable actual and projected cost savings from each, and which have not been adopted and, to extent practicable, projected cost savings from each and an explanation of why each such recommendation was not adopted.

Military Installations To Be Closed in United States, Guam, or Puerto Rico; Studies To Determine Potential Use

Pub. L. 94–431, title VI, §610, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1365, authorized Secretary of Defense to conduct studies with regard to possible use of military installations being closed and to make recommendations with regard to such installations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §912(b), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1123. See section 2391 of this title.

Reports to Congressional Committees on Foreign Policy and Military Force Structure

Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §812, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 540, which directed Secretary of Defense, after consultation with Secretary of State, to prepare and submit not later than January 31 of each year to Committees on Armed Services of Senate and House of Representatives a written annual report on foreign policy and military force structure of United States for next fiscal year, how such policy and force structure relate to each other, and justification for each, was repealed and restated as subsec. (e) of section 133 [now §113] of this title by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(1), 6(b).

Report to Congress on Sale or Transfer of Defense Articles

Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §813, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 540, as amended by Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §814, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 337; Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1104, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 739, which directed Secretary of Defense to report to Congress on any letter proposing to transfer $50,000,000 or more of defense articles, detailing impact of such a sale on readiness, adequacy of price for replacement, and armed forces needs and supply for each article, was repealed and restated as section 133b (renumbered §118 and repealed) of this title by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(2)(A), 6(b).

Procurement of Aircraft, Missiles, Naval Vessels, Tracked Combat Vehicles, and Other Weapons; Authorization of Appropriations for Procurement, Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Activities; Selected Reserve of Reserve Components: Annual Authorization of Personnel Strength

Section 412 of Pub. L. 86–149, title IV, Aug. 10, 1959, 73 Stat. 322, as amended by Pub. L. 87–436, §2, Apr. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 88–174, title VI, §610, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 329; Pub. L. 89–37, title III, §304, June 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 128; Pub. L. 90–168, §6, Dec. 1, 1967, 81 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 91–121, title IV, §405, Nov. 19, 1969, 83 Stat. 207; Pub. L. 91–441, title V, §§505, 509, Oct. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 912, 913; Pub. L. 92–129, title VII, §701, Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 362; Pub. L. 92–436, title III, §302, title VI, §604, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 736, 739, was repealed by Pub. L. 93–155, title VIII, §803(b)(1), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 615. See sections 114 to 116 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 12765. Delegation of Certain Defense Related Authorities of President to Secretary of Defense

Ex. Ord. No. 12765, June 11, 1991, 56 F.R. 27401, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and my authority as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Secretary of Defense is hereby designated and empowered, without the approval, ratification, or other action by the President, to exercise the authority vested in the President by section 749 of title 10 of the United States Code to assign the command without regard to rank in grade to any commissioned officer otherwise eligible to command when two or more commissioned officers of the same grade or corresponding grades are assigned to the same area, field command, or organization.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of Defense is hereby designated and empowered, without the approval, ratification, or other action by the President, to exercise the authority vested in the President by section 7299a(a) of title 10 of the United States Code to direct that combatant vessels and escort vessels be constructed in a Navy or private yard, as the case may be, if the requirement of the Act of March 27, 1934 (ch. 95, 48 Stat. 503) that the first and each succeeding alternate vessel of the same class be constructed in a Navy yard is inconsistent with the public interest.

Sec. 3. For vessels, and for any major component of the hull or superstructure of vessels to be constructed or repaired for any of the armed forces, the Secretary of Defense is hereby designated and empowered, without the approval, ratification, or other action by the President, to exercise the authority vested in the President by section 7309(b) of title 10 of the United States Code to authorize exceptions to the prohibition in section 7309(a) of title 10 of the United States Code. Such exceptions shall be based on a determination that it is in the national security interest of the United States to authorize an exception. The Secretary of Defense shall transmit notice of any such determination to the Congress, as required by section 7309(b).

Sec. 4. The Secretary of Defense may redelegate the authority delegated to him by this order, in accordance with applicable law.

Sec. 5. This order shall be effective immediately.

George Bush.      

Waiver of Limitation With Respect to End Strength Level of U.S. Armed Forces in Japan for Fiscal Year 1991

Memorandum of the President of the United States, May 14, 1991, 56 F.R. 23991, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense

Consistent with section 8105(d)(2) of the Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1991 (Public Law 101–511; 104 Stat. 1856) [set out above], I hereby waive the limitation in section 8105(b) which states that the end strength level for each fiscal year of all personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States stationed in Japan may not exceed the number that is 5,000 less than such end strength level for the preceding fiscal year, and declare that it is in the national interest to do so.

You are authorized and directed to inform the Congress of this waiver and of the reasons for the waiver contained in the attached justification, and to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

George Bush.      

Justification Pursuant to Section 8105(d)(2) of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law No. 101–511; 104 Stat. 1856)

In January of this year the Department of Defense signed a new Host Nation Support Agreement with the Government of Japan in which that government agreed to pay all utility and Japanese labor costs incrementally over the next five years (worth $1.7 billion). Because United States forward deployed forces stationed in Japan have regional missions in addition to the defense of Japan, we did not seek to have the Government of Japan offset all of the direct costs incurred by the United States related to the presence of all United States military personnel in Japan (excluding military personnel title costs).

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 117, 183, 487, 667, 2220, 2501, 3038, 5143, 5144, 8038, 10504 of this title; title 22 section 2595a; title 50 section 1523; title 50 App. sections 2077, 2152.

§114. Annual authorization of appropriations

(a) No funds may be appropriated for any fiscal year to or for the use of any armed force or obligated or expended for—

(1) procurement of aircraft, missiles, or naval vessels;

(2) any research, development, test, or evaluation, or procurement or production related thereto;

(3) procurement of tracked combat vehicles;

(4) procurement of other weapons;

(5) procurement of naval torpedoes and related support equipment;

(6) military construction;

(7) the operation and maintenance of any armed force or of the activities and agencies of the Department of Defense (other than the military departments);

(8) procurement of ammunition; or

(9) other procurement by any armed force or by the activities and agencies of the Department of Defense (other than the military departments);


unless funds therefor have been specifically authorized by law.

(b) In subsection (a)(6), the term “military construction” includes any construction, development, conversion, or extension of any kind which is carried out with respect to any military facility or installation (including any Government-owned or Government-leased industrial facility used for the production of defense articles and any facility to which section 2353 of this title applies), any activity to which section 2807 of this title applies, any activity to which chapter 1803 of this title applies, and advances to the Secretary of Transportation for the construction of defense access roads under section 210 of title 23. Such term does not include any activity to which section 2821 or 2854 of this title applies.

(c)(1) The size of the Special Defense Acquisition Fund established pursuant to chapter 5 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2795 et seq.) may not exceed $1,070,000,000.

(2) Notwithstanding section 37(a) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2777(a)), amounts received by the United States pursuant to subparagraph (A) of section 21(a)(1) of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2761(a)(1))—

(A) shall be credited to the Special Defense Acquisition Fund established pursuant to chapter 5 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2795 et seq.), as authorized by section 51(b)(1) of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2795(b)(1)), but subject to the limitation in paragraph (1) and other applicable law; and

(B) to the extent not so credited, shall be deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts as provided in section 3302(b) of title 31.


(d) Funds may be appropriated for the armed forces for use as an emergency fund for research, development, test, and evaluation, or related procurement or production, only if the appropriation of the funds is authorized by law after June 30, 1966.

(e) In each budget submitted by the President to Congress under section 1105 of title 31, amounts requested for procurement of equipment for the reserve components of the armed forces (including the National Guard) shall be set forth separately from other amounts requested for procurement for the armed forces.

(f) In each budget submitted by the President to Congress under section 1105 of title 31, amounts requested for procurement of ammunition for the Navy and Marine Corps, and for procurement of ammunition for the Air Force, shall be set forth separately from other amounts requested for procurement.

(Added Pub. L. 93–155, title VIII, §803(a), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 612, §138; amended Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §801(a), Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 537; Pub. L. 94–361, title III, §302, July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 924; Pub. L. 96–107, title III, §303(b), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 806; Pub. L. 96–342, title X, §1001(a)(1), (b)–(d)(1), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1117–1119; Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §102, title V, §511(4), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2840, 2920; Pub. L. 97–22, §2(b), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 124; Pub. L. 97–86, title III, §302, title IX, §§901(a), 902, 903, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1104, 1113, 1114; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §108(b), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1524; Pub. L. 97–214, §4, July 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 170; Pub. L. 97–252, title IV, §402(a), title XI, §§1103, 1105, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 725, 738, 739; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(3), (4), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2621; Pub. L. 99–145, title XII, §1208, title XIV, §1403, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 723, 743; renumbered §114 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(2), 110(b)(1)–(9), (11), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 1001, 1002; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title I, §105(d), title XIII, §1304(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3827, 3979; Pub. L. 100–26, §7(j)(1), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 282; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1203, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1154; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XVI, §1602(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1597; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1481(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(c)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1005, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2632.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1982 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
138(c)(5) 10:138 (note). Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–365, §502, 88 Stat. 404.
138(i) 10:135 (note). June 11, 1965, Pub. L. 89–37, §305, 79 Stat. 128.

In subsection (c)(5), the words “It is the sense of Congress that” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “Secretary of Defense” are substituted for “Department of Defense” the first time it appears because the responsibility is in the head of the agency. The word “Therefore” is omitted as surplus. The word “complete” is substituted for “full”, and the word “personnel” is substituted for “manpower” except in the phrase “manpower requirements”, for consistency.

In subsection (i), the words “may be . . . only if” are substituted for “No . . . may be . . . unless” to use the positive voice. The words “after June 30, 1966” are substituted for “after that date” for clarity.

References in Text

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended. Chapter 5 of the Arms Export Control Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2795 et seq.) of chapter 39 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of Title 22 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsec. (c)(2) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9017, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1133, which was set out as a note below, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, §1481(a)(2).

Prior similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 86–149, title IV, §412, Aug. 10, 1959, 73 Stat. 322, as amended by Pub. L. 87–436, §2, Apr. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 88–174, title VI, §610, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 329; Pub. L. 89–37, title III, §304, June 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 128; Pub. L. 90–168, §6, Dec. 1, 1967, 81 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 91–121, title IV, §405, Nov. 19, 1969, 83 Stat. 207; Pub. L. 91–441, title V, §§505, 509, Oct. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 912, 913; Pub. L. 92–129, title VII, §701, Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 362; Pub. L. 92–436, title III, §302, title VI, §604, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 736, 739, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–155, §803(b)(1).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “chapter 1803” for “chapter 133”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1989—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 101–189 struck out subsecs. (f) and (g) which read as follows:

“(f) The amounts of the estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations necessary to support programs, projects, and activities of the Department of Defense included pursuant to paragraph (5) of section 1105(a) of title 31 in the budget submitted to Congress by the President under such section for any fiscal year or years and the amounts specified in all program and budget information submitted to Congress by the Department of Defense in support of such estimates and proposed appropriations shall be mutually consistent unless, in the case of each inconsistency, there is included detailed reasons for the inconsistency.

“(g) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress not later than April 1 of each year, the five-year defense program (including associated annexes) used by the Secretary in formulating the estimated expenditures and proposed appropriations included in such budget to support programs, projects, and activities of the Department of Defense.”

1987—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–26 redesignated subsec. (f) as (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (f).

Pub. L. 100–26, §7(j)(1), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–180, §1203, added subsec. (g).

1986—Pub. L. 99–433, §101(a)(2), renumbered section 138 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(1), struck out “and personnel strengths for the armed forces; annual manpower requirements and operations and maintenance reports” at end of section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(3), struck out “(as defined in subsection (f))” after “military construction”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(4), (5), (8), redesignated subsec. (f)(1) as (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated section 115(a) of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–661, §1304(a), substituted “$1,070,000,000” for “$1,000,000,000”.

Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(4), (5), (11), redesignated subsec. (g) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated section 115(b) of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(4), (5), (11), redesignated subsec. (i) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated section 115(c) of this title.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(6), (7), redesignated subsec. (e) as section 116(a) of this title.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–661, §105(d), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(8), redesignated subsec. (f)(1) as (b).

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(9), redesignated subsec. (f)(2) as section 116(b) of this title.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(11), redesignated subsec. (g) as (c).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(2), redesignated subsec. (h) as section 113(i) of this title.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–433, §110(b)(11), redesignated subsec. (i) as (d).

1985—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–145, §1208, added par. (3).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–145, §1403, substituted “$1,000,000,000” for “$300,000,000 in fiscal year 1982, may not exceed $600,000,000 in fiscal year 1983, and may not exceed $900,000,000 in fiscal year 1984 or any fiscal year thereafter”.

1984—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–525 inserted “(22 U.S.C. 2795 et seq.)”.

1982—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–252, §402(a), authorized increase in fiscal year end-strength authorizations determined by the Secretary of Defense to be in the national interest.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 97–295, §1(3), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 97–214 substituted “, any activity to which section 2807 of this title applies, any activity to which chapter 133 of this title applies, and advances to the Secretary of Transportation for the construction of defense access roads under section 210 of title 23” for “but excludes any activity to which section 2673 or 2674, or chapter 133, of this title apply, or to which section 406(a) of Public Law 85–241 (42 U.S.C. 1594i) applies” and inserted provision that “military construction” does not include any activity to which section 2821 or 2854 of this title applies.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–252, §1103, limited size of Special Defense Acquisition Fund to $600,000,000 in fiscal year 1983, striking out such sum as a limit in any fiscal year thereafter, and limited size of Fund to $900,000,000 in fiscal year 1984 or any fiscal year thereafter.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–252, §1105, added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–295, §1(4), added subsec. (i).

1981—Subsec. (a)(8), (9). Pub. L. 97–86, §901(a), added pars. (8) and (9).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–86, §902, designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “authorize the average personnel strength” for “authorize the personnel strength”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(3)(D)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 97–22 struck out “and active military service” after “active commissioned service”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 97–86, §903, added par. (4).

Subsec. (e)(3), (4). Pub. L. 97–86, §302, struck out pars. (3) and (4) which required the Secretary to include in each report a projection of the combat readiness of specified military units proposed to be maintained during the next fiscal year.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–113 added subsec. (g).

1980—Pub. L. 96–342, §1001(d)(1), substituted “Annual authorization of appropriations and personnel strengths for the armed forces; annual manpower requirements and operations and maintenance reports” for “Secretary of Defense: Annual authorization of appropriations for armed forces” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–342, §1001(a)(1), (b)(1), in cl. (6) substituted reference to subsec. (f) for reference to subsec. (e), and added cl. (7).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–513, §102(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (c)(3)(D). Pub. L. 96–513, §102(b), substituted provisions relating to expanded coverage in the annual report of the Secretary of Defense for provisions under which the report had formerly covered only the estimated requirements in members on active duty during the next fiscal year, the estimated number of commissioned officers in each grade on active duty and to be promoted during the next fiscal year, and an analysis of the distribution by grade of commissioned officers on active duty at the time the report was prepared.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–342, §1001(b)(2), (3), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f)(1).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–513, §511(4), substituted “(42 U.S.C. 1594i)” for “(71 Stat. 556)” in par. (1), and substituted “In subsection (e)” for “In subsection (f)” in par. (2).

Pub. L. 96–342, §1001(b)(2), (c), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f), substituted “(1) In subsection (a)(6)” for “For purposes of subsection (a)(6) of this section”, and added par. (2).

1979—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 96–107 restructured existing provisions into subpars. (A) to (C) with minor changes in phraseology and added subpar. (D).

1976—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 94–361 required the report to Congress to identify, define, and group by mission and by region the types of military bases, installations, and facilities and to provide an explanation and justification of the relationship between the base structure and the proposed military force structure together with a comprehensive identification of base operating support costs and an evaluation of possible alternatives to reduce the costs.

1975—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 94–106, §801(a)(1), added par. (6).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–106, §801(a)(2), added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1501(c) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Dec. 1, 1994, and as if included as an amendment made by the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as originally enacted.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendments

Section 402(b) of Pub. L. 97–252 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to end strengths for active-duty personnel authorized for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1981.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–214 applicable with respect to funds appropriated for fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1983, see section 12(b) of Pub. L. 97–214, set out as a note under section 2801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 901(b) of Pub. L. 97–86 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to funds appropriated for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1982.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Amendment by section 102 of Pub. L. 96–513 effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under the amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Amendment by section 511(4) of Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513.

Section 1001(a)(2) of Pub. L. 96–342 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to funds appropriated for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1981.”

Applicability of Provisions Relating to Funds Not Heretofore Required To Be Authorized

Section 801(b) of Pub. L. 94–106 provided that: “The amendment provided by paragraph (2) of subsection (a) above [enacting subsec. (e) of this section] with respect to funds not heretofore required to be authorized shall only apply to funds authorized for appropriation for fiscal year 1977 and thereafter.”

Availability of Appropriations

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9017, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1133, which prohibited funding to be used for planning or executing programs which utilized amounts credited to the Department of Defense pursuant to section 2777(a) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, was repealed and restated in subsec. (c)(2) of this section by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1481(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1704.

The following general provisions, which had been repeated as fiscal year provisions in prior appropriation acts, were enacted as permanent law in the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1986, Pub. L. 99–190, §101(b) [title VIII, §§8005, 8006, 8009], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1185, 1202, 1203, 1204:

Sec. 8005. [Authorized use of appropriated funds for expenses in connection with administration of occupied areas; payment of rewards for information leading to discovery of missing naval property or recovery thereof; payment of deficiency judgments and interests thereon arising out of condemnation proceedings; leasing of buildings and facilities; payments under contracts for maintenance of tools and facilities for twelve months; maintenance of defense access roads; purchase of milk for enlisted personnel; payments under leases for real or personal property, including maintenance; purchase of right-hand-drive vehicles not to exceed $12,000 per vehicle; payment of unusual cost overruns incident to ship overhaul, maintenance, and repair; payments from annual appropriations to industrial fund activities and/or under contract for changes in scope of ship overhaul, maintenance, and repair after expiration of such appropriations; and payments for depot maintenance contracts for twelve months; and was repealed and (except for section 8005(e)) restated in sections 2242(2), 2252, 2253(a)(2), 2389(b), 2410a, 2661(b), and 7313 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(e)(1), (h)(1), (2), (l)(3), (n)(1), (p)(3), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 844, 847, 849–851. Section 8005(c) was not restated in view of section 2676(e) of this title.]

Sec. 8006. [Authorized use of appropriated funds for military courts, boards, and commissions; utility services for buildings erected at private cost and buildings on military reservations authorized by regulations to be used for welfare and recreational purposes; and exchange fees, and losses in accounts of disbursing officers or agents; and was repealed and restated in sections 2242(3), 2490, and 2781 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(e)(1), (j)(1), (m)(1), (p)(3), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 844, 848, 849, 851.]

Sec. 8009. [Provided for exemption from apportionment requirement; exceptions for cost of airborne alerts and cost of increased military personnel on active duty; and for reports to Congress; and was repealed and restated in section 2201 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(d)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 841.]”

The following general provisions, that had been repeated as fiscal year provisions in prior appropriation acts, were enacted as permanent law in the Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1984, Pub. L. 98–212, title VII, §§705–707, 723, 728, 735, 774, Dec. 8, 1983, 97 Stat. 1437, 1438, 1443, 1444, 1452:

“Sec. 705. [Authorized use of appropriated funds for insurance of official motor vehicles in foreign countries; advance payments for investigations in foreign countries; security guard services for protection of confidential files; and other necessary expenses; and was repealed and restated in sections 2241(b), 2242(1), (4), and 2253(a)(1) of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(e)(1), (p)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 844, 851.]

“Sec. 706. [Authorized use of appropriated funds for expenses incident to maintenance, pay, and allowances of prisoners of war, other persons in Army, Navy, or Air Force custody whose status was determined by Secretary concerned to be similar to prisoners of war, and persons detained in such custody pursuant to Presidential proclamation, and was repealed by Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §§1403(a)(1), 1404, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2621, effective Oct. 1, 1985. See section 956(5) of this title.]

“Sec. 707. [Authorized use of appropriated funds for acquisition of certain interests in land, and was repealed and restated in sections 2673 and 2828(h) of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(l)(1), (2), (p)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 849, 851.]

“Sec. 723. [Authorized use of appropriated funds for purchase of household furnishings, and automobiles from military and civilian personnel on duty outside continental United States, for purpose of resale at cost to incoming personnel, and for providing furnishings, without charge, in other than public quarters occupied by military or civilian personnel of Department of Defense on duty outside continental United States or in Alaska, and was repealed and restated in section 2251 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(e)(1), (p)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 844, 851.]

“Sec. 728. [Prohibited use of appropriated funds for payment of costs of advertising by any defense contractor, except advertising for which payment is made from profits, provided exemptions for advertising for personnel recruitment, procurement of scarce required items, and disposal of scrap or surplus materials, and was repealed by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(p)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 851. See section 2324(e)(1)(H) of this title.]

“Sec. 735. [Authorized use of appropriated funds for operation and maintenance of the active forces for welfare and recreation; hire of passenger motor vehicles; repair of facilities; modification of personal property; design of vessels; industrial mobilization; installation of equipment in public and private plants; military communications facilities on merchant vessels; acquisition of services, special clothing, supplies, and equipment; and expenses for the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps and other units at educational institutions was amended by Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §§1403(a)(2), 1404, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2621, eff. Oct. 1, 1985, and was repealed and restated in sections 2241(a) and 2661(a) of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(e)(1), (l)(3), (p)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 844, 849, 851.]

“Sec. 774. During the current fiscal year and subsequent fiscal years, for the purposes of the appropriation ‘Foreign Currency Fluctuations, Defense’ the foreign currency exchange rates used in preparing budget submissions shall be the foreign currency exchange rates as adjusted or modified, as reflected in applicable Committee reports on this Act.”

Withdrawal of United States Ground Forces From Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title XII, §§1203, 1206, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1929, 1932, provided that:

“SEC. 1203. WITHDRAWAL OF UNITED STATES GROUND FORCES FROM REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.

“(a) Limitation.—No funds appropriated or otherwise made available for the Department of Defense for fiscal year 1998 or any subsequent fiscal year may be used for the deployment of any United States ground combat forces in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina after June 30, 1998, unless the President, not later than May 15, 1998, and after consultation with the bipartisan leadership of the two Houses of Congress, transmits to Congress a certification—

“(1) that the continued presence of United States ground combat forces, after June 30, 1998, in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is required in order to meet the national security interests of the United States; and

“(2) that after June 30, 1998, it will remain United States policy that United States ground forces will not serve as, or be used as, civil police in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

“(b) Report.—The President shall submit with the certification under subsection (a) a report that includes the following:

“(1) The reasons why that presence is in the national security interest of the United States.

“(2) The number of United States military personnel to be deployed in and around the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and other areas of the former Yugoslavia after that date.

“(3) The expected duration of any such deployment.

“(4) The mission and objectives of the United States Armed Forces to be deployed in and around the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and other areas of the former Yugoslavia after June 30, 1998.

“(5) The exit strategy of such forces.

“(6) The incremental costs associated with any such deployment.

“(7) The effect of such deployment on the morale, retention, and effectiveness of United States armed forces.

“(8) A description of the forces from other nations involved in a follow-on mission, shown on a nation-by-nation basis.

“(9) A description of the command and control arrangement established for United States forces involved in a follow-on mission.

“(10) An assessment of the expected threats to United States forces involved in a follow-on mission.

“(11) The plan for rotating units and personnel to and from the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina during a follow-on mission, including the level of participation by reserve component units and personnel.

“(12) The mission statement and operational goals of the United States forces involved in a follow-on mission.

“(c) Request for Supplemental Appropriations.—The President shall transmit to Congress with a certification under subsection (a) a supplemental appropriations request for the Department of Defense for such amounts as are necessary for the costs of any continued deployment beyond June 30, 1998.

“(d) Construction With President's Constitutional Authority.—Nothing in this section shall be deemed to restrict the authority of the President under the Constitution to protect the lives of United States citizens.

“(e) Construction With Appropriations Provision.—The provisions of this section are enacted, and shall be applied, as supplemental to (and not in lieu of) the provisions of section 8132 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105–56) [111 Stat. 1250].

“SEC. 1206. DEFINITIONS.

“As used in this subtitle [subtitle A (§§1201–1206) of title XII of div. A of Pub. L. 105–85, enacting this note]:

“(1) Dayton peace agreement.—The term ‘Dayton Peace Agreement’ means the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, initialed by the parties in Dayton, Ohio, on November 21, 1995, and signed in Paris on December 14, 1995.

“(2) Implementation force.—The term ‘Implementation Force’ means the NATO-led multinational military force in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (commonly referred to as ‘IFOR’), authorized under the Dayton Peace Agreement.

“(3) Stabilization force.—The term ‘Stabilization Force’ means the NATO-led follow-on force to the Implementation Force in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and other countries in the region (commonly referred to as ‘SFOR’), authorized under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1088 (December 12, 1996).

“(4) Follow-on mission.—The term ‘follow-on mission’ means a mission involving the deployment of ground elements of the United States Armed Forces in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina after June 30, 1998 (other than as described in section 1203(b)).

“(5) NATO.—The term ‘NATO’ means the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.”

Budget Determination by Director of OMB

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLV, §4501, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2769, provided that:

“(a) Requirement for Determination.—An amount made available under this Act [see Tables for classification] for a program described in subsection (b) may be obligated for that program only if expenditures for that program have been determined by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to be counted against the defense category of the discretionary spending limits for fiscal year 1993 (as defined in section 601(a)(2) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 [2 U.S.C. 665(a)(2)]) for purposes of part C of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 [2 U.S.C. 900 et seq.].

“(b) Covered Programs.—The programs referred to in subsection (a) are the programs under title XLIII [enacting section 2552 of this title, amending section 2391 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2391 of this title] and subtitles D through G of title XLIV [§§4441 to 4497, enacting sections 1143a, 1151, 1598, 2410c, and 2410d of this title and section 1662d–1 of Title 29, Labor, amending sections 1142 and 1144 of this title and sections 1551, 1661, 1661c, and 1662d of Title 29, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1143, 1143a, 2410d, 2501, 2504, and 2701 of this title and section 1662d–1 of Title 29].

“(c) Effect on Appropriations for Programs Not Counted Against Defense Category.—(1) Not later than the third day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992], the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make a determination as to the classification by discretionary spending limit category for purposes of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 [see Short Title note set out under section 900 of Title 2, The Congress] of amounts appropriated for fiscal year 1993 for each of the programs described in subsection (b). If the Director determines that any such amount shall not classify against the defense category, then the President shall submit to Congress a report listing all such amounts that the Director has determined will not classify against the defense category (as described in subsection (a)). Such report shall contain an explanation for each such determination.

“(2) All amounts listed in the report under paragraph (1) may be transferred only to the programs under titles XLII, XLIII, and XLIV [see Tables for classification] that are classified against the defense category by virtue of the report of the President submitted under paragraph (1) pursuant to amounts specified in appropriation Acts. Any such transfer shall be taken into account for purposes of calculating all reports under section 254 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 [2 U.S.C. 904].”

Classified Annex

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1002, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1202, provided that:

“(a) Status of Classified Annex.—The Classified Annex prepared by the committee of conference to accompany the conference report on the bill S. 1438 of the One Hundred Seventh Congress [Pub. L. 107–107] and transmitted to the President is hereby incorporated into this Act [see Tables for classification].

“(b) Construction With Other Provisions of Act.—The amounts specified in the Classified Annex are not in addition to amounts authorized to be appropriated by other provisions of this Act.

“(c) Limitation on Use of Funds.—Funds appropriated pursuant to an authorization contained in this Act that are made available for a program, project, or activity referred to in the Classified Annex may only be expended for such program, project, or activity in accordance with such terms, conditions, limitations, restrictions, and requirements as are set out for that program, project, or activity in the Classified Annex.

“(d) Distribution of Classified Annex.—The President shall provide for appropriate distribution of the Classified Annex, or of appropriate portions of the annex, within the executive branch of the Government.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior authorization or appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1002], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–245.

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1002, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 732.

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1002, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2111.

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1002, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1868.

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1002, Sept. 23, 1998, 110 Stat. 2631.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1002, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 414.

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1003, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2834.

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8084, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2637.

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1103, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1749.

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8108, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1464.

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1006, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2482.

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9126, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1931.

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1005, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1457.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8124, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1206.

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8111, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1904.

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1409, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1681.

Budget Act Limitation

Section 1304(b) of Pub. L. 99–661 provided that: “New spending authority (as defined in section 401(c)(2) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 [2 U.S.C. 651(c)(2)]) provided by the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective for any fiscal year only to the extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts.”

Limitation on Source of Funds for Nicaraguan Democratic Resistance

Section 1351 of Pub. L. 99–661, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1063(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 444, provided that: “Notwithstanding title II of the Military Construction Appropriations Act, 1987 [Pub. L. 99–500, §101(k) [title II], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–287, 1783–295, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(k) [title II], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–287, 3341–295], or any other provision of law, funds appropriated or otherwise made available to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year for operation and maintenance may not be used to provide assistance for the democratic resistance forces in Nicaragua. If funds appropriated or otherwise made available to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year are authorized by law to be used for such assistance, funds for such purpose may only be derived from amounts appropriated or otherwise made available to the Department for procurement (other than ammunition).”

Use of Appropriated Funds To Support Revenue Generating Activities in Large Metropolitan Areas Prohibited

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9102], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–118, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9102], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–118, which provided that after Sept. 30, 1987, no appropriated funds could be used to support revenue generating morale, welfare, and recreation activities in large metropolitan areas, was repealed by Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8099], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329–78.

Transfer of Operation and Maintenance Appropriations Unobligated Balances to Foreign Currency Fluctuations, Defense, Appropriation

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §791], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1865, which provided that no later than end of second fiscal year following fiscal year for which appropriations for Operation and Maintenance have been made available to Department of Defense, unobligated balances of such appropriations provided for fiscal year 1982 and thereafter could be transferred into appropriation “Foreign Currency Fluctuations, Defense” to be merged with and available for same time period and same purposes as appropriation to which transferred, except that any transfer made pursuant to any use of this authority was limited so that amount in appropriation did not exceed $970,000,000 at time of transfer, was repealed and restated in section 2779(d) of this title by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §911(b), (d)(2), (f), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 406, 407, applicable only with respect to amounts appropriated for a fiscal year after fiscal year 1995.

Waiver of Applicability of OMB Circular A–76 to Contracting Out of Certain Research and Development Activities

Section 802 of Pub. L. 96–107 provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), neither the implementing instructions for, nor the provisions of, Office of Management and Budget Circular A–76 (issued on August 30, 1967, and reissued on October 18, 1976, June 13, 1977, and March 29, 1979) shall control or be used for policy guidance for the obligation or expenditure of any funds which under section 138(a)(2) [now 114(a)(2)] of title 10, United States Code, are required to be specifically authorized by law.

“(b) Funds which under section 138(a)(2) [now 114(a)(2)] of title 10, United States Code, are required to be specifically authorized by law may be obligated or expended for operation or support of installations or equipment used for research and development (including maintenance support of laboratories, operation and maintenance of test ranges, and maintenance of test aircraft and ships) in compliance with the implementing instructions for and the provisions of such Office of Management and Budget Circular.

“(c) No law enacted after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 9, 1979] shall be held, considered, or construed as amending, superseding, or otherwise modifying any provision of this section unless such law does so by specifically and explicitly amending, repealing, or superseding this section.”

Manpower Conversion Policies; Development for Annual Manpower Authorization Requests; Justification for Conversion To Be Contained in Annual Manpower Requirements Report to Congress

Pub. L. 93–365, title V, §502, Aug. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 404, which provided that it was the sense of Congress that the Department of Defense use the least costly form of manpower consistent with military requirements and other needs of the Department of Defense, that in developing the annual manpower authorization requests to the Congress and in carrying out manpower policies, the Secretary of Defense was to consider the advantages of converting from one form of manpower to another (military, civilian, or private contract) for the performance of a specified job, and that a full justification of any conversion from one form of manpower to another be contained in the annual manpower requirements report to the Congress required by subsec. (c)(3) of this section, was repealed and restated as subsec. (c)(5) of this section by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(3), 6(b).

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 2431, 2561, 2608 of this title; title 22 section 2795.

[§114a. Renumbered §221]

§115. Personnel strengths: requirement for annual authorization

(a) Congress shall authorize personnel strength levels for each fiscal year for each of the following:

(1) The end strength for each of the armed forces (other than the Coast Guard) for (A) active-duty personnel who are to be paid from funds appropriated for active-duty personnel, and (B) active-duty personnel and full-time National Guard duty personnel who are to be paid from funds appropriated for reserve personnel.

(2) The end strength for the Selected Reserve of each reserve component of the armed forces.


(b) No funds may be appropriated for any fiscal year to or for—

(1) the use of active-duty personnel or full-time National Guard duty personnel of any of the armed forces (other than the Coast Guard) unless the end strength for such personnel of that armed force for that fiscal year has been authorized by law; or

(2) the use of the Selected Reserve of any reserve component of the armed forces unless the end strength for the Selected Reserve of that component for that fiscal year has been authorized by law.


(c) Upon determination by the Secretary of Defense that such action is in the national interest, the Secretary may—

(1) increase the end strength authorized pursuant to subsection (a)(1)(A) for a fiscal year for any of the armed forces by a number equal to not more than 2 percent of that end strength;

(2) increase the end strength authorized pursuant to subsection (a)(1)(B) for a fiscal year for any of the armed forces by a number equal to not more than 2 percent of that end strength; and

(3) vary the end strength authorized pursuant to subsection (a)(2) for a fiscal year for the Selected Reserve of any of the reserve components by a number equal to not more than 2 percent of that end strength.


(d) In counting active-duty personnel for the purpose of the end-strengths authorized pursuant to subsection (a)(1), persons in the following categories shall be excluded:

(1) Members of the Ready Reserve ordered to active duty under section 12302 of this title.

(2) Members of the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve ordered to active duty under section 12304 of this title.

(3) Members of the National Guard called into Federal service under section 12406 of this title.

(4) Members of the militia called into Federal service under chapter 15 of this title.

(5) Members of reserve components on active duty for training.

(6) Members of reserve components on active duty for 180 days or less to perform special work.

(7) Members on full-time National Guard duty for 180 days or less.

(8) Members of the Selected Reserve of the Ready Reserve on active duty for more that 180 days to support programs described in section 1203(b) of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993 (title XII of Public Law 103–160; 22 U.S.C. 5952(b)).

(9) Members of reserve components (not described in paragraph (8)) on active duty for more than 180 days but less than 271 days to perform special work in support of the combatant commands, except that—

(A) general and flag officers may not be excluded under this paragraph; and

(B) the number of members of any of the armed forces excluded under this paragraph may not exceed the number equal to 0.2 percent of the end strength authorized for active-duty personnel of that armed force under subsection (a)(1)(A).


(10) Members of reserve components on active duty to prepare for and to perform funeral honors functions for funerals of veterans in accordance with section 1491 of this title.

(11) Members on full-time National Guard duty to prepare for and perform funeral honors functions for funerals of veterans in accordance with section 1491 of this title.


(e) The authorized strength of the Navy under subsection (a)(1) is increased by the authorized strength of the Coast Guard during any period when the Coast Guard is operating as a service in the Navy.

[(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1061(c)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 442.]

(g) Congress shall authorize for each fiscal year the end strength for military technicians (dual status) for each reserve component of the Army and Air Force. Funds available to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year may not be used for the pay of a military technician (dual status) during that fiscal year unless the technician fills a position that is within the number of such positions authorized by law for that fiscal year for the reserve component of that technician. This subsection applies without regard to section 129 of this title. In each budget submitted by the President to Congress under section 1105 of title 31, the end strength requested for military technicians (dual status) for each reserve component of the Army and Air Force shall be specifically set forth.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1483(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1710; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title III, §312(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1335; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §§401(c), 415, title V, §513(a)(1), title X, §1061(c), title XV, §1501(c)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 286, 288, 305, 442, 498; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IV, §413(b), title V, §522(i)(1), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1720, 1736; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IV, §415, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §422], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–96; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §§421(a), 422, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1076, 1077.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 115, added Pub. L. 93–155, title VIII, §803(a), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 612, §138(b)–(d); amended Pub. L. 94–361, title III, §302, July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 924; Pub. L. 96–107, title III, §303(b), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 806; Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §102, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2840; Pub. L. 97–22, §2(b), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 124; Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §§902, 903, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1113, 1114; Pub. L. 97–252, title IV, §402(a), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 725; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(3), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 99–145, title XII, §1208, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 723; renumbered §115 Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(2), 110(b)(4), (5), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 1002; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IV, §§411(c) [(d)], 413, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3861, 3862; Pub. L. 100–26, §7(j)(2), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 283; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VI, §641, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1987, related to annual authorization of personnel strengths and annual manpower requirements reports, prior to repeal and reenactment as sections 115, 115a, 115b [now 10541], 123a, and 129a of this title by Pub. L. 101–510, §1483(a), (b).

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–107, §421(a), substituted “2 percent” for “1 percent”.

Subsec. (d)(10), (11). Pub. L. 107–107, §422, added pars. (10) and (11).

2000—Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 106–398 added par. (9).

1999—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106–65 added par. (3).

1997—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–85, §522(i)(1), inserted “(dual status)” after “military technicians” in first sentence and after “military technician” in second sentence.

Pub. L. 105–85, §413(b), inserted at end “In each budget submitted by the President to Congress under section 1105 of title 31, the end strength requested for military technicians (dual status) for each reserve component of the Army and Air Force shall be specifically set forth.”

1996—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(c)(1), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “The average military training student loads for each of the armed forces (other than the Coast Guard).”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(c)(2), inserted “or” at end of par. (1), substituted a period for “; or” at end of par. (2), and struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “training military personnel in the training categories described in subsection (f) of any of the armed forces (other than the Coast Guard) unless the average student load of that armed force for that fiscal year has been authorized by law.”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §401(c), substituted “1 percent” for “0.5 percent”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(c)(3)(A), substituted “section 12302” for “section 673”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(c)(3)(B), substituted “section 12304” for “section 673b”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 104–106, §1501(c)(3)(C), substituted “section 12406” for “section 3500 or 8500”.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 104–106, §415, added par. (8).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(c)(3), struck out subsec. (f) which read as follows: “Authorization under subsection (a)(3) is not required for unit or crew training student loads, but is required for student loads for the following individual training categories:

“(1) Recruit and specialized training.

“(2) Flight training.

“(3) Professional training in military and civilian institutions.

“(4) Officer acquisition training.”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–106, §513(a)(1), added subsec. (g).

1991—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–190, §312(a)(1), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “The end strength for civilian personnel for each component of the Department of Defense.”

Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 102–190, §312(a)(2), inserted “or” at end of par. (2), substituted a period for “; or” at end of par. (3), and struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “the use of the civilian personnel of any component of the Department of Defense unless the end strength for civilian personnel of that component for that fiscal year has been authorized by law.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 513(a)(2) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] does not apply with respect to fiscal year 1995.”

Section 1501(c) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Dec. 1, 1994, and as if included as an amendment made by the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as originally enacted.

Authorization for Increase in Active-Duty End Strengths for Fiscal Year 1996

Section 432 of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that:

“(a) Authorization.—There is hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Defense for fiscal year 1996 for military personnel the sum of $112,000,000. Any amount appropriated pursuant to this section shall be allocated, in such manner as the Secretary of Defense prescribes, among appropriations for active-component military personnel for that fiscal year and shall be available only to increase the number of members of the Armed Forces on active duty during that fiscal year (compared to the number of members that would be on active duty but for such appropriation).

“(b) Effect on End Strengths.—The end-strength authorizations in section 401 [set out below] shall each be deemed to be increased by such number as necessary to take account of additional members of the Armed Forces authorized by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to subsection (a).”

Minimum Number of Military Technicians

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §413, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1070, provided that: “The minimum number of military technicians (dual status) as of the last day of fiscal year 2002 for the reserve components of the Army and the Air Force (notwithstanding section 129 of title 10, United States Code) shall be the following:

“(1) For the Army Reserve, 6,249.

“(2) For the Army National Guard of the United States, 23,615.

“(3) For the Air Force Reserve, 9,818.

“(4) For the Air National Guard of the United States, 22,422.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior authorization acts:

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §413], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–93.

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IV, §413, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 586.

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §413, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1997.

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IV, §413(a), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1720.

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §413(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2507.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §513(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 305.

Comptroller General Review of Proposed Army End Strength Allocations

Pub. L. 104–106, title V, §552, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 319, provided that, during fiscal years 1996 through 2001, the Comptroller General was (1) to analyze the plans of the Secretary of the Army for the allocation of assigned active component end strengths for the Army through the requirements process known as Total Army Analysis 2003 and through any subsequent similar requirements process of the Army that was conducted before 2002, (2) to consider whether the proposed active component end strengths and planned allocation of forces for that period was sufficient to implement the national military strategy, and (3) to submit to Congress an annual report by Mar. 1 of each year through 2002 on the Comptroller General's findings and conclusions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §595, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1126.

Effect of Reserve Component on Computation of End Strength Limitation for Active Forces for Fiscal Year 1995

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XIII, §1316(c), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2899, provided that a member of a reserve component who is on active duty under a call or order to active duty for 180 days or more for activities under section 168 of this title shall not be counted (under section 115(a)(1) of this title) against the applicable end strength limitation for members of the Armed Forces on active duty for fiscal year 1995 prescribed in section 401 of Pub. L. 103–337, formerly set out below.

End Strengths for Active Forces

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §401, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1069, provided that: “The Armed Forces are authorized strengths for active duty personnel as of September 30, 2002, as follows:

“(1) The Army, 480,000.

“(2) The Navy, 376,000.

“(3) The Marine Corps, 172,600.

“(4) The Air Force, 358,800.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior authorization acts:

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §401], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–92.

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IV, §401, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 585.

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §401, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1995.

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IV, §401, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1719.

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §401, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2503.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §401(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 285.

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §401, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2743.

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IV, §§401, 403, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1639, 1640.

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IV, §§401, 402, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2397.

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IV, §401, title VI, §664, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1349, 1399.

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IV, §§401, 402, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1543, 1544; Pub. L. 102–25, title II, §§201(a), 202, 205(a), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 79, 80; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(c)(4)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 507.

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IV, §401, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1431, as amended by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IV, §401(d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1544.

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title IV, §401, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1963.

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title IV, §401, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1081.

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IV, §401, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3859.

Pub. L. 99–145, title IV, §401, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 618.

Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §401, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2516.

Pub. L. 98–94, title IV, §401, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 629.

Pub. L. 97–252, title IV, §401, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 725.

Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §401, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1104, as amended by Pub. L. 97–252, title IX, §903, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 729.

Pub. L. 96–342, title III, §301, Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1082, as amended by Pub. L. 97–39, title III, §301, Aug. 14, 1981, 95 Stat. 940.

Pub. L. 96–107, title III, §301, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 806.

Pub. L. 95–485, title III, §301, Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1613.

Pub. L. 95–79, title III, §301, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 326.

Pub. L. 94–361, title III, §301, July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 924.

Pub. L. 94–106, title III, §301, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 532.

Pub. L. 93–365, title III, §301, Aug. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 401.

Pub. L. 93–155, title III, §301, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 607.

Pub. L. 92–436, title III, §301, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 735.

Minimum Number of Navy Health Professions Officers

Section 718(b) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that, of the total number of officers authorized to be serving on active duty in Navy on last day of a fiscal year, 12,510 were to be available only for assignment to duties in health profession specialties, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §564(d)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 327.

Limitations on Reductions in Medical Personnel

Section 711 of Pub. L. 101–510, as amended by Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VII, §718(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1404, prohibited Secretary of Defense from reducing number of medical personnel of Department of Defense below baseline number unless Secretary certified to Congress that number of such personnel being reduced was excess to current and projected needs of military departments, and such reduction would not result in increase in cost of health care services provided under Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services, and, in case of military medical personnel, included in certification information on strength levels for individual category of medical personnel involved in reduction as of Sept. 30, 1989, projected requirements of Department over 5-fiscal year period following fiscal year in which certification was submitted for medical personnel in category of medical personnel involved, and strength level recommended for each component of Armed Forces for most recent fiscal year for which Secretary submitted recommendations pursuant to section 115a(g)(1) of this title for personnel in category of medical personnel involved, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §564(d)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 327. See section 129c of this title.

Operation Desert Shield Increase in End Strengths of Active Duty Personnel; Authority; Certification

Section 1117 of Pub. L. 101–510, authorized Secretary of Defense, after determining that operational requirements of Operation Desert Shield so require, to increase the end strengths of active duty personnel for fiscal year 1991 by an amount not greater than 0.5 percent of the total end strengths authorized by section 401 of Pub. L. 101–510, set out above, and required certification by Secretary to Committees on Armed Services of Senate and House of Representatives of necessity of such increase, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–25, title II, §204, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 80.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 168, 691, 3201, 8062, 10216, 12310, 16132 of this title.

§115a. Annual manpower requirements report

(a) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress an annual manpower requirements report. The report, which shall be in writing, shall be submitted each year not later than 45 days after the date on which the President submits to Congress the budget for the next fiscal year under section 1105 of title 31. The report shall contain the Secretary's recommendations for—

(1) the annual active-duty end-strength level for each component of the armed forces for the next fiscal year; and

(2) the annual civilian personnel end-strength level for each component of the Department of Defense for the next fiscal year.


(b)(1) The Secretary shall include in each report under subsection (a) justification for the strength levels recommended and an explanation of the relationship between the personnel strength levels recommended for that fiscal year and the national security policies of the United States in effect at the time.

(2) The justification and explanation shall specify in detail for all major military force units (including each land force division, carrier and other major combatant vessel, air wing, and other comparable unit) the following:

(A) Unit mission and capability.

(B) Strategy which the unit supports.


(3) The justification and explanation shall also specify in detail the manpower required to perform the medical missions of each of the armed forces and of the Department of Defense.

(c) The Secretary shall include in each report under subsection (a) a detailed discussion of the following:

(1) The manpower required for support and overhead functions within the armed forces and the Department of Defense.

(2) The relationship of the manpower required for support and overhead functions to the primary combat missions and support policies.

(3) The manpower required to be stationed or assigned to duty in foreign countries and aboard vessels located outside the territorial limits of the United States, its territories, and possessions.


(d) The Secretary shall also include in each such report, with respect to each armed force under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department, the following:

(1) The number of positions that require warrant officers or commissioned officers serving on active duty in each of the officer grades during the current fiscal year and the estimated number of such positions for each of the next five fiscal years.

(2) The estimated number of officers that will be serving on active duty in each grade on the last day of the current fiscal year and the estimated numbers of officers that will be needed on active duty on the last day of each of the next five fiscal years.

(3) An estimate and analysis for the current fiscal year and for each of the next five fiscal years of gains to and losses from the number of members on active duty in each officer grade, including a tabulation of—

(A) retirements displayed by year of active commissioned service;

(B) discharges;

(C) other separations;

(D) deaths;

(E) promotions; and

(F) reserve and regular officers ordered to active duty.


(e)(1) In each such report, the Secretary shall also include recommendations for the end-strength levels for medical personnel for each component of the armed forces as of the end of the next fiscal year.

(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term “medical personnel” includes—

(A) in the case of the Army, members of the Medical Corps, Dental Corps, Nurse Corps, Medical Service Corps, Veterinary Corps, and Army Medical Specialist Corps;

(B) in the case of the Navy, members of the Medical Corps, Dental Corps, Nurse Corps, and Medical Service Corps;

(C) in the case of the Air Force, members designated as medical officers, dental officers, Air Force nurses, medical service officers, and biomedical science officers;

(D) enlisted members engaged in or supporting medically related activities; and

(E) such other personnel as the Secretary considers appropriate.


[(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1061(d)(4), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 442.]

[(g) Redesignated (e)]

(h) In each such report, the Secretary shall include a separate report on the Army and Air Force military technician programs. The report shall include a presentation, shown by reserve component and shown both as of the end of the preceding fiscal year and for the next fiscal year, of the following (displayed in the aggregate and separately for military technicians (dual status) and non-dual status military technicians):

(1) The number of military technicians required to be employed (as specified in accordance with Department of Defense procedures), the number authorized to be employed under Department of Defense personnel procedures, and the number actually employed.

(2) Within each of the numbers under paragraph (1)—

(A) the number applicable to a reserve component management headquarter organization; and

(B) the number applicable to high-priority units and organizations (as specified in section 10216(a) of this title).

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1483(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1711; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1472; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §513(e), title X, §1061(d), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 307, 442; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §522(i)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1736; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §403, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1996.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 115(b)(1)(D), (3), (c)(2) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, §1483(a).

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261, in introductory provisions, struck out “, not later than February 15 of each fiscal year,” after “submit to Congress” and substituted “The report, which shall be in writing, shall be submitted each year not later than 45 days after the date on which the President submits to Congress the budget for the next fiscal year under section 1105 of title 31. The report” for “The report shall be in writing and”.

1997—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–85, §522(i)(2)(A), inserted “(displayed in the aggregate and separately for military technicians (dual status) and non-dual status military technicians)” after “of the following” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 105–85, §522(i)(2)(B), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “Within each of the numbers under paragraph (1), the numbers of military technicians who are not themselves members of a reserve component (so-called ‘single-status’ technicians), with a further display of such numbers as specified in paragraph (2).”

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(d)(1), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: “Area of deployment and illustrative areas of potential deployment, including a description of any United States commitment to defend such areas.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(d)(3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out pars. (4) and (5) which read as follows:

“(4) An analysis of the distribution of each of the following categories of officers serving on active duty on the last day of the preceding fiscal year by grade in which serving and years of active commissioned service:

“(A) Regular officers.

“(B) Reserve officers on the active-duty list.

“(C) Reserve officers described in clauses (B) and (C) of section 523(b)(1) of this title.

“(D) Officers other than those specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) serving in a temporary grade.

“(5) An analysis of the number of officers and enlisted members serving on active duty for training as of the last day of the preceding fiscal year under orders specifying an aggregate period in excess of 180 days and an estimate for the current fiscal year of the number that will be ordered to such duty, tabulated by—

“(A) recruit and specialized training;

“(B) flight training;

“(C) professional training in military and civilian institutions; and

“(D) officer acquisition training.”

Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(d)(2), struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: “In each such report, the Secretary shall also—

“(1) identify, define, and group by mission and by region the types of military bases, installations, and facilities;

“(2) provide an explanation and justification of the relationship between this base structure and the proposed military force structure; and

“(3) provide a comprehensive identification of base operating support costs and an evaluation of possible alternatives to reduce those costs.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(d)(5), redesignated subsec. (g) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(d)(4), struck out subsec. (f) which read as follows: “In each such report, the Secretary shall also include recommendations for the average student load for each category of training for each component of the armed forces for the next three fiscal years. The Secretary shall include in the report justification for, and explanation of, the average student loads recommended.”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–106, §1061(d)(5), redesignated subsec. (g) as (e).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–106, §513(e), added subsec. (h).

1991—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 102–190 inserted “provide” before “a comprehensive”.

Assessment of Structure and Mix of Active and Reserve Forces

Section 402 of Pub. L. 102–190, as amended by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §513(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2406, required Secretary of Defense to submit to Congress a report containing an assessment of alternatives relating to structure and mix of active and reserve forces appropriate for carrying out assigned missions in mid- to late-1990s and an evaluation and recommendations of Secretary and Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff as to mix or mixes of reserve and active forces considered acceptable to carry out expected future missions, and further provided for matters to be included in report and evaluation, commencement of assessment, submission of interim and final reports, and funding for assessment.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 129a, 129c of this title.

[§115b. Renumbered §10541]

§116. Annual operations and maintenance report

(a)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a written report, not later than February 15 of each fiscal year, with respect to the operations and maintenance of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps for the next fiscal year. The Secretary shall include in each such report recommendations for—

(A) the number of aircraft flying hours for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps for the next fiscal year, the number of ship steaming hours for the Navy for the next fiscal year, and the number of field training days for the combat arms battalions of the Army and Marine Corps for the next fiscal year;

(B) the number of ships over 3,000 tons (full load displacement) in each Navy ship classification on which major repair work should be performed during the next fiscal year; and

(C) the number of airframe reworks, aircraft engine reworks, and vehicle overhauls which should be performed by the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps during the next fiscal year.


(2) The Secretary shall also include in each such report the justification for and an explanation of the level of funding recommended in the Budget of the President for the next fiscal year for aircraft flying hours, ship steaming hours, field training days for the combat arms battalions, major repair work to be performed on ships of the Navy, airframe reworks, aircraft engine reworks, and vehicle overhauls.

(b) In this section:

(1) The term “combat arms battalions” means armor, infantry, mechanized infantry, air assault infantry, airborne infantry, ranger, artillery, and combat engineer battalions and armored cavalry and air cavalry squadrons.

(2) The term “major repair work” means, in the case of any ship to which subsection (a) is applicable, any overhaul, modification, alteration, or conversion work which will result in a total cost to the United States of more than $10,000,000.

(Added Pub. L. 96–342, title X, §1001(b)(3), (c)(2), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1118, 1119, §138(e), (f)(2); amended Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(4)(B), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2920; Pub. L. 97–86, title III, §302, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1104; renumbered §116 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(2), 110(b)(6), (7), (9), (10), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 1002; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(3), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1900.)

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted “subsection (a)” for “such subsection”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–433 successively redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f)(2) of section 138 of this title as subsecs. (e) and (f)(2) of section 114 of this title and then as subsecs. (a) and (b), respectively, of this section, added section catchline, and made minor conforming changes in text.

1981—Subsec. (a)(3), (4), formerly §138(e)(3), (4). Pub. L. 97–86 struck out pars. (3) and (4) which required the Secretary to include in each report a projection of the combat readiness of specified military units proposed to be maintained during the next fiscal year.

1980—Subsec. (b), formerly §138(f)(2). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted “In subsection (e)” for “In subsection (f)”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513.

§117. Readiness reporting system: establishment; reporting to congressional committees

(a) Required Readiness Reporting System.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a comprehensive readiness reporting system for the Department of Defense. The readiness reporting system shall measure in an objective, accurate, and timely manner the capability of the armed forces to carry out—

(1) the National Security Strategy prescribed by the President in the most recent annual national security strategy report under section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 404a);

(2) the defense planning guidance provided by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 113(g) of this title; and

(3) the National Military Strategy prescribed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


(b) Readiness Reporting System Characteristics.—In establishing the readiness reporting system, the Secretary shall ensure—

(1) that the readiness reporting system is applied uniformly throughout the Department of Defense;

(2) that information in the readiness reporting system is continually updated, with (A) any change in the overall readiness status of a unit that is required to be reported as part of the readiness reporting system being reported within 24 hours of the event necessitating the change in readiness status, and (B) any change in the overall readiness status of an element of the training establishment or an element of defense infrastructure that is required to be reported as part of the readiness reporting system being reported within 72 hours of the event necessitating the change in readiness status; and

(3) that sufficient resources are provided to establish and maintain the system so as to allow reporting of changes in readiness status as required by this section.


(c) Capabilities.—The readiness reporting system shall measure such factors relating to readiness as the Secretary prescribes, except that the system shall include the capability to do each of the following:

(1) Measure, on a monthly basis, the capability of units (both as elements of their respective armed force and as elements of joint forces) to conduct their assigned wartime missions.

(2) Measure, on an annual basis, the capability of training establishments to provide trained and ready forces for wartime missions.

(3) Measure, on an annual basis, the capability of defense installations and facilities and other elements of Department of Defense infrastructure, both in the United States and abroad, to provide appropriate support to forces in the conduct of their wartime missions.

(4) Measure, on a monthly basis, critical warfighting deficiencies in unit capability.

(5) Measure, on an annual basis, critical warfighting deficiencies in training establishments and defense infrastructure.

(6) Measure, on a monthly basis, the level of current risk based upon the readiness reporting system relative to the capability of forces to carry out their wartime missions.

(7) Measure, on a quarterly basis, the extent to which units of the armed forces remove serviceable parts, supplies, or equipment from one vehicle, vessel, or aircraft in order to render a different vehicle, vessel, or aircraft operational.


(d) Quarterly and Monthly Joint Readiness Reviews.—(1) The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall—

(A) on a quarterly basis, conduct a joint readiness review; and

(B) on a monthly basis, review any changes that have been reported in readiness since the previous joint readiness review.


(2) The Chairman shall incorporate into both the joint readiness review required under paragraph (1)(A) and the monthly review required under paragraph (1)(B) the current information derived from the readiness reporting system and shall assess the capability of the armed forces to execute their wartime missions based upon their posture at the time the review is conducted. The Chairman shall submit to the Secretary of Defense the results of each review under paragraph (1), including the deficiencies in readiness identified during that review.

(e) Submission to Congressional Committees.—The Secretary shall each month submit to the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives a report in writing containing the results of the most recent joint readiness review or monthly review conducted under subsection (d), including the current information derived from the readiness reporting system. Each such report shall be submitted in unclassified form and may, as the Secretary determines necessary, also be submitted in classified form.

(f) Regulations.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. In those regulations, the Secretary shall prescribe the units that are subject to reporting in the readiness reporting system, what type of equipment is subject to such reporting, and the elements of the training establishment and of defense infrastructure that are subject to such reporting.

(Added Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title III, §373(a)(1), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1990; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title III, §361(d)(1), title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 575, 774; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §371], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–80.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 117, added Pub. L. 97–295, §1(2)(A), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1287, §133a; renumbered §117 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(2), 110(d)(3), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 1002, required annual report on North Atlantic Treaty Organization readiness, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1301(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1668.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 106–398 added par. (7).

1999—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–65, §361(d)(1)(A), substituted “with (A) any change in the overall readiness status of a unit that is required to be reported as part of the readiness reporting system being reported within 24 hours of the event necessitating the change in readiness status, and (B) any change in the overall readiness status of an element of the training establishment or an element of defense infrastructure that is required to be reported as part of the readiness reporting system being reported within 72 hours” for “with any change in the overall readiness status of a unit, an element of the training establishment, or an element of defense infrastructure, that is required to be reported as part of the readiness reporting system, being reported within 24 hours”.

Subsec. (c)(2), (3), (5). Pub. L. 106–65, §361(d)(1)(B), substituted “an annual” for “a quarterly”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–65, §1067(1), substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

Implementation

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title III, §373(b), (c), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1992, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title III, §361(d)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 575, provided that:

“(b) Implementation.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish and implement the readiness reporting system required by section 117 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), so as to ensure that the capabilities required by subsection (c) of that section are attained not later than April 1, 2000.

“(c) Implementation Plan.—Not later than March 1, 1999, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report setting forth the Secretary's plan for implementation of section 117 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a).”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 153 of this title.

§118. Quadrennial defense review

(a) Review Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall every four years, during a year following a year evenly divisible by four, conduct a comprehensive examination (to be known as a “quadrennial defense review”) of the national defense strategy, force structure, force modernization plans, infrastructure, budget plan, and other elements of the defense program and policies of the United States with a view toward determining and expressing the defense strategy of the United States and establishing a defense program for the next 20 years. Each such quadrennial defense review shall be conducted in consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(b) Conduct of Review.—Each quadrennial defense review shall be conducted so as—

(1) to delineate a national defense strategy consistent with the most recent National Security Strategy prescribed by the President pursuant to section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 404a);

(2) to define sufficient force structure, force modernization plans, infrastructure, budget plan, and other elements of the defense program of the United States associated with that national defense strategy that would be required to execute successfully the full range of missions called for in that national defense strategy; and

(3) to identify (A) the budget plan that would be required to provide sufficient resources to execute successfully the full range of missions called for in that national defense strategy at a low-to-moderate level of risk, and (B) any additional resources (beyond those programmed in the current future-years defense program) required to achieve such a level of risk.


(c) Assessment of Risk.—The assessment of risk for the purposes of subsection (b) shall be undertaken by the Secretary of Defense in consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. That assessment shall define the nature and magnitude of the political, strategic, and military risks associated with executing the missions called for under the national defense strategy.

(d) Submission of QDR to Congressional Committees.—The Secretary shall submit a report on each quadrennial defense review to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The report shall be submitted not later than September 30 of the year in which the review is conducted. The report shall include the following:

(1) The results of the review, including a comprehensive discussion of the national defense strategy of the United States and the force structure best suited to implement that strategy at a low-to-moderate level of risk.

(2) The assumed or defined national security interests of the United States that inform the national defense strategy defined in the review.

(3) The threats to the assumed or defined national security interests of the United States that were examined for the purposes of the review and the scenarios developed in the examination of those threats.

(4) The assumptions used in the review, including assumptions relating to—

(A) the status of readiness of United States forces;

(B) the cooperation of allies, mission-sharing and additional benefits to and burdens on United States forces resulting from coalition operations;

(C) warning times;

(D) levels of engagement in operations other than war and smaller-scale contingencies and withdrawal from such operations and contingencies; and

(E) the intensity, duration, and military and political end-states of conflicts and smaller-scale contingencies.


(5) The effect on the force structure and on readiness for high-intensity combat of preparations for and participation in operations other than war and smaller-scale contingencies.

(6) The manpower and sustainment policies required under the national defense strategy to support engagement in conflicts lasting longer than 120 days.

(7) The anticipated roles and missions of the reserve components in the national defense strategy and the strength, capabilities, and equipment necessary to assure that the reserve components can capably discharge those roles and missions.

(8) The appropriate ratio of combat forces to support forces (commonly referred to as the “tooth-to-tail” ratio) under the national defense strategy, including, in particular, the appropriate number and size of headquarters units and Defense Agencies for that purpose.

(9) The strategic and tactical air-lift, sea-lift, and ground transportation capabilities required to support the national defense strategy.

(10) The forward presence, pre-positioning, and other anticipatory deployments necessary under the national defense strategy for conflict deterrence and adequate military response to anticipated conflicts.

(11) The extent to which resources must be shifted among two or more theaters under the national defense strategy in the event of conflict in such theaters.

(12) The advisability of revisions to the Unified Command Plan as a result of the national defense strategy.

(13) The effect on force structure of the use by the armed forces of technologies anticipated to be available for the ensuing 20 years.

(14) Any other matter the Secretary considers appropriate.


(e) CJCS Review.—(1) Upon the completion of each review under subsection (a), the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall prepare and submit to the Secretary of Defense the Chairman's assessment of the review, including the Chairman's assessment of risk.

(2) The Chairman shall include as part of that assessment the Chairman's assessment of the assignment of functions (or roles and missions) to the armed forces, together with any recommendations for changes in assignment that the Chairman considers necessary to achieve maximum efficiency of the armed forces. In preparing the assessment under this paragraph, the Chairman shall consider (among other matters) the following:

(A) Unnecessary duplication of effort among the armed forces.

(B) Changes in technology that can be applied effectively to warfare.


(3) The Chairman's assessment shall be submitted to the Secretary in time for the inclusion of the assessment in the report. The Secretary shall include the Chairman's assessment, together with the Secretary's comments, in the report in its entirety.

(Added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §901(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 715; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IX, §921(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1198.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 118, added Pub. L. 97–295, §1(2)(A), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1288, §133b; renumbered §118, Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §101(a)(2), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, required reports to Congress on sales or transfers of defense articles, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1301(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1668.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–107 designated the first sentence of existing provisions as par. (1), the second and third sentences of existing provisions as par. (3), and added par. (2).

Assessment With Respect to 2001 QDR

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IX, §921(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1198, provided that: “With respect to the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall submit to Congress a separate assessment of functions (or roles and missions) of the Armed Forces in accordance with paragraph (2) of section 118(e) of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a)(3). Such assessment shall be based on the findings in the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review, issued by the Secretary of Defense on September 30, 2001, and shall be submitted to Congress not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2001].”

Revised Nuclear Posture Review

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1041], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–262, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1033, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1216, provided that:

“(a) Requirement for Comprehensive Review.—In order to clarify United States nuclear deterrence policy and strategy for the near term, the Secretary of Defense shall conduct a comprehensive review of the nuclear posture of the United States for the next 5 to 10 years. The Secretary shall conduct the review in consultation with the Secretary of Energy.

“(b) Elements of Review.—The nuclear posture review shall include the following elements:

“(1) The role of nuclear forces in United States military strategy, planning, and programming.

“(2) The policy requirements and objectives for the United States to maintain a safe, reliable, and credible nuclear deterrence posture.

“(3) The relationship among United States nuclear deterrence policy, targeting strategy, and arms control objectives.

“(4) The levels and composition of the nuclear delivery systems that will be required for implementing the United States national and military strategy, including any plans for replacing or modifying existing systems.

“(5) The nuclear weapons complex that will be required for implementing the United States national and military strategy, including any plans to modernize or modify the complex.

“(6) The active and inactive nuclear weapons stockpile that will be required for implementing the United States national and military strategy, including any plans for replacing or modifying warheads.

“(7) The possibility of deactivating or dealerting nuclear warheads or delivery systems immediately, or immediately after a decision to retire any specific warhead, class of warheads, or delivery system.

“(c) Report to Congress.—The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress, in unclassified and classified forms as necessary, a report on the results of the nuclear posture review conducted under this section. The report shall be submitted concurrently with the Quadrennial Defense Review report due in December 2001.

“(d) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that the nuclear posture review conducted under this section should be used as the basis for establishing future United States arms control objectives and negotiating positions.”

Specified Matter for Next QDR

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §901(c), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 717, provided that: “In the first quadrennial defense review conducted under section 118 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), the Secretary shall include in the technologies considered for the purposes of paragraph (13) of subsection (d) of that section the following: precision guided munitions, stealth, night vision, digitization, and communications.”

§119. Special access programs: congressional oversight

(a)(1) Not later than March 1 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the defense committees a report on special access programs.

(2) Each such report shall set forth—

(A) the total amount requested for special access programs of the Department of Defense in the President's budget for the next fiscal year submitted under section 1105 of title 31; and

(B) for each program in that budget that is a special access program—

(i) a brief description of the program;

(ii) a brief discussion of the major milestones established for the program;

(iii) the actual cost of the program for each fiscal year during which the program has been conducted before the fiscal year during which that budget is submitted; and

(iv) the estimated total cost of the program and the estimated cost of the program for (I) the current fiscal year, (II) the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted, and (III) each of the four succeeding fiscal years during which the program is expected to be conducted.


(3) In the case of a report under paragraph (1) submitted in a year during which the President's budget for the next fiscal year, because of multiyear budgeting for the Department of Defense, does not include a full budget request for the Department of Defense, the report required by paragraph (1) shall set forth—

(A) the total amount already appropriated for the next fiscal year for special access programs of the Department of Defense and any additional amount requested in that budget for such programs for such fiscal year; and

(B) for each program of the Department of Defense that is a special access program, the information specified in paragraph (2)(B).


(b)(1) Not later than February 1 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the defense committees a report that, with respect to each new special access program, provides—

(A) notice of the designation of the program as a special access program; and

(B) justification for such designation.


(2) A report under paragraph (1) with respect to a program shall include—

(A) the current estimate of the total program cost for the program; and

(B) an identification of existing programs or technologies that are similar to the technology, or that have a mission similar to the mission, of the program that is the subject of the notice.


(3) In this subsection, the term “new special access program” means a special access program that has not previously been covered in a notice and justification under this subsection.

(c)(1) Whenever a change in the classification of a special access program of the Department of Defense is planned to be made or whenever classified information concerning a special access program of the Department of Defense is to be declassified and made public, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the defense committees a report containing a description of the proposed change, the reasons for the proposed change, and notice of any public announcement planned to be made with respect to the proposed change.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), any report referred to in paragraph (1) shall be submitted not less than 14 days before the date on which the proposed change or public announcement is to occur.

(3) If the Secretary determines that because of exceptional circumstances the requirement of paragraph (2) cannot be met with respect to a proposed change or public announcement concerning a special access program of the Department of Defense, the Secretary may submit the report required by paragraph (1) regarding the proposed change or public announcement at any time before the proposed change or public announcement is made and shall include in the report an explanation of the exceptional circumstances.

(d) Whenever there is a modification or termination of the policy and criteria used for designating a program of the Department of Defense as a special access program, the Secretary of Defense shall promptly notify the defense committees of such modification or termination. Any such notification shall contain the reasons for the modification or termination and, in the case of a modification, the provisions of the policy as modified.

(e)(1) The Secretary of Defense may waive any requirement under subsection (a), (b), or (c) that certain information be included in a report under that subsection if the Secretary determines that inclusion of that information in the report would adversely affect the national security. Any such waiver shall be made on a case-by-case basis.

(2) If the Secretary exercises the authority provided under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide the information described in that subsection with respect to the special access program concerned, and the justification for the waiver, jointly to the chairman and ranking minority member of each of the defense committees.

(f) A special access program may not be initiated until—

(1) the defense committees are notified of the program; and

(2) a period of 30 days elapses after such notification is received.


(g) In this section, the term “defense committees” means—

(1) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations, and the Defense Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, of the Senate; and

(2) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations, and the Subcommittee on Defense of the Committee on Appropriations, of the House of Representatives.

(Added Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XI, §1132(a)(1), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1151; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §§1461, 1482(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1698, 1709; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1055, title XV, §1502(a)(4), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 442, 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(a)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1222.)

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 107–107 substituted “Subcommittee on Defense” for “National Security Subcommittee”.

1999—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “Committee on Armed Services” for “Committee on National Security”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §1055, substituted “March 1” for “February 1”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(a)(4), added pars. (1) and (2) and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which read as follows:

“(1) the Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives; and

“(2) the Defense Subcommittees of the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives.”

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510, §1461(a), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “Whenever a change is made in the status of a program of the Department of Defense as a special access program, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the defense committees a report describing the change. Any such report shall be submitted not later than 30 days after the date on which the change takes effect.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–510, §1482(a)(2), added subsec. (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Pub. L. 101–510, §1461(b), inserted “and Appropriations” after “Armed Services” in par. (1).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–510, §1482(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (f) as (g).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 1482(d) of Pub. L. 101–510 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 2214 of this title and amending this section and section 1584 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1991.”

Initial Reports on Special Access Programs

Section 1132(b), (c) of Pub. L. 100–180 provided that:

“(b) Five-Year Reference Amounts.—The first report under subsection (a) of section 119 of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), shall set forth—

“(1) the total amount requested in the President's budget for each of the five previous fiscal years for special access programs of the Department of Defense that were included in the budget; and

“(2) the total amount appropriated for each such year for such programs.

“(c) Initial Report on Special Access Program Designations.—The first report under subsection (b) of section 119 of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), shall cover each existing special access program.”

CHAPTER 3—GENERAL POWERS AND FUNCTIONS

Sec.
121.
Regulations.
122.
Official registers.
123.
Authority to suspend officer personnel laws during war or national emergency.
123a.
Suspension of end-strength limitations in time of war or national emergency.
123b.
Forces stationed abroad: limitation on number.
124.
Detection and monitoring of aerial and maritime transit of illegal drugs: Department of Defense to be lead agency.
125.
Functions, powers, and duties: transfer, reassignment, consolidation, or abolition.
126.
Transfer of funds and employees.
127.
Emergency and extraordinary expenses.
127a.
Operations for which funds are not provided in advance: funding mechanisms.
128.
Physical protection of special nuclear material: limitation on dissemination of unclassified information.
129.
Prohibition of certain civilian personnel management constraints.
129a.
General personnel policy.
129b.
Experts and consultants: authority to procure services of.
129c.
Medical personnel: limitations on reductions.
130.
Authority to withhold from public disclosure certain technical data.
130a.
Major Department of Defense headquarters activities personnel: limitation.
130b.
Personnel in overseas, sensitive, or routinely deployable units: nondisclosure of personally identifying information.
130c.
Nondisclosure of information: certain sensitive information of foreign governments and international organizations.

        

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1073(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–280, added item 130c.

1999—Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §921(a)(2), title X, §1044(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 723, 762, substituted “Major Department of Defense headquarters activities personnel: limitation” for “Management headquarters and headquarters support activities personnel: limitation” in item 130a and added item 130b.

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1858, added item 130a.

1996—Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1504(a)(8), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 513, made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–337, §1312(a)(2). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §564(a)(2), title X, §1003(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 326, 417, substituted “Operations for which funds are not provided in advance: funding mechanisms” for “Expenses for contingency operations” in item 127a and added item 129c.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3013, added item 123 and struck out former item 123 “Suspension of certain provisions of law relating to reserve commissioned officers”.

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XIII, §1312(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2894, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1504(a)(8), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 513, added item 123b.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1108(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1752, added item 127a.

1990—Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §§1481(b)(2), 1483(c)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1705, 1715, added items 123a, 129a, and 129b.

1989—Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1202(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1563, added item 124.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XI, §1123(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1150, added item 128.

Pub. L. 100–26, §9(b)(1), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 287, struck out item 128 “Funds transfers for foreign cryptologic support”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §110(c)(2), (e)(1), title II, §211(c)(2), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1002, 1003, 1017, inserted “and Functions” after “General Powers” in chapter heading, struck out item 124 “Combatant commands: establishment; composition; functions; administration and support”, and added items 127 to 130.

1962—Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §201(b), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 517, added items 124 to 126.

1958—Pub. L. 85–861, §1(2)(B), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1437, added items 122 and 123.

§121. Regulations

The President may prescribe regulations to carry out his functions, powers, and duties under this title.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 6.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
121 [No source]. [No source].

The revised section is inserted to make express the President's general authority to issue regulations, which has been expressly reflected in many laws and left to inference in the remainder.

§122. Official registers

The Secretary of a military department may have published, annually or at such other times as he may designate, official registers containing the names of, and other pertinent information about, such regular and reserve officers of the armed forces under his jurisdiction as he considers appropriate. The register may also contain any other list that the Secretary considers appropriate.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(2)(A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1437.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
122 10 App.:20b.

34 App.:609.

July 24, 1956, ch. 677, §1, 70 Stat. 623.

§123. Authority to suspend officer personnel laws during war or national emergency

(a) In time of war, or of national emergency declared by Congress or the President after November 30, 1980, the President may suspend the operation of any provision of law relating to the promotion, involuntary retirement, or separation of commissioned officers of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard Reserve. So long as such war or national emergency continues, any such suspension may be extended by the President.

(b) Any such suspension shall, if not sooner ended, end on the last day of the two-year period beginning on the date on which the suspension (or the last extension thereof) takes effect or on the last day of the one-year period beginning on the date of the termination of the war or national emergency, whichever occurs first. With respect to the end of any such suspension, the preceding sentence supersedes the provisions of title II of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1621–1622) which provide that powers or authorities exercised by reason of a national emergency shall cease to be exercised after the date of the termination of the emergency.

(c) If a provision of law pertaining to the promotion of reserve officers is suspended under this section and if the Secretary of Defense submits to Congress proposed legislation to adjust the grades and dates of rank of reserve commissioned officers other than commissioned warrant officers, such proposed legislation shall, so far as practicable, be the same as that recommended for adjusting the grades and dates of rank of officers of the regular component of the armed force concerned.

(d) Upon the termination of a suspension made under the authority of subsection (a) of a provision of law otherwise requiring the separation or retirement of officers on active duty because of age, length of service or length of service in grade, or failure of selection for promotion, the Secretary concerned shall extend by up to 90 days the otherwise required separation or retirement date of any officer covered by the suspended provision whose separation or retirement date, but for the suspension, would have been before the date of the termination of the suspension or within 90 days after the date of such termination.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(2)(A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1437; amended Pub. L. 86–559, §1(1), June 30, 1960, 74 Stat. 264; Pub. L. 89–718, §1, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 90–130, §1(1), Nov. 8, 1967, 81 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §§501(3), 511(1), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2907, 2920; Pub. L. 97–22, §10(b)(1), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 137; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1622(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2961; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(c)(4), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §508(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1090.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
123 50:1199 (less applicability to National Guard). Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1257, §209 (less applicability to National Guard), 68 Stat. 1152.

In subsection (b), the words “the same as” are substituted for the word “comparable”, since any necessary differences in the recommended legislation between Reserves and Regulars are fully taken account of in the words “So far as practicable”.

References in Text

The National Emergencies Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 94–412, Sept. 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 1255, as amended. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§1621 et seq.) of chapter 34 of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 50 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 644 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1622(b).

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–107 added subsec. (d).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–106 struck out “281, 592, 1002, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1374, 3217, 3218, 3219, 3220, 3352(a) (last sentence),” after “armed force:”, “5414, 5457, 5458, 5506,” after “3855,”, and “8217, 8218, 8219,” after “6410,” and substituted “8855, 10214, 12003, 12004, 12005, 12007, 12202, 12213(a) (second sentence), 12642, 12645, 12646, 12647, 12771, 12772, and 12773” for “and 8855”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337 substituted “Authority to suspend officer personnel laws during war or national emergency” for “Suspension of certain provisions of law relating to reserve commissioned officers” as section catchline and amended text generally, substituting subsecs. (a) to (c) for former subsecs. (a) and (b).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–22 struck out references to sections 3494 and 8494.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–513 struck out references to sections 3571, 3847, 5867, 8370, 8571, and 8847.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–130 struck out reference to section 3391.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–718 struck out reference to section 5907.

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–559 inserted references to sections 281, 3855, and 8855 and struck out references to sections 3841, 3842, 3849, 8841, 8842, and 8849.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1501(c) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Dec. 1, 1994, and as if included as an amendment made by the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as originally enacted.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 10(b) of Pub. L. 97–22 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Sept. 15, 1981.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by section 501(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, striking out references to sections 3571, 5867, and 8571, effective Sept. 15, 1981, and amendment by section 511(1) of Pub. L. 96–513, striking out references to sections 3847, 8370, and 8847, effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense, see section 1(11) of Ex. Ord. No. 11390, Jan. 22, 1968, 33 F.R. 841, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Delegation of Authority

Authority of President under this section as invoked by sections 2 and 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, Sept. 14, 2001, 66 F.R. 48201, as amended, delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, and authority of President under this section as invoked by section 2 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223 delegated to Secretary of Transportation by section 5 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, set out as a note under section 12302 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 14317 of this title.

§123a. Suspension of end-strength limitations in time of war or national emergency

(a) During War or National Emergency.—If at the end of any fiscal year there is in effect a war or national emergency, the President may waive any statutory end strength with respect to that fiscal year. Any such waiver may be issued only for a statutory end strength that is prescribed by law before the waiver is issued.

(b) Upon Termination of War or National Emergency.—Upon the termination of a war or national emergency with respect to which the President has exercised the authority provided by subsection (a), the President may defer the effectiveness of any statutory end strength with respect to the fiscal year during which the termination occurs. Any such deferral may not extend beyond the last day of the sixth month beginning after the date of such termination.

(c) Statutory End Strength.—In this section, the term “statutory end strength” means any end-strength limitation with respect to a fiscal year that is prescribed by law for any military or civilian component of the armed forces or of the Department of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1483(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1715; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §421(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1076.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 115(b)(4) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, §1483(a).

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–107 amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If at the end of any fiscal year there is in effect a war or national emergency, the President may defer the effectiveness of any end-strength limitation with respect to that fiscal year prescribed by law for any military or civilian component of the armed forces or of the Department of Defense. Any such deferral may not extend beyond November 30 of the following fiscal year.”

Delegation of Authority

Authority of President under this section as invoked by sections 2 and 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, Sept. 14, 2001, 66 F.R. 48201, as amended, delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, and authority of President under this section as invoked by section 2 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223 delegated to Secretary of Transportation by section 5 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, set out as a note under section 12302 of this title.

§123b. Forces stationed abroad: limitation on number

(a) End-Strength Limitation.—No funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may be used to support a strength level of members of the armed forces assigned to permanent duty ashore in nations outside the United States at the end of any fiscal year at a level in excess of 203,000.

(b) Exception for Wartime.—Subsection (a) does not apply in the event of a declaration of war or an armed attack on any member nation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Japan, the Republic of Korea, or any other ally of the United States.

(c) Presidential Waiver.—The President may waive the operation of subsection (a) if the President declares an emergency. The President shall immediately notify Congress of any such waiver.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XIII, §1312(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2894.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XIII, §1302, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2545, which was set out as a note under section 113 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, §1312(c).

Effective Date

Section 1312(b) of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that: “Section 123b of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), does not apply with respect to a fiscal year before fiscal year 1996.”

§124. Detection and monitoring of aerial and maritime transit of illegal drugs: Department of Defense to be lead agency

(a) Lead Agency.—(1) The Department of Defense shall serve as the single lead agency of the Federal Government for the detection and monitoring of aerial and maritime transit of illegal drugs into the United States.

(2) The responsibility conferred by paragraph (1) shall be carried out in support of the counter-drug activities of Federal, State, local, and foreign law enforcement agencies.

(b) Performance of Detection and Monitoring Function.—(1) To carry out subsection (a), Department of Defense personnel may operate equipment of the Department to intercept a vessel or an aircraft detected outside the land area of the United States for the purposes of—

(A) identifying and communicating with that vessel or aircraft; and

(B) directing that vessel or aircraft to go to a location designated by appropriate civilian officials.


(2) In cases in which a vessel or an aircraft is detected outside the land area of the United States, Department of Defense personnel may begin or continue pursuit of that vessel or aircraft over the land area of the United States.

(c) United States Defined.—In this section, the term “United States” means the land area of the several States and any territory, commonwealth, or possession of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XII, §1202(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1563; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1088(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1485.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 124, added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §201(a), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 514; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title XIII, §1301(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2611; Pub. L. 99–145, title XIII, §1303(a)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 738, related to establishment, composition, and functions of combatant commands, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–433, §211(c)(1). See section 161 et seq. of this title. Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XI, §1102, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2042, which was set out as a note under section 113 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–189, §1202(b).

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Condition on Development of Forward Operating Locations for United States Southern Command Counter-Drug Detection and Monitoring Flights

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1024, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 748, provided that:

“(a) Condition.—Except as provided in subsection (b), none of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year may be obligated or expended for the purpose of improving the physical infrastructure at any proposed forward operating location outside the United States from which the United States Southern Command may conduct counter-drug detection and monitoring flights until a formal agreement regarding the extent and use of, and host nation support for, the forward operating location is executed by both the host nation and the United States.

“(b) Exception.—The limitation in subsection (a) does not apply to an unspecified minor military construction project authorized by section 2805 of title 10, United States Code.”

Counter-Drug Detection and Monitoring Systems Plan

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1043, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2492, provided that:

“(a) Requirements of Detection and Monitoring Systems.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish requirements for counter-drug detection and monitoring systems to be used by the Department of Defense in the performance of its mission under section 124(a) of title 10, United States Code, as lead agency of the Federal Government for the detection and monitoring of the transit of illegal drugs into the United States. Such requirements shall be designed—

“(1) to minimize unnecessary redundancy between counter-drug detection and monitoring systems;

“(2) to grant priority to assets and technologies of the Department of Defense that are already in existence or that would require little additional development to be available for use in the performance of such mission;

“(3) to promote commonality and interoperability between counter-drug detection and monitoring systems in a cost-effective manner; and

“(4) to maximize the potential of using counter-drug detection and monitoring systems for other defense missions whenever practicable.

“(b) Evaluation of Systems.—The Secretary of Defense shall identify and evaluate existing and proposed counter-drug detection and monitoring systems in light of the requirements established under subsection (a). In carrying out such evaluation, the Secretary shall—

“(1) assess the capabilities, strengths, and weaknesses of counter-drug detection and monitoring systems; and

“(2) determine the optimal and most cost-effective combination of use of counter-drug detection and monitoring systems to carry out activities relating to the reconnaissance, detection, and monitoring of drug traffic.

“(c) Systems Plan.—Based on the results of the evaluation under subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense shall prepare a plan for the development, acquisition, and use of improved counter-drug detection and monitoring systems by the Armed Forces. In developing the plan, the Secretary shall also make every effort to determine which counter-drug detection and monitoring systems should be eliminated from the counter-drug program based on the results of such evaluation. The plan shall include an estimate by the Secretary of the full cost to implement the plan, including the cost to develop, procure, operate, and maintain equipment used in counter-drug detection and monitoring activities performed under the plan and training and personnel costs associated with such activities.

“(d) Report.—Not later than six months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the requirements established under subsection (a) and the results of the evaluation conducted under subsection (b). The report shall include the plan prepared under subsection (c).

“(e) Limitation on Obligation of Funds.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), none of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available for the Department of Defense for fiscal year 1993 pursuant to an authorization of appropriations in this Act [see Tables for classification] may be obligated or expended for the procurement or upgrading of a counter-drug detection and monitoring system, for research and development with respect to such a system, or for the lease or rental of such a system until after the date on which the Secretary of Defense submits to Congress the report required under subsection (d).

“(2) Paragraph (1) shall not prohibit obligations or expenditures of funds for—

“(A) any procurement, upgrading, research and development, or lease of a counter-drug detection and monitoring system that is necessary to carry out the evaluation required under subsection (b); or

“(B) the operation and maintenance of counter-drug detection and monitoring systems used by the Department of Defense as of the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(f) Definition.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘counter-drug detection and monitoring systems’ means land-, air-, and sea-based detection and monitoring systems suitable for use by the Department of Defense in the performance of its mission—

“(1) under section 124(a) of title 10, United States Code, as lead agency of the Federal Government for the detection and monitoring of the aerial and maritime transit of illegal drugs into the United States; and

“(2) to provide support to law enforcement agencies in the detection, monitoring, and communication of the movement of traffic at, near, and outside the geographic boundaries of the United States.”

Integration of Communications Network

Section 1204(a) of Pub. L. 101–189 provided that:

“(1) The Secretary of Defense shall integrate into an effective communications network the command, control, communications, and technical intelligence assets of the United States that are dedicated (in whole or in part) to the interdiction of illegal drugs into the United States.

“(2) The Secretary shall carry out this subsection in consultation with the Director of National Drug Control Policy.”

Research and Development

Section 1205 of Pub. L. 101–189 provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that adequate research and development activities of the Department of Defense, including research and development activities of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, are devoted to technologies designed to improve—

“(1) the ability of the Department to carry out the detection and monitoring function of the Department under section 124 of title 10, United States Code, as added by section 1202; and

“(2) the ability to detect illicit drugs and other dangerous and illegal substances that are concealed in containers.”

Training Exercises in Drug-Interdiction Areas

Section 1206 of Pub. L. 101–189 provided that:

“(a) Exercises Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall direct that the armed forces, to the maximum extent practicable, shall conduct military training exercises (including training exercises conducted by the reserve components) in drug-interdiction areas.

“(b) Report.—(1) Not later than February 1 of 1991 and 1992, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the implementation of subsection (a) during the preceding fiscal year.

“(2) The report shall include—

“(A) a description of the exercises conducted in drug-interdiction areas and the effectiveness of those exercises in the national counter-drug effort; and

“(B) a description of those additional actions that could be taken (and an assessment of the results of those actions) if additional funds were made available to the Department of Defense for additional military training exercises in drug-interdiction areas for the purpose of enhancing interdiction and deterrence of drug smuggling.

“(c) Drug-Interdiction Areas Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘drug-interdiction areas’ includes land and sea areas in which, as determined by the Secretary, the smuggling of drugs into the United States occurs or is believed by the Secretary to have occurred.”

§125. Functions, powers, and duties: transfer, reassignment, consolidation, or abolition

(a) Subject to section 2 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401), the Secretary of Defense shall take appropriate action (including the transfer, reassignment, consolidation, or abolition of any function, power, or duty) to provide more effective, efficient, and economical administration and operation, and to eliminate duplication, in the Department of Defense. However, except as provided by subsections (b) and (c), a function, power, or duty vested in the Department of Defense, or an officer, official, or agency thereof, by law may not be substantially transferred, reassigned, consolidated, or abolished.

(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a), if the President determines it to be necessary because of hostilities or an imminent threat of hostilities, any function, power, or duty vested by law in the Department of Defense, or an officer, official, or agency thereof, including one assigned to the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps by section 3062(b), 5062, 5063, or 8062(c) of this title, may be transferred, reassigned, or consolidated. The transfer, reassignment, or consolidation remains in effect until the President determines that hostilities have terminated or that there is no longer an imminent threat of hostilities, as the case may be.

(c) Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may assign or reassign the development and operational use of new weapons or weapons systems to one or more of the military departments or one or more of the armed forces.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §201(a), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 515; amended Pub. L. 89–501, title IV, §401, July 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 278; Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2621; Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §103, title III, §301(b)(1), title V, §514(c)(1), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 996, 1022, 1055; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1301(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1668.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
125(a)

 

 

125(b)

 

 

125(c)

125(d)

5:171a(c)(1), (2).

5:171n(a) (as applicable to 5:171a(c)(1)).

5:171a(c)(5).

5:171n(a) (as applicable to 5:171a(c)(5)).

5:171a(c)(4).

5:171a(c)(6).

5:171n(a) (as applicable to 5:171a(c)(6)).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §202(c)(1), (2), (4), (5), (6); added Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §5(3d, 4th, 6th, 7th, and 8th pars.); restated Aug. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–599, §3(a), (1st, 2d, 5th, 6th, and 7th pars.), 72 Stat. 514, 515.
  July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §308(a) (as applicable to §202(c)(1), (5), (6)), 61 Stat. 509.

In subsection (a), the following substitutions are made: “Except as provided by subsections (b) and (c)” for “except as otherwise provided in this subsection”; “vested . . . by law” for “established by law to be performed by”; “recommending” for “stating”; “proposes” for “contemplates”; and “the period” for “the thirty-day period or the forty-day period”. The words “on the first day after” are inserted for clarity. The words “if carried out” are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (b), the words “Notwithstanding subsection (a)” are substituted for the words “Notwithstanding other provisions of this subsection”; and “Unless the President determines otherwise” for “subject to the determination of the President”.

In subsection (c), the following substitutions are made: “Notwithstanding subsection (a)” for “Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) hereof”; and “armed forces” for “services”.

In subsection (d), the following substitutions are made: “In subsection (a) (1)” for “within the meaning of paragraph (1) hereof”; and “considers” for “deems”. The words “advantageous to the Government in terms of” are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510 struck out at end “However, notwithstanding any other provision of this title or any other law, the Secretary of Defense shall not direct or approve a plan to initiate or effect a substantial reduction or elimination of a major weapons system until the Secretary of Defense has reported all the pertinent details of the proposed action to the Congress of the United States while the Congress is in session.”

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–433, §103(1), struck out provision under which the Secretary of Defense could substantially transfer, reassign, consolidate, or abolish functions, powers, or duties vested in the Department of Defense by law if the Secretary reported the details of the proposed transfer, reassignment, consolidation, or abolition to Congress and if Congress did not affirmatively reject the proposal.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–433, §§103(2), 514(c)(1), inserted “vested by law in the Department of Defense, or an officer, official, or agency thereof” and substituted “5062, 5063” for “5012, 5013”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–433, §301(b)(1), struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: “In subsection (a)(1), ‘major combatant function, power, or duty’ does not include a supply or service activity common to more than one military department. The Secretary of Defense shall, whenever he determines it will be more effective, economical, or efficient, provide for the performance of such an activity by one agency or such other organizations as he considers appropriate.”

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “section 2 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401)” for “section 401 of title 50”.

1966—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–501 required the Secretary of Defense to report to the Congress all the pertinent details regarding any substantial reduction or elimination of a major weapons system before action could be initiated or effected by the Department of Defense.

Resolutions Relating to Transfers, Reassignments, Consolidations, or Abolitions of Combatant Functions

Section 303 of Pub. L. 87–651 provided that:

“(a) For the purposes of this section, any resolution reported to the Senate or the House of Representatives pursuant to the provisions of section 125 of title 10, United States Code, shall be treated for the purpose of consideration by either House, in the same manner as a resolution with respect to a reorganization plan reported by a committee within the meaning of the Reorganization Act of 1949 as in effect on July 1, 1958 (5 U.S.C. 133z and the following) [63 Stat. 203; 71 Stat. 611], and shall be governed by the provisions applicable to the consideration of any such resolution by either House of the Congress as provided by sections 205 and 206 of that Act [63 Stat. 207].

“(b) The provisions of this section are enacted by the Congress—

“(1) as an exercise of the rule-making power of the Senate and the House of Representatives, respectively, and as such they shall be considered as part of the rules of each House, respectively, and supersede other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and

“(2) with full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (as far as relating to the procedure in that House) at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of that House.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 101, 113, 191 of this title.

§126. Transfer of funds and employees

(a) When a function, power, or duty or an activity of a department or agency of the Department of Defense is transferred or assigned to another department or agency of that department, balances of appropriations that the Secretary of Defense determines are available and needed to finance or discharge that function, power, duty, or activity, as the case may be, may, with the approval of the President, be transferred to the department or agency to which that function, power, duty or activity, as the case may be, is transferred, and used for any purpose for which those appropriations were originally available. Balances of appropriations so transferred shall—

(1) be credited to any applicable appropriation account of the receiving department or agency; or

(2) be credited to a new account that may be established on the books of the Department of the Treasury;


and be merged with the funds already credited to that account and accounted for as one fund. Balances of appropriations credited to an account under clause (1) are subject only to such limitations as are specifically applicable to that account. Balances of appropriations credited to an account under clause (2) are subject only to such limitations as are applicable to the appropriations from which they are transferred.

(b) When a function, power, or duty or an activity of a department or agency of the Department of Defense is transferred to another department or agency of that department, those civilian employees of the department or agency from which the transfer is made that the Secretary of Defense determines are needed to perform that function, power, or duty, or for that activity, as the case may be, may, with the approval of the President, be transferred to the department or agency to which that function, power, duty, or activity, as the case may be, is transferred. The authorized strength in civilian employees of a department or agency from which employees are transferred under this section is reduced by the number of employees so transferred. The authorized strength in civilian employees of a department or agency to which employees are transferred under this section is increased by the number of employees so transferred.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §201(a), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 516; amended Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(2), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2920.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
126(a)

 

 

126(b)

5:172f(a).

5:171n(a) (as applicable to 5:172f(a)).

5:172f (less (a)).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §407; added Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §11 (21st and 22d pars.), 63 Stat. 589.
  July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §308(a) (as applicable to §407), 61 Stat. 509.

In subsection (a), the words “under authority of law” are omitted as surplusage. The following substitutions are made: “needed” for “necessary”; “used” for “be available for use by”; and “those appropriations” for “said funds”.

In subsection (b), 5 U.S.C. 172f(b) is restated to reflect more clearly its purpose to authorize “transfers of personnel” (Senate Report No. 366, 81st Congress, p. 23).

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (b) Pub. L. 96–513 substituted “President” for “Director of the Bureau of the Budget”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Authority of President under subsec. (a) of this section to approve transfers of balances of appropriations provided for therein delegated to Director of Office of Management and Budget, see section 9(2) of Ex. Ord. No. 11609, July 22, 1971, 36 F.R. 13747, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

§127. Emergency and extraordinary expenses

(a) Subject to the limitations of subsection (c), and within the limitation of appropriations made for the purpose, the Secretary of Defense, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, and the Secretary of a military department within his department, may provide for any emergency or extraordinary expense which cannot be anticipated or classified. When it is so provided in such an appropriation, the funds may be spent on approval or authority of the Secretary concerned or the Inspector General for any purpose he determines to be proper, and such a determination is final and conclusive upon the accounting officers of the United States. The Secretary concerned or the Inspector General may certify the amount of any such expenditure authorized by him that he considers advisable not to specify, and his certificate is sufficient voucher for the expenditure of that amount.

(b) The authority conferred by this section may be delegated by the Secretary of Defense to any person in the Department of Defense, by the Inspector General to any person in the Office of the Inspector General, or by the Secretary of a military department to any person within his department, with or without the authority to make successive redelegations.

(c)(1) Funds may not be obligated or expended in an amount in excess of $500,000 under the authority of subsection (a) or (b) until the Secretary of Defense has notified the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives of the intent to obligate or expend the funds, and—

(A) in the case of an obligation or expenditure in excess of $1,000,000, 15 days have elapsed since the date of the notification; or

(B) in the case of an obligation or expenditure in excess of $500,000, but not in excess of $1,000,000, 5 days have elapsed since the date of the notification.


(2) Subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to an obligation or expenditure of funds otherwise covered by such subparagraph if the Secretary of Defense determines that the national security objectives of the United States will be compromised by the application of the subparagraph to the obligation or expenditure. If the Secretary makes a determination with respect to an obligation or expenditure under the preceding sentence, the Secretary shall immediately notify the committees referred to in paragraph (1) that such obligation or expenditure is necessary and provide any relevant information (in classified form, if necessary) jointly to the chairman and ranking minority member (or their designees) of such committees.

(3) A notification under paragraph (1) and information referred to in paragraph (2) shall include the amount to be obligated or expended, as the case may be, and the purpose of the obligation or expenditure.

(d) In any case in which funds are expended under the authority of subsections (a) and (b), the Secretary of Defense shall submit a report of such expenditures on a quarterly basis to the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

(Added Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §804(a), Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 538, §140; amended Pub. L. 98–94, title XII, §1268(2), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 705; renumbered §127 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(3), 110(d)(4), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 1002; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title III, §361, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1627; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title III, §378, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2737; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §915, title XV, §1502(a)(5), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 413, 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774.)

Amendments

1999—Subsecs. (c)(1), (d). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–106, §915(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(a)(5), substituted “Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on National Security and the Committee on Appropriations of” for “Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–106, §915(1), redesignated subsec. (c), as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, §§1502(a)(5), 1506, as (d).

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–337 struck out par. (1) designation before “In any case” and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “The amount of funds expended by the Inspector General of the Department of Defense under subsections (a) and (b) during a fiscal year may not exceed $400,000.”

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–160, §361(1), inserted “, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense,” after “the Secretary of Defense” and “or the Inspector General” after “the Secretary concerned” and after “The Secretary concerned”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160, §361(2), inserted “, by the Inspector General to any person in the Office of the Inspector General,” after “the Department of Defense”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–160, §361(3), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1986—Pub. L. 99–433 renumbered section 140 of this title as this section and substituted “Emergency” for “Emergencies” in section catchline.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–94 struck out “of this section” after “subsection (c)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–94 struck out “of this section” after “subsections (a) and (b)”.

Construction Authority of Secretary of Defense Under Declaration of War or National Emergency

Pub. L. 97–99, title IX, §903, Dec. 23, 1981, 95 Stat. 1382, which authorized the Secretary of Defense, in the event of a declaration of war or the declaration of a national emergency by the President, to undertake military construction without regard to any other provisions of law, was repealed and restated as section 2808 of this title by Pub. L. 97–214, §§2(a), 7(18), July 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 157, 174, effective Oct. 1, 1982.

§127a. Operations for which funds are not provided in advance: funding mechanisms

(a) In General.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall use the procedures prescribed by this section with respect to any operation specified in paragraph (2) that involves—

(A) the deployment (other than for a training exercise) of elements of the Armed Forces for a purpose other than a purpose for which funds have been specifically provided in advance; or

(B) the provision of humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, or support for law enforcement (including immigration control) for which funds have not been specifically provided in advance.


(2) This section applies to—

(A) any operation the incremental cost of which is expected to exceed $50,000,000; and

(B) any other operation the expected incremental cost of which, when added to the expected incremental costs of other operations that are currently ongoing, is expected to result in a cumulative incremental cost of ongoing operations of the Department of Defense in excess of $100,000,000.


Any operation the incremental cost of which is expected not to exceed $10,000,000 shall be disregarded for the purposes of subparagraph (B).

(3) Whenever an operation to which this section applies is commenced or subsequently becomes covered by this section, the Secretary of Defense shall designate and identify that operation for the purposes of this section and shall promptly notify Congress of that designation (and of the identification of the operation).

(4) This section does not provide authority for the President or the Secretary of Defense to carry out any operation, but establishes mechanisms for the Department of Defense by which funds are provided for operations that the armed forces are required to carry out under some other authority.

(b) Waiver of Requirement To Reimburse Support Units.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall direct that, when a unit of the Armed Forces participating in an operation described in subsection (a) receives services from an element of the Department of Defense that operates through the Defense Business Operations Fund (or a successor fund), such unit of the Armed Forces may not be required to reimburse that element for the incremental costs incurred by that element in providing such services, notwithstanding any other provision of law or any Government accounting practice.

(2) The amounts which but for paragraph (1) would be required to be reimbursed to an element of the Department of Defense (or a fund) shall be recorded as an expense attributable to the operation and shall be accounted for separately.

(c) Transfer Authority.—(1) Whenever there is an operation of the Department of Defense described in subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may transfer amounts described in paragraph (3) to accounts from which incremental expenses for that operation were incurred in order to reimburse those accounts for those incremental expenses. Amounts so transferred shall be merged with and be available for the same purposes as the accounts to which transferred.

(2) The total amount that the Secretary of Defense may transfer under the authority of this section in any fiscal year is $200,000,000.

(3) Transfers under this subsection may only be made from amounts appropriated to the Department of Defense for any fiscal year that remain available for obligation, other than amounts within any operation and maintenance appropriation that are available for (A) an account (known as a budget activity 1 account) that is specified as being for operating forces, or (B) an account (known as a budget activity 2 account) that is specified as being for mobilization.

(4) The authority provided by this subsection is in addition to any other authority provided by law authorizing the transfer of amounts available to the Department of Defense. However, the Secretary may not use any such authority under another provision of law for a purpose described in paragraph (1) if there is authority available under this subsection for that purpose.

(5) The authority provided by this subsection to transfer amounts may not be used to provide authority for an activity that has been denied authorization by Congress.

(6) A transfer made from one account to another under the authority of this subsection shall be deemed to increase the amount authorized for the account to which the amount is transferred by an amount equal to the amount transferred.

(d) Report Upon Designation of an Operation.—Within 45 days after the Secretary of Defense identifies an operation pursuant to subsection (a)(2), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report that sets forth the following:

(1) The manner by which the Secretary proposes to obtain funds for the cost to the United States of the operation, including a specific discussion of how the Secretary proposes to restore balances in—

(A) the Defense Business Operations Fund (or a successor fund), or

(B) the accounts from which the Secretary transfers funds under the authority of subsection (c), to the levels that would have been anticipated but for the provisions of subsection (c).


(2) If the operation is described in subsection (a)(1)(B), a justification why the budgetary resources of another department or agency of the Federal Government, instead of resources of the Department of Defense, are not being used for carrying out the operation.

(3) The objectives of the operation.

(4) The estimated duration of the operation and of any deployment of armed forces personnel in such operation.

(5) The estimated incremental cost of the operation to the United States.

(6) The exit criteria for the operation and for the withdrawal of the elements of the armed forces involved in the operation.


(e) Limitations.—(1) The Secretary may not restore balances in the Defense Business Operations Fund through increases in rates charged by that fund in order to compensate for costs incurred and not reimbursed due to subsection (b).

(2) The Secretary may not restore balances in the Defense Business Operations Fund or any other fund or account through the use of unobligated amounts in an operation and maintenance appropriation that are available within that appropriation for (A) an account (known as a budget activity 1 account) that is specified as being for operating forces, or (B) an account (known as a budget activity 2 account) that is specified as being for mobilization.

(f) Submission of Requests for Supplemental Appropriations.—It is the sense of Congress that whenever there is an operation described in subsection (a), the President should, not later than 90 days after the date on which notification is provided pursuant to subsection (a)(3), submit to Congress a request for the enactment of supplemental appropriations for the then-current fiscal year in order to provide funds to replenish the Defense Business Operations Fund or any other fund or account of the Department of Defense from which funds for the incremental expenses of that operation were derived under this section and should, as necessary, submit subsequent requests for the enactment of such appropriations.

(g) Incremental Costs.—For purposes of this section, incremental costs of the Department of Defense with respect to an operation are the costs of the Department that are directly attributable to the operation (and would not have been incurred but for the operation). Incremental costs do not include the cost of property or services acquired by the Department that are paid for by a source outside the Department or out of funds contributed by such a source.

(h) Relationship to War Powers Resolution.—This section may not be construed as altering or superseding the War Powers Resolution. This section does not provide authority to conduct any military operation.

(i) GAO Compliance Reviews.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall from time to time, and when requested by a committee of Congress, conduct a review of the defense funding structure under this section to determine whether the Department of Defense is complying with the requirements and limitations of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1108(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1751; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1003(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 415.)

References in Text

The War Powers Resolution, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 93–148, Nov. 7, 1973, 87 Stat. 555, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1541 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1541 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “Operations for which funds are not provided in advance: funding mechanisms” for “Expenses for contingency operations” as section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of subsecs. (a) to (h) relating to funding procedures for operations designated by the Secretary of Defense as National Contingency Operations.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1003(b) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that: “The amendment to section 127a of title 10, United States Code, made by subsection (a) shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996] and shall apply to any operation of the Department of Defense that is in effect on or after that date, whether such operation is begun before, on, or after such date of enactment. In the case of an operation begun before such date, any reference in such section to the commencement of such operation shall be treated as referring to the effective date under the preceding sentence.”

§128. Physical protection of special nuclear material: limitation on dissemination of unclassified information

(a)(1) In addition to any other authority or requirement regarding protection from dissemination of information, and subject to section 552(b)(3) of title 5, the Secretary of Defense, with respect to special nuclear materials, shall prescribe such regulations, after notice and opportunity for public comment thereon, or issue such orders as may be necessary to prohibit the unauthorized dissemination of unclassified information pertaining to security measures, including security plans, procedures, and equipment for the physical protection of special nuclear material.

(2) The Secretary may prescribe regulations or issue orders under paragraph (1) to prohibit the dissemination of any information described in such paragraph only if and to the extent that the Secretary determines that the unauthorized dissemination of such information could reasonably be expected to have a significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security by significantly increasing the likelihood of—

(A) illegal production of nuclear weapons, or

(B) theft, diversion, or sabotage of special nuclear materials, equipment, or facilities.


(3) In making a determination under paragraph (2), the Secretary may consider what the likelihood of an illegal production, theft, diversion, or sabotage referred to in such paragraph would be if the information proposed to be prohibited from dissemination under this section were at no time available for dissemination.

(4) The Secretary shall exercise his authority under this subsection to prohibit the dissemination of any information described in paragraph (1)—

(A) so as to apply the minimum restrictions needed to protect the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security; and

(B) upon a determination that the unauthorized dissemination of such information could reasonably be expected to result in a significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security by significantly increasing the likelihood of—

(i) illegal production of nuclear weapons, or

(ii) theft, diversion, or sabotage of nuclear materials, equipment, or facilities.


(b) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the Secretary to withhold, or to authorize the withholding of, information from the appropriate committees of the Congress.

(c) Any determination by the Secretary concerning the applicability of this section shall be subject to judicial review pursuant to section 552(a)(4)(B) of title 5.

(d) The Secretary shall prepare on an annual basis a report to be made available upon the request of any interested person, detailing the Secretary's application during that period of each regulation or order prescribed or issued under this section. In particular, such report shall—

(1) identify any information protected from disclosure pursuant to such regulation or order;

(2) specifically state the Secretary's justification for determining that unauthorized dissemination of the information protected from disclosure under such regulation or order could reasonably be expected to have a significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security by significantly increasing the likelihood of illegal production of nuclear weapons or the theft, diversion, or sabotage of special nuclear materials, equipment, or facilities, as specified under subsection (a); and

(3) provide justification that the Secretary has applied such regulation or order so as to protect from disclosure only the minimum amount of information necessary to protect the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security.

(Added Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XI, §1123(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1149; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1311(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1669.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 128 was renumbered section 421 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–510 substituted “on an annual basis” for “on a quarterly basis”.

§129. Prohibition of certain civilian personnel management constraints

(a) The civilian personnel of the Department of Defense shall be managed each fiscal year solely on the basis of and consistent with (1) the workload required to carry out the functions and activities of the department and (2) the funds made available to the department for such fiscal year. The management of such personnel in any fiscal year shall not be subject to any constraint or limitation in terms of man years, end strength, full-time equivalent positions, or maximum number of employees. The Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the military departments may not be required to make a reduction in the number of full-time equivalent positions in the Department of Defense unless such reduction is necessary due to a reduction in funds available to the Department or is required under a law that is enacted after February 10, 1996, and that refers specifically to this subsection.

(b) The number of, and the amount of funds available to be paid to, indirectly funded Government employees of the Department of Defense may not be—

(1) subject to any constraint or limitation on the number of such personnel who may be employed on the last day of a fiscal year;

(2) managed on the basis of any constraint or limitation in terms of man years, end strength, full-time equivalent positions, or maximum number of employees; or

(3) controlled under any policy of the Secretary of a military department for control of civilian manpower resources.


(c) In this section, the term “indirectly funded Government employees” means civilian employees of the Department of Defense—

(1) who are employed by industrial-type activities, the Major Range and Test Facility Base, or commercial-type activities described in section 2208 of this title; and

(2) whose salaries and benefits are funded from sources other than appropriated funds.


(d) With respect to each budget activity within an appropriation for a fiscal year for operations and maintenance, the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that there are employed during that fiscal year employees in the number and with the combination of skills and qualifications that are necessary to carry out the functions within that budget activity for which funds are provided for that fiscal year.

(e) Subsections (a), (b), and (c) apply to the Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) at the installation level. With respect to the MRTFB structure, the term “funds made available” includes both direct appropriated funds and funds provided by MRTFB customers.

(f)(1) Not later than February 1 of each year, the Secretary of each military department and the head of each Defense Agency shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report on the management of the civilian workforce under the jurisdiction of that official.

(2) Each report of an official under paragraph (1) shall contain the following:

(A) The official's certification (i) that the civilian workforce under the jurisdiction of the official is not subject to any constraint or limitation in terms of man years, end strength, full-time equivalent positions, or maximum number of employees, and (ii) that, during the 12 months preceding the date on which the report is due, such workforce has not been subject to any such constraint or limitation.

(B) A description of how the civilian workforce is managed.

(C) A detailed description of the analytical tools used to determine civilian workforce requirements during the 12-month period referred to in subparagraph (A).

(Added Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §904(a), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1114, §140b; renumbered §129, Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §101(a)(3), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994; amended Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §533, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3873; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title III, §312(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1335; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1031, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 428; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1074(a)(1), title XVI, §1603, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2658, 2735; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title XI, §1101, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1922; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774.)

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

1997—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–85 added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–201, §1074(a)(1), substituted “February 10, 1996,” for “the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996”.

Pub. L. 104–106, §1031(1), substituted “constraint or limitation in terms of man years, end strength, full-time equivalent positions, or maximum number of employees. The Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the military departments may not be required to make a reduction in the number of full-time equivalent positions in the Department of Defense unless such reduction is necessary due to a reduction in funds available to the Department or is required under a law that is enacted after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 and that refers specifically to this subsection.” for “man-year constraint or limitation.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–106, §1031(2), substituted “any constraint or limitation in terms of man years, end strength, full-time equivalent positions, or maximum number of employees” for “any end-strength”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–201, §1603(1), inserted “, the Major Range and Test Facility Base,” after “industrial-type activities”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–106, §1031(3), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–201, §1603(2), added subsec. (e).

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190 substituted “department and (2)” for “department, (2)” and struck out “, and (3) the authorized end strength for the civilian personnel of the department for such fiscal year” at end of first sentence.

1986—Pub. L. 99–661 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Pub. L. 99–433 renumbered section 140b of this title as this section.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 115 of this title.

§129a. General personnel policy

The Secretary of Defense shall use the least costly form of personnel consistent with military requirements and other needs of the Department. In developing the annual personnel authorization requests to Congress and in carrying out personnel policies, the Secretary shall—

(1) consider particularly the advantages of converting from one form of personnel (military, civilian, or private contract) to another for the performance of a specified job; and

(2) include in each manpower requirements report submitted under section 115a of this title a complete justification for converting from one form of personnel to another.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1483(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1715.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 115(b)(5) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, §1483(a).

Conversion of Military Positions to Civilian Positions

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1032, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 429, as amended by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XVI, §1601, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2734, directed Secretary of Defense, by Sept. 30, 1996, to convert at least 3,000 military positions to civilian positions and, not later than Mar. 31, 1996, submit to Congress a plan for the implementation of conversion.

Prohibition on Use of Funds To Assign Supervisor's Title or Grade Based Upon Number of People Supervised

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8031, Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 658, provided that: “None of the funds appropriated during the current fiscal year and hereafter, may be used by the Department of Defense to assign a supervisor's title or grade when the number of people he or she supervises is considered as a basis for this determination: Provided, That savings that result from this provision are represented as such in future budget proposals.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8036, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2626.

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8040, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1449.

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9053, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1914.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8055, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1184.

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8063, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1888.

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9085, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1147.

Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8079, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–30.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8105], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329–81.

§129b. Experts and consultants: authority to procure services of

(a) Authority.—Subject to subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the military departments may—

(1) procure the services of experts or consultants (or of organizations of experts or consultants) in accordance with section 3109 of title 5; and

(2) pay in connection with such services travel expenses of individuals, including transportation and per diem in lieu of subsistence while such individuals are traveling from their homes or places of business to official duty stations and return as may be authorized by law.


(b) Conditions.—The services of experts or consultants (or organizations thereof) may be procured under subsection (a) only if the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of the military department concerned, as the case may be, determines that—

(1) the procurement of such services is advantageous to the United States; and

(2) such services cannot adequately be provided by the Department of Defense.


(c) Regulations.—Procurement of the services of experts and consultants (or organizations thereof) under subsection (a) shall be carried out under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1481(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1704; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(a)(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1472.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9002, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1129, which was set out as a note under section 2241 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, §1481(b)(3).

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–190 inserted “of” after “services” in section catchline.

§129c. Medical personnel: limitations on reductions

(a) Limitation on Reduction.—For any fiscal year, the Secretary of Defense may not make a reduction in the number of medical personnel of the Department of Defense described in subsection (b) unless the Secretary makes a certification for that fiscal year described in subsection (c).

(b) Covered Reductions.—Subsection (a) applies to a reduction in the number of medical personnel of the Department of Defense as of the end of a fiscal year to a number that is less than—

(1) 95 percent of the number of such personnel at the end of the immediately preceding fiscal year; or

(2) 90 percent of the number of such personnel at the end of the third fiscal year preceding the fiscal year.


(c) Certification.—A certification referred to in subsection (a) with respect to reductions in medical personnel of the Department of Defense for any fiscal year is a certification by the Secretary of Defense to Congress that—

(1) the number of medical personnel being reduced is excess to the current and projected needs of the Department of Defense; and

(2) such reduction will not result in an increase in the cost of health care services provided under the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services under chapter 55 of this title.


(d) Policy for Implementing Reductions.—Whenever the Secretary of Defense directs that there be a reduction in the total number of military medical personnel of the Department of Defense, the Secretary shall require that the reduction be carried out so as to ensure that the reduction is not exclusively or disproportionately borne by any one of the armed forces and is not exclusively or disproportionately borne by either the active or the reserve components.

(e) Definition.—In this section, the term “medical personnel” means—

(1) the members of the armed forces covered by the term “medical personnel” as defined in section 115a(e)(2) of this title; and

(2) the civilian personnel of the Department of Defense assigned to military medical facilities.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §564(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 325; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(4), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1900.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VII, §711, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1582, as amended, which was set out as a note under section 115 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–106, §564(d)(1).

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted “section 115a(e)(2)” for “section 115a(g)(2)”.

Special Transition Rule for Fiscal Year 1996

Section 564(b) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that: “For purposes of applying subsection (b)(1) of section 129c of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), during fiscal year 1996, the number against which the percentage limitation of 95 percent is computed shall be the number of medical personnel of the Department of Defense as of the end of fiscal year 1994 (rather than the number as of the end of fiscal year 1995).”

§130. Authority to withhold from public disclosure certain technical data

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Defense may withhold from public disclosure any technical data with military or space application in the possession of, or under the control of, the Department of Defense, if such data may not be exported lawfully outside the United States without an approval, authorization, or license under the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2401–2420) or the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.). However, technical data may not be withheld under this section if regulations promulgated under either such Act authorize the export of such data pursuant to a general, unrestricted license or exemption in such regulations.

(b) Regulations under this section shall be published in the Federal Register for a period of no less than 30 days for public comment before promulgation. Such regulations shall address, where appropriate, releases of technical data to allies of the United States and to qualified United States contractors, including United States contractors that are small business concerns, for use in performing United States Government contracts.

(c) In this section, the term “technical data with military or space application” means any blueprints, drawings, plans, instructions, computer software and documentation, or other technical information that can be used, or be adapted for use, to design, engineer, produce, manufacture, operate, repair, overhaul, or reproduce any military or space equipment or technology concerning such equipment.

(Added Pub. L. 98–94, title XII, §1217(a), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 690, §140c; amended Pub. L. 99–145, title XIII, §1303(a)(3), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 738; renumbered §130 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(3), 110(d)(6), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 1003; Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(3), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 284; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1484(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1715.)

References in Text

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, as amended, which is classified principally to section 2401 et seq. of the Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2401 of the Appendix to Title 50 and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of Title 22 and Tables.

Amendments

1990—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 101–510 substituted “Regulations under this section” for “(1) Within 90 days after September 24, 1983, the Secretary of Defense shall propose regulations to implement this section. Such regulations” in subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b)(2) as subsec. (c).

1987—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–26 inserted “the term” after “In this section,”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–433 renumbered section 140c of this title as this section and substituted “Authority” for “Secretary of Defense: authority” in section catchline.

1985—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “September 24, 1983” for “enactment of this section”.

§130a. Major Department of Defense headquarters activities personnel: limitation

(a) Limitation.—Effective October 1, 2002, the number of major headquarters activities personnel in the Department of Defense may not exceed 85 percent of the baseline number.

(b) Phased Reduction.—The number of major headquarters activities personnel in the Department of Defense—

(1) as of October 1, 2000, may not exceed 95 percent of the baseline number; and

(2) as of October 1, 2001, may not exceed 90 percent of the baseline number.


(c) Baseline Number.—In this section, the term “baseline number” means the number of major headquarters activities personnel in the Department of Defense as of October 1, 1999.

(d) Major Headquarters Activities.—(1) For purposes of this section, major headquarters activities are those headquarters (and the direct support integral to their operation) the primary mission of which is to manage or command the programs and operations of the Department of Defense, the Department of Defense components, and their major military units, organizations, or agencies. Such term includes management headquarters, combatant headquarters, and direct support.

(2) The specific elements of the Department of Defense that are major headquarters activities for the purposes of this section are those elements identified as Major DoD Headquarters Activities in accordance with Department of Defense Directive 5100.73, entitled “Major Department of Defense Headquarters Activities”, issued on May 13, 1999. The provisions of that directive applicable to identification of any activity as a “Major DoD Headquarters Activity” may not be changed except as provided by law.

(e) Major Headquarters Activities Personnel.—In this section, the term “major headquarters activities personnel” means military and civilian personnel of the Department of Defense who are assigned to, or employed in, functions in major headquarters activities.

(f) Limitation on Reassignment of Functions.—In carrying out reductions in the number of personnel assigned to, or employed in, major headquarters activities in order to comply with this section, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the military departments may not reassign functions in order to evade the requirements of this section.

(g) Flexibility.—(1) If during fiscal year 2001 or fiscal year 2002 the Secretary of Defense determines, and certifies to Congress, that the limitation under subsection (a), or a limitation under subsection (b), would adversely affect United States national security, the Secretary may take any of the following actions:

(A) Increase the percentage specified in subsection (b)(1) by such amount as the Secretary determines necessary or waive the limitation under that subsection.

(B) Increase the percentage specified in subsection (b)(2) by such amount as the Secretary determines necessary, not to exceed a cumulative increase of 7.5 percentage points.

(C) Increase the percentage specified in subsection (a) by such amount as the Secretary determines necessary, not to exceed a cumulative increase of 7.5 percentage points.


(2) Any certification under paragraph (1) shall include notice of the specific waiver or increases made pursuant to the authority provided in that paragraph.

(Added Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1857; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §921(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IX, §941], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–241.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–398 added subsec. (g).

1999—Pub. L. 106–65 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (g) limiting and requiring phased reductions in management headquarters and headquarters support activities personnel.

Implementation Report

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, §911(b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1858, provided that not later than Jan. 15, 1998, the Secretary of Defense was to submit to Congress a report containing a plan to achieve the personnel reductions required by this section as added by section 911(a) of Pub. L. 105–85.

§130b. Personnel in overseas, sensitive, or routinely deployable units: nondisclosure of personally identifying information

(a) Exemption From Disclosure.—The Secretary of Defense and, with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, the Secretary of Transportation may, notwithstanding section 552 of title 5, authorize to be withheld from disclosure to the public personally identifying information regarding—

(1) any member of the armed forces assigned to an overseas unit, a sensitive unit, or a routinely deployable unit; and

(2) any employee of the Department of Defense or of the Coast Guard whose duty station is with any such unit.


(b) Exceptions.—(1) The authority in subsection (a) is subject to such exceptions as the President may direct.

(2) Subsection (a) does not authorize any official to withhold, or to authorize the withholding of, information from Congress.

(c) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term “personally identifying information”, with respect to any person, means the person's name, rank, duty address, and official title and information regarding the person's pay.

(2) The term “unit” means a military organization of the armed forces designated as a unit by competent authority.

(3) The term “overseas unit” means a unit that is located outside the United States and its territories.

(4) The term “sensitive unit” means a unit that is primarily involved in training for the conduct of, or conducting, special activities or classified missions, including—

(A) a unit involved in collecting, handling, disposing, or storing of classified information and materials;

(B) a unit engaged in training—

(i) special operations units;

(ii) security group commands weapons stations; or

(iii) communications stations; and


(C) any other unit that is designated as a sensitive unit by the Secretary of Defense or, in the case of the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, by the Secretary of Transportation.


(5) The term “routinely deployable unit” means a unit that normally deploys from its permanent home station on a periodic or rotating basis to meet peacetime operational requirements that, or to participate in scheduled training exercises that, routinely require deployments outside the United States and its territories. Such term includes a unit that is alerted for deployment outside the United States and its territories during an actual execution of a contingency plan or in support of a crisis operation.

(Added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1044(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 761.)

§130c. Nondisclosure of information: certain sensitive information of foreign governments and international organizations

(a) Exemption From Disclosure.—The national security official concerned (as defined in subsection (h)) may withhold from public disclosure otherwise required by law sensitive information of foreign governments in accordance with this section.

(b) Information Eligible for Exemption.—For the purposes of this section, information is sensitive information of a foreign government only if the national security official concerned makes each of the following determinations with respect to the information:

(1) That the information was provided by, otherwise made available by, or produced in cooperation with, a foreign government or international organization.

(2) That the foreign government or international organization is withholding the information from public disclosure (relying for that determination on the written representation of the foreign government or international organization to that effect).

(3) That any of the following conditions are met:

(A) The foreign government or international organization requests, in writing, that the information be withheld.

(B) The information was provided or made available to the United States Government on the condition that it not be released to the public.

(C) The information is an item of information, or is in a category of information, that the national security official concerned has specified in regulations prescribed under subsection (g) as being information the release of which would have an adverse effect on the ability of the United States Government to obtain the same or similar information in the future.


(c) Information of Other Agencies.—If the national security official concerned provides to the head of another agency sensitive information of a foreign government, as determined by that national security official under subsection (b), and informs the head of the other agency of that determination, then the head of the other agency shall withhold the information from any public disclosure unless that national security official specifically authorizes the disclosure.

(d) Limitations.—(1) If a request for disclosure covers any sensitive information of a foreign government (as described in subsection (b)) that came into the possession or under the control of the United States Government before October 30, 2000, and more than 25 years before the request is received by an agency, the information may be withheld only as set forth in paragraph (3).

(2)(A) If a request for disclosure covers any sensitive information of a foreign government (as described in subsection (b)) that came into the possession or under the control of the United States Government on or after the date referred to in paragraph (1), the authority to withhold the information under this section is subject to the provisions of subparagraphs (B) and (C).

(B) Information referred to in subparagraph (A) may not be withheld under this section after—

(i) the date that is specified by a foreign government or international organization in a request or expression of a condition described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b) that is made by the foreign government or international organization concerning the information; or

(ii) if there are more than one such foreign governments or international organizations, the latest date so specified by any of them.


(C) If no date is applicable under subparagraph (B) to a request referred to in subparagraph (A) and the information referred to in that subparagraph came into possession or under the control of the United States more than 10 years before the date on which the request is received by an agency, the information may be withheld under this section only as set forth in paragraph (3).

(3) Information referred to in paragraph (1) or (2)(C) may be withheld under this section in the case of a request for disclosure only if, upon the notification of each foreign government and international organization concerned in accordance with the regulations prescribed under subsection (g)(2), any such government or organization requests in writing that the information not be disclosed for an additional period stated in the request of that government or organization. After the national security official concerned considers the request of the foreign government or international organization, the official shall designate a later date as the date after which the information is not to be withheld under this section. The later date may be extended in accordance with a later request of any such foreign government or international organization under this paragraph.

(e) Information Protected Under Other Authority.—This section does not apply to information or matters that are specifically required in the interest of national defense or foreign policy to be protected against unauthorized disclosure under criteria established by an Executive order and are classified, properly, at the confidential, secret, or top secret level pursuant to such Executive order.

(f) Disclosures Not Affected.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize any official to withhold, or to authorize the withholding of, information from the following:

(1) Congress.

(2) The Comptroller General, unless the information relates to activities that the President designates as foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities.


(g) Regulations.—(1) The national security officials referred to in subsection (h)(1) shall each prescribe regulations to carry out this section. The regulations shall include criteria for making the determinations required under subsection (b). The regulations may provide for controls on access to and use of, and special markings and specific safeguards for, a category or categories of information subject to this section.

(2) The regulations shall include procedures for notifying and consulting with each foreign government or international organization concerned about requests for disclosure of information to which this section applies.

(h) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term “national security official concerned” means the following:

(A) The Secretary of Defense, with respect to information of concern to the Department of Defense, as determined by the Secretary.

(B) The Secretary of Transportation, with respect to information of concern to the Coast Guard, as determined by the Secretary, but only while the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy.

(C) The Secretary of Energy, with respect to information concerning the national security programs of the Department of Energy, as determined by the Secretary.


(2) The term “agency” has the meaning given that term in section 552(f) of title 5.

(3) The term “international organization” means the following:

(A) A public international organization designated pursuant to section 1 of the International Organizations Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669; 22 U.S.C. 288) as being entitled to enjoy the privileges, exemptions, and immunities provided in such Act.

(B) A public international organization created pursuant to a treaty or other international agreement as an instrument through or by which two or more foreign governments engage in some aspect of their conduct of international affairs.

(C) An official mission, except a United States mission, to a public international organization referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(Added Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1073(a)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–277; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(a)(3), (c)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1222, 1226.)

References in Text

The International Organizations Immunities Act, referred to in subsec. (h)(3)(A), is title I of act Dec. 29, 1945, ch. 652, 59 Stat. 669, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter XVIII (§288 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 288 of Title 22 and Tables.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 107–107, §1048(a)(3), substituted “subsection (g)” for “subsection (f)”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–107, §1048(c)(1), substituted “October 30, 2000,” for “the date of the enactment of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001”.

CHAPTER 4—OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE

Sec.
131.
Office of the Secretary of Defense.
132.
Deputy Secretary of Defense.
133.
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.
133a.
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology.
133b.
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness.
134.
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.
134a.
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.
134b.
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy.
135.
Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).
136.
Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness.
136a.
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness.
137.
Director of Defense Research and Engineering.
138.
Assistant Secretaries of Defense.
139.
Director of Operational Test and Evaluation.
[139a to 139c. Renumbered.]
140.
General Counsel.
[140a to 140c. Renumbered.]
141.
Inspector General.
142.
Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Defense Programs.
143.
Office of the Secretary of Defense personnel: limitation.

        

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IX, §901(a)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1194, added item 136a.

1999—Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 719, added items 133 and 133b and struck out former item 133 “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology”.

1998—Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XV, §1521(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2179, added item 134b.

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1859, added item 143.

1996—Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §904(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 403, substituted “Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Defense Programs” for “Atomic Energy” in item 142.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §903(a), (e)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 401, 402, which directed amendment of analysis, eff. Jan. 31, 1997, by striking out items 133a, 134a, 137, and 142, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §901, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2617.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §903(a)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2823, substituted “Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)” for “Comptroller” in item 135.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §906(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1729, amended table of sections generally, inserting “and Technology” after “Acquisition” in items 133 and 133a, adding item 136, and redesignating former items 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, and 141 as 137, 138, 135, 139, 140, 141, and 142, respectively.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IX, §901(a)(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1450, added item 134a.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1245(a)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1165, added item 141.

Pub. L. 100–26, §9(b)(2), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 287, struck out item 140a “Counterintelligence official reception and representation expenses” and item 140b “Authority to use proceeds from counterintelligence operations of the military departments”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §902(a)(2)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–131, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §902(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–131; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §902(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3911, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, amended analysis identically adding item 133a.

Pub. L. 99–569, title IV, §§401(d), 403(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3196, 3197, added items 140a and 140b.

Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(6), 110(e)(2), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 995, 1003, substituted “Office of the Secretary of Defense” for “Department of Defense” in chapter heading, and amended analysis generally, substituting items 131 to 140 for former items 131 “Executive department”, 132 “Seal”, 133 “Secretary of Defense: appointment; powers and duties; delegation by”, 133a “Secretary of Defense: annual report on North Atlantic Treaty Organization readiness”, 133b “Sale or transfer of defense articles: reports to Congress”, 134 “Deputy Secretary of Defense: appointment; powers and duties; precedence”, 134a “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition: appointment”, 135 “Under Secretary of Defense for Policy; Director of Defense Research and Engineering: appointments; powers and duties; precedence”, 136 “Assistant Secretaries of Defense: appointment; powers and duties; precedence”, 136a “Director of Operational Test and Evaluation: appointment, powers and duties”, 137 “General Counsel: appointment; powers and duties”, 138 “Annual authorization of appropriations and personnel strengths for the armed forces; annual manpower requirements and operations and maintenance reports”, 139 “Secretary of Defense: weapons development and procurement schedules for armed forces; reports; supplemental reports”, 139a “Oversight of cost growth in major programs: Selected Acquisition Reports”, 139b “Oversight of cost growth in major programs: unit cost reports”, 139c “Major defense acquisition programs: independent cost estimates”, 140 “Emergencies and extraordinary expenses”, 140a “Secretary of Defense: funds transfers for foreign cryptologic support”, 140b “Prohibition of certain civilian personnel management constraints”, and 140c “Secretary of Defense: authority to withhold from public disclosure certain technical data”.

Pub. L. 99–348, title V, §501(e)(2), July 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 708, added item 134a and substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Policy; Director of Defense Research and Engineering: appointments” for “Under Secretaries of Defense: appointment” in item 135.

1983—Pub. L. 98–94, title XII, §§1203(a)(2), 1211(a)(2), 1217(b), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 683, 686, 690, added items 136a, 139c, and 140c.

1982—Pub. L. 97–295, §1(2)(B), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1288, added items 133a and 133b.

Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1107(a)(2), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 745, added items 139a and 139b.

1981—Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §904(b), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1114, added item 140b.

1980—Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §401(b), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1977, added item 140a.

Pub. L. 96–342, title X, §1001(d)(2), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1119, substituted “Annual authorization of appropriations and personnel strengths for the armed forces; annual manpower requirements and operations and maintenance reports” for “Secretary of Defense: Annual authorization of appropriations for armed forces” in item 138.

1977—Pub. L. 95–140, §§1(b), 2(b), Oct. 21, 1977, 91 Stat. 1172, 1173, substituted “Deputy Secretary” for “Deputy Secretaries” in item 134 and “Under Secretaries of Defense” for “Director of Defense Research and Engineering” in item 135.

1975—Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §804(a), Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 538, added item 140.

1973—Pub. L. 93–155, title VIII, §803(a), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 612, added items 138 and 139.

1972—Pub. L. 92–596, §4(3), Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1318, substituted “Deputy Secretaries” for “Deputy Secretary” in item 134.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in title 41 section 421.

§131. Office of the Secretary of Defense

(a) There is in the Department of Defense an Office of the Secretary of Defense. The function of the Office is to assist the Secretary of Defense in carrying out his duties and responsibilities and to carry out such other duties as may be prescribed by law.

(b) The Office of the Secretary of Defense is composed of the following:

(1) The Deputy Secretary of Defense.

(2) The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.

(3) The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

(4) The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).

(5) The Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness.

(6) The Director of Defense Research and Engineering.

(7) The Assistant Secretaries of Defense.

(8) The Director of Operational Test and Evaluation.

(9) The General Counsel of the Department of Defense.

(10) The Inspector General of the Department of Defense.

(11) Such other offices and officials as may be established by law or the Secretary of Defense may establish or designate in the Office.


(c) Officers of the armed forces may be assigned or detailed to permanent duty in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. However, the Secretary may not establish a military staff in the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

(d) The Secretary of each military department, and the civilian employees and members of the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary, shall cooperate fully with personnel of the Office of the Secretary of Defense to achieve efficient administration of the Department of Defense and to carry out effectively the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §104, Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 996; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §906(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1729; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §903(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2823; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §903(e)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §901, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2617; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 719.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 131 was renumbered section 111 of this title.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology”.

1996—Subsec. (b)(6) to (11). Pub. L. 104–106, §903(a), (e)(1), which directed amendment of subsec. (b), eff. Jan. 31, 1997, by striking out pars. (6) and (8) and redesignating pars. (7), (9), (10), and (11) as (6), (7), (8), and (9), respectively, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–201.

1994—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted “Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)” for “Comptroller”.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “The Office of the Secretary of Defense is composed of the following:

“(1) The Deputy Secretary of Defense.

“(2) The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition.

“(3) The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

“(4) The Director of Defense Research and Engineering.

“(5) The Assistant Secretaries of Defense.

“(6) The Comptroller of the Department of Defense.

“(7) The Director of Operational Test and Evaluation.

“(8) The General Counsel of the Department of Defense.

“(9) The Inspector General of the Department of Defense.

“(10) Such other offices and officials as may be established by law or the Secretary of Defense may establish or designate in the Office.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 903(a) of Pub. L. 104–106, which provided that the amendments made by section 903 of Pub. L. 104–106 (amending this section and sections 138, 176, 1056, 1216, 1587, and 10201 of this title, repealing sections 133a, 134a, 137, and 142 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 167 of this title) were to take effect on Jan. 31, 1997, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §901, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2617.

Defense Acquisition Workforce

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, §912(a)–(e), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1860, 1861, required Secretary of Defense to accomplish reductions in defense acquisition personnel positions, to report on specific acquisition positions previously eliminated, to submit an implementation plan to streamline and improve acquisition organizations, to review acquisition organizations and functions, and to require certain duties of Task Force on Defense Reform.

Reduction of Personnel Assigned to Office of the Secretary of Defense

Section 903 of Pub. L. 104–201, which provided for phased reduction of number of personnel assigned to or employed in functions in Office of the Secretary of Defense, was repealed and restated in section 143 of this title by Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(1), (3), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1859, 1860.

Organization of Office of the Secretary of Defense

Section 901 of Pub. L. 104–106, as amended by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §903(g), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2618, provided that:

“(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) The statutory provisions that as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996] govern the organization of the Office of the Secretary of Defense have evolved from enactment of a number of executive branch legislative proposals and congressional initiatives over a period of years.

“(2) The May 1995 report of the congressionally mandated Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces included a number of recommendations relating to the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

“(3) The Secretary of Defense has decided to create a special Department task force and to conduct other reviews to review many of the Commission's recommendations.

“(4) The Secretary of Defense has decided to institute a 5 percent per year reduction of civilian personnel assigned to the Office of the Secretary of Defense, including the Washington Headquarters Service and the Defense Support Activities, for the period from fiscal year 1996 through fiscal year 2001.

“(5) Over the ten-year period from 1986 through 1995, defense spending in real dollars has been reduced by 34 percent and military end-strengths have been reduced by 28 percent. During the same period, the number of civilian employees of the Office of the Secretary of Defense has increased by 22 percent.

“(6) To achieve greater efficiency and to revalidate the role and mission of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, a comprehensive review of the organizations and functions of that Office and of the personnel needed to carry out those functions is required.

“(b) Review.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a further review of the organizations and functions of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, including the Washington Headquarters Service and the Defense Support Activities, and the personnel needed to carry out those functions. The review shall include the following:

“(1) An assessment of the appropriate functions of the Office and whether the Office of the Secretary of Defense or some of its component parts should be organized along mission lines.

“(2) An assessment of the adequacy of the present organizational structure to efficiently and effectively support the Secretary in carrying out his responsibilities in a manner that ensures civilian authority in the Department of Defense.

“(3) An assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of political appointees to fill the positions of the various Under Secretaries of Defense, Assistant Secretaries of Defense, and Deputy Under Secretaries of Defense.

“(4) An assessment of the extent of unnecessary duplication of functions between the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Staff.

“(5) An assessment of the extent of unnecessary duplication of functions between the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the military departments.

“(6) An assessment of the appropriate number of positions referred to in paragraph (3) and of Deputy Assistant Secretaries of Defense.

“(7) An assessment of whether some or any of the functions currently performed by the Office of Humanitarian and Refugee Affairs are more properly or effectively performed by another agency of Government or elsewhere within the Department of Defense.

“(8) An assessment of the efficacy of the Joint Requirements Oversight Council and whether it is advisable or necessary to establish a statutory charter for this organization.

“(9) An assessment of any benefits or efficiencies derived from decentralizing certain functions currently performed by the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

“(10) An assessment of the appropriate size, number, and functional responsibilities of the Defense Agencies and other Department of Defense support organizations.

“(c) Report.—Not later than March 1, 1996, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report containing—

“(1) his findings and conclusions resulting from the review under subsection (b); and

“(2) a plan for implementing resulting recommendations, including proposals for legislation (with supporting rationale) that would be required as a result of the review.”

Management Studies of Office of the Secretary of Defense

Section 109 of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that:

“(a) Secretary of Defense Study.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a study of the functions and organization of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The study shall consider whether the present allocation of functions to, and the organizational structure of, the Office constitute the most effective, efficient, and economical allocation and structure of the Office to assist the Secretary in carrying out his duties and responsibilities. The study shall include consideration of each of the matters specified in subsection (d).

“(b) Service Secretaries Joint Study.—(1) The Secretaries of the military departments shall conduct a joint study of the functions and organization of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The study shall be conducted independently of the study conducted by the Secretary of Defense under subsection (a). The Secretaries shall submit a joint report to the Secretary of Defense on such study at a time specified by the Secretary. Except as provided in paragraph (2), the report shall include a discussion of and recommendations concerning each of the matters specified in subsection (d).

“(2) The Secretary of Defense shall determine the extent to which, and prescribe the procedures under which, the Secretaries of the military departments shall study the matters specified in subsection (d)(1)(A) relating to contingency planning and military operations.

“(c) Chairman of JCS Study.—The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall conduct a study of the functions and organization of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The study shall be conducted independently of the study conducted by the Secretary of Defense under subsection (a). The Chairman shall submit a report to the Secretary of Defense on such study at a time specified by the Secretary. The report shall include a discussion of and recommendations concerning the matters specified in paragraphs (1)(C), (1)(D), (2), (3), (5), and (6) of subsection (d).

“(d) Matters To Be Included.—The study required by subsection (a) shall include consideration of the following:

“(1) Whether the present organization of the Office—

“(A) is optimally structured to assist the Secretary of Defense in the effective exercise of civilian control of the Department of Defense, including civilian control of—

“(i) defense policy development and strategic planning;

“(ii) program and budget development;

“(iii) policy, program, and budget execution;

“(iv) contingency planning; and

“(v) military operations;

“(B) is the most effective and efficient organization for the initiation, development, and articulation of defense policy;

“(C) ensures that strategic planning and contingency planning are linked to, and derived from, national security strategy, policies, and objectives; and

“(D) inhibits integration of the capabilities of the Armed Forces along mission lines.

“(2) Whether the planning, programming, and budgeting system of the Department of Defense (including the role of the Office in such system) needs to be revised—

“(A) to strengthen strategic planning and policy direction;

“(B) to ensure that strategic planning is consistent with national security strategy, policies, and objectives;

“(C) to ensure that there is a sufficient relationship between strategic planning and the resource levels projected to be available for the period for which the planning is to be effective;

“(D) to ensure that strategic planning and program development give sufficient attention to alliances with other nations;

“(E) to provide for more effective oversight, control, and evaluation of policy, program, and budget execution; and

“(F) to ensure that past program and budget decisions are effectively evaluated, that such evaluations are supported by consistent, complete, and timely financial and performance data, and that such evaluations are fully considered in the next planning, programming, and budgeting cycle.

“(3) Whether the major force program categories of the Five-Year Defense Plan could be restructured to better assist decisionmaking and management control.

“(4) Means to improve and strengthen the oversight function within each element of the Office in policy areas not addressed by the planning, programming, and budgeting system.

“(5) Factors inhibiting efficient and effective execution of the functions of the Office, including factors relating to—

“(A) duplication of functions (both within the Office and between the Office and other elements of the Department);

“(B) insufficient information; and

“(C) insufficient resources (including personnel).

“(6) Alternative allocations of authorities and functions of the Office and other reorganization proposals for the Office, including the desirability of—

“(A) establishing Under Secretaries of Defense for mission-oriented areas of responsibility;

“(B) decentralizing functions of the Office;

“(C) reducing the number of officials reporting directly to the Secretary of Defense; and

“(D) changing the ratio of members of the Armed Forces to civilian employees in the Office.

“(7) Whether political appointees in the Office of the Secretary of Defense have sufficient experience and expertise, upon appointment, to be capable of contributing immediately to effective policy formulation and management.

“(e) Analysis of Civilian Control.—(1) The Secretary of Defense, in considering under subsection (d)(1)(A) whether effective civilian control of the Department of Defense is best assisted by the current structure of the Office, shall examine the functions performed in the Office by—

“(A) members of the Armed Forces on the active-duty list; and

“(B) members of the Armed Forces in a retired status and members of the reserve components who are employed in a civilian capacity.

“(2) Such examination shall include a determination of the total number of positions in the Office of the Secretary of Defense above grade GS–8 and the military equivalent (as determined by the Secretary of Defense), and of such number—

“(A) the number of positions held by members of the Armed Forces on the active-duty list, shown for the military equivalent of each civilian pay grade by number and as a percentage of the total number of positions in the Office in the civilian pay grade concerned and in the military equivalent of such civilian pay grade;

“(B) the number of such positions held by members of the Armed Forces in a retired status who are serving in a civilian capacity, shown for each civilian pay grade in the same manner as provided under clause (A); and

“(C) the number of such positions held by members of the reserve components who are serving in a civilian capacity, shown for each civilian pay grade in the same manner as provided under clause (A).

“(3) In determining the total number of positions in the Office of the Secretary of Defense in grades above GS–8, the Secretary shall exclude positions which are primarily clerical or secretarial.

“(f) Independent Contractor Study.—The Secretary shall provide for an independent study to be carried out by a contractor to consider the same matters required to be considered by the Secretary under subsection (d). The Secretary shall ensure that the contractor has full access to such information as the contractor requires and that the contractor otherwise receives full cooperation from all officials and entities of the Department of Defense.

“(g) Report to Congress.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the Secretary's study under subsection (a). The report shall include—

“(A) the findings and conclusions of the Secretary with respect to each of the matters set forth in subsection (d);

“(B) the findings and statistical determinations required under subsection (e); and

“(C) any recommendations of the Secretary for organizational changes in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and a description of the means for implementing each recommendation.

“(2) The Secretary shall include with the report a copy of the reports to the Secretary under subsections (b) and (c) and a copy of the report of the independent contractor under subsection (f), together with such comments on each such report as the Secretary considers appropriate.

“(3) The report under this subsection shall be submitted not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 1, 1986].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 192 of this title.

§132. Deputy Secretary of Defense

(a) There is a Deputy Secretary of Defense, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. A person may not be appointed as Deputy Secretary of Defense within ten years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.

(b) The Deputy Secretary shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe. The Deputy Secretary shall act for, and exercise the powers of, the Secretary when the Secretary is disabled or there is no Secretary of Defense.

(c) The Deputy Secretary takes precedence in the Department of Defense immediately after the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §202, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 518, §134; amended Pub. L. 92–596, §4(1), Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 95–140, §1(a), Oct. 21, 1977, 91 Stat. 1172; renumbered §132 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(7), 110(d)(7), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 995, 1003.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
134(a)

134(b)

5:171c(a) (1st sentence).

5:171c(a) (less 1st sentence and last 15 words of 2d sentence).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §203(a); added Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §6(a) (1st par.), 63 Stat. 581.
134(c) 5:171c(a) (last 15 words of 2d sentence).

In subsection (a), the last sentence is substituted for 5 U.S.C. 171c(a) (proviso).

Prior Provisions

A prior section 132 was renumbered section 112 of this title.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–433 renumbered section 134 of this title as this section and struck out “: appointment; powers and duties; precedence” at end of section catchline.

1977—Pub. L. 95–140, §1(a)(4), substituted “Deputy Secretary” for “Deputy Secretaries” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–140, §1(a)(1), substituted “There is a Deputy Secretary” for “There are two Deputy Secretaries” and struck out “a” before “Deputy Secretary”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–140, §1(a)(2), substituted “Deputy Secretary” for “Deputy Secretaries” and “Deputy Secretary” for “Deputy Secretaries, in the order of precedence, designated by the President”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–140, §1(a)(3), substituted “The Deputy Secretary takes” for “The Deputy Secretaries take”.

1972—Pub. L. 92–596 substituted “Deputy Secretaries” for “Deputy Secretary” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–596 substituted “There are two Deputy Secretaries of Defense” for “There is a Deputy Secretary of Defense”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–596 provided for the exercise of powers and duties consequent to the creation of a second Deputy Secretary.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–596 substituted “The Deputy Secretaries take” for “The Deputy Secretary takes”.

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§133. Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics

(a) There is an Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Under Secretary shall be appointed from among persons who have an extensive management background in the private sector.

(b) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall perform such duties and exercise such powers relating to acquisition as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe, including—

(1) supervising Department of Defense acquisition;

(2) establishing policies for acquisition (including procurement of goods and services, research and development, developmental testing, and contract administration) for all elements of the Department of Defense;

(3) establishing policies for logistics, maintenance, and sustainment support for all elements of the Department of Defense;

(4) establishing policies of the Department of Defense for maintenance of the defense industrial base of the United States; and

(5) the authority to direct the Secretaries of the military departments and the heads of all other elements of the Department of Defense with regard to matters for which the Under Secretary has responsibility.


(c) The Under Secretary—

(1) is the senior procurement executive for the Department of Defense for the purposes of section 16(3) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 414(3));

(2) is the Defense Acquisition Executive for purposes of regulations and procedures of the Department providing for a Defense Acquisition Executive; and

(3) to the extent directed by the Secretary, exercises overall supervision of all personnel (civilian and military) in the Office of the Secretary of Defense with regard to matters for which the Under Secretary has responsibility, unless otherwise provided by law.


(d)(1) The Under Secretary shall prescribe policies to ensure that audit and oversight of contractor activities are coordinated and carried out in a manner to prevent duplication by different elements of the Department. Such policies shall provide for coordination of the annual plans developed by each such element for the conduct of audit and oversight functions within each contracting activity.

(2) In carrying out this subsection, the Under Secretary shall consult with the Inspector General of the Department of Defense.

(3) Nothing in this subsection shall affect the authority of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense to establish audit policy for the Department of Defense under the Inspector General Act of 1978 and otherwise to carry out the functions of the Inspector General under that Act.

(e)(1) With regard to all matters for which he has responsibility by law or by direction of the Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics takes precedence in the Department of Defense after the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense.

(2) With regard to all matters other than matters for which he has responsibility by law or by direction of the Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary takes precedence in the Department of Defense after the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the Secretaries of the military departments.

(Added Pub. L. 99–348, title V, §501(a), July 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 707, §134a; renumbered §133 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§101(a)(7), 110(c)(1), (d)(8), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 995, 1002, 1003; Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §901], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–130, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §901], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–130; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §901, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3910, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §809(d), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2013; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1728; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(2), (d)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 717, 719; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §801(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1174.)

References in Text

The Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), is Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 133 was renumbered section 113 of this title.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–107 inserted “of goods and services” after “procurement”.

1999—Pub. L. 106–65, §911(d)(2), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–65, §911(a)(2)(A), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65, §911(a)(2)(A), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–65, §911(a)(2)(B)(i), struck out “logistics,” after “research and development,”.

Subsec. (b)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 106–65, §911(a)(2)(B)(ii), (iii), added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 106–65, §911(a)(2)(A), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition” in section catchline and in subsecs. (a), (b), and (e)(1).

1988—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 100–456 inserted provision that policies provide for coordination of annual plans developed by each such element for the conduct of audit and oversight functions within each contracting activity.

1986—Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661 generally amended section identically. Prior to amendment, section read as follows:

“(a) There is an Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

“(b) The Under Secretary shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe, except as otherwise provided by law.”

Pub. L. 99–433 renumbered section 134a of this title as this section, struck out “: appointment” at end of section catchline, and inserted “of Defense” after “Under Secretary” in subsec. (a).

Change of Name

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 717, provided that: “The position of Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology in the Department of Defense is hereby redesignated as the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. Any reference in any law, regulation, document, or other record of the United States to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology shall be treated as referring to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.”

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(a), (f), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1728, 1729, provided that the office of Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition in the Department of Defense was redesignated as Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, the office of Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition in the Department of Defense was redesignated as Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, and any reference to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition or the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition in any provision of law other than this title, or in any rule, regulation, or other paper of the United States was to be treated as referring to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology or the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, respectively.

Improvement in Defense Research and Procurement Liaison With Israel

Section 1006 of Pub. L. 100–456, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(f), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1729; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 717, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, shall designate for duty in Israel an individual or individuals to serve as the primary liaison between the procurement and research and development activities of the United States Armed Forces and those of the State of Israel.”

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§133a. Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology

(a) There is a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) The Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology shall assist the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics in the performance of the Under Secretary's duties relating to acquisition and technology.

(Added Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §902(a)(1)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–131, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §902(a)(1)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–131; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §902(a)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3911, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(c), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1728; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2855; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §903(c)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §901, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2617; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(c), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 718; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(b)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1225.)

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–661 added identical sections.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 133a was renumbered section 117 of this title.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–107 substituted “shall assist the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics” for “shall assist the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology”.

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “the Under Secretary's duties relating to acquisition and technology.” for “his duties. The Deputy Under Secretary shall act for, and exercise the powers of, the Under Secretary when the Under Secretary is absent or disabled.”

1996—Pub. L. 104–106, §903(a), (c)(1), which directed repeal of this section eff. Jan. 31, 1997, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–201.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–337 inserted “and Technology” before “in the performance of”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology” for “Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition” as section catchline and in subsecs. (a) and (b).

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§133b. Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness

(a) There is a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Under Secretary shall be appointed from among persons with an extensive background in the sustainment of major weapon systems and combat support equipment.

(b) The Deputy Under Secretary is the principal adviser to the Secretary and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics on logistics and materiel readiness in the Department of Defense and is the principal logistics official within the senior management of the Department of Defense.

(c) The Deputy Under Secretary shall perform such duties relating to logistics and materiel readiness as the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics may assign, including—

(1) prescribing, by authority of the Secretary of Defense, policies and procedures for the conduct of logistics, maintenance, materiel readiness, and sustainment support in the Department of Defense;

(2) advising and assisting the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics providing guidance to and consulting with the Secretaries of the military departments, with respect to logistics, maintenance, materiel readiness, and sustainment support in the Department of Defense; and

(3) monitoring and reviewing all logistics, maintenance, materiel readiness, and sustainment support programs in the Department of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 718.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 133b was renumbered section 118 of this title.

§134. Under Secretary of Defense for Policy

(a) There is an Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. A person may not be appointed as Under Secretary within 10 years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.

(b)(1) The Under Secretary shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe.

(2) The Under Secretary shall assist the Secretary of Defense—

(A) in preparing written policy guidance for the preparation and review of contingency plans; and

(B) in reviewing such plans.


(3) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary shall have responsibility for supervising and directing activities of the Department of Defense relating to export controls.

(c) The Under Secretary takes precedence in the Department of Defense after the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, and the Secretaries of the military departments.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §105(1), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 997; amended Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §903(a)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–132, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §903(a)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–132; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §903(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3911, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(d)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1728; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XV, §1521(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2178; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 719.)

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Prior Provisions

Provisions of this section were contained in section 135 of this title prior to amendment by Pub. L. 99–433.

A prior section 134 was renumbered section 132 of this title.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology”.

1998—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–261 added par. (3).

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition”.

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661 amended subsec. (c) identically, inserting “the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition,”.

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Implementation of Amendments by Pub. L. 105–261

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XV, §1521(c), (d), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2179, provided that:

“(c) Time for Implementation.—The Secretary of Defense shall complete the actions necessary to implement the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and to establish the office of Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy in accordance with section 134b of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (b), not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1998].

“(d) Report.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives [now Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives] a report on the plans of the Secretary for implementing the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [enacting section 134b of this title and amending this section]. The report shall include the following:

“(1) A description of any organizational changes that are to be made within the Department of Defense to implement those amendments.

“(2) A description of the role of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the export control activities of the Department of Defense after those subsections are implemented, together with a discussion of how that role compares to the Chairman's role in those activities before the implementation of those subsections.”

§134a. Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy

(a) There is a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) The Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy shall assist the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy in the performance of his duties. The Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy shall act for, and exercise the powers of, the Under Secretary when the Under Secretary is absent or disabled.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IX, §901(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1450; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §903(c)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §901, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2617.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 134a was renumbered section 133 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–106, §903(a), (c)(2), which directed repeal of this section eff. Jan. 31, 1997, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–201.

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§134b. Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy

(a) There is in the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy.

(b) The Deputy Under Secretary serves as the Director of the Defense Technology Security Administration (or any successor organization charged with similar responsibilities).

(c) The principal duties of the Deputy Under Secretary are—

(1) assisting the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy in supervising and directing the activities of the Department of Defense relating to export controls; and

(2) assisting the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy in developing policies and positions regarding the appropriate export control policies and procedures that are necessary to protect the national security interests of the United States.


(d) The Deputy Under Secretary shall perform such additional duties and exercise such authority as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe.

(Added Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XV, §1521(b)(1), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2178.)

§135. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)

(a) There is an Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) is the agency Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Defense for the purposes of chapter 9 of title 31. The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) shall perform such additional duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe.

(c) The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) shall advise and assist the Secretary of Defense—

(1) in performing such budgetary and fiscal functions and duties, and in exercising such budgetary and fiscal powers, as are needed to carry out the powers of the Secretary;

(2) in supervising and directing the preparation of budget estimates of the Department of Defense;

(3) in establishing and supervising the execution of principles, policies, and procedures to be followed in connection with organizational and administrative matters relating to—

(A) the preparation and execution of budgets;

(B) fiscal, cost, operating, and capital property accounting; and

(C) progress and statistical reporting;


(4) in establishing and supervising the execution of policies and procedures relating to the expenditure and collection of funds administered by the Department of Defense; and

(5) in establishing uniform terminologies, classifications, and procedures concerning matters covered by clauses (1) through (4).


(d) The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) takes precedence in the Department of Defense after the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

(e)(1) The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) shall ensure that each congressional committee specified in paragraph (2) is informed, in a timely manner, regarding all matters relating to the budgetary, fiscal, and analytic activities of the Department of Defense that are under the supervision of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).

(2) The committees referred to in paragraph (1) are—

(A) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §107, Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 998, §137; renumbered §135 and amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §§901(a)(2), 902(a)(1), (b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1726, 1727; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §903(a)(1), (2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2823; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(6), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 135 was renumbered section 137 of this title.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “Committee on Armed Services” for “Committee on National Security”.

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–106 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “each congressional committee specified in paragraph (2) is” for “the Committees on Armed Services and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives are each”, and added par. (2).

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, §903(a)(2), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)” for “Comptroller” as section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §903(a)(1)(A), substituted “an Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)” for “a Comptroller of the Department of Defense”.

Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 103–337, §903(a)(1)(B), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)” for “Comptroller” wherever appearing.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, §901(a)(2), renumbered section 137 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160, §902(a)(1), inserted “The Comptroller is the agency Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Defense for the purposes of chapter 9 of title 31.” after “(b)” and “additional” after “shall perform such”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–160, §901(a)(2), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–160, §902(b), added subsec. (e).

Change of Name

Section 903(d) of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that: “Any reference to the Comptroller of the Department of Defense in any provision of law other than title 10, United States Code, or in any rule, regulation, or other paper of the United States shall be treated as referring to the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).”

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 3022, 5025, 8022 of this title.

§136. Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness

(a) There is an Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe in the areas of military readiness, total force management, military and civilian personnel requirements, military and civilian personnel training, military and civilian family matters, exchange, commissary, and nonappropriated fund activities, personnel requirements for weapons support, National Guard and reserve components, and health affairs.

(c) The Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness takes precedence in the Department of Defense after the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).

(d) The Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness is responsible, subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, for the monitoring of the operations tempo and personnel tempo of the armed forces. The Under Secretary shall establish, to the extent practicable, uniform standards within the Department of Defense for terminology and policies relating to deployment of units and personnel away from their assigned duty stations (including the length of time units or personnel may be away for such a deployment) and shall establish uniform reporting systems for tracking deployments.

(Added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §903(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1727; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1503(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 510; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §923(a), title X, §1066(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 724, 770.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 136 was renumbered section 138 of this title.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–65, §1066(a)(1), inserted “advice and” after “by and with the”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–65, §923(a), added subsec. (d).

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)” for “Comptroller”.

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§136a. Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness

(a) There is a Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) The Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness shall assist the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness in the performance of the duties of that position. The Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness shall act for, and exercise the powers of, the Under Secretary when the Under Secretary is absent or disabled.

(Added Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IX, §901(a)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1193.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 136a was renumbered section 139 of this title.

§137. Director of Defense Research and Engineering

(a) There is a Director of Defense Research and Engineering, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) Except as otherwise prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Director of Defense Research and Engineering shall perform such duties relating to research and engineering as the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics may prescribe.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §202, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 518, §135; amended Pub. L. 92–596, §4(2), Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 95–140, §2(a), Oct. 21, 1977, 91 Stat. 1172; Pub. L. 99–348, title V, §501(b)(1), (2), (e)(1), July 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 707, 708; Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §105, Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §903(b)(1)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–132, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §903(b)(1)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–132; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §903(b)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3911, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; renumbered §137 and amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §§901(a)(1), 904(d)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1726, 1728; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §903(c)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §901, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2617; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, §911(d)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 719.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
135(a)

 

135(b)

135(c)

5:171c(b)(1) (1st 30 words of 1st sentence).

5:171c(b)(1) (2d sentence).

5:171c(b)(1) (1st sentence, less 1st 30 words).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §203(b)(1) (less last sentence); added Aug. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–599, §9(a) (2d par., less last sentence), 72 Stat. 520.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 137 was renumbered section 135 of this title.

Another prior section 137 was renumbered section 140 of this title.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–106, §903(a), (c)(3), which directed repeal of this section eff. Jan. 31, 1997, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–201.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, §901(a)(1), renumbered section 135 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160, §904(d)(1), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–433, §105(1), amended section catchline generally, substituting “Director of Defense Research and Engineering” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Policy; Director of Defense Research and Engineering: appointments; powers and duties; precedence”.

Pub. L. 99–348, §501(e)(1), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Policy; Director of Defense Research and Engineering: appointments” for “Under Secretaries of Defense: appointment” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–433, §105(1), substituted a new subsec. (a) for former provisions establishing the positions of Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and Director of Defense for Research and Engineering to be appointed from civilian life by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate and prohibiting the appointment as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy of a person within ten years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force. See section 134 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–348, §501(b)(1), substituted “is an Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and a Director of Defense Research and Engineering” for “are two Under Secretaries of Defense, one of whom shall be the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and one of whom shall be the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering” and “They shall” for “The Under Secretaries of Defense shall”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661 amended section identically adding subsec. (b) and striking out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “The Director of Defense Research and Engineering shall perform such duties relating to research and engineering as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe, including—

“(1) being the principal adviser to the Secretary on scientific and technical matters;

“(2) supervising all research and engineering activities in the Department of Defense; and

“(3) directing, controlling, assigning, and reassigning research and engineering activities that the Secretary considers need centralized management.”

Pub. L. 99–433, §105(2), struck out provisions that the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy would perform duties and exercise powers as the Secretary of Defense might prescribe.

Pub. L. 99–348, §501(b)(2), substituted “Director of Defense Research and Engineering” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661 amended section identically striking out subsec. (c) which read as follows: “The Director of Defense Research and Engineering takes precedence in the Department of Defense immediately after the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.”

Pub. L. 99–433, §105(2), struck out provisions that the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy would take precedence in the Department of Defense after Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the Secretaries of the military departments.

Pub. L. 99–348, §501(b)(2), substituted “Director of Defense Research and Engineering” for “Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering”.

1977—Pub. L. 95–140, §2(a)(4), substituted “Under Secretaries of Defense” for “Director of Defense Research and Engineering” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–140, §2(a)(1), substituted provisions relating to the appointment of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering for provisions relating to the appointment of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering and inserted provisions relating to the prohibition of the appointment of a person as Under Secretary of Defense for policy within ten years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of an armed force.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–140, §2(a)(2), substituted “The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe. The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall perform” for “The Director performs”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–140, §2(a)(3), substituted “Under Secretary of Defense for Policy” for “Director” and “Deputy Secretary” for “Deputy Secretaries” and inserted provision that the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering takes precedence in the Department of Defense immediately after the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

1972—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–596 substituted “Deputy Secretaries” for “Deputy Secretary”.

Order of Succession

For order of succession in event of death, disability, or resignation of Secretary, see Ex. Ord. No. 13000, Apr. 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 18483, set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Redesignation of Position of Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering; Effect on Individual Holding Position

Section 501(b)(3) of Pub. L. 99–348 provided that: “The redesignation by paragraph (1) [amending this section] of the position of Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering as Director of Defense Research and Engineering does not affect the appointment to such position of the individual holding such position on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 1, 1986].”

Emergency Fund for Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation

Pub. L. 89–37, title III, §305, June 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 128, which provided that no funds were to be appropriated after June 30, 1966, to or for the use of any armed force of the United States for use as an emergency fund for research, development, test, and evaluation, or procurement or production related thereto unless the appropriation of such funds has been authorized by legislation enacted after that date, was repealed and restated as subsec. (i) of section 138 [now §114(d)] of this title by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(4), 6(b), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289, 1314.

§138. Assistant Secretaries of Defense

(a) There are eight Assistant Secretaries of Defense, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b)(1) The Assistant Secretaries shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe.

(2) One of the Assistant Secretaries shall be the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs. He shall have as his principal duty the overall supervision of reserve component affairs of the Department of Defense.

[(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IX, §902, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2091.]

(4) One of the Assistant Secretaries shall be the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict. He shall have as his principal duty the overall supervision (including oversight of policy and resources) of special operations activities (as defined in section 167(j) of this title) and low intensity conflict activities of the Department of Defense. The Assistant Secretary is the principal civilian adviser to the Secretary of Defense on special operations and low intensity conflict matters and (after the Secretary and Deputy Secretary) is the principal special operations and low intensity conflict official within the senior management of the Department of Defense.

(5) One of the Assistant Secretaries shall be the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Legislative Affairs. He shall have as his principal duty the overall supervision of legislative affairs of the Department of Defense.

(6)(A) One of the Assistant Secretaries, as designated by the Secretary of Defense from among those Assistant Secretaries with responsibilities that include responsibilities related to combating terrorism, shall have, among that Assistant Secretary's duties, the duty to provide overall direction and supervision for policy, program planning and execution, and allocation and use of resources for the activities of the Department of Defense for combating terrorism, including antiterrorism activities, counterterrorism activities, terrorism consequences management activities, and terrorism-related intelligence support activities.

(B) The Assistant Secretary designated under subparagraph (A) shall be the principal civilian adviser to the Secretary of Defense on combating terrorism and (after the Secretary and Deputy Secretary) shall be the principal official within the senior management of the Department of Defense responsible for combating terrorism.

(C) If the Secretary of Defense designates under subparagraph (A) an Assistant Secretary other than the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, then the responsibilities of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict related to combating terrorism shall be exercised subject to subparagraph (B).

(c) Except as otherwise specifically provided by law, an Assistant Secretary may not issue an order to a military department unless—

(1) the Secretary of Defense has specifically delegated that authority to the Assistant Secretary in writing; and

(2) the order is issued through the Secretary of the military department concerned.


(d) The Assistant Secretaries take precedence in the Department of Defense after the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Secretaries of the military departments, the Under Secretaries of Defense, and the Director of Defense Research and Engineering. The Assistant Secretaries take precedence among themselves in the order prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §202, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 518, §136; amended Pub. L. 90–168, §2(1), (2), Dec. 1, 1967, 81 Stat. 521; Pub. L. 91–121, title IV, §404(a), Nov. 19, 1969, 83 Stat. 207; Pub. L. 92–215, §1, Dec. 22, 1971, 85 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 92–596, §4(2), Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 95–140, §3(a), Oct. 21, 1977, 91 Stat. 1173; Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §820(a), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 98–94, title XII, §1212(a), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §§106, 110(d)(9), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 997, 1003; Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9115(a)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–122, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9115(a)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–122; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1311(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3983; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1211(a)(1), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1154; Pub. L. 100–453, title VII, §702, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1912; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VII, §701, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1992; renumbered §138 and amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §§901(a)(1), (c), 903(c)(1), 905, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1726, 1727, 1729; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §§901(a), 903(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2822, 2823; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §§902(a), 903(b), (e)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 401, 402; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §901, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2617; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IX, §§901(a), 902, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IX, §901], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–223; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IX, §901(c)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1194.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
136(a)

136(b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

136(c)

 

136(d)

 

136(e)

5:171c(c) (1st sentence).

5:171c(c) (1st 18 words of 2d sentence).

5:171c–2 (less 1st sentence).

5:171n(a) (as applicable to 5:172).

5:172.

5:171a(c)(7) (3rd sentence).

5:171a(c)(7) (less 1st 3 sentences).

5:171c(c) (less 1st sentence and less 1st 18 words of 2d sentence).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §202(c)(7) (less 1st 2 sentences); added Aug. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–599, §3(a) (8th par., less 1st 2 sentences), 72 Stat. 516.

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §203(c); added Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §6(a), (2d par.), 63 Stat. 581; redesignated Aug. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–599, §§9(a) (1st par., as applicable to §203(c)), 10(a), 72 Stat. 520, 521.

  July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §302 (less 1st sentence); restated Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §10(b) (less 1st sentence) restated Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §21 (less 1st sentence), 70A Stat. 629.
  July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §308(a) (as applicable to §401), 61 Stat. 509.
  July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §401; added Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §