TITLE 21—FOOD AND DRUGS

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Adulterated or Misbranded Foods or Drugs
1
2.
Teas [Repealed]
41
3.
Filled Milk
61
4.
Animals, Meats, and Meat and Dairy Products
71
5.
Viruses, Serums, Toxins, Antitoxins, and Analogous Products
151
5A.
Bureau of Narcotics [Omitted]
161
6.
Narcotic Drugs [Repealed or Transferred]
171
7.
Practice of Pharmacy and Sale of Poisons in Consular Districts in China
201
8.
Narcotic Farms [Repealed]
221
9.
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
301
10.
Poultry and Poultry Products Inspection
451
11.
Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs [Repealed]
501
12.
Meat Inspection
601
13.
Drug Abuse Prevention and Control
801
14.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Educational Programs and Activities [Repealed]
1001
15.
Egg Products Inspection
1031
16.
Drug Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation
1101
17.
National Drug Enforcement Policy [Repealed]
1201
18.
President's Media Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention
1301
19.
Pesticide Monitoring Improvements
1401
20.
National Drug Control Program
1501
21.
Biomaterials Access Assurance
1601
22.
National Drug Control Policy
1701
23.
National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign
1801
24.
International Narcotics Trafficking
1901

        

Title Referred to in Other Sections

This title is referred to in title 18 section 3050.

CHAPTER 1—ADULTERATED OR MISBRANDED FOODS OR DRUGS

SUBCHAPTER I—FEDERAL FOOD AND DRUGS ACT OF 1906

Sec.
1 to 15.
Repealed or Transferred.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

16.
Introduction into, or sale in, State or Territory or District of Columbia of dairy or food products falsely labeled or branded.
17.
Penalty for sale or introduction of falsely labeled dairy or food products; venue.
18.
Suspension of importation of adulterated articles.
19.
Repealed.
20.
Apples in interstate commerce; standard grades.
21.
Branding grades on barrels of apples.
22.
Barrels misbranded.
23.
Penalties.
24.
Omitted.
25.
Oleomargarine, butterine, or imitation butter or cheese transported into a State subject to its police powers.
26.
Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—FEDERAL FOOD AND DRUGS ACT OF 1906

§§1 to 5. Repealed. June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059

Section 1, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §1, 34 Stat. 768, made it unlawful to manufacture adulterated or misbranded foods or drugs in Territories or District of Columbia and provided penalty for violations. See sections 331 and 333 of this title.

Section 2, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §2, 34 Stat. 768, prohibited introduction, shipment, delivery or sale of adulterated or misbranded foods or drugs in interstate or foreign commerce, provided penalty for violations and exempted exports conforming to specifications of foreign purchaser and not in conflict with laws of foreign country importing the same. See sections 331, 333 and 381 of this title.

Section 3, acts June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §3, 34 Stat. 768; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §1, 37 Stat. 736, authorized Secretaries of the Treasury, Agriculture, and Commerce to make uniform rules and regulations for enforcement of food and drug laws, including collection and examination of specimens. See section 371 of this title.

Section 4, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §12, 34 Stat. 772, provided that act or omission of officer, agent, and so forth, of corporation, shall be deemed act or omission of corporation.

Section 5, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §12, 34 Stat. 772, defined “territory” and “person”. See section 321 of this title and section 1 of Title 1, General Provisions.

Effective Date of Repeal

Section 902(a) of act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1059, which repealed sections 1 to 5, 7 to 14, and 15 of this title, provided that the repeal of those sections should take effect upon the effective date of act June 25, 1938, which was to take effect twelve months after the date of its enactment. Act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, §2(b), 53 Stat. 854, provided that: “The provisions of such act of June 30, 1906, as amended, to the extent that they impose, or authorize the imposition of, any requirement imposed by section 403(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 343(k) of this title], shall remain in force until January 1, 1940.”

§6. Transferred

Codification

Section, act Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 268, 42 Stat. 1500, was transferred to section 321a of this title.

§§7 to 14. Repealed. June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059

Section 7, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §6, 34 Stat. 769, defined “drug” and “food”. See section 321 of this title.

Section 8, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §7, 34 Stat. 769, deemed drugs to be adulterated when sold having a difference from recognized standards, except where there is an explanatory statement on or in container, and when sold below professed standard; confectioneries, when containing mineral substances, poisonous color or flavors, other deleterious ingredients, liquors or narcotics; food, when concerned with injurious mixtures, use of substitutes, abstraction of valuable constituents, concealment of damage or inferiority, deleterious ingredients, preservatives in shipment conditionally excepted, animal or vegetable substances unfit for food and products of animals diseased or having died otherwise than by slaughter. See sections 342 and 351 of this title.

Section 9, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §8, 34 Stat. 771, defined “misbranded” and provided for its application to drugs and food. See sections 343 and 352 of this title.

Section 10, acts June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §8, 34 Stat. 771; Aug. 23, 1912, ch. 352, 37 Stat. 416; Mar. 3, 1913, ch. 117, 37 Stat. 732; July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 271; July 8, 1930, ch. 874, 46 Stat. 1019, deemed drugs to be misbranded when there is an imitation or use of name of other article, when there is removal and substitution of contents of package or failure to state on label quantity or proportion of narcotics therein, and when there is a false statement of curative or therapeutic effect; and food, when there is an imitation or use of name of other article, when there is a false label or brand removal and substitution of contents of package, or failure to state or label quantity or proportion of narcotics therein, when the packages are not marked with weight, with certain variations and exemptions permitted, when there are false or misleading statements on package or label as to ingredients or substances; and food, when mixtures or compounds under distinctive names, the articles are labeled, branded as compounds, imitations, or blends; construed the term “blend” and related to disclosure of trade formulas of proprietary foods, and canned food. See sections 321b, 341, 343 and 352 of this title.

Section 11, acts June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §4, 34 Stat. 769; Jan. 18, 1927, ch. 39, 44 Stat. 1003, provided for examination of specimens, notice of adulteration or misbranding, hearing, certification of violations to United States district attorney and notice of judgment.

Section 12, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §5, 34 Stat. 769, provided for prosecution by district attorneys for enforcement of penalties.

Section 13, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §9, 34 Stat. 771, provided for a seller's guaranty as protection to dealer. See section 333 of this title.

Section 14, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §10, 34 Stat. 771, provided for seizure of articles by libel for condemnation, at suit of and in name of United States, in United States district court where found, conforming to proceedings in admiralty, with right to trial by jury, destruction or sale of adulterated or misbranded articles, bond and payment of proceeds into Treasury of United States. See sections 332, 334 and 337 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

For effective date of repeal, see section 902(a) of act June 25, 1938, set out as a note under sections 1 to 5 of this title.

§14a. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §10A, as added June 22, 1934, ch. 712, 48 Stat. 1204, and amended, which related to examination of sea food on request of packer, marking of food with results, fees, and penalties, was successively renumbered section 702A and then 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act by act July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title II, §201, 57 Stat. 500, and by Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §106(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4498, and was successively classified to section 372a and then 376 of this title.

§15. Repealed. June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059

Section, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §11, 34 Stat. 772, provided for examination of samples of imports, refusal of admission and delivery to consignee, delivery to consignee pending examination and decision on bond and charges for storage and lien therefor. See section 381 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

For effective date of repeal, see section 902(a) of act June 25, 1938, set out as a note under sections 1 to 5 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§16. Introduction into, or sale in, State or Territory or District of Columbia of dairy or food products falsely labeled or branded

No person or persons, company or corporation, shall introduce into any State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia from any other State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia, or sell in the District of Columbia or in any Territory any dairy or food products which shall be falsely labeled or branded as to the State or Territory in which they are made, produced, or grown, or cause or procure the same to be done by others.

(July 1, 1902, ch. 1357, §1, 32 Stat. 632.)

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 17 of this title.

§17. Penalty for sale or introduction of falsely labeled dairy or food products; venue

If any person or persons violate the provisions of section 16 of this title, either in person or through another, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $2,000. The jurisdiction for the prosecution of said misdemeanor shall be within the district of the United States court in which it is committed.

(July 1, 1902, ch. 1357, §2, 32 Stat. 632.)

§18. Suspension of importation of adulterated articles

Whenever the President is satisfied that there is good reason to believe that any importation is being made, or is about to be made, into the United States, from any foreign country, of any article used for human food or drink that is adulterated to an extent dangerous to the health or welfare of the people of the United States, or any of them, he may issue his proclamation suspending the importation of such articles from such country for such period of time as he may think necessary to prevent such importation; and during such period it shall be unlawful to import into the United States from the countries designated in the proclamation of the President any of the articles the importation of which is so suspended.

(Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, §4, 26 Stat. 415.)

§19. Repealed. May 29, 1928, ch. 901, §1(100), 45 Stat. 993

Section, act May 23, 1908, ch. 192, 35 Stat. 261, related to report to Congress of expenditures in enforcing food and drug laws.

§20. Apples in interstate commerce; standard grades

The standard grades for apples when packed in barrels which shall be shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, or which shall be sold or offered for sale within the District of Columbia or the Territories of the United States shall be as follows: Apples of one variety, which are well-grown specimens, hand picked, of good color for the variety, normal shape, practically free from insect and fungous injury, bruises, and other defects, except such as are necessarily caused in the operation of packing, or apples of one variety which are not more than 10 per centum below the foregoing specifications shall be “Standard grade minimum size two and one-half inches”, if the minimum size of the apples is two and one-half inches in transverse diameter; “Standard grade minimum size two and one-fourth inches”, if the minimum size of the apples is two and one-fourth inches in transverse diameter; or “Standard grade minimum size two inches”, if the minimum size of the apples is two inches in transverse diameter.

(Aug. 3, 1912, ch. 273, §2, 37 Stat. 250.)

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 21, 22, 23 of this title.

§21. Branding grades on barrels of apples

The barrels in which apples are packed in accordance with the provisions of sections 20 to 23 of this title may be branded in accordance with the provisions of section 20 of this title.

(Aug. 3, 1912, ch. 273, §3, 37 Stat. 251.)

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 22, 23 of this title.

§22. Barrels misbranded

Barrels packed with apples shall be deemed to be misbranded within the meaning of sections 20 to 23 of this title—

First. If the barrel bears any statement, design, or device indicating that the apples contained therein are “Standard” grade and the apples when packed do not conform to the requirements prescribed by section 20 of this title.

Second. If the barrel bears any statement, design, or device indicating that the apples contained therein are “Standard” grade and the barrel fails to bear also a statement of the name of the variety, the name of the locality where grown, and the name of the packer or the person by whose authority the apples were packed and the barrel marked.

(Aug. 3, 1912, ch. 273, §5, 37 Stat. 251.)

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 21, 23 of this title.

§23. Penalties

Any person, firm or corporation, or association who shall knowingly pack or cause to be packed apples in barrels or who shall knowingly sell or offer for sale such barrels in violation of the provisions of sections 20 to 23 of this title shall be liable to a penalty of $1 and costs for each such barrel so sold or offered for sale, to be recovered at the suit of the United States in any court of the United States having jurisdiction.

(Aug. 3, 1912, ch. 273, §6, 37 Stat. 251.)

Codification

Section is also set out as section 233 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 21, 22 of this title.

§24. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 144, 38 Stat. 1102, related to payment of the cost of inspection under a provision authorizing the investigation of the character of chemical and physical tests applied to American food products in foreign countries and the inspection of such products before shipment to such countries at the request of the shippers or owners. That provision was repeated in subsequent appropriation acts but was omitted from the appropriation act of July 12, 1943, ch. 221, 57 Stat. 494, and from all subsequent appropriation acts.

§25. Oleomargarine, butterine, or imitation butter or cheese transported into a State subject to its police powers

All articles known as oleomargarine, butterine, imitation, process, renovated, or adulterated butter, or imitation cheese, or any substance in the semblance of butter or cheese not the usual product of the dairy and not made exclusively of pure and unadulterated milk or cream, transported into any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and remaining therein for use, consumption, sale, or storage therein, shall, upon the arrival within the limits of such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, be subject to the operation and effect of the laws of such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, enacted in the exercise of its police powers to the same extent and in the same manner as though such articles or substances had been produced in such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and shall not be exempt therefrom by reason of being introduced therein in original packages or otherwise.

(May 9, 1902, ch. 784, §1, 32 Stat. 193.)

§26. Omitted

Codification

Section, which was from the appropriation acts of Jan. 18, 1927, ch. 39, 44 Stat. 984; May 16, 1928, ch. 572, 45 Stat. 548; Feb. 16, 1929, ch. 227, 45 Stat. 1198; May 27, 1930, ch. 341, 46 Stat. 424, and subsequent Department of Agriculture Appropriation Acts to and including act June 28, 1944, ch. 296, §4, 58 Stat. 461, and related to inspection of food and other products, is covered by section 2256 of Title 7, Agriculture.

CHAPTER 2—TEAS

§§41 to 50. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–128, §2, Apr. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 1198

Section 41, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §1, 29 Stat. 604; May 16, 1908, ch. 170, 35 Stat. 163; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; May 24, 1962, Pub. L. 87–456, title III, §303(a), 76 Stat. 77; Aug. 23, 1988, Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1214(l), 102 Stat. 1158, prohibited unlawful importation of substandard tea.

Section 42, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §2, 29 Stat. 605; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title II, 57 Stat. 500; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), 93 Stat. 695, related to establishment and composition of board of experts in teas.

Section 43, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §3, 29 Stat. 605; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), 93 Stat. 695, authorized establishment of purity standards.

Section 44, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §4, 29 Stat. 605; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), 93 Stat. 695, related to bonds of importers, examination of imported teas, and importation at ports without examiners.

Section 45, act Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §5, 29 Stat. 605, related to delivery permits and reexamination and retention of substandard teas.

Section 46, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §7, 29 Stat. 606; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712, 713, related to examiners and examination according to usages of trade.

Section 46a, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §13, formerly act July 1, 1941, ch. 269, title II, 55 Stat. 478; renumbered §13 of act Mar. 2, 1897, and amended Aug. 10, 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, title IV, §4401, 107 Stat. 378, related to deposit of fee prior to examination.

Section 47, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §6, 29 Stat. 606; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712, 713; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), 93 Stat. 695, required referral of disputes to United States Board of Tea Appeals and authorized board to permit delivery or order destruction or exportation of substandard teas.

Section 48, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §8, 29 Stat. 606; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712, related to reexaminations, including findings by examiner and assistance of experts.

Section 49, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §9, 29 Stat. 606; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712, related to reimporting rejected teas and forfeitures for violation of provisions.

Section 50, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, §10, 29 Stat. 607; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), 93 Stat. 695, authorized issuance of regulations.

Effective Date of Repeal

Section 3 of Pub. L. 104–128 provided that: “This Act [repealing this chapter] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 9, 1996].”

Short Title of Repeal

Section 1 of Pub. L. 104–128 provided that: “This Act [repealing this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Federal Tea Tasters Repeal Act of 1996’.”

Short Title

Act July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title II, 57 Stat. 499, provided in part that act Mar. 2, 1897, which was classified generally to this chapter, could be cited as the Tea Importation Act.

CHAPTER 3—FILLED MILK

Sec.
61.
Definitions.
62.
Manufacture, shipment, or delivery for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce prohibited.
63.
Penalties; acts of agents deemed acts of principals.
64.
Regulations for enforcement.

        

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

By virtue of act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(c), 52 Stat. 1059 [section 392(b) of this title], nothing contained in section 301 et seq. of this title shall be construed as in any way affecting, modifying, repealing, or superseding the provisions of sections 61 to 64 of this title.

Bureau of Dairy Industry

General provisions, see sections 401 to 404 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in section 392 of this title.

§61. Definitions

Whenever used in this chapter—

(a) The term “person” includes an individual, partnership, corporation, or association;

(b) The term “interstate or foreign commerce” means commerce (1) between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof; (2) between points within the same State, Territory, or possession, or within the District of Columbia, but through any place outside thereof; or (3) within any Territory or possession, or within the District of Columbia; and

(c) The term “filled milk” means any milk, cream, or skimmed milk, whether or not condensed, evaporated, concentrated, powdered, dried, or desiccated, to which has been added, or which has been blended or compounded with, any fat or oil other than milk fat, so that the resulting product is in imitation or semblance of milk, cream, or skimmed milk, whether or not condensed, evaporated, concentrated, powdered, dried, or desiccated. This definition shall not include any distinctive proprietary food compound not readily mistaken in taste for milk or cream or for evaporated, condensed, or powdered milk, or cream where such compound (1) is prepared and designed for feeding infants and young children and customarily used on the order of a physician; (2) is packed in individual cans containing not more than sixteen and one-half ounces and bearing a label in bold type that the content is to be used only for said purpose; (3) is shipped in interstate or foreign commerce exclusively to physicians, wholesale and retail druggists, orphan asylums, child-welfare associations, hospitals, and similar institutions and generally disposed of by them.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 262, §1, 42 Stat. 1486.)

Short Title

Act July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title II, 57 Stat. 499, provided in part that act Mar. 4, 1923, which enacted this chapter, may be cited as the “Filled Milk Act”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 62 of this title.

§62. Manufacture, shipment, or delivery for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce prohibited

It is declared that filled milk, as defined in section 61 of this title, is an adulterated article of food, injurious to the public health, and its sale constitutes a fraud upon the public. It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture within any Territory or possession, or within the District of Columbia, or to ship or deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, any filled milk.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 262, §2, 42 Stat. 1487.)

§63. Penalties; acts of agents deemed acts of principals

Any person violating any provision of this chapter shall upon conviction thereof be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000 or imprisonment of not more than one year, or both. When construing and enforcing the provisions of this chapter, the act, omission, or failure of any person acting for or employed by any individual, partnership, corporation, or association, within the scope of his employment or office, shall in every case be deemed the act, omission, or failure, of such individual, partnership, corporation, or association, as well as of such person.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 262, §3, 42 Stat. 1487.)

Codification

The original text of this section contained a further provision that no penalty should be enforced for any violation occurring within 30 days after act Mar. 4, 1923 became law and was omitted as temporary and obsolete.

§64. Regulations for enforcement

The Secretary of Health and Human Services is authorized and directed to make and enforce such regulations as may in his judgment be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 262, §4, as added Aug. 27, 1935, ch. 743, 49 Stat. 885; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695.)

Change of Name

“Secretary of Health and Human Services” substituted in text for “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare” pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

CHAPTER 4—ANIMALS, MEATS, AND MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

SUBCHAPTER I—EXAMINATION OF ANIMALS, MEATS, AND MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

Sec.
71 to 99.
Transferred, Repealed, or Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—IMPORTATION OF CATTLE AND QUARANTINE

101.
Suspension of importation of all animals.
102 to 107. Repealed or Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PREVENTION OF INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD OF CONTAGION

111 to 113. Repealed or Omitted.
113a.
Establishment of research laboratories for foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases; research contracts; employment of technicians and scientists; appropriations.
114 to 114h. Repealed.
114i.
Pseudorabies eradication.
(a)
Findings.
(b)
Establishment of program.
(c)
Use of funds for testing and control of pseudorabies.
(d)
Authorization of appropriations.
115 to 135b. Repealed, Omitted, or Transferred.
136.
Additional inspection services.
136a.
Collection of fees for inspection services.
(a)
Quarantine and inspection fees.
(b)
Omitted.
(c)
Animal inspection and veterinary diagnostics.
(d)
Regulations.
(e)
Recovery of amounts owed.
(f)
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—IMPORTATION OF MILK AND CREAM

141.
Prohibition of importation without permit.
142.
Milk or cream when unfit for importation.
143.
Inspection; certified statement in lieu thereof; waiver of requirements of section 142; regulations; suspension and revocation of permits.
144.
Unlawful receiving of imported milk or cream.
145.
Penalties.
146.
Authorization of appropriations.
147.
Repeal of inconsistent laws.
148.
Powers of State with respect to milk or cream lawfully imported.
149.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—EXAMINATION OF ANIMALS, MEATS, AND MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

§§71 to 92. Transferred

Codification

Section 71, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1260, which related to inspection of meat and meat food products, examination of cattle before slaughtering, separate slaughtering of diseased animals and examination of carcasses, was transferred to section 603 of this title.

Section 72, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1260, which related to post mortem examination of carcasses, marking and labeling, destruction of condemned carcasses, and reinspection, was transferred to section 604 of this title.

Section 73, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1261, which related to examination of carcasses brought into slaughtering or packing establishments and of meat food products issued from and returned thereto, was transferred to section 605 of this title.

Section 74, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1261, which related to examination and inspection of meat food products, marks of inspection, destruction of condemned products, and products for export, was transferred to section 606 of this title.

Section 75, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1262, which related to labeling of receptacles and coverings of meat and meat food products inspected and passed, supervision by inspectors, prohibition of sales under false names, was transferred to section 607 of this title.

Section 76, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1262, which related to sanitary inspection and regulation of slaughtering and packing establishments, and rejection of meat or meat food products unfit for food, was transferred to section 608 of this title.

Section 77, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1262, which related to examination of cattle and food products thereof slaughtered and prepared during night time, was transferred to section 609 of this title.

Section 78, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1262, which related to prohibition of transportation of carcasses, meat, or meat food products not properly inspected and marked, was transferred to section 610 of this title.

Section 79, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1263, which related to forgery, alteration, and unauthorized use of marks, labels, and certificates, was transferred to section 611 of this title.

Section 80, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1263, which related to inspection of animals for export, was transferred to section 612 of this title and was subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(19), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508.

Section 81, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1263, which related to certificates of condition of animals for export, was transferred to section 613 of this title and was subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(19), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508.

Section 82, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1263, which related to clearance to vessels carrying cattle for export with proper certificate of inspection, was transferred to section 614 of this title and was subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(19), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508.

Section 83, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1263, which related to inspection of carcasses, the meat of which is intended for export, was transferred to section 615 of this title.

Section 84, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1263, which related to certificates of condition of carcasses, the meat of which is intended for export, was transferred to section 616 of this title.

Section 85, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1263, which related to clearance to vessels carrying meat for export with proper certificate of inspection, was transferred to section 617 of this title.

Section 86, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1263, which related to official certificates of inspection and delivery of copies thereof to different parties, was transferred to section 618 of this title.

Section 87, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1264, which related to prohibition of transportation or sale of meat or meat food products without complying with provisions of inspection law, was transferred to section 619 of this title.

Section 88, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1264, which related to offenses and penalties, was transferred to section 620 of this title.

Section 89, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1264, which related to appointment of inspectors, their duties, and rule making authority of the Secretary of Agriculture, was transferred to section 621 of this title.

Section 90, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1264, which related to penalties for bribery, was transferred to section 622 of this title.

Section 91, acts Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1265; June 29, 1938, ch. 810, 52 Stat. 1235, which related to definitions, exceptions to inspection requirements in case of farmers and retailers, and penalties for sale of meat and meat food products unfit for food, was transferred to section 623 of this title.

Section 92, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1265, which was a proviso following the first sentence of section 91 of this title, was restored to that section and has been transferred to section 623 of this title.

§93. Repealed. May 29, 1928, ch. 901, §1(92), 45 Stat. 993

Section, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1265, related to statement in annual estimates as to persons employed, their compensation and expenses.

§§94 to 95. Transferred

Codification

Section 94, act June 30, 1914, ch. 131, 38 Stat. 420, which related to inspection of reindeer, was transferred to section 692 of this title.

Section 94a, act May 23, 1908, ch. 192, 35 Stat. 254, which related to inspection of dairy products for export, was transferred to section 693 of this title.

Section 95, acts June 30, 1906, ch. 3913, 34 Stat. 679; June 26, 1934, ch. 756, §2, 48 Stat. 1225, which related to authorization of appropriations for expenses of inspection, was transferred to section 694 of this title.

§96. Repealed. Pub. L. 90–201, §18, Dec. 15, 1967, 81 Stat. 600

Section, act July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 241, provided for marking horse meat transported in interstate commerce. See section 619 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 15, 1967, see section 20 of Pub. L. 90–201, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of this title.

§§97 to 97d. Omitted

Codification

Sections 97 to 97d, act July 30, 1947, ch. 356, title I, §1, 61 Stat. 531, 532, set up a meat inspection fund and provided for payment for meat inspection service by the persons or organizations who were furnished such inspection on and after July 1, 1947. These provisions ceased to be effective on July 1, 1948, under section 98 of this title which requires the cost of such inspection to be borne by the United States. The unobligated balance in the meat inspection fund was carried to the general fund of the Treasury by act June 19, 1948, ch. 543, §1, 62 Stat. 515.

§98. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 5, 1948, ch. 423, 62 Stat. 344, which related to payment of cost of meat inspection, was transferred to section 695 of this title.

§99. Repealed. July 28, 1953, ch. 251, title I, §101, 67 Stat. 208

Section, act Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 374, title I, §101, 65 Stat. 229, related to reimbursement for excess expenses of meat inspection.

SUBCHAPTER II—IMPORTATION OF CATTLE AND QUARANTINE

§101. Suspension of importation of all animals

Whenever, in the opinion of the President, it shall be necessary for the protection of animals in the United States against infectious or contagious diseases, he may, by proclamation, suspend the importation of all or any class of animals for a limited time, and may change, modify, revoke, or renew such proclamation, as the public good may require; and during the time of such suspension the importation of any such animals shall be unlawful.

(Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, §9, 26 Stat. 416.)

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 136a of this title.

§§102 to 105. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(6), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507

Section 102, act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, §7, 26 Stat. 416, related to quarantine of imported animals.

Section 103, act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, §8, 26 Stat. 416, related to prohibition of importation of animals except at quarantine ports, slaughter of infected animals, appraisal, and payment.

Section 104, act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, §6, 26 Stat. 416; June 28, 1926, ch. 700, §2, 44 Stat. 775; Feb. 28, 1931, ch. 348, 46 Stat. 1460; July 22, 1954, ch. 558, §32, 68 Stat. 510; Jan. 28, 1956, ch. 12, §1, 70 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 97–461, §4, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2524; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §361(b), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, §431(h), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4969, related to importation of animals.

Section 105, act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, §10, 26 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §361(c), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, §431(i), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4969, related to inspection of animals.

§§106, 107. Omitted

Codification

Sections, acts Aug. 10, 1917, ch. 52, §9, 40 Stat. 275; Nov. 21, 1918, ch. 212, §3, 40 Stat. 1048, related to slaughter of tick-infested cattle. Section 12 of act Aug. 10, 1917, provided that the act should cease to be in effect when the national emergency resulting from World War I had passed.

SUBCHAPTER III—PREVENTION OF INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD OF CONTAGION

§§111, 112. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(7), (8), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507, 508

Section 111, act Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, §2, 32 Stat. 792; July 22, 1954, ch. 558, §33, 68 Stat. 510; Jan. 28, 1956, ch. 12, §2, 70 Stat. 5, related to regulations to prevent contagious diseases.

Section 112, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §4, 23 Stat. 32; Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, §1, 32 Stat. 791; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to investigations as to pleuropneumonia and other diseases and regulations.

Short Title

Act Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, 32 Stat. 791, classified to former sections 112 and 120 to 122 of this title, is popularly known as the Cattle Contagious Diseases Act of 1903.

Act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 23 Stat. 31, classified to former sections 112, 113 to 114a–1, 115, 116, 117 to 120, and 130 of this title and section 391 of Title 7, Agriculture, is popularly known as the Animal Industry Act.

§112a. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, amended acts May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 23 Stat. 31; Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, 32 Stat. 791; and Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, 33 Stat. 1264, to include live poultry in their provisions, added “and/or live poultry” following “live stock” wherever the term “live stock” appeared, and extended the penalties, terms, and provisions of said acts to live poultry. For complete classification of such acts to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 112 of this title and Tables.

§113. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(7), (8), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507, 508

Section, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §5, 23 Stat. 32; Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, §1, 32 Stat. 791; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to measures to prevent exportation of diseased livestock and live poultry.

§113a. Establishment of research laboratories for foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases; research contracts; employment of technicians and scientists; appropriations

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to establish research laboratories, including the acquisition of necessary land, buildings, or facilities, and also the making of research contracts under the authority contained in section 427i(a) of title 7, for research and study, in the United States or elsewhere, of foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases which in the opinion of the Secretary constitute a threat to the livestock industry of the United States: Provided, That no live virus of foot-and-mouth disease may be introduced for any purpose into any part of the mainland of the United States (except coastal islands separated therefrom by water navigable for deep-water navigation and which shall not be connected with the mainland by any tunnel) unless the Secretary determines that it is necessary and in the public interest for the conduct of research and study in the United States (except at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York) and issues a permit under such rules as the Secretary shall promulgate to protect animal health, except that the Secretary of Agriculture may transport said virus in the original package across the mainland under adequate safeguards, and except further, that in the event of outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in this country, the Secretary of Agriculture may, at his discretion, permit said virus to be brought into the United States under adequate safeguards. To carry out the provisions of this section, the Secretary is authorized to employ technical experts or scientists: Provided, That the number so employed shall not exceed five and that the maximum compensation for each shall not exceed the highest rate of grade 18 of the General Schedule. There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as Congress may deem necessary; in addition, the Secretary is authorized to utilize in carrying out this section, funds otherwise available for the control or eradication of such diseases.

(May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §12, as added Apr. 24, 1948, ch. 229, 62 Stat. 198; amended July 31, 1956, ch. 804, title I, §119, 70 Stat. 742; Pub. L. 85–573, July 31, 1958, 72 Stat. 454; Pub. L. 87–793, §1001(e), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 864; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(1), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1618(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3733.)

Codification

Provisions that authorized the Secretary to employ technical experts and scientists “without regard to the Classification Act”, meaning the Classification Act of 1923, were omitted as obsolete. Sections 1202 and 1204 of the Classification Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 972, 973, repealed the 1923 Act and all laws or parts of laws inconsistent with the 1949 Act. While section 1106(a) of the 1949 Act provided that references in other laws to the 1923 Act should be held and considered to mean the 1949 Act, it did not have the effect of continuing the exception contained in this section because of section 1106(b) which provided that the application of the 1949 Act to any position, officer, or employee shall not be affected by section 1106(a). The Classification Act of 1949 was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8(a), 80 Stat. 632 (the first section of which revised and enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, into law). Section 5102 of Title 5 contains the applicability provisions of the 1949 Act, and section 5103 of Title 5 authorizes the Office of Personnel Management to determine the applicability to specific positions and employees.

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–624 substituted “United States (except” for “United States except” and “tunnel) unless the Secretary determines that it is necessary and in the public interest for the conduct of research and study in the United States (except at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York) and issues a permit under such rules as the Secretary shall promulgate to protect animal health,” for “tunnel, and”.

1962—Pub. L. 87–793 substituted “shall not exceed the highest rate of grade 18 of the General Schedule” for “shall not exceed $19,000 per annum”.

1958—Pub. L. 85–573 inserted in proviso clause of first sentence the exception clause respecting transportation of virus in original package across mainland under adequate safeguards.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–793 effective on first day of first pay period which begins on or after Oct. 11, 1962.

Repeals

Act July 31, 1956, ch. 804, title I, §119, 70 Stat. 742, which increased the maximum compensation of technical experts or scientists, was repealed by Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(1), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 422.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 113, 114, 118, 119, 136a of this title.

§§114 to 114d–1. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(8), (9), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508

Section 114, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §3, 23 Stat. 32, related to regulations for suppression of diseases and cooperation of States and Territories.

Section 114a, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §11, as added Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title I, §101(a), 58 Stat. 734; amended Oct. 30, 1951, ch. 637, §1, 65 Stat. 693; Aug. 8, 1953, ch. 381, 67 Stat. 493; Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 950, §2, 70 Stat. 1032; Pub. L. 87–518, §7, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2509(c)(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4071, related to control and eradication of diseases, cooperation of States and farmers’ associations, purchase and destruction of diseased animals, and defined “State” for statutory purposes.

A prior section 11 of act May 29, 1884, required annual reports to Congress concerning the suppression of contagious diseases among domestic animals, and was classified to section 560 of former Title 5, prior to repeal by act May 29, 1928, ch. 901, §1, 45 Stat. 993.

Section 114a–1, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §13, as added Oct. 30, 1951, ch. 637, §2, 65 Stat. 693, related to interstate movement of domestic animals reacting to tests for brucellosis, immediate slaughter, and rules and regulations.

Section 114b, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, §1, 61 Stat. 7; Pub. L. 89–521, §1, July 27, 1966, 80 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 92–152, §1, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 94–231, §3, Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 101–255, §1(1), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2505, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4068, related to cooperation in animal disease control.

Section 114c, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, §2, 61 Stat. 7; Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 950, §3, 70 Stat. 1033; Pub. L. 92–152, §2, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 419; Pub. L. 101–255, §1(2), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114, related to use of funds.

Section 114d, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, §3, as added Pub. L. 101–255, §1(3), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114, related to sale of sterile screwworms.

A prior section 114d, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, §3, 61 Stat. 8, related to reports by Secretary of Agriculture to Congress with respect to activities carried on under sections 114b and 114c of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 86–533, §1(20), June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 249.

Section 114d–1, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, §5, as added Pub. L. 89–521, §2, July 27, 1966, 80 Stat. 330; amended Pub. L. 101–255, §1(5), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114, related to cooperation with public and private entities.

Short Title

Section 6 of act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, as added by Pub. L. 101–255, §1(6), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114, provided that the act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, which enacted sections 114b to 114d–1 of this title and provisions set out as a note under former section 114b of this title, could be referred to as the “Animal Disease Control Cooperation Act of 1947”.

§§114d–2 to 114d–6. Repealed. Pub. L. 92–152, §3, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 419

Section 114d–2, Pub. L. 90–388, §1, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, provided for cooperation with Central America in control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease or rinderpest.

Section 114d–3, Pub. L. 90–388, §2, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, provided for uses of funds.

Section 114d–4, Pub. L. 90–388, §3, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, defined governments of Central America.

Section 114d–5, Pub. L. 90–388, §4, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, provided for cooperation with public and private organizations and individuals.

Section 114d–6, Pub. L. 90–388, §5, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, provided for authorization of appropriations.

§§114e to 114h. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(10), (11), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508

Section 114e, act June 16, 1948, ch. 477, §1, 62 Stat. 458, related to research and investigations into the control and eradication of cattle grubs.

Section 114f, act June 16, 1948, ch. 477, §2, 62 Stat. 458, defined the term “State” and authorized appropriations.

Section 114g, Pub. L. 87–209, §1, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 481, related to hog cholera eradication program.

Section 114h, Pub. L. 87–209, §2, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 481, related to advisory committee.

§114i. Pseudorabies eradication

(a) Findings

Congress finds that efforts to eradicate pseudorabies in United States swine populations by the Department of Agriculture in cooperation with State agencies and the pork industry have a high priority and should be continued until pseudorabies is completely eradicated in the United States.

(b) Establishment of program

The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish and carry out a program for the eradication of pseudorabies in United States swine populations.

(c) Use of funds for testing and control of pseudorabies

The Secretary shall ensure that not less than 65 percent of the funds appropriated for the program established under subsection (b) of this section shall be used for testing and screening of animals and for other purposes directly related to the eradication or control of pseudorabies. This requirement on the use of appropriated funds for this program shall not be implemented in a manner that would adversely affect any other animal or plant disease or pest eradication or control program.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated for each of the fiscal years 1991 through 2007 such sums as may be necessary for the purpose of carrying out the program established under subsection (b) of this section.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2506, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4068; Pub. L. 104–127, title IX, §916, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1187; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10505, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 511.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–171 substituted “2007” for “2002”.

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–127 substituted “2002” for “1995”.

§§115 to 128. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(7), (8), (12)–(14), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507, 508

Section 115, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §6, 23 Stat. 32; June 28, 1926, ch. 700, §1, 44 Stat. 774; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–763, Oct. 9, 1962, 76 Stat. 762, prohibited transportation of diseased livestock and live poultry.

Section 116, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 23 Stat. 31; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 699, related to excepted shipment of certain cattle.

Section 117, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §7, 23 Stat. 32; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 95–439, §1, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1061; Pub. L. 97–461, §5, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2524, related to penalties for transportation of diseased livestock or live poultry.

Section 118, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §9, 23 Stat. 33; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909, related to duty of United States attorneys.

Section 119, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §2, 23 Stat. 31; Feb. 9, 1889, ch. 122, §1, 25 Stat. 659; July 14, 1890, ch. 707, 26 Stat. 288; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to appointment of agents to examine and report on methods of treatment of animals, and means for suppression of diseases.

Section 120, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §§4, 5, 23 Stat. 32; Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, §1, 32 Stat. 791; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to regulation of exportation and transportation of infected livestock and live poultry.

Section 121, act Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, §1, 32 Stat. 791; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to shipments from areas suspected to be infected and to control of animals and live poultry.

Section 122, act Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, §3, 32 Stat. 792; Pub. L. 97–461, §6, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2525, related to offenses and penalties.

Section 123, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, §1, 33 Stat. 1264; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–518, §8(a), July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 95–439, §2, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1061, related to quarantine.

Section 124, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, §2, 33 Stat. 1264; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–518, §8(b), July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131, prohibited transportation or delivery therefor from quarantined State or Territory or portion thereof, of quarantined animals and live poultry.

Section 125, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, §3, 33 Stat. 1265; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–518, §8(b), July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 95–439, §3, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1061, related to regulations for inspection, disinfection, and certification, and delivery and shipment of quarantined animals and live poultry from State or Territory.

Section 126, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, §4, 33 Stat. 1265; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–518, §8(b), July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131, related to moving quarantined animals and live poultry from State or Territory, under regulations.

Section 127, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, §6, 33 Stat. 1265; Pub. L. 97–461, §7, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2525, related to penalties for transportation from quarantined State, Territory, etc.

Section 128, act June 30, 1914, ch. 131, 38 Stat. 419; Pub. L. 87–518, §9, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131, related to extension of quarantine law to carriers in interstate commerce.

Short Title

Act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, 33 Stat. 1264, which enacted sections 123 to 127 of this title, was popularly known as the “Cattle Contagious Diseases Act of 1905”.

§129. Omitted

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 107–76, title I, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 712, related to transfer of funds for emergency arrest of animal, poultry, or plant diseases or pests, and was from the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002. Similar provisons which are permanent are classified to sections 7772 and 8316 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title I], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–9, repealed by Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(15), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508.

Pub. L. 106–78, title I, Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1143.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(a) [title I], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681–8.

Pub. L. 105–86, title I, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2086.

Pub. L. 104–180, title I, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1576.

Pub. L. 104–37, title I, Oct. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 307.

Pub. L. 103–330, title I, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2443.

Pub. L. 103–111, title I, Oct. 21, 1993, 107 Stat. 1054.

Pub. L. 102–341, title I, Aug. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 882.

Pub. L. 102–142, title I, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 886.

Pub. L. 101–506, title I, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1323.

Pub. L. 101–161, title I, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 959.

Pub. L. 100–460, title I, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2237.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(k) [title I], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–322, 1329–331.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(a) [title I], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783, 1783–8, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(a) [title I], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341, 3341–8.

Pub. L. 99–190, §101(a) [H.R. 3037, title I], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1185.

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(a) [H.R. 5743, title I], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1837.

Pub. L. 98–151, §101(d) [H.R. 3223, title I], Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972.

Pub. L. 97–370, title I, Dec. 18, 1982, 96 Stat. 1792.

Pub. L. 97–103, title I, Dec. 23, 1981, 95 Stat. 1472.

Pub. L. 96–528, title I, Dec. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 3099.

Pub. L. 96–108, title I, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 826.

Pub. L. 95–448, title I, Oct. 11, 1978, 92 Stat. 1076.

Pub. L. 95–97, title I, Aug. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 813.

Pub. L. 94–351, title I, July 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 854.

Pub. L. 94–122, title I, Oct. 21, 1975, 89 Stat. 645.

Pub. L. 93–563, title I, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1824.

Pub. L. 93–135, title I, Oct. 24, 1973, 87 Stat. 472.

Pub. L. 92–399, title I, Aug. 22, 1972, 86 Stat. 594.

Pub. L. 92–73, title I, Aug. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 185.

Pub. L. 91–566, title I, Dec. 22, 1970, 84 Stat. 1482.

Pub. L. 91–127, title I, Nov. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 246.

Pub. L. 90–463, title I, Aug. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 640.

Pub. L. 90–113, title I, Oct. 24, 1967, 81 Stat. 321.

Pub. L. 89–556, title I, Sept. 7, 1966, 80 Stat. 690.

Pub. L. 89–316, title I, Nov. 2, 1965, 79 Stat. 1166.

Pub. L. 88–573, title I, Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 863.

Pub. L. 88–250, title I, Dec. 30, 1963, 77 Stat. 821.

Pub. L. 87–879, title I, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1204.

Pub. L. 87–112, title I, July 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 228.

Pub. L. 86–532, title I, June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 233.

Pub. L. 86–80, title I, July 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 168.

Pub. L. 85–459, title I, June 13, 1958, 72 Stat. 189.

Pub. L. 85–118, title I, Aug. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 330.

June 4, 1956, ch. 355, title I, 70 Stat. 230.

May 23, 1955, ch. 43, title I, 69 Stat. 52.

June 29, 1954, ch. 409, title I, 68 Stat. 305.

July 28, 1953, ch. 251, title III, 67 Stat. 223.

July 5, 1952, ch. 574, title III, 66 Stat. 354.

Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 374, title II, 65 Stat. 243.

Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. VI, title I, 64 Stat. 661.

June 29, 1949, ch. 280, title I, 63 Stat. 332.

June 19, 1948, ch. 543, 62 Stat. 515.

July 30, 1947, ch. 356, title I, 61 Stat. 532.

June 22, 1946, ch. 445, 60 Stat. 278.

May 5, 1945, ch. 109, 59 Stat. 144.

June 28, 1944, ch. 296, 58 Stat. 434.

July 12, 1943, ch. 215, 57 Stat. 403.

July 22, 1942, ch. 516, 56 Stat. 676.

July 1, 1941, ch. 267, 55 Stat. 418.

June 25, 1940, ch. 421, 54 Stat. 542.

June 30, 1939, ch. 253, title I, 53 Stat. 951.

June 16, 1938, ch. 464, title I, 52 Stat. 722.

June 29, 1937, ch. 404, 50 Stat. 406.

June 4, 1936, ch. 489, 49 Stat. 1432.

May 17, 1935, ch. 131, title I, 49 Stat. 257.

Mar. 26, 1934, ch. 89, 48 Stat. 477.

Mar. 3, 1933, ch. 203, 47 Stat. 1442.

July 7, 1932, ch. 443, 47 Stat. 620.

Feb. 23, 1931, ch. 278, 46 Stat. 1252.

May 27, 1930, ch. 341, 46 Stat. 403.

Feb. 16, 1929, ch. 227, 45 Stat. 1198.

May 16, 1928, ch. 572, 45 Stat. 548.

Jan. 18, 1927, ch. 39, 44 Stat. 1005.

May 11, 1926, ch. 286, 44 Stat. 529.

Feb. 10, 1925, ch. 200, 43 Stat. 851.

Dec. 5, 1924, ch. 4, 43 Stat. 683.

June 5, 1924, ch. 266, 43 Stat. 458.

Apr. 2, 1924, ch. 81, 43 Stat. 40.

Feb. 26, 1923, ch. 119, 42 Stat. 1318.

May 11, 1922, ch. 185, 42 Stat. 536.

Mar. 4, 1917, ch. 179, 39 Stat. 1167.

§§129a to 131. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(1), (8), (16), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507, 508

Section 129a, Pub. L. 97–46, §1, Sept. 25, 1981, 95 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 106–224, title IV, §438(b), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 454, related to transfer of funds for emergency arrest of animal or poultry diseases. Section was formerly classified to section 147b of Title 7, Agriculture.

Section 130, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, §8, 23 Stat. 33; 1967 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §402(430), eff. Aug. 11, 1967, 32 F.R. 11669, 81 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 93–198, title IV, §401, Dec. 24, 1973, 87 Stat. 793, related to pleuropneumonia in District of Columbia and duties of Council of the District of Columbia.

Section 131, act May 26, 1910, ch. 256, 36 Stat. 440, related to fences along international boundary lines to keep out diseased animals.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 97–46, §2, Sept. 25, 1981, 95 Stat. 953, provided that section 129a of this title was to become effective Sept. 25, 1981, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(1), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507.

§132. Transferred

Codification

Section, act May 23, 1908, ch. 192, 35 Stat. 254, which related to inspection of dairy products for export, was transferred to section 693 of this title.

§133. Repealed. July 13, 1949, ch. 307, 63 Stat. 410

Section, act July 24, 1946, ch. 592, 60 Stat. 633, related to establishment of a quarantine station on Swan Island.

§§134 to 135b. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(17), (18), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508

Section 134, Pub. L. 87–518, §1, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 129, related to definitions for Pub. L. 87–518.

Section 134a, Pub. L. 87–518, §2, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 129, related to seizure, quarantine, and disposal of livestock or poultry to guard against introduction or dissemination of communicable disease.

Section 134b, Pub. L. 87–518, §3, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 130, related to regulations for clean and sanitary movement of animals.

Section 134c, Pub. L. 87–518, §4, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 130, related to regulations for movement of animals affected or exposed to communicable disease.

Section 134d, Pub. L. 87–518, §5, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 130, related to inspections, seizures, and issuance of warrants.

Section 134e, Pub. L. 87–518, §6, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 97–461, §8, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2525, related to enforcement provisions.

Section 134f, Pub. L. 87–518, §11, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 132, related to promulgation of regulations.

Section 134g, Pub. L. 87–518, §12, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 132, related to authority in addition to other laws and repeal of inconsistent provisions.

Section 134h, Pub. L. 87–518, §13, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 132, related to separability.

Section 135, Pub. L. 91–239, §1, May 6, 1970, 84 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, §431(j), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4969, related to the establishment of international animal quarantine station, acceptance of gifts, cooperation with breeders’ organizations, and collection of fees.

Section 135a, Pub. L. 91–239, §2, May 6, 1970, 84 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 97–461, §9, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2525, related to smuggling penalties.

Section 135b, Pub. L. 91–239, §3, May 6, 1970, 84 Stat. 202, related to authorization of appropriations.

§136. Additional inspection services

The Secretary of Agriculture, in carrying out regulations prohibiting or restricting the entry of materials that may harbor pests, or diseases, is authorized to enter into agreements with operators or owners of vessels or aircraft for the purpose of providing inspection services at points of entry in the United States in addition to the regular or on-call basis currently available in connection with such vessels or aircraft. Any such agreement shall provide for the payment by the operator or owner of an amount determined by the Secretary to be necessary to defray the costs of providing additional service pursuant to such agreement.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2508, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4069.)

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 6 section 231.

§136a. Collection of fees for inspection services

(a) Quarantine and inspection fees

(1) Fees authorized

The Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe and collect fees sufficient—

(A) to cover the cost of providing agricultural quarantine and inspection services in connection with the arrival at a port in the customs territory of the United States, or the preclearance or preinspection at a site outside the customs territory of the United States, of an international passenger, commercial vessel, commercial aircraft, commercial truck, or railroad car;

(B) to cover the cost of administering this subsection; and

(C) through fiscal year 2002, to maintain a reasonable balance in the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection User Fee Account established under paragraph (5).

(2) Limitation

In setting the fees under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall ensure that the amount of the fees is commensurate with the costs of agricultural quarantine and inspection services with respect to the class of persons or entities paying the fees. The costs of the services with respect to passengers as a class includes the costs of related inspections of the aircraft or other vehicle.

(3) Status of fees

Fees collected under this subsection by any person on behalf of the Secretary are held in trust for the United States and shall be remitted to the Secretary in such manner and at such times as the Secretary may prescribe.

(4) Late payment penalties

If a person subject to a fee under this subsection fails to pay the fee when due, the Secretary shall assess a late payment penalty, and the overdue fees shall accrue interest, as required by section 3717 of title 31.

(5) Agricultural quarantine inspection user fee account

(A) Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a fund, to be known as the “Agricultural Quarantine Inspection User Fee Account”, which shall contain all of the fees collected under this subsection and late payment penalties and interest charges collected under paragraph (4) through fiscal year 2002.

(B) Use of account

For each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002, funds in the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection User Fee Account shall be available, in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriations Acts, to cover the costs associated with the provision of agricultural quarantine and inspection services and the administration of this subsection. Amounts made available under this subparagraph shall be available until expended.

(C) Excess fees

Fees and other amounts collected under this subsection in any of fiscal years 1996 through 2002 in excess of $100,000,000 shall be available for the purposes specified in subparagraph (B) until expended, without further appropriation.

(6) Use of amounts collected after fiscal year 2002

After September 30, 2002, the unobligated balance in the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection User Fee Account and fees and other amounts collected under this subsection shall be credited to the Department of Agriculture accounts that incur the costs associated with the provision of agricultural quarantine and inspection services and the administration of this subsection. The fees and other amounts shall remain available to the Secretary until expended without fiscal year limitation.

(7) Staff years

The number of full-time equivalent positions in the Department of Agriculture attributable to the provision of agricultural quarantine and inspection services and the administration of this subsection shall not be counted toward the limitation on the total number of full-time equivalent positions in all agencies specified in section 5(b) of the Federal Workforce Restructuring Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–226; 5 U.S.C. 3101 note) or other limitation on the total number of full-time equivalent positions.

(b) Omitted

(c) Animal inspection and veterinary diagnostics

(1) Animal inspection

The Secretary may prescribe and collect fees to reimburse the Secretary for the cost of carrying out the provisions of the Federal Animal Quarantine Laws that relate to the importation, entry, and exportation of animals, articles, or means of conveyance.

(2) Veterinary diagnostics

The Secretary may prescribe and collect fees to recover the costs of carrying out the provisions of the Animal Health Protection Act [7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.] that relate to veterinary diagnostics.

(3) Fees

All fees collected pursuant to this subsection and any late payment penalties or accrued interest collected pursuant to this subsection shall be credited to the accounts that incur the cost and shall remain available until expended without fiscal year limitation.

(4) Liability

Any person for whom an activity related to the importation, entry, or exportation of an animal, article, or means of conveyance or relating to veterinary diagnostics, is performed pursuant to the section, shall be liable for payment of fees assessed. Upon failure to pay such fees when due, the Secretary shall assess a late payment penalty, and such overdue fees shall accrue interest, as required by section 3717 of title 31. All fees, late payment penalties, and accrued interest collected shall be credited to such accounts that incur the costs and shall remain available until expended without fiscal year limitation.

(5) Leins 1

(A) In general

The Secretary shall have a lien against the animal, article, means of conveyance, or facility for which services have been provided under this section for the fees, any late payment penalty, and any accrued interest assessed under this subsection.

(B) Other animals, etc.

In the case of any person who fails to make payment when due under this subsection, the Secretary shall have a lien against any animal, article, or means of conveyance thereafter imported, moved in interstate commerce, or attempted to be exported by the person after the date of such failure until the date on which such owner or operator make 2 full payment to the Secretary under this subsection.

(C) Sales of animals, etc.

(i) Authority

The Secretary may, if a person does not pay fees, late payment penalties, or accrued interest on such, after providing reasonable notice of default to such person, sell at public sale after reasonable public notice, or otherwise dispose of, any such animal, article, means of conveyance or facility on which the Secretary has a lien under this paragraph.

(ii) Excess proceeds

If the sale proceeds under clause (i) exceed the fees due, any late payment penalty assessed, any accrued interest on such, and the expenses associated with the sale, such excess shall be paid to the owner of the animal, article, means of conveyance, or facility if such owner submits an application for such excess together with proof of ownership not later than 6 months after the date of such sale. If no such application is made, such excess shall be credited to accounts that incur the costs associated with the fees collected and shall remain available until expended, without fiscal year limitation. The Secretary shall suspend performance of services to persons who have failed to pay fees, late payment penalty, or accrued interest under this section.

(d) Regulations

The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(e) Recovery of amounts owed

An action may be brought for the recovery of fees, late payment penalties, and accrued interest which have not been paid in accordance with this section against any person obligated for payment of such assessments under this section in any United States district court or other United States court for any territory or possession in any jurisdiction in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, and such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and decide such action.

(f) Definitions

(1) Animal quarantine laws

For purposes of this section, the term “animal quarantine laws” means—

(A) section 306 of the Tariff Act of 1930 3 (19 U.S.C. 1306);

(B) section 9 of the Act of August 30, 1890 (21 U.S.C. 101);

(C) the Animal Health Protection Act [7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.]; or

(D) any other Act administered by the Secretary relating to plant or animal diseases or pests.

(2) Customs territory

For the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the term “customs territory of the United States” means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

(3) Person

For the purposes of this section, the term “person” means an individual, corporation, partnership, trust, association, or any other public or private entity, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof.

(4) United States

For the purposes of subsection (b) of this section, the term “United States” means the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and all other territories and possessions of the United States.

(5) Vessel

For the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the term “vessel” does not include any ferry.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2509, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 101–508, title I, §1203, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–11; Pub. L. 102–237, title X, §1015, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 104–127, title IX, §917, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1187; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(b)(5), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 509.)

References in Text

The Animal Health Protection Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2), (f)(1)(C), is subtitle E (§§10401–10418) of title X of Pub. L. 107–171, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 494, which is classified principally to chapter 109 (§8301 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8301 of Title 7 and Tables.

Section 306 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1306), referred to in subsec. (f)(1)(A), was repealed by Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10418(a)(5), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 2509 of Pub. L. 101–624. Subsec. (b) and another subsec. (c)(2) of section 2509 of Pub. L. 101–624 amended section 7759(f) of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 114a of this title, respectively.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–171, §10418(b)(5)(A), added par. (2) relating to veterinary diagnostics.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B) to (O). Pub. L. 107–171, §10418(b)(5)(B), added subpars. (B) to (D) and struck out former subpars. (B) to (O), which read as follows:

“(B) sections 6 through 10 of the Act of August 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 416, chapter 839; 21 U.S.C. 101–105);

“(C) section 2 of the Act of February 2, 1903 (32 Stat. 792, chapter 349; 21 U.S.C. 111);

“(D) the Act of May 29, 1884 (23 Stat. 32, chapter 60; 21 U.S.C. 112 to 114a–1, 115, 117–119, and 130) (commonly known as the ‘Animal Industry Act’);

“(E) the Act of February 28, 1947 (61 Stat. 7, chapter 8; 21 U.S.C. 114b, 114c, and 114d–1);

“(F) the Act of June 16, 1948 (62 Stat. 458, chapter 477; 21 U.S.C. 114e and 114f);

“(G) Public Law 87–209 (21 U.S.C. 114g and 114h);

“(H) the Act of May 31, 1920 (41 Stat. 699, chapter 217; 21 U.S.C. 116);

“(I) the Act of February 2, 1903 (32 Stat. 791, chapter 349; 21 U.S.C. 112 and 120–122) (commonly known as the ‘Cattle Contagious Diseases Act of 1903’);

“(J) the Act of March 3, 1905 (33 Stat. 1264, chapter 1496; 21 U.S.C. 123–127) (commonly known as the ‘Cattle Contagious Diseases Act of 1905’);

“(K) the matter under the heading ‘Bureau of Animal Industry’ of the Act of June 30, 1914 (38 Stat. 419, chapter 131; 21 U.S.C. 128);

“(L) section 101 of Public Law 92–73 (21 U.S.C. 129);

“(M) the matter under the heading ‘Miscellaneous’ of the Act of May 26, 1910 (36 Stat. 440, chapter 256; 21 U.S.C. 131);

“(N) sections 1 through 6 and 11 through 13 of Public Law 87–518 (21 U.S.C. 134–134h); or

“(O) any other Act administered by the Secretary relating to plant or animal diseases or pests, other than the first section of Public Law 91–239 (21 U.S.C. 135).”

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–127 added subsec. (a) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a) which consisted of pars. (1) to (4) relating to quarantine, inspection, and transportation fees.

1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–237, §1015(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), realigned margin, added heading, and added subpars. (B) to (D).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 102–237, §1015(2), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “The Secretary of Treasury shall use the Account to provide reimbursements to any appropriations accounts that incur the costs associated with the services authorized in paragraph (1). Any such reimbursement shall be subject to appropriations under clause (v).”

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–237, §1015(3), substituted “Subject to the limits set forth in paragraph (1), the” for “The”.

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, §1203(1), substituted “an international passenger, commercial vessel, commercial aircraft, commercial truck, or railroad car.” for “a commercial vessel, commercial aircraft, commercial truck, or railroad car,”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 101–508, §1203(2)(A), inserted at end “Any such reimbursement shall be subject to appropriations under clause (v).”

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(v). Pub. L. 101–508, §1203(2)(B), added cl. (v).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 effective Nov. 29, 1990, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 511r of Title 7, Agriculture.

Report on Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Fund

Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1012(c), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 712, provided that: “The Secretary of Agriculture shall not be required to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress on the status of the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection fund more frequently than annually.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 6 section 231; title 7 section 1961; title 16 section 1540.

1 So in original. Probably should be “Liens”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “makes”.

3 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER IV—IMPORTATION OF MILK AND CREAM

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

By virtue of act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(c), 52 Stat. 1059 [section 392(b) of this title], nothing contained in section 301 et seq. of this title shall be construed as in any way affecting, modifying, repealing, or superseding the provisions of this subchapter.

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in section 392 of this title.

§141. Prohibition of importation without permit

On and after May 16, 1927, the importation into the United States of milk and cream is prohibited unless the person by whom such milk or cream is shipped or transported into the United States holds a valid permit from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §1, 44 Stat. 1101; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695.)

Change of Name

“Secretary of Health and Human Services” substituted in text for “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare” pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Short Title

Act July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title II, 57 Stat. 499, provided in part that act Feb. 15, 1927, which is classified to this subchapter, may be cited as “Import Milk Act”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

§142. Milk or cream when unfit for importation

Milk or cream shall be considered unfit for importation (1) when all cows producing such milk or cream are not healthy and a physical examination of all such cows has not been made within one year previous to such milk being offered for importation; (2) when such milk or cream, if raw, is not produced from cows which have passed a tuberculin test applied by a duly authorized official veterinarian of the United States, or of the country in which such milk or cream is produced, within one year previous to the time of the importation, showing that such cows are free from tuberculosis; (3) when the sanitary conditions of the dairy farm or plant in which such milk or cream is produced or handled do not score at least fifty points out of one hundred points according to the methods for scoring as provided by the score cards used by the Bureau of Dairy Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture at the time such dairy farms or plants are scored; (4) in the case of raw milk if the number of bacteria per cubic centimeter exceeds three hundred thousand and in the case of raw cream seven hundred and fifty thousand, in the case of pasteurized milk if the number of bacteria per cubic centimeter exceeds one hundred thousand, and in the case of pasteurized cream five hundred thousand; (5) when the temperature of milk or cream at the time of importation exceeds fifty degrees Fahrenheit.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §2, 44 Stat. 1101.)

Transfer of Functions

Agricultural Research Service became the successor to functions of Bureau of Dairy Industry under Secretary of Agriculture's Memorandum 1320, Supplement 4, Nov. 2, 1953.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 143 of this title.

§143. Inspection; certified statement in lieu thereof; waiver of requirements of section 142; regulations; suspension and revocation of permits

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall cause such inspections to be made as are necessary to insure that milk and cream are so produced and handled as to comply with the provisions of section 142 of this title, and in all cases when he finds that such milk and/or cream is produced and handled so as not to be unfit for importation under clauses 1, 2, and 3 of section 142 of this title, he shall issue to persons making application therefor permits to ship milk and/or cream into the United States: Provided, That in lieu of the inspections to be made by or under the direction of the Secretary he may, in his discretion, accept a duly certified statement signed by a duly accredited official of an authorized department of any foreign government and/or of any State of the United States or any municipality thereof that the provisions in clauses 1, 2, and 3 of section 142 of this title have been complied with. Such certificate of the accredited official of an authorized department of any foreign government shall be in the form prescribed by the Secretary, who is authorized and directed to prescribe such form as well as rules and regulations regulating the issuance of permits to import milk or cream into the United States.

The Secretary is authorized, in his discretion, to waive the requirement of clause 4 of section 142 of this title when issuing permits to operators of condenseries in which milk and/or cream is used when sterilization of the milk and/or cream is a necessary process: Provided, however, That no milk and/or cream shall be imported whose bacterial count per cubic centimeter in any event exceeds one million two hundred thousand: Provided, further, That such requirements shall not be waived unless the farm producing such milk to be imported is within a radius of fifteen miles of the condensery in which it is to be processed: Provided further, That if milk and/or cream imported when the requirements of clause 4 of section 142 of this title, have been so waived, is sold, used, or disposed of in its raw state or otherwise than as condensed milk by any person, the permit shall be revoked and the importer shall be subject to fine, imprisonment, or other penalty prescribed by this subchapter.

The Secretary is directed to waive the requirements of clauses 2 and 5 of section 142 of this title insofar as the same relate to milk when issuing permits to operators of, or to producers for delivery to, creameries and condensing plants in the United States within twenty miles of the point of production of the milk, and who import no raw milk except for pasteurization or condensing: Provided, That if milk imported when the requirements of clauses 2 and 5 of section 142 of this title have been so waived is sold, used, or disposed of in its raw state, or otherwise than as pasteurized, condensed, or evaporated milk by any person, the permit shall be revoked and the importer shall be subjected to fine, imprisonment, or other penalty prescribed by this subchapter.

The Secretary is authorized and directed to make and enforce such regulations as may in his judgment be necessary to carry out the purpose of this subchapter for the handling of milk and cream, for the inspection of milk, cream, cows, barns, and other facilities used in the production and handling of milk and/or cream and the handling, keeping, transporting, and importing of milk and/or cream: Provided, however, That unless and until the Secretary shall provide for inspections to ascertain that clauses 1, 2, and 3 of section 142 of this title have been complied with, the Secretary shall issue temporary permits to any applicants therefor to ship or transport milk and/or cream into the United States.

The Secretary is authorized to suspend or revoke any permit for the shipment of milk or cream into the United States when he shall find that the holder thereof has failed to comply with the provisions of or has violated this subchapter or any of the regulations made hereunder, or that the milk and/or cream brought or shipped by the holder of such permit into the United States is not produced and handled in conformity with, or that the quality thereof does not conform to, all of the provisions of section 142 of this title.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §3, 44 Stat. 1102; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695.)

Change of Name

“Secretary of Health and Human Services” substituted in text for “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare” pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

§144. Unlawful receiving of imported milk or cream

It shall be unlawful for any person in the United States to receive milk or cream imported into the United States unless the importation is in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §4, 44 Stat. 1103.)

§145. Penalties

Any person who knowingly violates any provision of this subchapter shall, in addition to all other penalties prescribed by law, be punished by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $2,000, or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §5, 44 Stat. 1103.)

§146. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $50,000 per annum, to enable the Secretary of Health and Human Services to carry out the provisions of this subchapter.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §6, 44 Stat. 1103; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695.)

Change of Name

“Secretary of Health and Human Services” substituted in text for “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare” pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration to Federal Security Agency, see Transfer of Functions note set out under section 41 of this title.

§147. Repeal of inconsistent laws

Any laws or parts of laws inconsistent with this subchapter are repealed.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §7, 44 Stat. 1103.)

§148. Powers of State with respect to milk or cream lawfully imported

Nothing in this subchapter is intended nor shall be construed to affect the powers of any State, or any political subdivision thereof, to regulate the shipment of milk or cream into, or the handling, sale, or other disposition of milk or cream in, such State or political subdivision after the milk and/or cream shall have been lawfully imported under the provisions of this subchapter.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §8, 44 Stat. 1103.)

§149. Definitions

When used in this subchapter—

(a) The term “person” means an individual, partnership, association, or corporation.

(b) The term “United States” means the fifty States and the District of Columbia.

(Feb. 15, 1927, ch. 155, §9, 44 Stat. 1103; Pub. L. 86–70, §19, June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 145; Pub. L. 86–624, §15, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 415.)

Amendments

1960—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–624 substituted “means the fifty States and the District of Columbia” for “means continental United States, including Alaska”.

1959—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–70 inserted “, including Alaska” after “continental United States”.

CHAPTER 5—VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, ANTITOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS

Sec.
151.
Preparation and sale of worthless or harmful products for domestic animals prohibited; preparation to be in compliance with rules at licensed establishments.
152.
Importation regulated and prohibited.
153.
Inspection of imports; denial of entry and destruction.
154.
Regulations for preparation and sale; licenses.
154a.
Special licenses for special circumstances; expedited procedure; conditions; exemptions; criteria.
155.
Permits for importation.
156.
Licenses conditioned on permitting inspection; suspension of licenses.
157.
Inspection.
158.
Offenses; punishment.
159.
Enforcement; penalties applicable; Congressional findings.

        

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

By virtue of act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(c), 52 Stat. 1059 [section 392(b) of this title], nothing contained in section 301 et seq. of this title shall be construed as in any way affecting, modifying, repealing, or superseding the provisions of this chapter.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 382, 392 of this title; title 6 section 231; title 7 section 8401; title 15 section 1459; title 35 sections 156, 271; title 42 section 262a.

§151. Preparation and sale of worthless or harmful products for domestic animals prohibited; preparation to be in compliance with rules at licensed establishments

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to prepare, sell, barter, or exchange in the District of Columbia, or in the Territories, or in any place under the jurisdiction of the United States, or to ship or deliver for shipment in or from the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, or any place under the jurisdiction of the United States, any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product intended for use in the treatment of domestic animals, and no person, firm, or corporation shall prepare, sell, barter, exchange, or ship as aforesaid any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product manufactured within the United States and intended for use in the treatment of domestic animals, unless and until the said virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product shall have been prepared, under and in compliance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, at an establishment holding an unsuspended and unrevoked license issued by the Secretary of Agriculture as hereinafter authorized.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 832; Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, §1768(a), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1654.)

Codification

The sections of this chapter are comprised of the sentences of the eighth paragraph under the heading “Bureau of Animal Industry,” in the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1914, as amended.

Another section 1768 of Pub. L. 99–198, cited as a credit to this section, amended section 136y of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–198 substituted “in or from the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, or any place under the jurisdiction of the United States” for “from one State or Territory or the District of Columbia to any other State or Territory or the District of Columbia”.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Section 1768(f) of Pub. L. 99–198 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting sections 154a and 159 of this title and amending this section and sections 154 and 157 of this title] shall become effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 1985].

“(2)(A) Subject to subparagraphs (B) through (D), in the case of a person, firm, or corporation preparing, selling, bartering, exchanging, or shipping a virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product during the 12-month period ending on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 1985] solely for intrastate commerce or for exportation, such product shall not after such date of enactment, as a result of its not having been licensed or produced in a licensed establishment, be considered in violation of the eighth paragraph of the matter under the heading ‘BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY’ of the Act entitled ‘An Act making appropriations for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and fourteen’, approved March 14, 1913 (as amended by this section) [this chapter], until the first day of the 49th month following the date of enactment of this Act.

“(B) The exemption granted by subparagraph (A) may be extended by the Secretary of Agriculture for a period up to 12 months in an individual case on a showing by a person, firm, or corporation of good cause and a good faith effort to comply with such eighth paragraph with due diligence.

“(C) The exemption granted by subparagraph (A) must be claimed by the person, firm, or corporation preparing such product by the first day of the 13th month following the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 1985], in the form and manner prescribed by the Secretary, unless the Secretary grants an extension of the time to claim such exemption in an individual case for good cause shown.

“(D) On the issuance by the Secretary of a license to such person, firm, or corporation for such product prior to the first day of the 49th month following the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 1985], or the end of an extension of the exemption granted by the Secretary, the exemption granted by subparagraph (A) shall terminate with respect to such product.”

Short Title

Act Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 832, which is classified to this chapter, is popularly known as the “Virus-Serum-Toxin Act”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Appropriations

An appropriation of $25,000 was made by act Mar. 4, 1913, for the purpose of carrying into effect these provisions. The appropriation for the fiscal year 1926 was by act Feb. 10, 1925, ch. 200, 43 Stat. 827.

§152. Importation regulated and prohibited

The importation into the United States of any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals, and the importation of any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals, is prohibited without (1) a permit from the Secretary of Agriculture, or (2) in the case of an article originating in Canada, such permit or, in lieu of such permit, such certification by Canada as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 832; Pub. L. 100–449, title III, §301(d), Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1868.)

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–449 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The importation into the United States, without a permit from the Secretary of Agriculture, of any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals, and the importation of any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals, are prohibited.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–449 effective on the date the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 1989), and to cease to have effect on the date the Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 501(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§153. Inspection of imports; denial of entry and destruction

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cause the Bureau of Animal Industry to examine and inspect all viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products, for use in the treatment of domestic animals, which are being imported or offered for importation into the United States, to determine whether such viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products are worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful, and if it shall appear that any such virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product, for use in the treatment of domestic animals, is worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful, the same shall be denied entry and shall be destroyed or returned at the expense of the owner or importer.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 832.)

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§154. Regulations for preparation and sale; licenses

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make and promulgate from time to time such rules and regulations as may be necessary to prevent the preparation, sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid of any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals, or otherwise to carry out this chapter, and to issue, suspend, and revoke licenses for the maintenance of establishments for the preparation of viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products, for use in the treatment of domestic animals, intended for sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 832; Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, §1768(b), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1654.)

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

Another section 1768 of Pub. L. 99–198, cited as a credit to this section, amended section 136y of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–198 inserted “or otherwise to carry out this chapter,” after “domestic animals,”.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–198 effective Dec. 23, 1985, except as otherwise provided, see section 1768(f) of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 151 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§154a. Special licenses for special circumstances; expedited procedure; conditions; exemptions; criteria

In order to meet an emergency condition, limited market or local situation, or other special circumstance (including production solely for intrastate use under a State-operated program), the Secretary may issue a special license under an expedited procedure on such conditions as are necessary to assure purity, safety, and a reasonable expectation of efficacy. The Secretary shall exempt by regulation from the requirement of preparation pursuant to an unsuspended and unrevoked license any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product prepared by any person, firm, or corporation—

(1) solely for administration to animals of such person, firm, or corporation;

(2) solely for administration to animals under a veterinarian-client-patient relationship in the course of the State licensed professional practice of veterinary medicine by such person, firm, or corporation; or

(3) solely for distribution within the State of production pursuant to a license granted by such State under a program determined by the Secretary to meet criteria under which the State—

(A) may license virus, serum, toxin, and analogous products and establishments that produce such products;

(B) may review the purity, safety, potency, and efficacy of such products prior to licensure;

(C) may review product test results to assure compliance with applicable standards for purity, safety, and potency, prior to release to the market;

(D) may deal effectively with violations of State law regulating virus, serum, toxin, and analogous products; and

(E) exercises the authority referred to in subclauses (A) through (D) consistent with the intent of this chapter of prohibiting the preparation, sale, barter, exchange, or shipment of worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous products.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], as added Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, §1768(c), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1654.)

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

Another section 1768 of Pub. L. 99–198, cited as a credit to this section, amended section 136y of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 23, 1985, except as otherwise provided, see section 1768(f) of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 151 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§155. Permits for importation

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to issue permits for the importation into the United States of viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products, for use in the treatment of domestic animals, which are not worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 833.)

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§156. Licenses conditioned on permitting inspection; suspension of licenses

All licenses issued under authority of this chapter to establishments where such viruses, serums, toxins, or analogous products are prepared for sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid, shall be issued on condition that the licensee shall permit the inspection of such establishments and of such products and their preparation; and the Secretary of Agriculture may suspend or revoke any permit or license issued under authority of said chapter, after opportunity for hearing has been granted the licensee or importer, when the Secretary of Agriculture is satisfied that such license or permit is being used to facilitate or effect the preparation, sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid, or the importation into the United States of any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 833.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning act Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, 37 Stat. 828, which enacted this chapter, sections 155 and 393 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 316 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, sections 501, 502, 512, 558, and 560 of Title 16, Conservation, and section 630 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and amended section 83 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and sections 518 and 673 of Title 16.

Section 316 of Title 15 was omitted from the Code as superseded by section 5701 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Section 630 of former Title 31 was repealed by act Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, title III, §301(64), 64 Stat. 842. Section 83 of former Title 5 was repealed and reenacted as section 5946 of Title 5 by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 514. For complete classification of act Mar. 4, 1913, to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§157. Inspection

Any officer, agent, or employee of the Department of Agriculture duly authorized by the Secretary of Agriculture for the purpose may, at any hour during the daytime or nighttime, enter and inspect any establishment where any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals is prepared for sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 833; Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, §1768(d), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1655.)

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

Another section 1768 of Pub. L. 99–198, cited as a credit to this section, amended section 136y of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–198 struck out “licensed under this chapter” after “enter and inspect any establishment”.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–198 effective Dec. 23, 1985, except as otherwise provided, see section 1768(f) of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as a note under section 151 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 7 section 394a.

§158. Offenses; punishment

Any person, firm, or corporation who shall violate any of the provisions of this chapter shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not exceeding $1,000 or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], 37 Stat. 833.)

References in Text

For explanation of “this chapter”, referred to in text, see References in Text note set out under section 156 of this title.

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

§159. Enforcement; penalties applicable; Congressional findings

The procedures of sections 672, 673, and 674 of this title (relating to detentions, seizures and condemnations, and injunctions, respectively) shall apply to the enforcement of this chapter with respect to any product prepared, sold, bartered, exchanged, or shipped in violation of this chapter or a regulation promulgated under this chapter. The provisions (including penalties) of section 675 of this title shall apply to the performance of official duties under this chapter. Congress finds that (i) the products and activities that are regulated under this chapter are either in interstate or foreign commerce or substantially affect such commerce or the free flow thereof, and (ii) regulation of the products and activities as provided in this chapter is necessary to prevent and eliminate burdens on such commerce and to effectively regulate such commerce.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, §1 [part], as added Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, §1768(e), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1655.)

Codification

See note set out under section 151 of this title.

Another section 1768 of Pub. L. 99–198, cited as a credit to this section, amended section 136y of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 23, 1985, except as otherwise provided, see section 1768(f) of Pub. L. 99–198, set out as an Effective Date of 1985 Amendment note under section 151 of this title.

CHAPTER 5A—BUREAU OF NARCOTICS

§§161 to 165. Omitted

Codification

Section 161, acts June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §1, 46 Stat. 585; Oct. 15, 1949, ch. 695, §6(a), 63 Stat. 881, established a Bureau of Narcotics in the Department of the Treasury and provided for appointment of a Commissioner of Narcotics for the Bureau with duty of making an annual report to Congress.

Section 162, acts June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §2, 46 Stat. 585; June 26, 1930, ch. 623, §1, 46 Stat. 819; Oct. 27, 1970, Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(a)(4), 84 Stat. 1291, provided for appointment and compensation of a deputy commissioner and other personnel for the Bureau of Narcotics, required the deputy to be an acting Commissioner during absence or disability of the Commissioner or a vacancy in the office, and authorized designation of a member of the Treasury Department as an acting Commissioner in event there is no Commissioner or deputy commissioner.

Section 163, act Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 348, §4(a), 44 Stat. 1382, provided for transfer of control of narcotic drugs to the Secretary of the Treasury from the Commissioner of Internal Revenue and his assistants, agents, and inspectors.

Section 164, acts June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §3, 46 Stat. 586; June 26, 1930, ch. 623, §2, 46 Stat. 819; Ex. Ord. No. 6639, Mar. 10, 1934, abolished the Federal Narcotics Control Board and transferred powers of such Board to the Commissioner of Narcotics, authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to confer or impose his duties under section 163 of this title upon the Commissioner or other personnel of the Bureau of Narcotics, continued in effect orders, rules, and regulations in existence on July 1, 1930, until modified, superseded, or repealed by the Commissioner, with approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, and provided for determination before such Bureau of Narcotics of proceedings, investigations, and other matters pending on July 1, 1930 before Bureau of Prohibition or Federal Narcotics Control Board respecting narcotic drug law administration or enforcement. Bureau of Prohibition personnel, records, property, and unexpended balances of appropriations were previously transferred to Bureau of Narcotics as were powers of the Attorney General respecting the Bureau of Prohibition to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.

Section 165, act June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §5, 46 Stat. 587, provided for review of decisions of Commissioner of Narcotics by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of the Secretary of the Treasury administered through or respecting the Bureau of Narcotics and all functions of the Bureau, the Commissioner of Narcotics, and the officers, employees and agencies of the Bureau were transferred to the Attorney General and the Bureau and the office of Commissioner of Narcotics were abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1968, eff. Apr. 8, 1968, 33 F.R. 5611, 82 Stat. 1367, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All positions, personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Bureau and the Treasury Department, in connection with functions transferred under this reorganization plan, were transferred to the Justice Department.

The Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, including the office of Director thereof, in the Department of Justice was abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1973, eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 15932, 87 Stat. 1091, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1973 also created in the Department of Justice a single, comprehensive agency for the enforcement of drug laws to be known as the Drug Enforcement Administration, empowered the Attorney General to authorize the performance by officers, employees, and agencies of the Department of functions transferred to him, and directed the Attorney General to coordinate all drug law enforcement functions to assure maximum cooperation between the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the other units of the Department of Justice involved in drug law enforcement.

CHAPTER 6—NARCOTIC DRUGS

Executive Order No. 10302

Ex. Ord. No. 10302, Nov. 5, 1951, 16 F.R. 11257, formerly set out as a note preceding section 171, which established the Interdepartmental Committee on Narcotics, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11529, Apr. 24, 1970, 35 F.R. 6697.

IMPORTATION OR EXPORTATION

§§171 to 174. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(a)(2), (4), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291

Section 171, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §1, 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §1, 42 Stat. 596; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §3, 46 Stat. 586; July 1, 1944, ch. 377, §8, 58 Stat. 721; Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 81, §7, 60 Stat. 39; Aug. 8, 1953, ch. 394, §8, 67 Stat. 506, defined “narcotic drug”, “United States”, and “person”. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

Section 172, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §2(a), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657, established a Federal Narcotics Control Board. Act May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §1, 42 Stat. 596, also classified to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 645.

Section 173, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §2(b), (d), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §3, 46 Stat. 586, prohibited importation of narcotic drugs. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

Section 173a, act June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §6, 46 Stat. 587, provided for importation of additional amounts of coca leaves.

Section 174, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §2(c), (f), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657; Nov. 2, 1951, ch. 666, §§1, 5(1), 65 Stat. 767; July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, §105, 70 Stat. 570, set penalties for bringing narcotic drugs into the United States contrary to law. See chapter 13 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 27, 1970, see section 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of this title.

Savings Provision

Section 1103 of Pub. L. 91–513 provided that:

“(a) Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring prior to the effective date of section 1101 [the first day of the seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970] shall not be affected by the repeals or amendments made by such section or section 1102 [repealing sections 171 to 174, 176 to 185, 188 to 188n, 191 to 193, 197, 198, 199, 501 to 517 of this title, sections 1401 to 1407, and 3616 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 4701 to 4707, 4711 to 4716, 4721 to 4726, 4731 to 4736, 4741 to 4746, 4751 to 4757, 4761, 4762, 4771 to 4776, 7237, 7238, and 7491 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, sections 529a and 529g of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 1421m of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, and amending sections 162 and 967 of this title, section 4251 of Title 18, section 1584 of Title 19, Customs Duties, sections 4901, 4905, 6808, 7012, 7103, 7236, 7607, 7609, 7641, 7651, and 7655 of Title 26, section 2901 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, sections 529d, 529e, and 529f of former Title 31, section 304m of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, section 3411 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, section 239a of Title 46, Shipping, and section 787 of former Title 49, Transportation], or abated by reason thereof.

“(b) Civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of section 1101 [the first day of the seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970] shall not be affected by the repeals or amendments made by such section or section 1102, or abated by reason thereof.”

§175. Repealed. June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, §403(a)(10), 66 Stat. 279

Section, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §2(e), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657, related to deportation of convicted aliens. See section 1251 et seq. of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§§176 to 185. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(a)(2), (9), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291, 1292

Section 176, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §2(g), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202 §1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657, covered liability of masters of vessels and persons in charge of railroad cars and other vehicles used to carry narcotic drugs.

Section 176a, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §2(h), as added July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, §106, 70 Stat. 570, covered illegal importation of marihuana and set penalties for such illegal importation. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

Section 176b, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §2(i), as added July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, §107, 70 Stat. 571, prohibited sale of heroin to juveniles and set penalties for such illegal sale. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

Section 177, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §2(a), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657, vested administration of Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act in Department of the Treasury.

Section 178, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §4, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275, prohibited possession of smoking opium. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

Section 179, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §4, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275, covered liability of masters of vessels and persons in charge of railroad cars or other vehicles for possession of smoking heroin. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

Section 180, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §5, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; amended May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §2, 42 Stat. 597; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §3, 46 Stat. 586, prohibited admission of smoking opium even for transportation to another country or for transferal from one vessel to another.

Section 181, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §3, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275, created a presumption of illegal importation based upon presence of smoking opium in United States.

Section 182, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §6, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 348 Stat. 275; amended May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §2, 42 Stat. 597; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §3, 46 Stat. 586; Apr. 22, 1960, Pub. L. 86–429, §15, 74 Stat. 66, forbade exportation of narcotic drugs. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

Section 183, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §7, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 277, set out penalties for illegal exportation of narcotic drugs.

Section 184, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §8, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 277; amended May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §3, 42 Stat. 598, provided for seizure and forfeiture of narcotic drugs found on vessels and not shown on manifest or landed from vessels without a permit.

Section 184a, acts July 11, 1941, ch. 289, §1, 55 Stat. 584; July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, §108, 70 Stat. 571, made illegal bringing on board a vessel of United States any narcotic drugs not constituting a part of the cargo.

Section 185, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, §9, as added May 26, 1922, ch. 202, §4, 42 Stat. 598, authorized the citation of act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, as the “Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act”.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of this title.

Savings Provision

Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring, and civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced, prior to the effective date of repeal of these sections by section 1101 of Pub. L. 91–513 not to be affected or abated by reason thereof, see section 1103 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under sections 171 to 174 of this title.

MARIHUANA AND HEALTH REPORTING

§§186, 187. Transferred

Codification

Section 186, Pub. L. 91–296, title V, §501, June 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 352, which related to congressional findings as to marihuana use, the need for a better understanding of the health consequences, and the lack of information thereto, was transferred and set out as a note under section 242 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Section 187, Pub. L. 91–296, title V, §502, June 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 352, which directed the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare to report to Congress on the current information on the health consequence of marihuana use, with recommendations for legislative and administrative action and to submit a preliminary report no later than 90 days after June 30, 1970, was transferred and set out as a note under section 242 of Title 42.

DOMESTIC CONTROL OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE OPIUM POPPY

§§188 to 188n. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(a)(7), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292

Sections, acts Dec. 11, 1942, ch. 720, 56 Stat. 1045; June 25, 1959, Pub. 86–70, §20, 73 Stat. 145; July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–624, §16, 74 Stat. 415, known as the “Opium Poppy Control Act of 1942”, provided for the domestic control of production and distribution of the opium poppy. Sections 1 to 17 of said Act of Dec. 11, 1942, were classified, respectively, to sections 188, 188 notes, and 188a to 188n of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of this title.

Savings Provision

Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring, and civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced, prior to the effective date of repeal of these sections by section 1101 of Pub. L. 91–513 not to be affected or abated by reason thereof, see section 1103 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

IMPORTATION BY CHINESE SUBJECTS OR TRAFFICKING IN, IN CHINA, BY UNITED STATES CITIZENS

§§191 to 193. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(a)(1), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291

Sections, acts Feb. 23, 1887, ch. 210, 24 Stat. 409; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §§5, 39, 62 Stat. 986, 992, prohibited importation of opium by Chinese subjects and the trafficking in, in China, of opium by United States citizens. Sections 1 to 3 of said Act of Feb. 23, 1887, were classified to sections 191 to 193, respectively, of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of this title.

Savings Provision

Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring, and civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced, prior to the effective date of repeal of these sections by section 1101 of Pub. L. 91–513 not to be affected or abated by reason thereof, see section 1103 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a Savings Provision note under section 171 of this title.

MISCELLANEOUS

§196. Repealed. July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title XIII, §1313, 58 Stat. 714

Section, act June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §4(b), (c), 46 Stat. 587; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §§201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, related to studies and investigations by Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. See section 242 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Renumbering of Repealing Act

Section 611 of act July 1, 1944, which repealed this section, was renumbered 711 by act Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 958, §5, 60 Stat. 1049, 713 by act Feb. 28, 1948, ch. 83, §9(b), 62 Stat. 47, 813 by act July 30, 1956, ch. 779, §3(b), 70 Stat. 720, 913 by Pub. L. 88–581, §4(b), Sept. 4, 1964, 78 Stat. 919, 1013 by Pub. L. 89–239, §3(b), Oct. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 931, 1113 by Pub. L. 91–572, §6(b), Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1506, 1213 by Pub. L. 92–294, §3(b), May 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 137, 1313 by Pub. L. 93–154, §2(b)(2), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 604, and was repealed by Pub. L. 93–222, §7(b), Dec. 29, 1973, 87 Stat. 936.

§§197, 198. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(a)(4), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291

Section 197, act June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §7, 46 Stat. 587, directed Secretary of the Treasury to cooperate with Secretary of State in discharge of international obligations of United States concerning traffic in narcotic drugs.

Section 198, acts June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §8, 46 Stat. 587; July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title III, §302, 70 Stat. 575, directed Secretary of the Treasury to cooperate with the several States in suppression of abuse of narcotic drugs in their respective jurisdictions.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of this title.

Savings Provision

Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring, and civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced, prior to the effective date of repeal of these sections by section 1101 of Pub. L. 91–513 not to be affected or abated by reason thereof, see section 1103 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under sections 171 to 174 of this title.

§§198a to 198c. Transferred

Codification

Section 198a, act Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 800, §1, 69 Stat. 684, as amended, which related to the authority of Secretary of the Treasury to issue subpenas, administer oaths and compel attendance of witnesses for purpose of any investigation, was transferred to section 967 of this title.

Section 198b, act Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 800, §2, 69 Stat. 685, which related to service of subpenas and proof of service, was transferred to section 968 of this title.

Section 198c, act Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 800, §3, 69 Stat. 685, which related to contempt proceedings, was transferred to section 969 of this title.

§199. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(a)(5), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292

Section, act July 3, 1930, ch. 829, 46 Stat. 850, authorized payment to persons giving information concerning violations of narcotics laws. See section 886(a) of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 1105(a) of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of this title.

Savings Provision

Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring, and civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced, prior to the effective date of repeal of this section by section 1101 of Pub. L. 91–513 not to be affected or abated by reason thereof, see section 1103 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 171 of this title.

§§200 to 200b. Repealed. Nov. 2, 1951, ch. 666, §5(2), 65 Stat. 769

Sections, acts Aug. 12, 1937, ch. 598, §§1–3, 50 Stat. 627; July 1, 1944, ch. 377, §9, 58 Stat. 721; Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 81, §8, 60 Stat. 39, related to punishment for offenses after first offense. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

Savings Provision

Section 6 of act Nov. 2, 1951, provided that any rights or liabilities now existing under former sections 200 to 200b of this title should not be affected by their repeal.

CHAPTER 7—PRACTICE OF PHARMACY AND SALE OF POISONS IN CONSULAR DISTRICTS IN CHINA

Sec.
201.
Doing business without a license unlawful; employment of Chinese subjects.
202.
Certain classes of persons and corporations excepted; insecticides.
203.
Application for license; requirements; qualifications for license.
204.
Issuance of license.
205.
Display of license in pharmacy.
206.
Revocation of license.
207.
Restrictions on sales; written orders or prescriptions.
208.
Certain preparations and sales excepted.
209.
Poisons; book entry of sale; labels.
210.
Pharmacist; unauthorized use of title.
211.
Preservation of originals of prescriptions compounded and copies thereof; inspection of prescriptions by consular officers; marking containers of drugs.
212.
Offenses; punishment; duty to enforce provisions.
213.
Fraudulent representations to evade or defeat restrictions.
214.
Previous laws unaffected.
215.
“Consul” defined.

        

§201. Doing business without a license unlawful; employment of Chinese subjects

It shall be unlawful in the consular districts of the United States in China for any person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States not licensed as a pharmacist within the meaning of this chapter to conduct or manage any pharmacy, drug or chemical store, apothecary shop, or other place of business for the retailing, compounding, or dispensing of any drugs, chemicals, or poisons, or for the compounding of physicians’ prescriptions, or to keep exposed for sale at retail, any drugs, chemicals, or poisons, except as hereinafter provided, or, except as hereinafter provided, for any person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States not licensed as a pharmacist within the meaning of this chapter to compound, dispense, or sell, at retail, any drug, chemical, poison, or pharmaceutical preparation upon the prescription of a physician, or otherwise, or to compound physicians’ prescriptions, except as an aid to and under the proper supervision of a pharmacist licensed under this chapter. And it shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation owing permanent allegiance to the United States owning partly or wholly or managing a pharmacy, drug store, or other place of business to cause or permit any person other than a licensed pharmacist to compound, dispense, or sell at retail any drug, medicine, or poison, except as an aid to and under the proper supervision of a licensed pharmacist. Where it is necessary for a person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States and owning partly or wholly or managing a pharmacy, drug store, or other place of business to employ Chinese subjects to compound, dispense, or sell at retail any drug, medicine, or poison, such person, firm, or corporation, owner, part owner, or manager of a pharmacy, drug store, or other place of business may employ such Chinese subjects when their character, ability, and age of twenty-one years or over have been certified to by at least two recognized and reputable practitioners of medicine, or two pharmacists licensed under this chapter whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §1, 38 Stat. 817.)

Codification

Section is comprised of part of section 1 of act Mar. 3, 1915. Remainder of such section 1 is classified to section 202 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 202 of this title.

§202. Certain classes of persons and corporations excepted; insecticides

Nothing in section 201 of this title shall be construed to interfere with any recognized and reputable practitioner of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary surgery in the compounding of his own prescriptions, or to prevent him from supplying to his patients such medicines as he may deem proper, except as hereinafter provided; nor with the exclusively wholesale business of any person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States dealing and licensed as pharmacists, or having in their employ at least one person who is so licensed, except as hereinafter provided; nor with the sale by persons, firms, or corporations whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States other than pharmacists of poisonous substances sold exclusively for use in the arts, or as insecticides, when such substances are sold in unbroken packages bearing labels having plainly printed upon them the name of the contents, the word “Poison”, when practicable the name of at least one suitable antidote, and the name and address of the vender.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §1, 38 Stat. 818.)

Codification

Section is comprised of part of section 1 of act Mar. 3, 1915. Remainder of such section 1 is classified to section 201 of this title.

§203. Application for license; requirements; qualifications for license

Every person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States desiring to practice as a pharmacist in the consular districts in China shall file with the consul an application, duly verified under oath, setting forth the name and age of the applicant, the place or places at which he pursued and the time spent in the study of pharmacy, the experience which the applicant has had in compounding physicians’ prescriptions under the direction of a licensed pharmacist, and the name and location of the school or college of pharmacy, if any, of which he is a graduate, and shall submit evidence sufficient to show to the satisfaction of said consul that he is of good moral character and not addicted to the use of alcoholic liquors or narcotic drugs so as to render him unfit to practice pharmacy. Applicants shall be not less than twenty-one years of age and shall have had at least four years’ experience in the practice of pharmacy or shall have served three years under the instruction of a regularly licensed pharmacist, and any applicant who has been graduated from a school or college of pharmacy recognized by the proper board of his State, Territory, District of Columbia, or other possession of the United States as in good standing shall be entitled to practice upon presentation of his diploma.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §2, 38 Stat. 818.)

Codification

The words “now practicing as a pharmacist or,” which preceded “desiring to practice” in the original text of this section, were omitted as obsolete.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 204 of this title.

§204. Issuance of license

If the applicant for license as a pharmacist has complied with the requirements of section 203 of this title, the consul shall issue to him a license which shall entitle him to practice pharmacy in the consular districts of the United States in China, subject to the provisions of this chapter.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §3, 38 Stat. 819.)

§205. Display of license in pharmacy

Every license to practice pharmacy shall be conspicuously displayed by the person to whom the same has been issued in the pharmacy, drug store, or place of business, if any, of which the said person is the owner or part owner or manager.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §5, 38 Stat. 819.)

§206. Revocation of license

The license of any person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States to practice pharmacy in the consular districts of the United States in China may be revoked by the consul if such person be found to have obtained such license by fraud, or be addicted to the use of any narcotic or stimulant, or to be suffering from physical or mental disease, in such manner and to such extent as to render it expedient that in the interests of the public his license be canceled; or to be of an immoral character; or if such person be convicted in any court of competent jurisdiction of any offense involving moral turpitude. It shall be the duty of the consul to investigate any case in which it is discovered by him or made to appear to his satisfaction that any license issued under the provisions of this chapter is revocable and shall, after full hearing, if in his judgment the facts warrant it, revoke such license.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §4, 38 Stat. 819.)

§207. Restrictions on sales; written orders or prescriptions

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States, either personally or by servant or agent or as the servant or agent of any other person or of any firm or corporation, to sell, furnish, or give away any cocaine, salts of cocaine, or preparation containing cocaine or salts of cocaine, or morphine or preparation containing morphine or salts of morphine, or any opium or preparation containing opium, or any chloral hydrate or preparation containing chloral hydrate, except upon the original written order or prescription of a recognized and reputable practitioner of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary medicine, which order or prescription shall be dated and shall contain the name of the person for whom prescribed, or, if ordered by a practitioner of veterinary medicine, shall state the kind of animal for which ordered and shall be signed by the person giving the order or prescription. Such order or prescription shall be, for a period of three years, retained on file by the person, firm, or corporation who compounds or dispenses the article ordered or prescribed, and it shall not be compounded or dispensed after the first time except upon the written order of the original prescriber.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §6, 38 Stat. 819.)

Codification

Section is comprised of part of section 6 of act Mar. 3, 1915. Remainder of such section 6 is classified to section 208 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 208, 211 of this title.

§208. Certain preparations and sales excepted

The provisions of section 207 of this title shall not apply to preparations containing not more than two grains of opium or not more than one-quarter grain of morphine, or not more than one-quarter grain of cocaine, or not more than two grains of chloral hydrate in the fluid ounce, or, of a solid preparation, in one avoirdupois ounce, nor shall they apply to preparations sold in good faith for diarrhea and cholera, each bottle or package of which is accompanied by specific directions for use and caution against habitual use, nor to liniments or ointments sold in good faith as such when plainly labeled “for external use only”, nor to powder of ipecac and opium, commonly known as Dover's powder, when sold in quantities not exceeding twenty grains. The provisions of this section or section 207 of this title shall not be construed to permit the selling, furnishing, giving away, or prescribing for the use of any habitual users of the same any cocaine, salts of cocaine, or preparation containing cocaine or salts of cocaine, or morphine or salts of morphine, or preparations containing morphine or salts of morphine, or any opium or preparation containing opium, or any chloral hydrate or preparation containing chloral hydrate. But the preceding sentence shall not be construed to prevent any recognized or reputable practitioner of medicine whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States from furnishing in good faith for the use of any habitual user of narcotic drugs who is under his professional care such substances as he may deem necessary for their treatment, when such prescriptions are not given or substances furnished for the purpose of evading the provisions of this section. But the provisions of this section or section 207 of this title shall not apply to sales at wholesale between jobbers, manufacturers, and retail druggists, hospitals, and scientific or public institutions.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §6, 38 Stat. 819.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 6 of act Mar. 3, 1915. Remainder of such section 6 is classified to section 207 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 211 of this title.

§209. Poisons; book entry of sale; labels

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States to sell or deliver to any other person any of the following-described substances, or any poisonous compound, combination, or preparation thereof, to wit: The compounds of and salts of antimony, arsenic, barium, chromium, copper, gold, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc, the caustic hydrates of sodium and potassium, solution or water of ammonia, methyl alcohol, paregoric, the concentrated mineral acids, oxalic and hydrocyanic acids and their salts, yellow phosphorus, Paris green, carbolic acid, the essential oils of almonds, pennyroyal, tansy, rue, and savin; croton oil, creosote, chloroform, cantharides, or aconite, belladonna, bitter almonds, colchicum, cotton root, cocculus indicus, conium, cannabis indica, digitalis, ergot, hyoscyamus, ignatia, lobelia, nux vomica, physostigma, phytolacca, strophanthus, stramonium, veratrum viride, or any of the poisonous alkaloids or alkaloidal salts derived from the foregoing, or any other poisonous alkaloids or their salts, or any other virulent poison, except in the manner following, and, moreover, if the applicant be less than eighteen years of age, except upon the written order of a person known or believed to be an adult.

It shall first be learned, by due inquiry, that the person to whom delivery is about to be made is aware of the poisonous character of the substance and that it is desired for a lawful purpose, and the box, bottle, or other package shall be plainly labeled with the name of the substance, the word “Poison”, the name of at least one suitable antidote, when practicable, and the name and address of the person, firm, or corporation dispensing the substance. And before delivery be made of any of the foregoing substances, excepting solution or water of ammonia and sulphate of copper, there shall be recorded in a book kept for that purpose the name of the article, the quantity delivered, the purpose for which it is to be used, the date of delivery, the name and address of the person for whom it is procured, and the name of the individual personally dispensing the same; and said book shall be preserved by the owner thereof for at least three years after the date of the last entry therein. The foregoing provisions shall not apply to articles dispensed upon the order of persons believed by the dispenser to be recognized and reputable practitioners of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary surgery. When a physician writes upon his prescription a request that it be marked or labeled “Poison” the pharmacist shall, in the case of liquids, place the same in a colored glass, roughened bottle, of the kind commonly known in trade as a “poison bottle”, and, in the case of dry substances, he shall place a poison label upon the container. The record of sale and delivery above mentioned shall not be required of manufacturers and wholesalers who shall sell any of the foregoing substances at wholesale to licensed pharmacists, but the box, bottle, or other package containing such substance, when sold at wholesale, shall be properly labeled with the name of the substance, the word “poison”, and the name and address of the manufacturer or wholesaler. It shall not be necessary, in sales either at wholesale or at retail, to place a poison label upon, nor to record the delivery of, the sulphide of antimony, or the oxide or carbonate of zinc, or of colors ground in oil and intended for use as paints, or calomel; nor in the case of preparations containing any of the substances named in this section, when a single box, bottle, or other package, or when the bulk of one-half fluid ounce or the weight of one-half avoirdupois ounce does not contain more than an adult medicinal dose of such substance; nor in the case of liniments or ointments sold in good faith as such, when plainly labeled “For external use only”; nor, in the case of preparations put up and sold in the form of pills, tablets, or lozenges, containing any of the substances enumerated in this section and intended for internal use, when the dose recommended does not contain more than one-fourth of an adult medicinal dose of such substance.

For the purpose of this and of every other section of this chapter no box, bottle, or other package shall be regarded as having been labeled “Poison” unless the word “Poison” appears conspicuously thereon, printed in plain, uncondensed gothic letters in red ink.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §7, 38 Stat. 820.)

§210. Pharmacist; unauthorized use of title

It shall be unlawful for any person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States, not legally licensed as a pharmacist, to take, use, or exhibit the title of pharmacist, or licensed or registered pharmacist, or the title of druggist or apothecary, or any other title or description of like import.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §10, 38 Stat. 821.)

§211. Preservation of originals of prescriptions compounded and copies thereof; inspection of prescriptions by consular officers; marking containers of drugs

Every person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States owning, partly owning, or managing a drug store or pharmacy shall keep in his place of business a suitable book or file, in which shall be preserved for a period of not less than three years the original of every prescription compounded or dispensed at such store or pharmacy, or a copy of such prescription, except when the preservation of the original is required by section 207 or 208 of this title. Upon request the owner, part owner, or manager of such store shall furnish to the prescribing physician, or to the person for whom such prescription was compounded or dispensed, a true and correct copy thereof. Any prescription required by section 207 or 208 of this title, and any prescription for, or register of sales of, substances mentioned in such sections shall at all times be open to inspection by duly authorized consular officers in the consular districts of the United States in China. No person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States shall, in a consular district, compound or dispense any drug or drugs or deliver the same to any other person without marking on the container thereof the name of the drug or drugs contained therein and directions for using the same.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §9, 38 Stat. 821.)

§212. Offenses; punishment; duty to enforce provisions

Any person, firm, or corporation, whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States, violating any of the provisions of this chapter shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than $50 and not more than $100 or by imprisonment for not less than one month and not more than sixty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court, and if the offense be continuing in its character, each week or part of a week during which it continues shall constitute a separate and distinct offense. And it shall be the duty of the consular and judicial officers of the United States in China to enforce the provisions of this chapter.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §11, 38 Stat. 821.)

§213. Fraudulent representations to evade or defeat restrictions

No person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States seeking to procure in the consular districts of the United States in China any substance the sale of which is regulated by the provisions of this chapter shall make any fraudulent representations so as to evade or defeat the restrictions herein imposed.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §8, 38 Stat. 821.)

§214. Previous laws unaffected

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as modifying or revoking any of the provisions of sections 191 to 193 1 of this title.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §13, 38 Stat. 822.)

References in Text

Sections 191 to 193 of this title, referred to in text, were repealed by Pub. L. 91–513, title III, §1101(a)(1), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§215. “Consul” defined

The word “consul” as used in this chapter shall mean the consular officer in charge of the district concerned.

(Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 74, §12, 38 Stat. 822.)

CHAPTER 8—NARCOTIC FARMS

§§221 to 237. Repealed. July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title XIII, §1313, 58 Stat. 714

Section 221, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §1, 45 Stat. 1085, defined “habit-forming narcotic drug”, “narcotic”, and “addict”. See section 201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Section 222, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §2, 45 Stat. 1085, provided for narcotic farms.

Section 222a, act June 23, 1935, ch. 725, §1, 49 Stat. 1840, provided name for narcotic farm at Lexington, Ky.

Section 222b, act Mar. 28, 1938, ch. 55, §1, 52 Stat. 134, provided name for narcotic farm at Fort Worth, Texas.

Section 223, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §3, 45 Stat. 1085; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §205(b), eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1425, provided for an annual estimate of expenses of maintenance of narcotic farms.

Section 224, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §4, 45 Stat. 1086, provided for construction of buildings for two of the narcotic farms.

Section 225, acts Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §5, 45 Stat. 1086; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, §4(a), 46 Stat. 586; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §§201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, provided for control and management of narcotic farms.

Section 226, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §6, 45 Stat. 1086; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §§201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for care and treatment of addicts.

Section 227, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §7, 45 Stat. 1086, provided for transfer to and from farms of addicts who are prisoners.

Section 228, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §8, 45 Stat. 1087, provided that it was the duty of prosecuting officers to report convicted persons believed to be addicts.

Section 229, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §9, 45 Stat. 1087; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §§201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for employment of addicts.

Section 230, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §10, 45 Stat. 1087, provided for parole of inmates.

Section 231, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §11, 45 Stat. 1087; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §§201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for discharge of addicts.

Section 232, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §12, 45 Stat. 1088; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §§201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for admission of voluntary patients.

Section 233, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §13, 45 Stat. 1088; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §§201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for furnishing of gratuities and transportation to discharged convicts.

Section 234, act. Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §14, 45 Stat. 1089; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, §§201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided penalties for introduction of narcotic drugs into a narcotic farm.

Section 235, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §15, 45 Stat. 1089, provided penalties for escape of inmates.

Section 236, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §16, 45 Stat. 1089, provided penalties for procuring of escape by inmates.

Section 237, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, §17, 45 Stat. 1089, provided for deportation of alien inmates who are entitled to a discharge from narcotic farms.

Renumbering of Repealing Act

Section 611 of act July 1, 1944, which repealed this section, was renumbered §711 by act Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 958, §5, 60 Stat. 1049, §713 by act Feb. 28, 1948, ch. 83, §9(b), 62 Stat. 47, §813 by act July 30, 1956, ch. 779, §3(b), 70 Stat. 720, §913 by Pub. L. 88–581, §4(b), Sept. 4, 1964, 78 Stat. 919, §1013 by Pub. L. 89–239, §3(b), Oct. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 931, §1113 by Pub. L. 91–572, §6(b), Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1506, §1213 by Pub. L. 92–294, §3(b), May 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 137, §1313 by Pub. L. 93–154, §2(b)(2), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 604, and was repealed by Pub. L. 93–222, §7(b), Dec. 29, 1973, 87 Stat. 936.

 

CHAPTER 9—FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT

SUBCHAPTER I—SHORT TITLE

Sec.
301.
Short title.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—DEFINITIONS

321.
Definitions; generally.
321a.
“Butter” defined.
321b.
“Package” defined.
321c.
Nonfat dry milk; “milk” defined.
321d.
Market names for catfish and ginseng.
(a)
Catfish labeling.
(b)
Ginseng labeling.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES

331.
Prohibited acts.
332.
Injunction proceedings.
(a)
Jurisdiction of courts.
(b)
Violation of injunction.
333.
Penalties.
(a)
Violation of section 331 of this title; second violation; intent to defraud or mislead.
(b)
Prescription drug marketing violations.
(c)
Exceptions in certain cases of good faith, etc.
(d)
Exceptions involving misbranded food.
(e)
Prohibited distribution of human growth hormone.
(f)
Redesignated (g)
(g)
Violations related to devices.
333a.
Repealed.
334.
Seizure.
(a)
Grounds and jurisdiction.
(b)
Procedure; multiplicity of pending proceedings.
(c)
Availability of samples of seized goods prior to trial.
(d)
Disposition of goods after decree of condemnation; claims for remission or mitigation of forfeitures.
(e)
Costs.
(f)
Removal of case for trial.
(g)
Administrative restraint; detention orders.
(h)
Administrative detention of foods.
335.
Hearing before report of criminal violation.
335a.
Debarment, temporary denial of approval, and suspension.
(a)
Mandatory debarment; certain drug applications.
(b)
Permissive debarment; certain drug applications; food imports.
(c)
Debarment period and considerations.
(d)
Termination of debarment.
(e)
Publication and list of debarred persons.
(f)
Temporary denial of approval.
(g)
Suspension authority.
(h)
Termination of suspension.
(i)
Procedure.
(j)
Judicial review.
(k)
Certification.
(l)
Applicability.
(m)
Devices; mandatory debarment regarding third-party inspections and reviews.
335b.
Civil penalties.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Procedure.
(c)
Judicial review.
(d)
Recovery of penalties.
(e)
Informants.
335c.
Authority to withdraw approval of abbreviated drug applications.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Procedure.
(c)
Applicability.
(d)
Judicial review.
336.
Report of minor violations.
337.
Proceedings in name of United States; provision as to subpoenas.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—FOOD

341.
Definitions and standards for food.
342.
Adulterated food.
(a)
Poisonous, insanitary, etc., ingredients.
(b)
Absence, substitution, or addition of constituents.
(c)
Color additives.
(d)
Confectionery containing alcohol or nonnutritive substance.
(e)
Oleomargarine containing filthy, putrid, etc., matter.
(f)
Dietary supplement or ingredient: safety.
(g)
Dietary supplement: manufacturing practices.
(h)
Reoffer of food previously denied admission.
343.
Misbranded food.
(a)
False or misleading label.
(b)
Offer for sale under another name.
(c)
Imitation of another food.
(d)
Misleading container.
(e)
Package form.
(f)
Prominence of information on label.
(g)
Representation as to definition and standard of identity.
(h)
Representation as to standards of quality and fill of container.
(i)
Label where no representation as to definition and standard of identity.
(j)
Representation for special dietary use.
(k)
Artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservatives.
(l)
Pesticide chemicals on raw agricultural commodities.
(m)
Color additives.
(n)
Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations.
(o),
(p)
Repealed.
(q)
Nutrition information.
(r)
Nutrition levels and health-related claims.
(s)
Dietary supplements.
(t)
Catfish.
(u)
Ginseng.
(v)
Failure to label; health threat.
343–1.
National uniform nutrition labeling.
343–2.
Dietary supplement labeling exemptions.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Application.
(c)
Burden of proof.
343–3.
Disclosure.
343a.
Repealed.
344.
Emergency permit control.
(a)
Conditions on manufacturing, processing, etc., as health measure.
(b)
Violation of permit; suspension and reinstatement.
(c)
Inspection of permit-holding establishments.
345.
Regulations making exemptions.
346.
Tolerances for poisonous or deleterious substances in food; regulations.
346a.
Tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues.
(a)
Requirement for tolerance or exemption.
(b)
Authority and standard for tolerance.
(c)
Authority and standard for exemptions.
(d)
Petition for tolerance or exemption.
(e)
Action on Administrator's own initiative.
(f)
Special data requirements.
(g)
Effective date, objections, hearings, and administrative review.
(h)
Judicial review.
(i)
Confidentiality and use of data.
(j)
Status of previously issued regulations.
(k)
Transitional provision.
(l)
Harmonization with action under other laws.
(m)
Fees.
(n)
National uniformity of tolerances.
(o)
Consumer right to know.
(p)
Estrogenic substances screening program.
(q)
Schedule for review.
(r)
Temporary tolerance or exemption.
(s)
Savings clause.
346b.
Authorization of appropriations.
347.
Intrastate sales of colored oleomargarine.
(a)
Law governing.
(b)
Labeling and packaging requirements.
(c)
Sales in public eating places.
(d)
Exemption from labeling requirements.
(e)
Color content of oleomargarine.
347a.
Congressional declaration of policy regarding oleomargarine sales.
347b.
Contravention of State laws.
348.
Food additives.
(a)
Unsafe food additives; exception for conformity with exemption or regulation.
(b)
Petition for regulation prescribing conditions of safe use; contents; description of production methods and controls; samples; notice of regulation.
(c)
Approval or denial of petition; time for issuance of order; evaluation of data; factors.
(d)
Regulation issued on Secretary's initiative.
(e)
Publication and effective date of orders.
(f)
Objections and public hearing; basis and contents of order; statement.
(g)
Judicial review.
(h)
Notification relating to food contact substance.
(i)
Amendment or repeal of regulations.
(j)
Exemptions for investigational use.
349.
Bottled drinking water standards; publication in Federal Register.
350.
Vitamins and minerals.
(a)
Authority and limitations of Secretary; applicability.
(b)
Labeling and advertising requirements for foods.
(c)
Definitions.
350a.
Infant formulas.
(a)
Adulteration.
(b)
Requirements for quality factors, good manufacturing practices, and retention of records.
(c)
Registration of persons distributing new infant formula.
(d)
Submission of information about new infant formula required.
(e)
Additional notice requirements for manufacturer.
(f)
Procedures applicable to recalls by manufacturer; regulatory oversight.
(g)
Recordkeeping requirements for manufacturer; regulatory oversight and enforcement.
(h)
Exemptions; regulatory oversight.
(i)
Nutrient requirements.
350b.
New dietary ingredients.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Petition.
(c)
“New dietary ingredient” defined.
350c.
Maintenance and inspection of records.
(a)
Records inspection.
(b)
Regulations concerning recordkeeping.
(c)
Protection of sensitive information.
(d)
Limitations.
350d.
Registration of food facilities.
(a)
Registration.
(b)
Facility.
(c)
Rule of construction.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—DRUGS AND DEVICES

Part A—Drugs and Devices

351.
Adulterated drugs and devices.
(a)
Poisonous, insanitary, etc., ingredients; adequate controls in manufacture.
(b)
Strength, quality, or purity differing from official compendium.
(c)
Misrepresentation of strength, etc., where drug is unrecognized in compendium.
(d)
Mixture with or substitution of another substance.
(e)
Devices not in conformity with performance standards.
(f)
Certain class III devices.
(g)
Banned devices.
(h)
Manufacture, packing, storage, or installation of device not in conformity with applicable requirements or conditions.
(i)
Failure to comply with requirements under which device was exempted for investigational use.
352.
Misbranded drugs and devices.
(a)
False or misleading label.
(b)
Package form; contents of label.
(c)
Prominence of information on label.
(d)
Repealed.
(e)
Designation of drugs or devices by established names.
(f)
Directions for use and warnings on label.
(g)
Representations as recognized drug; packing and labeling; inconsistent requirements for designation of drug.
(h)
Deteriorative drugs; packing and labeling.
(i)
Drug; misleading container; imitation; offer for sale under another name.
(j)
Health-endangering when used as prescribed.
(k),
(l) Repealed.
(m)
Color additives; packing and labeling.
(n)
Prescription drug advertisements: established name; quantitative formula; side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness; prior approval; false advertising; labeling; construction of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
(o)
Drugs or devices from nonregistered establishments.
(p)
Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations.
(q)
Restricted devices using false or misleading advertising or used in violation of regulations.
(r)
Restricted devices not carrying requisite accompanying statements in advertisements and other descriptive printed matter.
(s)
Devices subject to performance standards not bearing requisite labeling.
(t)
Devices for which there has been a failure or refusal to give required notification or to furnish required material or information.
(u)
Identification of manufacturer.
(v)
Reprocessed single-use devices.
353.
Exemptions and consideration for certain drugs, devices, and biological products.
(a)
Regulations for goods to be processed, labeled, or repacked elsewhere.
(b)
Prescription by physician; exemption from labeling and prescription requirements; misbranded drugs; compliance with narcotic and marihuana laws.
(c)
Sales restrictions.
(d)
Distribution of drug samples.
(e)
Wholesale distributors; guidelines for licensing; definitions.
(f)
Veterinary prescription drugs.
(g)
Regulation of combination products.
353a.
Pharmacy compounding.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Compounded drug.
(c)
Advertising and promotion.
(d)
Regulations.
(e)
Application.
(f)
“Compounding” defined.
354.
Veterinary feed directive drugs.
(a)
Lawful veterinary feed directive requirement.
(b)
Labeling and advertising.
(c)
Nonprescription status.
355.
New drugs.
(a)
Necessity of effective approval of application.
(b)
Filing application; contents.
(c)
Period for approval of application; period for, notice, and expedition of hearing; period for issuance of order.
(d)
Grounds for refusing application; approval of application; “substantial evidence” defined.
(e)
Withdrawal of approval; grounds; immediate suspension upon finding imminent hazard to public health.
(f)
Revocation of order refusing, withdrawing or suspending approval of application.
(g)
Service of orders.
(h)
Appeal from order.
(i)
Exemptions of drugs for research; discretionary and mandatory conditions; direct reports to Secretary.
(j)
Abbreviated new drug applications.
(k)
Records and reports; required information; regulations and orders; access to records.
(l)
Public disclosure of safety and effectiveness data.
(m)
“Patent” defined.
(n)
Scientific advisory panels.
355a.
Pediatric studies of drugs.
(a)
Definitions.
(b)
Market exclusivity for new drugs.
(c)
Market exclusivity for already-marketed drugs.
(d)
Conduct of pediatric studies.
(e)
Delay of effective date for certain application.
(f)
Notice of determinations on studies requirement.
(g)
Limitations.
(h)
Relationship to pediatric research requirements.
(i)
Labeling supplements.
(j)
Dissemination of pediatric information.
(k)
Clarification of interaction of market exclusivity under this section and market exclusivity awarded to an applicant for approval of a drug under section 355(j) of this title.
(l)
Prompt approval of drugs under section 355(j) of this title when pediatric information is added to labeling.
(m)
Report.
(n)
Sunset.
355b.
Adverse-event reporting.
(a)
Toll-free number in labeling.
(b)
Drugs with pediatric market exclusivity.
355c.
Research into pediatric uses for drugs and biological products.
(a)
New drugs and biological products.
(b)
Marketed drugs and biological products.
(c)
Meaningful therapeutic benefit.
(d)
Submission of assessments.
(e)
Meetings.
(f)
Scope of authority.
(g)
Orphan drugs.
(h)
Integration with other pediatric studies.
356.
Fast track products.
(a)
Designation of drug as fast track product.
(b)
Approval of application for fast track product.
(c)
Review of incomplete applications for approval of fast track product.
(d)
Awareness efforts.
356–1.
Accelerated approval of priority countermeasures.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Use of animal trials.
(c)
Priority review of drugs and biological products.
(d)
Definitions.
356a.
Manufacturing changes.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Validation of effects of changes.
(c)
Major manufacturing changes.
(d)
Other manufacturing changes.
356b.
Reports of postmarketing studies.
(a)
Submission.
(b)
Consideration of information as public information.
(c)
Status of studies and reports.
(d)
Disclosure.
(e)
Notification.
356c.
Discontinuance of life saving product.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Reduction in notification period.
(c)
Distribution.
357.
Repealed.
358.
Authority to designate official names.
(a)
Necessity or desirability; use in official compendiums; infringement of trademarks.
(b)
Review of names in official compendiums.
(c)
Determinations of complexity, usefulness, multiplicity, or lack of name; designation by Secretary.
(d)
Revised official names; compilation, publication, and public distribution of listings.
(e)
Request by compiler of official compendium for designation of name.
359.
Nonapplicability of subchapter to cosmetics.
360.
Registration of producers of drugs or devices.
(a)
Definitions.
(b)
Annual registration.
(c)
New producers.
(d)
Additional establishments.
(e)
Registration number; uniform system for identification of devices intended for human use.
(f)
Availability of registrations for inspection.
(g)
Exclusions from application of section.
(h)
Inspection of premises.
(i)
Registration of foreign establishments.
(j)
Filing of lists of drugs and devices manufactured, prepared, propagated and compounded by registrants; statements; accompanying disclosures.
(k)
Report preceding introduction of devices into interstate commerce.
(l)
Exemption from reporting requirements.
(m)
List of exempt class II devices; determination by Secretary; publication in Federal Register.
(n)
Review of report; time for determination by Secretary.
(o)
Reprocessed single-use devices.
(p)
Electronic registration.
360a.
Repealed.
360b.
New animal drugs.
(a)
Unsafe new animal drugs and animal feed containing such drugs; conditions of safety; exemption of drugs for research; import tolerances.
(b)
Filing application for uses of new animal drug; contents; patent information; abbreviated application; presubmission conference.
(c)
Period for submission and approval of application; period for notice and expedition of hearing; period for issuance of order; abbreviated applications; withdrawal periods; effective date of approval; relationship to other applications; withdrawal or suspension of approval; bioequivalence; filing of additional patent information.
(d)
Grounds for refusing application; approval of application; factors; “substantial evidence” defined; combination drugs.
(e)
Withdrawal of approval; grounds; immediate suspension upon finding imminent hazard to health of man or animals.
(f)
Revocation of order refusing, withdrawing or suspending approval of application.
(g)
Service of orders.
(h)
Appeal from order.
(i)
Publication in Federal Register; effective date and revocation or suspension of regulation.
(j)
Exemption of drugs for research; discretionary and mandatory conditions.
(k)
Food containing new animal drug considered unadulterated while approval of application for such drug is effective.
(l)
Records and reports; required information; regulations and orders; examination of data; access to records.
(m)
Feed mill licenses.
(n)
Abbreviated applications for new animal drugs; contents, filing, etc.; lists of approved drugs.
(o)
“Patent” defined.
(p)
Safety and effectiveness data.
360c.
Classification of devices intended for human use.
(a)
Classes of devices.
(b)
Classification panels.
(c)
Classification panel organization and operation.
(d)
Panel recommendation; publication; priorities.
(e)
Classification changes.
(f)
Initial classification and reclassification of certain devices.
(g)
Information.
(h)
Definitions.
(i)
Substantial equivalence.
360d.
Performance standards.
(a)
Reasonable assurance of safe and effective performance; periodic evaluation.
(b)
Establishment of a standard.
(c)
Recognition of standard.
360e.
Premarket approval.
(a)
General requirement.
(b)
Regulation to require premarket approval.
(c)
Application for premarket approval.
(d)
Action on application for premarket approval.
(e)
Withdrawal and temporary suspension of approval of application.
(f)
Product development protocol.
(g)
Review.
(h)
Service of orders.
(i)
Revision.
360f.
Banned devices.
(a)
General rule.
(b)
Special effective date.
360g.
Judicial review.
(a)
Petition; record.
(b)
Additional data, views, and arguments.
(c)
Standard for review.
(d)
Finality of judgments.
(e)
Remedies.
(f)
Statement of reasons.
360h.
Notification and other remedies.
(a)
Notification.
(b)
Repair, replacement, or refund.
(c)
Reimbursement.
(d)
Effect on other liability.
(e)
Recall authority.
360i.
Records and reports on devices.
(a)
General rule.
(b)
User reports.
(c)
Persons exempt.
(d)
Repealed.
(e)
Device tracking.
(f)
Reports of removals and corrections.
360j.
General provisions respecting control of devices intended for human use.
(a)
General rule.
(b)
Custom devices.
(c)
Trade secrets.
(d)
Notices and findings.
(e)
Restricted devices.
(f)
Good manufacturing practice requirements.
(g)
Exemption for devices for investigational use.
(h)
Release of information respecting safety and effectiveness.
(i)
Proceedings of advisory panels and committees.
(j)
Traceability.
(k)
Research and development.
(l)
Transitional provisions for devices considered as new drugs.
(m)
Humanitarian device exemption.
360k.
State and local requirements respecting devices.
(a)
General rule.
(b)
Exempt requirements.
360l.
Postmarket surveillance.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Surveillance approval.
360m.
Accredited persons.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Accreditation.
(c)
Duration.
(d)
Report.

        

Part B—Drugs for Rare Diseases or Conditions

360aa.
Recommendations for investigations of drugs for rare diseases or conditions.
(a)
Request by sponsor; response by Secretary.
(b)
Regulations.
360bb.
Designation of drugs for rare diseases or conditions.
(a)
Request by sponsor; preconditions; “rare disease or condition” defined.
(b)
Notification of discontinuance of drug or application as condition.
(c)
Notice to public.
(d)
Regulations.
360cc.
Protection for drugs for rare diseases or conditions.
(a)
Exclusive approval, certification, or license.
(b)
Exceptions.
360dd.
Open protocols for investigations of drugs for rare diseases or conditions.
360ee.
Grants and contracts for development of drugs for rare diseases and conditions.
(a)
Authority of Secretary.
(b)
Definitions.
(c)
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part C—Electronic Product Radiation Control

360hh.
Definitions.
360ii.
Program of control.
(a)
Establishment.
(b)
Powers of Secretary.
(c)
Record keeping.
360jj.
Studies by the Secretary.
(a)
Report to Congress.
(b)
Participation of other Federal agencies.
(c)
Organization of studies and participation.
360kk.
Performance standards for electronic products.
(a)
Promulgation of regulations.
(b)
Administrative procedure.
(c)
Publication in Federal Register.
(d)
Judicial review.
(e)
Availability of record.
(f)
Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee.
(g)
Review and evaluation.
(h)
Product certification.
360ll.
Notification of defects in and repair or replacement of electronic products.
(a)
Notification; exemption.
(b)
Method of notification.
(c)
Requisite elements of notification.
(d)
Copies to Secretary of communications by manufacturers to dealers or distributors regarding defects.
(e)
Notice from Secretary to manufacturer of defects or failure to comply with standards.
(f)
Correction of defects.
(g)
Effective date.
360mm.
Imports.
(a)
Refusal of admission to noncomplying electronic products.
(b)
Bond.
(c)
Liability of owner or consignee for expenses connected with refusal of admission.
(d)
Designation of agent for purposes of service.
360nn.
Inspection, records, and reports.
(a)
Inspection of premises.
(b)
Record keeping.
(c)
Disclosure of technical data.
(d)
Public nature of reports.
(e)
Trade secrets.
(f)
Information required to identify and locate first purchasers of electronic products.
360oo.
Prohibited acts.
360pp.
Enforcement.
(a)
Jurisdiction of courts.
(b)
Penalties.
(c)
Venue; process.
(d)
Warnings.
(e)
Compliance with regulations.
(f)
Additional remedies.
360qq.
Repealed.
360rr.
Federal-State cooperation.
360ss.
State standards.

        

Part D—Dissemination of Treatment Information

360aaa.
Requirements for dissemination of treatment information on drugs or devices.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Specific requirements.
(c)
Additional information.
360aaa–1.
Information authorized to be disseminated.
(a)
Authorized information.
(b)
Reference publication.
360aaa–2.
Establishment of list of articles and publications disseminated and list of providers that received articles and reference publications.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Records.
360aaa–3.
Requirement regarding submission of supplemental application for new use; exemption from requirement.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Certification on supplemental application; condition in case of completed studies.
(c)
Certification on supplemental application; condition in caseof planned studies.
(d)
Exemption from requirement of supplemental application.
(e)
Requirements regarding applications.
360aaa–4.
Corrective actions; cessation of dissemination.
(a)
Postdissemination data regarding safety and effectiveness.
(b)
Cessation of dissemination.
(c)
Corrective actions by manufacturers.
360aaa–5.
Definitions.
360aaa–6.
Rules of construction.
(a)
Unsolicited request.
(b)
Dissemination of information on drugs or devices not evidence of intended use.
(c)
Patent protection.
(d)
Authorization for dissemination of articles and fees for reprints of articles.

        

Part E—General Provisions Relating to Drugs and Devices

360bbb.
Expanded access to unapproved therapies and diagnostics.
(a)
Emergency situations.
(b)
Individual patient access to investigational products intended for serious diseases.
(c)
Treatment investigational new drug applications and treatment investigational device exemptions.
(d)
Termination.
(e)
Definitions.
360bbb–1.
Dispute resolution.
360bbb–2.
Classification of products.
(a)
Request.
(b)
Statement.
(c)
Inaction of Secretary.
360bbb–3.
Authorization for medical products for use in emergencies.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Declaration of emergency.
(c)
Criteria for issuance of authorization.
(d)
Scope of authorization.
(e)
Conditions of authorization.
(f)
Duration of authorization.
(g)
Revocation of authorization.
(h)
Publication; confidential information.
(i)
Actions committed to agency discretion.
(j)
Rules of construction.
(k)
Relation to other provisions.
(l)
Option to carry out authorized activities.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—COSMETICS

361.
Adulterated cosmetics.
362.
Misbranded cosmetics.
363.
Regulations making exemptions.
364.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—GENERAL AUTHORITY

Part A—General Administrative Provisions

371.
Regulations and hearings.
(a)
Authority to promulgate regulations.
(b)
Regulations for imports and exports.
(c)
Conduct of hearings.
(d)
Effectiveness of definitions and standards of identity.
(e)
Procedure for establishment.
(f)
Review of order.
(g)
Copies of records of hearings.
(h)
Guidance documents.
372.
Examinations and investigations.
(a)
Authority to conduct.
(b)
Availability to owner of part of analysis samples.
(c)
Records of other departments and agencies.
(d)
Information on patents for drugs.
(e)
Powers of enforcement personnel.
372a.
Transferred.
373.
Records of interstate shipment.
374.
Inspection.
(a)
Right of agents to enter; scope of inspection; notice; promptness; exclusions.
(b)
Written report to owner; copy to Secretary.
(c)
Receipt for samples taken.
(d)
Analysis of samples furnished owner.
(e)
Accessibility of records.
(f)
Recordkeeping.
(g)
Inspections by accredited persons.
375.
Publicity.
(a)
Reports.
(b)
Information regarding certain goods.
376.
Examination of sea food on request of packer; marking food with results; fees; penalties.
377.
Revision of United States Pharmacopoeia; development of analysis and mechanical and physical tests.
378.
Advertising of foods.
(a)
Determination of misbranding; notification of Federal Trade Commission by Secretary; contents.
(b)
Action by Federal Trade Commission precluding action by Secretary; exception.
(c)
Secretary's determination of imminent hazard to health as suspending applicability of provisions.
(d)
Coordination of action by Secretary with Federal Trade Commission.
379.
Confidential information.
379a.
Presumption of existence of jurisdiction.
379b.
Consolidated administrative and laboratory facility.
(a)
Authority.
(b)
Awarding of contract.
(c)
Donations.
(d)
Authorization of appropriations.
379c.
Transferred.
379d.
Automation of Food and Drug Administration.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part B—Colors

379e.
Listing and certification of color additives for foods, drugs, devices, and cosmetics.
(a)
Unsafe color additives.
(b)
Listing of colors; regulations; issuance, amendment or repeal; referral to advisory committee; report and recommendations; appointment and compensation of advisory committee.
(c)
Certification of colors.
(d)
Procedure for issuance, amendment, or repeal of regulations.
(e)
Fees.
(f)
Exemptions.

        

Part C—Fees

subpart 1—freedom of information fees

379f.
Recovery and retention of fees for freedom of information requests.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Use of fees.
(c)
Waiver of fees.

        

subpart 2—fees relating to drugs

379g.
Definitions.
379h.
Authority to assess and use drug fees.
(a)
Types of fees.
(b)
Fee revenue amounts.
(c)
Adjustments.
(d)
Fee waiver or reduction.
(e)
Effect of failure to pay fees.
(f)
Limitations.
(g)
Crediting and availability of fees.
(h)
Collection of unpaid fees.
(i)
Written requests for waivers, reductions, and refunds.
(j)
Construction.

        

subpart 3—fees relating to devices

379i.
Definitions.
379j.
Authority to assess and use device fees.
(a)
Types of fees.
(b)
Fee revenue amounts.
(c)
Adjustments.
(d)
Small businesses; fee waiver and fee reduction regarding premarket approval fees.
(e)
Small businesses; fee reduction regarding premarket notification submissions.
(f)
Effect of failure to pay fees.
(g)
Conditions.
(h)
Crediting and availability of fees.
(i)
Collection of unpaid fees.
(j)
Written requests for refunds.
(k)
Construction.

        

subpart 4—fees relating to animal drugs

379j–11.
Definitions.
379j–12.
Authority to assess and use animal drug fees.
(a)
Types of fees.
(b)
Fee amounts.
(c)
Adjustments.
(d)
Fee waiver or reduction.
(e)
Effect of failure to pay fees.
(f)
Assessment of fees.
(g)
Crediting and availability of fees.
(h)
Collection of unpaid fees.
(i)
Written requests for waivers, reductions, and refunds.
(j)
Construction.
(k)
Abbreviated new animal drug applications.

        

Part D—Information and Education

379k.
Information system.
379l.
Education.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Intramural fellowships and other training programs.

        

Part E—Environmental Impact Review

379o.
Environmental impact.

        

Part F—National Uniformity for Nonprescription Drugs and Preemption for Labeling or Packaging of Cosmetics

379r.
National uniformity for nonprescription drugs.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Exemption.
(c)
Scope.
(d)
Exceptions.
(e)
No effort on product liability law.
(f)
State enforcement authority.
379s.
Preemption for labeling or packaging of cosmetics.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Exemption.
(c)
Scope.
(d)
No effect on product liability law.
(e)
State initiative.

        

Part G—Safety Reports

379v.
Safety report disclaimers.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

381.
Imports and exports.
(a)
Imports; list of registered foreign establishments; samples from unregistered foreign establishments; examination and refusal of admission.
(b)
Disposition of refused articles.
(c)
Charges concerning refused articles.
(d)
Reimportation.
(e)
Exports.
(f)
Labeling of exported drugs.
(g)
Warning notice of importation in violation of chapter.
(h)
Protection against adulteration of food.
(i)
Testing for rapid detection of adulteration of food.
(j)
Temporary holds at ports of entry.
(k)
Importation by debarred persons.
(l)
Failure to register.
(m)
Prior notice of imported food shipments.
(n)
Labeling of food refused admission.
(o)
Registration statement.
382.
Exports of certain unapproved products.
(a)
Drugs or devices intended for human or animal use which require approval or licensing.
(b)
List of eligible countries for export; criteria for addition to list; direct export; petition for exemption.
(c)
Investigational use exemption.
(d)
Anticipation of market authorization.
(e)
Diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of tropical disease.
(f)
Prohibition of export of drug or device.
(g)
Notification of Secretary.
(h)
References to Secretary and term “drug”.
(i)
Exportation.
383.
Office of International Relations.
(a)
Establishment.
(b)
Agreements with foreign countries.
(c)
Harmonizing regulatory requirements.
384.
Importation of prescription drugs.
(a)
Definitions.
(b)
Regulations.
(c)
Limitation.
(d)
Information and records.
(e)
Testing.
(f)
Registration of foreign sellers.
(g)
Suspension of importation.
(h)
Approved labeling.
(i)
Charitable contributions.
(j)
Waiver authority for importation by individuals.
(k)
Construction.
(l)
Effectiveness of section.
(m)
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—MISCELLANEOUS

391.
Separability clause.
392.
Exemption of meats and meat food products.
(a)
Law determinative of exemption.
(b)
Laws unaffected.
393.
Food and Drug Administration.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Mission.
(c)
Interagency collaboration.
(d)
Commissioner.
(e)
Technical and scientific review groups.
(f)
Agency plan for statutory compliance.
(g)
Annual report.
393a.
Office of Pediatric Therapeutics.
(a)
Establishment.
(b)
Duties.
(c)
Staff.
394.
Scientific review groups.
395.
Loan repayment program.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Applicability of certain provisions.
(c)
Authorization of appropriations.
396.
Practice of medicine.
397.
Contracts for expert review.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Review of expert review.
398.
Notices to States regarding imported food.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Rule of construction.
399.
Grants to States for inspections.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Notices regarding adulterated imported food.
(c)
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

This chapter is referred to in sections 321d, 355b, 453, 457, 466, 467, 467f, 601, 607, 620, 679, 802, 811, 823, 829, 830, 902, 1033, 1049, 1052, 1401, 1402, 1403, 1601 of this title; title 7 sections 136a–1, 136v, 138i, 1431c, 5341, 6519, 7653, 8401; title 15 sections 70j, 1261, 1263, 1277, 1459, 1460, 2057a, 2057b, 2079; title 18 sections 42, 983; title 19 section 2578a; title 26 sections 170, 4817; title 35 sections 155, 156, 271, 287; title 42 sections 238q, 262, 262a, 284m, 299b–7, 300aa–22, 300aa–23, 1395w–3, 1395w–3b, 1396r–8, 1786, 3512, 7671.

SUBCHAPTER I—SHORT TITLE

§301. Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §1, 52 Stat. 1040.)

Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases

Act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, §§1, 2, 53 Stat. 853, 854, provided that:

“[Sec. 1] (a) The effective date of the following provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is hereby postponed until January 1, 1940: Sections 402(c) [342(c) of this title]; 403(e)(1) [343(e)(1) of this title]; 403(g), (h), (i), (j), and (k) [343(g) to (k) of this title]; 501(a), (4) [351(a)(4) of this title]; 502(b), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) [352(b), (d) to (h) of this title]; 601(e) [361(e) of this title]; and 602(b) [362(b) of this title].

“(b) The Secretary of Agriculture shall promulgate regulations further postponing to July 1, 1940 the effective date of the provisions of sections 403(e)(1) [343(e)(1) of this title]; 403(g), (h), (i), (j), and (k) [343(g) to (k)]; 502(b), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) [352(b), (d) to (h) of this title]; and 602(b) [362(b) of this title] of such Act with respect to lithographed labeling which was manufactured prior to February 1, 1939, and to containers bearing labeling which, prior to February 1, 1939, was lithographed, etched, stamped, pressed, printed, fused or blown on or in such containers, where compliance with such provisions would be unduly burdensome by reason of causing the loss of valuable stocks of such labeling or containers, and where such postponement would not prevent the public interest being adequately served: Provided, That in no case shall such regulations apply to labeling which would not have complied with the requirements of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended.

“Sec. 2. (a) The provisions of section 8 [section 10 of this title], paragraph fifth, under the heading ‘In the case of food:’, of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and regulations promulgated thereunder, and all other provisions of such Act to the extent that they may relate to the enforcement of such section 8 [section 10 of this title] and of such regulations, shall remain in force until January 1, 1940.

“(b) The provisions of such Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, [sections 1 to 5, 7 to 15, and 372a of this title] to the extent that they impose, or authorize the imposition of, any requirement imposed by section 403(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 343(k) of this title], shall remain in force until January 1, 1940.

“(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1 of this Act, such section shall not apply—

“(1) to the provisions of section 502(d) and (e) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [352(d), (e) of this title], insofar as such provisions relate to any substance named in section 8 [section 10 of this title], paragraph second, under the heading ‘In the case of drugs:’, of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, or a derivative of any such substance; or

“(2) to the provisions of section 502(b), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [352(b), (d) to (h) of this title], insofar as such provisions relate to drugs to which section 505 [355 of this title] of such Act applies.”

Effective Date

Section 902(a) of act June 25, 1938, provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter and repealing sections 1 to 5 and 7 to 15 of this title], shall take effect twelve months after the date of its enactment [June 25, 1938]. The Federal Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 21, secs. 1–15), shall remain in force until such effective date, and, except as otherwise provided in this subsection, is hereby repealed effective upon such date: Provided, That the provisions of section 701 [section 371 of this title] shall become effective on the enactment of this Act, and thereafter the Secretary is authorized hereby to (1) conduct hearings and to promulgate regulations which shall become effective on or after the effective date of this Act as the Secretary shall direct, and (2) designate prior to the effective date of this Act food having common or usual names and exempt such food from the requirements of clause (2) of section 403(i) [section 343(i) of this title] for a reasonable time to permit the formulation, promulgation, and effective application of definitions and standards of identity therefor as provided by section 401 [section 341 of this title]: Provided further, That sections 502(j), 505, and 601(a) [sections 352(j), 355, 361(a), respectively of this title], and all other provisions of this Act to the extent that they may relate to the enforcement of such sections, shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act, except that in the case of a cosmetic to which the proviso of section 601(a) [section 361(a) of this title], relates, such cosmetic shall not, prior to the ninetieth day after such date of enactment, be deemed adulterated by reason of the failure of its label to bear the legend prescribed in such proviso: Provided further, That the Act of March 4, 1923 (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 21, sec. 6 [section 321a of this title]; 42 Stat. 1500, ch. 268), defining butter and providing a standard therefor; the Act of July 24, 1919 (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 21, sec. 10 [section 321b of this title]; 41 Stat. 271, ch. 26], defining wrapped meats as in package form; and the amendment to the Food and Drugs Act, section 10A, approved August 27, 1935 (U.S.C. 1934 ed., Sup. III, title 21, sec. 14a [section 372a of this title]) shall remain in force and effect and be applicable to the provisions of this Act.”

Hazardous Substances

Federal Hazardous Substances Act as not modifying this chapter, see Pub. L. 86–613, §18, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 380, set out as an Effect Upon Federal and State Laws note under section 1261 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Short Title of 2003 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–155, §1, Dec. 3, 2003, 117 Stat. 1936, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 355c of this title, amending sections 355, 355a, and 355b of this title and sections 262 and 284m of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 355c of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 355a of this title and section 284m of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003’.”

Pub. L. 108–130, §1, Nov. 18, 2003, 117 Stat. 1361, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 379j–11 and 379j–12 of this title and provisions set out as notes under section 379j–11 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Animal Drug User Fee Act of 2003’.”

Short Title of 2002 Amendments

Pub. L. 107–281, §1, Nov. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1992, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 360cc and 360ee of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 360ee of this title] may be cited as the ‘Rare Diseases Orphan Product Development Act of 2002’.”

Pub. L. 107–250, §1(a), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1588, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 379i and 379j of this title and section 289g–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 331, 333, 335a, 352, 353, 360, 360c, 360e, 360m, and 374 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 352, 360e, 360j, 360l, 379i, and 379j of this title and section 289g–3 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act of 2002’.”

Pub. L. 107–188, title V, §501, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 687, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§501–509) of title V of Pub. L. 107–188, amending sections 356b, 379g, and 379h of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 356b and 379g of this title] may be cited as the ‘Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2002’.”

Pub. L. 107–109, §1, Jan. 4, 2002, 115 Stat. 1408, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 355b and 393a of this title and section 284m of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 355, 355a, and 379h of this title and sections 282, 284k, 284l, 285a–2, and 290b of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 355 and 355a of this title and sections 284m and 289 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act’.”

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §745(a)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–35, provided that: “This section [enacting section 384 of this title, amending sections 331, 333, and 381 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 384 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Medicine Equity and Drug Safety Act of 2000’.”

Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §746(a)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–40, provided that: “This section [amending section 381 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 381 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Prescription Drug Import Fairness Act of 2000’.”

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–324, §1, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3035, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 321 and 346a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Antimicrobial Regulation Technical Corrections Act of 1998’.”

Short Title of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–115, §1(a), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2296, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 343–3, 353a, 355a, 356 to 356c, 360m, 360aaa to 360aaa–6, 360bbb to 360bbb–2, 379k, 379l, 379o, 379r, 379s, 379v, 396, and 397 of this title and sections 247b–8 and 299a–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 331, 334, 335a, 343, 348, 351 to 353, 355, 360, 360b to 360e, 360g, 360i, 360j, 360l, 360aa to 360cc, 360ee, 371, 374, 379a, 379g, 379h, 381 to 383, 393, and 802 of this title, section 45C of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 156 of Title 35, Patents, section 8126 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits, and sections 262, 263a, and 282 of Title 42, repealing sections 356 and 357 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 348, 351, 352, 353a, 355 to 356b, 360i, 360l, 360m, 360aaa, 371, 379g, 379h, 379k, and 393 of this title and sections 247b–8 and 282 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997’.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–250, §1(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3151, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 354 of this title, amending sections 331, 353, and 360b of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Animal Drug Availability Act of 1996’.”

Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §401(a), Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1513, provided that: “This title [amending sections 321, 331, 333, 342, and 346a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Food Quality Protection Act of 1996’.”

[Another “Food Quality Protection Act of 1996”, was enacted by Pub. L. 104–170, §1, 110 Stat. 1489, which is set out as a note under section 136 of Title 7, Agriculture.]

Pub. L. 104–134, title II, §2101(a), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–313, provided that: “This chapter [chapter 1A (§§2101–2105) of title II of Pub. L. 104–134, enacting section 382 of this title and amending sections 331 and 381 of this title and section 262 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996’.”

Short Title of 1994 Amendments

Pub. L. 103–417, §1(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4325, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 343–2 and 350b of this title and section 287c–11 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 331, 342, 343, and 350 of this title and section 281 of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 343 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994’.”

Pub. L. 103–396, §1, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4153, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 331, 343–1, 360b, and 371 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994’.”

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–80, §1, Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 773, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 321, 331 to 333, 334, 335b, 341 to 343, 346a, 350a, 352, 355 to 358, 360b to 360e, 360i, 360cc, 360hh to 360ss, 361, 371, 372, 373, 374, 376, 379e, and 381 of this title and section 263b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 343 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Nutrition Labeling and Education Act Amendments of 1993’.”

Short Title of 1992 Amendments

Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §101(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4491, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 379g and 379h of this title, transferring sections 372a, 376, and 379c of this title to sections 376, 379e and 379f, respectively, of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 342, 343, 346a, 351, 352, 360j, 361, 362, 453, 601, and 1033 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 379g of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 343–1 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Prescription Drug User Fee Act of 1992’.”

Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §201, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, provided that: “This title [enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 393 of this title and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 343–1 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Dietary Supplement Act of 1992’.”

Pub. L. 102–353, §1(a), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 941, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 333, 353, and 381 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 353 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992’.”

Pub. L. 102–300, §1(a), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 238, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 321, 331, 334, 346a, 352, 353, 356, 357, 360c, 360d, 360g to 360i, 360l, 360mm, 371 to 372a, 376, and 381 of this title and section 262 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare and enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under section 360i of this title] may be cited as the ‘Medical Device Amendments of 1992’.”

Pub. L. 102–282, §1(a), May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 149, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 335a to 335c of this title, amending sections 321, 336, 337, and 355 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 335a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Generic Drug Enforcement Act of 1992’.”

Short Title of 1990 Amendments

Pub. L. 101–635, §1(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4583, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 379b to 379d and 394 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Food and Drug Administration Revitalization Act’.”

Pub. L. 101–629, §1(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4511, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 360l and 383 of this title, amending sections 321, 333, 351, 353, and 360c to 360j of this title and sections 263b to 263n of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, redesignating sections 263b to 263n of Title 42 as sections 360gg to 360ss of this title, repealing section 263b of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 333, 360c, 360i, 360j, 360hh and 383 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990’.”

Pub. L. 101–535, §1(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2353, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 343–1 of this title, amending sections 321, 337, 343, 345, and 371 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 343–1 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990’.”

Short Title of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–670, §1(a), Nov. 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 3971, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 321, 353, and 360b of this title, section 2201 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and sections 156 and 271 of Title 35, Patents, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Generic Animal Drug and Patent Term Restoration Act’.”

Pub. L. 100–607, title V, §501, Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3120, provided that: “This title [enacting section 393 of this title, amending sections 5315 and 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 393 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Food and Drug Administration Act of 1988’.”

Pub. L. 100–293, §1(a), Apr. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 95, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 331, 333, 353, and 381 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 353 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987’.”

Pub. L. 100–290, §1, Apr. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 90, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 360bb and 360ee of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 360aa of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 236 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘Orphan Drug Amendments of 1988’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–660, title I, §101(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3743, provided that: “This title [enacting section 382 of this title, amending sections 241 and 262 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 333 of this title and section 262 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Drug Export Amendments Act of 1986’.”

Short Title of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–91, §1, Aug. 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 387, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 360aa to 360cc, and 360ee of this title, and sections 295g–1 and 6022 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360aa of this title and section 236 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Orphan Drug Amendments of 1985’.”

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–417, §1, Sept. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 1585, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 156 of Title 35, Patents, amending sections 355 and 360cc of this title, sections 68b, 68c, and 70b of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 2201 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and sections 271 and 282 of Title 35, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 355 of this title and section 68b of Title 15] may be cited as the ‘Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984’.”

Short Title of 1983 Amendments

Pub. L. 98–22, §1, Apr. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 173, provided: “That this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 348 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Saccharin Study and Labeling Act Amendment of 1983’.”

Pub. L. 97–414, §1(a), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2049, provided that: “This Act [enacting part B of subchapter V of chapter 9 of this title, section 44H of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 155 of Title 35, Patents, and sections 236, 255, and 298b–4 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 1274, 1472, 2055, 2060, 2064, 2068, and 2080 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 904 of this title, sections 280C and 6096 of Title 26, and sections 209, 231, 242k, 242m, 243, 254c, 254j, 254m, 254o, 254p, 256, 294j, 295g–1, 295g–4, 295h, 295h–1a, 297–1, 300, 300a–1, 300a–3, 300b, 300e–1, 300m, 300n–5, 300q–2, 300u–5, 300w–3, 300x–1, 300x–4, 300y–11, 4577, and 4588 of Title 42, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360aa of this title, section 44H of Title 26, and sections 241, 255, 287i, and 300x–1 of Title 42, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 300t–11 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Orphan Drug Act’.”

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–42, §1, Aug. 14, 1981, 95 Stat. 946, provided: “That this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 348 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Saccharin Study and Labeling Act Amendment of 1981’.”

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–359, §1, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1190, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 350a of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 374, 830, 841 to 843, and 873 of this title, and enacting a provision set out as a note under section 350a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Infant Formula Act of 1980’.”

Short Title of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–203, §1, Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1451, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 343a of this title, amending sections 321 and 343 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 348 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 218 and 289l–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘Saccharin Study and Labeling Act’.”

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–295, §1(a), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 539, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 360c to 360k, 379, and 379a of this title and section 3512 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending sections 321, 331, 334, 351, 352, 358, 360, 374, 379e, and 381 of this title and section 55 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] may be cited as the ‘Medical Device Amendments of 1976’.”

Short Title of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–387, §1, Aug. 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 559, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 331, 335, and 360 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Drug Listing Act of 1972’.”

Short Title of 1968 Amendments

Pub. L. 90–602, §1, Oct. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 1173, provided that: “This Act [enacting provisions now comprising part C (§§360hh–360ss) of subchapter III of this chapter and provisions set out as notes under section 360hh of this title] may be cited as the ‘Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968’.”

Pub. L. 90–399, §1, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 342, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 360b of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 342, 351, 352, 357, 381, and 392 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Animal Drug Amendments of 1968’.”

Short Title of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–74, §1, July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 226, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 360, and 372 of this title and section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 352 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965’.”

Short Title of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–781, §1, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 780, provided in part that such Act [enacting sections 358 to 360 of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 332, 348, 351 to 353, 355, 357, 372, 374, 379e, and 381 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 331, 332, 352, 355, 358, 360, and 374 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Drug Amendments of 1962’.”

Short Title of 1960 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–618, §1, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 397, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 321, 331, 333, 342, 346, 351, 352, 361, 362, 371, and 379e of this title, repealing sections 354 and 364 of this title, and enacting notes set out under this section] may be cited as the ‘Color Additive Amendments of 1960’.”

Short Title of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–929, §1, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 321, 331, 342, 346, 348 of this title and section 210 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 342, and 451 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Food Additives Amendment of 1958’.”

SUBCHAPTER II—DEFINITIONS

§321. Definitions; generally

For the purposes of this chapter—

(a)(1) The term “State”, except as used in the last sentence of section 372(a) of this title, means any State or Territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(2) The term “Territory” means any Territory or possession of the United States, including the District of Columbia, and excluding the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone.

(b) The term “interstate commerce” means (1) commerce between any State or Territory and any place outside thereof, and (2) commerce within the District of Columbia or within any other Territory not organized with a legislative body.

(c) The term “Department” means Department of Health and Human Services.

(d) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(e) The term “person” includes individual, partnership, corporation, and association.

(f) The term “food” means (1) articles used for food or drink for man or other animals, (2) chewing gum, and (3) articles used for components of any such article.

(g)(1) The term “drug” means (A) articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; and (B) articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; and (C) articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals; and (D) articles intended for use as a component of any article specified in clause (A), (B), or (C). A food or dietary supplement for which a claim, subject to sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(3) of this title or sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(5)(D) of this title, is made in accordance with the requirements of section 343(r) of this title is not a drug solely because the label or the labeling contains such a claim. A food, dietary ingredient, or dietary supplement for which a truthful and not misleading statement is made in accordance with section 343(r)(6) of this title is not a drug under clause (C) solely because the label or the labeling contains such a statement.

(2) The term “counterfeit drug” means a drug which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device, or any likeness thereof, of a drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, processed, packed, or distributed such drug and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been packed or distributed by, such other drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor.

(h) The term “device” (except when used in paragraph (n) of this section and in sections 331(i), 343(f), 352(c), and 362(c) of this title) means an instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article, including any component, part, or accessory, which is—

(1) recognized in the official National Formulary, or the United States Pharmacopeia, or any supplement to them,

(2) intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, in man or other animals, or

(3) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, and


which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of its primary intended purposes.

(i) The term “cosmetic” means (1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and (2) articles intended for use as a component of any such articles; except that such term shall not include soap.

(j) The term “official compendium” means the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them.

(k) The term “label” means a display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon the immediate container of any article; and a requirement made by or under authority of this chapter that any word, statement, or other information appear on the label shall not be considered to be complied with unless such word, statement, or other information also appears on the outside container or wrapper, if any there be, of the retail package of such article, or is easily legible through the outside container or wrapper.

(l) The term “immediate container” does not include package liners.

(m) The term “labeling” means all labels and other written, printed, or graphic matter (1) upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers, or (2) accompanying such article.

(n) If an article is alleged to be misbranded because the labeling or advertising is misleading, then in determining whether the labeling or advertising is misleading there shall be taken into account (among other things) not only representations made or suggested by statement, word, design, device, or any combination thereof, but also the extent to which the labeling or advertising fails to reveal facts material in the light of such representations or material with respect to consequences which may result from the use of the article to which the labeling or advertising relates under the conditions of use prescribed in the labeling or advertising thereof or under such conditions of use as are customary or usual.

(o) The representation of a drug, in its labeling, as an antiseptic shall be considered to be a representation that it is a germicide, except in the case of a drug purporting to be, or represented as, an antiseptic for inhibitory use as a wet dressing, ointment, dusting powder, or such other use as involves prolonged contact with the body.

(p) The term “new drug” means—

(1) Any drug (except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug) the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof, except that such a drug not so recognized shall not be deemed to be a “new drug” if at any time prior to June 25, 1938, it was subject to the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and if at such time its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use; or

(2) Any drug (except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug) the composition of which is such that such drug, as a result of investigations to determine its safety and effectiveness for use under such conditions, has become so recognized, but which has not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a material time under such conditions.


(q)(1)(A) Except as provided in clause (B), the term “pesticide chemical” means any substance that is a pesticide within the meaning of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], including all active and inert ingredients of such pesticide. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the term “pesticide” within such meaning includes ethylene oxide and propylene oxide when such substances are applied on food.

(B) In the case of the use, with respect to food, of a substance described in clause (A) to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, and slime), the following applies for purposes of clause (A):

(i) The definition in such clause for the term “pesticide chemical” does not include the substance if the substance is applied for such use on food, or the substance is included for such use in water that comes into contact with the food, in the preparing, packing, or holding of the food for commercial purposes. The substance is not excluded under this subclause from such definition if the substance is ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, and is applied for such use on food. The substance is not so excluded if the substance is applied for such use on a raw agricultural commodity, or the substance is included for such use in water that comes into contact with the commodity, as follows:

(I) The substance is applied in the field.

(II) The substance is applied at a treatment facility where raw agricultural commodities are the only food treated, and the treatment is in a manner that does not change the status of the food as a raw agricultural commodity (including treatment through washing, waxing, fumigating, and packing such commodities in such manner).

(III) The substance is applied during the transportation of such commodity between the field and such a treatment facility.


(ii) The definition in such clause for the term “pesticide chemical” does not include the substance if the substance is a food contact substance as defined in section 348(h)(6) of this title, and any of the following circumstances exist: The substance is included for such use in an object that has a food contact surface but is not intended to have an ongoing effect on any portion of the object; the substance is included for such use in an object that has a food contact surface and is intended to have an ongoing effect on a portion of the object but not on the food contact surface; or the substance is included for such use in or is applied for such use on food packaging (without regard to whether the substance is intended to have an ongoing effect on any portion of the packaging). The food contact substance is not excluded under this subclause from such definition if any of the following circumstances exist: The substance is applied for such use on a semipermanent or permanent food contact surface (other than being applied on food packaging); or the substance is included for such use in an object that has a semipermanent or permanent food contact surface (other than being included in food packaging) and the substance is intended to have an ongoing effect on the food contact surface.


With respect to the definition of the term “pesticide” that is applicable to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], this clause does not exclude any substance from such definition.

(2) The term “pesticide chemical residue” means a residue in or on raw agricultural commodity or processed food of—

(A) a pesticide chemical; or

(B) any other added substance that is present on or in the commodity or food primarily as a result of the metabolism or other degradation of a pesticide chemical.


(3) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (1) and (2), the Administrator may by regulation except a substance from the definition of “pesticide chemical” or “pesticide chemical residue” if—

(A) its occurrence as a residue on or in a raw agricultural commodity or processed food is attributable primarily to natural causes or to human activities not involving the use of any substances for a pesticidal purpose in the production, storage, processing, or transportation of any raw agricultural commodity or processed food; and

(B) the Administrator, after consultation with the Secretary, determines that the substance more appropriately should be regulated under one or more provisions of this chapter other than sections 342(a)(2)(B) and 346a of this title.


(r) The term “raw agricultural commodity” means any food in its raw or natural state, including all fruits that are washed, colored, or otherwise treated in their unpeeled natural form prior to marketing.

(s) The term “food additive” means any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food (including any substance intended for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting, or holding food; and including any source of radiation intended for any such use), if such substance is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate its safety, as having been adequately shown through scientific procedures (or, in the case of a substance used in food prior to January 1, 1958, through either scientific procedures or experience based on common use in food) to be safe under the conditions of its intended use; except that such term does not include—

(1) a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity or processed food; or

(2) a pesticide chemical; or

(3) a color additive; or

(4) any substance used in accordance with a sanction or approval granted prior to September 6, 1958, pursuant to this chapter, the Poultry Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.] or the Meat Inspection Act of March 4, 1907, as amended and extended [21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.];

(5) a new animal drug; or

(6) an ingredient described in paragraph (ff) in, or intended for use in, a dietary supplement.


(t)(1) The term “color additive” means a material which—

(A) is a dye, pigment, or other substance made by a process of synthesis or similar artifice, or extracted, isolated, or otherwise derived, with or without intermediate or final change of identity, from a vegetable, animal, mineral, or other source, and

(B) when added or applied to a food, drug, or cosmetic, or to the human body or any part thereof, is capable (alone or through reaction with other substance) of imparting color thereto;


except that such term does not include any material which the Secretary, by regulation, determines is used (or intended to be used) solely for a purpose or purposes other than coloring.

(2) The term “color” includes black, white, and intermediate grays.

(3) Nothing in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be construed to apply to any pesticide chemical, soil or plant nutrient, or other agricultural chemical solely because of its effect in aiding, retarding, or otherwise affecting, directly or indirectly, the growth or other natural physiological processes of produce of the soil and thereby affecting its color, whether before or after harvest.

(u) The term “safe” as used in paragraph (s) of this section and in sections 348, 360b, and 379e of this title, has reference to the health of man or animal.

(v) The term “new animal drug” means any drug intended for use for animals other than man, including any drug intended for use in animal feed but not including such animal feed,—

(1) the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of animal drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof; except that such a drug not so recognized shall not be deemed to be a “new animal drug” if at any time prior to June 25, 1938, it was subject to the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and if at such time its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use; or

(2) the composition of which is such that such drug, as a result of investigations to determine its safety and effectiveness for use under such conditions, has become so recognized but which has not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a material time under such conditions.


(w) The term “animal feed”, as used in paragraph (w) 1 of this section, in section 360b of this title, and in provisions of this chapter referring to such paragraph or section, means an article which is intended for use for food for animals other than man and which is intended for use as a substantial source of nutrients in the diet of the animal, and is not limited to a mixture intended to be the sole ration of the animal.

(x) The term “informal hearing” means a hearing which is not subject to section 554, 556, or 557 of title 5 and which provides for the following:

(1) The presiding officer in the hearing shall be designated by the Secretary from officers and employees of the Department who have not participated in any action of the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing and who are not directly responsible to an officer or employee of the Department who has participated in any such action.

(2) Each party to the hearing shall have the right at all times to be advised and accompanied by an attorney.

(3) Before the hearing, each party to the hearing shall be given reasonable notice of the matters to be considered at the hearing, including a comprehensive statement of the basis for the action taken or proposed by the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing and a general summary of the information which will be presented by the Secretary at the hearing in support of such action.

(4) At the hearing the parties to the hearing shall have the right to hear a full and complete statement of the action of the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing together with the information and reasons supporting such action, to conduct reasonable questioning, and to present any oral or written information relevant to such action.

(5) The presiding officer in such hearing shall prepare a written report of the hearing to which shall be attached all written material presented at the hearing. The participants in the hearing shall be given the opportunity to review and correct or supplement the presiding officer's report of the hearing.

(6) The Secretary may require the hearing to be transcribed. A party to the hearing shall have the right to have the hearing transcribed at his expense. Any transcription of a hearing shall be included in the presiding officer's report of the hearing.


(y) The term “saccharin” includes calcium saccharin, sodium saccharin, and ammonium saccharin.

(z) The term “infant formula” means a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk.

(aa) The term “abbreviated drug application” means an application submitted under section 355(j) of this title for the approval of a drug that relies on the approved application of another drug with the same active ingredient to establish safety and efficacy, and—

(1) in the case of section 335a of this title, includes a supplement to such an application for a different or additional use of the drug but does not include a supplement to such an application for other than a different or additional use of the drug, and

(2) in the case of sections 335b and 335c of this title, includes any supplement to such an application.


(bb) The term “knowingly” or “knew” means that a person, with respect to information—

(1) has actual knowledge of the information, or

(2) acts in deliberate ignorance or reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information.


(cc) For purposes of section 335a of this title, the term “high managerial agent”—

(1) means—

(A) an officer or director of a corporation or an association,

(B) a partner of a partnership, or

(C) any employee or other agent of a corporation, association, or partnership,


having duties such that the conduct of such officer, director, partner, employee, or agent may fairly be assumed to represent the policy of the corporation, association, or partnership, and

(2) includes persons having management responsibility for—

(A) submissions to the Food and Drug Administration regarding the development or approval of any drug product,

(B) production, quality assurance, or quality control of any drug product, or

(C) research and development of any drug product.


(dd) For purposes of sections 335a and 335b of this title, the term “drug product” means a drug subject to regulation under section 355, 360b, or 382 of this title or under section 262 of title 42.

(ee) The term “Commissioner” means the Commissioner of Food and Drugs.

(ff) The term “dietary supplement”—

(1) means a product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients:

(A) a vitamin;

(B) a mineral;

(C) an herb or other botanical;

(D) an amino acid;

(E) a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or

(F) a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any ingredient described in clause (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E);


(2) means a product that—

(A)(i) is intended for ingestion in a form described in section 350(c)(1)(B)(i) of this title; or

(ii) complies with section 350(c)(1)(B)(ii) of this title;

(B) is not represented for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or the diet; and

(C) is labeled as a dietary supplement; and


(3) does—

(A) include an article that is approved as a new drug under section 355 of this title or licensed as a biologic under section 262 of title 42 and was, prior to such approval, certification, or license, marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food unless the Secretary has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article, when used as or in a dietary supplement under the conditions of use and dosages set forth in the labeling for such dietary supplement, is unlawful under section 342(f) of this title; and

(B) not include—

(i) an article that is approved as a new drug under section 355 of this title, certified as an antibiotic under section 357 of this title, or licensed as a biologic under section 262 of title 42, or

(ii) an article authorized for investigation as a new drug, antibiotic, or biological for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public,


which was not before such approval, certification, licensing, or authorization marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food unless the Secretary, in the Secretary's discretion, has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article would be lawful under this chapter.


Except for purposes of paragraph (g), a dietary supplement shall be deemed to be a food within the meaning of this chapter.

(gg) The term “processed food” means any food other than a raw agricultural commodity and includes any raw agricultural commodity that has been subject to processing, such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydration, or milling.

(hh) The term “Administrator” means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

(ii) The term “compounded positron emission tomography drug”—

(1) means a drug that—

(A) exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei by the emission of positrons and is used for the purpose of providing dual photon positron emission tomographic diagnostic images; and

(B) has been compounded by or on the order of a practitioner who is licensed by a State to compound or order compounding for a drug described in subparagraph (A), and is compounded in accordance with that State's law, for a patient or for research, teaching, or quality control; and


(2) includes any nonradioactive reagent, reagent kit, ingredient, nuclide generator, accelerator, target material, electronic synthesizer, or other apparatus or computer program to be used in the preparation of such a drug.


(jj) The term “antibiotic drug” means any drug (except drugs for use in animals other than humans) composed wholly or partly of any kind of penicillin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, or any other drug intended for human use containing any quantity of any chemical substance which is produced by a micro-organism and which has the capacity to inhibit or destroy micro-organisms in dilute solution (including a chemically synthesized equivalent of any such substance) or any derivative thereof.

(kk) Priority supplement.—The term “priority supplement” means a drug application referred to in section 101(4) of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (111 Stat. 2298).

(ll)(1) The term “single-use device” means a device that is intended for one use, or on a single patient during a single procedure.

(2)(A) The term “reprocessed”, with respect to a single-use device, means an original device that has previously been used on a patient and has been subjected to additional processing and manufacturing for the purpose of an additional single use on a patient. The subsequent processing and manufacture of a reprocessed single-use device shall result in a device that is reprocessed within the meaning of this definition.

(B) A single-use device that meets the definition under clause (A) shall be considered a reprocessed device without regard to any description of the device used by the manufacturer of the device or other persons, including a description that uses the term “recycled” rather than the term “reprocessed”.

(3) The term “original device” means a new, unused single-use device.

(mm)(1) The term “critical reprocessed single-use device” means a reprocessed single-use device that is intended to contact normally sterile tissue or body spaces during use.

(2) The term “semi-critical reprocessed single-use device” means a reprocessed single-use device that is intended to contact intact mucous membranes and not penetrate normally sterile areas of the body.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §201, 52 Stat. 1040; July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §1, 68 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 85–929, §2, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §101, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 397; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §102(a), title III, §307(a), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 781, 796; Pub. L. 89–74, §§3(a), 9(b), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 227, 234; Pub. L. 90–399, §102, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 90–639, §§1, 4(a), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361, 1362; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(a), (g), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281, 1282; Pub. L. 92–516, §3(3), Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 998; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(2)(A), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 94–295, §3(a)(1)(A), (2), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 95–203, §4(b)(3), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453; Pub. L. 96–359, §3, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 100–670, title I, §107(a)(1), Nov. 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 3984; Pub. L. 101–535, §5(b), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; Pub. L. 101–629, §16(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4526; Pub. L. 102–282, §6, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 161; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(a), (b), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §§3(b), (dd)(1), 4(b), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775, 779; Pub. L. 103–417, §§3(a), (b), 10(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4327, 4332; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §402, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1513; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §§121(a), 125(b)(2)(A), (e), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2320, 2325, 2327; Pub. L. 105–324, §2(a), (c), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3035, 3037; Pub. L. 107–109, §5(b)(1), Jan. 4, 2002, 115 Stat. 1413; Pub. L. 107–250, title III, §302(d), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1619.)

References in Text

The Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, referred to in par. (p)(1), and the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, referred to in par. (v)(1), is act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 34 Stat. 768, as amended, which was classified to subchapter I (§1 et seq.) of chapter 1 of this title, was repealed (except for section 14a which was transferred to section 372a of this title) by act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059, and is covered by this chapter.

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, referred to in par. (q)(1), is act June 25, 1947, ch. 125, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–516, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 973, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§136 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 136 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Poultry Products Inspection Act, referred to in par. (s)(4), is Pub. L. 85–172, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 441, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 10 (§451 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 451 of this title and Tables.

The Meat Inspection Act of March 4, 1907, as amended and extended, referred to in par. (s)(4), is act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, titles I to IV, as added Dec. 15, 1967, Pub. L. 90–201, 81 Stat. 584, which are classified generally to subchapters I to IV (§601 et seq.) of chapter 12 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 601 of this title and Tables.

Section 101(4) of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997, referred to in par. (kk), is section 101(4) of Pub. L. 105–115, which is set out as a note under section 379g of this title.

Amendments

2002—Pars. (ll), (mm). Pub. L. 107–250 added pars. (ll) and (mm).

Par. (kk). Pub. L. 107–109 added par. (kk).

1998—Par. (q)(1). Pub. L. 105–324, §2(a), added subpar. (1) and struck out former subpar. (1) which read as follows: “The term ‘pesticide chemical’ means any substance that is a pesticide within the meaning of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, including all active and inert ingredients of such pesticide.”

Par. (q)(3). Pub. L. 105–324, §2(c), substituted “subparagraphs (1) and (2)” for “paragraphs (1) and (2)” in introductory provisions.

1997—Par. (aa). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(A), struck out “or 357” after “section 355(j)”.

Par. (dd). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(A), struck out “357,” after “section 355,”.

Par. (ff)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(A), struck out “, certified as an antibiotic under section 357 of this title,” before “or licensed as a biologic”.

Par. (ii). Pub. L. 105–115, §121(a), added par. (ii).

Par. (jj). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(e), added par. (jj).

1996—Par. (q). Pub. L. 104–170, §402(a), amended par. (q) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (q) read as follows: “The term ‘pesticide chemical’ means any substance which, alone, in chemical combination or in formulation with one or more other substances, is ‘a pesticide’ within the meaning of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as now in force or as hereafter amended, and which is used in the production, storage, or transportation of raw agricultural commodities.”

Par. (s)(1), (2). Pub. L. 104–170, §402(b), amended subpars. (1) and (2) generally. Prior to amendment, subpars. (1) and (2) read as follows:

“(1) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; or

“(2) a pesticide chemical to the extent that it is intended for use or is used in the production, storage, or transportation of any raw agricultural commodity; or”.

Pars. (gg), (hh). Pub. L. 104–170, §402(c), added pars. (gg) and (hh).

1994—Par. (g)(1). Pub. L. 103–417, §10(a), amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: “A food for which a claim, subject to sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(3) of this title or sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(5)(D) of this title, is made in accordance with the requirements of section 343(r) of this title is not a drug under clause (B) solely because the label or labeling contains such a claim.”

Par. (s)(6). Pub. L. 103–417, §3(b), added subpar. (6).

Par. (ff). Pub. L. 103–417, §3(a), added par. (ff).

1993—Pars. (c), (d). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(dd)(1), substituted “Health and Human Services” for “Agriculture”.

Par. (h). Pub. L. 103–80, §4(b), amended directory language of Pub. L. 102–300, §6(a)(1). See 1992 amendment note below.

Pars. (v) to (ff). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(b), redesignated pars. (w) to (ff) as (v) to (ee), respectively.

1992—Pars. (c), (d). Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(1), which directed the substitution of “Health and Human Services” for “Health, Education, and Welfare”, could not be executed because such words did not appear in the original statutory text. See 1993 Amendment note above and Transfer of Functions notes below.

Par. (h). Pub. L. 102–300, §6(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 103–80, §4(b), substituted “its primary” for “any of its principal” in two places in concluding provisions.

Par. (u). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted “379e” for “376”.

Par. (y)(1). Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(2), struck out “of Health, Education, and Welfare” after “employees of the Department”.

Pars. (bb) to (ee). Pub. L. 102–282 added pars. (bb) to (ee).

Par. (ff). Pub. L. 102–300, §6(a)(2), added par. (ff).

1990—Par. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–629, §16(b)(1), struck out “; but does not include devices or their components, parts, or accessories” after “clause (A), (B), or (C)”.

Pub. L. 101–535 inserted at end “A food for which a claim, subject to sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(3) of this title or sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(5)(D) of this title, is made in accordance with the requirements of section 343(r) of this title is not a drug under clause (B) solely because the label or labeling contains such a claim.”

Par. (h)(3). Pub. L. 101–629, §16(b)(2), which directed the amendment of subpar. (3) by substituting “its primary” for “any of its principal”, could not be executed because “any of its principal” did not appear in subpar. (3).

1988—Par. (w)(3). Pub. L. 100–670 struck out subpar. (3) which read as follows: “which drug is composed wholly or partly of any kind of penicillin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, chloramphenicol, or bacitracin, or any derivative thereof, except when there is in effect a published order of the Secretary declaring such drug not to be a new animal drug on the grounds that (A) the requirement of certification of batches of such drug, as provided for in section 360b(n) of this title, is not necessary to insure that the objectives specified in paragraph (3) thereof are achieved and (B) that neither subparagraph (1) nor (2) of this paragraph (w) applies to such drug.”

1980—Par. (aa). Pub. L. 96–359 added par. (aa).

1977—Par. (z). Pub. L. 95–203 added par. (z).

1976—Par. (h). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(a)(1)(A), expanded definition of “device” to include implements, machines, implants, in vitro reagents, and other similar or related articles, added recognition in the National Formulary or the United States Pharmacopeia, or any supplement to the Formulary or Pharmacopeia, to the enumeration of conditions under which a device may qualify for inclusion under this chapter, and inserted requirements that a device be one which does not achieve any of its principal intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of any of its principal intended purposes.

Par. (n). Pub. L. 94–278 inserted “or advertising” after “labeling” wherever appearing.

Par. (y). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(a)(2), added par. (y).

1972—Par. (q). Pub. L. 92–516 substituted reference to pesticide for reference to economic poison.

1970—Par. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(g), struck out reference to sections 321, 331(i), 331(p), 331(q), 332, 333, 334, 337, 360, 360a, 372, 373, 374, and 375 of this title as they apply to depressant or stimulant drugs.

Par. (v). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(a), struck out par. (v) which defined “depressant or stimulant drug”.

1968—Par. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–639, §4(a), extended provisions to cover depressant and stimulant drugs, the containers thereof, and equipment used in manufacturing, compounding, or processing such drugs, to the Canal Zone.

Par. (p). Pub. L. 90–399, §102(a), (b), inserted “(except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug)” after “Any drug” in subpars. (1) and (2), respectively.

Par. (s)(5). Pub. L. 90–399, §102(c), added subpar. (5).

Par. (u). Pub. L. 90–399, §102(d), inserted reference to section 360b of this title.

Par. (v)(3). Pub. L. 90–639, §1, inserted reference to lysergic acid diethylamide.

Pars. (w), (x). Pub. L. 90–399, §102(e), added pars. (w) and (x).

1965—Par. (g). Pub. L. 89–74, §9(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (1), redesignated cls. (1) to (4) thereof as (A) to (D), substituted “(A), (B), or (C)” for “(1), (2), or (3)” and added subpar. (2).

Par. (v). Pub. L. 89–74, §3(a), added par. (v).

1962—Par. (a). Pub. L. 87–781, §307(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (2), inserted “Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the”, and added subpar. (1).

Par. (p)(1). Pub. L. 87–781, §102(a)(1), inserted “and effectiveness” after “to evaluate the safety”, and “and effective” after “as safe”.

Par. (p)(2). Pub. L. 87–781, §102(a)(2), inserted “and effectiveness” after “safety”.

1960—Par. (s). Pub. L. 86–618, §101(a), excluded color additives from definition of “food additive”.

Par. (t). Pub. L. 86–618, §101(c), added par. (t). Former par. (t) redesignated (u).

Par. (u). Pub. L. 86–618, §101(b), redesignated par. (t) as (u) and inserted reference to section 376 of this title.

1958—Pars. (s), (t). Pub. L. 85–929 added pars. (s) and (t).

1954—Pars. (q), (r). Act July 22, 1954, added pars. (q) and (r).

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title], this Act and the amendments made by this Act, other than the provisions of and the amendments made by sections 111, 121, 125, and 307 [enacting section 355a of this title, amending this section and sections 331, 335a, 351, 352, 360, 360j, 360aa to 360cc, 360ee, 374, 379g, 381, and 382 of this title, section 45C of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 156 of Title 35, Patents, and section 8126 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits, repealing sections 356 and 357 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 351 and 355 of this title], shall take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1997].”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–535 effective six months after the date of the promulgation of final regulations to implement section 343(r) of this title, or if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations (Nov. 8, 1992), with exception for persons marketing food the brand name of which contains a term defined by the Secretary under section 343(r)(2)(A)(i) of this title, see section 10(a) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–278 effective 180 days after Apr. 22, 1976, see section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–278, set out as a note under section 334 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–516 effective at the close of Oct. 21, 1972, except if regulations are necessary for the implementation of any provision that becomes effective on Oct. 21, 1972, and continuation in effect of subchapter I of chapter 6 of Title 7, and regulations thereunder, relating to the control of economic poisons, as in existence prior to Oct. 21, 1972, until superseded by provisions of Pub. L. 92–516, and regulations thereunder, see section 4 of Pub. L. 92–516, set out as an Effective Date note under section 136 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendments; Transitional Provisions

Section 6 of Pub. L. 90–639 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [amending this section, sections 331, 333, 334, and 360a of this title, and provisions set out as a note under section 289a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply only with respect to violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] committed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1968].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–399 effective on first day of thirteenth calendar month after July 13, 1968, except that in the case of a drug (other than one subject to section 360b(n) of this title) intended for use in animals other than man which, on Oct. 9, 1962, was commercially used or sold in the United States, was not a new drug as defined in par. (p) of this section then in force, and was not covered by an effective application under section 355 of this title, the words “effectiveness” and “effective” contained in par. (w) of this section not applicable to such drug when intended solely for use under conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in labeling with respect to such drug on that day, see section 108(a), (b)(3) of Pub. L. 90–399, set out as an Effective Date and Transitional Provisions note under section 360b of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74 provided that: “The foregoing provisions of this Act [see Short Title of 1965 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month [Feb. 1, 1966] following the month in which this Act is enacted [July 15, 1965]; except that (1) the Secretary shall permit persons, owning or operating any establishment engaged in manufacturing, preparing, propagating, compounding, processing, wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing any depressant or stimulant drug, as referred to in the amendments made by section 4 of this Act to section 510 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 360 of this title], to register their name, places of business, and establishments, and other information prescribed by such amendments, with the Secretary prior to such effective date, and (2) sections 201(v) and 511(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as added by this act [par. (v) of this section and par. (g) of section 360a of this title], and the provisions of sections 8 [amending section 372 of this title and section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] and 10 [set out as a note under this section] shall take effect upon the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 1965].”

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Section 107 of Pub. L. 87–781 provided that:

“(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by the foregoing sections of this part A [amending this section and sections 331, 332, 348, 351 to 353, 355, 357, 379e of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 355 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 1962].

“(b) The amendments made by sections 101, 103, 105, and 106 of this part A [amending sections 331, 332, 351, 352, 355, and 357 of this title] shall, with respect to any drug, take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month following the month in which this Act is enacted [Oct. 1962].

“(c)(1) As used in this subsection, the term ‘enactment date’ means the date of enactment of this Act; and the term ‘basic Act’ means the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter].

“(2) An application filed pursuant to section 505(b) of the basic Act [section 355(b) of this title] which was ‘effective’ within the meaning of that Act on the day immediately preceding the enactment date shall be deemed as of the enactment date, to be an application ‘approved’ by the Secretary within the meaning of the basic Act as amended by this Act.

“(3) In the case of any drug with respect to which an application filed under section 505(b) of the basic Act is deemed to be an approved application on the enactment date by virtue of paragraph (2) of this subsection—

“(A) the amendments made by this Act to section 201(p), and to subsections (b) and (d) of section 505, of the basic Act [par. (p) of this section, and subsecs. (b) and (d) of section 355 of this title], insofar as such amendments relate to the effectiveness of drugs, shall not, so long as approval of such application is not withdrawn or suspended pursuant to section 505(e) of that Act [section 355(e) of this title], apply to such drug when intended solely for use under conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in labeling covered by such approved application, but shall apply to any changed use, or conditions of use, prescribed, recommended, or suggested in its labeling, including such conditions of use as are the subject of an amendment or supplement to such application pending on, or filed after, the enactment date; and

“(B) clause (3) of the first sentence of section 505(e) of the basic Act, as amended by this Act [section 355(e) of this title], shall not apply to such drug when intended solely for use under conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in labeling covered by such approved application (except with respect to such use, or conditions of use, as are the subject of an amendment or supplement to such approved application, which amendment or supplement has been approved after the enactment date under section 505 of the basic Act as amended by this Act [section 355 of this title]) until whichever of the following first occurs: (i) the expiration of the two-year period beginning with the enactment date; (ii) the effective date of an order under section 505(e) of the basic Act [section 355(e) of this title], other than clause (3) of the first sentence of such section 505(e) [section 355(e) of this title], withdrawing or suspending the approval of such application.

“(4) In the case of any drug which, on the day immediately preceding the enactment date, (A) was commercially used or sold in the United States, (B) was not a new drug as defined by section 201(p) of the basic Act as then in force [par. (p) of this section], and (C) was not covered by an effective application under section 505 of that Act [section 355 of this title], the amendments to section 201(p) [par. (p) of this section] made by this Act shall not apply to such drug when intended solely for use under conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in labeling with respect to such drug on that day.”

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–929 effective Sept. 6, 1958, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by act July 22, 1954, see section 5 of that act, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 102–282

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–282 not to preclude any other civil, criminal, or administrative remedy provided under Federal or State law, including any private right of action against any person for the same action subject to any action or civil penalty under an amendment made by Pub. L. 102–282, see section 7 of Pub. L. 102–282, set out as a note under section 335a of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Savings Provision

Section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, as amended by Pub. L. 93–481, §2, Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1455, provided that:

“(a) Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring prior to the effective date [see Effective Date of 1970 Amendment note above] of section 701 [repealing section 360a of this title, and amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 360, 372, and 381 of this title, sections 1114 and 1952 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and section 242 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall not be affected by the repeals or amendments made by such section, or abated by reason thereof.

“(b) Civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of section 701 shall not be affected by the repeals or amendments made by such section, or abated by reason thereof.

“(c) All administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now the Drug Enforcement Administration] on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1970] shall be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to such date of enactment. Where a drug is finally determined under such proceedings to be a depressant or stimulant drug, as defined in section 201(v) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [par. (v) of this section], such drug shall automatically be controlled under this title [subchapter I of chapter 13 of this title] by the Attorney General without further proceedings and listed in the appropriate schedule after he has obtained the recommendation of the Secretary. Any drug with respect to which such a final determination has been made prior to the date of enactment of this Act which is not listed in section 202 [section 812 of this title] within schedules I through V shall automatically be controlled under this title [subchapter I of chapter 13 of this title] by the Attorney General without further proceedings, and be listed in the appropriate schedule, after he has obtained the recommendations of the Secretary.

“(d) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section or section 1103 [of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under sections 171 to 174 of this title], section 4202 of title 18, United States Code, shall apply to any individual convicted under any of the laws repealed by this title or title III [subchapter I or subchapter II of chapter 13 of this title] without regard to the terms of any sentence imposed on such individual under such law.”

Transfer of Functions

Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary and Department of Health and Human Services by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Functions of Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] under Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, to the extent such functions related to administration and enforcement of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 (15 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.), transferred to Consumer Product Safety Commission by section 2079 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Functions of Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] under Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965 [see Short Title of 1965 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] transferred to Attorney General except function of regulating counterfeiting of those drugs which are not “depressant or stimulant” drugs, see section 2 of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1968, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Regulation of Tobacco

Section 422 of Pub. L. 105–115 provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] or the amendments made by this Act shall be construed to affect the question of whether the Secretary of Health and Human Services has any authority to regulate any tobacco product, tobacco ingredient, or tobacco additive. Such authority, if any, shall be exercised under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1997].”

Congressional Findings Relating to Pub. L. 103–417

Section 2 of Pub. L. 103–417 provided that: “Congress finds that—

“(1) improving the health status of United States citizens ranks at the top of the national priorities of the Federal Government;

“(2) the importance of nutrition and the benefits of dietary supplements to health promotion and disease prevention have been documented increasingly in scientific studies;

“(3)(A) there is a link between the ingestion of certain nutrients or dietary supplements and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis; and

“(B) clinical research has shown that several chronic diseases can be prevented simply with a healthful diet, such as a diet that is low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium, with a high proportion of plant-based foods;

“(4) healthful diets may mitigate the need for expensive medical procedures, such as coronary bypass surgery or angioplasty;

“(5) preventive health measures, including education, good nutrition, and appropriate use of safe nutritional supplements will limit the incidence of chronic diseases, and reduce long-term health care expenditures;

“(6)(A) promotion of good health and healthy lifestyles improves and extends lives while reducing health care expenditures; and

“(B) reduction in health care expenditures is of paramount importance to the future of the country and the economic well-being of the country;

“(7) there is a growing need for emphasis on the dissemination of information linking nutrition and long-term good health;

“(8) consumers should be empowered to make choices about preventive health care programs based on data from scientific studies of health benefits related to particular dietary supplements;

“(9) national surveys have revealed that almost 50 percent of the 260,000,000 Americans regularly consume dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, or herbs as a means of improving their nutrition;

“(10) studies indicate that consumers are placing increased reliance on the use of nontraditional health care providers to avoid the excessive costs of traditional medical services and to obtain more holistic consideration of their needs;

“(11) the United States will spend over $1,000,000,000,000 on health care in 1994, which is about 12 percent of the Gross National Product of the United States, and this amount and percentage will continue to increase unless significant efforts are undertaken to reverse the increase;

“(12)(A) the nutritional supplement industry is an integral part of the economy of the United States;

“(B) the industry consistently projects a positive trade balance; and

“(C) the estimated 600 dietary supplement manufacturers in the United States produce approximately 4,000 products, with total annual sales of such products alone reaching at least $4,000,000,000;

“(13) although the Federal Government should take swift action against products that are unsafe or adulterated, the Federal Government should not take any actions to impose unreasonable regulatory barriers limiting or slowing the flow of safe products and accurate information to consumers;

“(14) dietary supplements are safe within a broad range of intake, and safety problems with the supplements are relatively rare; and

“(15)(A) legislative action that protects the right of access of consumers to safe dietary supplements is necessary in order to promote wellness; and

“(B) a rational Federal framework must be established to supersede the current ad hoc, patchwork regulatory policy on dietary supplements.”

Dissemination of Information Regarding the Dangers of Drug Abuse

Section 5 of Pub. L. 90–639 provided that: “It is the sense of the Congress that, because of the inadequate knowledge on the part of the people of the United States of the substantial adverse effects of misuse of depressant and stimulant drugs, and of other drugs liable to abuse, on the individual, his family, and the community, the highest priority should be given to Federal programs to disseminate information which may be used to educate the public, particularly young persons, regarding the dangers of drug abuse.”

Congressional Findings and Declaration of Policy

Section 2 of Pub. L. 89–74 provided that: “The Congress hereby finds and declares that there is a widespread illicit traffic in depressant and stimulant drugs moving in or otherwise affecting interstate commerce; that the use of such drugs, when not under the supervision of a licensed practitioner, often endangers safety on the highways (without distinction of interstate and intrastate traffic thereon) and otherwise has become a threat to the public health and safety, making additional regulation of such drugs necessary regardless of the intrastate or interstate origin of such drugs; that in order to make regulation and protection of interstate commerce in such drugs effective, regulation of intrastate commerce is also necessary because, among other things, such drugs, when held for illicit sale, often do not bear labeling showing their place of origin and because in the form in which they are so held or in which they are consumed a determination of their place of origin is often extremely difficult or impossible; and that regulation of interstate commerce without the regulation of intrastate commerce in such drugs, as provided in this Act [see Short Title of 1965 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title], would discriminate against and adversely affect interstate commerce in such drugs.”

Effect of Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965 on State Laws

Section 10 of Pub. L. 89–74 provided that:

“(a) Nothing in this Act [enacting section 360a of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 360, and 372 of this title and section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 352, and 360a of this title] shall be construed as authorizing the manufacture, compounding, processing, possession, sale, delivery, or other disposal of any drug in any State in contravention of the laws of such State.

“(b) No provision of this Act nor any amendment made by it shall be construed as indicating an intent on the part of the Congress to occupy the field in which such provision or amendment operates to the exclusion of any State law on the same subject matter, unless there is a direct and positive conflict between such provision or amendment and such State law so that the two cannot be reconciled or consistently stand together.

“(c) No amendment made by this Act shall be construed to prevent the enforcement in the courts of any State of any statute of such State prescribing any criminal penalty for any act made criminal by any such amendment.”

Effect of Drug Amendments of 1962 on State Laws

Section 202 of Pub. L. 87–781 provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 358 to 360, amending sections 321, 331, 332, 348, 351 to 353, 355, 357, 372, 374, 379e, and 381 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 331, 332, 352, 355, 360, and 374 of this title] to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] shall be construed as invalidating any provision of State law which would be valid in the absence of such amendments unless there is a direct and positive conflict between such amendments and such provision of State law.”

Definitions

Section 2 of Pub. L. 105–115 provided that: “In this Act [see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title], the terms ‘drug’, ‘device’, ‘food’, and ‘dietary supplement’ have the meaning given such terms in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321).”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 343, 343–3, 346a, 346b, 350, 352, 353a, 355, 360b, 379e, 383, 802, 825, 1602 of this title; title 7 section 136; title 15 sections 1454, 1456, 1471, 2052, 2602; title 18 section 1365; title 22 section 7201; title 35 section 156; title 42 sections 274e, 287c–11, 289g–2, 300cc–12, 1396r–8; title 49 section 5702.

1 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(v)”.

§321a. “Butter” defined

For the purposes of the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906 (Thirty-fourth Statutes at Large, page 768) “butter” shall be understood to mean the food product usually known as butter, and which is made exclusively from milk or cream, or both, with or without common salt, and with or without additional coloring matter, and containing not less than 80 per centum by weight of milk fat, all tolerances having been allowed for.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 268, 42 Stat. 1500.)

References in Text

The Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, referred to in text, is act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 34 Stat. 768, as amended, which was classified to subchapter I (§1 et seq.) of chapter 1 of this title, was repealed (except for section 14a which was transferred to section 376 of this title) by act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059, and is covered by this chapter.

Codification

Section, which was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter, was formerly classified to section 6 of this title. Section 902(a) of act June 25, 1938, set out as an Effective Date note under section 301 of this title, provided that this section should remain in force and effect and be applicable to the provisions of this chapter.

§321b. “Package” defined

The word “package” where it occurs the second and last time in the act entitled “An act to amend section 8 of an act entitled, ‘An act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes,’ ” approved March 3, 1913, shall include and shall be construed to include wrapped meats inclosed in papers or other materials as prepared by the manufacturers thereof for sale.

(July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 271.)

References in Text

An act approved March 3, 1913, referred to in text, is act Mar. 3, 1913, ch. 117, 37 Stat. 732, which amended section 10 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

“An act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes,”, referred to in text, is act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 34 Stat. 768, which was classified to subchapter I (§1 et seq.) of chapter 1 of this title, was repealed (except for section 14a which was transferred to section 376 of this title) by act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059, and is covered by this chapter.

Codification

Section, which was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter, was formerly classified to the last sentence of paragraph third of section 10 of this title. Section 902(a) of act June 25, 1938, set out as an Effective Date note under section 301 of this title, provided that this section should remain in force and effect and be applicable to the provisions of this chapter.

§321c. Nonfat dry milk; “milk” defined

For the purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of June 26, 1938, (ch. 675, sec. 1, 52 Stat. 1040) [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] nonfat dry milk is the product resulting from the removal of fat and water from milk, and contains the lactose, milk proteins, and milk minerals in the same relative proportions as in the fresh milk from which made. It contains not over 5 per centum by weight of moisture. The fat content is not over 11/2 per centum by weight unless otherwise indicated.

The term “milk”, when used herein, means sweet milk of cows.

(Mar. 2, 1944, ch. 77, 58 Stat. 108; July 2, 1956, ch. 495, 70 Stat. 486.)

References in Text

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of June 26, 1938 (ch. 675, sec. 1, 52 Stat. 1040), referred to in text, probably means act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§301 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as a part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter, but was made applicable thereto.

Amendments

1956—Act July 2, 1956, substituted “nonfat dry milk” for “nonfat dry milk solids or defatted milk solids”.

§321d. Market names for catfish and ginseng

(a) Catfish labeling

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.)—

(A) the term “catfish” may only be considered to be a common or usual name (or part thereof) for fish classified within the family Ictaluridae; and

(B) only labeling or advertising for fish classified within that family may include the term “catfish”.

(2) Omitted

(b) Ginseng labeling

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.)—

(A) the term “ginseng” may only be considered to be a common or usual name (or part thereof) for any herb or herbal ingredient derived from a plant classified within the genus Panax; and

(B) only labeling or advertising for herbs or herbal ingredients classified within that genus may include the term “ginseng”.

(2) Omitted

(Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10806, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 526.)

References in Text

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10806 of Pub. L. 107–171. Subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(2) of section 10806 of Pub. L. 107–171 amended section 343 of this title.

Section was enacted as part of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, and not as part of Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

SUBCHAPTER III—PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in sections 343, 378 of this title; title 15 section 1456.

§331. Prohibited acts

The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited:

(a) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.

(b) The adulteration or misbranding of any food, drug, device, or cosmetic in interstate commerce.

(c) The receipt in interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded, and the delivery or proffered delivery thereof for pay or otherwise.

(d) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any article in violation of section 344, 355, or 360bbb–3 of this title.

(e) The refusal to permit access to or copying of any record as required by section 350a, 350c, 354, 360bbb–3, 373, or 374(a) of this title; or the failure to establish or maintain any record, or make any report, required under section 350a, 350c(b), 354, 355(i) or (k), 360b(a)(4)(C), 360b(j), (l), or (m), 360e(f), 360i, or 360bbb–3 of this title, or the refusal to permit access to or verification or copying of any such required record.

(f) The refusal to permit entry or inspection as authorized by section 374 of this title.

(g) The manufacture within any Territory of any food, drug, device, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.

(h) The giving of a guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 333(c)(2) of this title, which guaranty or undertaking is false, except by a person who relied upon a guaranty or undertaking to the same effect signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the United States from whom he received in good faith the food, drug, device, or cosmetic; or the giving of a guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 333(c)(3) of this title, which guaranty or undertaking is false.

(i)(1) Forging, counterfeiting, simulating, or falsely representing, or without proper authority using any mark, stamp, tag, label, or other identification device authorized or required by regulations promulgated under the provisions of section 344 or 379e of this title.

(2) Making, selling, disposing of, or keeping in possession, control, or custody, or concealing any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as to render such drug a counterfeit drug.

(3) The doing of any act which causes a drug to be a counterfeit drug, or the sale or dispensing, or the holding for sale or dispensing, of a counterfeit drug.

(j) The using by any person to his own advantage, or revealing, other than to the Secretary or officers or employees of the Department, or to the courts when relevant in any judicial proceeding under this chapter, any information acquired under authority of section 344, 348, 350a, 350c, 355, 360, 360b, 360c, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360h, 360i, 360j, 374, 379, or 379e of this title concerning any method or process which as a trade secret is entitled to protection; or the violating of section 346a(i)(2) of this title or any regulation issued under that section..1 This paragraph does not authorize the withholding of information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee.

(k) The alteration, mutilation, destruction, obliteration, or removal of the whole or any part of the labeling of, or the doing of any other act with respect to, a food, drug, device, or cosmetic, if such act is done while such article is held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce and results in such article being adulterated or misbranded.

(l) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, §421, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2380.

(m) The sale or offering for sale of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine, or the possession or serving of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine in violation of subsections (b) or (c) of section 347 of this title.

(n) The using, in labeling, advertising or other sales promotion of any reference to any report or analysis furnished in compliance with section 374 of this title.

(o) In the case of a prescription drug distributed or offered for sale in interstate commerce, the failure of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof to maintain for transmittal, or to transmit, to any practitioner licensed by applicable State law to administer such drug who makes written request for information as to such drug, true and correct copies of all printed matter which is required to be included in any package in which that drug is distributed or sold, or such other printed matter as is approved by the Secretary. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to exempt any person from any labeling requirement imposed by or under other provisions of this chapter.

(p) The failure to register in accordance with section 360 of this title, the failure to provide any information required by section 360(j) or 360(k) of this title, or the failure to provide a notice required by section 360(j)(2) of this title.

(q)(1) The failure or refusal to (A) comply with any requirement prescribed under section 360h or 360j(g) of this title, (B) furnish any notification or other material or information required by or under section 360i or 360j(g) of this title, or (C) comply with a requirement under section 360l of this title.

(2) With respect to any device, the submission of any report that is required by or under this chapter that is false or misleading in any material respect.

(r) The movement of a device in violation of an order under section 334(g) of this title or the removal or alteration of any mark or label required by the order to identify the device as detained.

(s) The failure to provide the notice required by section 350a(c) or 350a(e) of this title, the failure to make the reports required by section 350a(f)(1)(B) of this title, the failure to retain the records required by section 350a(b)(4) of this title, or the failure to meet the requirements prescribed under section 350a(f)(3) of this title.

(t) The importation of a drug in violation of section 381(d)(1) of this title, the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample in violation of section 353(c) of this title, the sale, purchase, or trade of a coupon, the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or the counterfeiting of such a coupon in violation of section 353(c)(2) of this title, the distribution of a drug sample in violation of section 353(d) of this title or the failure to otherwise comply with the requirements of section 353(d) of this title, or the distribution of drugs in violation of section 353(e) of this title or the failure to otherwise comply with the requirements of section 353(e) of this title.

(u) The failure to comply with any requirements of the provisions of, or any regulations or orders of the Secretary, under section 360b(a)(4)(A), 360b(a)(4)(D), or 360b(a)(5) of this title.

(v) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of a dietary supplement that is unsafe under section 350b of this title.

(w) The making of a knowingly false statement in any statement, certificate of analysis, record, or report required or requested under section 381(d)(3) of this title; the failure to submit a certificate of analysis as required under such section; the failure to maintain records or to submit records or reports as required by such section; the release into interstate commerce of any article or portion thereof imported into the United States under such section or any finished product made from such article or portion, except for export in accordance with section 381(e) or 382 of this title, or with section 262(h) of title 42; or the failure to so export or to destroy such an article or portions thereof, or such a finished product.

(x) The falsification of a declaration of conformity submitted under section 360d(c) of this title or the failure or refusal to provide data or information requested by the Secretary under paragraph (3) of such section.

(y) In the case of a drug, device, or food—

(1) the submission of a report or recommendation by a person accredited under section 360m of this title that is false or misleading in any material respect;

(2) the disclosure by a person accredited under section 360m of this title of confidential commercial information or any trade secret without the express written consent of the person who submitted such information or secret to such person; or

(3) the receipt by a person accredited under section 360m of this title of a bribe in any form or the doing of any corrupt act by such person associated with a responsibility delegated to such person under this chapter.


(z) The dissemination of information in violation of section 360aaa of this title.

(aa) The importation of a prescription drug in violation of section 384 of this title, the falsification of any record required to be maintained or provided to the Secretary under such section, or any other violation of regulations under such section.

(bb) The transfer of an article of food in violation of an order under section 334(h) of this title, or the removal or alteration of any mark or label required by the order to identify the article as detained.

(cc) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food by, with the assistance of, or at the direction of, a person debarred under section 335a(b)(3) of this title.

(dd) The failure to register in accordance with section 350d of this title.

(ee) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of the requirements under section 381(m) of this title.

(ff) The importing or offering for import into the United States of a drug or device with respect to which there is a failure to comply with a request of the Secretary to submit to the Secretary a statement under section 381(o) of this title.

(gg) The knowing failure of a person accredited under paragraph (2) of section 374(g) of this title to comply with paragraph (7)(E) of such section; the knowing inclusion by such a person of false information in an inspection report under paragraph (7)(A) of such section; or the knowing failure of such a person to include material facts in such a report.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §301, 52 Stat. 1042; Dec. 22, 1941, ch. 613, §1, 55 Stat. 851; July 6, 1945, ch. 281, §1, 59 Stat. 463; Mar. 10, 1947, ch. 16, §1, 61 Stat. 11; June 24, 1948, ch. 613, §1, 62 Stat. 582; Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(b), 64 Stat. 20; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 350, §2, 67 Stat. 477; Pub. L. 85–929, §5, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §§104, 105(a), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §§103(c), 104(e)(1), 106(c), 114(a), title III, §304, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 784, 785, 788, 791, 795; Pub. L. 89–74, §§5, 9(c), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 232, 235; Pub. L. 90–399, §103, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 90–639, §2(b), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(a), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281; Pub. L. 92–387, §4(e), Aug. 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 562; Pub. L. 94–295, §§3(b), 4(b)(1), 7(b), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 576, 580, 582; Pub. L. 96–359, §5, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 99–570, title IV, §4014(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–120; Pub. L. 100–293, §7(a), Apr. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 101–502, §5(j), Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, §4755(c)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–210; Pub. L. 102–300, §3(a)(1), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(2), (3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(c), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 103–396, §2(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4154; Pub. L. 103–417, §10(b), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4332; Pub. L. 104–134, title II, §2103, Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–319; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §403, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 104–250, §5(d), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3156; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §125(a)(2)(A), (C), (b)(2)(B), title II, §§204(b), 210(c), title IV, §§401(b), 421, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325, 2336, 2345, 2364, 2380; Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §745(d)(1)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–39; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §§303(b), 304(d), 305(b), 306(c), 307(b), 321(b)(2), 322(b), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 664, 666, 668, 670, 672, 676, 677; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, §201(d), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XVI, §1603(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1690; Pub. L. 108–173, title XI, §1121(b)(1), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2469.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 401(e) of Pub. L. 105–115, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1997 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–136 substituted “section 344, 355, or 360bbb–3” for “section 344 or 355”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–136 inserted “360bbb–3,” after “350c, 354,” and substituted “360i, or 360bbb–3” for “or 360i”.

Subsec. (aa). Pub. L. 108–173 substituted “prescription drug in violation of section 384” for “covered product in violation of section 384”.

2002—Par. (e). Pub. L. 107–188, §306(c)(1), substituted “by section 350a, 350c, 354, 373, or 374(a) of this title” for “by section 350a, 354, or 373 of this title” and “under section 350a, 350c(b)” for “under section 350a”.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 107–188, §306(c)(2), inserted “350c,” after “350a,”.

Par. (w). Pub. L. 107–188, §322(b), amended par. (w) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (w) read as follows: “The making of a knowingly false statement in any record or report required or requested under subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 381(d)(3) of this title, the failure to submit or maintain records as required by sections 381(d)(3)(A) and 381(d)(3)(B) of this title, the release into interstate commerce of any article imported into the United States under section 381(d)(3) of this title or any finished product made from such article (except for export in accordance with section 381(e) or 382 of this title or section 262(h) of title 42), or the failure to export or destroy any component, part or accessory not incorporated into a drug, biological product or device that will be exported in accordance with section 381(e) or 382 of this title or section 262(h) of title 42.”

Par. (bb). Pub. L. 107–188, §303(b), added par. (bb).

Par. (cc). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(d), added par. (cc).

Par. (dd). Pub. L. 107–188, §305(b), added par. (dd).

Par. (ee). Pub. L. 107–188, §307(b), added par. (ee).

Par. (ff). Pub. L. 107–188, §321(b)(2), added par. (ff).

Par. (gg). Pub. L. 107–250 added par. (gg).

2000—Par. (aa). Pub. L. 106–387 added par. (aa).

1997—Par. (e). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(B), struck out “357(d) or (g),” after “355(i) or (k),”.

Par. (i)(1). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(a)(2)(C), struck out “, 356, 357,” before “or 379e of this title”.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(a)(2)(A), struck out “356, 357,” before “360,”.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 105–115, §421, struck out par. (l) which read as follows: “The using, on the labeling of any drug or device or in any advertising relating to such drug or device, of any representation or suggestion that approval of an application with respect to such drug or device is in effect under section 355, 360e, or 360j(g) of this title, as the case may be, or that such drug or device complies with the provisions of such section.”

Par. (x). Pub. L. 105–115, §204(b), added par. (x).

Par. (y). Pub. L. 105–115, §210(c), added par. (y).

Par. (z). Pub. L. 105–115, §401(b), (e), temporarily added par. (z). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1997 Amendment note below.

1996—Par. (e). Pub. L. 104–250 inserted “, 354,” before “or 373 of this title” and “354,” before “355(i) or (k)”.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 104–170 inserted before period at end of first sentence “; or the violating of section 346a(i)(2) of this title or any regulation issued under that section.”

Pars. (u) to (w). Pub. L. 104–134 redesignated par. (u) relating to introduction into interstate commerce of unsafe dietary supplement as (v) and added par. (w).

1994—Par. (e). Pub. L. 103–396, §2(b)(1)(A), substituted “357(d) or (g), 360b(a)(4)(C),” for “357(d) or (g),”.

Par. (u). Pub. L. 103–417 added par. (u) relating to introduction into interstate commerce of unsafe dietary supplement.

Pub. L. 103–396, §2(b)(1)(B), added par. (u) relating to failure to comply with regulations or orders of Secretary.

1993—Par. (j). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(c)(1), substituted “379, or 379e” for “379e, or 379”.

Par. (s). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(c)(2), substituted “350a(e)” for “350a(d)”.

1992—Pars. (i)(1), (j). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted “379e” for “376”.

Par. (q)(1)(C). Pub. L. 102–300 added cl. (C).

1990—Par. (e). Pub. L. 101–502 substituted “or (k)” for “or (j)”.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 101–508 inserted at end “This paragraph does not authorize the withholding of information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee.”

1988—Par. (t). Pub. L. 100–293 added par. (t).

1986—Par. (s). Pub. L. 99–570 amended par. (s) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (s) read as follows: “The failure to provide the notice required by section 350a(b) or 350a(c), the failure to make the reports required by section 350a(d)(1)(B), or the failure to meet the requirements prescribed under section 350a(d)(2).”

1980—Par. (e). Pub. L. 96–359, §5(b), inserted reference to section 350a of this title in two places.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 96–359, §5(c), inserted reference to section 350a of this title.

Par. (s). Pub. L. 96–359, §5(a), added par. (s).

1976—Par. (e). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(b)(2), inserted references to sections 360e(f) and 360i of this title.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(b)(3), inserted references to sections 360, 360c, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360h, 360i, 360j, and 379 of this title.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(b)(4), substituted “drug or device” for “drug” wherever appearing, and inserted references to sections 360e and 360j(g) of this title.

Par. (p). Pub. L. 94–295, §4(b)(1), substituted “section 360(j) or 360(k) of this title,” for “section 360(j) of this title,”.

Par. (q). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(b)(1), added par. (q).

Par. (r). Pub. L. 94–295, §7(b), added par. (r).

1972—Par. (p). Pub. L. 92–387 added failure to provide information required by section 360(j) of this title, and failure to provide notice required by section 360(j)(2) of this title as prohibited acts.

1970—Par. (q). Pub. L. 91–513 struck out par. (q) which set out penalties for illegal manufacture, sale, disposition, possession and other traffic in stimulant and depressant drugs. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

1968—Par. (e). Pub. L. 90–399, §103(1), inserted reference to section 360b(j), (l), and (m) of this title.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 90–399, §103(2), inserted reference to section 360b of this title.

Par. (q). Pub. L. 90–639 divided cl. (3), which referred simply to possession in violation of section 360a(c) of this title, into subcls. (A) and (B) which refer, respectively, to possession in violation of section 360a(c)(1) of this title and possession in violation of section 360a(c)(2) of this title.

1965—Par. (i). Pub. L. 89–74, §9(c), designated existing provisions as subpar. (1) and added subpars. (2) and (3).

Par. (q). Pub. L. 89–74, §5, added par. (q).

1962—Par. (e). Pub. L. 87–781, §§103(c), 106(c), prohibited the failure to establish or maintain any record, or make any report, required under sections 355(i) or (j) and 507(d) or (g) of this title, or the refusal to permit access to, or verification or copying of, any such required record.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 87–781, §104(e)(1), inserted “approval of” before “an application”, and substituted “in effect” for “effective”.

Par. (o). Pub. L. 87–781, §114(a), added par. (o).

Par. (p). Pub. L. 87–781, §304, added par. (p).

1960—Par. (i). Pub. L. 86–618, §105(a), struck out references to sections 346(b), 354, and 364 of this title and inserted reference to section 376 of this title.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 86–618, §104, inserted reference to section 376 of this title.

1958—Par. (j). Pub. L. 85–929, inserted reference to section 348 of this title.

1953—Par. (n). Act Aug. 7, 1953, added par. (n).

1950—Par. (m). Act Mar. 16, 1950, added par. (m).

1948—Par. (k). Act June 24, 1948, inserted “(whether or not the first sale)” so as to make it clear that this subsection is not limited to the case where the act occurs while the article is held for the first sale after interstate shipment, and extended coverage of subsection to acts which result in adulteration.

1947—Par. (j). Act Mar. 10, 1947, inserted reference to sections 356 and 357 of this title.

1945—Par. (i). Act July 6, 1945, inserted reference to section 357 of this title.

1941—Par. (i). Act Dec. 22, 1941, inserted reference to section 356 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §321(c), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 676, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 360 and 381 of this title] take effect upon the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002].”

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §322(c), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 678, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 381 of this title] take effect upon the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002].”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by sections 204, 210, and 421 of Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Amendment by section 401(b) of Pub. L. 105–115 effective 1 year after Nov. 21, 1997, or upon Secretary's issuance of final regulations pursuant to section 401(c) of Pub. L. 105–115, whichever is sooner, and ceases to be effective Sept. 30, 2006, or 7 years after date Secretary promulgates regulations under section 401(c) of Pub. L. 105–115, whichever is later, see section 401(d), (e) of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 360aaa of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–396 effective upon adoption of final regulations under section 2(c) of Pub. L. 103–396, set out as a Regulations note under section 360b of this title, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 103–396, set out as a note under section 360b of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 4755(c)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as if included in subtitle D of title VI of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §§6601, 6602, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2285, see 42 U.S.C. 300aa–1 note, 300aa–10 note.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–293 effective upon expiration of 90 days after Apr. 22, 1988, see section 8(a) of Pub. L. 100–293, set out as a note under section 353 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–387 effective on first day of sixth month beginning after Aug. 16, 1972, see section 5 of Pub. L. 92–387, set out as a note under section 360 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–399 effective on first day of thirteenth calendar month after July 13, 1968, see section 108(a) of Pub. L. 90–399, set out as an Effective Date and Transitional Provisions note under section 360b of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–639 applicable only with respect to violations of this chapter committed after Oct. 24, 1968, see section 6 of Pub. L. 90–639, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendments; Transitional Provisions note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–74 effective Feb. 1, 1966, see section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by sections 103(c) and 106(c) of Pub. L. 87–781 effective on first day of seventh calendar month following Oct. 1962, and amendment by section 104(e)(1) of Pub. L. 87–781 effective Oct. 10, 1962, see section 107 of Pub. L. 87–781, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Section 114(b) of Pub. L. 87–781 provided that: “This section [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month following the month in which this Act is enacted [October 1962].”

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–929 effective Sept. 6, 1958, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Amendment by act Mar. 16, 1950, effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of that act, set out as an Effective Date note under section 347 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary of Health and Human Services to promulgate regulations to implement amendments made by section 401 of Pub. L. 105–115 not later than 1 year after Nov. 21, 1997, see section 401(c) of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 360aaa of this title.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now the Drug Enforcement Administration] on Oct. 27, 1970, to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 107–188

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §315, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 675, provided that: “Nothing in this title [enacting sections 350c, 350d, 398, 399, and 679c of this title, sections 3353, 3354, 8319, and 8320 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 247b–20 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending this section, sections 334, 335a, 342, 343, 360, 372, 374, and 381 of this title, and section 43 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 341, 350c, 350d, and 381 of this title], or an amendment made by this title, shall be construed to alter the jurisdiction between the Secretaries of Agriculture and of Health and Human Services, under applicable statutes and regulations.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 321, 332, 333, 335a, 347b, 355a, 360, 360i, 360j, 360aaa of this title; title 42 section 1396r–8.

1 So in original.

§332. Injunction proceedings

(a) Jurisdiction of courts

The district courts of the United States and the United States courts of the Territories shall have jurisdiction, for cause shown 1 to restrain violations of section 331 of this title, except paragraphs (h), (i), and (j).

(b) Violation of injunction

In case of violation of an injunction or restraining order issued under this section, which also constitutes a violation of this chapter, trial shall be by the court, or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §302, 52 Stat. 1043; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §103(d), title II, §201(c), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 784, 793; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(d), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775.)

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(d)(1), struck out “, and subject to the provisions of section 17 (relating to notice to opposite party) of the Act entitled ‘An Act to supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes’, approved October 15, 1914, as amended (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 28, sec. 381),” after “for cause shown”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(d)(2), struck out at end “Such trial shall be conducted in accordance with the practice and procedure applicable in the case of proceedings subject to the provisions of section 22 of such Act of October 15, 1914, as amended (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 28, sec. 387).”

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–781, §103(d), struck out “(e),” after “paragraphs”.

Pub. L. 87–781, §201(c), struck out “(f),” after “paragraphs”.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 87–781 effective on first day of seventh calendar month following October 1962, see section 107 of Pub. L. 87–781, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Section 203 of title II of Pub. L. 87–781 provided that: “The amendments made by this title [amending this section and section 374 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 374 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 1962].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 333, 334, 360j of this title; title 42 section 1396r–8.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§333. Penalties

(a) Violation of section 331 of this title; second violation; intent to defraud or mislead

(1) Any person who violates a provision of section 331 of this title shall be imprisoned for not more than one year or fined not more than $1,000, or both.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this section,1 if any person commits such a violation after a conviction of him under this section has become final, or commits such a violation with the intent to defraud or mislead, such person shall be imprisoned for not more than three years or fined not more than $10,000, or both.

(b) Prescription drug marketing violations

(1) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, any person who violates section 331(t) of this title by—

(A) knowingly importing a drug in violation of section 381(d)(1) of this title,

(B) knowingly selling, purchasing, or trading a drug or drug sample or knowingly offering to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample, in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title,

(C) knowingly selling, purchasing, or trading a coupon, knowingly offering to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or knowingly counterfeiting such a coupon, in violation of section 353(c)(2) of this title, or

(D) knowingly distributing drugs in violation of section 353(e)(2)(A) of this title,


shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.

(2) Any manufacturer or distributor who distributes drug samples by means other than the mail or common carrier whose representative, during the course of the representative's employment or association with that manufacturer or distributor, violated section 331(t) of this title because of a violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title or violated any State law prohibiting the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample subject to section 353(b) of this title or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a drug sample shall, upon conviction of the representative for such violation, be subject to the following civil penalties:

(A) A civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each of the first two such violations resulting in a conviction of any representative of the manufacturer or distributor in any 10-year period.

(B) A civil penalty of not more than $1,000,000 for each violation resulting in a conviction of any representative after the second conviction in any 10-year period.


For the purposes of this paragraph, multiple convictions of one or more persons arising out of the same event or transaction, or a related series of events or transactions, shall be considered as one violation.

(3) Any manufacturer or distributor who violates section 331(t) of this title because of a failure to make a report required by section 353(d)(3)(E) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $100,000.

(4)(A) If a manufacturer or distributor or any representative of such manufacturer or distributor provides information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, any representative of that manufacturer or distributor for a violation of section 331(t) of this title because of a sale, purchase, or trade or offer to purchase, sell, or trade a drug sample in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title or for a violation of State law prohibiting the sale, purchase, or trade or offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample, the conviction of such representative shall not be considered as a violation for purposes of paragraph (2).

(B) If, in an action brought under paragraph (2) against a manufacturer or distributor relating to the conviction of a representative of such manufacturer or distributor for the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug, it is shown, by clear and convincing evidence—

(i) that the manufacturer or distributor conducted, before the institution of a criminal proceeding against such representative for the violation which resulted in such conviction, an investigation of events or transactions which would have led to the reporting of information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, such representative for such purchase, sale, or trade or offer to purchase, sell, or trade, or

(ii) that, except in the case of the conviction of a representative employed in a supervisory function, despite diligent implementation by the manufacturer or distributor of an independent audit and security system designed to detect such a violation, the manufacturer or distributor could not reasonably have been expected to have detected such violation,


the conviction of such representative shall not be considered as a conviction for purposes of paragraph (2).

(5) If a person provides information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, a person for a violation of section 331(t) of this title because of the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title, such person shall be entitled to one-half of the criminal fine imposed and collected for such violation but not more than $125,000.

(6) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, any person who is a manufacturer or importer of a prescription drug under section 384(b) of this title and knowingly fails to comply with a requirement of section 384(e) of this title that is applicable to such manufacturer or importer, respectively, shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.

(c) Exceptions in certain cases of good faith, etc.

No person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (a)(1) of this section, (1) for having received in interstate commerce any article and delivered it or proffered delivery of it, if such delivery or proffer was made in good faith, unless he refuses to furnish on request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary the name and address of the person from whom he purchased or received such article and copies of all documents, if any there be, pertaining to the delivery of the article to him; or (2) for having violated section 331(a) or (d) of this title, if he establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the United States from whom he received in good faith the article, to the effect, in case of an alleged violation of section 331(a) of this title, that such article is not adulterated or misbranded, within the meaning of this chapter designating this chapter or to the effect, in case of an alleged violation of section 331(d) of this title, that such article is not an article which may not, under the provisions of section 344 or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce; or (3) for having violated section 331(a) of this title, where the violation exists because the article is adulterated by reason of containing a color additive not from a batch certified in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter, if such person establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the manufacturer of the color additive, to the effect that such color additive was from a batch certified in accordance with the applicable regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter; or (4) for having violated section 331(b), (c) or (k) of this title by failure to comply with section 352(f) of this title in respect to an article received in interstate commerce to which neither section 353(a) nor 353(b)(1) of this title is applicable, if the delivery or proffered delivery was made in good faith and the labeling at the time thereof contained the same directions for use and warning statements as were contained in the labeling at the time of such receipt of such article; or (5) for having violated section 331(i)(2) of this title if such person acted in good faith and had no reason to believe that use of the punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing involved would result in a drug being a counterfeit drug, or for having violated section 331(i)(3) of this title if the person doing the act or causing it to be done acted in good faith and had no reason to believe that the drug was a counterfeit drug.

(d) Exceptions involving misbranded food

No person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (a)(1) of this section for a violation of section 331 of this title involving misbranded food if the violation exists solely because the food is misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title because of its advertising.

(e) Prohibited distribution of human growth hormone

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), whoever knowingly distributes, or possesses with intent to distribute, human growth hormone for any use in humans other than the treatment of a disease or other recognized medical condition, where such use has been authorized by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under section 355 of this title and pursuant to the order of a physician, is guilty of an offense punishable by not more than 5 years in prison, such fines as are authorized by title 18, or both.

(2) Whoever commits any offense set forth in paragraph (1) and such offense involves an individual under 18 years of age is punishable by not more than 10 years imprisonment, such fines as are authorized by title 18, or both.

(3) Any conviction for a violation of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall be considered a felony violation of the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.] for the purposes of forfeiture under section 413 of such Act [21 U.S.C. 853].

(4) As used in this subsection the term “human growth hormone” means somatrem, somatropin, or an analogue of either of them.

(5) The Drug Enforcement Administration is authorized to investigate offenses punishable by this subsection.

(f) Redesignated (g)

(g) Violations related to devices

(1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), any person who violates a requirement of this chapter which relates to devices shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $15,000 for each such violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a person accredited under paragraph (2) of section 374(g) of this title who is substantially not in compliance with the standards of accreditation under such section, or who poses a threat to public health or fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of such section, shall be considered to have violated a requirement of this chapter that relates to devices.

(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply—

(i) to any person who violates the requirements of section 360i(a) or 360j(f) of this title unless such violation constitutes (I) a significant or knowing departure from such requirements, or (II) a risk to public health,

(ii) to any person who commits minor violations of section 360i(e) or 360i(f) of this title (only with respect to correction reports) if such person demonstrates substantial compliance with such section, or

(iii) to violations of section 351(a)(2)(A) of this title which involve one or more devices which are not defective.


(2)(A) Any person who introduces into interstate commerce or delivers for introduction into interstate commerce an article of food that is adulterated within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title shall be subject to a civil money penalty of not more than $50,000 in the case of an individual and $250,000 in the case of any other person for such introduction or delivery, not to exceed $500,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.

(B) This paragraph shall not apply to any person who grew the article of food that is adulterated. If the Secretary assesses a civil penalty against any person under this paragraph, the Secretary may not use the criminal authorities under this section to sanction such person for the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of the article of food that is adulterated. If the Secretary assesses a civil penalty against any person under this paragraph, the Secretary may not use the seizure authorities of section 334 of this title or the injunction authorities of section 332 of this title with respect to the article of food that is adulterated.

(C) In a hearing to assess a civil penalty under this paragraph, the presiding officer shall have the same authority with regard to compelling testimony or production of documents as a presiding officer has under section 346a(g)(2)(B) of this title. The third sentence of paragraph (3)(A) shall not apply to any investigation under this paragraph.

(3)(A) A civil penalty under paragraph (1) or (2) shall be assessed by the Secretary by an order made on the record after opportunity for a hearing provided in accordance with this subparagraph and section 554 of title 5. Before issuing such an order, the Secretary shall give written notice to the person to be assessed a civil penalty under such order of the Secretary's proposal to issue such order and provide such person an opportunity for a hearing on the order. In the course of any investigation, the Secretary may issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(B) In determining the amount of a civil penalty, the Secretary shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations and, with respect to the violator, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, any history of prior such violations, the degree of culpability, and such other matters as justice may require.

(C) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which may be assessed under paragraph (1) or (2). The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, or the amount agreed upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the person charged.

(4) Any person who requested, in accordance with paragraph (3)(A), a hearing respecting the assessment of a civil penalty and who is aggrieved by an order assessing a civil penalty may file a petition for judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 60-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessment was issued.

(5) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty—

(A) after the order making the assessment becomes final, and if such person does not file a petition for judicial review of the order in accordance with paragraph (4), or

(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (4) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary,


the Attorney General shall recover the amount assessed (plus interest at currently prevailing rates from the date of the expiration of the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (4) or the date of such final judgment, as the case may be) in an action brought in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such penalty shall not be subject to review.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §303, 52 Stat. 1043; Oct. 26, 1951, ch. 578, §2, 65 Stat. 649; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §105(b), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 89–74, §§7, 9(d), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 233, 235; Pub. L. 90–639, §3, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(b), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(2)(B), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 100–293, §7(b), Apr. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2403, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4230; Pub. L. 101–629, §17(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4526; Pub. L. 101–647, title XIX, §1904, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4853; Pub. L. 102–353, §3, Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 941; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(e), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330015, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2146; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §407, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1535; Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §745(d)(2)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–40; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, §201(c), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 108–173, title XI, §1121(b)(2), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2469.)

References in Text

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 108–173, which directed amendment of subsec. (a)(6) by substituting “prescription drug under section 384(b)” for “covered product pursuant to section 384(a)”, was executed by making the substitution in subsec. (b)(6), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2002—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–250 inserted at end “For purposes of the preceding sentence, a person accredited under paragraph (2) of section 374(g) of this title who is substantially not in compliance with the standards of accreditation under such section, or who poses a threat to public health or fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of such section, shall be considered to have violated a requirement of this chapter that relates to devices.”

2000—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 106–387 added par. (6).

1996—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 104–170, §407(1), (2), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 104–170, §407(1), (3), redesignated par. (2) as (3) and substituted “paragraph (1) or (2)” for “paragraph (1)” in subpars. (A) and (C). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 104–170, §407(1), (4), redesignated par. (3) as (4) and substituted “paragraph (3)(A)” for “paragraph (2)(A)”. Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (g)(5). Pub. L. 104–170, §407(1), (5), redesignated par. (4) as (5) and substituted “paragraph (4)” for “paragraph (3)” wherever appearing.

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–322 amended directory language of Pub. L. 101–647. See 1990 Amendment note below.

1993—Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 103–80, which directed the amendment of this section by redesignating the second subsec. (e) and subsec. (f) as subsecs. (f) and (g), respectively, could only be executed by designating subsec. (f) as (g) because this section did not contain a second subsec. (e) subsequent to amendment of Pub. L. 101–647 by Pub. L. 103–322. See 1990 and 1994 amendment notes for subsec. (e) under this section.

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, any person who violates section 331(t) of this title because of an importation of a drug in violation of section 381(d)(1) of this title, because of a sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample in violation of section 353(c) of this title, because of the sale, purchase, or trade of a coupon, the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or the counterfeiting of such a coupon in violation of section 353(c)(2) of this title, or the distribution of drugs in violation of section 353(e)(2)(A) of this title shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.”

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(1), substituted “the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of,” for “the arrest and conviction of”.

Subsec. (b)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(1), (2), substituted “before the institution of a criminal proceeding against” for “before the arrest of” and “the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of,” for “the arrest and conviction of”.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(3), substituted “the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of,” for “the arrest and conviction of”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(4), substituted “subsection (a)(1) of this section” for “subsection (a) of this section”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(4), (5), substituted “subsection (a)(1) of this section” for “subsection (a) of this section” and struck out “, and no person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (b) of this section for such a violation unless the violation is committed with the intent to defraud or mislead” after “advertising”.

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–647, as amended by Pub. L. 103–322, amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows:

“(e)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), any person who distributes or possesses with the intent to distribute any anabolic steroid for any use in humans other than the treatment of disease pursuant to the order of a physician shall be imprisoned for not more than three years or fined under title 18, or both.

“(2) Any person who distributes or possesses with the intent to distribute to an individual under 18 years of age, any anabolic steroid for any use in humans other than the treatment of disease pursuant to the order of a physician shall be imprisoned for not more than six years or fined under title 18, or both.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–629 added subsec. (f).

1988—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 100–293 designated existing subsecs. (a) and (b) as pars. (1) and (2) of subsec. (a), substituted “paragraph (1)” for “subsection (a)” in par. (2), and added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–690 added subsec. (e).

1976—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–278 added subsec. (d).

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–513 struck out reference to subsec. (b) and transferred to subsec. (b) provisions covering second offenses and offenses committed with intent to defraud or mislead.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–513 inserted provisions covering second offenses and offenses committed with intent to defraud or mislead formerly set out in subsec. (a) and struck out provisions covering violations involving depressant and stimulant drugs. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

1968—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 90–639 made a general revision in the penalties prescribed for offenses involving depressant or stimulant drugs, set a fine of not to exceed $10,000 or imprisonment of not more than 5 years for offenses involving the unlawful manufacturing of, sale, or disposal of, or possession with intent to sell, a depressant or stimulant drug or involving counterfeit depressant or stimulant drugs, stiffened the penalties for unlawful sales or other disposals by persons over 18 to persons under 21, and set new penalties for possession of a depressant or stimulant drug for purposes other than sale or other disposal.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–74, §7(a), inserted proviso limiting the penalties for depressant or stimulant drug violations to two years imprisonment or $5,000 fine or both for first offense and to two years imprisonment or $15,000 fine or both for subsequent offenses.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–74, §7(b), inserted parenthetical exception provision.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 89–74, §9(d), added cl. (5).

1960—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 86–618 substituted “a color additive” for “a coal-tar color”, “the color additive” for “the coal-tar color” and “such color additive was” for “such color was”.

1951—Subsec. (c)(4). Act Oct. 26, 1951, added cl. (4).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 330015 of Pub. L. 103–322 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of the date on which section 1904 of Pub. L. 101–647, which amended this section, took effect.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 17(b) of Pub. L. 101–629 provided that:

“(b) Effective Date of Application to Device User Facilities.—

“(1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall conduct a study to determine whether there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of section 519(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 360i(b)] by device user facilities (as defined in section 519(b)(5)(A) of such Act). The Secretary shall report the results of the study to the Congress after the expiration of 45 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990].

“(2)(A) If upon the expiration of 48 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990] the Secretary has not made the report required by paragraph (1), section 303(f) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 333(f)], as added by the amendment made by subsection (a), shall take effect with respect to device user facilities (as defined in section 519(b)(5)(A) of such Act). [Secretary of Health and Human Services had not made the report required by par. (1) on the expiration of 48 months after Nov. 28, 1990.]

“(B) If in the report under paragraph (1) the Secretary reports that there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of such section 519(b) by a type of device user facility and if the Secretary does not make a determination under subparagraph (C) with respect to such type of facility, such section 303(f) shall not take effect with respect to such type of facility.

“(C) If the Secretary determines in the report under paragraph (1) that there is not substantial compliance with the requirements of such section 519(b) by a type of device user facility or if the Secretary makes such a determination after making the report under paragraph (1), such section 303(f) shall take effect with respect to such type of facility upon the effective date of the report.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–293 effective upon expiration of 90 days after Apr. 22, 1988, see section 8(a) of Pub. L. 100–293, set out as a note under section 353 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–278 effective 180 days after Apr. 22, 1976, see section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–278, set out as a note under section 334 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–639 applicable only with respect to violations of this chapter committed after Oct. 24, 1968, see section 6 of Pub. L. 90–639, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendments; Transitional Provisions note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–74 effective Feb. 1, 1966, see section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of 1951 Amendment

Section 3 of act Oct. 26, 1951, provided that: “The provisions of this Act [amending this section and section 353 of this title] shall take effect six months after the date of its enactment [Oct. 26, 1951].”

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now the Drug Enforcement Administration] on Oct. 27, 1970, to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Enforcement

Pub. L. 99–660, title I, §103, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3751, provided that: “For the fines authorized to be imposed under section 303 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 333], see section 3623 of title 18, United States Code, for the period ending October 31, 1986 [probably should be October 31, 1987], and sections 3559 and 3571 of such title for the period beginning November 1, 1986 [probably should be November 1, 1987].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 331, 355c, 360j, 859 of this title; title 15 section 1456.

1 So in original. Words “of this section” probably should not appear.

§333a. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–647, title XIX, §1905, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4853

Section, Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2401, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4230, related to forfeiture and illegal trafficking in steroids or human growth hormones.

§334. Seizure

(a) Grounds and jurisdiction

(1) Any article of food, drug, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded when introduced into or while in interstate commerce or while held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce, or which may not, under the provisions of section 344 or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce, shall be liable to be proceeded against while in interstate commerce, or at any time thereafter, on libel of information and condemned in any district court of the United States or United States court of a Territory within the jurisdiction of which the article is found. No libel for condemnation shall be instituted under this chapter, for any alleged misbranding if there is pending in any court a libel for condemnation proceeding under this chapter based upon the same alleged misbranding, and not more than one such proceeding shall be instituted if no such proceeding is so pending, except that such limitations shall not apply (A) when such misbranding has been the basis of a prior judgment in favor of the United States, in a criminal, injunction, or libel for condemnation proceeding under this chapter, or (B) when the Secretary has probable cause to believe from facts found, without hearing, by him or any officer or employee of the Department that the misbranded article is dangerous to health, or that the labeling of the misbranded article is fraudulent, or would be in a material respect misleading to the injury or damage of the purchaser or consumer. In any case where the number of libel for condemnation proceedings is limited as above provided the proceeding pending or instituted shall, on application of the claimant, seasonably made, be removed for trial to any district agreed upon by stipulation between the parties, or, in case of failure to so stipulate within a reasonable time, the claimant may apply to the court of the district in which the seizure has been made, and such court (after giving the United States attorney for such district reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard) shall by order, unless good cause to the contrary is shown, specify a district of reasonable proximity to the claimant's principal place of business, to which the case shall be removed for trial.

(2) The following shall be liable to be proceeded against at any time on libel of information and condemned in any district court of the United States or United States court of a Territory within the jurisdiction of which they are found: (A) Any drug that is a counterfeit drug, (B) Any container of a counterfeit drug, (C) Any punch, die, plate, stone, labeling, container, or other thing used or designed for use in making a counterfeit drug or drugs, and (D) Any adulterated or misbranded device.

(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no libel for condemnation may be instituted under paragraph (1) or (2) against any food which—

(i) is misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title because of its advertising, and

(ii) is being held for sale to the ultimate consumer in an establishment other than an establishment owned or operated by a manufacturer, packer, or distributor of the food.


(B) A libel for condemnation may be instituted under paragraph (1) or (2) against a food described in subparagraph (A) if—

(i)(I) the food's advertising which resulted in the food being misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title was disseminated in the establishment in which the food is being held for sale to the ultimate consumer,

(II) such advertising was disseminated by, or under the direction of, the owner or operator of such establishment, or

(III) all or part of the cost of such advertising was paid by such owner or operator; and

(ii) the owner or operator of such establishment used such advertising in the establishment to promote the sale of the food.

(b) Procedure; multiplicity of pending proceedings

The article, equipment, or other thing proceeded against shall be liable to seizure by process pursuant to the libel, and the procedure in cases under this section shall conform, as nearly as may be, to the procedure in admiralty; except that on demand of either party any issue of fact joined in any such case shall be tried by jury. When libel for condemnation proceedings under this section, involving the same claimant and the same issues of adulteration or misbranding, are pending in two or more jurisdictions, such pending proceedings, upon application of the claimant seasonably made to the court of one such jurisdiction, shall be consolidated for trial by order of such court, and tried in (1) any district selected by the claimant where one of such proceedings is pending; or (2) a district agreed upon by stipulation between the parties. If no order for consolidation is so made within a reasonable time, the claimant may apply to the court of one such jurisdiction and such court (after giving the United States attorney for such district reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard) shall by order, unless good cause to the contrary is shown, specify a district of reasonable proximity to the claimant's principal place of business, in which all such pending proceedings shall be consolidated for trial and tried. Such order of consolidation shall not apply so as to require the removal of any case the date for trial of which has been fixed. The court granting such order shall give prompt notification thereof to the other courts having jurisdiction of the cases covered thereby.

(c) Availability of samples of seized goods prior to trial

The court at any time after seizure up to a reasonable time before trial shall by order allow any party to a condemnation proceeding, his attorney or agent, to obtain a representative sample of the article seized and a true copy of the analysis, if any, on which the proceeding is based and the identifying marks or numbers, if any, of the packages from which the samples analyzed were obtained.

(d) Disposition of goods after decree of condemnation; claims for remission or mitigation of forfeitures

(1) Any food, drug, device, or cosmetic condemned under this section shall, after entry of the decree, be disposed of by destruction or sale as the court may, in accordance with the provisions of this section, direct and the proceeds thereof, if sold, less the legal costs and charges, shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States; but such article shall not be sold under such decree contrary to the provisions of this chapter or the laws of the jurisdiction in which sold. After entry of the decree and upon the payment of the costs of such proceedings and the execution of a good and sufficient bond conditioned that such article shall not be sold or disposed of contrary to the provisions of this chapter or the laws of any State or Territory in which sold, the court may by order direct that such article be delivered to the owner thereof to be destroyed or brought into compliance with the provisions of this chapter, under the supervision of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, and the expenses of such supervision shall be paid by the person obtaining release of the article under bond. If the article was imported into the United States and the person seeking its release establishes (A) that the adulteration, misbranding, or violation did not occur after the article was imported, and (B) that he had no cause for believing that it was adulterated, misbranded, or in violation before it was released from customs custody, the court may permit the article to be delivered to the owner for exportation in lieu of destruction upon a showing by the owner that all of the conditions of section 381(e) of this title can and will be met. The provisions of this sentence shall not apply where condemnation is based upon violation of section 342(a)(1), (2), or (6), section 351(a)(3), section 352(j), or section 361(a) or (d) of this title. Where such exportation is made to the original foreign supplier, then subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 381(e)(1) of this title and the preceding sentence shall not be applicable; and in all cases of exportation the bond shall be conditioned that the article shall not be sold or disposed of until the applicable conditions of section 381(e) of this title have been met. Any person seeking to export an imported article pursuant to any of the provisions of this subsection shall establish that the article was intended for export at the time the article entered commerce. Any article condemned by reason of its being an article which may not, under section 344 or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce, shall be disposed of by destruction.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall, to the extent deemed appropriate by the court, apply to any equipment or other thing which is not otherwise within the scope of such paragraph and which is referred to in paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section.

(3) Whenever in any proceeding under this section, involving paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section, the condemnation of any equipment or thing (other than a drug) is decreed, the court shall allow the claim of any claimant, to the extent of such claimant's interest, for remission or mitigation of such forfeiture if such claimant proves to the satisfaction of the court (i) that he has not committed or caused to be committed any prohibited act referred to in such paragraph (2) and has no interest in any drug referred to therein, (ii) that he has an interest in such equipment or other thing as owner or lienor or otherwise, acquired by him in good faith, and (iii) that he at no time had any knowledge or reason to believe that such equipment or other thing was being or would be used in, or to facilitate, the violation of laws of the United States relating to counterfeit drugs.

(e) Costs

When a decree of condemnation is entered against the article, court costs and fees, and storage and other proper expenses, shall be awarded against the person, if any, intervening as claimant of the article.

(f) Removal of case for trial

In the case of removal for trial of any case as provided by subsection (a) or (b) of this section—

(1) The clerk of the court from which removal is made shall promptly transmit to the court in which the case is to be tried all records in the case necessary in order that such court may exercise jurisdiction.

(2) The court to which such case was removed shall have the powers and be subject to the duties, for purposes of such case, which the court from which removal was made would have had, or to which such court would have been subject, if such case had not been removed.

(g) Administrative restraint; detention orders

(1) If during an inspection conducted under section 374 of this title of a facility or a vehicle, a device which the officer or employee making the inspection has reason to believe is adulterated or misbranded is found in such facility or vehicle, such officer or employee may order the device detained (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary) for a reasonable period which may not exceed twenty days unless the Secretary determines that a period of detention greater than twenty days is required to institute an action under subsection (a) of this section or section 332 of this title, in which case he may authorize a detention period of not to exceed thirty days. Regulations of the Secretary prescribed under this paragraph shall require that before a device may be ordered detained under this paragraph the Secretary or an officer or employee designated by the Secretary approve such order. A detention order under this paragraph may require the labeling or marking of a device during the period of its detention for the purpose of identifying the device as detained. Any person who would be entitled to claim a device if it were seized under subsection (a) of this section may appeal to the Secretary a detention of such device under this paragraph. Within five days of the date an appeal of a detention is filed with the Secretary, the Secretary shall after affording opportunity for an informal hearing by order confirm the detention or revoke it.

(2)(A) Except as authorized by subparagraph (B), a device subject to a detention order issued under paragraph (1) shall not be moved by any person from the place at which it is ordered detained until—

(i) released by the Secretary, or

(ii) the expiration of the detention period applicable to such order,


whichever occurs first.

(B) A device subject to a detention order under paragraph (1) may be moved—

(i) in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, and

(ii) if not in final form for shipment, at the discretion of the manufacturer of the device for the purpose of completing the work required to put it in such form.

(h) Administrative detention of foods

(1) Detention authority

(A) In general

An officer or qualified employee of the Food and Drug Administration may order the detention, in accordance with this subsection, of any article of food that is found during an inspection, examination, or investigation under this chapter conducted by such officer or qualified employee, if the officer or qualified employee has credible evidence or information indicating that such article presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.

(B) Secretary's approval

An article of food may be ordered detained under subparagraph (A) only if the Secretary or an official designated by the Secretary approves the order. An official may not be so designated unless the official is the director of the district under this chapter in which the article involved is located, or is an official senior to such director.

(2) Period of detention

An article of food may be detained under paragraph (1) for a reasonable period, not to exceed 20 days, unless a greater period, not to exceed 30 days, is necessary, to enable the Secretary to institute an action under subsection (a) of this section or section 332 of this title. The Secretary shall by regulation provide for procedures for instituting such action on an expedited basis with respect to perishable foods.

(3) Security of detained article

An order under paragraph (1) with respect to an article of food may require that such article be labeled or marked as detained, and shall require that the article be removed to a secure facility, as appropriate. An article subject to such an order shall not be transferred by any person from the place at which the article is ordered detained, or from the place to which the article is so removed, as the case may be, until released by the Secretary or until the expiration of the detention period applicable under such order, whichever occurs first. This subsection may not be construed as authorizing the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is subject to the order, and section 381(b) of this title does not authorize the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is subject to the order.

(4) Appeal of detention order

(A) In general

With respect to an article of food ordered detained under paragraph (1), any person who would be entitled to be a claimant for such article if the article were seized under subsection (a) of this section may appeal the order to the Secretary. Within five days after such an appeal is filed, the Secretary, after providing opportunity for an informal hearing, shall confirm or terminate the order involved, and such confirmation by the Secretary shall be considered a final agency action for purposes of section 702 of title 5. If during such five-day period the Secretary fails to provide such an opportunity, or to confirm or terminate such order, the order is deemed to be terminated.

(B) Effect of instituting court action

The process under subparagraph (A) for the appeal of an order under paragraph (1) terminates if the Secretary institutes an action under subsection (a) of this section or section 332 of this title regarding the article of food involved.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §304, 52 Stat. 1044; June 24, 1948, ch. 613, §2, 62 Stat. 582; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 350, §3, 67 Stat. 477; Pub. L. 85–250, Aug. 31, 1957, 71 Stat. 567; Pub. L. 89–74, §6, July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 232; Pub. L. 90–639, §4(b), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1362; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(c), (d), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281, 1282; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(2)(C), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 94–295, §§3(c), 7(a), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 576, 582; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(c), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(f), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, §418, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §303(a), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 663.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–188 added subsec. (h).

1997—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–115 substituted “subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 381(e)(1) of this title” for “paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 381(e) of this title” and inserted “Any person seeking to export an imported article pursuant to any of the provisions of this subsection shall establish that the article was intended for export at the time the article entered commerce.” before “Any article condemned by reason”.

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(f)(1), substituted “found. No libel” for “found: Provided, however, That no libel”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(f)(2), substituted “sold. After entry” for “sold: Provided, That after entry”, “met. The provisions of this sentence” for “met: Provided, however, That the provisions of this sentence”, “title. Where such exportation” for “title: And provided further, That where such exportation”, and “the preceding sentence shall not be applicable” for “the foregoing proviso shall not be applicable”.

1992—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–300 substituted “381(e)” for “381(d)” in three places and “paragraphs” for “clauses” before “(1) and (2) of section 381(e)”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(c)(1), struck out “device,” after “Any article of food, drug,”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(c)(2), (3), added cl. (D) covering adulterated or misbranded devices.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 94–278 added par. (3).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 94–295, §7(a), added subsec. (g).

1970—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(c), struck out cls. (A) and (D) which dealt with depressant or stimulant drugs, struck out reference to depressant or stimulant drugs in cl. (C), and redesignated cls. (B), (C), and (E) as cls. (A), (B), and (C), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(3)(iii). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(d), struck out reference to depressant or stimulant drugs.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–639 inserted references to the United States courts of Territories.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–74, §6(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated cls. (1) and (2) of proviso as (A) and (B), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–74, §6(b)(1), inserted “equipment, or other thing proceeded against” after “article” in first sentence.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–74, §6(b)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated cls. (1) and (2) of the second sentence thereof as (A) and (B), and added pars. (2) and (3).

1957—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85–250 permitted, under certain circumstances, reexportation of articles condemned at places other than original port of entry.

1953—Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 7, 1953, provided that a true copy of the analysis in any case shall be furnished the owner.

1948—Subsec. (a). Act June 24, 1948, inserted “or while held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce” to make this subsection coextensive with section 331(k) of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–278 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 321, 333, and 343 of this title] shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 22, 1976].”

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–639 applicable only with respect to violations of this chapter committed after Oct. 24, 1968, see section 6 of Pub. L. 90–639, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendments; Transitional Provisions note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–74 effective Feb. 1, 1966, see section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for any violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now the Drug Enforcement Administration] on Oct. 27, 1970, to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 331, 333, 360j, 372 of this title; title 42 section 1396r–8.

§335. Hearing before report of criminal violation

Before any violation of this chapter is reported by the Secretary to any United States attorney for institution of a criminal proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding is contemplated shall be given appropriate notice and an opportunity to present his views, either orally or in writing, with regard to such contemplated proceeding.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §305, 52 Stat. 1045.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

§335a. Debarment, temporary denial of approval, and suspension

(a) Mandatory debarment; certain drug applications

(1) Corporations, partnerships, and associations

If the Secretary finds that a person other than an individual has been convicted, after May 13, 1992, of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any abbreviated drug application, the Secretary shall debar such person from submitting, or assisting in the submission of, any such application.

(2) Individuals

If the Secretary finds that an individual has been convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct—

(A) relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product, or

(B) otherwise relating to the regulation of any drug product under this chapter,


the Secretary shall debar such individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application.

(b) Permissive debarment; certain drug applications; food imports

(1) In general

The Secretary, on the Secretary's own initiative or in response to a petition, may, in accordance with paragraph (2), debar—

(A) a person other than an individual from submitting or assisting in the submission of any abbreviated drug application,

(B) an individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application, or

(C) a person from importing an article of food or offering such an article for import into the United States.

(2) Persons subject to permissive debarment; certain drug applications

The following persons are subject to debarment under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1):

(A) Corporations, partnerships, and associations

Any person other than an individual that the Secretary finds has been convicted—

(i) for conduct that—

(I) relates to the development or approval, including the process for the development or approval, of any abbreviated drug application; and

(II) is a felony under Federal law (if the person was convicted before May 13, 1992), a misdemeanor under Federal law, or a felony under State law, or


(ii) of a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, a criminal offense described in clause (i) or a felony described in subsection (a)(1) of this section,


if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(B) Individuals

(i) Any individual whom the Secretary finds has been convicted of—

(I) a misdemeanor under Federal law or a felony under State law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product or otherwise relating to the regulation of drug products under this chapter, or

(II) a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, such criminal offense or a felony described in subsection (a)(2) of this section,


if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(ii) Any individual whom the Secretary finds has been convicted of—

(I) a felony which is not described in subsection (a)(2) of this section or clause (i) of this subparagraph and which involves bribery, payment of illegal gratuities, fraud, perjury, false statement, racketeering, blackmail, extortion, falsification or destruction of records, or interference with, obstruction of an investigation into, or prosecution of, any criminal offense, or

(II) a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, such felony,


if the Secretary finds, on the basis of the conviction of such individual and other information, that such individual has demonstrated a pattern of conduct sufficient to find that there is reason to believe that such individual may violate requirements under this chapter relating to drug products.

(iii) Any individual whom the Secretary finds materially participated in acts that were the basis for a conviction for an offense described in subsection (a) of this section or in clause (i) or (ii) for which a conviction was obtained, if the Secretary finds, on the basis of such participation and other information, that such individual has demonstrated a pattern of conduct sufficient to find that there is reason to believe that such individual may violate requirements under this chapter relating to drug products.

(iv) Any high managerial agent whom the Secretary finds—

(I) worked for, or worked as a consultant for, the same person as another individual during the period in which such other individual took actions for which a felony conviction was obtained and which resulted in the debarment under subsection (a)(2) of this section, or clause (i), of such other individual,

(II) had actual knowledge of the actions described in subclause (I) of such other individual, or took action to avoid such actual knowledge, or failed to take action for the purpose of avoiding such actual knowledge,

(III) knew that the actions described in subclause (I) were violative of law, and

(IV) did not report such actions, or did not cause such actions to be reported, to an officer, employee, or agent of the Department or to an appropriate law enforcement officer, or failed to take other appropriate action that would have ensured that the process for the regulation of drugs was not undermined, within a reasonable time after such agent first knew of such actions,


if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such other individual's conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(3) Persons subject to permissive debarment; food importation

A person is subject to debarment under paragraph (1)(C) if—

(A) the person has been convicted of a felony for conduct relating to the importation into the United States of any food; or

(B) the person has engaged in a pattern of importing or offering for import adulterated food that presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.

(4) Stay of certain orders

An order of the Secretary under clause (iii) or (iv) of paragraph (2)(B) shall not take effect until 30 days after the order has been issued.

(c) Debarment period and considerations

(1) Effect of debarment

The Secretary—

(A) shall not accept or review (other than in connection with an audit under this section) any abbreviated drug application submitted by or with the assistance of a person debarred under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(2)(A) of this section during the period such person is debarred,

(B) shall, during the period of a debarment under subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2)(B) of this section, debar an individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application and shall not accept or review (other than in connection with an audit under this section) an abbreviated drug application from such individual, and

(C) shall, if the Secretary makes the finding described in paragraph (6) or (7) of section 335b(a) of this title, assess a civil penalty in accordance with section 335b of this title.

(2) Debarment periods

(A) In general

The Secretary shall debar a person under subsection (a) or (b) of this section for the following periods:

(i) The period of debarment of a person (other than an individual) under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall not be less than 1 year or more than 10 years, but if an act leading to a subsequent debarment under subsection (a) of this section occurs within 10 years after such person has been debarred under subsection (a)(1) of this section, the period of debarment shall be permanent.

(ii) The debarment of an individual under subsection (a)(2) of this section shall be permanent.

(iii) The period of debarment of any person under paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (b) of this section shall not be more than 5 years.


The Secretary may determine whether debarment periods shall run concurrently or consecutively in the case of a person debarred for multiple offenses.

(B) Notification

Upon a conviction for an offense described in subsection (a) or (b) of this section or upon execution of an agreement with the United States to plead guilty to such an offense, the person involved may notify the Secretary that the person acquiesces to debarment and such person's debarment shall commence upon such notification.

(3) Considerations

In determining the appropriateness and the period of a debarment of a person under subsection (b) of this section and any period of debarment beyond the minimum specified in subparagraph (A)(i) of paragraph (2), the Secretary shall consider where applicable—

(A) the nature and seriousness of any offense involved,

(B) the nature and extent of management participation in any offense involved, whether corporate policies and practices encouraged the offense, including whether inadequate institutional controls contributed to the offense,

(C) the nature and extent of voluntary steps to mitigate the impact on the public of any offense involved, including the recall or the discontinuation of the distribution of suspect drugs, full cooperation with any investigations (including the extent of disclosure to appropriate authorities of all wrongdoing), the relinquishing of profits on drug approvals fraudulently obtained, and any other actions taken to substantially limit potential or actual adverse effects on the public health,

(D) whether the extent to which changes in ownership, management, or operations have corrected the causes of any offense involved and provide reasonable assurances that the offense will not occur in the future,

(E) whether the person to be debarred is able to present adequate evidence that current production of drugs subject to abbreviated drug applications and all pending abbreviated drug applications are free of fraud or material false statements, and

(F) prior convictions under this chapter or under other Acts involving matters within the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.

(d) Termination of debarment

(1) Application

Any person that is debarred under subsection (a) of this section (other than a person permanently debarred) or any person that is debarred under subsection (b) of this section may apply to the Secretary for termination of the debarment under this subsection. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this paragraph does not constitute an amendment or supplement to pending or approved abbreviated drug applications.

(2) Deadline

The Secretary shall grant or deny any application respecting a debarment which is submitted under paragraph (1) within 180 days of the date the application is submitted.

(3) Action by the Secretary

(A) Corporations

(i) Conviction reversal

If the conviction which served as the basis for the debarment of a person under subsection (a)(1) of this section or paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b) of this section is reversed, the Secretary shall withdraw the order of debarment.

(ii) Application

Upon application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall terminate the debarment of a person if the Secretary finds that—

(I) changes in ownership, management, or operations have fully corrected the causes of the offense involved and provide reasonable assurances that the offense will not occur in the future, and

(II) in applicable cases, sufficient audits, conducted by the Food and Drug Administration or by independent experts acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration, demonstrate that pending applications and the development of drugs being tested before the submission of an application are free of fraud or material false statements.


 In the case of persons debarred under subsection (a)(1) of this section, such termination shall take effect no earlier than the expiration of one year from the date of the debarment.

(B) Individuals

(i) Conviction reversal

If the conviction which served as the basis for the debarment of an individual under subsection (a)(2) of this section or clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) or subsection (b)(3) of this section is reversed, the Secretary shall withdraw the order of debarment.

(ii) Application

Upon application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall terminate the debarment of an individual who has been debarred under subsection (b)(2)(B) or subsection (b)(3) of this section if such termination serves the interests of justice and adequately protects the integrity of the drug approval process or the food importation process, as the case may be.

(4) Special termination

(A) Application

Any person that is debarred under subsection (a)(1) of this section (other than a person permanently debarred under subsection (c)(2)(A)(i) of this section) or any individual who is debarred under subsection (a)(2) of this section may apply to the Secretary for special termination of debarment under this subsection. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this subparagraph does not constitute an amendment or supplement to pending or approved abbreviated drug applications.

(B) Corporations

Upon an application submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may take the action described in subparagraph (D) if the Secretary, after an informal hearing, finds that—

(i) the person making the application under subparagraph (A) has demonstrated that the felony conviction which was the basis for such person's debarment involved the commission of an offense which was not authorized, requested, commanded, performed, or recklessly tolerated by the board of directors or by a high managerial agent acting on behalf of the person within the scope of the board's or agent's office or employment,

(ii) all individuals who were involved in the commission of the offense or who knew or should have known of the offense have been removed from employment involving the development or approval of any drug subject to sections 1 355 of this title,

(iii) the person fully cooperated with all investigations and promptly disclosed all wrongdoing to the appropriate authorities, and

(iv) the person acted to mitigate any impact on the public of any offense involved, including the recall, or the discontinuation of the distribution, of any drug with respect to which the Secretary requested a recall or discontinuation of distribution due to concerns about the safety or efficacy of the drug.

(C) Individuals

Upon an application submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may take the action described in subparagraph (D) if the Secretary, after an informal hearing, finds that such individual has provided substantial assistance in the investigations or prosecutions of offenses which are described in subsection (a) or (b) of this section or which relate to any matter under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.

(D) Secretarial action

The action referred to in subparagraphs (B) and (C) is—

(i) in the case of a person other than an individual—

(I) terminating the debarment immediately, or

(II) limiting the period of debarment to less than one year, and


(ii) in the case of an individual, limiting the period of debarment to less than permanent but to no less than 1 year,


whichever best serves the interest of justice and protects the integrity of the drug approval process.

(e) Publication and list of debarred persons

The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the name of any person debarred under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the effective date of the debarment, and the period of the debarment. The Secretary shall also maintain and make available to the public a list, updated no less often than quarterly, of such persons, of the effective dates and minimum periods of such debarments, and of the termination of debarments.

(f) Temporary denial of approval

(1) In general

The Secretary, on the Secretary's own initiative or in response to a petition, may, in accordance with paragraph (3), refuse by order, for the period prescribed by paragraph (2), to approve any abbreviated drug application submitted by any person—

(A) if such person is under an active Federal criminal investigation in connection with an action described in subparagraph (B),

(B) if the Secretary finds that such person—

(i) has bribed or attempted to bribe, has paid or attempted to pay an illegal gratuity, or has induced or attempted to induce another person to bribe or pay an illegal gratuity to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services or to any other Federal, State, or local official in connection with any abbreviated drug application, or has conspired to commit, or aided or abetted, such actions, or

(ii) has knowingly made or caused to be made a pattern or practice of false statements or misrepresentations with respect to material facts relating to any abbreviated drug application, or the production of any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application, to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services, or has conspired to commit, or aided or abetted, such actions, and


(C) if a significant question has been raised regarding—

(i) the integrity of the approval process with respect to such abbreviated drug application, or

(ii) the reliability of data in or concerning such person's abbreviated drug application.


Such an order may be modified or terminated at any time.

(2) Applicable period

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a denial of approval of an application of a person under paragraph (1) shall be in effect for a period determined by the Secretary but not to exceed 18 months beginning on the date the Secretary finds that the conditions described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) exist. The Secretary shall terminate such denial—

(i) if the investigation with respect to which the finding was made does not result in a criminal charge against such person, if criminal charges have been brought and the charges have been dismissed, or if a judgment of acquittal has been entered, or

(ii) if the Secretary determines that such finding was in error.

(B) Extension

If, at the end of the period described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary determines that a person has been criminally charged for an action described in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), the Secretary may extend the period of denial of approval of an application for a period not to exceed 18 months. The Secretary shall terminate such extension if the charges have been dismissed, if a judgment of acquittal has been entered, or if the Secretary determines that the finding described in subparagraph (A) was in error.

(3) Informal hearing

Within 10 days of the date an order is issued under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide such person with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be held within such 10 days, on the decision of the Secretary to refuse approval of an abbreviated drug application. Within 60 days of the date on which such hearing is held, the Secretary shall notify the person given such hearing whether the Secretary's refusal of approval will be continued, terminated, or otherwise modified. Such notification shall be final agency action.

(g) Suspension authority

(1) In general

If—

(A) the Secretary finds—

(i) that a person has engaged in conduct described in subparagraph (B) of subsection (f)(1) of this section in connection with 2 or more drugs under abbreviated drug applications, or

(ii) that a person has engaged in flagrant and repeated, material violations of good manufacturing practice or good laboratory practice in connection with the development, manufacturing, or distribution of one or more drugs approved under an abbreviated drug application during a 2-year period, and—

(I) such violations may undermine the safety and efficacy of such drugs, and

(II) the causes of such violations have not been corrected within a reasonable period of time following notice of such violations by the Secretary, and


(B) such person is under an active investigation by a Federal authority in connection with a civil or criminal action involving conduct described in subparagraph (A),


the Secretary shall issue an order suspending the distribution of all drugs the development or approval of which was related to such conduct described in subparagraph (A) or suspending the distribution of all drugs approved under abbreviated drug applications of such person if the Secretary finds that such conduct may have affected the development or approval of a significant number of drugs which the Secretary is unable to identify. The Secretary shall exclude a drug from such order if the Secretary determines that such conduct was not likely to have influenced the safety or efficacy of such drug.

(2) Public health waiver

The Secretary shall, on the Secretary's own initiative or in response to a petition, waive the suspension under paragraph (1) (involving an action described in paragraph (1)(A)(i)) with respect to any drug if the Secretary finds that such waiver is necessary to protect the public health because sufficient quantities of the drug would not otherwise be available. The Secretary shall act on any petition seeking action under this paragraph within 180 days of the date the petition is submitted to the Secretary.

(h) Termination of suspension

The Secretary shall withdraw an order of suspension of the distribution of a drug under subsection (g) of this section if the person with respect to whom the order was issued demonstrates in a petition to the Secretary—

(1)(A) on the basis of an audit by the Food and Drug Administration or by experts acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration, or on the basis of other information, that the development, approval, manufacturing, and distribution of such drug is in substantial compliance with the applicable requirements of this chapter, and

(B) changes in ownership, management, or operations—

(i) fully remedy the patterns or practices with respect to which the order was issued, and

(ii) provide reasonable assurances that such actions will not occur in the future, or


(2) the initial determination was in error.


The Secretary shall act on a submission of a petition under this subsection within 180 days of the date of its submission and the Secretary may consider the petition concurrently with the suspension proceeding. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this subsection does not constitute an amendment or supplement to a pending or approved abbreviated drug application.

(i) Procedure

The Secretary may not take any action under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d)(3), (g), or (h) of this section with respect to any person unless the Secretary has issued an order for such action made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subsection, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(j) Judicial review

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (f), (g), or (h) of this section may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary's decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(2) Exception

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under clause (iii) or (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section may obtain a review of such decision by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or a district court of the United States for the district in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 30 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary's decision) a complaint requesting that the decision be modified or set aside. In such an action, the court shall determine the matter de novo.

(k) Certification

Any application for approval of a drug product shall include—

(1) a certification that the applicant did not and will not use in any capacity the services of any person debarred under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, in connection with such application, and

(2) if such application is an abbreviated drug application, a list of all convictions, described in subsections (a) and (b) of this section which occurred within the previous 5 years, of the applicant and affiliated persons responsible for the development or submission of such application.

(l) Applicability

(1) Conviction

For purposes of this section, a person is considered to have been convicted of a criminal offense—

(A) when a judgment of conviction has been entered against the person by a Federal or State court, regardless of whether there is an appeal pending,

(B) when a plea of guilty or nolo contendere by the person has been accepted by a Federal or State court, or

(C) when the person has entered into participation in a first offender, deferred adjudication, or other similar arrangement or program where judgment of conviction has been withheld.

(2) Effective dates

Subsection (a) of this section, subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2) of this section, clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, and subsection (b)(3)(A) of this section shall not apply to a conviction which occurred more than 5 years before the initiation of an agency action proposed to be taken under subsection (a) or (b) of this section. Clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, subsection (b)(3)(B) of this section, and subsections (f) and (g) of this section shall not apply to an act or action which occurred more than 5 years before the initiation of an agency action proposed to be taken under subsection (b), (f), or (g) of this section. Clause (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section shall not apply to an action which occurred before June 1, 1992. Subsection (k) of this section shall not apply to applications submitted to the Secretary before June 1, 1992.

(m) Devices; mandatory debarment regarding third-party inspections and reviews

(1) In general

If the Secretary finds that a person has been convicted of a felony under section 331(gg) of this title, the Secretary shall debar such person from being accredited under section 360m(b) or 374(g)(2) of this title and from carrying out activities under an agreement described in section 383(b) of this title.

(2) Debarment period

The Secretary shall debar a person under paragraph (1) for the following periods:

(A) The period of debarment of a person (other than an individual) shall not be less than 1 year or more than 10 years, but if an act leading to a subsequent debarment under such paragraph occurs within 10 years after such person has been debarred under such paragraph, the period of debarment shall be permanent.

(B) The debarment of an individual shall be permanent.

(3) Termination of debarment; judicial review; other matters

Subsections (c)(3), (d), (e), (i), (j), and (l)(1) of this section apply with respect to a person (other than an individual) or an individual who is debarred under paragraph (1) to the same extent and in the same manner as such subsections apply with respect to a person who is debarred under subsection (a)(1) of this section, or an individual who is debarred under subsection (a)(2) of this section, respectively.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §306, as added Pub. L. 102–282, §2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150; amended Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §125(b)(2)(C), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §304(a)–(c), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 665, 666; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, §203, Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1610.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 306 of act June 25, 1938, was renumbered section 309 and is classified to section 336 of this title.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(1), substituted “Mandatory debarment; certain drug applications” for “Mandatory debarment” in heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(2)(A), substituted “Permissive debarment; certain drug applications; food imports” for “Permissive debarment” in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(a)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(2)(B), substituted “permissive debarment; certain drug applications” for “permissive debarment” in heading.

Pub. L. 107–188, §304(a)(2)(A), inserted “subparagraph (A) or (B) of” before “paragraph (1)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(a)(2)(B), (C), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(3), substituted “paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (b)” for “subsection (b)(2)”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(4)(A), substituted “subsection (a)(1) of this section or paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b)” for “subsection (a)(1) or (b)(2)(A)”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(4)(B), inserted “in applicable cases,” before “sufficient audits”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(4)(C), inserted “or subsection (b)(3)” after “subsection (b)(2)(B)”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(4)(C), (D), inserted “or subsection (b)(3)” after “subsection (b)(2)(B)” and “or the food importation process, as the case may be” before period.

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(c), in first sentence struck out “and” after “subsection (b)(2) of this section,” and inserted “, and subsection (b)(3)(A) of this section” after “subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section” and in second sentence inserted “, subsection (b)(3)(B) of this section,” after “subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section”.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 107–250 added subsec. (m).

1997—Subsec. (d)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–115 struck out “or 357” after “355”.

Construction

Section 7 of Pub. L. 102–282 provided that: “No amendment made by this Act [enacting this section and sections 335b and 335c of this title and amending sections 321, 336, 337, and 355 of this title] shall preclude any other civil, criminal, or administrative remedy provided under Federal or State law, including any private right of action against any person for the same action subject to any action or civil penalty under an amendment made by this Act.”

Congressional Findings

Section 1(c) of Pub. L. 102–282 provided that: “The Congress finds that—

“(1) there is substantial evidence that significant corruption occurred in the Food and Drug Administration's process of approving drugs under abbreviated drug applications,

“(2) there is a need to establish procedures designed to restore and to ensure the integrity of the abbreviated drug application approval process and to protect the public health, and

“(3) there is a need to establish procedures to bar individuals who have been convicted of crimes pertaining to the regulation of drug products from working for companies that manufacture or distribute such products.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 321, 331, 335b, 381 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

§335b. Civil penalties

(a) In general

Any person that the Secretary finds—

(1) knowingly made or caused to be made, to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services, a false statement or misrepresentation of a material fact in connection with an abbreviated drug application,

(2) bribed or attempted to bribe or paid or attempted to pay an illegal gratuity to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services in connection with an abbreviated drug application,

(3) destroyed, altered, removed, or secreted, or procured the destruction, alteration, removal, or secretion of, any material document or other material evidence which was the property of or in the possession of the Department of Health and Human Services for the purpose of interfering with that Department's discharge of its responsibilities in connection with an abbreviated drug application,

(4) knowingly failed to disclose, to an officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services, a material fact which such person had an obligation to disclose relating to any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application,

(5) knowingly obstructed an investigation of the Department of Health and Human Services into any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application,

(6) is a person that has an approved or pending drug product application and has knowingly—

(A) employed or retained as a consultant or contractor, or

(B) otherwise used in any capacity the services of,


a person who was debarred under section 335a of this title, or

(7) is an individual debarred under section 335a of this title and, during the period of debarment, provided services in any capacity to a person that had an approved or pending drug product application,


shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty for each such violation in an amount not to exceed $250,000 in the case of an individual and $1,000,000 in the case of any other person.

(b) Procedure

(1) In general

(A) Action by the Secretary

A civil penalty under subsection (a) of this section shall be assessed by the Secretary on a person by an order made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact and the amount of the penalty. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subparagraph, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(B) Action by the Attorney General

In lieu of a proceeding under subparagraph (A), the Attorney General may, upon request of the Secretary, institute a civil action to recover a civil money penalty in the amount and for any of the acts set forth in subsection (a) of this section. Such an action may be instituted separately from or in connection with any other claim, civil or criminal, initiated by the Attorney General under this chapter.

(2) Amount

In determining the amount of a civil penalty under paragraph (1), the Secretary or the court shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the act subject to penalty, the person's ability to pay, the effect on the person's ability to continue to do business, any history of prior, similar acts, and such other matters as justice may require.

(3) Limitation on actions

No action may be initiated under this section—

(A) with respect to any act described in subsection (a) of this section that occurred before May 13, 1992, or

(B) more than 6 years after the date when facts material to the act are known or reasonably should have been known by the Secretary but in no event more than 10 years after the date the act took place.

(c) Judicial review

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary's decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(d) Recovery of penalties

The Attorney General may recover any civil penalty (plus interest at the currently prevailing rates from the date the penalty became final) assessed under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section in an action brought in the name of the United States. The amount of such penalty may be deducted, when the penalty has become final, from any sums then or later owing by the United States to the person against whom the penalty has been assessed. In an action brought under this subsection, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of the penalty shall not be subject to judicial review.

(e) Informants

The Secretary may award to any individual (other than an officer or employee of the Federal Government or a person who materially participated in any conduct described in subsection (a) of this section) who provides information leading to the imposition of a civil penalty under this section an amount not to exceed—

(1) $250,000, or

(2) one-half of the penalty so imposed and collected,


whichever is less. The decision of the Secretary on such award shall not be reviewable.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §307, as added Pub. L. 102–282, §3, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 159; amended Pub. L. 103–80, §3(g), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 307 of act June 25, 1938, was renumbered section 310 and is classified to section 337 of this title.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–80 made technical amendment to reference to May 13, 1992, to reflect correction of corresponding provision of original act.

Construction

This section not to preclude any other civil, criminal, or administrative remedy provided under Federal or State law, including any private right of action against any person for the same action subject to any action or civil penalty under an amendment made by Pub. L. 102–282, see section 7 of Pub. L. 102–282, set out as a note under section 335a of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 321, 335a of this title.

§335c. Authority to withdraw approval of abbreviated drug applications

(a) In general

The Secretary—

(1) shall withdraw approval of an abbreviated drug application if the Secretary finds that the approval was obtained, expedited, or otherwise facilitated through bribery, payment of an illegal gratuity, or fraud or material false statement, and

(2) may withdraw approval of an abbreviated drug application if the Secretary finds that the applicant has repeatedly demonstrated a lack of ability to produce the drug for which the application was submitted in accordance with the formulations or manufacturing practice set forth in the abbreviated drug application and has introduced, or attempted to introduce, such adulterated or misbranded drug into commerce.

(b) Procedure

The Secretary may not take any action under subsection (a) of this section with respect to any person unless the Secretary has issued an order for such action made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subsection, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(c) Applicability

Subsection (a) of this section shall apply with respect to offenses or acts regardless of when such offenses or acts occurred.

(d) Judicial review

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (a) of this section may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary's decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §308, as added Pub. L. 102–282, §4, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 160.)

Construction

This section not to preclude any other civil, criminal, or administrative remedy provided under Federal or State law, including any private right of action against any person for the same action subject to any action or civil penalty under an amendment made by Pub. L. 102–282, see section 7 of Pub. L. 102–282, set out as a note under section 335a of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 321 of this title.

§336. Report of minor violations

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the Secretary to report for prosecution, or for the institution of libel or injunction proceedings, minor violations of this chapter whenever he believes that the public interest will be adequately served by a suitable written notice or warning.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §309, formerly §306, 52 Stat. 1045; renumbered §309, Pub. L. 102–282, §2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

§337. Proceedings in name of United States; provision as to subpoenas

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, all such proceedings for the enforcement, or to restrain violations, of this chapter shall be by and in the name of the United States. Subpoenas for witnesses who are required to attend a court of the United States, in any district, may run into any other district in any proceeding under this section.

(b)(1) A State may bring in its own name and within its jurisdiction proceedings for the civil enforcement, or to restrain violations, of section 341, 343(b), 343(c), 343(d), 343(e), 343(f), 343(g), 343(h), 343(i), 343(k), 343(q), or 343(r) of this title if the food that is the subject of the proceedings is located in the State.

(2) No proceeding may be commenced by a State under paragraph (1)—

(A) before 30 days after the State has given notice to the Secretary that the State intends to bring such proceeding,

(B) before 90 days after the State has given notice to the Secretary of such intent if the Secretary has, within such 30 days, commenced an informal or formal enforcement action pertaining to the food which would be the subject of such proceeding, or

(C) if the Secretary is diligently prosecuting a proceeding in court pertaining to such food, has settled such proceeding, or has settled the informal or formal enforcement action pertaining to such food.


In any court proceeding described in subparagraph (C), a State may intervene as a matter of right.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §310, formerly §307, 52 Stat. 1046; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §37, 68 Stat. 1239; Pub. L. 101–535, §4, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; renumbered §310, Pub. L. 102–282, §2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150.)

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–535 substituted “(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, all” for “All” and “any proceeding under this section” for “any such proceeding” and added subsec. (b).

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, struck out reference to section 654 of title 28.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–535 effective 24 months after Nov. 8, 1990, except that such amendment effective Dec. 31, 1993, with respect to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances, see section 10(a)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—FOOD

§341. Definitions and standards for food

Whenever in the judgment of the Secretary such action will promote honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, he shall promulgate regulations fixing and establishing for any food, under its common or usual name so far as practicable, a reasonable definition and standard of identity, a reasonable standard of quality, or reasonable standards of fill of container. No definition and standard of identity and no standard of quality shall be established for fresh or dried fruits, fresh or dried vegetables, or butter, except that definitions and standards of identity may be established for avocadoes, cantaloupes, citrus fruits, and melons. In prescribing any standard of fill of container, the Secretary shall give due consideration to the natural shrinkage in storage and in transit of fresh natural food and to need for the necessary packing and protective material. In the prescribing of any standard of quality for any canned fruit or canned vegetable, consideration shall be given and due allowance made for the differing characteristics of the several varieties of such fruit or vegetable. In prescribing a definition and standard of identity for any food or class of food in which optional ingredients are permitted, the Secretary shall, for the purpose of promoting honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, designate the optional ingredients which shall be named on the label. Any definition and standard of identity prescribed by the Secretary for avocadoes, cantaloupes, citrus fruits, or melons shall relate only to maturity and to the effects of freezing.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §401, 52 Stat. 1046; Apr. 15, 1954, ch. 143, §1, 68 Stat. 54; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 861, §1, 70 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(h), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776.)

Amendments

1993—Pub. L. 103–80 substituted “or reasonable standards of fill of container. No definition” for “and/or reasonable standards of fill of container: Provided, That no definition”.

1956—Act Aug. 1, 1956, designated provisions constituting subsec. (a) as entire section and repealed subsec. (b) which provided the procedure for establishment of regulations and is covered by section 371(e) of this title.

1954—Act Apr. 15, 1954, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Savings Provision

Section 3 of act Aug. 1, 1956, provided that: “In any case in which, prior to the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1956], a public hearing has been begun in accordance with section 401 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [341 of this title] upon a proposal to issue, amend, or repeal any regulation contemplated by such section, or has been begun in accordance with section 701(e) of such Act [section 371(e) of this title] upon a proposal to issue, amend, or repeal any regulation contemplated by section 403(j), 404(a), 406(a) or (b), 501(b), 502(d), 502(h), 504 or 604 of such Act [section 343(j), 344(a), 346(a) or (b), 351(b), 352(d), 352(h), 354, or 364 of this title], the provisions of such section 401 or 701(e), as the case may be, as in force immediately prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1956], shall be applicable as though this Act [amending this section and section 371(e) of this title] had not been enacted.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Food Safety and Security Strategy

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §301, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 662, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The President's Council on Food Safety (as established by Executive Order No. 13100 [set out below]) shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of the Treasury, other relevant Federal agencies, the food industry, consumer and producer groups, scientific organizations, and the States, develop a crisis communications and education strategy with respect to bioterrorist threats to the food supply. Such strategy shall address threat assessments; technologies and procedures for securing food processing and manufacturing facilities and modes of transportation; response and notification procedures; and risk communications to the public.

“(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—For the purpose of implementing the strategy developed under subsection (a), there are authorized to be appropriated $750,000 for fiscal year 2002, and such sums as may be necessary for each subsequent fiscal year.”

Food Safety Commission

Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10807, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 527, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—

“(1) In general.—There is established a commission to be known as the ‘Food Safety Commission’ (referred to in this section as the ‘Commission’).

“(2) Membership.—

“(A) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 15 members (including a Chairperson, appointed by the President[)].

“(B) Eligibility.—

“(i) In general.—Members of the Commission—

     “(I) shall have specialized training or significant experience in matters under the jurisdiction of the Commission; and

     “(II) shall represent, at a minimum—

“(aa) consumers;

“(bb) food scientists;

“(cc) the food industry; and

“(dd) health professionals.

“(ii) Federal employees.—Not more than 3 members of the Commission may be Federal employees.

“(C) Date of appointments.—The appointment of the members of the Commission shall be made as soon as practicable after the date on which funds authorized to be appropriated under subsection (e)(1) are made available.

“(D) Vacancies.—A vacancy on the Commission—

“(i) shall not affect the powers of the Commission; and

“(ii) shall be filled—

     “(I) not later than 60 days after the date on which the vacancy occurs; and

     “(II) in the same manner as the original appointment was made.

“(3) Meetings.—

“(A) Initial meeting.—The initial meeting of the Commission shall be conducted not later than 30 days after the date of appointment of the final member of the Commission.

“(B) Other meetings.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairperson.

“(4) Quorum; standing rules.—

“(A) Quorum.—A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum to conduct business.

“(B) Standing rules.—At the first meeting of the Commission, the Commission shall adopt standing rules of the Commission to guide the conduct of business and decisionmaking of the Commission.

“(b) Duties.—

“(1) Recommendations.—The Commission shall make specific recommendations to enhance the food safety system of the United States, including a description of how each recommendation would improve food safety.

“(2) Components.—Recommendations made by the Commission under paragraph (1) shall address all food available commercially in the United States.

“(3) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date on which the Commission first meets, the Commission shall submit to the President and Congress—

“(A) the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the Commission, including a description of how each recommendation would improve food safety;

“(B) a summary of any other material used by the Commission in the preparation of the report under this paragraph; and

“(C) if requested by 1 or more members of the Commission, a statement of the minority views of the Commission.

“(c) Powers of the Commission.—

“(1) Hearings.—The Commission may, for the purpose of carrying out this section, hold such hearings, meet and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission considers advisable.

“(2) Information from federal agencies.—

“(A) In general.—The Commission may secure directly, from any Federal agency, such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out this section.

“(B) Provision of information.—

“(i) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (C), on the request of the Commission, the head of a Federal agency described in subparagraph (A) may furnish information requested by the Commission to the Commission.

“(ii) Administration.—The furnishing of information by a Federal agency to the Commission shall not be considered a waiver of any exemption available to the agency under section 552 of title 5, United States Code.

“(C) Information to be kept confidential.—

“(i) In general.—For purposes of section 1905 of title 18, United States Code—

     “(I) the Commission shall be considered an agency of the Federal Government; and

     “(II) any individual employed by an individual, entity, or organization that is a party to a contract with the Commission under this section shall be considered an employee of the Commission.

“(ii) Prohibition on disclosure.—Information obtained by the Commission, other than information that is available to the public, shall not be disclosed to any person in any manner except to an employee of the Commission as described in clause (i), for the purpose of receiving, reviewing, or processing the information.

“(d) Commission Personnel Matters.—

“(1) Members.—

“(A) Compensation.—A member of the Commission shall serve without compensation for the services of the member on the Commission.

“(B) Travel expenses.—A member of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for an employee of an agency under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from the home or regular place of business of the member in the performance of the duties of the Commission.

“(2) Staff.—

“(A) In general.—The Chairperson of the Commission may, without regard to the civil service laws (including regulations), appoint and terminate the appointment of an executive director and such other additional personnel as are necessary to enable the Commission to perform the duties of the Commission.

“(B) Confirmation of executive director.—The employment of an executive director shall be subject to confirmation by the Commission.

“(C) Compensation.—

“(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), the Chairperson of the Commission may fix the compensation of the executive director and other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates.

“(ii) Maximum rate of pay.—The rate of pay for the executive director and other personnel shall not exceed the rate payable for level II of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code.

“(3) Detail of federal government employees.—

“(A) In general.—An employee of the Federal Government may be detailed to the Commission, without reimbursement, for such period of time as is permitted by law.

“(B) Civil service status.—The detail of the employee shall be without interruption or loss of civil service status or privilege.

“(4) Procurement of temporary and intermittent services.—The Chairperson of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services in accordance with section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals that do not exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level II of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of that title.

“(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—

“(1) In general.—There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

“(2) Limitation.—No payment may be made under subsection (d) except to the extent provided for in advance in an appropriations Act.

“(f) Termination.—The Commission shall terminate on the date that is 60 days after the date on which the Commission submits the recommendations and report under subsection (b)(3).”

Ex. Ord. No. 13100. President's Council on Food Safety

Ex. Ord. No. 13100, Aug. 25, 1998, 63 F.R. 45661, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §16, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10623, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to improve the safety of the food supply through science-based regulation and well-coordinated inspection, enforcement, research, and education programs, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of President's Council on Food Safety. (a) There is established the President's Council on Food Safety (“Council”). The Council shall comprise the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Health and Human Services, and Homeland Security, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology/Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and the Director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. The Council shall consult with other Federal agencies and State, local, and tribal government agencies, and consumer, producer, scientific, and industry groups, as appropriate.

(b) The Secretaries of Agriculture and of Health and Human Services and the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology/Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall serve as Joint Chairs of the Council.

Sec. 2. Purpose. The purpose of the Council shall be to develop a comprehensive strategic plan for Federal food safety activities, taking into consideration the findings and recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences report “Ensuring Safe Food from Production to Consumption” and other input from the public on how to improve the effectiveness of the current food safety system. The Council shall make recommendations to the President on how to advance Federal efforts to implement a comprehensive science-based strategy to improve the safety of the food supply and to enhance coordination among Federal agencies, State, local, and tribal governments, and the private sector. The Council shall advise Federal agencies in setting priority areas for investment in food safety.

Sec. 3. Specific Activities and Functions. (a) The Council shall develop a comprehensive strategic Federal food safety plan that contains specific recommendations on needed changes, including measurable outcome goals. The principal goal of the plan should be the establishment of a seamless, science-based food safety system. The plan should address the steps necessary to achieve this goal, including the key public health, resource, and management issues regarding food safety. The planning process should consider both short-term and long-term issues including new and emerging threats and the special needs of vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly. In developing this plan, the Council shall consult with all interested parties, including State and local agencies, tribes, consumers, producers, industry, and academia.

(b) Consistent with the comprehensive strategic Federal food safety plan described in section 3(a) of this order, the Council shall advise agencies of priority areas for investment in food safety and ensure that Federal agencies annually develop coordinated food safety budgets for submission to the OMB that sustain and strengthen existing capacities, eliminate duplication, and ensure the most effective use of resources for improving food safety. The Council shall also ensure that Federal agencies annually develop a unified budget for submission to the OMB for the President's Food Safety Initiative and such other food safety issues as the Council determines appropriate.

(c) The Council shall ensure that the Joint Institute for Food Safety Research (JIFSR), in consultation with the National Science and Technology Council, establishes mechanisms to guide Federal research efforts toward the highest priority food safety needs. The JIFSR shall report to the Council on a regular basis on its efforts: (i) to develop a strategic plan for conducting food safety research activities consistent with the President's Food Safety Initiative and such other food safety activities as the JIFSR determines appropriate; and (ii) to coordinate efficiently, within the executive branch and with the private sector and academia, all Federal food safety research.

Sec. 4. Cooperation. All actions taken by the Council shall, as appropriate, promote partnerships and cooperation with States, tribes, and other public and private sector efforts wherever possible to improve the safety of the food supply.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, nor does it, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers or any person. Nothing in this order shall affect or alter the statutory responsibilities of any Federal agency charged with food safety responsibilities.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 337, 343, 343–1, 350, 371 of this title.

§342. Adulterated food

A food shall be deemed to be adulterated—

(a) Poisonous, insanitary, etc., ingredients

(1) If it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to health; but in case the substance is not an added substance such food shall not be considered adulterated under this clause if the quantity of such substance in such food does not ordinarily render it injurious to health.1 (2)(A) if it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than a substance that is a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity or processed food, a food additive, a color additive, or a new animal drug) that is unsafe within the meaning of section 346 of this title; or (B) if it bears or contains a pesticide chemical residue that is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a(a) of this title; or (C) if it is or if it bears or contains (i) any food additive that is unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title; or (ii) a new animal drug (or conversion product thereof) that is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title; or (3) if it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or if it is otherwise unfit for food; or (4) if it has been prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; or (5) if it is, in whole or in part, the product of a diseased animal or of an animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter; or (6) if its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (7) if it has been intentionally subjected to radiation, unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation or exemption in effect pursuant to section 348 of this title.

(b) Absence, substitution, or addition of constituents

(1) If any valuable constituent has been in whole or in part omitted or abstracted therefrom; or (2) if any substance has been substituted wholly or in part therefor; or (3) if damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or (4) if any substance has been added thereto or mixed or packed therewith so as to increase its bulk or weight, or reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear better or of greater value than it is.

(c) Color additives

If it is, or it bears or contains, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 379e(a) of this title.

(d) Confectionery containing alcohol or nonnutritive substance

If it is confectionery, and—

(1) has partially or completely imbedded therein any nonnutritive object, except that this subparagraph shall not apply in the case of any nonnutritive object if, in the judgment of the Secretary as provided by regulations, such object is of practical functional value to the confectionery product and would not render the product injurious or hazardous to health;

(2) bears or contains any alcohol other than alcohol not in excess of one-half of 1 per centum by volume derived solely from the use of flavoring extracts, except that this clause shall not apply to confectionery which is introduced or delivered for introduction into, or received or held for sale in, interstate commerce if the sale of such confectionery is permitted under the laws of the State in which such confectionery is intended to be offered for sale;

(3) bears or contains any nonnutritive substance, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to a safe nonnutritive substance which is in or on confectionery by reason of its use for some practical functional purpose in the manufacture, packaging, or storage of such confectionery if the use of the substance does not promote deception of the consumer or otherwise result in adulteration or misbranding in violation of any provision of this chapter, except that the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this subparagraph, issue regulations allowing or prohibiting the use of particular nonnutritive substances.

(e) Oleomargarine containing filthy, putrid, etc., matter

If it is oleomargarine or margarine or butter and any of the raw material used therein consisted in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or such oleomargarine or margarine or butter is otherwise unfit for food.

(f) Dietary supplement or ingredient: safety

(1) If it is a dietary supplement or contains a dietary ingredient that—

(A) presents a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury under—

(i) conditions of use recommended or suggested in labeling, or

(ii) if no conditions of use are suggested or recommended in the labeling, under ordinary conditions of use;


(B) is a new dietary ingredient for which there is inadequate information to provide reasonable assurance that such ingredient does not present a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury;

(C) the Secretary declares to pose an imminent hazard to public health or safety, except that the authority to make such declaration shall not be delegated and the Secretary shall promptly after such a declaration initiate a proceeding in accordance with sections 554 and 556 of title 5 to affirm or withdraw the declaration; or

(D) is or contains a dietary ingredient that renders it adulterated under paragraph (a)(1) under the conditions of use recommended or suggested in the labeling of such dietary supplement.


In any proceeding under this subparagraph, the United States shall bear the burden of proof on each element to show that a dietary supplement is adulterated. The court shall decide any issue under this paragraph on a de novo basis.

(2) Before the Secretary may report to a United States attorney a violation of paragraph 2 (1)(A) for a civil proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding would be initiated shall be given appropriate notice and the opportunity to present views, orally and in writing, at least 10 days before such notice, with regard to such proceeding.

(g) Dietary supplement: manufacturing practices

(1) If it is a dietary supplement and it has been prepared, packed, or held under conditions that do not meet current good manufacturing practice regulations, including regulations requiring, when necessary, expiration date labeling, issued by the Secretary under subparagraph (2).

(2) The Secretary may by regulation prescribe good manufacturing practices for dietary supplements. Such regulations shall be modeled after current good manufacturing practice regulations for food and may not impose standards for which there is no current and generally available analytical methodology. No standard of current good manufacturing practice may be imposed unless such standard is included in a regulation promulgated after notice and opportunity for comment in accordance with chapter 5 of title 5.

(h) Reoffer of food previously denied admission

If it is an article of food imported or offered for import into the United States and the article of food has previously been refused admission under section 381(a) of this title, unless the person reoffering the article affirmatively establishes, at the expense of the owner or consignee of the article, that the article complies with the applicable requirements of this chapter, as determined by the Secretary.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §402, 52 Stat. 1046; Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(d), 64 Stat. 21; July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §2, 68 Stat. 511; July 9, 1956, ch. 530, 70 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 85–929, §3(a), (b), Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784; Pub. L. 86–2, Mar. 17, 1959, 73 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §§102(a)(1), (2), 105(c), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 397, 398, 404; Pub. L. 89–477, June 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 231; Pub. L. 90–399, §104, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 99–252, §10, Feb. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 35; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 103–417, §§4, 9, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4328, 4332; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §404, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §309, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 673.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–188 added subsec. (h).

1996—Par. (a). Pub. L. 104–170 added subpar. (2) and struck out former subpar. (2) which read as follows: “(2)(A) if it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; (ii) a food additive; (iii) a color additive; or (iv) a new animal drug) which is unsafe within the meaning of section 346 of this title, or (B) if it is a raw agricultural commodity and it bears or contains a pesticide chemical which is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a(a) of this title, or (C) if it is, or if it bears or contains, any food additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title: Provided, That where a pesticide chemical has been used in or on a raw agricultural commodity in conformity with an exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 346a of this title and such raw agricultural commodity has been subjected to processing such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydrating, or milling, the residue of such pesticide chemical remaining in or on such processed food shall, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 346 and 348 of this title, not be deemed unsafe if such residue in or on the raw agricultural commodity has been removed to the extent possible in good manufacturing practice and the concentration of such residue in the processed food when ready to eat is not greater than the tolerance prescribed for the raw agricultural commodity, or (D) if it is, or it bears or contains, a new animal drug (or conversion product thereof) which is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title;”. That part of Pub. L. 104–170 which directed the substitution of “or (3) if it consists” for “(3) if it consists” was executed by making the substitution for “(3) If it consists” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Par. (f). Pub. L. 103–417, §4, added par. (f).

Par. (g). Pub. L. 103–417, §9, added par. (g).

1993—Par. (a). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(1), substituted a period for “; or” at end of subpar. (1) and “If it” for “if it” at beginning of par. (3). That part of Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(1), which directed the substitution of a period for “; or” at end of subpar. (2) could not be executed because “; or” did not appear.

Par. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(2), substituted “, except that this subparagraph” for “: Provided, That this clause”.

Par. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(3), substituted “, except that this subparagraph shall not apply” for “: Provided, That this clause shall not apply” and “, except that the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this subparagraph” for “: And provided further, That the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this clause”.

1992—Par. (c). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted “379e(a)” for “376(a)”.

1986—Par. (d)(2). Pub. L. 99–252 inserted provision that this clause not apply to confectionery introduced or delivered for introduction into or received or held for sale in, interstate commerce if the sale is permitted under the laws of the State in which the confectionery is intended to be offered for sale.

1968—Par. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–399 added cls. (A)(iv) and (D).

1966—Par. (d). Pub. L. 89–477 permitted the imbedding of nonnutritive objects in confectionery foods if in the judgment of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, as provided by regulation, the imbedding of the object is of practical functional value to the confectionery product and would not render it injurious or hazardous to health, raised to one-half of 1 per centum by volume the upper limit for the allowable use of alcohol derived solely from the use of flavoring extracts, allowed the use of safe nonnutritive substances in and on confectionery foods by reason of their use for some practical and functional purpose in the manufacture, packaging, or storage of the confectionery foods if the use of the substances does not promote deception of the consumer or otherwise result in adulteration or misbranding, authorized the Secretary to issue regulations on the use of particular nonnutritive substances, and removed reference to nonnutritive masticatory substances added to chewing gum and harmless flavoring, harmless resinous glaze not in excess of four-tenths of 1 per centum, natural gum, authorized coloring, and pectin.

1960—Par. (a). Pub. L. 86–618, §102(a)(1), substituted “other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; (ii) a food additive; or (iii) a color additive” for “(except a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity and except a food additive)” in cl. (2)(A).

Par. (c). Pub. L. 86–618, §102(a)(2), amended par. (c) generally, substituting provisions deeming a food adulterated if it is, or it bears or contains, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 376 of this title for provisions which related to food that bears or contains a coal-tar color other than one from a batch that has been certified in accordance with regulations as provided by section 346 of this title, and struck out provisos which related to the use of color on oranges.

Par. (d). Pub. L. 86–618, §105(c), substituted “authorized coloring” for “harmless coloring”.

1959—Par. (c). Pub. L. 86–2 extended from Mar. 1, 1959, to May 1, 1959, the period during which subsection is inapplicable to oranges which have been colored with F.D. & C. Red 32, and inserted proviso requiring Secretary to establish regulations prescribing the conditions under which Citrus Red No. 2 may be safely used in coloring certain mature oranges, and providing for separately listing and for certification of batches of such color.

1958—Par. (a). Pub. L. 85–929, among other changes, inserted cl. (2)(C) relating to food additive unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title, and to pesticide chemical, and added cl. (7) relating to radiated food.

1956—Par. (c). Act July 9, 1956, inserted second proviso relating to coloring of oranges.

1954—Par. (a)(2). Act July 22, 1954, provided in the case of any raw agricultural commodity bearing or containing a pesticide chemical, that such commodity shall be deemed to be adulterated if such pesticide chemical is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a of this title.

1950—Par. (e). Act Mar. 16, 1950, added par. (e).

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–399 effective on first day of thirteenth calendar month after July 13, 1968, see section 108(a) of Pub. L. 90–399, set out as an Effective Date and Transitional Provisions note under section 360b of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of Nematocide, Plant Regulator, Defoliant, and Desiccant Amendment of 1959

Effective date of par. (a)(2) as in force prior to July 22, 1954, with respect to particular commercial use of a nematocide, plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant in or on a raw agricultural commodity made before Jan. 1, 1958, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–139, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 288.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Section 6 of Pub. L. 85–929, as amended by Pub. L. 87–19, §2, Apr. 7, 1961, 75 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 88–625, §2, Oct. 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 1002, provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, this Act [amending this section, sections 321, 331, 346, and 348 of this title, and section 210 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 451 of this title] shall take effect on the date of its enactment [Sept. 6, 1958].

“(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, section 3 of this Act [amending this section and section 346 of this title] shall take effect on the one hundred and eightieth day after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 6, 1958].

“(c) With respect to any particular commercial use of a food additive, if such use was made of such additive before January 1, 1958, section 3 of this Act [amending this section and section 346 of this title] shall take effect—

“(1) Either (A) one year after the effective date established in subsection (b) of this section, or (B) at the end of such additional period (but not later than two years from such effective date established in subsection (b)) as the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] may prescribe on the basis of a finding that such extension involves no undue risk to the public health and that conditions exist which necessitate the prescribing of such an additional period, or

“(2) on the date on which an order with respect to such use under section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 348 of this title] becomes effective,

whichever date first occurs. Whenever the Secretary has, pursuant to clause (1)(B) of this subsection, extended the effective date of section 3 of this Act [amending this section] to March 5, 1961, or has on that date a request for such extension pending before him, with respect to any such particular use of a food additive, he may, notwithstanding the parenthetical time limitation in that clause, further extend such effective date, not beyond June 30, 1964, under the authority of that clause (but subject to clause (2)) with respect to such use of the additive (or a more limited specified use or uses thereof) if, in addition to making the findings required by clause (1)(B), he finds (i) that bona fide action to determine the applicability of such section 409 [section 348 of this title] to such use or uses, or to develop the scientific data necessary for action under such section, was commenced by an interested person before March 6, 1960, and was thereafter pursued with reasonable diligence, and (ii) that in the Secretary's judgment such extension is consistent with the objective of carrying to completion in good faith, as soon as reasonably practicable, the scientific investigations necessary as a basis for action under such section 409 [section 348 of this title]: Provided, That if the Secretary has, pursuant to this sentence, granted an extension to June 30, 1964, he may, upon making the findings required by clause (1)(B) of this subsection and clauses (i) and (ii) of this sentence, further extend such effective date, but not beyond December 31, 1965. The Secretary may at any time terminate an extension so granted if he finds that it should not have been granted, or that by reason of a change in circumstances the basis for such extension no longer exists, or that there has been a failure to comply with a requirement for submission of progress reports or with other conditions attached to such extension.”

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Section 5 of act July 22, 1954, provided that: “This Act [amending this section and section 321 of this title and enacting sections 346a and 346b of this title] shall take effect upon the date of its enactment [July 22, 1954], except that with respect to pesticide chemicals for which tolerances or exemptions have not been established under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 346a of this title], the amendment to section 402(a) of such Act [par. (a) of this section] made by section 2 of this Act shall not be effective—

“(1) for the period of one year following the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1954]; or

“(2) for such additional period following such period of one year, but not extending beyond two years after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1954] as the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] may prescribe on the basis of a finding that conditions exist which necessitate the prescribing of such additional period.”

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Amendment by act Mar. 16, 1950, effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, set out as an Effective Date note under section 347 of this title.

Effective Date; Postponement

Par. (c) effective Jan. 1, 1940, see act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, 53 Stat. 853, set out as an Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases note under section 301 of this title.

Short Title

Pub. L. 88–625, §1, Oct. 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 1002, provided: “That this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under this section and section 135 of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the ‘Food Additives Transitional Provisions Amendment of 1964’.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Domestic Fish or Fish Product Compliance With Food Safety Standards or Procedures Deemed To Have Met Requirements for Federal Commodity Purchase Programs

Pub. L. 104–180, title VII, §733, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1601, provided that: “Hereafter, notwithstanding any other provision of law, any domestic fish or fish product produced in compliance with food safety standards or procedures accepted by the Food and Drug Administration as satisfying the requirements of the ‘Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Fish and Fish Products’ (published by the Food and Drug Administration as a final regulation in the Federal Register of December 18, 1995), shall be deemed to have met any inspection requirements of the Department of Agriculture or other Federal agency for any Federal commodity purchase program, including the program authorized under section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 612c) except that the Department of Agriculture or other Federal agency may utilize lot inspection to establish a reasonable degree of certainty that fish or fish products purchased under a Federal commodity purchase program, including the program authorized under section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 612c), meet Federal product specifications.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 321, 333, 334, 346, 346a, 346b, 347b, 348, 350a, 350b, 360b, 379e of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should be “; or”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph”.

§343. Misbranded food

A food shall be deemed to be misbranded—

(a) False or misleading label

If (1) its labeling is false or misleading in any particular, or (2) in the case of a food to which section 350 of this title applies, its advertising is false or misleading in a material respect or its labeling is in violation of section 350(b)(2) of this title.

(b) Offer for sale under another name

If it is offered for sale under the name of another food.

(c) Imitation of another food

If it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, in type of uniform size and prominence, the word “imitation” and, immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated.

(d) Misleading container

If its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading.

(e) Package form

If in package form unless it bears a label containing (1) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and (2) an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count, except that under clause (2) of this paragraph reasonable variations shall be permitted, and exemptions as to small packages shall be established, by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(f) Prominence of information on label

If any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or labeling is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness (as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, in the labeling) and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.

(g) Representation as to definition and standard of identity

If it purports to be or is represented as a food for which a definition and standard of identity has been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, unless (1) it conforms to such definition and standard, and (2) its label bears the name of the food specified in the definition and standard, and, insofar as may be required by such regulations, the common names of optional ingredients (other than spices, flavoring, and coloring) present in such food.

(h) Representation as to standards of quality and fill of container

If it purports to be or is represented as—

(1) a food for which a standard of quality has been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, and its quality falls below such standard, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard;

(2) a food for which a standard or standards of fill of container have been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, and it falls below the standard of fill of container applicable thereto, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard; or

(3) a food that is pasteurized unless—

(A) such food has been subjected to a safe process or treatment that is prescribed as pasteurization for such food in a regulation promulgated under this chapter; or

(B)(i) such food has been subjected to a safe process or treatment that—

(I) is reasonably certain to achieve destruction or elimination in the food of the most resistant microorganisms of public health significance that are likely to occur in the food;

(II) is at least as protective of the public health as a process or treatment described in subparagraph (A);

(III) is effective for a period that is at least as long as the shelf life of the food when stored under normal and moderate abuse conditions; and

(IV) is the subject of a notification to the Secretary, including effectiveness data regarding the process or treatment; and


(ii) at least 120 days have passed after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary without the Secretary making a determination that the process or treatment involved has not been shown to meet the requirements of subclauses (I) through (III) of clause (i).


For purposes of paragraph (3), a determination by the Secretary that a process or treatment has not been shown to meet the requirements of subclauses (I) through (III) of subparagraph (B)(i) shall constitute final agency action under such subclauses.

(i) Label where no representation as to definition and standard of identity

Unless its label bears (1) the common or usual name of the food, if any there be, and (2) in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the common or usual name of each such ingredient and if the food purports to be a beverage containing vegetable or fruit juice, a statement with appropriate prominence on the information panel of the total percentage of such fruit or vegetable juice contained in the food; except that spices, flavorings, and colors not required to be certified under section 379e(c) of this title 1 unless sold as spices, flavorings, or such colors, may be designated as spices, flavorings, and colorings without naming each. To the extent that compliance with the requirements of clause (2) of this paragraph is impracticable, or results in deception or unfair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(j) Representation for special dietary use

If it purports to be or is represented for special dietary uses, unless its label bears such information concerning its vitamin, mineral, and other dietary properties as the Secretary determines to be, and by regulations prescribes as, necessary in order fully to inform purchasers as to its value for such uses.

(k) Artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservatives

If it bears or contains any artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservative, unless it bears labeling stating that fact, except that to the extent that compliance with the requirements of this paragraph is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary. The provisions of this paragraph and paragraphs (g) and (i) with respect to artificial coloring shall not apply in the case of butter, cheese, or ice cream. The provisions of this paragraph with respect to chemical preservatives shall not apply to a pesticide chemical when used in or on a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil.

(l) Pesticide chemicals on raw agricultural commodities

If it is a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil, bearing or containing a pesticide chemical applied after harvest, unless the shipping container of such commodity bears labeling which declares the presence of such chemical in or on such commodity and the common or usual name and the function of such chemical, except that no such declaration shall be required while such commodity, having been removed from the shipping container, is being held or displayed for sale at retail out of such container in accordance with the custom of the trade.

(m) Color additives

If it is a color additive, unless its packaging and labeling are in conformity with such packaging and labeling requirements, applicable to such color additive, as may be contained in regulations issued under section 379e of this title.

(n) Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations

If its packaging or labeling is in violation of an applicable regulation issued pursuant to section 1472 or 1473 of title 15.

(o) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–73

(p) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–124, §1, Apr. 1, 1996, 110 Stat. 882

(q) Nutrition information

(1) Except as provided in subparagraphs (3), (4), and (5), if it is a food intended for human consumption and is offered for sale, unless its label or labeling bears nutrition information that provides—

(A)(i) the serving size which is an amount customarily consumed and which is expressed in a common household measure that is appropriate to the food, or

(ii) if the use of the food is not typically expressed in a serving size, the common household unit of measure that expresses the serving size of the food,

(B) the number of servings or other units of measure per container,

(C) the total number of calories—

(i) derived from any source, and

(ii) derived from the total fat,


in each serving size or other unit of measure of the food,

(D) the amount of the following nutrients: Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fiber, and total protein contained in each serving size or other unit of measure,

(E) any vitamin, mineral, or other nutrient required to be placed on the label and labeling of food under this chapter before October 1, 1990, if the Secretary determines that such information will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.


The Secretary may by regulation require any information required to be placed on the label or labeling by this subparagraph or subparagraph (2)(A) to be highlighted on the label or labeling by larger type, bold type, or contrasting color if the Secretary determines that such highlighting will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.

(2)(A) If the Secretary determines that a nutrient other than a nutrient required by subparagraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(E) should be included in the label or labeling of food subject to subparagraph (1) for purposes of providing information regarding the nutritional value of such food that will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may by regulation require that information relating to such additional nutrient be included in the label or labeling of such food.

(B) If the Secretary determines that the information relating to a nutrient required by subparagraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(E) or clause (A) of this subparagraph to be included in the label or labeling of food is not necessary to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may by regulation remove information relating to such nutrient from such requirement.

(3) For food that is received in bulk containers at a retail establishment, the Secretary may, by regulation, provide that the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) be displayed at the location in the retail establishment at which the food is offered for sale.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall provide for furnishing the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) with respect to raw agricultural commodities and raw fish by issuing voluntary nutrition guidelines, as provided by clause (B) or by issuing regulations that are mandatory as provided by clause (D).

(B)(i) Upon the expiration of 12 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary, after providing an opportunity for comment, shall issue guidelines for food retailers offering raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to provide nutrition information specified in subparagraphs (1) and (2). Such guidelines shall take into account the actions taken by food retailers during such 12-month period to provide to consumers nutrition information on raw agricultural commodities and raw fish. Such guidelines shall only apply—

(I) in the case of raw agricultural commodities, to the 20 varieties of vegetables most frequently consumed during a year and the 20 varieties of fruit most frequently consumed during a year, and

(II) to the 20 varieties of raw fish most frequently consumed during a year.


The vegetables, fruits, and raw fish to which such guidelines apply shall be determined by the Secretary by regulation and the Secretary may apply such guidelines regionally.

(ii) Upon the expiration of 12 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary shall issue a final regulation defining the circumstances that constitute substantial compliance by food retailers with the guidelines issued under subclause (i). The regulation shall provide that there is not substantial compliance if a significant number of retailers have failed to comply with the guidelines. The size of the retailers and the portion of the market served by retailers in compliance with the guidelines shall be considered in determining whether the substantial-compliance standard has been met.

(C)(i) Upon the expiration of 30 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary shall issue a report on actions taken by food retailers to provide consumers with nutrition information for raw agricultural commodities and raw fish under the guidelines issued under clause (A). Such report shall include a determination of whether there is substantial compliance with the guidelines.

(ii) If the Secretary finds that there is substantial compliance with the guidelines, the Secretary shall issue a report and make a determination of the type required in subclause (i) every two years.

(D)(i) If the Secretary determines that there is not substantial compliance with the guidelines issued under clause (A), the Secretary shall at the time such determination is made issue proposed regulations requiring that any person who offers raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to consumers provide, in a manner prescribed by regulations, the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2). The Secretary shall issue final regulations imposing such requirements 6 months after issuing the proposed regulations. The final regulations shall become effective 6 months after the date of their promulgation.

(ii) Regulations issued under subclause (i) may require that the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) be provided for more than 20 varieties of vegetables, 20 varieties of fruit, and 20 varieties of fish most frequently consumed during a year if the Secretary finds that a larger number of such products are frequently consumed. Such regulations shall permit such information to be provided in a single location in each area in which raw agricultural commodities and raw fish are offered for sale. Such regulations may provide that information shall be expressed as an average or range per serving of the same type of raw agricultural commodity or raw fish. The Secretary shall develop and make available to the persons who offer such food to consumers the information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2).

(iii) Regulations issued under subclause (i) shall permit the required information to be provided in each area of an establishment in which raw agricultural commodities and raw fish are offered for sale. The regulations shall permit food retailers to display the required information by supplying copies of the information provided by the Secretary, by making the information available in brochure, notebook or leaflet form, or by posting a sign disclosing the information. Such regulations shall also permit presentation of the required information to be supplemented by a video, live demonstration, or other media which the Secretary approves.

(E) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “fish” includes freshwater or marine fin fish, crustaceans, and mollusks, including shellfish, amphibians, and other forms of aquatic animal life.

(F) No person who offers raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to consumers may be prosecuted for minor violations of this subparagraph if there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of this paragraph.

(5)(A) Subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply to food—

(i) which is served in restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption or which is sold for sale or use in such establishments,

(ii) which is processed and prepared primarily in a retail establishment, which is ready for human consumption, which is of the type described in subclause (i), and which is offered for sale to consumers but not for immediate human consumption in such establishment and which is not offered for sale outside such establishment,

(iii) which is an infant formula subject to section 350a of this title,

(iv) which is a medical food as defined in section 360ee(b) of this title, or

(v) which is described in section 345(2) of this title.


(B) Subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to the label of a food if the Secretary determines by regulations that compliance with such subparagraphs is impracticable because the package of such food is too small to comply with the requirements of such subparagraphs and if the label of such food does not contain any nutrition information.

(C) If a food contains insignificant amounts, as determined by the Secretary, of all the nutrients required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) to be listed in the label or labeling of food, the requirements of such subparagraphs shall not apply to such food if the label, labeling, or advertising of such food does not make any claim with respect to the nutritional value of such food. If a food contains insignificant amounts, as determined by the Secretary, of more than one-half the nutrients required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) to be in the label or labeling of the food, the Secretary shall require the amounts of such nutrients to be stated in a simplified form prescribed by the Secretary.

(D) If a person offers food for sale and has annual gross sales made or business done in sales to consumers which is not more than $500,000 or has annual gross sales made or business done in sales of food to consumers which is not more than $50,000, the requirements of subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply with respect to food sold by such person to consumers unless the label or labeling of food offered by such person provides nutrition information or makes a nutrition claim.

(E)(i) During the 12-month period for which an exemption from subparagraphs (1) and (2) is claimed pursuant to this subclause, the requirements of such subparagraphs shall not apply to any food product if—

(I) the labeling for such product does not provide nutrition information or make a claim subject to paragraph (r),

(II) the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 100 full-time equivalent employees,

(III) such person provided the notice described in subclause (iii), and

(IV) in the case of a food product which was sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which an exemption was claimed, fewer than 100,000 units of such product were sold in the United States during such preceding period, or in the case of a food product which was not sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which such exemption is claimed, fewer than 100,000 units of such product are reasonably anticipated to be sold in the United States during the period for which such exemption is claimed.


(ii) During the 12-month period after the applicable date referred to in this sentence, the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any food product which was first introduced into interstate commerce before May 8, 1994, if the labeling for such product does not provide nutrition information or make a claim subject to paragraph (r), if such person provided the notice described in subclause (iii), and if—

(I) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1994, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 300 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 600,000 units of such product were sold in the United States,

(II) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1995, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 300 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 400,000 units of such product were sold in the United States, or

(III) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1996, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 200 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 200,000 units of such product were sold in the United States.


(iii) The notice referred to in subclauses (i) and (ii) shall be given to the Secretary prior to the beginning of the period during which the exemption under subclause (i) or (ii) is to be in effect, shall state that the person claiming such exemption for a food product has complied with the applicable requirements of subclause (i) or (ii), and shall—

(I) state the average number of full-time equivalent employees such person employed during the 12 months preceding the date such person claims such exemption,

(II) state the approximate number of units the person claiming the exemption sold in the United States,

(III) if the exemption is claimed for a food product which was sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which the exemption was claimed, state the approximate number of units of such product which were sold in the United States during such preceding period, and, if the exemption is claimed for a food product which was not sold in such preceding period, state the number of units of such product which such person reasonably anticipates will be sold in the United States during the period for which the exemption was claimed, and

(IV) contain such information as the Secretary may require to verify the information required by the preceding provisions of this subclause if the Secretary has questioned the validity of such information.


If a person is not an importer, has fewer than 10 full-time equivalent employees, and sells fewer than 10,000 units of any food product in any year, such person is not required to file a notice for such product under this subclause for such year.

(iv) In the case of a person who claimed an exemption under subclause (i) or (ii), if, during the period of such exemption, the number of full-time equivalent employees of such person exceeds the number in such subclause or if the number of food products sold in the United States exceeds the number in such subclause, such exemption shall extend to the expiration of 18 months after the date the number of full-time equivalent employees or food products sold exceeded the applicable number.

(v) For any food product first introduced into interstate commerce after May 8, 2002, the Secretary may by regulation lower the employee or units of food products requirement of subclause (i) if the Secretary determines that the cost of compliance with such lower requirement will not place an undue burden on persons subject to such lower requirement.

(vi) For purposes of subclauses (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v)—

(I) the term “unit” means the packaging or, if there is no packaging, the form in which a food product is offered for sale to consumers,

(II) the term “food product” means food in any sized package which is manufactured by a single manufacturer or which bears the same brand name, which bears the same statement of identity, and which has similar preparation methods, and

(III) the term “person” in the case of a corporation includes all domestic and foreign affiliates of the corporation.


(F) A dietary supplement product (including a food to which section 350 of this title applies) shall comply with the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) in a manner which is appropriate for the product and which is specified in regulations of the Secretary which shall provide that—

(i) nutrition information shall first list those dietary ingredients that are present in the product in a significant amount and for which a recommendation for daily consumption has been established by the Secretary, except that a dietary ingredient shall not be required to be listed if it is not present in a significant amount, and shall list any other dietary ingredient present and identified as having no such recommendation;

(ii) the listing of dietary ingredients shall include the quantity of each such ingredient (or of a proprietary blend of such ingredients) per serving;

(iii) the listing of dietary ingredients may include the source of a dietary ingredient; and

(iv) the nutrition information shall immediately precede the ingredient information required under subclause (i), except that no ingredient identified pursuant to subclause (i) shall be required to be identified a second time.


(G) Subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply to food which is sold by a food distributor if the food distributor principally sells food to restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption and does not manufacture, process, or repackage the food it sells.

(r) Nutrition levels and health-related claims

(1) Except as provided in clauses (A) through (C) of subparagraph (5), if it is a food intended for human consumption which is offered for sale and for which a claim is made in the label or labeling of the food which expressly or by implication—

(A) characterizes the level of any nutrient which is of the type required by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) to be in the label or labeling of the food unless the claim is made in accordance with subparagraph (2), or

(B) characterizes the relationship of any nutrient which is of the type required by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) to be in the label or labeling of the food to a disease or a health-related condition unless the claim is made in accordance with subparagraph (3) or (5)(D).


A statement of the type required by paragraph (q) that appears as part of the nutrition information required or permitted by such paragraph is not a claim which is subject to this paragraph and a claim subject to clause (A) is not subject to clause (B).

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (4)(A)(ii) and (4)(A)(iii) and clauses (A) through (C) of subparagraph (5), a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A)—

(i) may be made only if the characterization of the level made in the claim uses terms which are defined in regulations of the Secretary,

(ii) may not state the absence of a nutrient unless—

(I) the nutrient is usually present in the food or in a food which substitutes for the food as defined by the Secretary by regulation, or

(II) the Secretary by regulation permits such a statement on the basis of a finding that such a statement would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and the statement discloses that the nutrient is not usually present in the food,


(iii) may not be made with respect to the level of cholesterol in the food if the food contains, as determined by the Secretary by regulation, fat or saturated fat in an amount which increases to persons in the general population the risk of disease or a health related condition which is diet related unless—

(I) the Secretary finds by regulation that the level of cholesterol is substantially less than the level usually present in the food or in a food which substitutes for the food and which has a significant market share, or the Secretary by regulation permits a statement regarding the absence of cholesterol on the basis of a finding that cholesterol is not usually present in the food and that such a statement would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and the regulation requires that the statement disclose that cholesterol is not usually present in the food, and

(II) the label or labeling of the food discloses the level of such fat or saturated fat in immediate proximity to such claim and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of cholesterol,


(iv) may not be made with respect to the level of saturated fat in the food if the food contains cholesterol unless the label or labeling of the food discloses the level of cholesterol in the food in immediate proximity to such claim and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of saturated fat,

(v) may not state that a food is high in dietary fiber unless the food is low in total fat as defined by the Secretary or the label or labeling discloses the level of total fat in the food in immediate proximity to such statement and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of dietary fiber, and

(vi) may not be made if the Secretary by regulation prohibits the claim because the claim is misleading in light of the level of another nutrient in the food.


(B) If a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) is made with respect to a nutrient in a food and the Secretary makes a determination that the food contains a nutrient at a level that increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition that is diet related, the label or labeling of such food shall contain, prominently and in immediate proximity to such claim, the following statement: “See nutrition information for ______ content.” The blank shall identify the nutrient associated with the increased disease or health-related condition risk. In making the determination described in this clause, the Secretary shall take into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet.

(C) Subparagraph (2)(A) does not apply to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) and contained in the label or labeling of a food if such claim is contained in the brand name of such food and such brand name was in use on such food before October 25, 1989, unless the brand name contains a term defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). Such a claim is subject to paragraph (a).

(D) Subparagraph (2) does not apply to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) which uses the term “diet” and is contained in the label or labeling of a soft drink if (i) such claim is contained in the brand name of such soft drink, (ii) such brand name was in use on such soft drink before October 25, 1989, and (iii) the use of the term “diet” was in conformity with section 105.66 of title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Such a claim is subject to paragraph (a).

(E) Subclauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (2)(A) do not apply to a statement in the label or labeling of food which describes the percentage of vitamins and minerals in the food in relation to the amount of such vitamins and minerals recommended for daily consumption by the Secretary.

(F) Subclause (i) clause (A) does not apply to a statement in the labeling of a dietary supplement that characterizes the percentage level of a dietary ingredient for which the Secretary has not established a reference daily intake, daily recommended value, or other recommendation for daily consumption.

(G) A claim of the type described in subparagraph (1)(A) for a nutrient, for which the Secretary has not promulgated a regulation under clause (A)(i), shall be authorized and may be made with respect to a food if—

(i) a scientific body of the United States Government with official responsibility for public health protection or research directly relating to human nutrition (such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) or the National Academy of Sciences or any of its subdivisions has published an authoritative statement, which is currently in effect, which identifies the nutrient level to which the claim refers;

(ii) a person has submitted to the Secretary, at least 120 days (during which the Secretary may notify any person who is making a claim as authorized by clause (C) that such person has not submitted all the information required by such clause) before the first introduction into interstate commerce of the food with a label containing the claim, (I) a notice of the claim, which shall include the exact words used in the claim and shall include a concise description of the basis upon which such person relied for determining that the requirements of subclause (i) have been satisfied, (II) a copy of the statement referred to in subclause (i) upon which such person relied in making the claim, and (III) a balanced representation of the scientific literature relating to the nutrient level to which the claim refers;

(iii) the claim and the food for which the claim is made are in compliance with clauses (A) and (B), and are otherwise in compliance with paragraph (a) and section 321(n) of this title; and

(iv) the claim is stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the authoritative statement referred to in subclause (i) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.


For purposes of this clause, a statement shall be regarded as an authoritative statement of a scientific body described in subclause (i) only if the statement is published by the scientific body and shall not include a statement of an employee of the scientific body made in the individual capacity of the employee.

(H) A claim submitted under the requirements of clause (G) may be made until—

(i) such time as the Secretary issues a regulation—

(I) prohibiting or modifying the claim and the regulation has become effective, or

(II) finding that the requirements of clause (G) have not been met, including finding that the petitioner had not submitted all the information required by such clause; or


(ii) a district court of the United States in an enforcement proceeding under subchapter III of this chapter has determined that the requirements of clause (G) have not been met.


(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (5), a claim described in subparagraph (1)(B) may only be made—

(i) if the claim meets the requirements of the regulations of the Secretary promulgated under clause (B), and

(ii) if the food for which the claim is made does not contain, as determined by the Secretary by regulation, any nutrient in an amount which increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition which is diet related, taking into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet, except that the Secretary may by regulation permit such a claim based on a finding that such a claim would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and based on a requirement that the label contain a disclosure of the type required by subparagraph (2)(B).


(B)(i) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations authorizing claims of the type described in subparagraph (1)(B) only if the Secretary determines, based on the totality of publicly available scientific evidence (including evidence from well-designed studies conducted in a manner which is consistent with generally recognized scientific procedures and principles), that there is significant scientific agreement, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate such claims, that the claim is supported by such evidence.

(ii) A regulation described in subclause (i) shall describe—

(I) the relationship between a nutrient of the type required in the label or labeling of food by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) and a disease or health-related condition, and

(II) the significance of each such nutrient in affecting such disease or health-related condition.


(iii) A regulation described in subclause (i) shall require such claim to be stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the matters set out in subclause (ii) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.

(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of clauses (A)(i) and (B), a claim of the type described in subparagraph (1)(B) which is not authorized by the Secretary in a regulation promulgated in accordance with clause (B) shall be authorized and may be made with respect to a food if—

(i) a scientific body of the United States Government with official responsibility for public health protection or research directly relating to human nutrition (such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) or the National Academy of Sciences or any of its subdivisions has published an authoritative statement, which is currently in effect, about the relationship between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition to which the claim refers;

(ii) a person has submitted to the Secretary, at least 120 days (during which the Secretary may notify any person who is making a claim as authorized by clause (C) that such person has not submitted all the information required by such clause) before the first introduction into interstate commerce of the food with a label containing the claim, (I) a notice of the claim, which shall include the exact words used in the claim and shall include a concise description of the basis upon which such person relied for determining that the requirements of subclause (i) have been satisfied, (II) a copy of the statement referred to in subclause (i) upon which such person relied in making the claim, and (III) a balanced representation of the scientific literature relating to the relationship between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition to which the claim refers;

(iii) the claim and the food for which the claim is made are in compliance with clause (A)(ii) and are otherwise in compliance with paragraph (a) and section 321(n) of this title; and

(iv) the claim is stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the authoritative statement referred to in subclause (i) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.


For purposes of this clause, a statement shall be regarded as an authoritative statement of a scientific body described in subclause (i) only if the statement is published by the scientific body and shall not include a statement of an employee of the scientific body made in the individual capacity of the employee.

(D) A claim submitted under the requirements of clause (C) may be made until—

(i) such time as the Secretary issues a regulation under the standard in clause (B)(i)—

(I) prohibiting or modifying the claim and the regulation has become effective, or

(II) finding that the requirements of clause (C) have not been met, including finding that the petitioner has not submitted all the information required by such clause; or


(ii) a district court of the United States in an enforcement proceeding under subchapter III of this chapter has determined that the requirements of clause (C) have not been met.


(4)(A)(i) Any person may petition the Secretary to issue a regulation under subparagraph (2)(A)(i) or (3)(B) relating to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) or (1)(B). Not later than 100 days after the petition is received by the Secretary, the Secretary shall issue a final decision denying the petition or file the petition for further action by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not act within such 100 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary denies the petition or the petition is deemed to be denied, the petition shall not be made available to the public. If the Secretary files the petition, the Secretary shall deny the petition or issue a proposed regulation to take the action requested in the petition not later than 90 days after the date of such decision. If the Secretary does not act within such 90 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary issues a proposed regulation, the rulemaking shall be completed within 540 days of the date the petition is received by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not issue a regulation within such 540 days, the Secretary shall provide the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate the reasons action on the regulation did not occur within such 540 days.

(ii) Any person may petition the Secretary for permission to use in a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) terms that are consistent with the terms defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). Within 90 days of the submission of such a petition, the Secretary shall issue a final decision denying the petition or granting such permission.

(iii) Any person may petition the Secretary for permission to use an implied claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) in a brand name. After publishing notice of an opportunity to comment on the petition in the Federal Register and making the petition available to the public, the Secretary shall grant the petition if the Secretary finds that such claim is not misleading and is consistent with terms defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). The Secretary shall grant or deny the petition within 100 days of the date it is submitted to the Secretary and the petition shall be considered granted if the Secretary does not act on it within such 100 days.

(B) A petition under clause (A)(i) respecting a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) shall include an explanation of the reasons why the claim meets the requirements of this paragraph and a summary of the scientific data which supports such reasons.

(C) If a petition for a regulation under subparagraph (3)(B) relies on a report from an authoritative scientific body of the United States, the Secretary shall consider such report and shall justify any decision rejecting the conclusions of such report.

(5)(A) This paragraph does not apply to infant formulas subject to section 350a(h) of this title and medical foods as defined in section 360ee(b) of this title.

(B) Subclauses (iii) through (v) of subparagraph (2)(A) and subparagraph (2)(B) do not apply to food which is served in restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption or which is sold for sale or use in such establishments.

(C) A subparagraph (1)(A) claim made with respect to a food which claim is required by a standard of identity issued under section 341 of this title shall not be subject to subparagraph (2)(A)(i) or (2)(B).

(D) A subparagraph (1)(B) claim made with respect to a dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be subject to subparagraph (3) but shall be subject to a procedure and standard, respecting the validity of such claim, established by regulation of the Secretary.

(6) For purposes of paragraph (r)(1)(B), a statement for a dietary supplement may be made if—

(A) the statement claims a benefit related to a classical nutrient deficiency disease and discloses the prevalence of such disease in the United States, describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the structure or function in humans, characterizes the documented mechanism by which a nutrient or dietary ingredient acts to maintain such structure or function, or describes general well-being from consumption of a nutrient or dietary ingredient,

(B) the manufacturer of the dietary supplement has substantiation that such statement is truthful and not misleading, and

(C) the statement contains, prominently displayed and in boldface type, the following: “This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.”.


A statement under this subparagraph may not claim to diagnose, mitigate, treat, cure, or prevent a specific disease or class of diseases. If the manufacturer of a dietary supplement proposes to make a statement described in the first sentence of this subparagraph in the labeling of the dietary supplement, the manufacturer shall notify the Secretary no later than 30 days after the first marketing of the dietary supplement with such statement that such a statement is being made.

(7) The Secretary may make proposed regulations issued under this paragraph effective upon publication pending consideration of public comment and publication of a final regulation if the Secretary determines that such action is necessary—

(A) to enable the Secretary to review and act promptly on petitions the Secretary determines provide for information necessary to—

(i) enable consumers to develop and maintain healthy dietary practices;

(ii) enable consumers to be informed promptly and effectively of important new knowledge regarding nutritional and health benefits of food; or

(iii) ensure that scientifically sound nutritional and health information is provided to consumers as soon as possible; or


(B) to enable the Secretary to act promptly to ban or modify a claim under this paragraph.


Such proposed regulations shall be deemed final agency action for purposes of judicial review.

(s) Dietary supplements

If—

(1) it is a dietary supplement; and

(2)(A) the label or labeling of the supplement fails to list—

(i) the name of each ingredient of the supplement that is described in section 321(ff) of this title; and

(ii)(I) the quantity of each such ingredient; or

(II) with respect to a proprietary blend of such ingredients, the total quantity of all ingredients in the blend;


(B) the label or labeling of the dietary supplement fails to identify the product by using the term “dietary supplement”, which term may be modified with the name of such an ingredient;

(C) the supplement contains an ingredient described in section 321(ff)(1)(C) of this title, and the label or labeling of the supplement fails to identify any part of the plant from which the ingredient is derived;

(D) the supplement—

(i) is covered by the specifications of an official compendium;

(ii) is represented as conforming to the specifications of an official compendium; and

(iii) fails to so conform; or


(E) the supplement—

(i) is not covered by the specifications of an official compendium; and

(ii)(I) fails to have the identity and strength that the supplement is represented to have; or

(II) fails to meet the quality (including tablet or capsule disintegration), purity, or compositional specifications, based on validated assay or other appropriate methods, that the supplement is represented to meet.


A dietary supplement shall not be deemed misbranded solely because its label or labeling contains directions or conditions of use or warnings.

(t) Catfish

If it purports to be or is represented as catfish, unless it is fish classified within the family Ictaluridae.

(u) Ginseng

If it purports to be or is represented as ginseng, unless it is an herb or herbal ingredient derived from a plant classified within the genus Panax.

(v) Failure to label; health threat

If—

(1) it fails to bear a label required by the Secretary under section 381(n)(1) of this title (relating to food refused admission into the United States);

(2) the Secretary finds that the food presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals; and

(3) upon or after notifying the owner or consignee involved that the label is required under section 381 of this title, the Secretary informs the owner or consignee that the food presents such a threat.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403, 52 Stat. 1047; Pub. L. 86–537, §1, June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 251; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §102(a)(3), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 398; Pub. L. 91–601, §6(c), formerly §7(c), Dec. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1673, renumbered Pub. L. 97–35, title XII, §1205(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 716; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(1), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 95–203, §4(a)(1), (b)(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1452, 1453; Pub. L. 101–535, §§2(a), 3(a), 7, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2353, 2357, 2364; Pub. L. 102–108, §2(a), (c), Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(5), (6), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §§2(b), 3(j), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 773, 776; Pub. L. 103–417, §§6, 7(a)–(c), 10(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4329, 4330, 4332; Pub. L. 104–124, §1, Apr. 1, 1996, 110 Stat. 882; Pub. L. 105–115, title III, §§301–305, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2350–2353; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–73; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §§10806(a)(2), (b)(2), 10808(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 526, 527, 530; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §308(b), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 672.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–171, §10808(b), added par. (3) and concluding provisions.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 107–171, §10806(a)(2), added subsec. (t).

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 107–171, §10806(b)(2), added subsec. (u).

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 107–188 added subsec. (v).

2000—Par. (o). Pub. L. 106–554, which directed repeal of section 403(o) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, was executed by repealing par. (o) of this section, which is section 403 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to repeal, par. (o) provided that a food containing saccharin was to be deemed misbranded unless a specified warning statement was placed in a conspicuous place on its label.

1997—Par. (r)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–115, §305, amended cl. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (B) read as follows: “If a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) is made with respect to a nutrient in a food, the label or labeling of such food shall contain, prominently and in immediate proximity to such claim, the following statement: ‘See __________ for nutrition information.’. In the statement—

“(i) the blank shall identify the panel on which the information described in the statement may be found, and

“(ii) if the Secretary determines that the food contains a nutrient at a level which increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition which is diet related, taking into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet, the statement shall also identify such nutrient.”

Par. (r)(2)(G), (H). Pub. L. 105–115, §304, added cls. (G) and (H).

Par. (r)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 105–115, §303, added cls. (C) and (D).

Par. (r)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–115, §302, inserted after second sentence “If the Secretary does not act within such 100 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner.”, inserted “or the petition is deemed to be denied” after “If the Secretary denies the petition”, and inserted at end “If the Secretary does not act within such 90 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary issues a proposed regulation, the rulemaking shall be completed within 540 days of the date the petition is received by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not issue a regulation within such 540 days, the Secretary shall provide the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate the reasons action on the regulation did not occur within such 540 days.”

Par. (r)(7). Pub. L. 105–115, §301, added subpar. (7).

1996—Par. (p). Pub. L. 104–124 struck out subsec. (p), which deemed products containing saccharin and offered for sale, but not for immediate consumption, by retail establishment, to be misbranded, unless notice of information required by subsec. (o) was provided by manufacturer and prominently displayed near product.

1994—Par. (q)(5)(F). Pub. L. 103–417, §7(b), amended cl. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (F) read as follows: “If a food to which section 350 of this title applies (as defined in section 350(c) of this title) contains one or more of the nutrients required by subparagraph (1) or (2) to be in the label or labeling of the food, the label or labeling of such food shall comply with the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) in a manner which is appropriate for such food and which is specified in regulations of the Secretary.”

Par. (r)(2)(F). Pub. L. 103–417, §7(c), added cl. (F).

Par. (r)(6). Pub. L. 103–417, §6, added subpar. (6).

Par. (s). Pub. L. 103–417, §10(c), inserted at end: “A dietary supplement shall not be deemed misbranded solely because its label or labeling contains directions or conditions of use or warnings.”

Pub. L. 103–417, §7(a), added par. (s).

1993—Par. (e). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(1), substituted “count, except that” for “count: Provided, That”.

Par. (i). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(2), substituted “unless sold as spices, flavorings, or such colors” for “, other than those sold as such” and “naming each. To the extent” for “naming each: Provided, That, to the extent”.

Par. (k). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(3), substituted “, except that” for “: Provided, That”.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(4), substituted “chemical, except that” for “chemical: Provided, however, That”.

Par. (q)(5)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 103–80, §2(b), added cl. (E) and redesignated former cls. (E) and (F) as (F) and (G), respectively.

Par. (r)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(5), substituted “(5)(D)” for “5(D)”.

Par. (r)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(6), substituted “paragraph” for “subsection”.

1992—Par. (i). Pub. L. 102–571, §107(5), substituted “379e(c)” for “376(c)”.

Par. (m). Pub. L. 102–571, §107(6), substituted “379e” for “376”.

1991—Par. (i). Pub. L. 102–108, §2(c), amended directory language of Pub. L. 101–535, §7(1), (3). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Par. (q)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102–108, §2(a), substituted “(D)” for “(C)”.

1990—Par. (i). Pub. L. 101–535, §7, as amended by Pub. L. 102–108, §2(c), substituted “Unless” for “If it is not subject to the provisions of paragraph (g) unless”, inserted “and if the food purports to be a beverage containing vegetable or fruit juice, a statement with appropriate prominence on the information panel of the total percentage of such fruit or vegetable juice contained in the food”, and substituted “colors not required to be certified under section 376(c) of this title” for “colorings” the first time appearing.

Par. (q). Pub. L. 101–535, §2(a), added par. (q).

Par. (r). Pub. L. 101–535, §3(a), added par. (r).

1977—Par. (o). Pub. L. 95–203, §4(a)(1), added par. (o).

Par. (p). Pub. L. 95–203, §4(b)(1), added par. (p).

1976—Par. (a). Pub. L. 94–278 inserted “(1)” after “If” and inserted “, or (2) in the case of a food to which section 350 of this title applies, its advertising is false or misleading in a material respect or its labeling is in violation of section 350(b)(2) of this title” after “any particular”.

1970—Par. (n). Pub. L. 91–601 added par. (n).

1960—Par. (k). Pub. L. 86–537, §1(1), exempted pesticide chemicals when used in or on a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 86–537, §1(2), added par. (l).

Par. (m). Pub. L. 86–618 added par. (m).

Change of Name

Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 7(e) of Pub. L. 103–417 provided that: “Dietary supplements—

“(1) may be labeled after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994] in accordance with the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 350 of this title], and

“(2) shall be labeled after December 31, 1996, in accordance with such amendments.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 10(a) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4501, provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2)—

“(A) the amendments made by section 2 [amending this section] shall take effect 6 months after—

“(i) the date of the promulgation of all final regulations required to implement section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)], or

“(ii) if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations [Nov. 8, 1992, see 57 F.R. 56347],

except that section 403(q)(4) of such Act shall take effect as prescribed by such section,

“(B) the amendments made by section 3 [amending this section] shall take effect 6 months after—

“(i) the date of the promulgation of final regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or

“(ii) if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations [Nov. 8, 1992, see 57 F.R. 56347], except that any person marketing a food the brand name of which contains a term defined by the Secretary under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall be given an additional 6 months to comply with section 3,

“(C) the amendments made by section 4 [amending section 337 of this title] shall take effect 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], except that such amendments shall take effect with respect to such dietary supplements [probably means dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances, see section 202(a)(1) of Pub. L. 102–571, set out below] on December 31, 1993, and

“(D) the amendments made by section 5 [amending sections 321 and 345 of this title] shall take effect on the date the amendments made by section 3 take effect.

“(2) Section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by section 2) shall not apply with respect to food which was labeled before the effective date of the amendments made by section 2 and section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by section 3) shall not apply with respect to food which was labeled before the effective date of the amendments made by section 3.

“(3)(A) If the Secretary finds that a person who is subject to section 403(q)(4) of such Act is unable to comply with the requirements of such section upon the effective date of final regulations to implement section 403(q) of such Act or of proposed regulations to be considered as such final regulations because the Secretary has not made available to such person the information required by such section, the Secretary shall delay the application of such section to such person for such time as the Secretary may require to provide such information.

“(B) If the Secretary finds that compliance with section 403(q) or 403(r)(2) of such Act would cause an undue economic hardship, the Secretary may delay the application of such sections for no more than one year.”

Section 10(c) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–108, §1, Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(17), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by section 7 [amending this section] shall take effect one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990].

“(2)(A) If a food subject to section 403(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(g)] or a food with one or more colors required to be certified under section 721(c) [of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. 379e(c)] bears a label which was printed before July 1, 1991, and which is attached to the food before May 8, 1993, such food shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(1) and section 7(3) [amending this section].

“(B) If a food described in subparagraph (A)—

“(i) bears a label which was printed after July 1, 1991, but before the date the proposed regulation described in clause (ii) takes effect as a final regulation and which was attached to the food before May 8, 1993, and

“(ii) meets the requirements of the proposed regulation of the Secretary of Health and Human Services published in 56 Fed. Reg. 28592–28636 (June 21, 1991) as it pertains to the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title],

such food shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(1) and section 7(3) [amending this section].

“(3) A food purported to be a beverage containing a vegetable or fruit juice which bears a label attached to the food before May 8, 1993, shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(2) [amending this section].”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Section 4(a)(2) of Pub. L. 95–203 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to food introduced or delivered for introduction in interstate commerce on and after the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1977].”

Section 4(b)(2) of Pub. L. 95–203 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to food which is sold in retail establishments on or after the 90th day after the effective date of the regulations of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Health and Human Services] under paragraph (p)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(p)(4)].”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–278 effective 180 days after Apr. 22, 1976, see section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–278, set out as a note under section 334 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–601 effective Dec. 30, 1970, and regulations establishing special packaging standards effective no sooner than 180 days or later than one year from date regulations are final, or an earlier date published in Federal Register, see section 8 of Pub. L. 91–601, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1471 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date; Postponement

Subsecs. (e)(1) and (g) to (k) effective Jan. 1, 1940, and such subsections effective July 1, 1940, as provided by regulations for certain lithographed labeling and containers bearing certain labeling, see act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, 53 Stat. 853, set out as an Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases note under section 301 of this title.

Construction of Amendment by Pub. L. 107–188

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 107–188 to be construed to limit authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services or Secretary of the Treasury to require marking of articles of food imported or offered for import into the United States which are refused admission, see section 308(c) of Pub. L. 107–188, set out as a note under section 381 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [enacting section 343–1 of this title and amending this section and sections 321, 337, 345, and 371 of this title] shall not be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], the Federal Meat Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], the Poultry Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.], and the Egg Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.].”

Regulations

Section 2(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, 4501, provided that:

“(1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue proposed regulations to implement section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)] within 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than June 15, 1993, proposed regulations that are applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances to implement such section. Not later than 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to implement the requirements of such section, except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than December 31, 1993, such a final regulation applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances..[sic] Such regulations shall—

“(A) require the required information to be conveyed to the public in a manner which enables the public to readily observe and comprehend such information and to understand its relative significance in the context of a total daily diet,

“(B) include regulations which establish standards, in accordance with paragraph (1)(A), to define serving size or other unit of measure for food,

“(C) permit the label or labeling of food to include nutrition information which is in addition to the information required by such section 403(q) and which is of the type described in subparagraph (1) or (2) of such section, and

“(D) permit the nutrition information on the label or labeling of a food to remain the same or permit the information to be stated as a range even though (i) there are minor variations in the nutritional value of the food which occur in the normal course of the production or processing of the food, or (ii) the food is comprised of an assortment of similar foods which have variations in nutritional value.

“(2) If the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not promulgate final regulations under paragraph (1) upon the expiration of 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 24 months, except that the proposed regulations applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be considered to be final regulations until December 31, 1993. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of new status of the proposed regulations [see 57 F.R. 56347].

“(3) If the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not promulgate final regulations under section 403(q)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act upon the expiration of 6 months after the date on which the Secretary makes a finding that there has been no substantial compliance with section 403(q)(4)(C) of such Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with such section shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 6 months. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of new status of the proposed regulations.”

[Section 202(a)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 102–571 provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (B) [amending sections 2(b) and 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out above and below] shall not be construed to modify the effective date of final regulations under sections 2(b) and 3(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535] (21 U.S.C. 343 note) with respect to foods that are not such dietary supplements.”]

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, 4501, provided that:

“(1)(A) Within 12 months of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue proposed regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(r)], except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than June 15, 1993, proposed regulations that are applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances to implement such section. Such regulations—

“(i) shall identify claims described in section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act which comply with section 403(r)(2) of such Act,

“(ii) shall identify claims described in section 403(r)(1)(B) of such Act which comply with section 403(r)(3) of such Act,

“(iii) shall, in defining terms used to characterize the level of any nutrient in food under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of such Act, define—

“(I) free,

“(II) low,

“(III) light or lite,

“(IV) reduced,

“(V) less, and

“(VI) high,

unless the Secretary finds that the use of any such term would be misleading,

“(iv) shall permit statements describing the amount and percentage of nutrients in food which are not misleading and are consistent with the terms defined in section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of such Act,

“(v) shall provide that if multiple claims subject to section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act are made on a single panel of the food label or page of a labeling brochure, a single statement may be made to satisfy section 403(r)(2)(B) of such Act,

“(vi) shall determine whether claims respecting the following nutrients and diseases meet the requirements of section 403(r)(3) of such Act: Calcium and osteoporosis, dietary fiber and cancer, lipids and cardiovascular disease, lipids and cancer, sodium and hypertension, and dietary fiber and cardiovascular disease,

“(vii) shall not require a person who proposes to make a claim described in section 403(r)(1)(B) of such Act which is in compliance with such regulations to secure the approval of the Secretary before making such claim,

“(viii) may permit a claim described in section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act to be made for butter,

“(ix) may, in defining terms under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i), include similar terms which are commonly understood to have the same meaning, and

“(x) shall establish, as required by section 403(r)(5)(D), the procedure and standard respecting the validity of claims made with respect to a dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances and shall determine whether claims respecting the following nutrients and diseases meet the requirements of section 403(r)(5)(D) of such Act: folic acid and neural tube defects, antioxident [sic] vitamins and cancer, zinc and immune function in the elderly, and omega-3 fatty acids and heart disease.

“(B) Not later than 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than December 31, 1993, such a final regulation applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances..[sic]

“(2) If the Secretary does not promulgate final regulations under paragraph (1)(B) upon the expiration of 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with paragraph (1)(A) shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 24 months, except that the proposed regulations applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be considered to be final regulations until December 31, 1993. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of the new status of the proposed regulations [see 57 F.R. 56347].”

[For construction of amendment made by section 202(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 102–571 to section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–535 set out above, see section 202(a)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 102–571 set out above following section 2(b) of Pub. L. 101–535.]

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Rulemaking on Labeling of Irradiated Food; Certain Petitions

Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10809, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 531, provided that: “The Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this section as the ‘Secretary’) shall publish a proposed rule and, with due consideration to public comment, a final rule to revise, as appropriate, the current regulation governing the labeling of foods that have been treated to reduce pest infestation or pathogens by treatment by irradiation using radioactive isotope, electronic beam, or x-ray. Pending promulgation of the final rule required by this subsection [probably should be “this section”], any person may petition the Secretary for approval of labeling, which is not false or misleading in any material respect, of a food which has been treated by irradiation using radioactive isotope, electronic beam, or x-ray. The Secretary shall approve or deny such a petition within 180 days of receipt of the petition, or the petition shall be deemed denied, except to the extent additional agency review is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. Any denial of a petition under this subsection shall constitute final agency action subject to judicial review by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Any labeling approved through the foregoing petition process shall be subject to the provisions of the final rule referred to in the first sentence of the subparagraph on the effective date of such final rule.”

Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels

Section 12 of Pub. L. 103–417 provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—There shall be established as an independent agency within the executive branch a commission to be known as the Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Commission’).

“(b) Membership.—

“(1) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 7 members who shall be appointed by the President.

“(2) Expertise requirement.—The members of the Commission shall consist of individuals with expertise and experience in dietary supplements and in the manufacture, regulation, distribution, and use of such supplements. At least three of the members of the Commission shall be qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the benefits to health of the use of dietary supplements and one of such three members shall have experience in pharmacognosy, medical botany, traditional herbal medicine, or other related sciences. Members and staff of the Commission shall be without bias on the issue of dietary supplements.

“(c) Functions of the Commission.—The Commission shall conduct a study on, and provide recommendations for, the regulation of label claims and statements for dietary supplements, including the use of literature in connection with the sale of dietary supplements and procedures for the evaluation of such claims. In making such recommendations, the Commission shall evaluate how best to provide truthful, scientifically valid, and not misleading information to consumers so that such consumers may make informed and appropriate health care choices for themselves and their families.

“(d) Administrative Powers of the Commission.—

“(1) Hearings.—The Commission may hold hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission considers advisable to carry out the purposes of this section.

“(2) Information from federal agencies.—The Commission may secure directly from any Federal department or agency such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

“(3) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

“(e) Reports and Recommendations.—

“(1) Final report required.—Not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994], the Commission shall prepare and submit to the President and to the Congress a final report on the study required by this section.

“(2) Recommendations.—The report described in paragraph (1) shall contain such recommendations, including recommendations for legislation, as the Commission deems appropriate.

“(3) Action on recommendations.—Within 90 days of the issuance of the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of any recommendation of Commission for changes in regulations of the Secretary for the regulation of dietary supplements and shall include in such notice a notice of proposed rulemaking on such changes together with an opportunity to present views on such changes. Such rulemaking shall be completed not later than 2 years after the date of the issuance of such report. If such rulemaking is not completed on or before the expiration of such 2 years, regulations of the Secretary published in 59 FR 395–426 on January 4, 1994, shall not be in effect.”

Extension of Compliance Deadline for Certain Food Products Packaged Prior to August 8, 1994

Pub. L. 103–261, May 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 705, provided: “That before August 8, 1994, sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q), (r)(2)] and the provision of section 403(i) of such Act added by section 7(2) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535], shall not apply with respect to a food product which is contained in a package for which the label was printed before May 8, 1994 (or before August 8, 1994, in the case of a juice or milk food product if the person responsible for the labeling of such food product exercised due diligence in obtaining before such date labels which are in compliance with such sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) and such provision of section 403(i)), if, before June 15, 1994, the person who introduces or delivers for introduction such food product into interstate commerce submits to the Secretary of Health and Human Services a certification that such person will comply with this section and will comply with such sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) and such provision of section 403(i) after August 8, 1994.”

Limitations on Application of Small Business Exemption

Section 2(a) of Pub. L. 103–80 provided that:

“(1) Before may 8, 1995.—Before May 8, 1995, the exemption provided by section 403(q)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(D)] shall be available in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary of Health and Human Services published at 21 C.F.R. 101.9(j)(1)(i)(1993).

“(2) After may 8, 1995.—After May 8, 1995, the exemption provided by section 403(q)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall only be available with respect to food when it is sold to consumers.”

Prohibition on Implementation of Pub. L. 101–535 With Respect to Dietary Supplements

Section 202(a)(1) of Pub. L. 102–571 provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law and except as provided in subsection (b) [set out as a note below] and in the amendment made by paragraph (2)(A) [amending provisions set out as notes above], the Secretary of Health and Human Services may not implement the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–535; 104 Stat. 2353) [see Short Title of 1990 Amendments note set out under section 301 of this title], or any amendment made by such Act, earlier than December 15, 1993, with respect to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances.”

Health Claims Made With Respect to Dietary Supplements

Section 202(b) of Pub. L. 102–571 provided that: “Notwithstanding section 403(r)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343(r)(5)(D)) and subsection (a) [enacting provisions set out as notes above and amending provisions set out as notes above and under section 343–1 of this title], the Secretary of Health and Human Services may, earlier than December 15, 1993, approve claims made with respect to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances that are claims described in clauses (vi) and (x) of section 3(b)(1)(A) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535] (21 U.S.C. 343 note).”

United States Recommended Daily Allowances of Vitamins or Minerals

Section 203 of Pub. L. 102–571 provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law, no regulations that require the use of, or are based upon, recommended daily allowances of vitamins or minerals may be promulgated before November 8, 1993 (other than regulations establishing the United States recommended daily allowances specified at section 101.9(c)(7)(iv) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on October 6, 1992, or regulations under section 403(r)(1)(A) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343(r)(1)(A)) that are based on such recommended daily allowances).”

Consumer Education

Section 2(c) of Pub. L. 101–535 provided that: “The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall carry out activities which educate consumers about—

“(1) the availability of nutrition information in the label or labeling of food, and

“(2) the importance of that information in maintaining healthy dietary practices.”

Studies Concerning Carcinogenic and Other Toxic Substances in Food and Impurities in and Toxicity of Saccharin

Section 2 of Pub. L. 95–203 directed Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to conduct a study concerning carcinogenic and other toxic substances in food and impurities in and toxicity of saccharin and make a report respecting the carcinogenic and other substances to Committee on Human Resources of the Senate within 12 months of Nov. 23, 1977, and a report respecting saccharin to such committee within 15 months of Nov. 23, 1977.

Report to Congressional Committees Respecting Action Taken Pursuant to Former Par. (o)(2)

Section 4(a)(3) of Pub. L. 95–203 provided that the Secretary was to report to specified congressional committees any action taken under former par. (o)(2) of this section.

State or Territorial Requirements

Section 2 of Pub. L. 86–537 provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall affect any requirement of the laws of any State or Territory.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 321, 333, 334, 337, 343–1, 343–3, 345, 347, 350, 371 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§343–1. National uniform nutrition labeling

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no State or political subdivision of a State may directly or indirectly establish under any authority or continue in effect as to any food in interstate commerce—

(1) any requirement for a food which is the subject of a standard of identity established under section 341 of this title that is not identical to such standard of identity or that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(g) of this title, except that this paragraph does not apply to a standard of identity of a State or political subdivision of a State for maple syrup that is of the type required by sections 341 and 343(g) of this title,

(2) any requirement for the labeling of food of the type required by section 343(c), 343(e), or 343(i)(2) of this title that is not identical to the requirement of such section, except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(c) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,

(3) any requirement for the labeling of food of the type required by section 343(b), 343(d), 343(f), 343(h), 343(i)(1), or 343(k) of this title that is not identical to the requirement of such section, except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(h)(1) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,

(4) any requirement for nutrition labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(q) of this title, except a requirement for nutrition labeling of food which is exempt under subclause (i) or (ii) of section 343(q)(5)(A) of this title, or

(5) any requirement respecting any claim of the type described in section 343(r)(1) of this title made in the label or labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(r) of this title, except a requirement respecting a claim made in the label or labeling of food which is exempt under section 343(r)(5)(B) of this title.


Paragraph (3) shall take effect in accordance with section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990.

(b) Upon petition of a State or a political subdivision of a State, the Secretary may exempt from subsection (a) of this section, under such conditions as may be prescribed by regulation, any State or local requirement that—

(1) would not cause any food to be in violation of any applicable requirement under Federal law,

(2) would not unduly burden interstate commerce, and

(3) is designed to address a particular need for information which need is not met by the requirements of the sections referred to in subsection (a) of this section.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403A, as added Pub. L. 101–535, §6(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; amended Pub. L. 102–108, §2(b), Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4154.)

References in Text

Section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535], referred to in subsec. (a), is set out below.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(1), inserted at end “except that this paragraph does not apply to a standard of identity of a State or political subdivision of a State for maple syrup that is of the type required by sections 341 and 343(g) of this title,”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(2), inserted at end “except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(c) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(3), inserted at end “except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(h)(1) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–108 substituted “section 343(r)(5)(B) of this title” for “clause (B) of such section”.

Effective Date

Section 10(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(16), title II, §202(a)(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499, 4501, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by section 6 [enacting this section] shall take effect—

“(A) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (1) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [subsec. (a)(1) of this section], on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990],

“(B) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (2) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, one year after the date of the enactment of this Act,

“(C) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (3) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as prescribed by section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535, set out below],

“(D) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (4) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, on the date regulations to implement section 403(q) of such Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)] take effect, and

“(E) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (5) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, on the date regulations to implement section 403(r) of such Act take effect.

“(2) Exception.—If a State or political subdivision submits a petition under section 403A(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for a requirement described in section 403A(a) of such Act within 18 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, paragraphs (3) through (5) of such section 403A(a) shall not apply with respect to such State or political subdivision requirement until—

“(A) 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, or

“(B) action on the petition,

whichever occurs later.

“(3) Requirements pertaining to certain claims.—Notwithstanding subparagraphs (D) and (E) of paragraph (1) and except with respect to claims approved in accordance with section 202(b) of the Dietary Supplement Act of 1992 [Pub. L. 102–571, set out as a note under section 343 of this title], the requirements described in paragraphs (4) and (5) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(4) and (5)) that pertain to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not take effect until the date final regulations take effect to implement subsection (q) or (r), as appropriate, of section 403 of such Act with respect to such dietary supplements.”

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 101–535 provided that:

“(1) For the purpose of implementing section 403A(a)(3) [21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(3)], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall enter into a contract with a public or nonprofit private entity to conduct a study of—

“(A) State and local laws which require the labeling of food that is of the type required by sections 403(b), 403(d), 403(f), 403(h), 403(i)(1), and 403(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(b), (d), (f), (h), (i)(1), (k)], and

“(B) the sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act referred to in subparagraph (A) and the regulations issued by the Secretary to enforce such sections to determine whether such sections and regulations adequately implement the purposes of such sections.

“(2) The contract under paragraph (1) shall provide that the study required by such paragraph shall be completed within 6 months of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990].

“(3)(A) Within 9 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish a proposed list of sections which are adequately being implemented by regulations as determined under paragraph (1)(B) and sections which are not adequately being implemented by regulations as so determined. After publication of the lists, the Secretary shall provide 60 days for comments on such lists.

“(B) Within 24 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish a final list of sections which are adequately being implemented by regulations and a list of sections which are not adequately being implemented by regulations. With respect to a section which is found by the Secretary to be adequately implemented, no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect as to any food in interstate commerce any requirement which is not identical to the requirement of such section.

“(C) Within 24 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish proposed revisions to the regulations found to be inadequate under subparagraph (B) and within 30 months of such date shall issue final revisions. Upon the effective date of such final revisions, no State or political subdivision may establish or continue in effect any requirement which is not identical to the requirement of the section which had its regulations revised in accordance with this subparagraph.

“(D)(i) If the Secretary does not issue a final list in accordance with subparagraph (B), the proposed list issued under subparagraph (A) shall be considered the final list and States and political subdivisions shall be preempted with respect to sections found to be adequate in such proposed list in accordance with subparagraph (B).

“(ii) If the Secretary does not issue final revisions of regulations in accordance with subparagraph (C), the proposed revisions issued under such subparagraph shall be considered the final revisions and States and political subdivisions shall be preempted with respect to sections the regulations of which are revised by the proposed revisions.

“(E) Subsection (b) of section 403A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall apply with respect to the prohibition prescribed by subparagraphs (B) and (C).”

Construction of Pub. L. 101–535

Section 6(c) of Pub. L. 101–535 provided that:

“(1) The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535, see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] shall not be construed to preempt any provision of State law, unless such provision is expressly preempted under section 403A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this section].

“(2) The amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] and the provisions of subsection (b) [set out as a note above] shall not be construed to apply to any requirement respecting a statement in the labeling of food that provides for a warning concerning the safety of the food or component of the food.

“(3) The amendment made by subsection (a), the provisions of subsection (b) and paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall not be construed to affect preemption, express or implied, of any such requirement of a State or political subdivision, which may arise under the Constitution, any provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] not amended by subsection (a), any other Federal law, or any Federal regulation, order, or other final agency action reviewable under chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code.”

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Delayed Applicability of Certain Provisions

Pub. L. 102–408, title III, §310, Oct. 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 2090, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, section 403A(a)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(1)) shall not apply with respect to any requirement of any State or political subdivision regarding maple syrup until September 1, 1994.”

§343–2. Dietary supplement labeling exemptions

(a) In general

A publication, including an article, a chapter in a book, or an official abstract of a peer-reviewed scientific publication that appears in an article and was prepared by the author or the editors of the publication, which is reprinted in its entirety, shall not be defined as labeling when used in connection with the sale of a dietary supplement to consumers when it—

(1) is not false or misleading;

(2) does not promote a particular manufacturer or brand of a dietary supplement;

(3) is displayed or presented, or is displayed or presented with other such items on the same subject matter, so as to present a balanced view of the available scientific information on a dietary supplement;

(4) if displayed in an establishment, is physically separate from the dietary supplements; and

(5) does not have appended to it any information by sticker or any other method.

(b) Application

Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to or restrict a retailer or wholesaler of dietary supplements in any way whatsoever in the sale of books or other publications as a part of the business of such retailer or wholesaler.

(c) Burden of proof

In any proceeding brought under subsection (a) of this section, the burden of proof shall be on the United States to establish that an article or other such matter is false or misleading.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403B, as added Pub. L. 103–417, §5, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4328.)

§343–3. Disclosure

(a) No provision of section 321(n), 343(a), or 348 of this title shall be construed to require on the label or labeling of a food a separate radiation disclosure statement that is more prominent than the declaration of ingredients required by section 343(i)(2) of this title.

(b) In this section, the term “radiation disclosure statement” means a written statement that discloses that a food has been intentionally subject to radiation.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403C, as added Pub. L. 105–115, title III, §306, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2353.)

Effective Date

Section effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as an Effective Date of 1997 Amendment note under section 321 of this title.

§343a. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–73

Section, Pub. L. 95–203, §4(c), (d), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453, 1454, related to distribution of information on health risks of saccharin.

§344. Emergency permit control

(a) Conditions on manufacturing, processing, etc., as health measure

Whenever the Secretary finds after investigation that the distribution in interstate commerce of any class of food may, by reason of contamination with micro-organisms during the manufacture, processing, or packing thereof in any locality, be injurious to health, and that such injurious nature cannot be adequately determined after such articles have entered interstate commerce, he then, and in such case only, shall promulgate regulations providing for the issuance, to manufacturers, processors, or packers of such class of food in such locality, of permits to which shall be attached such conditions governing the manufacture, processing, or packing of such class of food, for such temporary period of time, as may be necessary to protect the public health; and after the effective date of such regulations, and during such temporary period, no person shall introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any such food manufactured, processed, or packed by any such manufacturer, processor, or packer unless such manufacturer, processor, or packer holds a permit issued by the Secretary as provided by such regulations.

(b) Violation of permit; suspension and reinstatement

The Secretary is authorized to suspend immediately upon notice any permit issued under authority of this section if it is found that any of the conditions of the permit have been violated. The holder of a permit so suspended shall be privileged at any time to apply for the reinstatement of such permit, and the Secretary shall, immediately after prompt hearing and an inspection of the establishment, reinstate such permit if it is found that adequate measures have been taken to comply with and maintain the conditions of the permit, as originally issued or as amended.

(c) Inspection of permit-holding establishments

Any officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary shall have access to any factory or establishment, the operator of which holds a permit from the Secretary, for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not the conditions of the permit are being complied with, and denial of access for such inspection shall be ground for suspension of the permit until such access is freely given by the operator.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §404, 52 Stat. 1048.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 331, 333, 334, 371 of this title.

§345. Regulations making exemptions

The Secretary shall promulgate regulations exempting from any labeling requirement of this chapter (1) small open containers of fresh fruits and fresh vegetables and (2) food which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed, labeled, or repacked in substantial quantities at establishments other than those where originally processed or packed, on condition that such food is not adulterated or misbranded under the provisions of this chapter upon removal from such processing, labeling, or repacking establishment. This section does not apply to the labeling requirements of sections 343(q) and 343(r) of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §405, 52 Stat. 1049; Pub. L. 101–535, §5(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362.)

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–535 inserted at end “This section does not apply to the labeling requirements of sections 343(q) and 343(r) of this title.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–535 effective six months after the date of the promulgation of final regulations to implement section 343(r) of this title, or if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations (Nov. 8, 1992), with exception for persons marketing food the brand name of which contains a term defined by the Secretary under section 343(r)(2)(A)(i) of this title, see section 10(a) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 343 of this title.

§346. Tolerances for poisonous or deleterious substances in food; regulations

Any poisonous or deleterious substance added to any food, except where such substance is required in the production thereof or cannot be avoided by good manufacturing practice shall be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application of clause (2)(A) of section 342(a) of this title; but when such substance is so required or cannot be so avoided, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations limiting the quantity therein or thereon to such extent as he finds necessary for the protection of public health, and any quantity exceeding the limits so fixed shall also be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application of clause (2)(A) of section 342(a) of this title. While such a regulation is in effect limiting the quantity of any such substance in the case of any food, such food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing any added amount of such substance, be considered to be adulterated within the meaning of clause (1) of section 342(a) of this title. In determining the quantity of such added substance to be tolerated in or on different articles of food the Secretary shall take into account the extent to which the use of such substance is required or cannot be avoided in the production of each such article, and the other ways in which the consumer may be affected by the same or other poisonous or deleterious substances.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §406, 52 Stat. 1049; Pub. L. 85–929, §3(c), Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1785; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §103(a)(1), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 398.)

Amendments

1960—Pub. L. 86–618 repealed subsec. (b) which required Secretary to promulgate regulations for listing of coal-tar colors.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–929 substituted “clause (2)(A)” for “clause (2)” in first sentence.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of Nematocide, Plant Regulator, Defoliant, and Desiccant Amendment of 1959

Effective date of subsec. (a) as in force prior to July 22, 1954, with respect to particular commercial use of a nematocide, plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant in or on a raw agricultural commodity made before Jan. 1, 1958, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–139, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 288.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 85–929, see section 6(b), (c) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested in Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] in establishing tolerances for pesticide chemicals under this section together with authority to monitor compliance with tolerances and effectiveness of surveillance and enforcement and to provide technical assistance to States and conduct research under this chapter and section 201 et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, transferred to Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1970, §2(a)(4), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 342, 346a, 371 of this title.

§346a. Tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues

(a) Requirement for tolerance or exemption

(1) General rule

Except as provided in paragraph (2) or (3), any pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall be deemed unsafe for the purpose of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title unless—

(A) a tolerance for such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food is in effect under this section and the quantity of the residue is within the limits of the tolerance; or

(B) an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is in effect under this section for the pesticide chemical residue.


For the purposes of this section, the term “food”, when used as a noun without modification, shall mean a raw agricultural commodity or processed food.

(2) Processed food

Notwithstanding paragraph (1)—

(A) if a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity, a pesticide chemical residue that is present in or on a processed food because the food is made from that raw agricultural commodity shall not be considered unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title despite the lack of a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue in or on the processed food if the pesticide chemical has been used in or on the raw agricultural commodity in conformity with a tolerance under this section, such residue in or on the raw agricultural commodity has been removed to the extent possible in good manufacturing practice, and the concentration of the pesticide chemical residue in the processed food is not greater than the tolerance prescribed for the pesticide chemical residue in the raw agricultural commodity; or

(B) if an exemption for the requirement for a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity, a pesticide chemical residue that is present in or on a processed food because the food is made from that raw agricultural commodity shall not be considered unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title.

(3) Residues of degradation products

If a pesticide chemical residue is present in or on a food because it is a metabolite or other degradation product of a precursor substance that itself is a pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue, such a residue shall not be considered to be unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title despite the lack of a tolerance or exemption from the need for a tolerance for such residue in or on such food if—

(A) the Administrator has not determined that the degradation product is likely to pose any potential health risk from dietary exposure that is of a different type than, or of a greater significance than, any risk posed by dietary exposure to the precursor substance;

(B) either—

(i) a tolerance is in effect under this section for residues of the precursor substance in or on the food, and the combined level of residues of the degradation product and the precursor substance in or on the food is at or below the stoichiometrically equivalent level that would be permitted by the tolerance if the residue consisted only of the precursor substance rather than the degradation product; or

(ii) an exemption from the need for a tolerance is in effect under this section for residues of the precursor substance in or on the food; and


(C) the tolerance or exemption for residues of the precursor substance does not state that it applies only to particular named substances and does not state that it does not apply to residues of the degradation product.

(4) Effect of tolerance or exemption

While a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue with respect to any food, the food shall not by reason of bearing or containing any amount of such a residue be considered to be adulterated within the meaning of section 342(a)(1) of this title.

(b) Authority and standard for tolerance

(1) Authority

The Administrator may issue regulations establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food—

(A) in response to a petition filed under subsection (d) of this section; or

(B) on the Administrator's own initiative under subsection (e) of this section.


As used in this section, the term “modify” shall not mean expanding the tolerance to cover additional foods.

(2) Standard

(A) General rule

(i) Standard

The Administrator may establish or leave in effect a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food only if the Administrator determines that the tolerance is safe. The Administrator shall modify or revoke a tolerance if the Administrator determines it is not safe.

(ii) Determination of safety

As used in this section, the term “safe”, with respect to a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, means that the Administrator has determined that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.

(iii) Rule of construction

With respect to a tolerance, a pesticide chemical residue meeting the standard under clause (i) is not an eligible pesticide chemical residue for purposes of subparagraph (B).

(B) Tolerances for eligible pesticide chemical residues

(i) Definition

As used in this subparagraph, the term “eligible pesticide chemical residue” means a pesticide chemical residue as to which—

(I) the Administrator is not able to identify a level of exposure to the residue at which the residue will not cause or contribute to a known or anticipated harm to human health (referred to in this section as a “nonthreshold effect”);

(II) the lifetime risk of experiencing the nonthreshold effect is appropriately assessed by quantitative risk assessment; and

(III) with regard to any known or anticipated harm to human health for which the Administrator is able to identify a level at which the residue will not cause such harm (referred to in this section as a “threshold effect”), the Administrator determines that the level of aggregate exposure is safe.

(ii) Determination of tolerance

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)(i), a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue may be left in effect or modified under this subparagraph if—

(I) at least one of the conditions described in clause (iii) is met; and

(II) both of the conditions described in clause (iv) are met.

(iii) Conditions regarding use

For purposes of clause (ii), the conditions described in this clause with respect to a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue are the following:

(I) Use of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue protects consumers from adverse effects on health that would pose a greater risk than the dietary risk from the residue.

(II) Use of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue is necessary to avoid a significant disruption in domestic production of an adequate, wholesome, and economical food supply.

(iv) Conditions regarding risk

For purposes of clause (ii), the conditions described in this clause with respect to a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue are the following:

(I) The yearly risk associated with the nonthreshold effect from aggregate exposure to the residue does not exceed 10 times the yearly risk that would be allowed under subparagraph (A) for such effect.

(II) The tolerance is limited so as to ensure that the risk over a lifetime associated with the nonthreshold effect from aggregate exposure to the residue is not greater than twice the lifetime risk that would be allowed under subparagraph (A) for such effect.

(v) Review

Five years after the date on which the Administrator makes a determination to leave in effect or modify a tolerance under this subparagraph, and thereafter as the Administrator deems appropriate, the Administrator shall determine, after notice and opportunity for comment, whether it has been demonstrated to the Administrator that a condition described in clause (iii)(I) or clause (iii)(II) continues to exist with respect to the tolerance and that the yearly and lifetime risks from aggregate exposure to such residue continue to comply with the limits specified in clause (iv). If the Administrator determines by such date that such demonstration has not been made, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date of such determination, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance.

(vi) Infants and children

Any tolerance under this subparagraph shall meet the requirements of subparagraph (C).

(C) Exposure of infants and children

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator—

(i) shall assess the risk of the pesticide chemical residue based on—

(I) available information about consumption patterns among infants and children that are likely to result in disproportionately high consumption of foods containing or bearing such residue among infants and children in comparison to the general population;

(II) available information concerning the special susceptibility of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residues, including neurological differences between infants and children and adults, and effects of in utero exposure to pesticide chemicals; and

(III) available information concerning the cumulative effects on infants and children of such residues and other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity; and


(ii) shall—

(I) ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue; and

(II) publish a specific determination regarding the safety of the pesticide chemical residue for infants and children.


The Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Administrator, shall conduct surveys to document dietary exposure to pesticides among infants and children. In the case of threshold effects, for purposes of clause (ii)(I) an additional tenfold margin of safety for the pesticide chemical residue and other sources of exposure shall be applied for infants and children to take into account potential pre- and post-natal toxicity and completeness of the data with respect to exposure and toxicity to infants and children. Notwithstanding such requirement for an additional margin of safety, the Administrator may use a different margin of safety for the pesticide chemical residue only if, on the basis of reliable data, such margin will be safe for infants and children.

(D) Factors

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator shall consider, among other relevant factors—

(i) the validity, completeness, and reliability of the available data from studies of the pesticide chemical and pesticide chemical residue;

(ii) the nature of any toxic effect shown to be caused by the pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue in such studies;

(iii) available information concerning the relationship of the results of such studies to human risk;

(iv) available information concerning the dietary consumption patterns of consumers (and major identifiable subgroups of consumers);

(v) available information concerning the cumulative effects of such residues and other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity;

(vi) available information concerning the aggregate exposure levels of consumers (and major identifiable subgroups of consumers) to the pesticide chemical residue and to other related substances, including dietary exposure under the tolerance and all other tolerances in effect for the pesticide chemical residue, and exposure from other non-occupational sources;

(vii) available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities of major identifiable subgroups of consumers;

(viii) such information as the Administrator may require on whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects; and

(ix) safety factors which in the opinion of experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of food additives are generally recognized as appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data.

(E) Data and information regarding anticipated and actual residue levels

(i) Authority

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator may consider available data and information on the anticipated residue levels of the pesticide chemical in or on food and the actual residue levels of the pesticide chemical that have been measured in food, including residue data collected by the Food and Drug Administration.

(ii) Requirement

If the Administrator relies on anticipated or actual residue levels in establishing, modifying, or leaving in effect a tolerance, the Administrator shall pursuant to subsection (f)(1) of this section require that data be provided five years after the date on which the tolerance is established, modified, or left in effect, and thereafter as the Administrator deems appropriate, demonstrating that such residue levels are not above the levels so relied on. If such data are not so provided, or if the data do not demonstrate that the residue levels are not above the levels so relied on, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the data were required to be provided, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section, or an order under subsection (f)(2) of this section, as appropriate, to modify or revoke the tolerance.

(F) Percent of food actually treated

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator may, when assessing chronic dietary risk, consider available data and information on the percent of food actually treated with the pesticide chemical (including aggregate pesticide use data collected by the Department of Agriculture) only if the Administrator—

(i) finds that the data are reliable and provide a valid basis to show what percentage of the food derived from such crop is likely to contain such pesticide chemical residue;

(ii) finds that the exposure estimate does not understate exposure for any significant subpopulation group;

(iii) finds that, if data are available on pesticide use and consumption of food in a particular area, the population in such area is not dietarily exposed to residues above those estimated by the Administrator; and

(iv) provides for the periodic reevaluation of the estimate of anticipated dietary exposure.

(3) Detection methods

(A) General rule

A tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall not be established or modified by the Administrator unless the Administrator determines, after consultation with the Secretary, that there is a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of the pesticide chemical residue in or on the food.

(B) Detection limit

A tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall not be established at or modified to a level lower than the limit of detection of the method for detecting and measuring the pesticide chemical residue specified by the Administrator under subparagraph (A).

(4) International standards

In establishing a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food, the Administrator shall determine whether a maximum residue level for the pesticide chemical has been established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. If a Codex maximum residue level has been established for the pesticide chemical and the Administrator does not propose to adopt the Codex level, the Administrator shall publish for public comment a notice explaining the reasons for departing from the Codex level.

(c) Authority and standard for exemptions

(1) Authority

The Administrator may issue a regulation establishing, modifying, or revoking an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food—

(A) in response to a petition filed under subsection (d) of this section; or

(B) on the Administrator's initiative under subsection (e) of this section.

(2) Standard

(A) General rule

(i) Standard

The Administrator may establish or leave in effect an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food only if the Administrator determines that the exemption is safe. The Administrator shall modify or revoke an exemption if the Administrator determines it is not safe.

(ii) Determination of safety

The term “safe”, with respect to an exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, means that the Administrator has determined that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.

(B) Factors

In making a determination under this paragraph, the Administrator shall take into account, among other relevant considerations, the considerations set forth in subparagraphs (C) and (D) of subsection (b)(2) of this section.

(3) Limitation

An exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food shall not be established or modified by the Administrator unless the Administrator determines, after consultation with the Secretary—

(A) that there is a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of such pesticide chemical residue in or on food; or

(B) that there is no need for such a method, and states the reasons for such determination in issuing the regulation establishing or modifying the exemption.

(d) Petition for tolerance or exemption

(1) Petitions and petitioners

Any person may file with the Administrator a petition proposing the issuance of a regulation—

(A) establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food; or

(B) establishing, modifying, or revoking an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for such a residue.

(2) Petition contents

(A) Establishment

A petition under paragraph (1) to establish a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue shall be supported by such data and information as are specified in regulations issued by the Administrator, including—

(i)(I) an informative summary of the petition and of the data, information, and arguments submitted or cited in support of the petition; and

(II) a statement that the petitioner agrees that such summary or any information it contains may be published as a part of the notice of filing of the petition to be published under this subsection and as part of a proposed or final regulation issued under this section;

(ii) the name, chemical identity, and composition of the pesticide chemical residue and of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue;

(iii) data showing the recommended amount, frequency, method, and time of application of that pesticide chemical;

(iv) full reports of tests and investigations made with respect to the safety of the pesticide chemical, including full information as to the methods and controls used in conducting those tests and investigations;

(v) full reports of tests and investigations made with respect to the nature and amount of the pesticide chemical residue that is likely to remain in or on the food, including a description of the analytical methods used;

(vi) a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of the pesticide chemical residue in or on the food, or for exemptions, a statement why such a method is not needed;

(vii) a proposed tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue, if a tolerance is proposed;

(viii) if the petition relates to a tolerance for a processed food, reports of investigations conducted using the processing method(s) used to produce that food;

(ix) such information as the Administrator may require to make the determination under subsection (b)(2)(C) of this section;

(x) such information as the Administrator may require on whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects;

(xi) information regarding exposure to the pesticide chemical residue due to any tolerance or exemption already granted for such residue;

(xii) practical methods for removing any amount of the residue that would exceed any proposed tolerance; and

(xiii) such other data and information as the Administrator requires by regulation to support the petition.


If information or data required by this subparagraph is available to the Administrator, the person submitting the petition may cite the availability of the information or data in lieu of submitting it. The Administrator may require a petition to be accompanied by samples of the pesticide chemical with respect to which the petition is filed.

(B) Modification or revocation

The Administrator may by regulation establish the requirements for information and data to support a petition to modify or revoke a tolerance or to modify or revoke an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance.

(3) Notice

A notice of the filing of a petition that the Administrator determines has met the requirements of paragraph (2) shall be published by the Administrator within 30 days after such determination. The notice shall announce the availability of a description of the analytical methods available to the Administrator for the detection and measurement of the pesticide chemical residue with respect to which the petition is filed or shall set forth the petitioner's statement of why such a method is not needed. The notice shall include the summary required by paragraph (2)(A)(i)(I).

(4) Actions by the Administrator

(A) In general

The Administrator shall, after giving due consideration to a petition filed under paragraph (1) and any other information available to the Administrator—

(i) issue a final regulation (which may vary from that sought by the petition) establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue or an exemption of the pesticide chemical residue from the requirement of a tolerance (which final regulation shall be issued without further notice and without further period for public comment);

(ii) issue a proposed regulation under subsection (e) of this section, and thereafter issue a final regulation under such subsection; or

(iii) issue an order denying the petition.

(B) Priorities

The Administrator shall give priority to petitions for the establishment or modification of a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue that appears to pose a significantly lower risk to human health from dietary exposure than pesticide chemical residues that have tolerances in effect for the same or similar uses.

(C) Expedited review of certain petitions

(i) Date certain for review

If a person files a complete petition with the Administrator proposing the issuance of a regulation establishing a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue that presents a lower risk to human health than a pesticide chemical residue for which a tolerance has been left in effect or modified under subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, the Administrator shall complete action on such petition under this paragraph within 1 year.

(ii) Required determinations

If the Administrator issues a final regulation establishing a tolerance or exemption for a safer pesticide chemical residue under clause (i), the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the regulation is issued, determine whether a condition described in subclause (I) or (II) of subsection (b)(2)(B)(iii) of this section continues to exist with respect to a tolerance that has been left in effect or modified under subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section. If such condition does not continue to exist, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the determination under the preceding sentence is made, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance.

(e) Action on Administrator's own initiative

(1) General rule

The Administrator may issue a regulation—

(A) establishing, modifying, suspending under subsection (l)(3) of this section, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical or a pesticide chemical residue;

(B) establishing, modifying, suspending under subsection (l)(3) of this section, or revoking an exemption of a pesticide chemical residue from the requirement of a tolerance; or

(C) establishing general procedures and requirements to implement this section.

(2) Notice

Before issuing a final regulation under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall issue a notice of proposed rulemaking and provide a period of not less than 60 days for public comment on the proposed regulation, except that a shorter period for comment may be provided if the Administrator for good cause finds that it would be in the public interest to do so and states the reasons for the finding in the notice of proposed rulemaking.

(f) Special data requirements

(1) Requiring submission of additional data

If the Administrator determines that additional data or information are reasonably required to support the continuation of a tolerance or exemption that is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue on a food, the Administrator shall—

(A) issue a notice requiring the person holding the pesticide registrations associated with such tolerance or exemption to submit the data or information under section 3(c)(2)(B) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a(c)(2)(B)];

(B) issue a rule requiring that testing be conducted on a substance or mixture under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2603]; or

(C) publish in the Federal Register, after first providing notice and an opportunity for comment of not less than 60 days’ duration, an order—

(i) requiring the submission to the Administrator by one or more interested persons of a notice identifying the person or persons who will submit the required data and information;

(ii) describing the type of data and information required to be submitted to the Administrator and stating why the data and information could not be obtained under the authority of section 3(c)(2)(B) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a(c)(2)(B)] or section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2603];

(iii) describing the reports of the Administrator required to be prepared during and after the collection of the data and information;

(iv) requiring the submission to the Administrator of the data, information, and reports referred to in clauses (ii) and (iii); and

(v) establishing dates by which the submissions described in clauses (i) and (iv) must be made.


The Administrator may under subparagraph (C) revise any such order to correct an error. The Administrator may under this paragraph require data or information pertaining to whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects.

(2) Noncompliance

If a submission required by a notice issued in accordance with paragraph (1)(A), a rule issued under paragraph (1)(B), or an order issued under paragraph (1)(C) is not made by the time specified in such notice, rule, or order, the Administrator may by order published in the Federal Register modify or revoke the tolerance or exemption in question. In any review of such an order under subsection (g)(2) of this section, the only material issue shall be whether a submission required under paragraph (1) was not made by the time specified.

(g) Effective date, objections, hearings, and administrative review

(1) Effective date

A regulation or order issued under subsection (d)(4), (e)(1), or (f)(2) of this section shall take effect upon publication unless the regulation or order specifies otherwise. The Administrator may stay the effectiveness of the regulation or order if, after issuance of such regulation or order, objections are filed with respect to such regulation or order pursuant to paragraph (2).

(2) Further proceedings

(A) Objections

Within 60 days after a regulation or order is issued under subsection (d)(4), (e)(1)(A), (e)(1)(B), (f)(2), (n)(3), or (n)(5)(C) of this section, any person may file objections thereto with the Administrator, specifying with particularity the provisions of the regulation or order deemed objectionable and stating reasonable grounds therefor. If the regulation or order was issued in response to a petition under subsection (d)(1) of this section, a copy of each objection filed by a person other than the petitioner shall be served by the Administrator on the petitioner.

(B) Hearing

An objection may include a request for a public evidentiary hearing upon the objection. The Administrator shall, upon the initiative of the Administrator or upon the request of an interested person and after due notice, hold a public evidentiary hearing if and to the extent the Administrator determines that such a public hearing is necessary to receive factual evidence relevant to material issues of fact raised by the objections. The presiding officer in such a hearing may authorize a party to obtain discovery from other persons and may upon a showing of good cause made by a party issue a subpoena to compel testimony or production of documents from any person. The presiding officer shall be governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in making any order for the protection of the witness or the content of documents produced and shall order the payment of reasonable fees and expenses as a condition to requiring testimony of the witness. On contest, such a subpoena may be enforced by a Federal district court.

(C) Final decision

As soon as practicable after receiving the arguments of the parties, the Administrator shall issue an order stating the action taken upon each such objection and setting forth any revision to the regulation or prior order that the Administrator has found to be warranted. If a hearing was held under subparagraph (B), such order and any revision to the regulation or prior order shall, with respect to questions of fact at issue in the hearing, be based only on substantial evidence of record at such hearing, and shall set forth in detail the findings of facts and the conclusions of law or policy upon which the order or regulation is based.

(h) Judicial review

(1) Petition

In a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any regulation issued under subsection (e)(1)(C) of this section, or any order issued under subsection (f)(1)(C) or (g)(2)(C) of this section, or any regulation that is the subject of such an order, any person who will be adversely affected by such order or regulation may obtain judicial review by filing in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit wherein that person resides or has its principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within 60 days after publication of such order or regulation, a petition praying that the order or regulation be set aside in whole or in part.

(2) Record and jurisdiction

A copy of the petition under paragraph (1) shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Administrator, or any officer designated by the Administrator for that purpose, and thereupon the Administrator shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which the Administrator based the order or regulation, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such a petition, the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to affirm or set aside the order or regulation complained of in whole or in part. As to orders issued following a public evidentiary hearing, the findings of the Administrator with respect to questions of fact shall be sustained only if supported by substantial evidence when considered on the record as a whole.

(3) Additional evidence

If a party applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence and shows to the satisfaction of the court that the additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce the evidence in the proceeding before the Administrator, the court may order that the additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal thereof) shall be taken before the Administrator in the manner and upon the terms and conditions the court deems proper. The Administrator may modify prior findings as to the facts by reason of the additional evidence so taken and may modify the order or regulation accordingly. The Administrator shall file with the court any such modified finding, order, or regulation.

(4) Final judgment; Supreme Court review

The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any regulation or any order and any regulation which is the subject of such an order shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States as provided in section 1254 of title 28. The commencement of proceedings under this subsection shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court to the contrary, operate as a stay of a regulation or order.

(5) Application

Any issue as to which review is or was obtainable under this subsection shall not be the subject of judicial review under any other provision of law.

(i) Confidentiality and use of data

(1) General rule

Data and information that are or have been submitted to the Administrator under this section or section 348 of this title in support of a tolerance or an exemption from a tolerance shall be entitled to confidential treatment for reasons of business confidentiality and to exclusive use and data compensation to the same extent provided by sections 3 and 10 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a, 136h].

(2) Exceptions

(A) In general

Data and information that are entitled to confidential treatment under paragraph (1) may be disclosed, under such security requirements as the Administrator may provide by regulation, to—

(i) employees of the United States authorized by the Administrator to examine such data and information in the carrying out of their official duties under this chapter or other Federal statutes intended to protect the public health; or

(ii) contractors with the United States authorized by the Administrator to examine such data and information in the carrying out of contracts under this chapter or such statutes.

(B) Congress

This subsection does not authorize the withholding of data or information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee.

(3) Summaries

Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection or other law, the Administrator may publish the informative summary required by subsection (d)(2)(A)(i) of this section and may, in issuing a proposed or final regulation or order under this section, publish an informative summary of the data relating to the regulation or order.

(j) Status of previously issued regulations

(1) Regulations under section 346

Regulations affecting pesticide chemical residues in or on raw agricultural commodities promulgated, in accordance with section 371(e) of this title, under the authority of section 346(a) 1 of this title upon the basis of public hearings instituted before January 1, 1953, shall be deemed to be regulations issued under this section and shall be subject to modification or revocation under subsections (d) and (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.

(2) Regulations under section 348

Regulations that established tolerances for substances that are pesticide chemical residues in or on processed food, or that otherwise stated the conditions under which such pesticide chemicals could be safely used, and that were issued under section 348 of this title on or before August 3, 1996, shall be deemed to be regulations issued under this section and shall be subject to modification or revocation under subsection (d) or (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.

(3) Regulations under section 346a

Regulations that established tolerances or exemptions under this section that were issued on or before August 3, 1996, shall remain in effect unless modified or revoked under subsection (d) or (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.

(4) Certain substances

With respect to a substance that is not included in the definition of the term “pesticide chemical” under section 321(q)(1) of this title but was so included on the day before October 30, 1998, the following applies as of October 30, 1998:

(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), any regulation applying to the use of the substance that was in effect on the day before October 30, 1998, and was on such day deemed in such paragraph to have been issued under this section, shall be considered to have been issued under section 348 of this title.

(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (3), any regulation applying to the use of the substance that was in effect on such day and was issued under this section (including any such regulation issued before August 3, 1996) is deemed to have been issued under section 348 of this title.

(k) Transitional provision

If, on the day before August 3, 1996, a substance that is a pesticide chemical was, with respect to a particular pesticidal use of the substance and any resulting pesticide chemical residue in or on a particular food—

(1) regarded by the Administrator or the Secretary as generally recognized as safe for use within the meaning of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section or section 321(s) of this title as then in effect; or

(2) regarded by the Secretary as a substance described by section 321(s)(4) of this title;


such a pesticide chemical residue shall be regarded as exempt from the requirement for a tolerance, as of August 3, 1996. The Administrator shall by regulation indicate which substances are described by this subsection. Any exemption under this subsection may be modified or revoked as if it had been issued under subsection (c) of this section.

(l) Harmonization with action under other laws

(1) Coordination with FIFRA

To the extent practicable and consistent with the review deadlines in subsection (q) of this section, in issuing a final rule under this subsection that suspends or revokes a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food, the Administrator shall coordinate such action with any related necessary action under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.].

(2) Revocation of tolerance or exemption following cancellation of associated registrations

If the Administrator, acting under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, cancels the registration of each pesticide that contains a particular pesticide chemical and that is labeled for use on a particular food, or requires that the registration of each such pesticide be modified to prohibit its use in connection with the production, storage, or transportation of such food, due in whole or in part to dietary risks to humans posed by residues of that pesticide chemical on that food, the Administrator shall revoke any tolerance or exemption that allows the presence of the pesticide chemical, or any pesticide chemical residue that results from its use, in or on that food. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this paragraph. A revocation under this paragraph shall become effective not later than 180 days after—

(A) the date by which each such cancellation of a registration has become effective; or

(B) the date on which the use of the canceled pesticide becomes unlawful under the terms of the cancellation, whichever is later.

(3) Suspension of tolerance or exemption following suspension of associated registrations

(A) Suspension

If the Administrator, acting under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, suspends the use of each registered pesticide that contains a particular pesticide chemical and that is labeled for use on a particular food, due in whole or in part to dietary risks to humans posed by residues of that pesticide chemical on that food, the Administrator shall suspend any tolerance or exemption that allows the presence of the pesticide chemical, or any pesticide chemical residue that results from its use, in or on that food. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this paragraph. A suspension under this paragraph shall become effective not later than 60 days after the date by which each such suspension of use has become effective.

(B) Effect of suspension

The suspension of a tolerance or exemption under subparagraph (A) shall be effective as long as the use of each associated registration of a pesticide is suspended under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. While a suspension of a tolerance or exemption is effective the tolerance or exemption shall not be considered to be in effect. If the suspension of use of the pesticide under that Act is terminated, leaving the registration of the pesticide for such use in effect under that Act, the Administrator shall rescind any associated suspension of tolerance or exemption.

(4) Tolerances for unavoidable residues

In connection with action taken under paragraph (2) or (3), or with respect to pesticides whose registrations were suspended or canceled prior to August 3, 1996, under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, if the Administrator determines that a residue of the canceled or suspended pesticide chemical will unavoidably persist in the environment and thereby be present in or on a food, the Administrator may establish a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue. In establishing such a tolerance, the Administrator shall take into account both the factors set forth in subsection (b)(2) of this section and the unavoidability of the residue. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to the establishment of such tolerance. The Administrator shall review any such tolerance periodically and modify it as necessary so that it allows no greater level of the pesticide chemical residue than is unavoidable.

(5) Pesticide residues resulting from lawful application of pesticide

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, if a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food has been revoked, suspended, or modified under this section, an article of that food shall not be deemed unsafe solely because of the presence of such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(A) the residue is present as the result of an application or use of a pesticide at a time and in a manner that was lawful under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act; and

(B) the residue does not exceed a level that was authorized at the time of that application or use to be present on the food under a tolerance, exemption, food additive regulation, or other sanction then in effect under this chapter;


unless, in the case of any tolerance or exemption revoked, suspended, or modified under this subsection or subsection (d) or (e) of this section, the Administrator has issued a determination that consumption of the legally treated food during the period of its likely availability in commerce will pose an unreasonable dietary risk.

(6) Tolerance for use of pesticides under an emergency exemption

If the Administrator grants an exemption under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136p) for a pesticide chemical, the Administrator shall establish a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue. Such a tolerance or exemption from a tolerance shall have an expiration date. The Administrator may establish such a tolerance or exemption without providing notice or a period for comment on the tolerance or exemption. The Administrator shall promulgate regulations within 365 days after August 3, 1996, governing the establishment of tolerances and exemptions under this paragraph. Such regulations shall be consistent with the safety standard under subsections (b)(2) and (c)(2) of this section and with section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.

(m) Fees

(1) Amount

The Administrator shall by regulation require the payment of such fees as will in the aggregate, in the judgment of the Administrator, be sufficient over a reasonable term to provide, equip, and maintain an adequate service for the performance of the Administrator's functions under this section. Under the regulations, the performance of the Administrator's services or other functions under this section, including—

(A) the acceptance for filing of a petition submitted under subsection (d) of this section;

(B) establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance under this section;

(C) the acceptance for filing of objections under subsection (g) of this section; or

(D) the certification and filing in court of a transcript of the proceedings and the record under subsection (h) of this section;


may be conditioned upon the payment of such fees. The regulations may further provide for waiver or refund of fees in whole or in part when in the judgment of the Administrator such a waiver or refund is equitable and not contrary to the purposes of this subsection.

(2) Deposit

All fees collected under paragraph (1) shall be deposited in the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Fund created by section 4(k) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a–1(k)]. Such fees shall be available to the Administrator, without fiscal year limitation, for the performance of the Administrator's services or functions as specified in paragraph (1).

(n) National uniformity of tolerances

(1) “Qualifying pesticide chemical residue” defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualifying pesticide chemical residue” means a pesticide chemical residue resulting from the use, in production, processing, or storage of a food, of a pesticide chemical that is an active ingredient and that—

(A) was first approved for such use in a registration of a pesticide issued under section 3(c)(5) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a(c)(5)] on or after April 25, 1985, on the basis of data determined by the Administrator to meet all applicable requirements for data prescribed by regulations in effect under that Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.] on April 25, 1985; or

(B) was approved for such use in a reregistration eligibility determination issued under section 4(g) of that Act [7 U.S.C. 136a–1(g)] on or after August 3, 1996.

(2) “Qualifying Federal determination” defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualifying Federal determination” means a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a qualifying pesticide chemical residue that—

(A) is issued under this section after August 3, 1996, and determined by the Administrator to meet the standard under subsection (b)(2)(A) (in the case of a tolerance) or (c)(2) (in the case of an exemption) of this section; or

(B)(i) pursuant to subsection (j) of this section is remaining in effect or is deemed to have been issued under this section, or is regarded under subsection (k) of this section as exempt from the requirement for a tolerance; and

(ii) is determined by the Administrator to meet the standard under subsection (b)(2)(A) (in the case of a tolerance) or (c)(2) (in the case of an exemption) of this section.

(3) Limitation

The Administrator may make the determination described in paragraph (2)(B)(ii) only by issuing a rule in accordance with the procedure set forth in subsection (d) or (e) of this section and only if the Administrator issues a proposed rule and allows a period of not less than 30 days for comment on the proposed rule. Any such rule shall be reviewable in accordance with subsections (g) and (h) of this section.

(4) State authority

Except as provided in paragraphs (5), (6), and (8) no State or political subdivision may establish or enforce any regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on any food if a qualifying Federal determination applies to the presence of such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food, unless such State regulatory limit is identical to such qualifying Federal determination. A State or political subdivision shall be deemed to establish or enforce a regulatory limit on a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food if it purports to prohibit or penalize the production, processing, shipping, or other handling of a food because it contains a pesticide residue (in excess of a prescribed limit).

(5) Petition procedure

(A) In general

Any State may petition the Administrator for authorization to establish in such State a regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on any food that is not identical to the qualifying Federal determination applicable to such qualifying pesticide chemical residue.

(B) Petition requirements

Any petition under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) satisfy any requirements prescribed, by rule, by the Administrator; and

(ii) be supported by scientific data about the pesticide chemical residue that is the subject of the petition or about chemically related pesticide chemical residues, data on the consumption within such State of food bearing the pesticide chemical residue, and data on exposure of humans within such State to the pesticide chemical residue.

(C) Authorization

The Administrator may, by order, grant the authorization described in subparagraph (A) if the Administrator determines that the proposed State regulatory limit—

(i) is justified by compelling local conditions; and

(ii) would not cause any food to be a violation of Federal law.

(D) Treatment

In lieu of any action authorized under subparagraph (C), the Administrator may treat a petition under this paragraph as a petition under subsection (d) of this section to modify or revoke a tolerance or an exemption. If the Administrator determines to treat a petition under this paragraph as a petition under subsection (d) of this section, the Administrator shall thereafter act on the petition pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

(E) Review

Any order of the Administrator granting or denying the authorization described in subparagraph (A) shall be subject to review in the manner described in subsections (g) and (h) of this section.

(6) Urgent petition procedure

Any State petition to the Administrator pursuant to paragraph (5) that demonstrates that consumption of a food containing such pesticide residue level during the period of the food's likely availability in the State will pose a significant public health threat from acute exposure shall be considered an urgent petition. If an order by the Administrator to grant or deny the requested authorization in an urgent petition is not made within 30 days of receipt of the petition, the petitioning State may establish and enforce a temporary regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on the food. The temporary regulatory limit shall be validated or terminated by the Administrator's final order on the petition.

(7) Residues from lawful application

No State or political subdivision may enforce any regulatory limit on the level of a pesticide chemical residue that may appear in or on any food if, at the time of the application of the pesticide that resulted in such residue, the sale of such food with such residue level was lawful under this section and under the law of such State, unless the State demonstrates that consumption of the food containing such pesticide residue level during the period of the food's likely availability in the State will pose an unreasonable dietary risk to the health of persons within such State.

(8) Savings

Nothing in this chapter preempts the authority of any State or political subdivision to require that a food containing a pesticide chemical residue bear or be the subject of a warning or other statement relating to the presence of the pesticide chemical residue in or on such food.

(o) Consumer right to know

Not later than 2 years after August 3, 1996, and annually thereafter, the Administrator shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, publish in a format understandable to a lay person, and distribute to large retail grocers for public display (in a manner determined by the grocer), the following information, at a minimum:

(1) A discussion of the risks and benefits of pesticide chemical residues in or on food purchased by consumers.

(2) A listing of actions taken under subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(2) of this section that may result in pesticide chemical residues in or on food that present a yearly or lifetime risk above the risk allowed under subparagraph (A) of such subsection, and the food on which the pesticide chemicals producing the residues are used.

(3) Recommendations to consumers for reducing dietary exposure to pesticide chemical residues in a manner consistent with maintaining a healthy diet, including a list of food that may reasonably substitute for food listed under paragraph (2).


Nothing in this subsection shall prevent retail grocers from providing additional information.

(p) Estrogenic substances screening program

(1) Development

Not later than 2 years after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services develop a screening program, using appropriate validated test systems and other scientifically relevant information, to determine whether certain substances may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen, or such other endocrine effect as the Administrator may designate.

(2) Implementation

Not later than 3 years after August 3, 1996, after obtaining public comment and review of the screening program described in paragraph (1) by the scientific advisory panel established under section 25(d) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136w(d)] or the science advisory board established by section 4365 2 of title 42, the Administrator shall implement the program.

(3) Substances

In carrying out the screening program described in paragraph (1), the Administrator—

(A) shall provide for the testing of all pesticide chemicals; and

(B) may provide for the testing of any other substance that may have an effect that is cumulative to an effect of a pesticide chemical if the Administrator determines that a substantial population may be exposed to such substance.

(4) Exemption

Notwithstanding paragraph (3), the Administrator may, by order, exempt from the requirements of this section a biologic substance or other substance if the Administrator determines that the substance is anticipated not to produce any effect in humans similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen.

(5) Collection of information

(A) In general

The Administrator shall issue an order to a registrant of a substance for which testing is required under this subsection, or to a person who manufactures or imports a substance for which testing is required under this subsection, to conduct testing in accordance with the screening program described in paragraph (1), and submit information obtained from the testing to the Administrator, within a reasonable time period that the Administrator determines is sufficient for the generation of the information.

(B) Procedures

To the extent practicable the Administrator shall minimize duplicative testing of the same substance for the same endocrine effect, develop, as appropriate, procedures for fair and equitable sharing of test costs, and develop, as necessary, procedures for handling of confidential business information.

(C) Failure of registrants to submit information

(i) Suspension

If a registrant of a substance referred to in paragraph (3)(A) fails to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the Administrator shall issue a notice of intent to suspend the sale or distribution of the substance by the registrant. Any suspension proposed under this paragraph shall become final at the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date that the registrant receives the notice of intent to suspend, unless during that period a person adversely affected by the notice requests a hearing or the Administrator determines that the registrant has complied fully with this paragraph.

(ii) Hearing

If a person requests a hearing under clause (i), the hearing shall be conducted in accordance with section 554 of title 5. The only matter for resolution at the hearing shall be whether the registrant has failed to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. A decision by the Administrator after completion of a hearing shall be considered to be a final agency action.

(iii) Termination of suspensions

The Administrator shall terminate a suspension under this subparagraph issued with respect to a registrant if the Administrator determines that the registrant has complied fully with this paragraph.

(D) Noncompliance by other persons

Any person (other than a registrant) who fails to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) shall be liable for the same penalties and sanctions as are provided under section 16 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2615] in the case of a violation referred to in that section. Such penalties and sanctions shall be assessed and imposed in the same manner as provided in such section 16.

(6) Agency action

In the case of any substance that is found, as a result of testing and evaluation under this section, to have an endocrine effect on humans, the Administrator shall, as appropriate, take action under such statutory authority as is available to the Administrator, including consideration under other sections of this chapter, as is necessary to ensure the protection of public health.

(7) Report to Congress

Not later than 4 years after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall prepare and submit to Congress a report containing—

(A) the findings of the Administrator resulting from the screening program described in paragraph (1);

(B) recommendations for further testing needed to evaluate the impact on human health of the substances tested under the screening program; and

(C) recommendations for any further actions (including any action described in paragraph (6)) that the Administrator determines are appropriate based on the findings.

(q) Schedule for review

(1) In general

The Administrator shall review tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues in effect on the day before August 3, 1996, as expeditiously as practicable, assuring that—

(A) 33 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 3 years of August 3, 1996;

(B) 66 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 6 years of August 3, 1996; and

(C) 100 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 10 years of August 3, 1996.


In conducting a review of a tolerance or exemption, the Administrator shall determine whether the tolerance or exemption meets the requirements of subsections 3 (b)(2) or (c)(2) of this section and shall, by the deadline for the review of the tolerance or exemption, issue a regulation under subsection (d)(4) or (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance or exemption if the tolerance or exemption does not meet such requirements.

(2) Priorities

In determining priorities for reviewing tolerances and exemptions under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall give priority to the review of the tolerances or exemptions that appear to pose the greatest risk to public health.

(3) Publication of schedule

Not later than 12 months after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall publish a schedule for review of tolerances and exemptions established prior to August 3, 1996. The determination of priorities for the review of tolerances and exemptions pursuant to this subsection is not a rulemaking and shall not be subject to judicial review, except that failure to take final action pursuant to the schedule established by this paragraph shall be subject to judicial review.

(r) Temporary tolerance or exemption

The Administrator may, upon the request of any person who has obtained an experimental permit for a pesticide chemical under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.] or upon the Administrator's own initiative, establish a temporary tolerance or exemption for the pesticide chemical residue for the uses covered by the permit. Subsections (b)(2), (c)(2), (d), and (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this subsection.

(s) Savings clause

Nothing in this section shall be construed to amend or modify the provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.] or the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.].

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §408, as added July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §3, 68 Stat. 511; amended Pub. L. 85–791, §20, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 91–515, title VI, §601(d)(1), Oct. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1311; Pub. L. 92–157, title III, §303(a), Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 92–516, §3(3), Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 998; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(25)(A), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(1), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(7), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §405, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 105–324, §2(b), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3036.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(B), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Section 346 of this title, referred to in subsec. (j)(1), originally consisted of subsecs. (a) and (b). Subsec. (a) was redesignated as the entire section 346 and subsec. (b) was repealed by Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §103(a)(1), 74 Stat. 398.

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, referred to in subsecs. (l), (n)(1)(A), (r), and (s), is act June 25, 1947, ch. 125, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–516, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 973, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§136 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 136 of Title 7 and Tables.

Section 4365 of title 42, referred to in subsec. (p)(2), was in the original “section 8 of the Environmental Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978”, and was translated as meaning section 8 of the Environmental Research, Development, and Demonstration Authorization Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

The Toxic Substances Control Act, referred to in subsec. (s), is Pub. L. 94–469, Oct. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 2003, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 53 (§2601 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2601 of Title 15 and Tables.

Codification

August 3, 1996, referred to in subsecs. (k), (n)(1)(B), (2)(A), and (p)(1), (2), (7), was in the original references to the date of enactment of this subsection and the date of enactment of this section, which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–170, which amended this section generally, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 105–324 added par. (4).

1996—Pub. L. 104–170 amended section generally, substituting, in subsec. (a), provisions relating to requirement for tolerance or exemption for provisions relating to conditions for safety; in subsec. (b), provisions relating to authority and standard for tolerance for provisions relating to establishment of tolerances; in subsec. (c), provisions relating to authority and standard for exemptions for provisions relating to exemptions; in subsec. (d), provisions relating to petition for tolerance or exemption for provisions relating to regulations pursuant to petition, publication of notice, time for issuance, referral to advisory committees, effective date, and hearings; in subsec. (e), provisions relating to action on Administrator's own initiative for provisions relating to regulations pursuant to Administrator's proposals; in subsec. (f), provisions relating to special data requirements for provisions relating to data submitted as confidential; in subsec. (g), provisions relating to effective date, objections, hearings, and administrative review for provisions relating to advisory committees and their appointment, composition, compensation, and clerical assistance; in subsec. (h), provisions relating to judicial review for provisions relating to right of consultation; in subsec. (i), provisions relating to confidentiality and use of data for provisions relating to judicial review; in subsec. (j), provisions relating to status of previously issued regulations for provisions relating to temporary tolerances; in subsec. (k), provisions relating to transitions for provisions relating to regulations based on public hearings before January 1, 1953; in subsec. (l), provisions relating to harmonization with action under other laws for provisions relating to pesticides under Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, functions of Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency, certifications, hearings, time limitations, opinions, and regulations; in subsec. (m), provisions relating to fees for provisions relating to amendment of regulations; in subsec. (n), provisions relating to national uniformity of tolerances for provisions relating to guaranties; in subsec. (o), provisions relating to consumer right to know for provisions relating to payment of fees, services or functions conditioned on payment, and waiver or refund of fees; and adding subsecs. (p) to (s).

1993—Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(6), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” wherever appearing except when followed by “of Agriculture”.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(1), substituted “Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter in this section referred to as the ‘Administrator’)” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services”.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(2), substituted “section 556(c) of title 5” for “section 7(c) of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C., sec. 1006(c))”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(3), substituted “In the event” for “It the event” before “a hearing is requested”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(4), made technical amendment to reference to section 333(c) of this title to reflect amendment of corresponding provision of original act.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(5), which directed the substitution of “Administrator” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” wherever appearing in the original text, was executed by making the substitution in the first sentence before “shall by regulation require”, the only place “Secretary of Health and Human Services” appeared in the original text.

1992—Subsecs. (a), (d), (h), (i), (l), (m), (o). Pub. L. 102–300 substituted “Health and Human Services” for “Health, Education, and Welfare” wherever appearing in the original statutory text.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted “379e” for “376”.

1984—Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provision that required the court to advance on the docket and expedite the disposition of all causes filed therein pursuant to this section.

1972—Subsecs. (d)(1), (e), (l). Pub. L. 92–516 substituted references to pesticide for references to economic poison wherever appearing therein.

1971—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 92–157 struck out “, which the Secretary shall by rules and regulations prescribe,” after “as compensation for their services a reasonable per diem” prior to amendment in 1970, by Pub. L. 91–515, which overlooked such language when amending subsec. (g) as provided in 1970 Amendment note.

1970—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 91–515 substituted provisions authorizing members of an advisory committee to receive compensation and travel expenses in accordance with section 376(b)(5)(D) of this title, for provisions authorizing such members to receive as compensation a reasonable per diem for time actually spent on committee work, and necessary traveling and subsistence expenses while serving away from their places of residence.

1958—Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 85–791, §20(a), in first sentence, substituted “transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary, or” for “served upon the Secretary, or upon”, substituted “file in the court the record of the proceedings” for “certify and file in the court a transcript of the proceedings and the record”, and inserted “as provided in section 2112 of title 28”, and which, in second sentence, substituted “the filing of such petition” for “such filing”.

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 85–791, §20(b), in first sentence, substituted “transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary of Agriculture, or” for “served upon the Secretary of Agriculture, or upon”, substituted “file in the court the record of the proceedings” for “certify and file in the court a transcript of the proceedings and the record”, and inserted “as provided in section 2112 of title 28”, and, in second sentence, substituted “the filing of such petition” for “such filing”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–516 effective at close of Oct. 21, 1972, except if regulations are necessary for implementation of any provision that becomes effective on Oct. 21, 1972, and continuation in effect of subchapter I of chapter 6 of Title 7, Agriculture, and regulations thereunder, relating to control of economic poisons, as in existence prior to Oct. 21, 1972, until superseded by provisions of Pub. L. 92–516 and regulations thereunder, see section 4 of Pub. L. 92–516, set out as an Effective Date note under section 136 of Title 7.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested in Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] in establishing tolerances for pesticide chemicals under this section together with authority to monitor compliance with tolerances and effectiveness of surveillance and enforcement and to provide technical assistance to States and conduct research under this chapter and section 201 et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and functions of Department of Agriculture and Secretary of Agriculture under subsec. (l) of this section transferred to Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1970, §2(a)(4), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Data Collection Activities To Assure Health of Infants and Children

Section 301 of Pub. L. 104–170 provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall coordinate the development and implementation of survey procedures to ensure that adequate data on food consumption patterns of infants and children are collected.

“(b) Procedures.—To the extent practicable, the procedures referred to in subsection (a) shall include the collection of data on food consumption patterns of a statistically valid sample of infants and children.

“(c) Residue Data Collection.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall ensure that the residue data collection activities conducted by the Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Health and Human Services, provide for the improved data collection of pesticide residues, including guidelines for the use of comparable analytical and standardized reporting methods, and the increased sampling of foods most likely consumed by infants and children.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 321, 331, 333, 342, 346b, 453, 601, 1033 of this title; title 7 sections 136, 136a–1, 450i; title 42 section 300j–17.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.

§346b. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary for the purpose and administration of sections 321(q), (r), 342(a)(2), and 346a of this title.

(July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §4, 68 Stat. 517.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

§347. Intrastate sales of colored oleomargarine

(a) Law governing

Colored oleomargarine or colored margarine which is sold in the same State or Territory in which it is produced shall be subject in the same manner and to the same extent to the provisions of this chapter as if it had been introduced in interstate commerce.

(b) Labeling and packaging requirements

No person shall sell, or offer for sale, colored oleomargarine or colored margarine unless—

(1) such oleomargarine or margarine is packaged,

(2) the net weight of the contents of any package sold in a retail establishment is one pound or less,

(3) there appears on the label of the package (A) the word “oleomargarine” or “margarine” in type or lettering at least as large as any other type or lettering on such label, and (B) a full and accurate statement of all the ingredients contained in such oleomargarine or margarine, and

(4) each part of the contents of the package is contained in a wrapper which bears the word “oleomargarine” or “margarine” in type or lettering not smaller than 20-point type.


The requirements of this subsection shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any of the other requirements of this chapter.

(c) Sales in public eating places

No person shall possess in a form ready for serving colored oleomargarine or colored margarine at a public eating place unless a notice that oleomargarine or margarine is served is displayed prominently and conspicuously in such place and in such manner as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual being served in such eating place or is printed or is otherwise set forth on the menu in type or lettering not smaller than that normally used to designate the serving of other food items. No person shall serve colored oleomargarine or colored margarine at a public eating place, whether or not any charge is made therefor, unless (1) each separate serving bears or is accompanied by labeling identifying it as oleomargarine or margarine, or (2) each separate serving thereof is triangular in shape.

(d) Exemption from labeling requirements

Colored oleomargarine or colored margarine when served with meals at a public eating place shall at the time of such service be exempt from the labeling requirements of section 343 of this title (except paragraphs (a) and (f)) if it complies with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section.

(e) Color content of oleomargarine

For the purpose of this section colored oleomargarine or colored margarine is oleomargarine or margarine having a tint or shade containing more than one and six-tenths degrees of yellow, or of yellow and red collectively, but with an excess of yellow over red, measured in terms of Lovibond tintometer scale or its equivalent.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §407, as added Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(c), 64 Stat. 20.)

Effective Date

Section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, provided that: “This Act [enacting this section and sections 347a and 347b of this title and amending sections 331 and 342 of this title and sections 45 and 55 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] shall become effective on July 1, 1950.”

Transfer of Appropriations

Section 5 of act Mar. 16, 1950, provided that: “So much of the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, or other funds (including funds available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950) for the use of the Bureau of Internal Revenue of the Treasury Department in the exercise of functions under the Oleomargarine Tax Act (26 U.S.C., §2300, subchapter A) [now section 4591 et seq. of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code], as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget [now Director of the Office of Management and Budget] may determine, shall be transferred to the Federal Security Agency (Food and Drug Administration) [now the Department of Health and Human Services] for use in the enforcement of this Act [see Effective Date note above].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 331, 347b of this title.

§347a. Congressional declaration of policy regarding oleomargarine sales

The Congress finds and declares that the sale, or the serving in public eating places, of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine without clear identification as such or which is otherwise adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of this chapter depresses the market in interstate commerce for butter and for oleomargarine or margarine clearly identified and neither adulterated nor misbranded, and constitutes a burden on interstate commerce in such articles. Such burden exists, irrespective of whether such oleomargarine or margarine originates from an interstate source or from the State in which it is sold.

(Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(a), 64 Stat. 20.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, set out as a note under section 347 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 347b of this title.

§347b. Contravention of State laws

Nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing the possession, sale, or serving of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine in any State or Territory in contravention of the laws of such State or Territory.

(Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §6, 64 Stat. 22.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, 64 Stat. 20, which is classified to sections 331, 342, 347 to 347b of this title, and sections 45 and 55 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, set out as a note under section 347 of this title.

§348. Food additives

(a) Unsafe food additives; exception for conformity with exemption or regulation

A food additive shall, with respect to any particular use or intended use of such additives, be deemed to be unsafe for the purposes of the application of clause (2)(C) of section 342(a) of this title, unless—

(1) it and its use or intended use conform to the terms of an exemption which is in effect pursuant to subsection (j) of this section;

(2) there is in effect, and it and its use or intended use are in conformity with, a regulation issued under this section prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used; or

(3) in the case of a food additive as defined in this chapter that is a food contact substance, there is—

(A) in effect, and such substance and the use of such substance are in conformity with, a regulation issued under this section prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used; or

(B) a notification submitted under subsection (h) of this section that is effective.


While such a regulation relating to a food additive, or such a notification under subsection (h)(1) of this section relating to a food additive that is a food contact substance, is in effect, and has not been revoked pursuant to subsection (i) of this section, a food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing such a food additive in accordance with the regulation or notification, be considered adulterated under section 342(a)(1) of this title.

(b) Petition for regulation prescribing conditions of safe use; contents; description of production methods and controls; samples; notice of regulation

(1) Any person may, with respect to any intended use of a food additive, file with the Secretary a petition proposing the issuance of a regulation prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used.

(2) Such petition shall, in addition to any explanatory or supporting data, contain—

(A) the name and all pertinent information concerning such food additive, including, where available, its chemical identity and composition;

(B) a statement of the conditions of the proposed use of such additive, including all directions, recommendations, and suggestions proposed for the use of such additive, and including specimens of its proposed labeling;

(C) all relevant data bearing on the physical or other technical effect such additive is intended to produce, and the quantity of such additive required to produce such effect;

(D) a description of practicable methods for determining the quantity of such additive in or on food, and any substance formed in or on food, because of its use; and

(E) full reports of investigations made with respect to the safety for use of such additive, including full information as to the methods and controls used in conducting such investigations.


(3) Upon request of the Secretary, the petitioner shall furnish (or, if the petitioner is not the manufacturer of such additive, the petitioner shall have the manufacturer of such additive furnish, without disclosure to the petitioner) a full description of the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the production of such additive.

(4) Upon request of the Secretary, the petitioner shall furnish samples of the food additive involved, or articles used as components thereof, and of the food in or on which the additive is proposed to be used.

(5) Notice of the regulation proposed by the petitioner shall be published in general terms by the Secretary within thirty days after filing.

(c) Approval or denial of petition; time for issuance of order; evaluation of data; factors

(1) The Secretary shall—

(A) by order establish a regulation (whether or not in accord with that proposed by the petitioner) prescribing, with respect to one or more proposed uses of the food additive involved, the conditions under which such additive may be safely used (including, but not limited to, specifications as to the particular food or classes of food in or in which such additive may be used, the maximum quantity which may be used or permitted to remain in or on such food, the manner in which such additive may be added to or used in or on such food, and any directions or other labeling or packaging requirements for such additive deemed necessary by him to assure the safety of such use), and shall notify the petitioner of such order and the reasons for such action; or

(B) by order deny the petition, and shall notify the petitioner of such order and of the reasons for such action.


(2) The order required by paragraph (1)(A) or (B) of this subsection shall be issued within ninety days after the date of filing of the petition, except that the Secretary may (prior to such ninetieth day), by written notice to the petitioner, extend such ninety-day period to such time (not more than one hundred and eighty days after the date of filing of the petition) as the Secretary deems necessary to enable him to study and investigate the petition.

(3) No such regulation shall issue if a fair evaluation of the data before the Secretary—

(A) fails to establish that the proposed use of the food additive, under the conditions of use to be specified in the regulation, will be safe: Provided, That no additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal, or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animal, except that this proviso shall not apply with respect to the use of a substance as an ingredient of feed for animals which are raised for food production, if the Secretary finds (i) that, under the conditions of use and feeding specified in proposed labeling and reasonably certain to be followed in practice, such additive will not adversely affect the animals for which such feed is intended, and (ii) that no residue of the additive will be found (by methods of examination prescribed or approved by the Secretary by regulations, which regulations shall not be subject to subsections (f) and (g) of this section) in any edible portion of such animal after slaughter or in any food yielded by or derived from the living animal; or

(B) shows that the proposed use of the additive would promote deception of the consumer in violation of this chapter or would otherwise result in adulteration or in misbranding of food within the meaning of this chapter.


(4) If, in the judgment of the Secretary, based upon a fair evaluation of the data before him, a tolerance limitation is required in order to assure that the proposed use of an additive will be safe, the Secretary—

(A) shall not fix such tolerance limitation at a level higher than he finds to be reasonably required to accomplish the physical or other technical effect for which such additive is intended; and

(B) shall not establish a regulation for such proposed use if he finds upon a fair evaluation of the data before him that such data do not establish that such use would accomplish the intended physical or other technical effect.


(5) In determining, for the purposes of this section, whether a proposed use of a food additive is safe, the Secretary shall consider among other relevant factors—

(A) the probable consumption of the additive and of any substance formed in or on food because of the use of the additive;

(B) the cumulative effect of such additive in the diet of man or animals, taking into account any chemically or pharmacologically related substance or substances in such diet; and

(C) safety factors which in the opinion of experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of food additives are generally recognized as appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data.

(d) Regulation issued on Secretary's initiative

The Secretary may at any time, upon his own initiative, propose the issuance of a regulation prescribing, with respect to any particular use of a food additive, the conditions under which such additive may be safely used, and the reasons therefor. After the thirtieth day following publication of such a proposal, the Secretary may by order establish a regulation based upon the proposal.

(e) Publication and effective date of orders

Any order, including any regulation established by such order, issued under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, shall be published and shall be effective upon publication, but the Secretary may stay such effectiveness if, after issuance of such order, a hearing is sought with respect to such order pursuant to subsection (f) of this section.

(f) Objections and public hearing; basis and contents of order; statement

(1) Within thirty days after publication of an order made pursuant to subsection (c) or (d) of this section, any person adversely affected by such an order may file objections thereto with the Secretary, specifying with particularity the provisions of the order deemed objectionable, stating reasonable grounds therefor, and requesting a public hearing upon such objections. The Secretary shall, after due notice, as promptly as possible hold such public hearing for the purpose of receiving evidence relevant and material to the issues raised by such objections. As soon as practicable after completion of the hearing, the Secretary shall by order act upon such objections and make such order public.

(2) Such order shall be based upon a fair evaluation of the entire record at such hearing, and shall include a statement setting forth in detail the findings and conclusions upon which the order is based.

(3) The Secretary shall specify in the order the date on which it shall take effect, except that it shall not be made to take effect prior to the ninetieth day after its publication, unless the Secretary finds that emergency conditions exist necessitating an earlier effective date, in which event the Secretary shall specify in the order his findings as to such conditions.

(g) Judicial review

(1) In a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any order issued under subsection (f) of this section, including any order thereunder with respect to amendment or repeal of a regulation issued under this section, any person who will be adversely affected by such order may obtain judicial review by filing in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit wherein such person resides or has his principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within sixty days after the entry of such order, a petition praying that the order be set aside in whole or in part.

(2) A copy of such petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary, or any officer designated by him for that purpose, and thereupon the Secretary shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which he based his order, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such petition the court shall have jurisdiction, which upon the filing of the record with it shall be exclusive, to affirm or set aside the order complained of in whole or in part. Until the filing of the record the Secretary may modify or set aside his order. The findings of the Secretary with respect to questions of fact shall be sustained if based upon a fair evaluation of the entire record at such hearing.

(3) The court, on such judicial review, shall not sustain the order of the Secretary if he failed to comply with any requirement imposed on him by subsection (f)(2) of this section.

(4) If application is made to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Secretary and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper, if such evidence is material and there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the proceedings below. The Secretary may modify his findings as to the facts and order by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and shall file with the court such modified findings and order.

(5) The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any order under this section shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28. The commencement of proceedings under this section shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court to the contrary, operate as a stay of an order.

(h) Notification relating to food contact substance

(1) Subject to such regulations as may be promulgated under paragraph (3), a manufacturer or supplier of a food contact substance may, at least 120 days prior to the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of the food contact substance, notify the Secretary of the identity and intended use of the food contact substance, and of the determination of the manufacturer or supplier that the intended use of such food contact substance is safe under the standard described in subsection (c)(3)(A) of this section. The notification shall contain the information that forms the basis of the determination and all information required to be submitted by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(2)(A) A notification submitted under paragraph (1) shall become effective 120 days after the date of receipt by the Secretary and the food contact substance may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, unless the Secretary makes a determination within the 120-day period that, based on the data and information before the Secretary, such use of the food contact substance has not been shown to be safe under the standard described in subsection (c)(3)(A) of this section, and informs the manufacturer or supplier of such determination.

(B) A decision by the Secretary to object to a notification shall constitute final agency action subject to judicial review.

(C) In this paragraph, the term “food contact substance” means the substance that is the subject of a notification submitted under paragraph (1), and does not include a similar or identical substance manufactured or prepared by a person other than the manufacturer identified in the notification.

(3)(A) The process in this subsection shall be utilized for authorizing the marketing of a food contact substance except where the Secretary determines that submission and review of a petition under subsection (b) of this section is necessary to provide adequate assurance of safety, or where the Secretary and any manufacturer or supplier agree that such manufacturer or supplier may submit a petition under subsection (b) of this section.

(B) The Secretary is authorized to promulgate regulations to identify the circumstances in which a petition shall be filed under subsection (b) of this section, and shall consider criteria such as the probable consumption of such food contact substance and potential toxicity of the food contact substance in determining the circumstances in which a petition shall be filed under subsection (b) of this section.

(4) The Secretary shall keep confidential any information provided in a notification under paragraph (1) for 120 days after receipt by the Secretary of the notification. After the expiration of such 120 days, the information shall be available to any interested party except for any matter in the notification that is a trade secret or confidential commercial information.

(5)(A)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), the notification program established under this subsection shall not operate in any fiscal year unless—

(I) an appropriation equal to or exceeding the applicable amount under clause (iv) is made for such fiscal year for carrying out such program in such fiscal year; and

(II) the Secretary certifies that the amount appropriated for such fiscal year for the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition of the Food and Drug Administration (exclusive of the appropriation referred to in subclause (I)) equals or exceeds the amount appropriated for the Center for fiscal year 1997, excluding any amount appropriated for new programs.


(ii) The Secretary shall, not later than April 1, 1999, begin accepting and reviewing notifications submitted under the notification program established under this subsection if—

(I) an appropriation equal to or exceeding the applicable amount under clause (iii) is made for the last six months of fiscal year 1999 for carrying out such program during such period; and

(II) the Secretary certifies that the amount appropriated for such period for the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition of the Food and Drug Administration (exclusive of the appropriation referred to in subclause (I)) equals or exceeds an amount equivalent to one-half the amount appropriated for the Center for fiscal year 1997, excluding any amount appropriated for new programs.


(iii) For the last six months of fiscal year 1999, the applicable amount under this clause is $1,500,000, or the amount specified in the budget request of the President for the six-month period involved for carrying out the notification program in fiscal year 1999, whichever is less.

(iv) For fiscal year 2000 and subsequent fiscal years, the applicable amount under this clause is $3,000,000, or the amount specified in the budget request of the President for the fiscal year involved for carrying out the notification program under this subsection, whichever is less.

(B) For purposes of carrying out the notification program under this subsection, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1999 through fiscal year 2003, except that such authorization of appropriations is not effective for a fiscal year for any amount that is less than the applicable amount under clause (iii) or (iv) of subparagraph (A), whichever is applicable.

(C) Not later than April 1 of fiscal year 1998 and February 1 of each subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate, the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate that provides an estimate of the Secretary of the costs of carrying out the notification program established under this subsection for the next fiscal year.

(6) In this section, the term “food contact substance” means any substance intended for use as a component of materials used in manufacturing, packing, packaging, transporting, or holding food if such use is not intended to have any technical effect in such food.

(i) Amendment or repeal of regulations

The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the procedure by which regulations under the foregoing provisions of this section may be amended or repealed, and such procedure shall conform to the procedure provided in this section for the promulgation of such regulations. The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the procedure by which the Secretary may deem a notification under subsection (h) of this section to no longer be effective.

(j) Exemptions for investigational use

Without regard to subsections (b) to (i), inclusive, of this section, the Secretary shall by regulation provide for exempting from the requirements of this section any food additive, and any food bearing or containing such additive, intended solely for investigational use by qualified experts when in his opinion such exemption is consistent with the public health.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §409, as added Pub. L. 85–929, §4, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1785; amended Pub. L. 86–546, §2, June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 255; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §104(f)(1), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 785; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(25)(B), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359; Pub. L. 105–115, title III, §309, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2354.)

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(a)(4), in closing provisions, substituted “While such a regulation relating to a food additive, or such a notification under subsection (h)(1) of this section relating to a food additive that is a food contact substance, is in effect, and has not been revoked pursuant to subsection (i) of this section, a food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing such a food additive in accordance with the regulation or notification, be considered adulterated under section 342(a)(1) of this title.” for “While such a regulation relating to a food additive is in effect, a food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing such an additive in accordance with the regulation, be considered adulterated within the meaning of clause (1) of section 342(a) of this title.”

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(a)(1), substituted “subsection (j)” for “subsection (i)”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(a)(1)(B), (2), (3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(b)(2), added subsec. (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(b)(1), (3), redesignated subsec. (h) as (i) and inserted at end “The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the procedure by which the Secretary may deem a notification under subsection (h) of this section to no longer be effective.”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(b)(1), (4), redesignated subsec. (i) as (j) and substituted “subsections (b) to (i)” for “subsections (b) to (h)”.

1984—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provision that required the court to advance on the docket and expedite the disposition of all causes filed therein pursuant to this section.

1962—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 87–781 excepted proviso from applying to use of a substance as an ingredient of feed for animals raised for food production, if under conditions of use specified in proposed labeling, and which conditions are reasonably certain to be followed in practice, such additive will not adversely affect the animals and no residue will be found in any edible portion of such animal after slaughter, or in any food from the living animal.

1960—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 86–546 substituted “forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary, or any officer” for “served upon the Secretary, or upon any officer”, “shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which he based his order, as provided in section 2112 of title 28” for “shall certify and file in the court a transcript of the proceedings and the record on which he based his order”, and “Upon the filing of such petition the court shall have jurisdiction, which upon the filing of the record with it shall be exclusive,” for “Upon such filing, the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction”, and inserted sentence authorizing the Secretary to modify or set aside his order until the filing of the record.

Change of Name

Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment; Exceptions

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–781 effective Oct. 10, 1962, see section 107 of Pub. L. 87–781, set out as an Effective Date of 1962 Amendment note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 6, 1958, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as an Effective Date of 1958 Amendment note under section 342 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested in Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] in establishing tolerances for pesticide chemicals under this section together with authority to monitor compliance with tolerances and effectiveness of surveillance and enforcement and to provide technical assistance to States and conduct research under this chapter and section 201 et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, transferred to Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1970, §2(a)(4), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Glass and Ceramic Ware

Section 308 of Pub. L. 105–115 provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary may not implement any requirement which would ban, as an unapproved food additive, lead and cadmium based enamel in the lip and rim area of glass and ceramic ware before the expiration of one year after the date such requirement is published.

“(b) Lead and Cadmium Based Enamel.—Unless the Secretary determines, based on available data, that lead and cadmium based enamel on glass and ceramic ware—

“(1) which has less than 60 millimeters of decorating area below the external rim, and

“(2) which is not, by design, representation, or custom of usage intended for use by children,

is unsafe, the Secretary shall not take any action before January 1, 2003, to ban lead and cadmium based enamel on such glass and ceramic ware. Any action taken after January 1, 2003, to ban such enamel on such glass and ceramic ware as an unapproved food additive shall be taken by regulation and such regulation shall provide that such products shall not be removed from the market before 1 year after publication of the final regulation.”

Moratorium on Authority of Secretary With Respect to Saccharin

Pub. L. 95–203, §3, Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1452, as amended by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 96–273, June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 536; Pub. L. 97–42, §2, Aug. 14, 1981, 95 Stat. 946; Pub. L. 98–22, §2, Apr. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 99–46, May 24, 1985, 99 Stat. 81; Pub. L. 100–71, title I, §101, July 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 431; Pub. L. 102–142, title VI, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 910; Pub. L. 104–180, title VI, §602, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1594, provided that: “During the period ending May 1, 2002, the Secretary—

“(1) may not amend or revoke the interim food additive regulation of the Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services applicable to saccharin and published on March 15, 1977 (section 180.37 of part 180, subchapter B, chapter 1, title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (42 Fed. Reg. 14638)), or

“(2) may, except as provided in section 4 [enacting section 343a of this title, amending sections 321 and 343 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 343 of this title] and the amendments made by such section, not take any other action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] to prohibit or restrict the sale or distribution of saccharin, any food permitted by such interim food additive regulation to contain saccharin, or any drug or cosmetic containing saccharin,

solely on the basis of the carcinogenic or other toxic effect of saccharin as determined by any study made available to the Secretary before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1977] which involved human studies or animal testing, or both.”

For definition of “saccharin” as used in this note, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 95–203.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 321, 331, 342, 343–3, 346a, 379e, 453, 601, 1033 of this title; title 7 sections 136, 450i; title 15 section 1262; title 35 section 155.

§349. Bottled drinking water standards; publication in Federal Register

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, whenever the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency prescribes interim or revised national primary drinking water regulations under section 1412 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300g–1], the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator and within 180 days after the promulgation of such drinking water regulations either promulgate amendments to regulations under this chapter applicable to bottled drinking water or publish in the Federal Register his reasons for not making such amendments.

(b)(1) Not later than 180 days before the effective date of a national primary drinking water regulation promulgated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for a contaminant under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the Secretary shall promulgate a standard of quality regulation under this subsection for that contaminant in bottled water or make a finding that such a regulation is not necessary to protect the public health because the contaminant is contained in water in public water systems (as defined under section 1401(4) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 300f(4))) but not in water used for bottled drinking water. The effective date for any such standard of quality regulation shall be the same as the effective date for such national primary drinking water regulation, except for any standard of quality of regulation promulgated by the Secretary before August 6, 1996, for which (as of August 6, 1996) an effective date had not been established. In the case of a standard of quality regulation to which such exception applies, the Secretary shall promulgate monitoring requirements for the contaminants covered by the regulation not later than 2 years after August 6, 1996.

(2) A regulation issued by the Secretary as provided in this subsection shall include any monitoring requirements that the Secretary determines appropriate for bottled water.

(3) A regulation issued by the Secretary as provided in this subsection shall require the following:

(A) In the case of contaminants for which a maximum contaminant level is established in a national primary drinking water regulation under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the regulation under this subsection shall establish a maximum contaminant level for the contaminant in bottled water which is no less stringent than the maximum contaminant level provided in the national primary drinking water regulation.

(B) In the case of contaminants for which a treatment technique is established in a national primary drinking water regulation under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the regulation under this subsection shall require that bottled water be subject to requirements no less protective of the public health than those applicable to water provided by public water systems using the treatment technique required by the national primary drinking water regulation.


(4)(A) If the Secretary does not promulgate a regulation under this subsection within the period described in paragraph (1), the national primary drinking water regulation referred to in paragraph (1) shall be considered, as of the date on which the Secretary is required to establish a regulation under paragraph (1), as the regulation applicable under this subsection to bottled water.

(B) In the case of a national primary drinking water regulation that pursuant to subparagraph (A) is considered to be a standard of quality regulation, the Secretary shall, not later than the applicable date referred to in such subparagraph, publish in the Federal Register a notice—

(i) specifying the contents of such regulation, including monitoring requirements; and

(ii) providing that for purposes of this paragraph the effective date for such regulation is the same as the effective date for the regulation for purposes of the Safe Drinking Water Act [42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.] (or, if the exception under paragraph (1) applies to the regulation, that the effective date for the regulation is not later than 2 years and 180 days after August 6, 1996).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §410, as added Pub. L. 93–523, §4, Dec. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1694; amended Pub. L. 104–182, title III, §305, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1684.)

References in Text

The Safe Drinking Water Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(B)(ii), is title XIV of act July 1, 1944, as added Dec. 16, 1974, Pub. L. 93–523, §2(a), 88 Stat. 1660, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter XII (§300f et seq.) of chapter 6A of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–182 substituted “(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, whenever” for “Whenever” and added subsec. (b).

Bottled Water Study

Section 114(b) of Pub. L. 104–182 provided that: “Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 6, 1996], the Administrator of the Food and Drug Administration, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall publish for public notice and comment a draft study on the feasibility of appropriate methods, if any, of informing customers of the contents of bottled water. The Administrator of the Food and Drug Administration shall publish a final study not later than 30 months after the date of enactment of this Act.”

§350. Vitamins and minerals

(a) Authority and limitations of Secretary; applicability

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2)—

(A) the Secretary may not establish, under section 321(n), 341, or 343 of this title, maximum limits on the potency of any synthetic or natural vitamin or mineral within a food to which this section applies;

(B) the Secretary may not classify any natural or synthetic vitamin or mineral (or combination thereof) as a drug solely because it exceeds the level of potency which the Secretary determines is nutritionally rational or useful;

(C) the Secretary may not limit, under section 321(n), 341, or 343 of this title, the combination or number of any synthetic or natural—

(i) vitamin,

(ii) mineral, or

(iii) other ingredient of food,


within a food to which this section applies.


(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of a vitamin, mineral, other ingredient of food, or food, which is represented for use by individuals in the treatment or management of specific diseases or disorders, by children, or by pregnant or lactating women. For purposes of this subparagraph,1 the term “children” means individuals who are under the age of twelve years.

(b) Labeling and advertising requirements for foods

(1) A food to which this section applies shall not be deemed under section 343 of this title to be misbranded solely because its label bears, in accordance with section 343(i)(2) of this title, all the ingredients in the food or its advertising contains references to ingredients in the food which are not vitamins or minerals.

(2) The labeling for any food to which this section applies may not list its ingredients which are not dietary supplement ingredients described in section 321(ff) of this title (i) except as a part of a list of all the ingredients of such food, and (ii) unless such ingredients are listed in accordance with applicable regulations under section 343 of this title. To the extent that compliance with clause (i) of this subparagraph is impracticable or results in deception or unfair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(c) Definitions

(1) For purposes of this section, the term “food to which this section applies” means a food for humans which is a food for special dietary use—

(A) which is or contains any natural or synthetic vitamin or mineral, and

(B) which—

(i) is intended for ingestion in tablet, capsule, powder, softgel, gelcap, or liquid form, or

(ii) if not intended for ingestion in such a form, is not represented as conventional food and is not represented for use as a sole item of a meal or of the diet.


(2) For purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(i), a food shall be considered as intended for ingestion in liquid form only if it is formulated in a fluid carrier and it is intended for ingestion in daily quantities measured in drops or similar small units of measure.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1) and of section 343(j) of this title insofar as that section is applicable to food to which this section applies, the term “special dietary use” as applied to food used by man means a particular use for which a food purports or is represented to be used, including but not limited to the following:

(A) Supplying a special dietary need that exists by reason of a physical, physiological, pathological, or other condition, including but not limited to the condition of disease, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, infancy, allergic hypersensitivity to food, underweight, overweight, or the need to control the intake of sodium.

(B) Supplying a vitamin, mineral, or other ingredient for use by man to supplement his diet by increasing the total dietary intake.

(C) Supplying a special dietary need by reason of being a food for use as the sole item of the diet.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §411, as added Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §501(a), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 410; amended Pub. L. 103–417, §§3(c), 7(d), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4328, 4331.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–417, §7(d), redesignated subpar. (A) as par. (2), substituted “dietary supplement ingredients described in section 321(ff) of this title” for “vitamins or minerals”, and struck out former subpar. (B), which read as follows: “Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (A), the labeling and advertising for any food to which this section applies may not give prominence to or emphasize ingredients which are not—

“(i) vitamins,

“(ii) minerals, or

“(iii) represented as a source of vitamins or minerals.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 103–417, §3(c)(1), inserted “powder, softgel, gelcap,” after “capsule,”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–417, §3(c)(2), struck out “does not simulate and” after “in such a form,”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

For provision that dietary supplements may be labeled after Oct. 25, 1994, in accordance with amendments made by section 7(d) of Pub. L. 103–417, and shall be so labeled after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 103–417, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Amendment of Inconsistent Regulations by Secretary

Section 501(b) of Pub. L. 94–278, as amended by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, provided that: “The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall amend any regulation promulgated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] which is inconsistent with section 411 of such Act [section 350 of this title] (as added by subsection (a)) and such amendments shall be promulgated in accordance with section 553 of title 5, United States Code.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 321, 343 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “paragraph”.

§350a. Infant formulas

(a) Adulteration

An infant formula, including an infant formula powder, shall be deemed to be adulterated if—

(1) such infant formula does not provide nutrients as required by subsection (i) of this section,

(2) such infant formula does not meet the quality factor requirements prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (b)(1) of this section, or

(3) the processing of such infant formula is not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices and the quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (b)(2) of this section.

(b) Requirements for quality factors, good manufacturing practices, and retention of records

(1) The Secretary shall by regulation establish requirements for quality factors for infant formulas to the extent possible consistent with current scientific knowledge, including quality factor requirements for the nutrients required by subsection (i) of this section.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall by regulation establish good manufacturing practices for infant formulas, including quality control procedures that the Secretary determines are necessary to assure that an infant formula provides nutrients in accordance with this subsection and subsection (i) of this section and is manufactured in a manner designed to prevent adulteration of the infant formula.

(B) The good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) shall include requirements for—

(i) the testing, in accordance with paragraph (3) and by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer, of each batch of infant formula for each nutrient required by subsection (i) of this section before the distribution of such batch,

(ii) regularly scheduled testing, by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer, of samples of infant formulas during the shelf life of such formulas to ensure that such formulas are in compliance with this section,

(iii) in-process controls including, where necessary, testing required by good manufacturing practices designed to prevent adulteration of each batch of infant formula, and

(iv) the conduct by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer of regularly scheduled audits to determine that such manufacturer has complied with the regulations prescribed under subparagraph (A).


In prescribing requirements for audits under clause (iv), the Secretary shall provide that such audits be conducted by appropriately trained individuals who do not have any direct responsibility for the manufacture or production of infant formula.

(3)(A) At the final product stage, each batch of infant formula shall be tested for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin C, and vitamin E to ensure that such infant formula is in compliance with the requirements of this subsection and subsection (i) of this section relating to such vitamins.

(B) Each nutrient premix used in the manufacture of an infant formula shall be tested for each relied upon nutrient required by subsection (i) of this section which is contained in such premix to ensure that such premix is in compliance with its specifications or certifications by a premix supplier.

(C) During the manufacturing process or at the final product stage and before distribution of an infant formula, an infant formula shall be tested for all nutrients required to be included in such formula by subsection (i) of this section for which testing has not been conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (B). Testing under this subparagraph shall be conducted to—

(i) ensure that each batch of such infant formula is in compliance with the requirements of subsection (i) of this section relating to such nutrients, and

(ii) confirm that nutrients contained in any nutrient premix used in such infant formula are present in each batch of such infant formula in the proper concentration.


(D) If the Secretary adds a nutrient to the list of nutrients in the table in subsection (i) of this section, the Secretary shall by regulation require that the manufacturer of an infant formula test each batch of such formula for such new nutrient in accordance with subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).

(E) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “final product stage” means the point in the manufacturing process, before distribution of an infant formula, at which an infant formula is homogenous and is not subject to further degradation.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall by regulation establish requirements respecting the retention of records. Such requirements shall provide for—

(i) the retention of all records necessary to demonstrate compliance with the good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2), including records containing the results of all testing required under paragraph (2)(B),

(ii) the retention of all certifications or guarantees of analysis by premix suppliers,

(iii) the retention by a premix supplier of all records necessary to confirm the accuracy of all premix c