TITLE 50—WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Council of National Defense
1
2.
Board of Ordnance and Fortification [Repealed]
11
3.
Alien Enemies
21
4.
Espionage [Repealed or Transferred]
31
4A.
Photographing, Sketching, Mapping, etc., Defensive Installations [Repealed]
45
4B.
Disclosure of Classified Information [Repealed]
46
4C.
Atomic Weapons and Special Nuclear Materials Information Rewards
47a
5.
Arsenals, Armories, Arms, and War Material Generally
51
6.
Willful Destruction, etc., of War or National-Defense Material [Repealed]
101
7.
Interference With Homing Pigeons Owned by United States [Repealed]
111
8.
Explosives; Manufacture, Distribution, Storage, Use, and Possession Regulated [Repealed]
121
9.
Aircraft [Omitted, Repealed, or Transferred]
151
10.
Helium Gas
161
11.
Acquisition of and Expenditures on Land for National-Defense Purposes [Repealed, Omitted, or Transferred]
171
12.
Vessels in Territorial Waters of United States
191
13.
Insurrection
201
14.
Wartime Voting by Land and Naval Forces [Repealed]
301
15.
National Security
401
16.
Defense Industrial Reserves
451
17.
Arming American Vessels [Repealed]
481
18.
Air-Warning Screen
491
19.
Guided Missiles
501
20.
Wind Tunnels
511
21.
Abaca├┐AE1 Production [Omitted]
541
22.
Uniform Code of Military Justice [Repealed or Omitted]
551
22A.
Representation of Armed Forces Personnel Before Foreign Judicial Tribunals [Repealed]
751
23.
Internal Security
781
24.
National Defense Facilities [Repealed]
881
25.
Armed Forces Reserve [Repealed or Omitted]
901
26.
Gifts for Defense Purposes [Repealed]
1151
27.
Reserve Officer Personnel Program [Repealed or Omitted]
1181
28.
Status of Armed Forces Personnel Appointed to Service Academies [Repealed]
1411
29.
National Defense Contracts
1431
30.
Federal Absentee Voting Assistance [Transferred]
1451
31.
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations [Transferred to Chapter 53 of Title 42]
1501
32.
Chemical and Biological Warfare Program
1511
33.
War Powers Resolution
1541
34.
National Emergencies
1601
35.
International Emergency Economic Powers
1701
36.
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
1801
37.
National Security Scholarships, Fellowships, and Grants
1901
38.
Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability
2001
39.
Spoils of War
2201
40.
Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction
2301
41.
National Nuclear Security Administration
2401
42.
Atomic Energy Defense Provisions
2501

        

Ratification of Japanese Treaty

The Treaty of Peace with Japan, signed at San Francisco on Sept. 8, 1951, was ratified by the United States Senate on Mar. 20, 1952. For Resolution of Ratification, see Congressional Record, Vol. 98, No. 46, Thursday, Mar. 20, 1952, p. 2634. According to Proc. No. 2974, eff. Apr. 29, 1952, 17 F.R. 3813, 66 Stat. c31, terminating the national emergencies proclaimed on September 8, 1939, and May 27, 1941, and set out as a note preceding section 1 of the Appendix to this title, such treaty came into force on Apr. 28, 1952.

Title Referred to in Other Sections

This title is referred to in title 49 section 40125.

CHAPTER 1—COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE

Sec.
1.
Creation, purpose, and composition of council.
2.
Advisory commission.
3.
Duties of council.
4.
Rule and regulations; subordinate bodies and committees.
5.
Reports of subordinate bodies and committees; unvouchered expenditures.
6.
Repealed.

        

§1. Creation, purpose, and composition of council

A Council of National Defense is established, for the coordination of industries and resources for the national security and welfare, to consist of the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Labor.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 649; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Sections 1 to 5 of this title are from section 2 of act Aug. 29, 1916, popularly known as the Army Appropriation Act for the fiscal year 1916.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of certain membership functions, insofar as they pertain to Air Force, which functions were not previously transferred from Secretary of the Army and Department of the Army to Secretary of the Air Force and Department of the Air Force, see Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 40 [App. C(11)], July 22, 1949.

§2. Advisory commission

The Council of National Defense shall nominate to the President, and the President shall appoint, an advisory commission, consisting of not more than seven persons, each of whom shall have special knowledge of some industry, public utility, or the development of some natural resource, or be otherwise specially qualified, in the opinion of the council, for the performance of the duties hereinafter provided. The members of the advisory commission shall serve without compensation, but shall be allowed actual expenses of travel and subsistence when attending meetings of the commission or engaged in investigations pertaining to its activities. The advisory commission shall hold such meetings as shall be called by the council or be provided by the rules and regulations adopted by the council for the conduct of its work.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 649.)

Termination of Advisory Commissions

Advisory commissions in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. Advisory commissions established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3. Duties of council

It shall be the duty of the Council of National Defense to supervise and direct investigations and make recommendations to the President and the heads of executive departments as to the location of railroads with reference to the frontier of the United States so as to render possible expeditious concentration of troops and supplies to points of defense; the coordination of military, industrial, and commercial purposes in the location of branch lines of railroad; the utilization of waterways; the mobilization of military and naval resources for defense; the increase of domestic production of articles and materials essential to the support of armies and of the people during the interruption of foreign commerce; the development of seagoing transportation; data as to amounts, location, method and means of production, and availability of military supplies; the giving of information to producers and manufacturers as to the class of supplies needed by the military and other services of the Government, the requirements relating thereto, and the creation of relations which will render possible in time of need the immediate concentration and utilization of the resources of the Nation.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 649; Nov. 9, 1921, ch. 119, §3, 42 Stat. 212.)

Codification

The words “extensive highways and” which preceded “branch lines of railroad” omitted on authority of act Nov. 9, 1921, which transferred powers and duties of Council relating to highways to Secretary of Commerce.

§4. Rules and regulations; subordinate bodies and committees

The Council of National Defense shall adopt rules and regulations for the conduct of its work, which rules and regulations shall be subject to the approval of the President, and shall provide for the work of the advisory commission to the end that the special knowledge of such commission may be developed by suitable investigation, research, and inquiry and made available in conference and report for the use of the council; and the council may organize subordinate bodies for its assistance in special investigations, either by the employment of experts or by the creation of committees of specially qualified persons to serve without compensation, but to direct the investigations of experts so employed.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 650.)

Termination of Advisory Commissions

Advisory commissions in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. Advisory commissions established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§5. Reports of subordinate bodies and committees; unvouchered expenditures

Reports shall be submitted by all subordinate bodies and by the advisory commission to the council, and from time to time the council shall report to the President or to the heads of executive departments upon special inquiries or subjects appropriate thereto. When deemed proper the President may authorize, in amounts stipulated by him, unvouchered expenditures.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 650; Aug. 7, 1946, ch. 770, §1(53), 60 Stat. 870.)

Codification

Second sentence was from a proviso to the first sentence, which was affected by act Aug. 7, 1946.

Amendments

1946—Act Aug. 7, 1946, repealed all provisions requiring annual reports to Congress of the Council's activities and expenditures.

Termination of Advisory Commissions

Advisory commissions in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. Advisory commissions established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§6. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 644

Section, act June 5, 1920, ch. 235, 41 Stat. 886, placed a limit on salaries of officers and employees of Council of National Defense.

CHAPTER 2—BOARD OF ORDNANCE AND FORTIFICATION

§§11 to 15. Repealed. Dec. 16, 1930, ch. 14, §1, 46 Stat. 1029

Section 11, act Sept. 22, 1888, ch. 1028, §1, 25 Stat. 489, related to composition and duties of Board of Ordnance and Fortification.

Section 12, act Feb. 24, 1891, ch. 283, 26 Stat. 769, provided for a civilian member of Board.

Section 13, act Mar. 2, 1901, ch. 803, 31 Stat. 910, provided for additional members of Board.

Section 14, act Feb. 18, 1893, ch. 136, 27 Stat. 461, related to qualifications of Board Members.

Section 15, act Sept. 22, 1888, ch. 1028, §6, 25 Stat. 490, related to purchases and tests.

CHAPTER 3—ALIEN ENEMIES

Sec.
21.
Restraint, regulation, and removal.
22.
Time allowed to settle affairs and depart.
23.
Jurisdiction of United States courts and judges.
24.
Duties of marshals.

        

§21. Restraint, regulation, and removal

Whenever there is a declared war between the United States and any foreign nation or government, or any invasion or predatory incursion is perpetrated, attempted or threatened against the territory of the United States by any foreign nation or government, and the President makes public proclamation of the event, all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government, being of the age of fourteen years and upward, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed as alien enemies. The President is authorized in any such event, by his proclamation thereof, or other public act, to direct the conduct to be observed on the part of the United States, toward the aliens who become so liable; the manner and degree of the restraint to which they shall be subject and in what cases, and upon what security their residence shall be permitted, and to provide for the removal of those who, not being permitted to reside within the United States, refuse or neglect to depart therefrom; and to establish any other regulations which are found necessary in the premises and for the public safety.

(R.S. §4067; Apr. 16, 1918, ch. 55, 40 Stat. 531.)

Codification

R.S. §4067 derived from act July 6, 1798, ch. 66, §1, 1 Stat. 577.

Amendments

1918—Act Apr. 16, 1918, struck out provision restricting this section to males.

World War II Proclamations

The following proclamations under this section were issued during World War II:

Proc. No. 2525, Dec. 7, 1941, 6 F.R. 6321, 55 Stat. Pt. 2, 1700.

Proc. No. 2526, Dec. 8, 1941, 6 F.R. 6323, 55 Stat. Pt. 2, 1705.

Proc. No. 2527, Dec. 8, 1941, 6 F.R. 6324, 55 Stat. Pt. 2, 1707.

Proc. No. 2533, Dec. 29, 1941, 7 F.R. 55, 55 Stat. Pt. 2, 1714.

Proc. No. 2537, Jan. 14, 1942, 7 F.R. 329, 56 Stat. Pt. 2, 1933, revoked by Proc. No. 2678, Dec. 29, 1945, 11 F.R. 221, 60 Stat. Pt. 2, 1336.

Proc. No. 2563, July 17, 1942, 7 F.R. 5535, 56 Stat. Pt. 2, 1970.

Proc. No. 2655, July 14, 1945, 10 F.R. 8947, 59 Stat. Pt. 2, 870.

Proc. No. 2674, Dec. 7, 1945, 10 F.R. 14945, 59 Stat. Pt. 2, 889.

Proc. No. 2685, Apr. 11, 1946, 11 F.R. 4079, 60 Stat. Pt. 2, 1342, set out as a note preceding section 1 of Appendix to this title.

World War I Proclamations

Proclamations issued under this chapter during the years 1917 and 1918 will be found in 40 Stat. 1651, 1716, 1730, and 1772.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 22 of this title; sections 9, 34, 1981, 1982 of Appendix to this title; title 5 section 8332.

§22. Time allowed to settle affairs and depart

When an alien who becomes liable as an enemy, in the manner prescribed in section 21 of this title, is not chargeable with actual hostility, or other crime against the public safety, he shall be allowed, for the recovery, disposal, and removal of his goods and effects, and for his departure, the full time which is or shall be stipulated by any treaty then in force between the United States and the hostile nation or government of which he is a native citizen, denizen, or subject; and where no such treaty exists, or is in force, the President may ascertain and declare such reasonable time as may be consistent with the public safety, and according to the dictates of humanity and national hospitality.

(R.S. §4068.)

Codification

R.S. §4068 derived from acts July 6, 1798, ch. 66, §1, 1 Stat. 577; July 6, 1812, ch. 130, 2 Stat. 781.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 9, 34, 1981, 1982 of Appendix to this title; title 5 section 8332.

§23. Jurisdiction of United States courts and judges

After any such proclamation has been made, the several courts of the United States, having criminal jurisdiction, and the several justices and judges of the courts of the United States, are authorized and it shall be their duty, upon complaint against any alien enemy resident and at large within such jurisdiction or district, to the danger of the public peace or safety, and contrary to the tenor or intent of such proclamation, or other regulations which the President may have established, to cause such alien to be duly apprehended and conveyed before such court, judge, or justice; and after a full examination and hearing on such complaint, and sufficient cause appearing, to order such alien to be removed out of the territory of the United States, or to give sureties for his good behavior, or to be otherwise restrained, conformably to the proclamation or regulations established as aforesaid, and to imprison, or otherwise secure such alien, until the order which may be so made shall be performed.

(R.S. §4069.)

Codification

R.S. §4069 derived from act July 6, 1798, ch. 66, §2, 1 Stat. 577.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 9, 34, 1981, 1982 of Appendix to this title; title 5 section 8332.

§24. Duties of marshals

When an alien enemy is required by the President, or by order of any court, judge, or justice, to depart and to be removed, it shall be the duty of the marshal of the district in which he shall be apprehended to provide therefor and to execute such order in person, or by his deputy or other discreet person to be employed by him, by causing a removal of such alien out of the territory of the United States; and for such removal the marshal shall have the warrant of the President, or of the court, judge, or justice ordering the same, as the case may be.

(R.S. §4070.)

Codification

R.S. §4070 derived from act July 6, 1798, ch. 66, §3, 1 Stat. 578.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 9, 34, 1981, 1982 of Appendix to this title; title 5 section 8332.

CHAPTER 4—ESPIONAGE

§§31 to 39. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 31, acts June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §1, 40 Stat. 217; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, title I, §1, 54 Stat. 79, related to unlawful obtaining or permitting to be obtained information affecting national defense. See section 793 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 32, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §2, 40 Stat. 218, related to unlawful disclosures affecting national defense. See section 794 of Title 18.

Section 33, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §3, 40 Stat. 219, related to seditious or disloyal acts or words in time of war. See section 2388 of Title 18. Section 33 was amended by act May 16, 1918, ch. 75, §1, 40 Stat. 553, which was repealed and the original section reenacted by act Mar. 3, 1921, ch. 136, 41 Stat. 1359.

Section 34, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §4, 40 Stat. 219, related to conspiracy to violate sections 32 and 33 of this title. See sections 794 and 2388 of Title 18.

Section 35, acts June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §5, 40 Stat. 219; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, §2, 54 Stat. 79, related to the harboring or concealing of violators of the law. See sections 792 and 2388 of Title 18.

Section 36, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §6, 40 Stat. 219, related to designation by proclamation of prohibited areas. See section 793 of Title 18.

Section 37, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §8, 40 Stat. 219, related to places subject to provisions of sections 31 to 42 of this title. See section 2388 of Title 18.

Section 38, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §7, 40 Stat. 219, related to jurisdiction of courts-martial and military commissions.

Section 39, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §2, 40 Stat. 231; Proc. No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352, related to jurisdiction of Canal Zone courts over offenses on high seas. See section 3241 of Title 18.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of sections 31 to 39 effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§40. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §1, 40 Stat. 231, defined “United States” as used in act June 15, 1917, and was transferred to section 195 of this title.

§41. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title VIII, §4, 40 Stat. 226, defined “Foreign government”. See section 11 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§42. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §4, 40 Stat. 231, related to savings provisions and is set out as a Separability note under section 191 of this title.

Section was formerly classified to section 536 of Title 18 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683.

CHAPTER 4A—PHOTOGRAPHING, SKETCHING, MAPPING, ETC., DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS

§§45 to 45d. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 45, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §1, 52 Stat. 3, related to photographing of defensive installations. See sections 795 to 797 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 45a, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §2, 52 Stat. 3, related to photographing, etc., from aircraft. See section 796 of Title 18.

Section 45b, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §3, 52 Stat. 3, related to reproducing, publishing, selling uncensored copies. See section 797 of Title 18.

Section 45c, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §4, 52 Stat. 4, related to definitions of “aircraft”, “post”, “camp”, and “station”. See sections 795 and 796 of Title 18.

Section 45d, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §5, 52 Stat. 4, related to geographical application of law.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of sections 45 to 45d effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

CHAPTER 4B—DISCLOSURE OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION

§§46 to 46b. Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §56(c), 65 Stat. 729

Section 46, act May 13, 1950, ch. 185, §2, 64 Stat. 159, related to unlawful disclosure of classified information. See section 798 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 46a, act May 13, 1950, ch. 185, §1, 64 Stat. 159, defined terms for use in this chapter.

Section 46b, act May 13, 1950, ch. 185, §3, 64 Stat. 160, related to penalties for improper disclosure.

Savings Provision

Section 56(l) of act Oct. 31, 1951, provided that the repeal of sections 46 to 46b shall not affect any rights or liabilities existing hereunder on Oct. 31, 1951.

CHAPTER 4C—ATOMIC WEAPONS AND SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS INFORMATION REWARDS

Sec.
47a.
Information concerning illegal introduction, manufacture, acquisition or export of special nuclear material or atomic weapons or conspiracies relating thereto; reward.
47b.
Determination by Attorney General of entitlement and amount of reward; consultation; Presidential approval.
47c.
Aliens; waiver of admission requirements.
47d.
Hearings; rules and regulations; conclusiveness of determinations of Attorney General.
47e.
Certification of award; approval; payment.
47f.
Definitions.

        

§47a. Information concerning illegal introduction, manufacture, acquisition or export of special nuclear material or atomic weapons or conspiracies relating thereto; reward

Any person who furnishes original information to the United States—

(a) leading to the finding or other acquisition by the United States of special nuclear material or an atomic weapon which has been introduced into the United States or manufactured or acquired therein contrary to the laws of the United States, or

(b) with respect to the introduction or attempted introduction into the United States or the manufacture or acquisition or attempted manufacture or acquisition of, or a conspiracy to introduce into the United States or to manufacture or acquire, special nuclear material or an atomic weapon contrary to the laws of the United States, or

(c) with respect to the export or attempted export, or a conspiracy to export, special nuclear material or an atomic weapon from the United States contrary to the laws of the United States,


shall be rewarded by the payment of an amount not to exceed $500,000.

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §2, 69 Stat. 365; Pub. L. 93–377, §1(b), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 472.)

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–377 in par. (a) made minor changes in phraseology, in par. (b) included information relating to the actual introduction, manufacture and acquisition, or conspiring to introduce into the United States or to manufacture or acquire special nuclear material or an atomic weapon as within the information for which a reward would be given, and added par. (c).

Short Title

Section 1 of act July 15, 1955, as amended by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 93–377, provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Atomic Weapons and Special Nuclear Materials Rewards Act’.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 47b of this title.

§47b. Determination by Attorney General of entitlement and amount of reward; consultation; Presidential approval

The Attorney General shall determine whether a person furnishing information to the United States is entitled to a reward and the amount to be paid pursuant to section 47a of this title. Before making a reward under this section the Attorney General shall advise and consult with the Atomic Energy Commission. A reward of $50,000 or more may not be made without the approval of the President.

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §3, 69 Stat. 365; Pub. L. 93–377, §1(b), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 473.)

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–377 substituted provisions authorizing the Attorney General, with the advice of the Atomic Energy Commission, to determine entitlement and the amount of reward for a person furnishing information to the United States, for provisions authorizing an Awards Board to determine entitlement and amount of such reward, setting forth the composition of the Board and criteria for reward.

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 47c, 47d, 47e of this title.

§47c. Aliens; waiver of admission requirements

If the information leading to an award under section 47b of this title is furnished by an alien, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Director of Central Intelligence, acting jointly, may determine that the admission of such alien into the United States is in the public interest and, in that event, such alien and the members of his immediate family may receive immigrant visas and may be admitted to the United States for permanent residence, notwithstanding the requirements of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.].

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §4, 69 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(f)(7), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622.)

References in Text

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in text, is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–208 substituted “admission” for “entry”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 47f of this title.

§47d. Hearings; rules and regulations; conclusiveness of determinations of Attorney General

(a) The Attorney General is authorized to hold such hearings and make, promulgate, issue, rescind, and amend such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(b) A determination made by the Attorney General under section 47b of this title shall be final and conclusive and no court shall have power or jurisdiction to review it.

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §5, 69 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 93–377, §1(b), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 473.)

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–377 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted “Attorney General” for “Board as administering agent”, and added subsec. (b).

§47e. Certification of award; approval; payment

Any awards granted under section 47b of this title shall be certified by the Attorney General and, together with the approval of the President in those cases where such approval is required, transmitted to the Director of Central Intelligence for payment out of funds appropriated or available for the administration of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended.

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §6, 69 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 93–377, §1(c), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 473.)

References in Text

The National Security Act of 1947, as amended, referred to in text, is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–377 substituted “Attorney General” for “Awards Board”.

§47f. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(a) The term “atomic energy” means all forms of energy released in the course of nuclear fission or nuclear transformation.

(b) The term “atomic weapon” means any device utilizing atomic energy, exclusive of the means for transporting or propelling the device (where such means is a separable and divisible part of the device), the principal purpose of which is for use as, or for development of, a weapon, a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device.

(c) The term “special nuclear material” means plutonium, or uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, or any other material which is found to be special nuclear material pursuant to the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.].

(d) The term “United States,” when used in a geographical sense, includes Puerto Rico, all Territories and possessions of the United States and the Canal Zone; except that in section 47c of this title, the term “United States” when so used shall have the meaning given to it in the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.].

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §7, 69 Stat. 366.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 921, and amended, which is classified generally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

CHAPTER 5—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIAL GENERALLY

SUBCHAPTER I—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIALS

Sec.
51 to 81.
Repealed or Transferred.
82.
Procurement of ships and material during war.
(a)
Definitions.
(b)
Presidential powers.
(d)
Compensation for commandeered material.
83 to 88.
Repealed or Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—EDUCATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF MUNITIONS AND MATERIALS FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE

91 to 96.
Repealed or Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC RAW MATERIALS

98.
Short title.
98a.
Congressional findings and declaration of purpose.
98b.
National Defense Stockpile.
(a)
Determination of materials; quantities.
(b)
Guidelines for exercise of Presidential authority.
(c)
Quantity change; notification to Congress.
98c.
Materials constituting the National Defense Stockpile.
(a)
Contents.
(b)
Transfer and reimbursement.
(c)
Transfer and disposal.
98d.
Authority for stockpile operations.
(a)
Funds appropriated for acquisitions; proposed stockpile transactions; significant changes therein.
(b)
Disposal.
(c)
Authorization of appropriations.
98e.
Stockpile management.
(a)
Presidential powers.
(b)
Federal procurement practices.
(c)
Barter; use of stockpile materials as payment for expenses of acquiring, refining, processing, or rotating materials.
(d)
Waiver; notification of proposed disposal of materials.
(e)
Leasehold interests in property.
98e–1.
Transferred.
98f.
Special Presidential disposal authority.
98g.
Materials development and research.
(a)
Development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances.
(b)
Development of sources of supplies of agricultural materials; use of agricultural commodities for manufacture of materials.
(c)
Development of sources of supply of other materials; development or use of alternative methods for refining or processing materials in stockpile.
(d)
Grants and contracts to encourage conservation of strategic and critical materials.
98h.
National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund.
(a)
Establishment.
(b)
Fund operations.
(c)
Moneys received from sale of materials being rotated or disposed of.
(d)
Effect of bartering.
98h–1.
Advisory committees.
(a)
Membership.
(b)
Expenses.
(c)
Market Impact Committee.
98h–2.
Reports to Congress.
98h–3.
Definitions.
98h–4.
Importation of strategic and critical materials.
98h–5.
Biennial report on stockpile requirements.
(a)
In general.
(b)
National emergency planning assumptions.
(c)
Period within which to replace or replenish materials.
(d)
Effect of alternative mobilization periods.
(e)
Plans of President.
98h–6.
Development of domestic sources.
(a)
Purchase of materials of domestic origin; processing of materials in domestic facilities.
(b)
Terms and conditions of contracts and commitments.
(c)
Proposed transactions included in annual materials plan; availability of funds.
(d)
Transportation and incidental expenses.
(e)
Reports.
98h–7.
National Defense Stockpile Manager.
(a)
Appointment.
(b)
Title of designated officer.
(c)
Delegation of functions.
98i, 99.
Repealed or Transferred.
100.
Nitrate plants.
(a)
Investigations; designation of sites; construction and operation of dams, locks, improvements to navigation, etc.
(b)
Lease, purchase, or acquisition of lands and rights of way; purchase or acquisition of materials, minerals, and processes.
(c)
Use of products of plants; disposal of surplus.
(d)
Employment of officers, agents, or agencies.
(e)
Government construction and operation.
100a.
Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIALS

§§51 to 57. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 51, act Aug. 5, 1882, ch. 395, 22 Stat. 299, related to pay of master amorer at Springfield Armory.

Section 52, act June 23, 1874, ch. 486, 18 Stat. 282, related to pay of clerks at Springfield Armory.

Section 53, R.S. §1665, required an annual account of expenses of national armories, together with an account of arms made and repaired thereon.

Section 54, acts Aug. 18, 1890, ch. 797, §2, 26 Stat. 320; Aug. 7, 1946, ch. 770, §1(52), 60 Stat. 870, related to accounts of cost of type and experimental manufacture of guns and other articles.

Section 55, R.S. §1666, authorized Secretary of War to abolish useless or unnecessary arsenals. See section 4532 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 56, R.S. §1669, provided for forfeitures by reason of misconduct of workmen in armories.

Section 57, R.S. §1671, exempted from jury duty all artificers and workmen employed in armories and arsenals, of the United States.

§58. Repealed. Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, title III, §305(d), 68 Stat. 1114

Section, act July 17, 1912, ch. 236, 37 Stat. 193, related to awards. See section 4501 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective 90 days after Sept. 1, 1954, see section 307 of act Sept. 1, 1954.

§§59 to 66. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 59, act July 26, 1886, ch. 781, §1, 24 Stat. 151, related to testing of rifled cannon for Navy.

Section 60, act July 8, 1918, ch. 137, 40 Stat. 817, authorized transfer of naval ordnance and ordnance material from Navy Department to Department of War.

Section 61, acts Mar. 3, 1879, ch. 183, 20 Stat. 412; Apr. 14, 1937, ch. 79, 50 Stat. 63, authorized issuance of arms and ammunition to protect public property, provided for reimbursement. See section 4655 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 62, acts Feb. 10, 1920, ch. 64, 41 Stat. 403; June 5, 1920, ch. 240, 41 Stat. 976; May 26, 1952, ch. 334, 66 Stat. 94, authorized loan of rifles to organizations of honorably discharged soldiers. See section 4683 of Title 10.

Section 62a, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3938, 34 Stat. 817, authorized loan of ordnance to schools and State homes for veterans’ orphans. See sections 4685 and 9685 of Title 10.

Section 62b, act Dec. 15, 1926, ch. 10, 44 Stat. 922, authorized Secretary of War to relieve posts or camps or organizations composed of honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, or marines, and sureties on bonds, from liability on account of loss or destruction of rifles, slings, and cartridge belts loaned to such organizations. See section 4683 of Title 10.

Section 62c, acts May 29, 1934, ch. 369, 48 Stat. 815; Aug. 30, 1935, ch. 826, 49 Stat. 1013, authorized Secretary of War to donate Army equipment loaned under authority of section 62 of this title.

Section 63, act May 11, 1908, ch. 163, 35 Stat. 125, authorized sales of ordnance property to schools and State homes for veterans’ orphans. See sections 4625 and 9625 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 64, acts May 28, 1908, ch. 215, §14, 35 Stat. 443; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(g), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(26), 65 Stat. 707, authorized sale of obsolete small arms to patriotic organizations. See sections 4684 and 9684 of Title 10.

Section 64a, act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 130, 18 Stat. 388, provided for sale of useless ordnance materials, appropriated an amount equal to net proceeds of sale for purpose of procuring a supply of material, and limited expenditures to not more than $75,000 in any one year.

Section 65, acts Apr. 23, 1904, ch. 1485, 33 Stat. 276; Aug. 1, 1953, ch. 305, title VI, §645, 67 Stat. 357, authorized sale of serviceable ordnance and ordnance stores to American designers.

Section 66, acts Feb. 8, 1889, ch. 116, 25 Stat. 657; Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 423, 30 Stat. 1073; May 26, 1900, ch. 586, 31 Stat. 216; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(e), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(27), 65 Stat. 707, authorized issuance of condemned ordnance to State homes for soldiers and sailors. See sections 4686 and 9686 of Title 10.

§67. Transferred

Codification

Section, acts May 22, 1896, ch. 231, 29 Stat. 133; May 26, 1928, ch. 785, 45 Stat. 773; Feb. 28, 1933, ch. 137, 47 Stat. 1369; June 19, 1940, ch. 398, §1, 54 Stat. 491; July 31, 1947, ch. 421, 61 Stat. 707; Feb. 27, 1948, ch. 76, §1, 62 Stat. 37; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(2), 65 Stat. 706, which authorized loans or gifts of condemned or obsolete equipment, was transferred to section 150p of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and subsequently repealed and reenacted as section 2572 of Title 10, Armed Forces, by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §§1, 53, 70A Stat. 143, 641.

§§68 to 71. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 68, acts Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 319, §47, 35 Stat. 1075; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(i), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(28), 65 Stat. 708, authorized sale of obsolete ordnance for public parks, public buildings and soldiers’ monuments purposes. See sections 4684 and 9684 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 69, act Mar. 2, 1905, ch. 1307, 33 Stat. 841, authorized sale of individual pieces of armament. See section 2574 of Title 10.

Section 70, acts Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 252, 35 Stat. 751; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(h), 64 Stat. 273, authorized sale of ordnance property to officers of the Navy and Marine Corps. See section 4625 and 9625 of Title 10.

Section 71, act Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 252, 35 Stat. 750, authorized sale of ordnance stores to civilian employees of Army and to American National Red Cross. See sections 4625 and 9625 of Title 10.

§72. Repealed. May 1, 1937, ch. 146, §5(i), 50 Stat. 126

Section, act Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §1, 39 Stat. 643, related to sale of ordnance and stores to Cuba.

§73. Repealed. Aug. 1, 1953, ch. 305, title VI, §645, 67 Stat. 357

Section, act Apr. 23, 1904, ch. 1485, 33 Stat. 276, related to disposition of proceeds from sales of serviceable ordnance and stores. See sections 2208 and 2210 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§§74 to 81. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 74, act Jan. 22, 1923, ch. 28, 42 Stat. 1142, provided that net proceeds of sales of useless ordnance material by Navy Department should be covered into Treasury as “Miscellaneous receipts”. See section 7543 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 75, act Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 391, §1, 37 Stat. 589, related to payment for transfers of ordnance or stores to bureaus or departments.

Section 76, act June 20, 1878, ch. 359, §1, 20 Stat. 223, authorized private use of a machine for testing iron and steel.

Section 77, acts Mar. 3, 1885, ch. 360, 23 Stat. 502; May 29, 1928, ch. 901, par. 27, 45 Stat. 988, regulated tests of iron and steel and other materials for industrial purposes.

Section 78, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §123, 39 Stat. 215, related to gauges, dies, and tools for manufacture of arms.

Section 79, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §124, 39 Stat. 215, related to nitrate plants.

Section 80, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §120, 39 Stat. 213, 214, related to procurement of war material and mobilization of industries. See sections 2538 to 2540 of Title 10.

Section 81, act May 14, 1928, ch. 544, 45 Stat. 509, authorized Secretary of War to secure assistance, whenever practicable, of Geological Survey, Coast and Geodetic Survey, or other mapping agencies of the Government in execution of military surveys and maps. Provisions similar to former section 81 were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Mar. 23, 1928, ch. 232, title I, 45 Stat. 342.

Feb. 23, 1927, ch. 167, title I, 44 Stat. 1123.

Apr. 15, 1926, ch. 146, title I, 44 Stat. 273.

Feb. 12, 1925, ch. 225, title I, 43 Stat. 911.

June 7, 1924, ch. 291, title I, 43, Stat. 496.

Mar. 2, 1923, ch. 178, title I, 42 Stat. 1402.

June 30, 1922, ch. 253, title I, 42 Stat. 741.

§82. Procurement of ships and material during war

(a) Definitions

The word “person” as used in subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall include any individual, trustee, firm, association, company, or corporation. The word “ship” shall include any boat, vessel, submarine, or any form of aircraft, and the parts thereof. The words “war material” shall include arms, armament, ammunition, stores, supplies, and equipment for ships and airplanes, and everything required for or in connection with the production thereof. The word “factory” shall include any factory, workshop, engine works, building used for manufacture, assembling, construction, or any process, and any shipyard or dockyard. The words “United States” shall include the Canal Zone and all territory and waters, continental and insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(b) Presidential powers

In time of war the President is authorized and empowered, in addition to all other existing provisions of law:

First. Within the limits of the amounts appropriated therefor, to place an order with any person for such ships or war material as the necessities of the Government, to be determined by the President, may require and which are of the nature, kind, and quantity usually produced or capable of being produced by such person. Compliance with all such orders shall be obligatory on any person to whom such order is given, and such order shall take precedence over all other orders and contracts theretofore placed with such person. If any person owning, leasing, or operating any factory equipped for the building or production of ships or war material for the Navy shall refuse or fail to give to the United States such preference in the execution of such an order, or shall refuse to build, supply, furnish, or manufacture the kind, quantity, or quality of ships or war material so ordered at such reasonable price as shall be determined by the President, the President may take immediate possession of any factory of such person, or of any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, and may use the same at such times and in such manner as he may consider necessary or expedient.

Second. Within the limit of the amounts appropriated therefor, to modify or cancel any existing contract for the building, production, or purchase of ships or war material; and if any contractor shall refuse or fail to comply with the contract as so modified the President may take immediate possession of any factory of such contractor, or any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, and may use the same at such times and in such manner as he may consider necessary or expedient.

Third. To require the owner or occupier of any factory in which ships or war material are built or produced to place at the disposal of the United States the whole or any part of the output of such factory, and, within the limit of the amounts appropriated therefor, to deliver such output or parts thereof in such quantities and at such times as may be specified in the order at such reasonable price as shall be determined by the President.

Fourth. To requisition and take over for use or operation by the Government any factory, or any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, whether the United States has or has not any contract or agreement with the owner or occupier of such factory.

(d) 1 Compensation for commandeered material

Whenever the United States shall cancel or modify any contract, make use of, assume, occupy, requisition, or take over any factory or part thereof, or any ships or war material, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, it shall make just compensation therefor, to be determined by the President, and if the amount thereof so determined by the President is unsatisfactory to the person entitled to receive the same, such person shall be paid fifty per centum of the amount so determined by the President and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as added to said fifty per centum shall make up such amount as will be just compensation therefor, in the manner provided for by section 1346 or section 1491 of title 28.

(Mar. 4, 1917, ch. 180, 39 Stat. 1192.)

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (a), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Codification

In subsec. (d), “section 1346 or section 1491 of title 28” substituted for “section twenty-four, paragraph twenty, and section one hundred and forty-five of the Judicial Code” (those sections classified to sections 41(20) and 250 of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary) on authority of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 869, section 1 of which enacted Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Section 1346 of Title 28 sets forth the basic jurisdiction of the district courts in cases in which the United States is defendant. Section 1491 of Title 28 sets forth the basic jurisdiction of the United States Court of Claims. Sections 24(20) and 145 of the Judicial Code were also classified to sections 1496, 1501, 1503, 2401, 2402, and 2501 of Title 28.

Similar Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in the Naval Appropriation Act, 1918, act July 1, 1918, ch. 114, 40 Stat. 719, which terminated six months after the treaty of peace between the United States and Germany (Oct. 18, 1921).

Termination of War and Emergencies

Act July 25, 1947, ch. 327, §3, 61 Stat. 451, provided that in the interpretation of the provisions of this section, which authorized the President to acquire, through construction or conversion, ships, landing craft, and other vessels, the date July 25, 1947, shall be deemed to be the date of termination of any state of war theretofore declared by Congress and of the national emergencies proclaimed by the President on Sept. 8, 1939, and May 27, 1941.

Ex. Ord. No. 12742. National Security Industrial Responsiveness

Ex. Ord. No. 12742, Jan. 8, 1991, 56 F.R. 1079, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §36, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10625, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including 50 U.S.C. App. 468, 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10, Armed Forces], and 50 U.S.C. 82, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 101. Policy. The United States must have the capability to rapidly mobilize its resources in the interest of national security. Therefore, to achieve prompt delivery of articles, products, and materials to meet national security requirements, the Government may place orders and require priority performance of these orders.

Sec. 102. Delegation of Authority under.

(a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, the authorities vested in the President, under, with respect to the placing of orders for prompt delivery of articles or materials, except for the taking authority under (c), are hereby delegated to:

(1) The Secretary of Agriculture with respect to all food resources;

(2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy;

(3) the Secretary of Transportation with respect to all forms of civil transportation; and

(4) the Secretary of Commerce with respect to all other articles and materials, including construction materials.

(b) The authorities delegated by paragraph (a) of this section shall be exercised only after:

(1) a determination by the Secretary of Defense that prompt delivery of the articles or materials for the exclusive use of the armed forces of the United States is in the interest of national security, or

(2) a determination by the Secretary of Energy that the prompt delivery of the articles or materials for the Department of Energy's atomic energy programs is in the interest of national security.

(c) All determinations of the type described in paragraph (b) of this section and all delegations—made prior to the effective date of this order under the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended [50 App. U.S.C. 2061 et seq.], and under its implementing rules and regulations—shall be continued in effect, including but not limited to approved programs listed under the Defense Priorities and Allocations System (15 CFR Part 700).

Sec. 103. Delegation of Authority under 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501, and 50 U.S.C. 82.

(a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, the authorities vested in the President under 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10] with respect to the placing of orders for necessary products or materials, and under 50 U.S.C. 82 with respect to the placing of orders for ships or war materials, except for the taking authority vested in the President by these acts, are hereby delegated to:

(1) the Secretary of Agriculture with respect to all food resources;

(2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy;

(3) the Secretary of Transportation with respect to all forms of civil transportation; and

(4) the Secretary of Commerce with respect to all other products and materials, including construction materials.

(b) The authorities delegated in paragraph (a) of this section may be exercised only after the President has made the statutorily required determination.

Sec. 104. Implementation. (a) The authorities delegated under sections 102 and 103 of this order shall include the power to redelegate such authorities, and the power of successive redelegation of such authorities, to departments and agencies, officers, and employees of the Government. The authorities delegated in this order may be implemented by regulations promulgated and administered by the Secretaries of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, Transportation, Homeland Security, and Commerce, and the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as appropriate.

(b) All departments and agencies delegated authority under this order are hereby directed to amend their rules and regulations as necessary to reflect the new authorities delegated herein that are to be relied upon to carry out their functions. To the extent authorized by law, including 50 U.S.C. App. 486 [468], 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10], and 50 U.S.C. 82, all rules and regulations issued under the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended, with respect to the placing of priority orders for articles, products, ships, and materials, including war materials, shall be deemed, where appropriate, to implement the authorities delegated by sections 102 and 103 of this order, and shall remain in effect until amended or revoked by the respective Secretary. All orders, regulations, and other forms of administrative actions purported to have been issued, taken, or continued in effect pursuant to the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended, shall, until amended or revoked by the respective Secretaries or the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as appropriate, remain in full force and effect, to the extent supported by any law or any authority delegated to the respective Secretary or the Director pursuant to this order.

(c) Upon the request of the Secretary of Defense with respect to particular articles, products, or materials that are determined to be needed to meet national security requirements, any other official receiving a delegation of authority under this Executive order to place orders or to enforce precedence of such orders, shall exercise such authority within 10 calendar days of the receipt of the request; provided, that if the head of any department or agency having delegated responsibilities hereunder disagrees with a request of the Secretary of Defense, such department or agency head shall, within 10 calendar days from the receipt of the request, refer the issue to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, who shall ensure expeditious resolution of the issue.

(d) Proposed department and agency regulations and procedures to implement the delegated authority under this order, and any new determinations made under sections 102(b)(1) or (2), shall be coordinated by the Secretary of Homeland Security with all appropriate departments and agencies.

Sec. 105. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

1 So in original. No subsec. (c) has been enacted.

§§83 to 85. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 83, act May 29, 1928, ch. 853, §1, 45 Stat. 928, related to ammunition for use of Army and Navy, storage and dispersal, control by a joint board of officers. See section 172 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 84, act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 133, §1, 18 Stat. 455, related to expenditure at armories for perfection of patentable inventions.

Section 85, act Mar. 3, 1921, ch. 128, §6, 41 Stat. 1352, authorized Secretary of War to proceed with installation of guns and howitzers.

§§86 to 88. Omitted

Codification

Sections 86 to 88, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §§1–3, 49 Stat. 1140, related to conservation of domestic sources of tin, and were superseded by the Export Control Act of 1949 (former sections 2021 to 2032 of the Appendix to this title) pursuant to section 10 of that Act (former section 2030 of the Appendix to this title). The act of Feb. 15, 1936 was subsequently superseded by the Export Administration Act of 1969 (former sections 2401 to 2413 of the Appendix to this title) pursuant to section 12 of that Act (former section 2411 of the Appendix to this title). See, also, the Export Administration Act of 1979, which is classified to section 2401 of the Appendix to this title.

Section 86, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §1, 49 Stat. 1140, related to conservation of domestic resources of tin.

Section 87, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §2, 49 Stat. 1140, related to prohibition of exportation except on license.

Section 88, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §3, 49 Stat. 1140, related to penalties for violations of sections 86 and 87 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—EDUCATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF MUNITIONS AND MATERIALS FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE

§§91 to 94. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 91, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §1, 52 Stat. 707, authorized Secretary of War to place educational orders for munitions of special or technical design.

Section 92, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §2, 52 Stat. 708, related to production equipment.

Section 93, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §3, 52 Stat. 708, placed certain limitations on number of orders.

Section 94, acts June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §4, 52 Stat. 708; Apr. 3, 1939, ch. 35, §13, 53 Stat. 560, related to availability of appropriations for purposes of sections 91 to 94 of this title.

§95. Omitted

Codification

Section, act June 30, 1938, ch. 852, 52 Stat. 1255, authorized an appropriation of $2,000,000 to remain until expended for purpose of rotary-wing and other aircraft research, development, procurement, experimentation, and operation for service testing.

§96. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section, act July 15, 1939, ch. 283, 53 Stat. 1042, related to purchase by Secretary of War of equipment for experimental and test purposes. See section 2373 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

SUBCHAPTER III—ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC RAW MATERIALS

Subchapter Referred to in Other Sections

This subchapter is referred to in section 2093 of Appendix to this title; title 7 sections 1301, 1743, 1745, 1856; title 15 section 714b; title 30 section 1604; title 31 sections 5112, 5116, 5132; title 40 section 113; title 42 section 5821.

§98. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the “Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act”.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §1, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §1, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596, related to declaration of Congressional policy in enacting this subchapter, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3201, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245, provided that: “This title [enacting section 98h–5 of this title, amending sections 98a, 98b, 98d, 98e–1, 98h, 98h–2, and 98h–4 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 98e–1 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘National Defense Stockpile Amendments of 1987’.”

Short Title of 1979 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96–41 provided: “That this Act [enacting this section and sections 98a to 98h–3 of this title, redesignating former section 98h–1 of this title as 98h–4 of this title, amending section 2093 of the Appendix to this title, sections 1743 and 1745 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 741b of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 485 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, enacting a provision set out as a note under this section, and repealing a provision set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979’.”

Short Title

Act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §11, formerly §10, as added by act July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; renumbered §11, Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(1), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427, provided that this Act, which enacted this subchapter, be cited as the “Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act”, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41, §2(b)(2), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324.

New Budget Authority

Section 4 of Pub. L. 96–41 provided that: “Any provision authorizing the enactment of new budget authority contained in the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1979 Amendment note above] shall be effective on October 1, 1979.”

Executive Order No. 12155

Ex. Ord. No. 12155, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53071, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12417, May 2, 1983, 48 F.R. 20035, which related to delegation of functions vested in President by Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, as amended [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.], to various Federal agencies and officials, was revoked by Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247, effective 30 days after Dec. 4, 1987.

Ex. Ord. No. 12626. National Defense Stockpile Manager

Ex. Ord. No. 12626, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.), as amended, section 3203 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1988 (Public Law 100–180) [amending section 98e–1 of this title and enacting a provision set out as a note under section 98e–1 of this title], and section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Secretary of Defense is designated National Defense Stockpile Manager. The functions vested in the President by the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.], except the functions vested in the President by sections 7, 8, and 13 of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98f, 98g, 98h–4], are delegated to the Secretary of Defense. The functions vested in the President by section 8(a) of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98g(a)] are delegated to the Secretary of the Interior. The functions vested in the President by section 8(b) of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98g(b)] are delegated to the Secretary of Agriculture.

Sec. 2. The functions vested in the President by section 4(h) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 714b(h)), are delegated to the Secretary of Defense.

Sec. 3. The functions vested in the President by section 204(f) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (40 U.S.C. 485(f)) [now 40 U.S.C. 574(d)], are delegated to the Secretary of Defense.

Sec. 4. In executing the functions delegated to him by this Order, the Secretary of Defense may delegate such functions as he may deem appropriate, subject to his direction. The Secretary shall consult with the heads of affected agencies in performing the functions delegated to him by this Order.

Ronald Reagan.      

§98a. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

(a) The Congress finds that the natural resources of the United States in certain strategic and critical materials are deficient or insufficiently developed to supply the military, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States for national defense.

(b) It is the purpose of this subchapter to provide for the acquisition and retention of stocks of certain strategic and critical materials and to encourage the conservation and development of sources of such materials within the United States and thereby to decrease and to preclude, when possible, a dangerous and costly dependence by the United States upon foreign sources for supplies of such materials in times of national emergency.

(c) The purpose of the National Defense Stockpile is to serve the interest of national defense only. The National Defense Stockpile is not to be used for economic or budgetary purposes.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §2, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1961; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98a, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §2, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to determination of strategic and critical materials, the quantity and quality to be purchased, formation and functions of industry advisory committees, and the subsistence and traveling expenses of members of those committees, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “In providing for the National Defense Stockpile under this subchapter, Congress establishes the following principles:

“(1) The purpose of the National Defense Stockpile is to serve the interest of national defense only. The National Defense Stockpile is not to be used for economic or budgetary purposes.

“(2) Before October 1, 1994, the quantities of materials stockpiled under this subchapter should be sufficient to sustain the United States for a period of not less than three years during a national emergency situation that would necessitate total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war of indefinite duration.

“(3) On and after October 1, 1994, the quantities of materials stockpiled under this subchapter should be sufficient to meet the needs of the United States during a period of a national emergency that would necessitate an expansion of the Armed Forces together with a significant mobilization of the economy of the United States under planning guidance issued by the Secretary of Defense.”

1993—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–160, §3311(1), substituted “Before October 1, 1994, the quantities” for “The quantities”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–160, §3311(2), added par. (3).

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 3311(c) of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 98h–5 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1996.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 98b, 98h–2 of this title.

§98b. National Defense Stockpile

(a) Determination of materials; quantities

Subject to subsection (c) of this section, the President shall determine from time to time (1) which materials are strategic and critical materials for the purposes of this subchapter, and (2) the quality and quantity of each such material to be acquired for the purposes of this subchapter and the form in which each such material shall be acquired and stored. Such materials when acquired, together with the other materials described in section 98c of this title, shall constitute and be collectively known as the National Defense Stockpile (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the “stockpile”).

(b) Guidelines for exercise of Presidential authority

The President shall make the determinations required to be made under subsection (a) of this section on the basis of the principles stated in section 98a(c) of this title.

(c) Quantity change; notification to Congress

(1) The quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, as in effect on September 30, 1987, may be changed only as provided in this subsection or as otherwise provided by law enacted after December 4, 1987.

(2) The President shall notify Congress in writing of any change proposed to be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled. The President may make the change after the end of the 45-day period beginning on the date of the notification. The President shall include a full explanation and justification for the proposed change with the notification.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §3, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1233(b)(2), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2057; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98b, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §3, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 597; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title I, §§102, 121, 60 Stat. 815, 822; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §102(a), 63 Stat. 380; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to purchase, storage, refinement, rotation, and disposal of materials, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98e of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98a of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “after the end of the 45-day period beginning on” for “effective on or after the 30th legislative day following” and struck out at end “For purposes of this paragraph, a legislative day is a day on which both Houses of Congress are in session.”

1992—Subsec. (c)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 102–484 added par. (2) and struck out former pars. (2) to (5) which read as follows:

“(2) If the President proposes to change the quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, the President shall include a full explanation and justification for the change in the next annual material plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title.

“(3) If the proposed change in the case of any material would result in a new requirement for the quantity of such material different from the requirement for that material in effect on September 30, 1987, by less than 10 percent, the change may be made by the President effective on or after the first day of the first fiscal year beginning after the explanation and justification for the proposed change is submitted pursuant to paragraph (2).

“(4) In the case of a proposed change not covered by paragraph (3), the proposed change may be made only to the extent expressly authorized by law.

“(5) If in any year the reports required by sections 98h–2(b) and 98h–5 of this title are not submitted to Congress as required by law (including the time for such submission), then during the next fiscal year no change under paragraph (3) may be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter.”

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–456 substituted “December 4, 1987” for “the date of the enactment of the National Defense Stockpile Amendments of 1987”, which for purposes of codification had been translated as “December 4, 1987”, thus requiring no change in text.

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(1), substituted “Subject to subsection (c) of this section, the” for “The”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(2), substituted “the principles stated in section 98a(c) of this title.” for “the following principles:” and struck out cls. (1) and (2) which related to purpose of National Defense Stockpile and quantities of materials stockpiled.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(3), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “The quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, as determined under subsection (a) of this section, may not be revised unless the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives are notified in writing of the proposed revision and the reasons for such revision at least thirty days before the effective date of such revision.”

Delegation of Functions

Functions of the President under this section were delegated to the Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 98e, 98g, 98h–6 of this title; title 15 section 714b; title 22 section 2796d.

§98c. Materials constituting the National Defense Stockpile

(a) Contents

The stockpile consists of the following materials:

(1) Materials acquired under this subchapter and contained in the national stockpile on July 29, 1979.

(2) Materials acquired under this subchapter after July 29, 1979.

(3) Materials in the supplemental stockpile established by section 1704(b) of title 7 (as in effect from September 21, 1959, through December 31, 1966) on July 29, 1979.

(4) Materials acquired by the United States under the provisions of section 2093 of the Appendix to this title and transferred to the stockpile by the President pursuant to subsection (f) of such section.

(5) Materials transferred to the United States under section 2423 of title 22 that have been determined to be strategic and critical materials for the purposes of this subchapter and that are allocated by the President under subsection (b) of such section for stockpiling in the stockpile.

(6) Materials acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation and transferred to the stockpile under section 714b(h) of title 15.

(7) Materials acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation under paragraph (2) of section 1743(a) of title 7, and transferred to the stockpile under the third sentence of such section.

(8) Materials transferred to the stockpile by the President under paragraph (4) of section 1743(a) of title 7.

(9) Materials transferred to the stockpile under subsection (b) of this section.

(10) Materials transferred to the stockpile under subsection (c) of this section.

(b) Transfer and reimbursement

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any material that (1) is under the control of any department or agency of the United States, (2) is determined by the head of such department or agency to be excess to its needs and responsibilities, and (3) is required for the stockpile shall be transferred to the stockpile. Any such transfer shall be made without reimbursement to such department or agency, but all costs required to effect such transfer shall be paid or reimbursed from funds appropriated to carry out this subchapter.

(c) Transfer and disposal

(1) The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall transfer to the stockpile for disposal in accordance with this subchapter uncontaminated materials that are in the Department of Energy inventory of materials for the production of defense-related items, are excess to the requirements of the Department for that purpose, and are suitable for transfer to the stockpile and disposal through the stockpile.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall determine whether materials are suitable for transfer to the stockpile under this subsection, are suitable for disposal through the stockpile, and are uncontaminated.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §4, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 320; amended Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 104–106, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 630.)

References in Text

Section 1704(b) of title 7, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3635, and, as so amended, no longer contains provisions relating to a supplemental stockpile.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98c, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §4, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175; Apr. 21, 1976, Pub. L. 94–273, §37, 90 Stat. 380, required reports to Congress, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98h–2 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 104–106, §3311(b), added par. (10).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–106, §3311(a), added subsec. (c).

1986—Pub. L. 99–661 substituted “on July 29, 1979” for “on the day before the date of the date of enactment of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979” in pars. (1) and (3), and “after July 29, 1979” for “on or after the date of the enactment of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979” in par. (2).

Clarification of Stockpile Status of Certain Materials

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3315, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2654, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(c)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2858, provided that: “All materials purchased under section 303 of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2093) and held in the Defense Production Act inventory as of June 30, 1992, are hereby transferred to the National Defense Stockpile and shall be managed, controlled, and subject to disposal by the National Defense Stockpile Manager as provided in the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98a et seq.) [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 98b of this title.

§98d. Authority for stockpile operations

(a) Funds appropriated for acquisitions; proposed stockpile transactions; significant changes therein

(1) Except for acquisitions made under the authority of paragraph (3) or (4) of section 98e(a) of this title, no funds may be obligated or appropriated for acquisition of any material under this subchapter unless funds for such acquisition have been authorized by law. Funds appropriated for such acquisition (and for transportation and other incidental expenses related to such acquisition) shall remain available until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriation Acts.

(2) If for any fiscal year the President proposes certain stockpile transactions in the annual materials plan submitted to Congress for that year under section 98h–2(b) of this title and after that plan is submitted the President proposes (or Congress requires) a significant change in any such transaction, or a significant transaction not included in such plan, no amount may be obligated or expended for such transaction during such year until the President has submitted a full statement of the proposed transaction to the appropriate committees of Congress and a period of 45 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees.

(b) Disposal

Except for disposals made under the authority of paragraph (3), (4), or (5) of section 98e(a) of this title or under section 98f(a) of this title, no disposal may be made from the stockpile unless such disposal, including the quantity of the material to be disposed of, has been specifically authorized by law.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to provide for the transportation, processing, refining, storage, security, maintenance, rotation, and disposal of materials contained in or acquired for the stockpile. Funds appropriated for such purposes shall remain available to carry out the purposes for which appropriated for a period of two fiscal years, if so provided in appropriation Acts.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §5, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 321; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(a), (b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 381, 382; Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §903, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3206(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98d, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §5, 53 Stat. 812; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598, related to release of stock pile materials, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98f of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former sections 98b and 98g of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “and a period of 45 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees.” for “and a period of 30 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees. In computing any 30-day period for the purpose of the preceding sentence, there shall be excluded any day on which either House of Congress is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain.”

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–484 struck out “(1)” after “the stockpile” and “, or (2) if the disposal would result in there being an unobligated balance in the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund in excess of $100,000,000” after “authorized by law”.

1987—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–180 struck out “or until each such committee, before the expiration of such period, notifies the President that it has no objection to the proposed transaction” before period at end of first sentence.

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted “paragraph (3), (4), or (5)” for “paragraph (4) or (5)”.

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–525, §903(b), substituted “$100,000,000” for “$250,000,000”.

Pub. L. 98–525, §903(a), substituted “an unobligated balance” for “a balance” where first appearing and “$250,000,000” for “$1,000,000,000 or, in the case of a disposal to be made after September 30, 1983, if the disposal would result in there being a balance in the fund in excess of $500,000,000”.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §203(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted applicability to other incidental expenses, substituted “until expended, unless otherwise” for “for a period of five fiscal years, if so”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, §203(b), inserted designation for cl. (1) and added cl. (2).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 903(b) of Pub. L. 98–525, as amended by Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1611(b), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, provided in part that the amendment by section 903(b) of Pub. L. 98–525, is effective Oct. 1, 1987.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 203(f) of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to funds appropriated for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1981.”

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Prohibition of Reductions in Stockpile Goals

Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1612, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, as amended by Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3201, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067, prohibited action before Oct. 1, 1987, to implement or administer any change in a stockpile goal in effect on Oct. 1, 1984, that would result in a reduction in the quality or quantity of any strategic and critical material acquired for the National Defense Stockpile.

Materials in the National Defense Stockpile

Provisions relating to certain materials in the National Defense Stockpile were contained in the following acts:

Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, 3306(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1388, 1389, 1391.

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXIII, §3303], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–483.

Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §3402(a)–(e), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 972, 973; Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1788.

Pub. L. 106–31, title I, §303, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8109, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2322.

Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2262, 2263; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §3403(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXIII, §3302], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–483; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390.

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303–3305, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2056, 2057; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §§3402(f)(2), 3403(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3304(b), 3305, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390.

Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2854, 2855; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §§3402(f)(1), 3403(c), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973, 974; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390.

Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3098.

Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1960, 1961.

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301–3303, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2649–2651; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3303(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1961; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(c)(3), div. C, title XXXIII, §3303, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2858, 3098.

Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3308, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8094, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1196.

Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3302, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1685.

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XV, §1501, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2085.

Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §§3204, 3205, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4068.

Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9110], (m) [title V, §519], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–120, 3341–308, 3341–326.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9110], (m) [title V, §519], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–120, 1783–308, 1783–326.

Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §§901, 902, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573.

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §799B], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1866.

Pub. L. 97–114, title VII, §788, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1592.

Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §201, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 380.

Authorization of Appropriations

Section 202 of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that:

“(a) Effective on October 1, 1981, there is authorized to be appropriated the sum of $535,000,000 for the acquisition of strategic and critical materials under section 6(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98e(a)).

“(b) Any acquisition using funds appropriated under the authorization of subsection (a) shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.).”

Disposal of Government-Owned Tin Smelter at Texas City, Texas

Act June 22, 1956, ch. 426, 70 Stat. 329, directed Federal Facilities Corporation immediately to sell or lease Government-owned tin smelter at Texas City, Texas, and waste acid plant and other assets of Government's tin program, prescribed corporate powers of Corporation in regard to sale or lease, established a Tin Advisory Committee to consult with Corporation, established periods for receipt and negotiation of purchase proposals, and provided that if no contract for sale or lease was effected prior to Jan. 31, 1957, then smelter and other assets be reported as excess property for transfer and disposal in accordance with provisions of Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949.

Maintenance of Domestic Tin-Smelting Industry; Transfer of Functions, Etc.

Act June 28, 1947, ch. 159, 61 Stat. 190, as amended June 29, 1948, ch. 722, 62 Stat. 1101; June 30, 1949, ch. 284, 63 Stat. 350; Aug. 21, 1950, ch. 766, 64 Stat. 468; July 30, 1953, ch. 282, title I, §103, 67 Stat. 230; June 22, 1956, ch. 426, §5(a), 70 Stat. 329, declared tin to be a highly strategic and critical material in short supply, directed that it was in the public interest that Congress make a thorough investigation on the advisability of the maintenance of a permanent tin-smelting industry and study the availability of adequate tin supplies, provided that the powers, functions, duties, and authority of the United States exercised by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to buy, sell, and transport tin, and tin ore and concentrates, to improve, develop, maintain, and operate by lease or otherwise the Government-owned tin smelter at Texas City, Texas, to finance research in tin smelting and processing, and to do all other things necessary to the accomplishment of the foregoing continue in effect until Jan. 31, 1957, or until such earlier time as the Congress shall otherwise provide, and be exercised and performed by such officer, agency, or instrumentality of the United States as the President may designate, authorized diversification of tin-recovery facilities in the United States, and required the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to report to Congress on its activities not later than Dec. 31, 1947, and at the end of each six months thereafter.

Federal Facilities Corporation; Abolition and Dissolution of Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Federal Facilities Corporation

Ex. Ord. No. 10539, eff. June 22, 1954, 19 F.R. 3827, designated the Federal Facilities Corporation to perform and exercise the functions formerly performed and exercised by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation under act June 28, 1947, set out as a note above. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which was created by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act, act Jan. 22, 1932, ch. 8, 47 Stat. 5, was subsequently abolished by section 6(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1957, eff. June 30, 1957, 22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 647, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. The Federal Facilities Corporation was, in turn, dissolved by Pub. L. 87–190, §6, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 419, effective Sept. 30, 1961, set out as a note under sections 1921 to 1929 of the Appendix to this title.

Disposal of Government-Owned Tin Smelter at Texas City, Texas; Cancellation of Obligations

Cancellation of obligation of General Services Administration to Federal Facilities Corporation existing by virtue of section 5(b) of act June 22, 1956, set out as a note above, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 87–190, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 418, set out as a note under sections 1921 to 1929 of the Appendix to this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 98e, 98h, 98h–2, 98h–6 of this title.

§98e. Stockpile management

(a) Presidential powers

The President shall—

(1) acquire the materials determined under section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials;

(2) provide for the proper storage, security, and maintenance of materials in the stockpile;

(3) provide for the upgrading, refining, or processing of any material in the stockpile (notwithstanding any intermediate stockpile quantity established for such material) when necessary to convert such material into a form more suitable for storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency;

(4) provide for the rotation of any material in the stockpile when necessary to prevent deterioration or technological obsolescence of such material by replacement of such material with an equivalent quantity of substantially the same material or better material;

(5) subject to the notification required by subsection (d)(2) of this section, provide for the timely disposal of materials in the stockpile that (A) are excess to stockpile requirements, and (B) may cause a loss to the Government if allowed to deteriorate; and

(6) subject to the provisions of section 98d(b) of this title, dispose of materials in the stockpile the disposal of which is specifically authorized by law.

(b) Federal procurement practices

Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, acquisition of strategic and critical materials under this subchapter shall be made in accordance with established Federal procurement practices, and, except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section and in section 98f(a) of this title, disposal of strategic and critical materials from the stockpile shall be made in accordance with the next sentence. To the maximum extent feasible—

(1) competitive procedures shall be used in the acquisition and disposal of such materials; and

(2) efforts shall be made in the acquisition and disposal of such materials to avoid undue disruption of the usual markets of producers, processors, and consumers of such materials and to protect the United States against avoidable loss.

(c) Barter; use of stockpile materials as payment for expenses of acquiring, refining, processing, or rotating materials

(1) The President shall encourage the use of barter in the acquisition under subsection (a)(1) of this section of strategic and critical materials for, and the disposal under subsection (a)(5) or (a)(6) of this section of materials from, the stockpile when acquisition or disposal by barter is authorized by law and is practical and in the best interest of the United States.

(2) Materials in the stockpile (the disposition of which is authorized by paragraph (3) to finance the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile, or is otherwise authorized by law) shall be available for transfer at fair market value as payment for expenses (including transportation and other incidental expenses) of acquisition of materials, or of upgrading, refining, processing, or rotating materials, under this subchapter.

(3) Notwithstanding section 98b(c) of this title or any other provision of law, whenever the President provides under subsection (a)(3) of this section for the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile to convert that material into a form more suitable for storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency, the President may barter a portion of the same material (or any other material in the stockpile that is authorized for disposal) to finance that upgrading, refining, or processing.

(4) To the extent otherwise authorized by law, property owned by the United States may be bartered for materials needed for the stockpile.

(d) Waiver; notification of proposed disposal of materials

(1) The President may waive the applicability of any provision of the first sentence of subsection (b) of this section to any acquisition of material for, or disposal of material from, the stockpile. Whenever the President waives any such provision with respect to any such acquisition or disposal, or whenever the President determines that the application of paragraph (1) or (2) of such subsection to a particular acquisition or disposal is not feasible, the President shall notify the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives in writing of the proposed acquisition or disposal at least 45 days before any obligation of the United States is incurred in connection with such acquisition or disposal and shall include in such notification the reasons for not complying with any provision of such subsection.

(2) Materials in the stockpile may be disposed of under subsection (a)(5) of this section only if such congressional committees are notified in writing of the proposed disposal at least 45 days before any obligation of the United States is incurred in connection with such disposal.

(e) Leasehold interests in property

The President may acquire leasehold interests in property, for periods not in excess of twenty years, for storage, security, and maintenance of materials in the stockpile.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 321; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301(a), (b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1844; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3098; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(e)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(b), (c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXIII, §3306, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2058; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(13), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98e, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6, 53 Stat. 812; May 28, 1941, ch. 135, 55 Stat. 206; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598; Ex. Ord. No. 9809, eff. Dec. 12, 1946, 11 F.R. 14281; Ex. Ord. No. 9841, eff. Apr. 23, 1947, 12 F.R. 2645; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §105, 63 Stat. 381; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to transfer of surplus materials to stock piles, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98c(b) of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98b of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–85, in first sentence, substituted “strategic and critical materials from the stockpile shall be made in accordance with the next sentence” for “materials from the stockpile shall be made by formal advertising or competitive negotiation procedures”.

1996—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–201, §3312(b), substituted “45 days” for “thirty days”.

Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(e)(1)(A), substituted “Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives” for “Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §3312(c), substituted “45 days” for “thirty days”.

Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(e)(1)(B), substituted “such congressional committees” for “the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–337 inserted “or technological obsolescence” after “deterioration”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–190 inserted before semicolon “or better material”.

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(1), substituted “upgrading, refining,” for “refining”, inserted “(notwithstanding any intermediate stockpile quantity established for such material)” after “stockpile”, and substituted “storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency” for “storage and subsequent disposition”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(2), inserted “under subsection (a)(1) of this section” after “the acquisition” and “under subsection (a)(5) or (a)(6) of this section” after “the disposal”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(3), substituted “(the disposition of which is authorized by paragraph (3) to finance the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile, or is otherwise authorized by law)” for “, the disposition of which is authorized by law,” and “of upgrading, refining” for “of refining”.

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(a), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–189, §3314(1), inserted “and” at end of par. (1), substituted a period for “; and” at end of par. (2), and struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “disposal of such materials shall be made for domestic consumption.”

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–189, §3314(2), substituted “paragraph (1) or (2)” for “paragraph (1), (2), or (3)”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted “a form more” for “the form most”.

1981—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 97–35 inserted reference to section 98d(b) of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Acquisition of Depleted Uranium for National Defense Stockpile

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8095, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1896, directed President, using funds available in National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund, to acquire over a period of ten years from current domestic sources not less than thirty-six million pounds of depleted uranium to be held in National Defense Stockpile, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8027A, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1177.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 98d, 98h, 98h–2 of this title.

§98e–1. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6A, as added Nov. 14, 1986, Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3202(a), 100 Stat. 4067; amended Dec. 4, 1987, Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(a), 101 Stat. 1246, which related to National Defense Stockpile Manager, was transferred to section 98h–7 of this title.

§98f. Special Presidential disposal authority

(a) Materials in the stockpile may be released for use, sale, or other disposition—

(1) on the order of the President, at any time the President determines the release of such materials is required for purposes of the national defense; and

(2) in time of war declared by the Congress or during a national emergency, on the order of any officer or employee of the United States designated by the President to have authority to issue disposal orders under this subsection, if such officer or employee determines that the release of such materials is required for purposes of the national defense.


(b) Any order issued under subsection (a) of this section shall be promptly reported by the President, or by the officer or employee issuing such order, in writing, to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §7, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 322; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(e)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(13), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98f, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §7, 53 Stat. 812; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 599, related to investigations of domestic ores, minerals, and agriculture resources for purposes of development, etc., prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98d of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives” for “Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 98d, 98e, 98h, 98h–7 of this title.

§98g. Materials development and research

(a) Development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances

(1) The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances that (A) are found in the United States, or in its territories or possessions, (B) are essential to the national defense, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States, and (C) are found in known domestic sources in inadequate quantities or grades.

(2) Such investigations shall be carried out in order to—

(A) determine and develop new domestic sources of supply of such ores and mineral substances;

(B) devise new methods for the treatment and utilization of lower grade reserves of such ores and mineral substances; and

(C) develop substitutes for such essential ores and mineral products.


(3) Investigations under paragraph (1) may be carried out on public lands and, with the consent of the owner, on privately owned lands for the purpose of exploring and determining the extent and quality of deposits of such minerals, the most suitable methods of mining and beneficiating such minerals, and the cost at which the minerals or metals may be produced.

(b) Development of sources of supplies of agricultural materials; use of agricultural commodities for manufacture of materials

The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations of the feasibility of developing domestic sources of supplies of any agricultural material or for using agricultural commodities for the manufacture of any material determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be a strategic and critical material or substitutes therefor.

(c) Development of sources of supply of other materials; development or use of alternative methods for refining or processing materials in stockpile

The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the feasibility of—

(1) developing domestic sources of supply of materials (other than materials referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of this section) determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials; and

(2) developing or using alternative methods for the refining or processing of a material in the stockpile so as to convert such material into a form more suitable for use during an emergency or for storage.

(d) Grants and contracts to encourage conservation of strategic and critical materials

The President shall encourage the conservation of domestic sources of any material determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be a strategic and critical material by making grants or awarding contracts for research regarding the development of—

(1) substitutes for such material; or

(2) more efficient methods of production or use of such material.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §8, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 322; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1686.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98g, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §8, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 600; amended 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, authorized appropriations for procurement, transportation, maintenance, rotation, storage, and refining or processing of materials acquired under this subchapter, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98d(c) of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98f of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1989—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 101–189 added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (a) of this section delegated to Secretary of the Interior and functions of President under subsec. (b) of this section delegated to Secretary of Agriculture by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 98h–2 of this title.

§98h. National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund

(a) Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a separate fund to be known as the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “fund”).

(b) Fund operations

(1) All moneys received from the sale of materials in the stockpile under paragraphs (5) and (6) of section 98e(a) of this title shall be covered into the fund.

(2) Subject to section 98d(a)(1) of this title, moneys covered into the fund under paragraph (1) are hereby made available (subject to such limitations as may be provided in appropriation Acts) for the following purposes:

(A) The acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of strategic and critical materials under section 98e(a) of this title.

(B) Transportation, storage, and other incidental expenses related to such acquisition, maintenance, and disposal.

(C) Development of current specifications of stockpile materials and the upgrading of existing stockpile materials to meet current specifications (including transportation, when economical, related to such upgrading).

(D) Testing and quality studies of stockpile materials.

(E) Studying future material and mobilization requirements for the stockpile.

(F) Activities authorized under section 98h–6 of this title.

(G) Contracting under competitive procedures for materials development and research to—


(i) improve the quality and availability of materials stockpiled from time to time in the stockpile; and

(ii) develop new materials for the stockpile.


(H) Improvement or rehabilitation of facilities, structures, and infrastructure needed to maintain the integrity of stockpile materials.

(I) Disposal of hazardous materials that are stored in the stockpile and authorized for disposal by law.

(J) Performance of environmental remediation, restoration, waste management, or compliance activities at locations of the stockpile that are required under a Federal law or are undertaken by the Government under an administrative decision or negotiated agreement.

(K) Pay of employees of the National Defense Stockpile program.

(L) Other expenses of the National Defense Stockpile program.


(3) Moneys in the fund shall remain available until expended.

(c) Moneys received from sale of materials being rotated or disposed of

All moneys received from the sale of materials being rotated under the provisions of section 98e(a)(4) of this title or disposed of under section 98f(a) of this title shall be covered into the fund and shall be available only for the acquisition of replacement materials.

(d) Effect of bartering

If, during a fiscal year, the National Defense Stockpile Manager barters materials in the stockpile for the purpose of acquiring, upgrading, refining, or processing other materials (or for services directly related to that purpose), the contract value of the materials so bartered shall—

(1) be applied toward the total value of materials that are authorized to be disposed of from the stockpile during that fiscal year;

(2) be treated as an acquisition for purposes of satisfying any requirement imposed on the National Defense Stockpile Manager to enter into obligations during that fiscal year under subsection (b)(2) of this section; and

(3) not increase or decrease the balance in the fund.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §9, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 323; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3203(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3204, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1845; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2264.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98h, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §9, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 600, related to disposition of receipts, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98h(b)(1) of this title.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(J) to (L). Pub. L. 105–261 added subpar. (J) and redesignated former subpars. (J) and (K) as (K) and (L), respectively.

1993—Subsec. (b)(2)(J), (K). Pub. L. 103–160, §3313(a), added subpars. (J) and (K).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–160, §3313(b), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “Notwithstanding paragraph (2), moneys in the fund may not be used to pay salaries and expenses of stockpile employees.”

1992—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(a)(1), inserted “, maintenance, and disposal” after “acquisition” and substituted “section 98e(a)” for “section 98e(a)(1)”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(a)(2), substituted “such acquisition, maintenance, and disposal” for “such acquisition”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(H), (I). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(b), added subpars. (H) and (I).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(c), added par. (4).

1991—Subsec. (b)(2)(G). Pub. L. 102–190 added subpar. (G).

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–510 added subsec. (d).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2)(F). Pub. L. 101–189 added subpar. (F).

1987—Subsec. (b)(2)(F). Pub. L. 100–180 struck out subpar. (F) which related to other reasonable requirements for management of stockpile.

1986—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–661, §3203(a)(1), struck out “Such moneys shall remain in the fund until appropriated.” after “covered into the fund.”

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 99–661, §3203(a)(2), added pars. (2) and (3) and struck out former pars. (2) and (3) which read as follows:

“(2) Moneys covered into the fund under paragraph (1) shall be available, when appropriated therefor, only for the acquisition of strategic and critical materials under section 98e(a)(1) of this title (and for transportation related to such acquisition).

“(3) Moneys in the fund, when appropriated, shall remain available until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriation Acts.”

1981—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35 in par. (1) struck out provisions relating to moneys remaining in the fund at the end of the third fiscal year following the fiscal year in which received, and in par. (3) substituted provisions respecting funds remaining available until expended, for provisions relating to funds remaining available for a period of five fiscal years.

Use of Funds From National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund To Meet National Defense Stockpile Goals and Specifications in Effect on October 1, 1984

Pub. L. 100–440, title V, §518, Sept. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1748, directed that, no later than Oct. 1, 1989, Administrator of General Services, or any Federal officer assuming Administrator's responsibilities with respect to management of the stockpile, to use all funds authorized and appropriated before Jan. 1, 1985, from National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund to evaluate, test, relocate, upgrade or purchase stockpile materials to meet National Defense Stockpile goals and specifications in effect on Oct. 1, 1984. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(m) [title V, §519], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–390, 1329–417.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(m) [title V, §520], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–308, 1783–326, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(m) [title V, §520], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–308, 3341–326.

Deposit of Funds Accruing From Naval Petroleum Reserves

Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §905, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2574, as amended by Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1611(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, provided that: “There shall be deposited into the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund established under section 9 of the Act (50 U.S.C. 98h) 30 percent of all money accruing to the United States during fiscal years 1985 and 1986 from lands in the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves (less amounts spent for exploration, development and operation of those reserves and related expenses during that period). Moneys deposited into the Fund under this subsection shall be deemed to have been covered into the Fund under section 9(b) of the Act.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 98h–2 of this title.

§98h–1. Advisory committees

(a) Membership

The President may appoint advisory committees composed of individuals with expertise relating to materials in the stockpile or with expertise in stockpile management to advise the President with respect to the acquisition, transportation, processing, refining, storage, security, maintenance, rotation, and disposal of such materials under this subchapter.

(b) Expenses

Each member of an advisory committee established under subsection (a) of this section while serving on the business of the advisory committee away from such member's home or regular place of business shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons intermittently employed in the Government service.

(c) Market Impact Committee

(1) The President shall appoint a Market Impact Committee composed of representatives from the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, the Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and such other persons as the President considers appropriate. The representatives from the Department of Commerce and the Department of State shall be Cochairmen of the Committee.

(2) The Committee shall advise the National Defense Stockpile Manager on the projected domestic and foreign economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile that are proposed to be included in the annual materials plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title, or in any revision of such plan, and shall submit to the manager the Committee's recommendations regarding those acquisitions and disposals.

(3) The annual materials plan or the revision of such plan, as the case may be, shall contain—

(A) the views of the Committee on the projected domestic and foreign economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile;

(B) the recommendations submitted by the Committee under paragraph (2); and

(C) for each acquisition or disposal provided for in the plan or revision that is inconsistent with a recommendation of the Committee, a justification for the acquisition or disposal.


(4) In developing recommendations for the National Defense Stockpile Manager under paragraph (2), the Committee shall consult from time to time with representatives of producers, processors, and consumers of the types of materials stored in the stockpile.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §10, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 323; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2654.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 10 of act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §10, was renumbered section 13 and is classified to section 98h–4 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98a(b) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–484 added subsec. (c).

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 313(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided for by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Advisory Committee Regarding Operation and Modernization of Stockpile

Section 3306 of Pub. L. 102–484 provided that:

“(a) Appointment.—Not later than March 15, 1993, the President shall appoint an advisory committee under section 10(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98h–1(a)) to make recommendations to the President concerning the operation and modernization of the National Defense Stockpile.

“(b) Membership.—The committee shall consist of members who have expertise regarding strategic and critical materials, including—

“(1) employees of Federal agencies (including the Department of Defense, the Department of State, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of the Interior, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency);

“(2) representatives of mining, processing, and fabricating industries and consumers that would be affected by the acquisition of materials for the stockpile or the disposal of materials from the stockpile; and

“(3) other interested persons or representatives of interested organizations.”

§98h–2. Reports to Congress

(a) Not later than January 15 of each year, the President shall submit to the Congress an annual written report detailing operations under this subchapter. Each such report shall include—

(1) information with respect to foreign and domestic purchases of materials during the preceding fiscal year;

(2) information with respect to the acquisition and disposal of materials under this subchapter by barter, as provided for in section 98e(c) of this title, during such fiscal year;

(3) information with respect to the activities by the Stockpile Manager to encourage the conservation, substitution, and development of strategic and critical materials within the United States;

(4) information with respect to the research and development activities conducted under sections 98a and 98g of this title;

(5) a statement and explanation of the financial status of the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund and the anticipated appropriations to be made to the fund, and obligations to be made from the fund, during the current fiscal year; and

(6) such other pertinent information on the administration of this subchapter as will enable the Congress to evaluate the effectiveness of the program provided for under this subchapter and to determine the need for additional legislation.


(b)(1) Not later than February 15 of each year, the President shall submit to the appropriate committees of the Congress a report containing an annual materials plan for the operation of the stockpile during the next fiscal year and the succeeding four fiscal years.

(2) Each such report shall include details of all planned expenditures from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund during such period (including expenditures to be made from appropriations from the general fund of the Treasury) and of anticipated receipts from proposed disposals of stockpile materials during such period. Each such report shall also contain details regarding the materials development and research projects to be conducted under section 98h(b)(2)(G) of this title during the fiscal years covered by the report. With respect to each development and research project, the report shall specify the amount planned to be expended from the fund, the material intended to be developed, the potential military or defense industrial applications for that material, and the development and research methodologies to be used.

(3) Any proposed expenditure or disposal detailed in the annual materials plan for any such fiscal year, and any expenditure or disposal proposed in connection with any transaction submitted for such fiscal year to the appropriate committees of Congress pursuant to section 98d(a)(2) of this title, that is not obligated or executed in that fiscal year may not be obligated or executed until such proposed expenditure or disposal is resubmitted in a subsequent annual materials plan or is resubmitted to the appropriate committees of Congress in accordance with section 98d(a)(2) of this title, as appropriate.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §11, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(e), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(3), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3205, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XV, §1503, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2086; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3315, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3311(b), 3313(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §204(d), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 103.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 11 of act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, formerly §10, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; renumbered §11, Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(1), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427, was set out as a Short Title note under section 98 of this title, prior to repeal by section 2(b)(2) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98c of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–35 substituted “fiscal year” for “six-month period”.

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(1), substituted “Not later than January 15 of each year, the President” for “The President” and “an annual” for “every six months a”.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(2), which directed the substitution of “fiscal year” for “6-month period”, could not be executed because the words “6-month period” did not appear in text.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(3), substituted “fiscal year” for “period”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(4), substituted “current fiscal year” for “next fiscal year”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b)(1), designated first sentence of subsec. (b) relating to submission of report as par. (1).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b), designated second sentence of subsec. (b) relating to contents of report as par. (2) and inserted at end “Each such report shall also contain details regarding the materials development and research projects to be conducted under section 98h(b)(2)(G) of this title during the fiscal years covered by the report. With respect to each development and research project, the report shall specify the amount planned to be expended from the fund, the material intended to be developed, the potential military or defense industrial applications for that material, and the development and research methodologies to be used.”

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b)(1), designated third sentence of subsec. (b) relating to resubmission of proposed expenditures and disposals not obligated or executed as par. (3).

1989—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “made to the fund, and obligations to be made from the fund,” for “made from the fund”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(3) to (6). Pub. L. 100–456, §1503(a), added pars. (3) and (4) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (5) and (6), respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–456, §1503(b), substituted “the next fiscal year” for “such fiscal year” and “all planned expenditures from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund” for “planned expenditures for acquisition of strategic and critical materials” and inserted at end “Any proposed expenditure or disposal detailed in the annual materials plan for any such fiscal year, and any expenditure or disposal proposed in connection with any transaction submitted for such fiscal year to the appropriate committees of Congress pursuant to section 98d(a)(2) of this title, that is not obligated or executed in that fiscal year may not be obligated or executed until such proposed expenditure or disposal is resubmitted in a subsequent annual materials plan or is resubmitted to the appropriate committees of Congress in accordance with section 98d(a)(2) of this title, as appropriate.”

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–180 substituted “Not later than February 15 of each year, the President” for “The President” and struck out “each year, at the time that the Budget is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 for the next fiscal year,” after “Congress”.

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted “each year, at the time that the Budget is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 for the next fiscal year,” for each year with the Budget submitted to Congress pursuant to section 201a of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C. 11(a)), for the next fiscal year”.

1981—Pub. L. 97–35 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 98d, 98h–1, 98h–6 of this title.

§98h–3. Definitions

For the purposes of this subchapter:

(1) The term “strategic and critical materials” means materials that (A) would be needed to supply the military, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States during a national emergency, and (B) are not found or produced in the United States in sufficient quantities to meet such need.

(2) The term “national emergency” means a general declaration of emergency with respect to the national defense made by the President or by the Congress.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §12, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324.)

§98h–4. Importation of strategic and critical materials

The President may not prohibit or regulate the importation into the United States of any material determined to be strategic and critical pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter, if such material is the product of any foreign country or area not listed in general note 3(b) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), for so long as the importation into the United States of material of that kind which is the product of a country or area listed in such general note is not prohibited by any provision of law.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §13, formerly §10, as added Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(2), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427; renumbered §13, Pub. L. 96–41, §2(b)(1), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3206(b), (c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1214(o), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1159; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857.)

References in Text

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in text, is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 98h–1 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “not listed in general note” for “not listed as a Communist-dominated country or area in general note” and “product of a country or area listed in such general note” for “product of such Communist-dominated countries or areas”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–418 substituted “general note 3(b) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States” for “general headnote 3(d) of the Tariff Schedules of the United States”.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180 inserted section catchline and, in text, substituted “The President” for “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, on and after January 1, 1972, the President”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 98h–7 of this title.

§98h–5. Biennial report on stockpile requirements

(a) In general

Not later than January 15 of every other year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on stockpile requirements. Each such report shall include—

(1) the Secretary's recommendations with respect to stockpile requirements; and

(2) the matters required under subsection (b) of this section.

(b) National emergency planning assumptions

Each report under this section shall set forth the national emergency planning assumptions used by the Secretary in making the Secretary's recommendations under subsection (a)(1) of this section with respect to stockpile requirements. The Secretary shall base the national emergency planning assumptions on a military conflict scenario consistent with the scenario used by the Secretary in budgeting and defense planning purposes. The assumptions to be set forth include assumptions relating to each of the following:

(1) The length and intensity of the assumed military conflict.

(2) The military force structure to be mobilized.

(3) The losses anticipated from enemy action.

(4) The military, industrial, and essential civilian requirements to support the national emergency.

(5) The availability of supplies of strategic and critical materials from foreign sources during the mobilization period, the military conflict, and the subsequent period of replenishment, taking into consideration possible shipping losses.

(6) The domestic production of strategic and critical materials during the mobilization period, the military conflict, and the subsequent period of replenishment, taking into consideration possible shipping losses.

(7) Civilian austerity measures required during the mobilization period and military conflict.

(c) Period within which to replace or replenish materials

The stockpile requirements shall be based on those strategic and critical materials necessary for the United States to replenish or replace, within three years of the end of the military conflict scenario required under subsection (b) of this section, all munitions, combat support items, and weapons systems that would be required after such a military conflict.

(d) Effect of alternative mobilization periods

The Secretary shall also include in each report under this section an examination of the effect that alternative mobilization periods under the military conflict scenario required under subsection (b) of this section, as well as a range of other military conflict scenarios addressing potentially more serious threats to national security, would have on the Secretary's recommendations under subsection (a)(1) of this section with respect to stockpile requirements.

(e) Plans of President

The President shall submit with each report under this section a statement of the plans of the President for meeting the recommendations of the Secretary set forth in the report.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §14, as added Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1246; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313(b)(1), (2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2856.)

Amendments

1996—Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsecs. (b) to (d), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (e), and struck out former subsec. (b) which related to national emergency planning assumptions set forth in reports required under this section.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160 struck out before period at end of first sentence “, based upon total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war for a period of not less than three years” and inserted after first sentence “Before October 1, 1994, such assumptions shall be based upon the total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war for a period of not less than three years. On and after October 1, 1994, such assumptions shall be based on an assumed national emergency involving military conflict that necessitates an expansion of the Armed Forces together with a significant mobilization of the economy of the United States.”

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(b)(2), substituted “Biennial” for “Annual” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(b)(1), in introductory provisions, substituted “Not later than January 15 of every other year, the Secretary” for “The Secretary” and “a report” for “an annual report” and struck out “shall be submitted with the annual report submitted under section 98h–2(b) of this title and” before “shall include”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–201 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3311(c) of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 98a of this title.

Initial Report Due Date

Section 3313(b)(3) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “The first report required by section 14(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98h–5(a)), as amended by paragraph (1) shall be submitted not later than January 15, 1993.”

§98h–6. Development of domestic sources

(a) Purchase of materials of domestic origin; processing of materials in domestic facilities

Subject to subsection (c) of this section and to the extent the President determines such action is required for the national defense, the President shall encourage the development of domestic sources for materials determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials—

(1) by purchasing, or making a commitment to purchase, strategic and critical materials of domestic origin when such materials are needed for the stockpile; and

(2) by contracting with domestic facilities, or making a commitment to contract with domestic facilities, for the processing or refining of strategic and critical materials in the stockpile when processing or refining is necessary to convert such materials into a form more suitable for storage and subsequent disposition.

(b) Terms and conditions of contracts and commitments

A contract or commitment made under subsection (a) of this section may not exceed five years from the date of the contract or commitment. Such purchases and commitments to purchase may be made for such quantities and on such terms and conditions, including advance payments, as the President considers to be necessary.

(c) Proposed transactions included in annual materials plan; availability of funds

(1) Descriptions of proposed transactions under subsection (a) of this section shall be included in the appropriate annual materials plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title. Changes to any such transaction, or the addition of a transaction not included in such plan, shall be made in the manner provided by section 98d(a)(2) of this title.

(2) The authority of the President to enter into obligations under this section is effective for any fiscal year only to the extent that funds in the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund are adequate to meet such obligations. Payments required to be as a result of obligations incurred under this section shall be made from amounts in the fund.

(d) Transportation and incidental expenses

The authority of the President under subsection (a) of this section includes the authority to pay—

(1) the expenses of transporting materials; and

(2) other incidental expenses related to carrying out such subsection.

(e) Reports

The President shall include in the reports required under section 98h–2(a) of this title information with respect to activities conducted under this section.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §15, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1687.)

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 98h of this title.

§98h–7. National Defense Stockpile Manager

(a) Appointment

The President shall designate a single Federal office to have responsibility for performing the functions of the President under this subchapter, other than under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title. The office designated shall be one to which appointment is made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) Title of designated officer

The individual holding the office designated by the President under subsection (a) of this section shall be known for purposes of functions under this subchapter as the “National Defense Stockpile Manager”.

(c) Delegation of functions

The President may delegate functions of the President under this subchapter (other than under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title) only to the National Defense Stockpile Manager. Any such delegation made by the President shall remain in effect until specifically revoked by law or Executive order. The President may not delegate functions of the President under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §16, formerly §6A, as added Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3202(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1246; renumbered §16 and amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585.)

Codification

Section was classified to section 98e–1 of this title prior to its renumbering by Pub. L. 101–189.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–190 struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: “During any period during which there is no officer appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, serving in the position designated by the President under subsection (a) of this section or during which the authority of the President under this subchapter (other than under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title) has not been delegated to that position, no action may be taken under section 98e(a)(6) of this title.”

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), substituted “sections 98f and 98h–4” for “sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), (2), substituted “sections 98f and 98h–4” for “sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4” and inserted at end “The President may not delegate functions of the President under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title.” after “Executive order.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), (3), substituted “sections 98f and 98h–4” for “sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4” and “section 98e(a)(6)” for “section 98e(b) or 98e(d)”.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180 amended section generally, revising and restating provisions of subsecs. (a) and (b) and adding subsecs. (c) and (d).

Savings Provision

Section 3203(c) of Pub. L. 100–180 provided that: “Unless otherwise directed by the President under section 6A [renumbered §16] of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act [this section], as amended by subsection (a), the designation of a National Defense Stockpile Manager in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 1987] shall remain in effect until the individual so designated ceases to hold the office held by the individual at the time of the designation.”

Designation of National Defense Stockpile Manager; Delegation of Functions

The Secretary of Defense was designated National Defense Stockpile Manager and functions of the President under this section were delegated to the Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Deadline for Designation of Manager

Section 3202(b) of Pub. L. 99–661 directed President, not later than Feb. 15, 1987, to designate an official as National Defense Stockpile Manager, as required by this section.

§98i. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–861, §36A, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570

Section, act Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 939, title IV, §416, 70 Stat. 1018, related to contracts for storage, handling, and distribution of liquid fuels. See section 2388 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section was not enacted as part of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act which comprises this subchapter.

§99. Transferred

Codification

Section, act July 2, 1940, ch. 508, §6, 54 Stat. 714, was transferred to section 701 of Appendix to this title and subsequently repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.

§100. Nitrate plants

(a) Investigations; designation of sites; construction and operation of dams, locks, improvements to navigation, etc.

The President of the United States may make, or cause to be made, such investigation as in his judgment is necessary to determine the best, cheapest, and most available means for the production of nitrates and other products for munitions of war and useful in the manufacture of fertilizers and other useful products by water power or any other power as in his judgment is the best and cheapest to use; and is also authorized to designate for the exclusive use of the United States, if in his judgment such means is best and cheapest, such site or sites, upon any navigable or nonnavigable river or rivers or upon the public lands, as in his opinion will be necessary for national defense; and is further authorized to construct, maintain, and operate, at or on any site or sites so designated, dams, locks, improvements to navigation, power houses, and other plants and equipment or other means than water power as in his judgment is the best and cheapest, necessary or convenient for the generation of electrical or other power and for the production of nitrates or other products needed for munitions of war and useful in the manufacture of fertilizers and other useful products.

(b) Lease, purchase, or acquisition of lands and rights of way; purchase or acquisition of materials, minerals, and processes

The President is authorized to lease, buy, or acquire, by condemnation, gift, grant, or devise, such lands and rights of way as may be necessary for the construction and operation of such plants and to take from any lands of the United States, or to buy or acquire by condemnation materials, minerals, and processes, patented or otherwise, necessary for the construction and operation of such plants and for the manufacture of such products.

(c) Use of products of plants; disposal of surplus

The products of such plants shall be used by the President for military and naval purposes to the extent that he may deem necessary, and any surplus which he shall determine is not required shall be sold and disposed of by him under such regulations as he may prescribe.

(d) Employment of officers, agents, or agencies

The President is authorized to employ such officers, agents, or agencies as may in his discretion be necessary to enable him to carry out the purposes herein specified, and to authorize and require such officers, agents, or agencies to perform any and all of the duties imposed upon him by the provisions hereof.

(e) Government construction and operation

The plant or plants provided for under this section shall be constructed and operated solely by the Government and not in conjunction with any other industry or enterprise carried on by private capital.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §37, 70A Stat. 634.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act which comprises this subchapter.

§100a. Omitted

Codification

Section, which was from the Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1983, Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §712], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1833, 1851, prohibited use of funds available to Department of Defense agencies for acquisition, construction, or operation of certain scrap-processing facilities, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Dec. 29, 1981, Pub. L. 97–114, title VII, §712, 95 Stat. 1580.

Dec. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–527, title VII, §713, 94 Stat. 3082.

Dec. 21, 1979, Pub. L. 96–154, title VII, §713, 93 Stat. 1154.

Oct. 13, 1978, Pub. L. 95–457, title VIII, §813, 92 Stat. 1246.

Sept. 21, 1977, Pub. L. 95–111, title VIII, §812, 91 Stat. 901.

Sept. 22, 1976, Pub. L. 94–419, title VII, §712, 90 Stat. 1293.

Feb. 9, 1976, Pub. L. 94–212, title VII, §712, 90 Stat. 170.

Oct. 8, 1974, Pub. L. 93–437, title VIII, §812, 88 Stat. 1226.

Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–238, title VII, §712, 87 Stat. 1040.

Oct. 26, 1972, Pub. L. 92–570, title VII, §712, 86 Stat. 1198.

Dec. 18, 1971, Pub. L. 92–204, title VII, §712, 85 Stat. 729.

Jan. 11, 1971, Pub. L. 91–668, title VIII, §812, 84 Stat. 2032.

Dec. 29, 1969, Pub. L. 91–171, title VI, §612, 83 Stat. 481.

Oct. 17, 1968, Pub. L. 90–580, title V, §511, 82 Stat. 1131.

Sept. 29, 1967, Pub. L. 90–96, title VI, §611, 81 Stat. 244.

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–687, title VI, §611, 80 Stat. 992.

Sept. 29, 1965, Pub. L. 89–213, title VI, §611, 79 Stat. 875.

Aug. 19, 1964, Pub. L. 88–446, title V, §511, 78 Stat. 476.

Oct. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–149, title V, §511, 77 Stat. 265.

Aug. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87–577, title V, §511, 76 Stat. 329.

Aug. 17, 1961, Pub. L. 87–144, title VI, §611, 75 Stat. 377.

July 7, 1960, Pub. L. 86–601, title V, §511, 74 Stat. 351.

Aug. 18, 1959, Pub. L. 86–166, title V, §611, 73 Stat. 380.

Aug. 22, 1958, Pub. L. 85–724, title VI, §611, 72 Stat. 725.

Aug. 2, 1957, Pub. L. 85–117, title VI, §612, 71 Stat. 325.

July 2, 1956, ch. 488, title VI, §612, 70 Stat. 469.

July 13, 1955, ch. 358, title VI, §615, 69 Stat. 317.

June 30, 1954, ch. 432, title VII, §715, 68 Stat. 352.

CHAPTER 6—WILLFUL DESTRUCTION, ETC., OF WAR OR NATIONAL-DEFENSE MATERIAL

§§101 to 106. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 101, acts Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §1, 40 Stat. 533; Nov. 30, 1940, ch. 926, 54 Stat. 1220; Dec. 24, 1942, ch. 824, 56 Stat. 1087; 1946 Proc. No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352, related to definition of war terms. See section 2151 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 102, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §2, 40 Stat. 534, related to destruction or injury of war material in time of war. See section 2153 of Title 18.

Section 103, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §3, 40 Stat. 534, related to making or causing to be made defective war material. See section 2154 of Title 18.

Section 104, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §4, as added Nov. 30, 1940, ch. 926, 54 Stat. 1220; amended Aug. 21, 1941, ch. 388, 55 Stat. 655, related to definition of national-defense terms. See section 2151 of Title 18.

Section 105, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §5, as added Nov. 30, 1940, ch. 926, 54 Stat. 1220, related to destruction or injury of national-defense materials. See section 2155 of Title 18.

Section 106, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §6, as added Nov. 30, 1940, ch. 926, 54 Stat. 1220, related to making or causing to be made defective national-defense material. See section 2156 of Title 18.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of sections 101 to 106 effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

CHAPTER 7—INTERFERENCE WITH HOMING PIGEONS OWNED BY UNITED STATES

§§111 to 113. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 111, act Apr. 19, 1918, ch. 58, §1, 40 Stat. 533, related to prohibited acts affecting homing pigeons owned by United States. See section 45 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 112, act Apr. 19, 1918, ch. 58, §2, 40 Stat. 533, related to possession of pigeons as evidence of violation of law. See section 45 of Title 18.

Section 113, act Apr. 19, 1918, ch. 58, §3, 40 Stat. 533, related to punishment. See section 45 of Title 18.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of sections 111 to 113 effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

CHAPTER 8—EXPLOSIVES; MANUFACTURE, DISTRIBUTION, STORAGE, USE, AND POSSESSION REGULATED

§§121 to 144. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–452, title XI, §1106(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 960

Section 121, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §1, 40 Stat. 385; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 863, defined “explosive”, “explosives”, “ingredients”, “person”, and “Director”. See section 841 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 122, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §2, 40 Stat. 385; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 864, related to unauthorized manufacture, distribution, possession, acquisition, etc., of explosives or ingredients. See section 842 of Title 18.

Section 123, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §3, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 864; Nov. 24, 1942, ch. 641, 56 Stat. 1022; Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, title XIV, §1405, 72 Stat. 808; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §8(f), 80 Stat. 943, excepted from provisions of this chapter purchase or possession of ingredients when purchased or held in small quantities and not used or intended to be used in manufacture of explosives, explosives or ingredients in transit in conformity with applicable law, explosives manufactured under authority of the United States for armed forces or the F.B.I., and arsenals, etc., owned by, or operated by or on behalf of, the United States. See section 845 of Title 18.

Section 124, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §4, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 864, authorized a superintendent, foreman, or other duly authorized employee at a mine, quarry, or other work, when licensed, to sell or issue to any employee under him such amount of explosives or ingredients required by that employee in performance of his duties. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 125, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §2, 40 Stat. 385; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 863, related to applicability of prohibitory provisions of this chapter.

Section 126, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §5, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 864, required licensees to keep records of disposition of explosives or ingredients. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 127, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §6, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 865, authorized issuance of licenses. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 128, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §7, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 865, set forth procedure for issuance of licenses and fees for such licenses.

Section 129, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §8, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 865; Ex. Ord. No. 9287, eff. Dec. 24, 1942, 7 F.R. 10897, provided for term of license, qualifications of applicants for licenses, and revocation of license. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 130, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §9, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 866, set forth contents of applications for licenses. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 131, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §10, 40 Stat. 387; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 866, required licensee or applicant to furnish information on request of Director or his authorized representative. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 132, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §11, 40 Stat. 387; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, related to false representations as to required license.

Section 133, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §12, 40 Stat. 387; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, related to markings on manufacturing or storage premises for explosives.

Section 134, act July 1, 1918, ch. 113, 40 Stat. 671, related to cancellation of licenses for violations of law. See section 844 of Title 18.

Section 135, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §13, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, related to exclusion of public from manufacturing or storage premises for explosives and discharge of firearms, etc., on such premises.

Section 136, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §14, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, authorized investigations by Director of explosions and fires involving explosives or ingredients of explosives.

Section 137, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §15, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, authorized Director to exercise authority conferred upon him by this chapter under supervision of Secretary of the Interior and cooperation of other agencies with Director in administration and enforcement of this chapter.

Section 138, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §16, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972, authorized employment of personnel for administration of this chapter.

Section 139, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §17, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868, prohibited any officer, employee, or licensing agent from divulging any information obtained in course of his duties under this chapter.

Section 140, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §18, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868, authorized Director to issue rules and regulations. See section 847 of Title 18.

Section 141, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §19, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868, set forth penalties for violations of this chapter. See section 844 of Title 18.

Section 142, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §20, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868, provided that this chapter and regulations issued pursuant to it were to become operative only during war or national emergency.

Section 143, act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §21, 40 Stat. 389, related to agencies available for enforcement of provisions of this chapter.

Section 144, act July 1, 1918, ch. 113, 40 Stat. 671, subjected platinum, iridium, and palladium and compounds thereof to provisions of this chapter.

CHAPTER 9—AIRCRAFT

§§151 to 151f. Omitted

Codification

Sections 151 to 151f which related to a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics were omitted pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 85–568, title III, July 29, 1958, 72 Stat. 432, set out as a note under section 2472 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, which terminated the Committee and transferred all its functions, powers, duties, and obligations to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. See section 2451 et seq. of Title 42.

Section 151, acts Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 83, 38 Stat. 930; Mar. 2, 1929, ch. 482, 45 Stat. 1451; June 23, 1938, ch. 601, §1107(e), 52 Stat. 1027; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §7, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1235; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; May 25, 1948, ch. 335, §1, 62 Stat. 266; Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §12(a), 63 Stat. 591; Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §4, 64 Stat. 419; June 3, 1954, ch. 254, 68 Stat. 170, established National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, provided for its composition, prescribed compensation of members and duties of Committee, and required reports to Congress.

Section 151a, act Mar. 2, 1929, ch. 482, 45 Stat. 1451, was incorporated in section 151 of this title.

Section 151b, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §1, 64 Stat. 418, related to functions of Committee.

Section 151c, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §2, 64 Stat. 418, related to transfer of supplies to Committee.

Section 151d, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §3, 64 Stat. 418, related to employment of aliens.

Section 151e, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §6, 64 Stat. 419, related to availability of appropriations.

Section 151f, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §7, 64 Stat. 419, related to prosecution of projects.

§§152, 153. Repealed. May 25, 1948, ch. 335, §3(a), (b), 62 Stat. 267

Section 152, act July 1, 1918, ch. 113, 40 Stat. 650, as amended July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, related to office space for Advisory Committee.

Section 153, act Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 83, 38 Stat. 930, related to annual reports.

§154. Repealed. Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 851, §4, 54 Stat. 1114

Section, act Apr. 22, 1926, ch. 171, 44 Stat. 314, related to purchases and services.

§155. Repealed. May 25, 1948, ch. 335, §3(c), 62 Stat. 267

Section, act Apr. 22, 1926, ch. 171, 44 Stat. 314, related to Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory.

§§156, 157. Omitted

Codification

Section 156, acts Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, §1, 54 Stat. 134; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972, authorized National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to pay compensation of a retired officer of the Army or Navy performing service for Committee. See note set out under sections 151 to 151f of this title.

Section 157, which related to transfer of aircraft, supplies, and equipment by Army and Navy to National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, was from appropriation acts July 30, 1947, ch. 359, title I, §101, 61 Stat. 599; Apr. 20, 1948, ch. 219, title I, §101, 62 Stat. 188; Aug. 24, 1949, ch. 506, title I, §101, 63 Stat. 646; Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, ch. VIII, title I, §101, 64 Stat. 711, and was not repeated in the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1952, act Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 376, 65 Stat. 268. Section was formerly classified to section 246 of former Title 49, Transportation.

§§158 to 159. Transferred

Codification

Section 158, act Aug. 1, 1947, ch. 433, §1(b), (c), as added July 13, 1949, ch. 332, §1, 63 Stat. 410, related to professional and scientific service on the Committee and was transferred to section 1161 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.

Section 158a, act Aug. 1, 1947, ch. 433, §2, 61 Stat. 715, related to classification of positions and appointments and was transferred to section 1162 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378, and reenacted as section 3104(b) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section 159, acts Aug. 1, 1947, ch. 433, §3, 61 Stat. 715; July 13, 1949, ch. 332, §2, 63 Stat. 411, related to reports to Congress and confidential information and was transferred to section 1163 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378, and reenacted as section 3104(c) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§160. Omitted

Codification

Section, which was from acts Aug. 24, 1949, ch. 506, title I, §101, 63 Stat. 646; Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, ch. VIII, title I, §101, 64 Stat. 711, and prior appropriation acts, related to employment of aliens, and was not repeated in the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1952, act Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 376, 65 Stat. 268.

§§160a to 160f. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–707, §21(b)(5), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 337

Section 160a, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §1, 64 Stat. 43, related to employees pursuing graduate study or research.

Section 160b, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §2, 64 Stat. 43, related to acceptable types of graduate study and research.

Section 160c, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §3, 64 Stat. 43, related to duration of leaves of absence available.

Section 160d, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §4, 64 Stat. 43, related to payment of tuition and expenses.

Section 160e, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §5, 64 Stat. 43, related to continuation of salary and leave benefits.

Section 160f, acts Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §6, 64 Stat. 43; May 6, 1954, ch. 183, 68 Stat. 78; Mar. 17, 1958, Pub. L. 85–349, 72 Stat. 48, related to limitation on government expenditure.

Effective Date of Repeal

For effective date of repeal, see section 21(a) of Pub. L. 85–507.

CHAPTER 10—HELIUM GAS

Sec.
161 to 166. Omitted or Repealed.
167.
Definitions.
167a.
Authority of Secretary.
(a)
Extraction and disposal of helium on Federal lands.
(b)
Storage, transportation, and sale.
167b.
Storage, transportation, and withdrawal of crude helium.
(a)
Storage, transportation, and withdrawal.
(b)
Cessation of production, refining, and marketing.
(c)
Disposal of facilities.
(d)
Existing contracts.
167c.
Fees for storage, transportation, and withdrawal.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Treatment.
167d.
Sale of helium.
(a)
Purchase by Government agencies.
(b)
Sales by Secretary.
(c)
Prices and determinations; repayable amounts.
(d)
Extraction of helium from deposits on Federal lands.
(e)
Helium production fund.
167e.
Intragovernmental cooperation.
167f.
Elimination of stockpile.
(a)
Stockpile sales.
(b)
Discovery of additional reserves.
167g.
Promulgation of rules and regulations.
167h.
Administrative procedure.
167i.
Exclusion from Natural Gas Act provisions.
167j.
Land conveyance in Potter County, Texas.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Land description.
167k.
Violations; penalties.
167l.
Injunctions.
167m.
Report on helium.
(a)
NAS study and report.
(b)
Transmission to Congress.
167n.
Repealed.

        

§§161 to 164. Omitted

Codification

Act Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, 43 Stat. 1110, as completely amended, renumbered, and revised by Pub. L. 86–777, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 918, is classified to section 167 et seq. of this title.

Section 161, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §1, 43 Stat. 1110; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1387; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 885, authorized Secretary of the Interior to acquire and reserve helium-gas lands and to produce and store helium gas. See section 3 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as amended by Pub. L. 86–777, which is classified to section 167a of this title.

Section 162, acts Feb. 12, 1925, ch. 225, title I, 43 Stat. 908; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, authorized Navy Department to acquire helium-gas lands and to produce and experiment with helium gas.

Section 163, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §2, 43 Stat. 1111; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1387; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 886, authorized Bureau of Mines to produce helium gas. See section 4 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as amended by Pub. L. 86–777, which is classified to section 167b of this title.

Section 164, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §3, 43 Stat. 1111; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1387; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 886, related to disposal of helium by sale, upon request of Army or Navy or other Federal Government agencies, or for medicinal, scientific or commercial use, to deposit and use of funds obtained by sale of gas, and to an annual report to Congress by Secretary of the Interior on said funds. See section 6 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as amended by Pub. L. 86–777, which is classified to section 167d of this title.

§165. Repealed. Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, §542(a)(13), 68 Stat. 861

Section, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §4, 43 Stat. 1111; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1388; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 887, related to exportation of helium gas. See section 2778 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§166. Omitted

Section, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §5, 43 Stat. 1111; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1388; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 887; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, authorized Secretaries of Army and Navy to designate representatives to cooperate with Department of the Interior to effectuate the purposes of this chapter, and gave them the right of access to plants, data, and accounts. See section 7 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as amended by Pub. L. 86–777, which is classified to section 167e of this title.

§167. Definitions

As used in this chapter:

(1) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of the Interior;

(2) The term “person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, or State or political subdivision thereof; and

(3) The terms “helium-bearing natural gas” and “helium-gas mixture” mean, respectively, natural gas and gas mixtures containing three-tenths of 1 per centum or more of helium by volume.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §2, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 918.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2 of act Mar. 3, 1925, authorized Bureau of Mines to produce helium gas and was classified to section 163 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 86–777.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Section 3 of Pub. L. 86–777 provided that: “The amendment made by this Act [enacting this section and sections 167a to 167n of this title] shall become effective on March 1, 1961.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–273, §1, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3315, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 167a to 167d, 167f, 167j, and 167m of this title] may be cited as the ‘Helium Privatization Act of 1996’.”

Short Title of 1960 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 86–777 provided that: “This Act [enacting this section, sections 167a to 167n of this title, and provisions set out as notes below] may be cited as the ‘Helium Act Amendments of 1960’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as added by Pub. L. 86–777, §2, provided that: “This Act [enacting this section, sections 167a to 167n of this title, and provision set out as a note below] may be cited as the ‘Helium Act’.”

Separability

Section 17 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as added by Pub. L. 86–777, §2, provided that: “If any provision of this Act [enacting this section, sections 167a to 167n of this title, and provisions set out as a note above], or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of this Act or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby.”

Severance Package for Helium Operations Employees

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(3) [title I, §112], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–157, provided that:

“(a) Employees of Helium Operations, Bureau of Land Management, entitled to severance pay under 5 U.S.C. 5595, may apply for, and the Secretary of the Interior may pay, the total amount of the severance pay to the employee in a lump sum. Employees paid severance pay in a lump sum and subsequently reemployed by the Federal Government shall be subject to the repayment provisions of 5 U.S.C. 5595(i)(2) and (3), except that any repayment shall be made to the Helium Fund.

“(b) Helium Operations employees who elect to continue health benefits after separation shall be liable for not more than the required employee contribution under 5 U.S.C. 8905a(d)(1)(A). The Helium Fund shall pay for 18 months the remaining portion of required contributions.

“(c) The Secretary of the Interior may provide for training to assist Helium Operations employees in the transition to other Federal or private sector jobs during the facility shut-down and disposition process and for up to 12 months following separation from Federal employment, including retraining and relocation incentives on the same terms and conditions as authorized for employees of the Department of Defense in section 348 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 [Pub. L. 103–337, 10 U.S.C. 1597 note].

“(d) For purposes of the annual leave restoration provisions of 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(1)(B), the cessation of helium production and sales, and other related Helium Program activities shall be deemed to create an exigency of public business under, and annual leave that is lost during leave years 1997 through 2001 because of 5 U.S.C. 6304 (regardless of whether such leave was scheduled in advance) shall be restored to the employee and shall be credited and available in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(2). Annual leave so restored and remaining unused upon the transfer of a Helium Program employee to a position of the executive branch outside of the Helium Program shall be liquidated by payment to the employee of a lump sum from the Helium Fund for such leave.

“(e) Benefits under this section shall be paid from the Helium Fund in accordance with section 4(c)(4) of the Helium Privatization Act of 1996 [probably means the Helium Act, which is classified to section 167b(c)(4) of this title]. Funds may be made available to Helium Program employees who are or will be separated before October 1, 2002 because of the cessation of helium production and sales and other related activities. Retraining benefits, including retraining and relocation incentives, may be paid for retraining commencing on or before September 30, 2002.

“(f) This section shall remain in effect through fiscal year 2002.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(e) [title I, §112], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–231, 2681–254.

Pub. L. 105–83, title I, §113, Nov. 14, 1997, 111 Stat. 1562.

§167a. Authority of Secretary

(a) Extraction and disposal of helium on Federal lands

(1) In general

The Secretary may enter into agreements with private parties for the recovery and disposal of helium on Federal lands upon such terms and conditions as the Secretary deems fair, reasonable, and necessary.

(2) Leasehold rights

The Secretary may grant leasehold rights to any such helium.

(3) Limitation

The Secretary may not enter into any agreement by which the Secretary sells such helium other than to a private party with whom the Secretary has an agreement for recovery and disposal of helium.

(4) Regulations

Agreements under paragraph (1) may be subject to such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary.

(5) Existing rights

An agreement under paragraph (1) shall be subject to any rights of any affected Federal oil and gas lessee that may be in existence prior to the date of the agreement.

(6) Terms and conditions

An agreement under paragraph (1) (and any extension or renewal of an agreement) shall contain such terms and conditions as the Secretary may consider appropriate.

(7) Prior agreements

This subsection shall not in any manner affect or diminish the rights and obligations of the Secretary and private parties under agreements to dispose of helium produced from Federal lands in existence on October 9, 1996, except to the extent that such agreements are renewed or extended after October 9, 1996.

(b) Storage, transportation, and sale

The Secretary may store, transport, and sell helium only in accordance with this chapter.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §3, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 918; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §3, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3315.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3 of act Mar. 3, 1925, related to disposal of helium by sale, use of funds so obtained, and reports to Congress on such uses and was classified to section 164 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 86–777.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section enumerated various aspects of Secretary's authority, including provisions in subsec. (a) relating to conserving, producing, buying, and selling helium, in subsec. (b) relating to helium on public domain, and in subsec. (c) relating to contract price for helium.

§167b. Storage, transportation, and withdrawal of crude helium

(a) Storage, transportation, and withdrawal

The Secretary may store, transport, and withdraw crude helium and maintain and operate crude helium storage facilities, in existence on October 9, 1996, at the Bureau of Mines Cliffside Field, and related helium transportation and withdrawal facilities.

(b) Cessation of production, refining, and marketing

Not later than 18 months after October 9, 1996, the Secretary shall cease producing, refining, and marketing refined helium and shall cease carrying out all other activities relating to helium which the Secretary was authorized to carry out under this chapter before October 9, 1996, except activities described in subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Disposal of facilities

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (5), not later than 24 months after the cessation of activities referred to in subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary shall designate as excess property and dispose of all facilities, equipment, and other real and personal property, and all interests therein, held by the United States for the purpose of producing, refining and marketing refined helium.

(2) Applicable law

The disposal of such property shall be in accordance with the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949.1

(3) Proceeds

All proceeds accruing to the United States by reason of the sale or other disposal of such property shall be treated as moneys received under this chapter for purposes of section 167d(f) of this title.

(4) Costs

All costs associated with such sale and disposal (including costs associated with termination of personnel) and with the cessation of activities under subsection (b) of this section shall be paid from amounts available in the helium production fund established under section 167d(f) of this title.

(5) Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any facilities, equipment, or other real or personal property, or any interest therein, necessary for the storage, transportation, and withdrawal of crude helium or any equipment, facilities, or other real or personal property, required to maintain the purity, quality control, and quality assurance of crude helium in the Bureau of Mines Cliffside Field.

(d) Existing contracts

(1) In general

All contracts that were entered into by any person with the Secretary for the purchase by the person from the Secretary of refined helium and that are in effect on October 9, 1996, shall remain in force and effect until the date on which the refining operations cease, as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(2) Costs

Any costs associated with the termination of contracts described in paragraph (1) shall be paid from the helium production fund established under section 167d(f) of this title.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §4, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 920; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §3, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3316.)

References in Text

The Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, 63 Stat. 377, as amended. Except for title III of the Act, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§251 et seq.) of chapter 4 of Title 41, Public Contracts, the Act was repealed and reenacted by Pub. L. 107–217, §§1, 6(b), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1062, 1304, as chapters 1 to 11 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 4 of act Mar. 3, 1925, related to exportation of helium gas and was classified to section 165 of this title, prior to repeal by act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, §542(a)(13), 68 Stat. 861.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of single par. authorizing Secretary to maintain and operate helium production and purification plants and to conduct or contract for research as to helium production, purification, transportation, liquefaction, storage, and utilization.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 167d of this title; title 35 section 210.

1 See References in Text note below.

§167c. Fees for storage, transportation, and withdrawal

(a) In general

Whenever the Secretary provides helium storage withdrawal or transportation services to any person, the Secretary shall impose a fee on the person to reimburse the Secretary for the full costs of providing such storage, transportation, and withdrawal.

(b) Treatment

All fees received by the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section shall be treated as moneys received under this chapter for purposes of section 167d(f) of this title.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §5, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 920; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §3, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3317.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5 of act Mar. 3, 1925, authorized governmental cooperation with Department of the Interior to effectuate the purposes of this chapter and was classified to section 166 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 86–777.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to licensing for extraction, transportation, and sale of helium under Federal helium refining program, including provisions in subsec. (a) relating to rules and regulations, in subsec. (b) relating to terms, assignments, and revocations of licenses, in subsec. (c) relating to purpose of licenses, and in subsec. (d) relating to suspension of licenses and reacquisition of helium supplies in times of war or national emergency.

§167d. Sale of helium

(a) Purchase by Government agencies

The Department of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and other agencies of the Federal Government, to the extent that supplies are readily available, shall purchase all major requirements of helium from persons who have entered into enforceable contracts to purchase an equivalent amount of crude helium from the Secretary.

(b) Sales by Secretary

The Secretary is authorized to sell crude helium for Federal, medical, scientific, and commercial uses in such quantities and under such terms and conditions as he determines. Except as may be required by reason of subsection (a) of this section, sales of crude helium under this section shall be in amounts as the Secretary determines, in consultation with the helium industry, necessary to carry out this subsection with minimum market disruption.

(c) Prices and determinations; repayable amounts

Sales of crude helium by the Secretary shall be at prices established by him which shall be adequate to cover all costs incurred in carrying out the provisions of this chapter and to repay to the United States by deposit in the Treasury, all funds required to be repaid to the United States as of October 1, 1995 under this section (referred to in this subsection as “repayable amounts”). The price at which crude helium is sold by the Secretary shall not be less than the amount determined by the Secretary by—

(1) dividing the outstanding amount of such repayable amounts by the volume (in million cubic feet) of crude helium owned by the United States and stored in the Bureau of Mines Cliffside Field at the time of the sale concerned, and

(2) adjusting the amount determined under paragraph (1) by the Consumer Price Index for years beginning after December 31, 1995.

(d) Extraction of helium from deposits on Federal lands

All moneys received by the Secretary from the sale or disposition of helium on Federal lands shall be paid to the Treasury and credited against the amounts required to be repaid to the Treasury under subsection (c) of this section.

(e) Helium production fund

(1) All moneys received under this chapter, including moneys from sale of helium or other products resulting from helium operations and from the sale of excess property shall be credited to the helium production fund, which shall be available without fiscal year limitation, for carrying out the provisions of this chapter, including any research relating to helium carried out by the Department of the Interior. Amounts accumulating in said fund in excess of amounts the Secretary deems necessary to carry out this chapter and contracts negotiated hereunder shall be paid to the Treasury and credited against the amounts required to be repaid to the Treasury under subsection (c) of this section.

(2)(A) Within 7 days after the commencement of each fiscal year after the disposal of the facilities referred to in section 167b(c) of this title, all amounts in such fund in excess of $2,000,000 (or such lesser sum as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out this chapter during such fiscal year) shall be paid to the Treasury and credited as provided in paragraph (1).

(B) On repayment of all amounts referred to in subsection (c) of this section, the fund established under this section shall be terminated and all moneys received under this chapter shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §6, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 921; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §4, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3317.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(a), substituted “from persons who have entered into enforceable contracts to purchase an equivalent amount of crude helium from the Secretary” for “from the Secretary”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(b), inserted “crude” before “helium” and inserted at end “Except as may be required by reason of subsection (a) of this section, sales of crude helium under this section shall be in amounts as the Secretary determines, in consultation with the helium industry, necessary to carry out this subsection with minimum market disruption.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(c)(2), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by substituting “all funds required to be repaid to the United States as of October 1, 1995 under this section (referred to in this subsection as ‘repayable amounts’). The price at which crude helium is sold by the Secretary shall not be less than the amount determined by the Secretary by—” and pars. (1) and (2) for “together with interest as provided in this subsection” and all that followed through the end of the subsec., was executed by making the substitution for language which read “together with interest as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the following:” along with former pars. (1) to (3), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, pars. (1) to (3) read as follows:

“(1) Within twenty-five years from September 13, 1960, the net capital and retained earnings of the helium production fund (established under section 164 of this title prior to amendment by the Helium Act Amendments of 1960), determined by the Secretary as of September 13, 1960, plus any moneys expended thereafter by the Department of the Interior from funds provided in the Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1959, for construction of a helium plant at Keyes, Oklahoma;

“(2) Within twenty-five years from the date of borrowing, all funds borrowed, as provided in section 167j of this chapter, to acquire and construct helium plants and facilities; and

“(3) Within twenty-five years from September 13, 1960, unless the Secretary determines that said period should be extended for not more than ten years, all funds borrowed, as provided in section 167j of this title for all purposes other than those specified in clause (2) above.”

Pub. L. 104–273, §4(c)(1), inserted “crude” after “Sales of”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(d), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Compound interest on the amounts specified in clauses (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (c) of this section which have not been paid to the Treasury shall be calculated annually at rates determined by the Secretary of the Treasury taking into consideration the current average market yields of outstanding marketable obligations of the United States having maturities comparable to the investments authorized by this chapter, except that the interest rate on the amounts specified in clause (1) of subsection (c) of this section shall be determined as of Sept. 13, 1960, and the interest rate on the obligations specified in clauses (2) and (3) of subsection (c) of this section as of the time of each borrowing.”

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(e), (f), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e)(1), added par. (2), and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows: “Helium shall be sold for medical purposes at prices which will permit its general use therefor; and all sales of helium to non-Federal purchasers shall be upon condition that the Federal Government shall have a right to repurchase helium so sold that has not been lost or dissipated, when needed for Government use, under terms and at prices established by regulations.”

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 167b, 167c, 167f of this title.

§167e. Intragovernmental cooperation

The Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission may each designate representatives to cooperate with the Secretary in carrying out the purposes of this chapter, and shall have complete right of access to plants, data, and accounts.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §7, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 921.)

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

§167f. Elimination of stockpile

(a) Stockpile sales

(1) Commencement

Not later than January 1, 2005, the Secretary shall commence offering for sale crude helium from helium reserves owned by the United States in such amounts as would be necessary to dispose of all such helium reserves in excess of 600,000,000 cubic feet on a straight-line basis between such date and January 1, 2015.

(2) Times of sale

The sales shall be at such times during each year and in such lots as the Secretary determines, in consultation with the helium industry, to be necessary to carry out this subsection with minimum market disruption.

(3) Price

The price for all sales under paragraph (1), as determined by the Secretary in consultation with the helium industry, shall be such price as will ensure repayment of the amounts required to be repaid to the Treasury under section 167d(c) of this title.

(b) Discovery of additional reserves

The discovery of additional helium reserves shall not affect the duty of the Secretary to make sales of helium under subsection (a) of this section.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §8, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 922; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §5, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3318.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to condemnation proceedings under Federal helium refining program.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 167m of this title.

§167g. Promulgation of rules and regulations

The Secretary is authorized to establish and promulgate such rules and regulations, as are consistent with the directions of this chapter and are necessary to carry out the provisions hereof.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §9, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 922.)

§167h. Administrative procedure

(a) The provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 shall apply to any agency proceeding and any agency action taken under this chapter, including the issuance of rules and regulations, and the terms “agency proceeding” and “agency action” shall have the meaning specified in subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.

(b) In any proceeding under this chapter for the granting, suspending, revoking, or amending of any license, or application to transfer control thereof, and in any proceeding for the issuance or modification of rules and regulations dealing with the activities of licensees, the Secretary shall grant a hearing upon the request of any person whose interest may be affected by the proceeding, and shall admit any such person as a party to such proceeding. Any final order entered in any such proceeding shall be subject to judicial review in the manner prescribed in chapter 158 of title 28, and to the provisions of chapter 7 of title 5.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §10, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 922.)

Codification

In subsecs. (a) and (b), “subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5” and “chapter 7 of title 5” substituted for “the Administrative Procedure Act of June 11, 1946 (60 Stat. 637; 5 U.S.C. 1001–1011), as amended”, “the Administrative Procedure Act”, and “section 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act”, respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

In subsec. (b), “chapter 158 of title 28” substituted for “the Act of December 29, 1950 (64 Stat. 1129; 5 U.S.C. 1031–1042), as amended” on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, section 4(e) of which enacted chapter 158 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§167i. Exclusion from Natural Gas Act provisions

The provisions of the Natural Gas Act of June 21, 1938, as amended [15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.], shall not be applicable to the sale, extraction, processing, transportation, or storage of helium either prior to or subsequent to the separation of such helium from the natural gas with which it is commingled, whether or not the provisions of such Act apply to such natural gas, and in determining the rates of a natural gas company under sections 4 and 5 of the Natural Gas Act, as amended [15 U.S.C. 717c, 717d], whenever helium is extracted from helium-bearing natural gas, there shall be excluded (1) all income received from the sale of helium; (2) all direct costs incurred in the extraction, processing, compression, transportation or storage of helium; and (3) that portion of joint costs of exploration, production, gathering, extraction, processing, compression, transportation or storage divided and allocated to helium on a volumetric basis.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §11, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 922.)

References in Text

The Natural Gas Act of June 21, 1938, as amended, referred to in text, means act June 21, 1938, ch. 556, 52 Stat. 821, as amended, known as the Natural Gas Act, which is classified generally to chapter 15B (§717 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 717w of Title 15 and Tables.

§167j. Land conveyance in Potter County, Texas

(a) In general

The Secretary of the Interior shall transfer all right, title, and interest of the United States in and to the parcel of land described in subsection (b) of this section to the Texas Plains Girl Scout Council for consideration of $1, reserving to the United States such easements as may be necessary for pipeline rights-of-way.

(b) Land description

The parcel of land referred to in subsection (a) of this section is all those certain lots, tracts or parcels of land lying and being situated in the County of Potter and State of Texas, and being the East Three Hundred Thirty-One (E331) acres out of Section Seventy-eight (78) in Block Nine (9), B.S. & F. Survey, (some times known as the G.D. Landis pasture) Potter County, Texas, located by certificate No. 1/39 and evidenced by letters patents Nos. 411 and 412 issued by the State of Texas under date of November 23, 1937, and of record in Vol. 66A of the Patent Records of the State of Texas. The metes and bounds description of such lands is as follows:

(1) First tract

One Hundred Seventy-one (171) acres of land known as the North part of the East part of said survey Seventy-eight (78) aforesaid, described by metes and bounds as follows:

Beginning at a stone 20 x 12 x 3 inches marked X, set by W.D. Twichell in 1905, for the Northeast corner of this survey and the Northwest corner of Section 59;

Thence, South 0 degrees 12 minutes East with the West line of said Section 59, 999.4 varas to the Northeast corner of the South 160 acres of East half of Section 78;

Thence, North 89 degrees 47 minutes West with the North line of the South 150 acres of the East half, 956.8 varas to a point in the East line of the West half Section 78;

Thence, North 0 degrees 10 minutes West with the East line of the West half 999.4 varas to a stone 18 x 14 x 3 inches in the middle of the South line of Section 79;

Thence, South 89 degrees 47 minutes East 965 varas to the place of beginning.

(2) Second tract

One Hundred Sixty (160) acres of land known as the South part of the East part of said survey No. Seventy-eight (78) described by metes and bounds as follows:

Beginning at the Southwest corner of Section 59, a stone marked X and a pile of stones; Thence, North 89 degrees 47 minutes West with the North line of Section 77, 966.5 varas to the Southeast corner of the West half of Section 78; Thence, North 0 degrees 10 minutes West with the East line of the West half of Section 78;

Thence, South 89 degrees 47 minutes East 965.8 varas to a point in the East line of Section 78;

Thence, South 0 degrees 12 minutes East 934.6 varas to the place of beginning.


Containing an area of 331 acres, more or less.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §12, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §6, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3318.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to Secretary's authority under Federal helium refining program to obtain loans and issue obligations to carry out program.

§167k. Violations; penalties

Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate, any provision of this chapter or any regulation or order issued or any terms of a license granted thereunder shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, except that whoever commits such an offense with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation, shall upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $20,000 or by imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §13, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923.)

§167l. Injunctions

Whenever in the judgment of the Secretary any person has engaged or is about to engage in any act or practice which constitutes or will constitute a violation of any provision of this chapter, or any regulation or order issued or any term of a license granted thereunder, any such act or practice may be enjoined by any district court having jurisdiction of such person, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §14, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923.)

§167m. Report on helium

(a) NAS study and report

Not later than three years before the date on which the Secretary commences offering for sale crude helium under section 167f of this title, the Secretary shall enter into appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences to study and report on whether such disposal of helium reserves will have a substantial adverse effect on United States scientific, technical, biomedical, or national security interests.

(b) Transmission to Congress

Not later than 18 months before the date on which the Secretary commences offering for sale crude helium under section 167f of this title, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress—

(1) the report of the National Academy under subsection (a) of this section;

(2) the findings of the Secretary, after consideration of the conclusions of the National Academy under subsection (a) of this section and after consultation with the United States helium industry and with heads of affected Federal agencies, as to whether the disposal of the helium reserve under section 167f of this title will have a substantial adverse effect on the United States helium industry, United States,1 helium market or United States,1 scientific, technological, biomedical, or national security interests; and

(3) if the Secretary determines that selling the crude helium reserves under the formula established in section 167f of this title will have a substantial adverse effect on the United States helium industry, the United States helium market or United States scientific, technological, biomedical, or national security interest, the Secretary shall make recommendations, including recommendations for proposed legislation, as may be necessary to avoid such adverse effects.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §15, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §7, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3319.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to individual enterprise in developing helium.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§167n. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–362, title IX, §901(q), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3291

Section, act Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §16, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923, directed Secretary of the Interior to make annual reports to Congress.

CHAPTER 11—ACQUISITION OF AND EXPENDITURES ON LAND FOR NATIONAL-DEFENSE PURPOSES

§§171, 171–1. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 171, acts Aug. 18, 1890, ch. 797, §1, 26 Stat. 316; July 2, 1917, ch. 35, 40 Stat. 241; Apr. 11, 1918, ch. 51, 40 Stat. 518, authorized Secretary of War to institute condemnation proceedings for acquisition of land, to purchase land, and to accept donations of land. See section 2663 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 171–1, act Oct. 25, 1951, ch. 563, §101, 65 Stat. 641, granted certain condemnation authority to Secretary of Navy. See sections 2663 and 2668 of Title 10.

§171a. Omitted

Codification

Section, act July 2, 1917, ch. 35, §2, as added Mar. 27, 1942, ch. 199, title II, §201, 56 Stat. 177, related to acquisition of real property during war, and terminated on Dec. 28, 1945 by act Mar. 27, 1942, ch. 199, title II, §202, as added Dec. 28, 1945, ch. 590, §1(a), 59 Stat. 658.

§171b. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–861, §36A, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570

Section, acts Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 939, title IV, §406, 70 Stat. 1015; Aug. 20, 1958, Pub. L. 85–685, title V, §510, 72 Stat. 662, related to acquisition of land not exceeding $5,000 in cost. See section 2672 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§§172, 173. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 172, act July 9, 1918, ch. 143, subch. XV §8, 40 Stat. 888, related to acquisition of property for production of lumber. See sections 2664 and 2665 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 173, act Apr. 28, 1904, ch. 1762, §1, 33 Stat. 497, related to purchase of land for quarters and barracks in addition to sites for fortifications.

§174. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Aug. 18, 1890, ch. 797, §1, 26 Stat. 316, provided that nothing contained in former section 171 of this title should be construed to authorize an expenditure or involve the Government in any contract for future payment of money in excess of sums appropriated therefor.

§175. Transferred

Codification

Section, R.S. §355; June 28, 1930, ch. 710, 46 Stat. 828; Feb. 1, 1940, ch. 18, 54 Stat. 19; Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 793, 54 Stat. 1083; Sept. 1, 1970, Pub. L. 91–393, §1, 84 Stat. 835, which related to approval of title prior to Federal land purchases, payment of title expenses, application to Tennessee Valley Authority, and Federal jurisdiction over acquisitions, was transferred to section 255 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and was repealed and reenacted as sections 3111 and 3112 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, by Pub. L. 107–217, §§1, 6(b), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1062, 1304, as amended by Pub. L. 108–178, §2(a)(8), Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2638, 2640.

§176. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Mar. 28, 1918, ch. 28, §1, 40 Stat. 460, authorized acquisition of property on Hudson River owned by North German Lloyd Dock Company and Hamburg-American Line Terminal & Navigation Company and provided that section 175 of this title did not apply to expenditures authorized in connection with such property. The President, by proclamation dated June 28, 1918, took possession of such property.

§§177 to 179. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat 641

Section 177, act June 25, 1906, ch. 3540, 34 Stat. 463, related to contracts for construction of fortifications and other works of defense.

Section 178, act Apr. 11, 1898, No. 21, 30 Stat. 737, provided for erection of forts in emergency. See sections 4776 and 9776 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 179, act June 30, 1921, ch. 33, §1, 42 Stat. 81, related to chargeability of appropriations with respect to transportation cost incident to construction and maintenance of seacoast fortifications.

CHAPTER 12—VESSELS IN TERRITORIAL WATERS OF UNITED STATES

Sec.
191.
Regulation of anchorage and movement of vessels during national emergency.
191a.
Transfer of Secretary of Transportation's powers to Secretary of Navy when Coast Guard operates as part of Navy.
191b, 191c. Repealed.
192.
Seizure and forfeiture of vessel; fine and imprisonment.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Application to others.
(c)
Civil penalty.
193.
Repealed.
194.
Enforcement provisions.
195.
Definitions.
196.
Emergency foreign vessel acquisition; purchase or requisition of vessels lying idle in United States waters.
197.
Voluntary purchase or charter agreements.
198.
Requisitioned vessels.
(a)
Documentation of vessels.
(b)
Waiver of compliance.
(c)
Coastwise trade; inspection.
(d)
Reconditioning of vessels.
(e)
Effective period.
(f)
“Documented” defined.

        

§191. Regulation of anchorage and movement of vessels during national emergency

Whenever the President by proclamation or Executive order declares a national emergency to exist by reason of actual or threatened war, insurrection, or invasion, or disturbance or threatened disturbance of the international relations of the United States, or whenever the Attorney General determines that an actual or anticipated mass migration of aliens en route to, or arriving off the coast of, the United States presents urgent circumstances requiring an immediate Federal response, the Secretary of Transportation may make, subject to the approval of the President, rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, may inspect such vessel at any time, place guards thereon, and, if necessary in his opinion in order to secure such vessels from damage or injury, or to prevent damage or injury to any harbor or waters of the United States, or to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States, may take, by and with the consent of the President, for such purposes, full possession and control of such vessel and remove therefrom the officers and crew thereof and all other persons not specially authorized by him to go or remain on board thereof.

Whenever the President finds that the security of the United States is endangered by reason of actual or threatened war, or invasion, or insurrection, or subversive activity, or of disturbances or threatened disturbances of the international relations of the United States, the President is authorized to institute such measures and issue such rules and regulations—

(a) to govern the anchorage and movement of any foreign-flag vessels in the territorial waters of the United States, to inspect such vessels at any time, to place guards thereon, and, if necessary in his opinion in order to secure such vessels from damage or injury, or to prevent damage or injury to any harbor or waters of the United States, or to secure the observance of rights and obligations of the United States, may take for such purposes full possession and control of such vessels and remove therefrom the officers and crew thereof, and all other persons not especially authorized by him to go or remain on board thereof;

(b) to safeguard against destruction, loss, or injury from sabotage or other subversive acts, accidents, or other causes of similar nature, vessels, harbors, ports, and waterfront facilities in the United States and all territory and water, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.


Any appropriation available to any of the Executive Departments shall be available to carry out the provisions of this title.1

(June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title II, §1, 40 Stat. 220; Aug. 9, 1950, ch. 656, §1, 64 Stat. 427; Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, §2(b), 64 Stat. 1038; Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3302(a), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §649, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–711.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in text, means title II of act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 220, as amended, which enacted sections 191 and 192 to 194 of this title. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–208, in first par., inserted “or whenever the Attorney General determines that an actual or anticipated mass migration of aliens en route to, or arriving off the coast of, the United States presents urgent circumstances requiring an immediate Federal response,” after “international relations of the United States,”.

1979—Pub. L. 96–70 struck out second par., providing that within the territory and waters of the Canal Zone the Governor of the Canal Zone, with the approval of the President, shall exercise all the powers conferred by this section on the Secretary of the Treasury, and in cl. (b) of third par., struck out “the Canal Zone,” after “facilities in the United States,”.

1950—Act Sept. 26, 1950, substituted “Governor of the Canal Zone” for “Governor of the Panama Canal” in second par.

Act Aug. 9, 1950, authorized the President to institute such rules and regulations to control anchorage and movement of foreign-flag vessels in United States waters when the national security is endangered.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Termination Date of 1950 Amendment

Section 4 of act Aug. 9, 1950, provided that: “The provisions of this Act [amending this section and sections 192 and 194 of this title] shall expire on such date as may be specified by concurrent resolution of the two Houses of Congress.”

Termination of War and Emergencies

Act July 25, 1947, ch. 327, §3, 61 Stat. 451, provided that in the interpretation of this section, the date July 25, 1947, shall be deemed to be the date of termination of any state of war theretofore declared by Congress and of the national emergencies proclaimed by the President on Sept. 8, 1939, and May 27, 1941.

Regulations—Post-War Generally

For regulations relating to safeguarding of vessels, harbors, ports, and waterfront facilities, under a finding that the security of the United States is endangered by reason of subversive activity, see Ex. Ord. No. 10173, Oct. 18, 1950, 15 F.R. 7005.

Regulations—World War II

Proc. No. 2732, June 2, 1947, 12 F.R. 3583, 61 Stat. 1069, revoked Proc. No. 2412, June 27, 1940, 5 F.R. 2419, 54 Stat. 2711, which granted consent of President to the exercise of certain powers under this section by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Governor of the Canal Zone.

Regulations—World War I

A proclamation was issued under this section on December 3, 1917.

Separability

Section 4 of title XIII of act June 15, 1917, provided: “If any clause, sentence, paragraph, or part of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall for any reason be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder thereof but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, paragraph, or part thereof directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

“Secretary of Transportation” substituted for “Secretary of the Treasury” in first paragraph of text pursuant to section 6(b)(1) of Pub. L. 89–670, which transferred Coast Guard to Department of Transportation and transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation functions, powers, and duties, relating to Coast Guard, of Secretary of the Treasury and of other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation to Secretary of the Treasury of authority vested in President by this section, see section 2(e) of Ex. Ord. No. 10289, Sept. 17, 1951, 16 F.R. 9499, as amended, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Proc. No. 6867. Declaration of National Emergency and Invocation of Emergency Authority Relating to Regulation of Anchorage and Movement of Vessels

Proc. No. 6867, Mar. 1, 1996, 61 F.R. 8843, provided:

WHEREAS, on February 24, 1996, Cuban military aircraft intercepted and destroyed two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba;

WHEREAS the Government of Cuba has demonstrated a ready and reckless willingness to use excessive force, including deadly force, in the ostensible enforcement of its sovereignty;

WHEREAS, on July 13, 1995, persons in U.S.-registered vessels who entered into Cuban territorial waters suffered injury as a result of the reckless use of force against them by the Cuban military; and

WHEREAS the entry of U.S.-registered vessels into Cuban territorial waters could again result in injury to, or loss of life of, persons engaged in that conduct, due to the potential use of excessive force, including deadly force, against them by the Cuban military, and could threaten a disturbance in international relations;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 1 of title II of Public Law 65-24, ch. 30, June 15, 1917, as amended (50 U.S.C. 191), sections 201 and 301 of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) [50 U.S.C. 1621, 1631], and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, find and do hereby proclaim that a national emergency does exist by reason of a disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations. In order to address this national emergency and to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of Transportation (the “Secretary”) to make and issue such rules and regulations as the Secretary may find appropriate to regulate the anchorage and movement of vessels, and delegate to the Secretary my authority to approve such rules and regulations, as authorized by the Act of June 15, 1917 [see Tables for classification].

Section 1. The Secretary may make rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, which may be used, or is susceptible of being used, for voyage into Cuban territorial waters and that may create unsafe conditions and threaten a disturbance of international relations. Any rule or regulation issued pursuant to this proclamation may be effective immediately upon issuance as such rule or regulation shall involve a foreign affairs function of the United States.

Sec. 2. The Secretary is authorized to inspect any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, at any time; to place guards on any such vessel; and, with my consent expressly hereby granted, take full possession and control of any such vessel and remove the officers and crew, and all other persons not specifically authorized by the Secretary to go or remain on board the vessel when necessary to secure the rights and obligations of the United States.

Sec. 3. The Secretary may request assistance from such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities of the United States as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this proclamation. Such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities shall, consistent with other provisions of law and to the extent practicable, provide requested assistance.

Sec. 4. The Secretary may seek assistance from State and local authorities in carrying out the purposes of this proclamation. Because State and local assistance may be essential for an effective response to this emergency, I urge all State and local officials to cooperate with Federal authorities and to take all actions within their lawful authority necessary to prevent the unauthorized departure of vessels intending to enter Cuban territorial waters.

Sec. 5. All powers and authorities delegated by this proclamation to the Secretary may be delegated by the Secretary to other officers and agents of the United States Government unless otherwise prohibited by law.

Sec. 6. This proclamation shall be immediately transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day of March, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-six, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twentieth.

William J. Clinton.      

Continuation of National Emergency Declared by Proc. No. 6867

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 26, 2004, 69 F.R. 9513, provided:

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867 [set out above], a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on subsequent occasions, the Cuban Government stated its intent to forcefully defend its sovereignty against any U.S.-registered vessels or aircraft that might enter Cuban territorial waters or airspace while involved in a flotilla or peaceful protest. Since these events, the Cuban government has not demonstrated that it will refrain from the future use of reckless and excessive force against U.S. vessels or aircraft that may engage in memorial activities or peaceful protest north of Cuba. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national emergency with respect to Cuba and the emergency authority relating to the regulation of the anchorage and movement of vessels set out in Proclamation 6867.

This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress.

George W. Bush.      


Prior continuations of national emergency declared by Proc. No. 6867 were contained in the following:

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 27, 2003, 68 F.R. 9849.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 26, 2002, 67 F.R. 9387.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 27, 2001, 66 F.R. 12841.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 25, 2000, 65 F.R. 10929.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 24, 1999, 64 F.R. 9903.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 25, 1998, 63 F.R. 9923.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 27, 1997, 62 F.R. 9347.

Proc. No. 7757. Expanding the Scope of the National Emergency and Invocation of Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels into Cuban Territorial Waters

Proc. No. 7757, Feb. 26, 2004, 69 F.R. 9515, provided:

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, in order to expand the scope of the national emergency declared in Proclamation 6867 of March 1, 1996 [set out above], based on the disturbance or threatened disturbance of the international relations of the United States caused by actions taken by the Cuban government, and in light of steps taken over the past year by the Cuban government to worsen the threat to United States international relations, and,

WHEREAS the United States has determined that Cuba is a state-sponsor of terrorism and it is subject to the restrictions of section 6(j)(1)(A) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 [50 App. U.S.C. 2405(j)(1)(A)], section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2371], and section 40 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2780];

WHEREAS the Cuban government has demonstrated a ready and reckless willingness to use excessive force, including deadly force, against U.S. citizens, in the ostensible enforcement of its sovereignty, including the February 1996 shoot-down of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace, resulting in the deaths of three American citizens and one other individual;

WHEREAS the Cuban government has demonstrated a ready and reckless willingness to use excessive force, including deadly force, against U.S. citizens and its own citizens, including on July 13, 1995, when persons in U.S.-registered vessels that entered into Cuban territorial waters suffered injury as a result of the reckless use of force against them by the Cuban military, and including the July 1994 sinking of an unarmed Cuban-registered vessel, resulting in the deaths of 41 Cuban citizens;

WHEREAS the Cuban government has impounded U.S.-registered vessels in Cuban ports and forced the owners, as a condition of release, to violate U.S. law by requiring payments to be made to the Cuban government;

WHEREAS the entry of any U.S.-registered vessels into Cuban territorial waters could result in injury to, or loss of life of, persons engaged in that conduct, due to the potential use of excessive force, including deadly force, against them by the Cuban military, and could threaten a disturbance of international relations;

WHEREAS the unauthorized entry of vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States into Cuban territorial waters is in violation of U.S. law and contrary to U.S. policy;

WHEREAS the objectives of U.S. policy regarding Cuba are the end of the dictatorship and a rapid, peaceful transition to a representative democracy respectful of human rights and characterized by an open market economic system;

WHEREAS a critical initiative by the United States to advance these U.S. objectives is to deny resources to the repressive Cuban government, resources that may be used by that government to support terrorist activities and carry out excessive use of force against innocent victims, including U.S. citizens;

WHEREAS the unauthorized entry of U.S.-registered vessels into Cuban territorial waters is detrimental to the foreign policy of the United States, which is to deny monetary and material support to the repressive Cuban government, and, therefore, such unauthorized entries threaten to disturb the international relations of the United States by facilitating the Cuban government's support of terrorism, use of excessive force, and continued existence;

WHEREAS the Cuban government has over the course of its 45-year existence repeatedly used violence and the threat of violence to undermine U.S. policy interests. This same regime continues in power today, and has since 1959 maintained a pattern of hostile actions contrary to U.S. policy interests. Among other things, the Cuban government established a military alliance with the Soviet Union, and invited Soviet forces to install nuclear missiles in Cuba capable of attacking the United States, and encouraged Soviet authorities to use those weapons against the United States; it engaged in military adventurism in Africa; and it helped to form and provide material and political support to terrorist organizations that sought the violent overthrow of democratically elected governments in Central America and elsewhere in the hemisphere allied with the United States, thereby causing repeated disturbances of U.S. international relations;

WHEREAS the Cuban government has recently and over the last year taken a series of steps to destabilize relations with the United States, including threatening to abrogate the Migration Accords with the United States and to close the U.S. Interests Section, and Cuba's most senior officials repeatedly asserting that the United States intended to invade Cuba, despite explicit denials from the U.S. Secretaries of State and Defense that such action is planned, thereby causing a sudden and worsening disturbance of U.S. international relations;

WHEREAS U.S. concerns about these unforeseen Cuban government actions that threaten to disturb international relations were sufficiently grave that on May 8, 2003, the United States warned the Cuban government that political manipulations that resulted in a mass migration would be viewed as a “hostile act;”

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 1 of title II of Public Law 65–24, ch. 30, June 15, 1917, as amended (50 U.S.C. 191), sections 201 and 301 of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) [50 U.S.C. 1621, 1631], and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, in order to expand the scope of the national emergency declared in Proclamation 6867 of March 1, 1996 [set out above], and to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States, hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of Homeland Security (the “Secretary”) to make and issue such rules and regulations as the Secretary may find appropriate to regulate the anchorage and movement of vessels, and authorize and approve the Secretary's issuance of such rules and regulations, as authorized by the Act of June 15, 1917 [see Tables for classification].

Section 1. The Secretary may make rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, which may be used, or is susceptible of being used, for voyage into Cuban territorial waters and that may create unsafe conditions, or result in unauthorized transactions, and thereby threaten a disturbance of international relations. Any rule or regulation issued pursuant to this proclamation may be effective immediately upon issuance as such rule or regulation shall involve a foreign affairs function of the United States.

Sec. 2. The Secretary is authorized to inspect any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, at any time; to place guards on any such vessel; and, with my consent expressly hereby granted, take full possession and control of any such vessel and remove the officers and crew and all other persons not specifically authorized by the Secretary to go or remain on board the vessel when necessary to secure the rights and obligations of the United States.

Sec. 3. The Secretary may request assistance from such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities of the United States as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this proclamation. Such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities shall, consistent with other provisions of law and to the extent practicable, provide requested assistance.

Sec. 4. The Secretary may seek assistance from State and local authorities in carrying out the purposes of this proclamation. Because State and local assistance may be essential for an effective response to this emergency, I urge all State and local officials to cooperate with Federal authorities and to take all actions within their lawful authority necessary to prevent the unauthorized departure of vessels intending to enter Cuban territorial waters.

Sec. 5. All powers and authorities delegated by this proclamation to the Secretary may be delegated by the Secretary to other officers and agents of the United States Government unless otherwise prohibited by law.

Sec. 6. Any provisions of Proclamation 6867 [set out above] that are inconsistent with the provisions of this proclamation are superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.

Sec. 7. This proclamation shall be immediately transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth day of February, in the year of our Lord two thousand four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-eighth.

George W. Bush.      

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 191a of this title; title 18 section 2277; title 42 section 267.

1 See References in Text note below.

§191a. Transfer of Secretary of Transportation's powers to Secretary of Navy when Coast Guard operates as part of Navy

When the Coast Guard operates as a part of the Navy pursuant to section 3 of title 14, the powers conferred on the Secretary of Transportation by section 191 of this title, shall vest in and be exercised by the Secretary of the Navy.

(Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 471, §2, 55 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 87–845, §11, Oct. 18, 1962, 76A Stat. 699; Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938.)

Amendments

1962—Pub. L. 87–845 substituted “section 3 of title 14” for “section 1 of title 14”.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–845 effective Jan. 2, 1963, see section 25 of Pub. L. 87–845, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

“Secretary of Transportation” substituted in text for “Secretary of the Treasury” pursuant to section 6(b)(1) of Pub. L. 89–670, which transferred Coast Guard to Department of Transportation and transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation functions, powers, and duties, relating to Coast Guard, of Secretary of the Treasury and of other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

§191b. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3303(a)(5), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 499

Section, acts Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 471, §4, 55 Stat. 763; Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, §2(b), 64 Stat. 1038; Oct. 18, 1962, Pub. L. 87–845, §12, 76A Stat. 699, provided that this section, section 191a of this title, and section 91 of title 14 not affect the authority of the Governor of the Canal Zone conferred by section 191 of this title or section 34 of Title 2, Canal Zone Code.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§191c. Repealed. Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, §20, 63 Stat. 561

Section, act Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 471, §1, 55 Stat. 763, related to control of anchorage and movement of vessels to insure safety of naval vessels. See section 91 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

§192. Seizure and forfeiture of vessel; fine and imprisonment

(a) In general

If any owner, agent, master, officer, or person in charge, or any member of the crew of any such vessel fails to comply with any regulation or rule issued or order given under the provisions of this title,1 or obstructs or interferes with the exercise of any power conferred by this title,1 the vessel, together with her tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture to the United States in the same manner as merchandise is forfeited for violation of the customs revenue laws; and the person guilty of such failure, obstruction, or interference shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than ten years and may, in the discretion of the court, be fined not more than $10,000.

(b) Application to others

If any other person knowingly fails to comply with any regulation or rule issued or order given under the provisions of this title,1 or knowingly obstructs or interferes with the exercise of any power conferred by this title,1 he shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than ten years and may, at the discretion of the court, be fined not more than $10,000.

(c) Civil penalty

A person violating this Act, or a regulation prescribed under this Act, shall be liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation.

(June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title II, §2, 40 Stat. 220; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, §3(a), 54 Stat. 79; Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 471, §3, 55 Stat. 763; Aug. 9, 1950, ch. 656, §3, 64 Stat. 428; Pub. L. 107–295, title I, §104(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2085.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), means title II of act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 220, as amended, which enacted sections 191 and 192 to 194 of this title. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (c), means act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 217, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–295 inserted subsec. headings, designated first par. as subsec. (a), redesignated former subsec. (a) as (b), and added subsec. (c).

1950—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 9, 1950, added subsec. (a).

1941—Act Nov. 15, 1941, struck out “by the Secretary of the Treasury or the Governor of the Panama Canal” before “under the provisions of this title”.

1940—Act Mar. 28, 1940, increased term of imprisonment.

Termination Date of 1950 Amendment

For termination of amendment by act Aug. 9, 1950, see section 4 of act Aug. 9, 1950, set out as a note under section 191 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 42 section 267.

1 See References in Text note below.

§193. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section, acts June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title II, §3, 40 Stat. 220; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, §3(b), 54 Stat. 79, related to destruction of, injury to, or improper use of vessels. See section 2274 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§194. Enforcement provisions

The President may employ such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities of the United States as he may deem necessary to carry out the purpose of this title.1

(June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title II, §4, 40 Stat. 220; Aug. 9, 1950, ch. 656, §2, 64 Stat. 428.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in text, means title II of act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 220, as amended, which enacted sections 191 and 192 to 194 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1950—Act Aug. 9, 1950, authorized President to employ such departments, agencies, etc., as he may deem necessary to carry out title II of act June 15, 1917.

Termination Date of 1950 Amendment

For termination of amendment by act Aug. 9, 1950, see section 4 of act Aug. 9, 1950, set out as a note under section 191 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 42 section 267.

1 See References in Text note below.

§195. Definitions

In this Act:

(1) United states.—The term “United States” includes all territory and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(2) Territorial waters.—The term “territorial waters of the United States” includes all waters of the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation 5928 of December 27, 1988.

(June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §1, 40 Stat. 231; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3302(b), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 107–295, title I, §104(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2085.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, means act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 217, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Presidential Proclamation 5928 of December 27, 1988, referred to in par. (2), is set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 40 of this title. In the original this section defined “United States” as used in act June 15, 1917. Other provisions of that act were contained in sections 31 to 42 of this title and certain sections of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure. The definition of “United States” as used in present provisions derived from those former sections is covered by section 5 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–295 added introductory provisions, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, struck out “as used in this Act” before “includes”, and added par. (2).

1979—Pub. L. 96–70 struck out “the Canal Zone and” after “this Act includes”.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§196. Emergency foreign vessel acquisition; purchase or requisition of vessels lying idle in United States waters

During any period in which vessels may be requisitioned under section 1242 of title 46, Appendix, the President is authorized and empowered through the Secretary of Transportation to purchase, or to requisition, or for any part of such period to charter or requisition the use of, or to take over the title to or possession of, for such use or disposition as he shall direct, any merchant vessel not owned by citizens of the United States which is lying idle in waters within the jurisdiction of the United States and which the President finds to be necessary to the national defense. Just compensation shall be determined and made to the owner or owners of any such vessel in accordance with the applicable provisions of section 1242 of title 46, Appendix. Such compensation hereunder, or advances on account thereof, shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States in a separate deposit fund. Payments for such compensation and also for payment of any valid claim upon such vessel in accord with the provisions of the second paragraph of subsection (d) of section 1242 of title 46, Appendix, shall be made from such fund upon the certificate of the Secretary of Transportation.

(Aug. 9, 1954, ch. 659, §1, 68 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3302(c), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(152), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 167.)

Amendments

1981—Pub. L. 97–31 substituted references to Secretary of Transportation for references to Secretary of Commerce wherever appearing.

1979—Pub. L. 96–70 struck out “, including the Canal Zone,” after “jurisdiction of the United States”.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 198 of this title.

§197. Voluntary purchase or charter agreements

During any period in which vessels may be requisitioned under section 1242 of title 46, Appendix, the President is authorized through the Secretary of Transportation to acquire by voluntary agreement of purchase or charter the ownership or use of any merchant vessel not owned by citizens of the United States.

(Aug. 9, 1954, ch. 659, §2, 68 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(152), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 167.)

Amendments

1981—Pub. L. 97–31 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of Commerce”.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 198 of this title.

§198. Requisitioned vessels

(a) Documentation of vessels

Any vessel not documented under the laws of the United States, acquired by or made available to the Secretary of Transportation under sections 196 to 198 of this title, or otherwise, may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the discretion of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating be documented as a vessel of the United States under such rules and regulations or orders, and with such limitations, as the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may prescribe or issue as necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes and provisions of sections 196 to 198 of this title, and in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, engage in the coastwise trade when so documented. Any document issued to a vessel under the provisions of this subsection shall be surrendered at any time that such surrender may be ordered by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. No vessel, the surrender of the documents of which has been so ordered, shall, after the effective date of such order, have the status of a vessel of the United States unless documented anew.

(b) Waiver of compliance

The President may, notwithstanding any other provisions of law, by rules and regulations or orders, waive compliance with any provision of law relating to masters, officers, members of the crew, or crew accommodations on any vessel documented under authority of this section to such extent and upon such terms as he finds necessary because of the lack of physical facilities on such vessels, and because of the need to employ aliens for their operation. No vessel shall cease to enjoy the benefits and privileges of a vessel of the United States by reason of the employment of any person in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

(c) Coastwise trade; inspection

Any vessel while documented under the provisions of this section, when chartered under sections 196 to 198 of this title by the Secretary of Transportation to Government agencies or departments or to private operators, may engage in the coastwise trade under permits issued by the Secretary of Transportation, who is authorized to issue permits for such purpose pursuant to such rules and regulations as he may prescribe. The Secretary of Transportation is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes and provisions of this section. The second paragraph of section 9 of the Shipping Act, 1916, as amended [46 App. U.S.C. 808], shall not apply with respect to vessels chartered to Government agencies or departments or to private operators or otherwise used or disposed of under sections 196 to 198 of this title. Existing laws covering the inspection of steam vessels are made applicable to vessels documented under this section only to such extent and upon such conditions as may be required by regulations of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating: Provided, That in determining to what extent those laws should be made applicable, due consideration shall be given to the primary purpose of transporting commodities essential to the national defense.

(d) Reconditioning of vessels

The Secretary of Transportation without regard to the provisions of section 5 of title 41 may repair, reconstruct, or recondition any vessels to be utilized under sections 196 to 198 of this title. The Secretary of Transportation and any other Government department or agency by which any vessel is acquired or chartered, or to which any vessel is transferred or made available under sections 196 to 198 of this title may, with the aid of any funds available and without regard to the provisions of said section 5 of title 41, repair, reconstruct, or recondition any such vessels to meet the needs of the services intended, or provide facilities for such repair, reconstruction, or reconditioning. The Secretary of Transportation may operate or charter for operation any vessel to be utilized under sections 196 to 198 of this title to private operators, citizens of the United States, or to any department or agency of the United States Government, without regard to the provisions of title VII of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 [46 App. U.S.C. 1191 et seq.], and any department or agency of the United States Government is authorized to enter into such charters.

(e) Effective period

In case of any voyage of a vessel documented under the provisions of this section begun before the date of termination of an effective period of section 196 of this title, but is completed after such date, the provisions of this section shall continue in effect with respect to such vessel until such voyage is completed.

(f) “Documented” defined

When used in sections 196 to 198 of this title, the term “documented” means “registered”, “enrolled and licensed”, or “licensed”.

(Aug. 9, 1954, ch. 659, §3, 68 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), (2), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(152), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 167.)

References in Text

The Merchant Marine Act, 1936, referred to in subsec. (d), is act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, 49 Stat. 1985, as amended. Title VII of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 is classified generally to subchapter VII (§1191 et seq.) of chapter 27 of Title 46, Appendix, Shipping. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1245 of Title 46, Appendix, and Tables.

Amendments

1981—Subsecs. (a), (c), (d). Pub. L. 97–31 substituted references to Secretary of Transportation for references to Secretary of Commerce wherever appearing.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

“Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating” substituted in subsec. (a) for “Secretary of the Treasury” pursuant to section 6(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 89–670, which transferred Coast Guard to Department of Transportation and transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation functions, powers, and duties, relating to Coast Guard, of Secretary of the Treasury and of all other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury, and which provided that notwithstanding such transfer Coast Guard shall operate as part of Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation to Secretary of the Treasury of authority vested in President by subsec. (a) of this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 10289, eff. Sept. 17, 1951, 16 F.R. 9499, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Administrative Delegation of Functions by Secretary of the Treasury

Administrative delegation of functions by Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out preceding section 3 of the Appendix to Title 46, Shipping.

CHAPTER 13—INSURRECTION

Sec.
201 to 204. Repealed.
205.
Suspension of commercial intercourse with State in insurrection.
206.
Suspension of commercial intercourse with part of State in insurrection.
207.
Persons affected by suspension of commercial intercourse.
208.
Licensing or permitting commercial intercourse with State or region in insurrection.
209.
Repealed.
210.
Penalties for unauthorized trading, etc.; jurisdiction of prosecutions.
211.
Investigations to detect and prevent frauds and abuses.
212.
Confiscation of property employed to aid insurrection.
213.
Jurisdiction of confiscation proceedings.
214.
Repealed.
215.
Institution of confiscation proceedings.
216.
Preventing transportation of goods to aid insurrection.
217.
Trading in captured or abandoned property.
218.
Repealed.
219.
Removal of customhouse and detention of vessels thereat.
220.
Enforcement of section 219.
221.
Closing ports of entry; forfeiture of vessels seeking to enter closed port.
222.
Transferred.
223.
Forfeiture of vessels owned by citizens of insurrectionary States.
224.
Refusing clearance to vessels with suspected cargoes; forfeiture for departing without clearance.
225.
Bond to deliver cargo at destination named in clearance.
226.
Protection of liens on condemned vessels.

        

§§201 to 204. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 201, R.S. §5297, provided for Federal aid for State Governments in case of an insurrection in any State. See section 331 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 202, R.S. §5298, related to use of military and naval forces to enforce authority of Federal Government. See section 332 of Title 10.

Section 203, R.S. §5299, related to denial by State of equal protection of laws and authorized the President to take measures for the suppression of any insurrection, domestic violence, or combinations. See section 333 of Title 10.

Section 204, R.S. §5300, authorized the President to issue a proclamation commanding insurgents to disperse. See section 334 of Title 10.

§205. Suspension of commercial intercourse with State in insurrection

Whenever the President, in pursuance of the provisions of this chapter, has called forth the militia to suppress combinations against the laws of the United States, and to cause the laws to be duly executed, and the insurgents shall have failed to disperse by the time directed by the President, and when the insurgents claim to act under the authority of any State or States, and such claim is not disclaimed or repudiated by the persons exercising the functions of government in such State or States, or in the part or parts thereof in which such combination exists, and such insurrection is not suppressed by such State or States, or whenever the inhabitants of any State or part thereof are at any time found by the President to be in insurrection against the United States, the President may, by proclamation, declare that the inhabitants of such State, or of any section or part thereof where such insurrection exists, are in a state of insurrection against the United States; and thereupon all commercial intercourse by and between the same and the citizens thereof and the citizens of the rest of the United States shall cease and be unlawful so long as such condition of hostility shall continue; and all goods and chattels, wares and merchandise, coming from such State or section into the other parts of the United States, or proceeding from other parts of the United States to such State or section, by land or water, shall, together with the vessel or vehicle conveying the same, or conveying persons to or from such State or section, be forfeited to the United States.

(R.S. §5301.)

Codification

R.S. §5301 derived from acts July 13, 1861, ch. 3, §5, 12 Stat. 257; July 31, 1861, ch. 32, 12 Stat. 284.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 206, 223 of this title.

§206. Suspension of commercial intercourse with part of State in insurrection

Whenever any part of a State not declared to be in insurrection is under the control of insurgents, or is in dangerous proximity to places under their control, all commercial intercourse therein and therewith shall be subject to the prohibitions and conditions of section 205 of this title for such time and to such extent as shall become necessary to protect the public interests, and be directed by the Secretary of the Treasury, with the approval of the President.

(R.S. §5302.)

Codification

R.S. §5302 derived from act July 2, 1864, ch. 225, §5, 13 Stat. 376.

§207. Persons affected by suspension of commercial intercourse

The provisions of this chapter in relation to commercial intercourse shall apply to all commercial intercourse by and between persons residing or being within districts within the lines of national military occupation in the States or parts of States declared in insurrection, whether with each other or with persons residing or being within districts declared in insurrection and not within those lines; and all persons within the United States, not native or naturalized citizens thereof, shall be subject to the same prohibitions, in all commercial intercourse with inhabitants of States or parts of States declared in insurrection, as citizens of States not declared to be in insurrection.

(R.S. §5303.)

Codification

R.S. §5303 derived from act July 2, 1864, ch. 225, §4, 13 Stat. 376.

§208. Licensing or permitting commercial intercourse with State or region in insurrection

The President may, in his discretion, license and permit commercial intercourse with any part of such State or section, the inhabitants of which are so declared in a state of insurrection, so far as may be necessary to authorize supplying the necessities of loyal persons residing in insurrectionary States, within the lines of actual occupation by the military forces of the United States, as indicated by published order of the commanding general of the department or district so occupied; and, also, so far as may be necessary to authorize persons residing within such lines to bring or send to market in the loyal States any products which they shall have produced with their own labor or the labor of freedmen, or others employed and paid by them, pursuant to rules relating thereto, which may be established under proper authority. And no goods, wares, or merchandise shall be taken into a State declared in insurrection, or transported therein, except to and from such places and to such monthly amounts as shall have been previously agreed upon, in writing, by the commanding general of the department in which such places are situated, and an officer designated by the Secretary of the Treasury for that purpose. Such commercial intercourse shall be in such articles and for such time and by such persons as the President, in his discretion, may think most conducive to the public interest; and, so far as by him licensed, shall be conducted and carried on only in pursuance of rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(R.S. §5304.)

Codification

R.S. §5304 derived from acts July 13, 1861, ch. 3, §5, 12 Stat. 257; July 2, 1864, ch. 225, §9, 13 Stat. 377.

§209. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 632

Section, R.S. §5305, related to appointment of officers to carry into effect licenses to trade in State or region in an insurrection.

§210. Penalties for unauthorized trading, etc.; jurisdiction of prosecutions

Every officer of the United States, civil, military, or naval, and every sutler, soldier, marine, or other person, who takes, or causes to be taken into a State declared to be in insurrection, or to any other point to be thence taken into such State, or who transports or sells, or otherwise disposes of therein, any goods, wares, or merchandise whatsoever, except in pursuance of license and authority of the President, as provided in this chapter, or who makes any false statement or representation upon which license and authority is granted for such transportation, sale, or other disposition, or who, under any license or authority obtained, willfully and knowingly transports, sells, or otherwise disposes of any other goods, wares, or merchandise than such as are in good faith so licensed and authorized, or who willfully and knowingly transports, sells, or disposes of the same, or any portion thereof, in violation of the terms of such license or authority, or of any rule or regulation prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury concerning the same, or who is guilty of any act of embezzlement, of willful misappropriation of public or private money or property, of keeping false accounts, or of willfully making any false returns, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be fined not more than $5,000, and imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than three years. Violations of this section shall be cognizable before any court, civil or military, competent to try the same.

(R.S. §5306.)

Codification

R.S. §5306 derived from act July 2, 1864, ch. 225, §10, 13 Stat. 377.

§211. Investigations to detect and prevent frauds and abuses

It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury, from time to time, to institute such investigations as may be necessary to detect and prevent frauds and abuses in any trade or transactions which may be licensed between inhabitants of loyal States and of States in insurrection. And the agents making such investigations shall have power to compel the attendance of witnesses, and to make examinations on oath.

(R.S. §5307.)

Codification

R.S. §5307 derived from act July 2, 1864, ch. 225, §10, 13 Stat. 377.

§212. Confiscation of property employed to aid insurrection

Whenever during any insurrection against the Government of the United States, after the President shall have declared by proclamation that the laws of the United States are opposed, and the execution thereof obstructed, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the power vested in the marshals by law, any person, or his agent, attorney, or employee, purchases or acquires, sells or gives, any property of whatsoever kind or description, with intent to use or employ the same, or suffers the same to be used or employed in aiding, abetting, or promoting such insurrection or resistance to the laws, or any person engaged therein; or being the owner of any such property, knowingly uses or employs, or consents to such use or employment of the same, all such property shall be lawful subject of prize and capture wherever found; and it shall be the duty of the President to cause the same to be seized, confiscated, and condemned.

(R.S. §5308.)

Codification

R.S. §5308 derived from act Aug. 6, 1861, ch. 60, §1, 12 Stat. 319.

§213. Jurisdiction of confiscation proceedings

Such prizes and capture shall be condemned in the district court of the United States having jurisdiction of the amount, or in admiralty in any district in which the same may be seized, or into which they may be taken and proceedings first instituted.

(R.S. §5309; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, §1, 19 Stat. 253; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167.)

Codification

R.S. §5309 derived derived from act Aug. 6, 1861, ch. 60, §2, 12 Stat. 319.

Act Mar. 3, 1911, conferred the powers and duties of the former circuit courts upon the district courts.

Amendments

1877—Act Feb. 27, 1877, inserted “may” after “any district in which the same”.

§214. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section, R.S. §5310, provided that property taken on inland waters of the United States was not a maritime prize. See section 7651 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§215. Institution of confiscation proceedings

The Attorney General, or the United States attorney for any judicial district in which such property may at the time be, may institute the proceedings of condemnation, and in such case they shall be wholly for the benefit of the United States; or any person may file an information with such attorney, in which case the proceedings shall be for the use of such informer and the United States in equal parts.

(R.S. §5311; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909.)

Codification

R.S. §5311 derived from act Aug. 6, 1861, ch. 60, §3, 12 Stat. 319.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948, substituted “United States attorney” for “attorney of the United States”. See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes thereunder.

§216. Preventing transportation of goods to aid insurrection

The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to prohibit and prevent the transportation in any vessel, or upon any railroad, turnpike, or other road or means of transportation within the United States, of any property, whatever may be the ostensible destination of the same, in all cases where there are satisfactory reasons to believe that such property is intended for any place in the possession or under the control of insurgents against the United States, or that there is imminent danger that such property will fall into the possession or under the control of such insurgents; and he is further authorized, in all cases where he deems it expedient so to do, to require reasonable security to be given that property shall not be transported to any place under insurrectionary control, and shall not, in any way, be used to give aid or comfort to such insurgents; and he may establish all such general or special regulations as may be necessary or proper to carry into effect the purposes of this section; and if any property is transported in violation of this chapter, or of any regulation of the Secretary of the Treasury, established in pursuance thereof, or if any attempt shall be made so to transport any, it shall be forfeited.

(R.S. §5312.)

Codification

R.S. §5312 derived from act May 20, 1862, ch. 81, §3, 12 Stat. 404.

§217. Trading in captured or abandoned property

All persons in the military or naval service of the United States are prohibited from buying or selling, trading, or in any way dealing in captured or abandoned property, whereby they shall receive or expect any profit, benefit, or advantage to themselves, or any other person, directly or indirectly connected with them; and it shall be the duty of such person whenever such property comes into his possession or custody, or within his control, to give notice thereof to some agent, appointed by virtue of this chapter, and to turn the same over to such agent without delay. Any officer of the United States, civil, military, or naval, or any sutler, soldier, or marine, or other person who shall violate any provision of this section, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be fined not more than $5,000, and imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than three years. Violations of this section shall be cognizable before any court, civil or military, competent to try the same.

(R.S. §5313.)

Codification

R.S. §5313 derived from act July 2, 1864, ch. 225, §10, 13 Stat. 377.

§218. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 632

Section, R.S. §5314; act Mar. 2, 1929, ch. 510, §1, 45 Stat. 1496, related to authority of President in collection of duties to change ports of entry in case of insurrection.

§219. Removal of customhouse and detention of vessels thereat

Whenever, at any port of entry, the duties on imports cannot, in the judgment of the President, be collected in the ordinary way, or by the course provided in section 218 1 of this title, by reason of the cause mentioned in said section, he may direct that the customhouse for the district be established in any secure place within the district, either on land or on board any vessel in the district, or at sea near the coast; and in such case the collector shall reside at such place, or on shipboard, as the case may be, and there detain all vessels and cargoes arriving within or approaching the district, until the duties imposed by law on such vessels and their cargoes are paid in cash. But if the owner or consignee of the cargo on board any vessel thus detained, or the master of the vessel, desires to enter a port of entry in any other district where no such obstructions to the execution of the laws exist, the master may be permitted so to change the destination of the vessel and cargo in his manifest; whereupon the collector shall deliver him a written permit to proceed to the port so designated. And the Secretary of the Treasury, with the approval of the President, shall make proper regulations for the enforcement on shipboard of such provisions of the laws regulating the assessment and collection of duties as in his judgment may be necessary and practicable.

(R.S. §5315.)

References in Text

Section 218 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 632.

Codification

R.S. §5315 derived from acts July 13, 1861, ch. 3, §2, 12 Stat. 256; Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 136, §2, 18 Stat. 469.

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise of the Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1, of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 220, 221 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§220. Enforcement of section 219

It shall be unlawful to take any vessel or cargo detained under section 219 of this title from the custody of the proper officers of the customs, unless by process of some court of the United States; and in case of any attempt otherwise to take such vessel or cargo by any force, or combination, or assemblage of persons, too great to be overcome by the officers of the customs, the President, or such person as he shall have empowered for that purpose, may employ such part of the Army or Navy or militia of the United States, or such force of citizen volunteers as may be necessary, to prevent the removal of such vessel or cargo, and to protect the officers of the customs in retaining the custody thereof.

(R.S. §5316.)

Codification

R.S. §5316 derived from act July 12, 1861, ch. 3, §3, 12 Stat. 256.

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise of Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1, of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 221 of this title.

§221. Closing ports of entry; forfeiture of vessels seeking to enter closed port

Whenever, in any collection district, the duties on imports can not, in the judgment of the President, be collected in the ordinary way, nor in the manner provided by sections 218 1 to 220 of this title, by reason of the cause mentioned in section 218 of this title, the President may close the port of entry in that district; and shall in such case give notice thereof by proclamation. And thereupon all right of importation, warehousing, and other privileges incident to ports of entry shall cease and be discontinued at such port so closed until it is opened by the order of the President on the cessation of such obstructions. Every vessel from beyond the United States, or having on board any merchandise liable to duty, which attempts to enter any port which has been closed under this section, shall, with her tackle, apparel, furniture, and cargo, be forfeited.

(R.S. §5317.)

References in Text

Section 218 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 632.

Codification

R.S. §5317 derived from act July 12, 1861, ch. 3, §4, 12 Stat. 256.

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise of Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1, of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

1 See References in Text note below.

§222. Transferred

Codification

Section, R.S. §5318; act Jan. 28, 1915, ch. 20, §1, 38 Stat. 800, related to use of auxiliary vessels to enforce this chapter and was transferred to section 540 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

§223. Forfeiture of vessels owned by citizens of insurrectionary States

From and after fifteen days after the issuing of the proclamation, as provided in section 205 of this title, any vessel belonging in whole or in part to any citizen or inhabitant of such State or part of a State whose inhabitants are so declared in a state of insurrection, found at sea, or in any port of the rest of the United States, shall be forfeited.

(R.S. §5319.)

Codification

R.S. §5319 derived from act July 12, 1861, ch. 3, §7, 12 Stat. 257.

§224. Refusing clearance to vessels with suspected cargoes; forfeiture for departing without clearance

The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to refuse a clearance to any vessel or other vehicle laden with merchandise, destined for a foreign or domestic port, whenever he shall have satisfactory reason to believe that such merchandise, or any part thereof, whatever may be its ostensible destination, is intended for ports in possession or under control of insurgents against the United States; and if any vessel for which a clearance or permit has been refused by the Secretary of the Treasury, or by his order, shall depart or attempt to depart for a foreign or domestic port without being duly cleared or permitted, such vessel, with her tackle, apparel, furniture, and cargo, shall be forfeited.

(R.S. §5320.)

Codification

R.S. §5320 derived from act May 20, 1862, ch. 81, §1, 12 Stat. 404.

§225. Bond to deliver cargo at destination named in clearance

Whenever a permit or clearance is granted for either a foreign or domestic port, it shall be lawful for the collector of the customs granting the same, if he deems it necessary, under the circumstances of the case, to require a bond to be executed by the master or the owner of the vessel, in a penalty equal to the value of the cargo, and with sureties to the satisfaction of such collector, that the cargo shall be delivered at the destination for which it is cleared or permitted, and that no part thereof shall be used in affording aid or comfort to any person or parties in insurrection against the authority of the United States.

(R.S. §5321.)

Codification

R.S. §5321 derived from act May 20, 1862, ch. 81, §2, 12 Stat. 404.

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise of Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later than December 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1, of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

§226. Protection of liens on condemned vessels

In all cases wherein any vessel, or other property, is condemned in any proceeding by virtue of any laws relating to insurrection or rebellion, the court rendering judgment of condemnation shall, notwithstanding such condemnation, and before awarding such vessel, or other property, or the proceeds thereof, to the United States, or to any informer, first provide for the payment, out of the proceeds of such vessel, or other property, of any bona fide claims which shall be filed by any loyal citizen of the United States, or of any foreign state or power at peace and amity with the United States, intervening in such proceeding, and which shall be duly established by evidence, as a valid claim against such vessel, or other property, under the laws of the United States or of any State thereof not declared to be in insurrection. No such claim shall be allowed in any case where the claimant has knowingly participated in the illegal use of such ship, vessel, or other property. This section shall extend to such claims only as might have been enforced specifically against such vessel, or other property, in any State not declared to be in insurrection, wherein such claim arose.

(R.S. §5322.)

Codification

R.S. §5322 derived from act Mar. 3, 1863, ch. 90, 12 Stat. 762.

CHAPTER 14—WARTIME VOTING BY LAND AND NAVAL FORCES

§§301 to 303. Repealed. Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 656, title III, §307, 69 Stat. 589

Section 301, acts Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title I, §1, 56 Stat. 753; July 1, 1943, ch. 187, §§1, 5, 57 Stat. 371, granted absentee members of land or naval forces of the United States the right to vote in Presidential, Vice Presidential, and Congressional elections. See section 1973ff et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Section 302, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title I, §2, 56 Stat. 753, exempted persons in military service in time of war from paying poll taxes or other taxes as a condition of voting in any election for President, Vice President, electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Member of the House of Representatives.

Section 303, acts Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title I, §3, 56 Stat. 753; Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 136, provided for voting in accordance with State law.

Additional Repeal

Sections 301 to 303 were also repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70 Stat. 641.

§§304 to 315. Repealed. Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 136

Section 304, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §4, 56 Stat. 754, related to a public list of applicants.

Section 305, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §5, 56 Stat. 754, related to form of ballots and booklets.

Section 306, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §6, 56 Stat. 755, related to use of official envelopes.

Section 307, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §7, 56 Stat. 756, related to transmission of ballots.

Section 308, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §8, 56 Stat. 756, related to return of ballots.

Section 309, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §9, 56 Stat. 756, related to certification of votes.

Section 310, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §10, 56 Stat. 756, related to payment of expenses.

Section 311, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §11, 56 Stat. 757, related to utilization of services of local agencies.

Section 312, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §12, 56 Stat. 757, related to voting under State law.

Section 313, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §13, 56 Stat. 757, related to primary elections.

Section 314, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §14, 56 Stat. 757, related to offenses against elective franchise.

Section 315, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, §15, 56 Stat. 757, related to formality of compliance.

§§321 to 331. Repealed. Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 656, title III, §307, 69 Stat. 589

Section 321, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §201, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 136; amended Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96, related to State absentee voting legislation.

Section 322, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §202, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 137; amended Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96, related to use of post cards.

Section 323, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §203, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 137; amended Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 97, related to distribution of ballots.

Section 324, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §204, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 138; amended Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 97; Sept. 29, 1950, ch. 1112, §1, 64 Stat. 1082, provided for style and markings of envelopes, protective inserts, return envelopes, and size and weight of ballots and envelopes.

Section 325, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §205, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 138; amended Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 97, related to signature and oath of voter.

Section 326, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §206, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 139; amended Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 98, related to instructions for marking ballots.

Section 327, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §207, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 139; amended Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 99, related to extension of State's time limits.

Section 328, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §208, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 99, provided for notification of forthcoming elections by secretaries of states.

Section 329, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §209, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 99; amended Sept. 29, 1950, ch. 1111, 64 Stat. 1082, provided for cooperation with States, printing and transmitting of post cards, and content of post cards.

Section 330, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §210, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 101; amended July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, related to transmission of post cards.

Section 331, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title II, §211, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 101; amended July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, related to distribution of information.

A prior section 331, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §301, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 140, related to establishment of United States War Ballot Commission and was repealed by act Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96.

Additional Repeal

Sections 321 to 331 were also repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.

§§332 to 340. Repealed. Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96

Section 332, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §302, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 140, related to persons subject to this subchapter.

Section 333, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §303, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 141, related to Federal war ballots.

Section 334, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §304, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 143, related to administration of oaths.

Section 335, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §305, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 143, related to administration of this subchapter.

Section 336, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §306, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 144, related to lists of candidates.

Section 337, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §307, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 144, related to distribution and collection of ballots.

Section 338, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §308, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 145, related to merchant marine ballots.

Section 339, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §309, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 145, related to transmission of ballots.

Section 340, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §310, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 145, related to reports on balloting.

§341. Repealed. Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 656, title III, §307, 69 Stat. 589

Section, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §301, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 101, provided for prevention of fraud, coercion, and undue influence; free discussion, and acts done in good faith.

A prior section 341, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §311, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 146, related to validity of ballots and was repealed by act Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96.

Additional Repeal

Section was also repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.

§342. Repealed. May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §142, 63 Stat. 109

Section, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §302, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 102, related to prohibition against taking of polls. See section 596 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

A prior section 342, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §312, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 146, which provided for safeguards and secrecy of ballots and prevention of fraud and coercion as to voting, was repealed by act Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 102.

§§343 to 347. Repealed. Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96

Section 343, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §313, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 146, related to penalties under sections 341 to 347 of this title.

Section 344, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §314, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 146, related to prohibition on taking polls. See section 596 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 344 was also repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862.

Section 345, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §315, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 147, related to certain State officials.

Section 346, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §316, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 147, related to agencies acting for the Secretary of State.

Section 347, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title III, §317, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 147, related to construction of chapter.

§§351 to 355. Repealed. Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 656, title III, §307, 69 Stat. 589

Section 351, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §401, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 102, defined terms for purposes of this chapter.

A prior section 351, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §401, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 147, authorized appropriations for purposes of this chapter and was repealed by act Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96.

Section 352, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §402, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 102; amended Sept. 29, 1950, ch. 1112, §2, 64 Stat. 1083, related to free postage.

A prior section 352, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §402, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 147, related to free postage and was repealed by act Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96.

Section 353, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §403, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 103, related to administration of this chapter.

A prior section 353, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §403, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 148, defined terms for purposes of this chapter and was repealed by act Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96.

Section 354, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §404, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 103, related to separability of provisions.

A prior section 354, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §404, as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 150, 58 Stat. 148, related to separability of provisions and was repealed by act Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 96.

Section 355, act Sept. 16, 1942, ch. 561, title IV, §405, as added Apr. 19, 1946, ch. 142, 60 Stat. 103, related to construction of this chapter.

Additional Repeal

Sections 351 to 355 were also repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.

CHAPTER 15—NATIONAL SECURITY

Sec.
401.
Congressional declaration of purpose.
401a.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—COORDINATION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY

402.
National Security Council.
(a)
Establishment; presiding officer; functions; composition.
(b)
Additional functions.
(c)
Executive secretary; appointment; staff employees.
(d)
Recommendations and reports.
(e)
Participation of Chairman or Vice Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff.
(f)
Participation by Director of National Drug Control Policy.
(g)
Board for Low Intensity Conflict.
(h)
Committee on Foreign Intelligence.
(i)
Committee on Transnational Threats.
(j)
Participation of Director of Central Intelligence.
(i)
Special Adviser to the President on International Religious Freedom.
402a.
Coordination of counterintelligence activities.
(a)
Establishment of Counterintelligence Policy Board.
(b)
Chairperson.
(c)
Membership.
(d)
Functions and discharge of functions.
(e)
Coordination of counterintelligence matters with Federal Bureau of Investigation.
402b.
National Counterintelligence Executive.
(a)
Establishment.
(b)
Mission.
(c)
Duties.
402c.
Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive.
(a)
Establishment.
(b)
Head of Office.
(c)
Location of Office.
(d)
General Counsel.
(e)
Functions.
(f)
Additional requirements regarding National Threat Identification and Prioritization Assessment and National Counterintelligence Strategy.
(g)
Personnel.
(h)
Support.
(i)
Availability of funds for reimbursement.
(j)
Contracts.
(k)
Treatment of activities under certain administrative laws.
(l)
Oversight by Congress.
(m)
Construction.
403.
Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.
(a)
Director of Central Intelligence.
(b)
Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence.
(c)
Military status of Director and Deputy Directors.
(d)
Duties of Deputy Directors.
(e)
Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.
(f)
Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection.
(g)
Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production.
(h)
Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration.
403–1.
Central Intelligence Agency.
403–2.
Intelligence Community contracting.
403–2a.
Construction of intelligence community facilities; Presidential authorization.
403–2b.
Limitation on construction of facilities to be used primarily by intelligence community.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Exception.
(c)
Application.
403–3.
Responsibilities of Director of Central Intelligence.
(a)
Provision of intelligence.
(b)
National Intelligence Council.
(c)
Head of intelligence community.
(d)
Head of Central Intelligence Agency.
403–4.
Authorities of Director of Central Intelligence.
(a)
Access to intelligence.
(b)
Approval of budgets.
(c)
Role of DCI in reprogramming.
(d)
Transfer of funds or personnel within National Foreign Intelligence Program.
(e)
Coordination with foreign governments.
(f)
Use of personnel.
(g)
Standards and qualifications for performance of intelligence activities.
(h)
Termination of employment of CIA employees.
403–5.
Responsibilities of Secretary of Defense pertaining to National Foreign Intelligence Program.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Responsibility for performance of specific functions.
(c)
Use of elements of Department of Defense.
403–5a.
Assistance to United States law enforcement agencies.
(a)
Authority to provide assistance.
(b)
Limitation on assistance by elements of Department of Defense.
(c)
Definitions.
403–5b.
Disclosure of foreign intelligence acquired in criminal investigations; notice of criminal investigations of foreign intelligence sources.
(a)
Disclosure of foreign intelligence.
(b)
Procedures for notice of criminal investigations.
(c)
Procedures.
403–5c.
Transferred.
403–5d.
Foreign intelligence information.
403–5e.
Transferred.
403–6.
Appointment of officials responsible for intelligence-related activities.
(a)
Concurrence of DCI in certain appointments.
(b)
Consultation with DCI in certain appointments.
403–7.
Prohibition on using journalists as agents or assets.
(a)
Policy.
(b)
Waiver.
(c)
Voluntary cooperation.
403–8.
Reaffirmation of longstanding prohibition against drug trafficking by employees of the intelligence community.
(a)
Finding.
(b)
Obligation of employees of intelligence community.
(c)
Intelligence community defined.
403a.
Definitions relating to Central Intelligence Agency.
403b.
Seal of office of Central Intelligence Agency.
403c.
Procurement authority of Central Intelligence Agency.
(a)
Purchases and contracts for supplies and services.
(b)
“Agency head” defined.
(c)
Classes of purchases and contracts; finality of decision; powers delegable.
(d)
Powers not delegable; written findings.
403d.
Repealed.
403e.
Central Intelligence Agency personnel; allowances and benefits.
(a)
Travel, allowances, and related expenses for officers and employees assigned to duty stations outside United States.
(b)
Allowances and benefits comparable to those paid members of Foreign Service; special requirements; persons detailed or assigned from other agencies; regulations.
403e–1.
Eligibility for incentive awards.
(a)
Scope of authority with respect to Federal employees and members of Armed Forces.
(b)
Time for exercise of authority.
(c)
Exercise of authority with respect to members of Armed Forces assigned to foreign intelligence duties.
(d)
Payment and acceptance of award.
403f.
General authorities of Agency.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Scope of authority for expenditure.
(c)
Transfers for acquisition of land.
403g.
Protection of nature of Agency's functions.
403h.
Admission of essential aliens; limitation on number.
403i.
Repealed.
403j.
Central Intelligence Agency; appropriations; expenditures.
403k.
Authority to pay death gratuities.
403l.
Authority to accept gifts, devises and bequests.
(a)
Use for operational purposes prohibited.
(b)
Sale, exchange and investment of gifts.
(c)
Deposit of gifts into special fund.
(d)
Taxation of gifts.
(e)
“Gift” defined.
403m.
Misuse of Agency name, initials, or seal.
(a)
Prohibited acts.
(b)
Injunction.
403n.
Special provisions for spouses of Central Intelligence Agency employees applicable to Agency participants in Civil Service Retirement and Disability System.
(a)
Manner and extent of applicability.
(b)
Regulations.
403o.
Security personnel at Agency installations.
(a)
Special policemen: functions and powers; regulations: promulgation and enforcement.
(b)
Penalties for violations of regulations.
(c)
Identification.
(d)
Protection of certain CIA personnel from tort liability.
403p.
Health benefits for certain former spouses of Central Intelligence Agency employees.
(a)
Persons eligible.
(b)
Enrollment for health benefits.
(c)
Eligibility of former wives or husbands.
(d)
Continuation of eligibility.
(e)
Remarriage before age fifty-five; continued enrollment; restored eligibility.
(f)
Enrollment in health benefits plan under other authority.
(g)
“Health benefits plan” defined.
403q.
Inspector General for Agency.
(a)
Purpose; establishment.
(b)
Appointment; supervision; removal.
(c)
Duties and responsibilities.
(d)
Semiannual reports; immediate reports of serious or flagrant problems; reports of functional problems; reports to Congress on urgent concerns.
(e)
Authorities of Inspector General.
(f)
Separate budget account.
(g)
Transfer.
403r.
Special annuity computation rules for certain employees’ service abroad.
(a)
Officers and employees to whom rules apply.
(b)
Computation rules.
(c)
Annuities deemed annuities under section 8339 of title 5.
(d)
Officers and employees entitled to greater annuities under section 8339 of title 5.
403r–1.
Portability of overseas service retirement benefit.
403s.
Special rules for disability retirement and death-in-service benefits with respect to certain employees.
(a)
Officers and employees to whom section 2051 rules apply.
(b)
Survivors of officers and employees to whom section 2052 rules apply.
(c)
Annuities under this section deemed annuities under chapter 83 of title 5.
403t.
General Counsel of Central Intelligence Agency.
(a)
Appointment.
(b)
Chief legal officer.
(c)
Functions.
403u.
Central services program.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Participation of Agency elements.
(c)
Central Services Working Capital Fund.
(d)
Limitation on amount of orders.
(e)
Payment for items and services.
(f)
Fees.
(g)
Termination.
403v.
Detail of employees.
404.
Emergency preparedness.
(a)
Employment of personnel.
(b)
Functions.
(c)
Utilization of Government resources and facilities.
404a.
Annual national security strategy report.
(a)
Transmittal to Congress.
(b)
Contents.
(c)
Classified and unclassified form.
404b.
Multiyear national foreign intelligence program.
(a)
Annual submission of multiyear national foreign intelligence program.
(b)
Time of submission.
(c)
Consistency with budget estimates.
(d)
Specified congressional committees.
404c.
Annual report on United States security arrangements and commitments with other nations.
(a)
Report requirements.
(b)
Matters to be included.
(c)
Deadline for report.
(d)
Specified congressional committees.
404d.
Annual report on intelligence.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Matters covered.
(c)
“Appropriate congressional committees” defined.
404d–1.
Transferred.
404e.
National mission of National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Requirements and priorities.
(c)
Correction of deficiencies.
404f.
Collection tasking authority.
404g.
Restrictions on intelligence sharing with United Nations.
(a)
Provision of intelligence information to United Nations.
(b)
Annual and special reports.
(c)
Delegation of duties.
(d)
Relationship to existing law.
(e)
“Appropriate committees of Congress” defined.
404h.
Detail of intelligence community personnel—Intelligence Community Assignment Program.
(a)
Detail.
(b)
Benefits, allowances, travel, incentives.
404i.
Additional annual reports from the Director of Central Intelligence.
(a)
Annual report on the safety and security of Russian nuclear facilities and nuclear military forces.
(b)
Annual report on hiring and retention of minority employees.
(c)
Annual report on threat of attack on the United States using weapons of mass destruction.
(d)
Congressional leadership defined.
404i–1.
Annual report on improvement of financial statements for auditing purposes.
404j.
Limitation on establishment or operation of diplomatic intelligence support centers.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Prohibition of use of appropriations.
(c)
Definitions.
(d)
Termination.
404k.
Travel on any common carrier for certain intelligence collection personnel.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Authorized delegation of duty.
404l.
POW/MIA analytic capability.
(a)
Requirement.
(b)
Unaccounted for United States personnel.
404m.
Semiannual report on financial intelligence on terrorist assets.
(a)
Semiannual report.
(b)
Immediate notification for emergency designation.
(c)
Submittal date of reports to congressional intelligence committees.
(d)
Appropriate congressional committees defined.
404n.
National Virtual Translation Center.
(a)
Establishment.
(b)
Designation.
(c)
Administrative matters.
(d)
Deadline for establishment.
404n–1.
Foreign Terrorist Asset Tracking Center.
(a)
Establishment.
(b)
Designation.
(c)
Deadline for establishment.
404n–2.
Terrorist Identification Classification System.
(a)
Requirement.
(b)
Administration.
(c)
Information sharing.
(d)
Reporting and certification.
(e)
Report on criteria for information sharing.
(f)
System administration requirements.
(g)
Report on status of System.
(h)
Congressional intelligence committees defined.
404n–3.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—MISCELLANEOUS AND CONFORMING PROVISIONS

405.
Advisory committees; appointment; compensation of part-time personnel; applicability of other laws.
406.
Omitted.
407.
Study or plan of surrender; use of appropriations.
408.
Applicable laws.
409.
Definitions of military departments.
409a.
National Security Agency voluntary separation.
(a)
Short title.
(b)
Definitions.
(c)
Establishment of program.
(d)
Early retirement.
(e)
Amount of separation pay and treatment for other purposes.
(f)
Reemployment restrictions.
(g)
Bar on certain employment.
(h)
Limitations.
(i)
Regulations.
(j)
Notification of exercise of authority.
(k)
Remittance of funds.
409b.
Authority of Federal Bureau of Investigation to award personal services contracts.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Inapplicability of certain requirements.
(c)
Contract to be appropriate means of securing services.
409b–1.
Reports on exercise of authority.
410.
“Function” and “Department of Defense” defined.
411.
Authorization of appropriations.
412.
Repealing and savings provisions.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—ACCOUNTABILITY FOR INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES

413.
General Congressional oversight provisions.
(a)
Reports to Congressional committees of intelligence activities and anticipated activities.
(b)
Reports concerning illegal intelligence activities.
(c)
Procedures for reporting information.
(d)
Procedures to protect from unauthorized disclosure.
(e)
Construction of authority conferred.
(f)
“Intelligence activities” defined.
413a.
Reporting of intelligence activities other than covert actions.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Form and contents of certain reports.
(c)
Standards and procedures for certain reports.
413b.
Presidential approval and reporting of covert actions.
(a)
Presidential findings.
(b)
Reports to congressional intelligence committees; production of information.
(c)
Timing of reports; access to finding.
(d)
Changes in previously approved actions.
(e)
“Covert action” defined.
(f)
Prohibition on covert actions intended to influence United States political processes, etc.
414.
Funding of intelligence activities.
(a)
Obligations and expenditures for intelligence or intelligence-related activity; prerequisites.
(b)
Activities denied funding by Congress.
(c)
Presidential finding required for expenditure of funds on covert action.
(d)
Report to Congressional committees required for expenditure of nonappropriated funds for intelligence activity.
(e)
Definitions.
415.
Notice to Congress of certain transfers of defense articles and defense services.
415a.
Specificity of National Foreign Intelligence Program budget amounts for counterterrorism, counterproliferation, counternarcotics, and counterintelligence.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Election of classified or unclassified form.
415a–1.
Budget treatment of costs of acquisition of major systems by the intelligence community.
(a)
Independent cost estimates.
(b)
Preparation of independent cost estimates.
(c)
Utilization in budgets of President.
(d)
Inclusion of estimates in budget justification materials.
(e)
Definitions.
415b.
Dates for submittal of various annual and semiannual reports to the congressional intelligence committees.
(a)
Annual reports.
(b)
Semiannual reports.
(c)
Submittal dates for reports.
(d)
Postponement of submittal.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—PROTECTION OF CERTAIN NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION

421.
Protection of identities of certain United States undercover intelligence officers, agents, informants, and sources.
(a)
Disclosure of information by persons having or having had access to classified information that identifies covert agent.
(b)
Disclosure of information by persons who learn identity of covert agents as result of having access to classified information.
(c)
Disclosure of information by persons in course of pattern of activities intended to identify and expose covert agents.
(d)
Imposition of consecutive sentences.
422.
Defenses and exceptions.
(a)
Disclosure by United States of identity of covert agent.
(b)
Conspiracy, misprision of felony, aiding and abetting, etc.
(c)
Disclosure to select Congressional committees on intelligence.
(d)
Disclosure by agent of own identity.
423.
Report.
(a)
Annual report by President to Congress on measures to protect identities of covert agents.
(b)
Exemption from disclosure.
424.
Extraterritorial jurisdiction.
425.
Providing information to Congress.
426.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—PROTECTION OF OPERATIONAL FILES

431.
Operational files of the Central Intelligence Agency.
(a)
Exemption by Director of Central Intelligence.
(b)
“Operational files” defined.
(c)
Search and review for information.
(d)
Information derived or disseminated from exempted operational files.
(e)
Supersedure of prior law.
(f)
Allegation; improper withholding of records; judicial review.
(g)
Decennial review of exempted operational files.
432.
Operational files of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
(a)
Exemption of certain operational files from search, review, publication, or disclosure.
(b)
Decennial review of exempted operational files.
432a.
Operational files of the National Reconnaissance Office.
(a)
Exemption of certain operational files from search, review, publication, or disclosure.
(b)
Decennial review of exempted operational files.
432b.
Operational files of the National Security Agency.
(a)
Exemption of certain operational files from search, review, publication, or disclosure.
(b)
Operational files defined.
(c)
Search and review for information.
(d)
Information derived or disseminated from exempted operational files.
(e)
Supersedure of other laws.
(f)
Allegation; improper withholding of records; judicial review.
(g)
Decennial review of exempted operational files.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION

435.
Procedures.
435a.
Limitation on handling, retention, and storage of certain classified materials by the Department of State.
(a)
Certification regarding full compliance with requirements.
(b)
Limitation on certification.
(c)
Report on noncompliance.
(d)
Effects of certification of non-full compliance.
(e)
Waiver by Director of Central Intelligence.
(f)
Definitions.
436.
Requests by authorized investigative agencies.
(a)
Generally.
(b)
Disclosure of requests.
(c)
Records or information; inspection or copying.
(d)
Reimbursement of costs.
(e)
Dissemination of records or information received.
(f)
Construction of section.
437.
Exceptions.
438.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—APPLICATION OF SANCTIONS LAWS TO INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES

441.
Stay of sanctions.
441a.
Extension of stay.
441b.
Reports.
441c.
Laws subject to stay.
441d.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII–A—EDUCATION IN SUPPORT OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

441g.
Scholarships and work-study for pursuit of graduate degrees in science and technology.
(a)
Program authorized.
(b)
Administration.
(c)
Identification of fields of study.
(d)
Eligibility for participation.
(e)
Regulations.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—ADDITIONAL MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

442.
Applicability to United States intelligence activities of Federal laws implementing international treaties and agreements.
(a)
In general.
(b)
Authorized intelligence activities.
442a.
Counterintelligence initiatives.
(a)
Inspection process.
(b)
Annual review of dissemination lists.
(c)
Completion of financial disclosure statements required for access to certain classified information.
(d)
Arrangements to handle sensitive information.

        

§401. Congressional declaration of purpose

In enacting this legislation, it is the intent of Congress to provide a comprehensive program for the future security of the United States; to provide for the establishment of integrated policies and procedures for the departments, agencies, and functions of the Government relating to the national security; to provide a Department of Defense, including the three military Departments of the Army, the Navy (including naval aviation and the United States Marine Corps), and the Air Force under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense; to provide that each military department shall be separately organized under its own Secretary and shall function under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense; to provide for their unified direction under civilian control of the Secretary of Defense but not to merge these departments or services; to provide for the establishment of unified or specified combatant commands, and a clear and direct line of command to such commands; to eliminate unnecessary duplication in the Department of Defense, and particularly in the field of research and engineering by vesting its overall direction and control in the Secretary of Defense; to provide more effective, efficient, and economical administration in the Department of Defense; to provide for the unified strategic direction of the combatant forces, for their operation under unified command, and for their integration into an efficient team of land, naval, and air forces but not to establish a single Chief of Staff over the armed forces nor an overall armed forces general staff.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §2, 61 Stat. 496; Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §2, 63 Stat. 579; Pub. L. 85–599, §2, Aug. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 514.)

References in Text

This legislation, referred to in text, means act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended, known as the National Security Act of 1947. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–599 amended section generally, and, among other changes, provided that each military department shall be separately organized, instead of separately administered, under its own Secretary and shall function under the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense, and inserted provisions relating to establishment of unified or specified combatant commands and for elimination of unnecessary duplication.

1949—Act Aug. 10, 1949, provided that the military departments shall be separately administered but be under the direction of the Secretary of Defense, and that there shall not be a single Chief of Staff over the armed forces nor an armed forces general staff.

Effective Date

Section 310 of act July 26, 1947, provided:

“(a) The first sentence of section 202(a) [section 171a of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees] and sections 1, 2, 307, 308, 309, and 310 [section 171 note of former Title 5, section 361 of this title, and sections 171m and 171n of former Title 5] shall take effect immediately upon the enactment of this Act [July 26, 1947].

“(b) Except as provided in subsection (a), the provisions of this Act [sections 171 to 171l, 181–1, 181–2, 411a, 411b, 626 to 626d of former Title 5, section 24 of Title 3, The President, and sections 401 to 405 of this title] shall take effect on whichever of the following days is the earlier: The day after the day upon which the Secretary of Defense first appointed takes office, or the sixtieth day after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 26, 1947].”

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–306, title IX, §901(a), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2432, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 402b and 402c of this title, amending section 402a of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 402b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002’.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §801, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3474, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 403, 403–1, 403–5a, and 403t of this title, amending sections 402, 403, 403–3 to 403–6, and 404d of this title and sections 5314 and 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, repealing former section 403 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 403–3, 403–4, and 403t of this title] may be cited as the ‘Intelligence Renewal and Reform Act of 1996’.”

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §801, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3434, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 402a, 435 to 438, and 1821 to 1829 of this title, section 2170b of the Appendix to this title, section 1599 [now 1611] of Title 10, Armed Forces, and section 1924 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending section 783 of this title, section 2170 of the Appendix to this title, section 8312 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, section 1604 of Title 10, and sections 793, 794, 798, 3071, and 3077 of Title 18, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 435 and 1821 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 402 and 1801 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Counterintelligence and Security Enhancements Act of 1994’.”

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §701, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3188, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 401a and 403–3 to 403–6 of this title, amending sections 402, 403, 404, and 404a of this title, and repealing section 403–1 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Intelligence Organization Act of 1992’.”

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–477, §1, Oct. 15, 1984, 98 Stat. 2209, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 431 and 432 of this title, amending section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 431 and 432 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Central Intelligence Agency Information Act’.”

Short Title of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–200, §1, June 23, 1982, 96 Stat. 122, provided: “That this Act [enacting subchapter IV of this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Intelligence Identities Protection Act of 1982’.”

Short Title of 1949 Amendment

Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1949, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 408 and 412 of this title and sections 171–1, 171t, 172, 172a to 172d, and 172f to 172j of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, amending this section, sections 151, 402, 403d, 405, 410, 459, 481, and 494 of this title, sections 171, 171a, 171b to 171d, 171e to 171j, 171n, 171r, 172e, 411b, and 626c of former Title 5, section 1748b of Title 12, Banks and Banking, section 1517 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, sections 474, 481 to 484, and 487 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, section 364a of Title 43, Public Lands, sections 1156 and 1157 of former Title 49, Transportation, and section 1193 of the Appendix to this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 171 and 171c of former Title 5] may be cited as the ‘National Security Act Amendments of 1949’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of act July 26, 1947, provided: “That this Act [enacting this section, sections 401a to 403, 404, 405, and 408 to 412 of this title, and sections 171, 171–1, 171–2, 171a, 171b to 171d, 171e to 171j, 171k to 171m, 171n, 172, 172a to 172d, 172f to 172j, 181–1, 181–2, 411a, 411b, 626, 626a to 626c, and 626d of former Title 5, Executive Department and Government Officers and Employees, amending sections 1, 11, and 172e of former Title 5, section 1517 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 72 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 135 of Title 10, Armed Forces] may be cited as the ‘National Security Act of 1947’.”

Sections of National Security Act of 1947, which were classified to former Title 5, were repealed and restated in Title 10, Armed Forces, except as noted, as follows:

 
Section of former

Title 5

Section of Title 10
171 131, 133.
171a(a), (b) 133.
171a(c) 125, 136, 141, 3010, 3012, 5011, 5031, 8010, 8012.
171a(d) 133.
171a(e) 132.
171a(f) 133.
171a(g)–(i) [Omitted].
171a(j) 124.
171c 134, 135, 136, 718, 2358.
171c–1, 171c–2 [Repealed].
171d 1580.
171e 171.
171f 141, 142.
171g 143.
171h 2201.
171i 2351.
171j 173.
172 136.
172a 3014, 5061, 8014.
172b 2203.
172c 2204.
172d 2208.
172e 2209.
172f 126.
172g 2205.
172h 2206.
172i 2701.
181–1 101, 3011, 3012, 3062, T. 50 §409.
181–2 3012.
411a(a) 101; T. 50 §409.
411a(b) 5012.
411a(c) 5013, 5402.
626(a) 8012.
626(b) [Repealed].
626(c) 101; T. 50 §409.
626(d) 8013.
626(e) 8012.
626(f) 8033.
626(g) 8011.
626a 8012.
626b 8013.
626c 743, 8062.

Savings Provision

Section 12(g) of act Aug. 10, 1949, provided: “All laws, orders, regulations, and other actions relating to the National Military Establishment, the Departments of the Army, the Navy, or the Air Force, or to any officer or activity of such establishment or such departments, shall, except to the extent inconsistent with the provisions of this Act [see Short Title of 1949 Amendment note above], have the same effect as if this Act had not been enacted; but, after the effective date of this Act [Aug. 10, 1949], any such law, order, regulation, or other action which vested functions in or otherwise related to any officer, department, or establishment, shall be deemed to have vested such function in or relate to the officer or department, executive or military, succeeding the officer, department, or establishment in which such function was vested. For purposes of this subsection the Department of Defense shall be deemed the department succeeding the National Military Establishment, and the military departments of Army, Navy, and Air Force shall be deemed the departments succeeding the Executive Departments of Army, Navy, and Air Force.”

Separability

Section 309 of act July 26, 1947, provided: “If any provision of this Act [see Short Title note above] or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and of the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”

[Section 310(a) of act July 26, 1947, set out as an Effective Date note above, provided that section 309 of act July 26, 1947, is effective July 26, 1947.]

Incorporation of Reporting Requirements

Pub. L. 108–177, title I, §106, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2604, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Each requirement to submit a report to the congressional intelligence committees that is included in the joint explanatory statement to accompany the conference report on the bill H.R. 2417 of the One Hundred Eighth Congress [enacted as Pub. L. 108–177], or in the classified annex to this Act, is hereby incorporated into this Act, and is hereby made a requirement in law.

“(b) Congressional Intelligence Committees Defined.—In this section, the term ‘congressional intelligence committees’ means—

“(1) the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

“(2) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.”

Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 107–306, title I, §108, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2388.

National Commission for Review of Research and Development Programs of the United States Intelligence Community

Pub. L. 107–306, title X, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2437, as amended by Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §315(a), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2610, provided that:

“SEC. 1001. FINDINGS.

“Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) Research and development efforts under the purview of the intelligence community are vitally important to the national security of the United States.

“(2) The intelligence community must operate in a dynamic, highly-challenging environment, characterized by rapid technological growth, against a growing number of hostile, technically-sophisticated threats. Research and development programs under the purview of the intelligence community are critical to ensuring that intelligence agencies, and their personnel, are provided with important technological capabilities to detect, characterize, assess, and ultimately counter the full range of threats to the national security of the United States.

“(3) There is a need to review the full range of current research and development programs under the purview of the intelligence community, evaluate such programs against the scientific and technological fields judged to be of most importance, and articulate program and resource priorities for future research and development activities to ensure a unified and coherent research and development program across the entire intelligence community.

“SEC. 1002. NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS OF THE UNITED STATES INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY.

“(a) Establishment.—There is established a commission to be known as the ‘National Commission for the Review of the Research and Development Programs of the United States Intelligence Community’ (in this title referred to as the ‘Commission’).

“(b) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 12 members, as follows:

“(1) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management.

“(2) A senior intelligence official of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, as designated by the Secretary of Defense.

“(3) Three members appointed by the majority leader of the Senate, in consultation with the Chairman of the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate, one from Members of the Senate and two from private life.

“(4) Two members appointed by the minority leader of the Senate, in consultation with the Vice Chairman of the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate, one from Members of the Senate and one from private life.

“(5) Three members appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the Chairman of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives, one from Members of the House of Representatives and two from private life.

“(6) Two members appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the ranking member of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives, one from Members of the House of Representatives and one from private life.

“(c) Membership.—(1) The individuals appointed from private life as members of the Commission shall be individuals who are nationally recognized for expertise, knowledge, or experience in—

“(A) research and development programs;

“(B) technology discovery and insertion;

“(C) use of intelligence information by national policymakers and military leaders; or

“(D) the implementation, funding, or oversight of the national security policies of the United States.

“(2) An official who appoints members of the Commission may not appoint an individual as a member of the Commission if, in the judgment of the official, such individual possesses any personal or financial interest in the discharge of any of the duties of the Commission.

“(3) All members of the Commission appointed from private life shall possess an appropriate security clearance in accordance with applicable laws and regulations concerning the handling of classified information.

“(d) Co-Chairs.—(1) The Commission shall have two co-chairs, selected from among the members of the Commission.

“(2) One co-chair of the Commission shall be a member of the Democratic Party, and one co-chair shall be a member of the Republican Party.

“(3) The individuals who serve as the co-chairs of the Commission shall be jointly agreed upon by the President, the majority leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the minority leader of the House of Representatives.

“(e) Appointment; Initial Meeting.—(1) Members of the Commission shall be appointed not later than 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 27, 2002].

“(2) The Commission shall hold its initial meeting on the date that is 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(f) Meetings; Quorum; Vacancies.—(1) After its initial meeting, the Commission shall meet upon the call of the co-chairs of the Commission.

“(2) Six members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for purposes of conducting business, except that two members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for purposes of receiving testimony.

“(3) Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.

“(4) If vacancies in the Commission occur on any day after 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 27, 2002], a quorum shall consist of a majority of the members of the Commission as of such day.

“(g) Actions of Commission.—(1) The Commission shall act by resolution agreed to by a majority of the members of the Commission voting and present.

“(2) The Commission may establish panels composed of less than the full membership of the Commission for purposes of carrying out the duties of the Commission under this title. The actions of any such panel shall be subject to the review and control of the Commission. Any findings and determinations made by such a panel shall not be considered the findings and determinations of the Commission unless approved by the Commission.

“(3) Any member, agent, or staff of the Commission may, if authorized by the co-chairs of the Commission, take any action which the Commission is authorized to take pursuant to this title.

“(h) Duties.—The duties of the Commission shall be—

“(1) to conduct, until not later than the date on which the Commission submits the report under section 1007(a), the review described in subsection (i); and

“(2) to submit to the congressional intelligence committees, the Director of Central Intelligence, and the Secretary of Defense a final report on the results of the review.

“(i) Review.—The Commission shall review the status of research and development programs and activities within the intelligence community, including—

“(1) an assessment of the advisability of modifying the scope of research and development for purposes of such programs and activities;

“(2) a review of the particular individual research and development activities under such programs;

“(3) an evaluation of the current allocation of resources for research and development, including whether the allocation of such resources for that purpose should be modified;

“(4) an identification of the scientific and technological fields judged to be of most importance to the intelligence community;

“(5) an evaluation of the relationship between the research and development programs and activities of the intelligence community and the research and development programs and activities of other departments and agencies of the Federal Government; and

“(6) an evaluation of the relationship between the research and development programs and activities of the intelligence community and the research and development programs and activities of the private sector.

“SEC. 1003. POWERS OF COMMISSION.

“(a) In General.—(1) The Commission or, on the authorization of the Commission, any subcommittee or member thereof, may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this title—

“(A) hold such hearings and sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, receive such evidence, and administer such oaths; and

“(B) require, by subpoena or otherwise, the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books, records, correspondence, memoranda, papers, and documents, as the Commission or such designated subcommittee or designated member considers necessary.

“(2) Subpoenas may be issued under subparagraph (1)(B) under the signature of the co-chairs of the Commission, and may be served by any person designated by such co-chairs.

“(3) The provisions of sections 102 through 104 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (2 U.S.C. 192–194) shall apply in the case of any failure of a witness to comply with any subpoena or to testify when summoned under authority of this section.

“(b) Contracting.—The Commission may, to such extent and in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts, enter into contracts to enable the Commission to discharge its duties under this title.

“(c) Information From Federal Agencies.—The Commission may secure directly from any executive department, agency, bureau, board, commission, office, independent establishment, or instrumentality of the Government information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics for the purposes of this title. Each such department, agency, bureau, board, commission, office, establishment, or instrumentality shall, to the extent authorized by law, furnish such information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics directly to the Commission, upon request of the co-chairs of the Commission. The Commission shall handle and protect all classified information provided to it under this section in accordance with applicable statutes and regulations.

“(d) Assistance From Federal Agencies.—(1) The Director of Central Intelligence shall provide to the Commission, on a nonreimbursable basis, such administrative services, funds, staff, facilities, and other support services as are necessary for the performance of the Commission's duties under this title.

“(2) The Secretary of Defense may provide the Commission, on a nonreimbursable basis, with such administrative services, staff, and other support services as the Commission may request.

“(3) In addition to the assistance set forth in paragraphs (1) and (2), other departments and agencies of the United States may provide the Commission such services, funds, facilities, staff, and other support as such departments and agencies consider advisable and as may be authorized by law.

“(4) The Commission shall receive the full and timely cooperation of any official, department, or agency of the United States Government whose assistance is necessary for the fulfillment of the duties of the Commission under this title, including the provision of full and current briefings and analyses.

“(e) Prohibition on Withholding Information.—No department or agency of the Government may withhold information from the Commission on the grounds that providing the information to the Commission would constitute the unauthorized disclosure of classified information or information relating to intelligence sources or methods.

“(f) Postal Services.—The Commission may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as the departments and agencies of the United States.

“(g) Gifts.—The Commission may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or donations of services or property in carrying out its duties under this title.

“SEC. 1004. STAFF OF COMMISSION.

“(a) In General.—(1) The co-chairs of the Commission, in accordance with rules agreed upon by the Commission, shall appoint and fix the compensation of a staff director and such other personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its duties, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that no rate of pay fixed under this subsection may exceed the equivalent of that payable to a person occupying a position at level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

“(2) Any Federal Government employee may be detailed to the Commission without reimbursement from the Commission, and such detailee shall retain the rights, status, and privileges of his or her regular employment without interruption.

“(3) All staff of the Commission shall possess a security clearance in accordance with applicable laws and regulations concerning the handling of classified information.

“(b) Consultant Services.—(1) The Commission may procure the services of experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, but at rates not to exceed the daily rate paid a person occupying a position at level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of such title.

“(2) All experts and consultants employed by the Commission shall possess a security clearance in accordance with applicable laws and regulations concerning the handling of classified information.

“SEC. 1005. COMPENSATION AND TRAVEL EXPENSES.

“(a) Compensation.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), each member of the Commission may be compensated at not to exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in effect for a position at level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code, for each day during which that member is engaged in the actual performance of the duties of the Commission under this title.

“(2) Members of the Commission who are officers or employees of the United States or Members of Congress shall receive no additional pay by reason of their service on the Commission.

“(b) Travel Expenses.—While away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission, members of the Commission may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in the Government service are allowed expenses under section 5703 of title 5, United States Code.

“SEC. 1006. TREATMENT OF INFORMATION RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY.

“(a) In General.—(1) The Director of Central Intelligence shall assume responsibility for the handling and disposition of any information related to the national security of the United States that is received, considered, or used by the Commission under this title.

“(2) Any information related to the national security of the United States that is provided to the Commission by a congressional intelligence committee may not be further provided or released without the approval of the chairman of such committee.

“(b) Access After Termination of Commission.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, after the termination of the Commission under section 1007, only the Members and designated staff of the congressional intelligence committees, the Director of Central Intelligence (and the designees of the Director), and such other officials of the executive branch as the President may designate shall have access to information related to the national security of the United States that is received, considered, or used by the Commission.

“SEC. 1007. FINAL REPORT; TERMINATION.

“(a) Final Report.—Not later than September 1, 2004, the Commission shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees, the Director of Central Intelligence, and the Secretary of Defense a final report as required by section 1002(h)(2).

“(b) Termination.—(1) The Commission, and all the authorities of this title, shall terminate at the end of the 120-day period beginning on the date on which the final report under subsection (a) is transmitted to the congressional intelligence committees.

“(2) The Commission may use the 120-day period referred to in paragraph (1) for the purposes of concluding its activities, including providing testimony to Congress concerning the final report referred to in that paragraph and disseminating the report.

“SEC. 1008. ASSESSMENTS OF FINAL REPORT.

“Not later than 60 days after receipt of the final report under section 1007(a), the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense shall each submit to the congressional intelligence committees an assessment by the Director or the Secretary, as the case may be, of the final report. Each assessment shall include such comments on the findings and recommendations contained in the final report as the Director or Secretary, as the case may be, considers appropriate.

“SEC. 1009. INAPPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

“(a) Federal Advisory Committee Act.—The provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the activities of the Commission under this title.

“(b) Freedom of Information Act.—The provisions of section 552 of title 5, United States Code (commonly referred to as the Freedom of Information Act), shall not apply to the activities, records, and proceedings of the Commission under this title.

“SEC. 1010. FUNDING.

“(a) Transfer From the Community Management Account.—Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated by this Act [see Tables for classification] for the Intelligence Technology Innovation Center of the Community Management Account, the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management shall transfer to the Director of Central Intelligence $2,000,000 for purposes of the activities of the Commission under this title.

“(b) Availability in General.—The Director of Central Intelligence shall make available to the Commission, from the amount transferred to the Director under subsection (a), such amounts as the Commission may require for purposes of the activities of the Commission under this title.

“(c) Duration of Availability.—Amounts made available to the Commission under subsection (b) shall remain available until expended.

“ SEC. 1011. DEFINITIONS.

“In this title:

“(1) Congressional intelligence committees.—The term ‘congressional intelligence committees’ means—

“(A) the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

“(B) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

“(2) Intelligence community.—The term ‘intelligence community’ has the meaning given that term in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401a(4)).”

[Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §315(b), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2610, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending section 1007 of title X of Pub. L. 107–306, set out above] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of section 1007 of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 [Pub. L. 107–306].”]

National Commission for the Review of the National Reconnaissance Office

Pub. L. 106–120, title VII, Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1620, provided that:

“SEC. 701. FINDINGS.

“Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) Imagery and signals intelligence satellites are vitally important to the security of the Nation.

“(2) The National Reconnaissance Office (in this title referred to as the ‘NRO’) and its predecessor organizations have helped protect and defend the United States for more than 30 years.

“(3) The end of the Cold War and the enormous growth in usage of information technology have changed the environment in which the intelligence community must operate. At the same time, the intelligence community has undergone significant changes in response to dynamic developments in strategy and in budgetary matters. The acquisition and maintenance of satellite systems are essential to providing timely intelligence to national policymakers and achieving information superiority for military leaders.

“(4) There is a need to evaluate the roles and mission, organizational structure, technical skills, contractor relationships, use of commercial imagery, acquisition of launch vehicles, launch services, and launch infrastructure, mission assurance, acquisition authorities, and relationship to other agencies and departments of the Federal Government of the NRO in order to assure continuing success in satellite reconnaissance in the new millennium.

“SEC. 702. NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE.

“(a) Establishment.—There is established a commission to be known as the ‘National Commission for the Review of the National Reconnaissance Office’ (in this title referred to as the ‘Commission’).

“(b) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 11 members, as follows:

“(1) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management.

“(2) Three members appointed by the Majority Leader of the Senate, in consultation with the Chairman of the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate, one from Members of the Senate and two from private life.

“(3) Two members appointed by the Minority Leader of the Senate, in consultation with the Vice Chairman of the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate, one from Members of the Senate and one from private life.

“(4) Three members appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the Chairman of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives, one from Members of the House of Representatives and two from private life.

“(5) Two members appointed by the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the ranking member of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives, one from Members of the House of Representatives and one from private life.

The Director of the National Reconnaissance Office shall be an ex officio member of the Commission.

“(c) Membership.—(1) The individuals appointed as members of the Commission shall be individuals who are nationally recognized for expertise, knowledge, or experience in—

“(A) technical intelligence collection systems and methods;

“(B) research and development programs;

“(C) acquisition management;

“(D) use of intelligence information by national policymakers and military leaders; or

“(E) the implementation, funding, or oversight of the national security policies of the United States.

“(2) An official who appoints members of the Commission may not appoint an individual as a member of the Commission if, in the judgment of the official, such individual possesses any personal or financial interest in the discharge of any of the duties of the Commission.

“(3) All members of the Commission appointed from private life shall possess an appropriate security clearance in accordance with applicable laws and regulations concerning the handling of classified information.

“(d) Co-Chairs.—(1) The Commission shall have two co-chairs, selected from among the members of the Commission.

“(2) One co-chair of the Commission shall be a member of the Democratic Party, and one co-chair shall be a member of the Republican Party.

“(3) The individuals who serve as the co-chairs of the Commission shall be jointly agreed upon by the President, the Majority Leader of the Senate, the Minority Leader of the Senate, and Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives.

“(e) Appointment; Initial Meeting.—(1) Members of the Commission shall be appointed not later than 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 3, 1999].

“(2) The Commission shall hold its initial meeting on the date that is 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(f) Meetings; Quorum; Vacancies.—(1) After its initial meeting, the Commission shall meet upon the call of the co-chairs of the Commission.

“(2) Six members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for purposes of conducting business, except that two members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for purposes of receiving testimony.

“(3) Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.

“(4) If vacancies in the Commission occur on any day after 45 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, a quorum shall consist of a majority of the members of the Commission as of such day.

“(g) Actions of Commission.—(1) The Commission shall act by resolution agreed to by a majority of the members of the Commission voting and present.

“(2) The Commission may establish panels composed of less than the full membership of the Commission for purposes of carrying out the duties of the Commission under this title. The actions of any such panel shall be subject to the review and control of the Commission. Any findings and determinations made by such a panel shall not be considered the findings and determinations of the Commission unless approved by the Commission.

“(3) Any member, agent, or staff of the Commission may, if authorized by the co-chairs of the Commission, take any action which the Commission is authorized to take pursuant to this title.

“SEC. 703. DUTIES OF COMMISSION.

“(a) In General.—The duties of the Commission shall be—

“(1) to conduct, until not later than the date on which the Commission submits the report under section 708(a), the review described in subsection (b); and

“(2) to submit to the congressional intelligence committees, the Director of Central Intelligence, and the Secretary of Defense a final report on the results of the review.

“(b) Review.—The Commission shall review the current organization, practices, and authorities of the NRO, in particular with respect to—

“(1) roles and mission;

“(2) organizational structure;

“(3) technical skills;

“(4) contractor relationships;

“(5) use of commercial imagery;

“(6) acquisition of launch vehicles, launch services, and launch infrastructure, and mission assurance;

“(7) acquisition authorities; and

“(8) relationships with other agencies and departments of the Federal Government.

“SEC. 704. POWERS OF COMMISSION.

“(a) In General.—(1) The Commission or, on the authorization of the Commission, any subcommittee or member thereof, may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this title—

“(A) hold such hearings and sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, receive such evidence, and administer such oaths; and

“(B) require, by subpoena or otherwise, the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books, records, correspondence, memoranda, papers, and documents,

as the Commission or such designated subcommittee or designated member considers necessary.

“(2) Subpoenas may be issued under paragraph (1)(B) under the signature of the co-chairs of the Commission, and may be served by any person designated by such co-chairs.

“(3) The provisions of sections 102 through 104 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (2 U.S.C. 192–194) shall apply in the case of any failure of a witness to comply with any subpoena or to testify when summoned under authority of this section.

“(b) Contracting.—The Commission may, to such extent and in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts, enter into contracts to enable the Commission to discharge its duties under this title.

“(c) Information from Federal Agencies.—The Commission may secure directly from any executive department, agency, bureau, board, commission, office, independent establishment, or instrumentality of the Government information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics for the purposes of this title. Each such department, agency, bureau, board, commission, office, establishment, or instrumentality shall, to the extent authorized by law, furnish such information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics directly to the Commission, upon request of the co-chairs of the Commission. The Commission shall handle and protect all classified information provided to it under this section in accordance with applicable statutes and regulations.

“(d) Assistance from Federal Agencies.—(1) The Director of Central Intelligence shall provide to the Commission, on a nonreimbursable basis, such administrative services, funds, staff, facilities, and other support services as are necessary for the performance of the Commission's duties under this title.

“(2) The Secretary of Defense may provide the Commission, on a nonreimbursable basis, with such administrative services, staff, and other support services as the Commission may request.

“(3) In addition to the assistance set forth in paragraphs (1) and (2), other departments and agencies of the United States may provide the Commission such services, funds, facilities, staff, and other support as such departments and agencies consider advisable and as may be authorized by law.

“(4) The Commission shall receive the full and timely cooperation of any official, department, or agency of the United States Government whose assistance is necessary for the fulfillment of the duties of the Commission under this title, including the provision of full and current briefings and analyses.

“(e) Prohibition on Withholding Information.—No department or agency of the Government may withhold information from the Commission on the grounds that providing the information to the Commission would constitute the unauthorized disclosure of classified information or information relating to intelligence sources or methods.

“(f) Postal Services.—The Commission may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as the departments and agencies of the United States.

“(g) Gifts.—The Commission may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or donations of services or property in carrying out its duties under this title.

“SEC. 705. STAFF OF COMMISSION.

“(a) In General.—(1) The co-chairs of the Commission, in accordance with rules agreed upon by the Commission, shall appoint and fix the compensation of a staff director and such other personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its duties, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III or [of] chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that no rate of pay fixed under this subsection may exceed the equivalent of that payable to a person occupying a position at level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

“(2) Any Federal Government employee may be detailed to the Commission without reimbursement from the Commission, and such detailee shall retain the rights, status, and privileges of his or her regular employment without interruption.

“(3) All staff of the Commission shall possess a security clearance in accordance with applicable laws and regulations concerning the handling of classified information.

“(b) Consultant Services.—(1) The Commission may procure the services of experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, but at rates not to exceed the daily rate paid a person occupying a position at level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of such title.

“(2) All experts and consultants employed by the Commission shall possess a security clearance in accordance with applicable laws and regulations concerning the handling of classified information.

“SEC. 706. COMPENSATION AND TRAVEL EXPENSES.

“(a) Compensation.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), each member of the Commission may be compensated at not to exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in effect for a position at level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code, for each day during which that member is engaged in the actual performance of the duties of the Commission under this title.

“(2) Members of the Commission who are officers or employees of the United States or Members of Congress shall receive no additional pay by reason of their service on the Commission.

“(b) Travel Expenses.—While away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission, members of the Commission may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in the Government service are allowed expenses under section 5703(b) of title 5, United States Code.

“SEC. 707. TREATMENT OF INFORMATION RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY.

“(a) In General.—(1) The Director of Central Intelligence shall assume responsibility for the handling and disposition of any information related to the national security of the United States that is received, considered, or used by the Commission under this title.

“(2) Any information related to the national security of the United States that is provided to the Commission by a congressional intelligence committee may not be further provided or released without the approval of the chairman of such committee.

“(b) Access after Termination of Commission.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, after the termination of the Commission under section 708, only the Members and designated staff of the congressional intelligence committees, the Director of Central Intelligence and the designees of the Director, and such other officials of the executive branch as the President may designate shall have access to information related to the national security of the United States that is received, considered, or used by the Commission.

“SEC. 708. FINAL REPORT; TERMINATION.

“(a) Final Report.—Not later than November 1, 2000, the Commission shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees, the Director of Central Intelligence, and the Secretary of Defense a final report as required by section 703(a).

“(b) Termination.—(1) The Commission, and all the authorities of this title, shall terminate at the end of the 120-day period beginning on the date on which the final report under subsection (a) is transmitted to the congressional intelligence committees.

“(2) The Commission may use the 120-day period referred to in paragraph (1) for the purposes of concluding its activities, including providing testimony to committees of Congress concerning the final report referred to in that paragraph and disseminating the report.

“SEC. 709. ASSESSMENTS OF FINAL REPORT.

“Not later than 60 days after receipt of the final report under section 708(a), the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense shall each submit to the congressional intelligence committees an assessment by the Director or the Secretary, as the case may be, of the final report. Each assessment shall include such comments on the findings and recommendations contained in the final report as the Director or Secretary, as the case may be, considers appropriate.

“SEC. 710. INAPPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS.

“(a) Federal Advisory Committee Act.—The provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the activities of the Commission under this title.

“(b) Freedom of Information Act.—The provisions of section 552 of title 5, United States Code (commonly referred to as the Freedom of Information Act), shall not apply to the activities, records, and proceedings of the Commission under this title.

“SEC. 711. FUNDING.

“(a) Transfer from NRO.—Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated by this Act [see Tables for classification] for the National Reconnaissance Office, the Director of the National Reconnaissance Office shall transfer to the Director of Central Intelligence $5,000,000 for purposes of the activities of the Commission under this title.

“(b) Availability In General.—The Director of Central Intelligence shall make available to the Commission, from the amount transferred to the Director under subsection (a), such amounts as the Commission may require for purposes of the activities of the Commission under this title.

“(c) Duration of Availability.—Amounts made available to the Commission under subsection (b) shall remain available until expended.

“SEC. 712. CONGRESSIONAL INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEES DEFINED.

“In this title, the term ‘congressional intelligence committees’ means the following:

“(1) The Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

“(2) The Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.”

Commission on Roles and Capabilities of United States Intelligence Community

Pub. L. 103–359, title IX, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3456, related to establishment, composition, duties, reports, powers, payment of expenses, and termination, not later than Mar. 1, 1996, of the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community.

National Commission on Defense and National Security

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8104, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1898, as amended by Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8078, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1189, provided that:

“SECTION 1. This section establishes the National Commission on Defense and National Security.

“SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

“The Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) Recent revolutionary world events require a fundamental reassessment of the defense and national security policies of the United States.

“(2) Emerging democracies around the world will require political, technical, and economic assistance, as well as military assistance, from the developed free nations in order to thrive and to become productive members of the world community.

“(3) Real and potential military threats to the United States and its allies will continue to exist for the foreseeable future from not just the Soviet Union but also from terrorism and from Third World nations.

“(4) Proliferation of both sophisticated conventional weapons and of nuclear weapons could produce a world more dangerous than we have faced in the past.

“(5) Ethnic rivalries as well as economic inequalities may produce instabilities that could spark serious conflict.

“(6) In order to formulate coherent national policies to meet these challenges of a new world environment, it is essential for the United States to achieve a bipartisan consensus such as that which emerged following World War II.

“(7) Such a consensus can be fostered by the development of policy recommendations from a highly respected group of individuals who do not bear a partisan label and who possess critical expertise and experience.

“SEC. 3. ESTABLISHMENT.

“There is established a commission to be known as [the] National Commission on Defense and National Security (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the ‘Commission’). The Commission is established until 30 days following submission of the final report required by section 6 of this section.

“SEC. 4. DUTIES OF COMMISSION.

“(a) In General.—The Commission shall analyze and make recommendations to the President and Congress concerning the national security and national defense policies of the United States.

“(b) Matters To Be Analyzed.—Matters to be analyzed by the Commission shall include the following:

“(1) The world-wide interests, goals, and objectives of the United States that are vital to the national security of the United States.

“(2) The political, economic, and military developments around the world and the implications of those developments for United States national security interests, including—

“(A) the developments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union;

“(B) the question of German unification;

“(C) the future of NATO and European economic integration;

“(D) the future of the Pacific Basin; and

“(E) potential instability resulting from regional conflicts or economic problems in the developing world.

“(3) The foreign policy, world-wide commitments, and national defense capabilities of the United States necessary to deter aggression and implement the national security strategy of the United States, including the contribution that can be made by bilateral and multilateral political and economic associations in promoting interests that the United States shares with other members of the world community.

“(4) The proposed short-term uses of the political, economic, military, and other elements of national power for the United States to protect or promote the interests and to achieve the goals and objectives referred to in paragraph (1).

“(5) Long-term options that should be considered further for a number of potential courses of world events over the remainder of the century and into the next century.

“SEC. 5. MEMBERSHIP.

“(a) Number and Appointment.—The Commission shall be composed of 10 members, as follows:

“(1) Three appointed by the President.

“(2) Three appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

“(3) One appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives.

“(4) Two appointed by the majority leader of the Senate.

“(5) One appointed by the minority leader of the Senate.

“(b) Qualifications.—Persons appointed to the Commission shall be persons who are not officers or employees of the Federal Government (including Members of Congress) and who are specially qualified to serve on the Commission by virtue of their education, training, or experience.

“(c) Terms.—Members shall be appointed for the life of the Commission. A vacancy in the Commission shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.

“(d) Basic Pay.—Members of the Commission shall serve without pay.

“(e) Quorum.—A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number may hold hearings.

“(f) Chairman and Vice Chairman.—The Chairman of the Commission shall be designated by the President from among the members appointed by the President. The Vice Chairman of the Commission shall be designated by the Speaker of the House of Representatives from among the members appointed by the Speaker.

“(g) Meetings.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairman or a majority of its members.

“(h) Deadline for Appointments.—Members of the Commission shall be appointed not later than the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990].

“SEC. 6. REPORTS.

“(a) Initial Report.—The Commission shall transmit to the President and to Congress an initial report not later than six months after the date on which the Commission is first constituted with a quorum.

“(b) Final Report.—The Commission shall transmit to the President and to Congress a final report one year following submission of the initial report under subsection (a).

“(c) Contents of Reports.—The report under subsection (b) shall contain a detailed statement of the findings and conclusions of the Commission concerning the matters to be studied by the Commission under section 4, together with its recommendations for such legislation and administrative actions as it considers appropriate. Such report shall include a comprehensive description and discussion of the matters set forth in section 4.

“(d) Reports To Be Unclassified.—Each such report shall be submitted in unclassified form.

“(e) Additional and Minority Views.—Each report may include such additional and minority views as individual members of the Commission may request be included.

“SEC. 7. DIRECTOR AND STAFF OF COMMISSION; EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS.

“(a) Director.—The Commission shall, without regard to section 5311(b) of title 5, United States Code, have a Director who shall be appointed by the Chairman and who shall be paid at a rate not to exceed the maximum rate of basic pay payable for GS–18 of the General Schedule.

“(b) Staff.—The Chairman may appoint and fix the pay of such additional personnel as the Chairman considers appropriate.

“(c) Applicability of Certain Civil Service Laws.—The Director and staff of the Commission may be appointed without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and may be paid without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that no individual so appointed may receive pay in excess of the annual rate of basic pay payable for GS–18 of the General Schedule.

“(d) Experts and Consultants.—Subject to such rules as may be prescribed by the Commission, the Chairman may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5 of the United States Code, but at rates for individuals not to exceed the daily equivalent of the maximum annual rate of basic pay payable for GS–18 of the General Schedule.

“(e) Staff of Federal Agencies.—Upon request of the Commission, the head of any Federal agency may detail, on a reimbursable basis, any of the personnel of such agency to the Commission to assist the Commission in carrying out its duties under this Act.

“SEC. 8. POWERS OF COMMISSION

“(a) Hearings and Sessions.—The Commission may, for the purpose of carrying out this Act, hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence, as the Commission considers appropriate.

“(b) Powers of Members and Agents.—Any member or agent of the Commission may, if so authorized by the Commission, take any action which the Commission is authorized to take by this section.

“(c) Obtaining Official Data.—The Chairman or a designee on behalf of the Chairman may request information necessary to enable the Commission to carry out this Act directly from any department or agency of the United States.

“(d) Gifts.—The Commission may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or donations of services or property.

“(e) Mails.—The Commission may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the United States.

“(f) Administrative Support Services.—The Administrator of General Services shall provide to the Commission on a reimbursable basis such administrative support services as the Commission may request.

“SEC. 9. INITIAL FUNDING OF COMMISSION.

“If funds are not otherwise available for the necessary expenses of the Commission for fiscal year 1991, the Secretary of Defense shall make available to the Commission, from funds available to the Secretary for the fiscal year concerned, such funds as the Commission requires. When funds are specifically appropriated for the expenses of the Commission, the Commission shall reimburse the Secretary from such funds for any funds provided to it under the preceding sentence.”

[References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.]

Intelligence Priorities and Reorganization

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IX, §907, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1622, provided that:

“(a) Revision of Priorities and Consolidation of Functions.—The Secretary of Defense, together with the Director of Central Intelligence, shall conduct a joint review of all intelligence and intelligence-related activities in the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) programs and the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP). The Secretary, together with the Director, shall take the following actions with respect to those activities:

“(1) In cases in which redundancy or fragmentation exist, consolidate functions, programs, organizations, and operations to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the conduct of those intelligence activities or programs.

“(2) Revise intelligence collection and analysis priorities and resource allocations to reflect changes in the international security environment.

“(3) Strengthen joint intelligence functions, operations, and organizations.

“(4) Improve the quality and independence of intelligence support to the weapons acquisition process.

“(5) Improve the responsiveness and utility of national intelligence systems and organizations to the needs of the combatant commanders.

“(b) Personnel Reductions.—(1) The number of personnel assigned or detailed to the National Foreign Intelligence Program and related Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities programs shall be reduced by not less than 5 percent of the number of such personnel described in paragraph (2) during each of fiscal years 1992 through 1996.

“(2) The number of personnel referred to in paragraph (1) is the number of personnel assigned or detailed to such programs on September 30, 1990.”

Foreign Intelligence Electronic Surveillance

For provisions relating to the exercise of certain authority respecting foreign intelligence electronic surveillance, see Ex. Ord. No. 12139, May 23, 1979, 44 F.R. 30311, set out under section 1802 of this title.

Change of Titles of Secretary of Defense, et al.; Reappointment

Section 12(f) of act Aug. 10, 1949, provided in part that: “The titles of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force, the Under Secretaries and the Assistant Secretaries of the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the Chairman of the Munitions Board, and the Chairman of the Research and Development Board, shall not be changed by virtue of this Act [see Short Title of 1949 Amendment note set out above] and the reappointment of the officials holding such titles on the effective date of this Act [Aug. 10, 1949] shall not be required.”

Reorganization Plan No. 8 of 1949

Section 12(i) of act Aug. 10, 1949, provided that: “Reorganization Plan Numbered 8 of 1949, which was transmitted to the Congress by the President on July 18, 1949 [set out in Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees] pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, shall not take effect, notwithstanding the provisions of section 6 of such Reorganization Act of 1949.”

Ex. Ord. No. 10431. National Security Medal

Ex. Ord. No. 10431, Jan. 19, 1953, 18 F.R. 437, provided:

1. There is hereby established a medal to be known as the National Security Medal with accompanying ribbons and appurtenances. The medal and its appurtenances shall be of appropriate design, approved by the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council.

2. The National Security Medal may be awarded to any person, without regard to nationality, including members of the armed forces of the United States, for distinguished achievement or outstanding contribution on or after July 26, 1947, in the field of intelligence relating to the national security.

3. The decoration established by this order shall be awarded by the President of the United States or, under regulations approved by him, by such person or persons as he may designate.

4. No more than one National Security Medal shall be awarded to any one person, but for subsequent services justifying an award, a suitable device may be awarded to be worn with the Medal.

5. Members of the armed forces of the United States who are awarded the decoration established by this order are authorized to wear the medal and the ribbon symbolic of the award, as may be authorized by uniform regulations approved by the Secretary of Defense.

6. The decoration established by this order may be awarded posthumously.

Regulations Governing the Award of the National Security Medal

Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Executive Order 10431, the following regulations are hereby issued to govern the award of the National Security Medal:

1. The National Security Medal may be awarded to any person without regard to nationality, including a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, who, on or after 26 July 1947, has made an outstanding contribution to the National intelligence effort. This contribution may consist of either exceptionally meritorious service performed in a position of high responsibility or of an act of valor requiring personal courage of a high degree and complete disregard of personal safety.

2. The National Security Medal with accompanying ribbon and appurtenances, shall be of appropriate design to be approved by the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council.

3. The National Security Medal shall be awarded only by the President or his designee for that purpose.

4. Recommendations may be submitted to the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council by any individual having personal knowledge of the facts of the exceptionally meritorious conduct or act of valor of the candidate in the performance of outstanding services, either as an eyewitness or from the testimony of others who have personal knowledge or were eyewitnesses. Any recommendations shall be accompanied by complete documentation, including where necessary, certificates, affidavits or sworn transcripts of testimony. Each recommendation for an award shall show the exact status, at the time of the rendition of the service on which the recommendation is based, with respect to citizenship, employment, and all other material factors, of the person who is being recommended for the National Security Medal.

5. Each recommendation shall contain a draft of an appropriate citation to accompany the award of the National Security Medal.

Executive Order No. 11905

Ex. Ord. No. 11905, Feb. 18, 1976, 41 F.R. 7703, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11985, May 13, 1977, 42 F.R. 25487; Ex. Ord. No. 11994, June 1, 1977, 42 F.R. 28869, which related to United States foreign intelligence activities, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 12036, Jan. 24, 1978, 43 F.R. 3674, formerly set out below.

Executive Order No. 12036

Ex. Ord. No. 12036, Jan. 24, 1978, 43 F.R. 3674, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12139, May 23, 1979, 44 F.R. 30311, which related to United States foreign intelligence activities, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12333, Dec. 4, 1981, 46 F.R. 59941, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12333. United States Intelligence Activities

Ex. Ord. No. 12333, Dec. 4, 1981, 46 F.R. 59941, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13284, §18, Jan. 23, 2003, 68 F.R. 4077, provided:

TABLE OF CONTENTS
  
Preamble  
Part 1. Goals, Direction, Duties, and Responsibilities With Respect to the National Intelligence Effort
Sec.       
1.1 Goals
1.2 The National Security Council
1.3 National Foreign Intelligence Advisory Groups
1.4 The Intelligence Community
1.5 Director of Central Intelligence
1.6 Duties and Responsibilities of the Heads of Executive Branch Departments and Agencies
1.7 Senior Officials of the Intelligence Community
1.8 The Central Intelligence Agency
1.9 The Department of State
1.10 The Department of the Treasury
1.11 The Department of Defense
1.12 Intelligence Components Utilized by the Secretary of Defense
1.13 The Department of Energy
1.14 The Federal Bureau of Investigation
Part 2. Conduct of Intelligence Activities
2.1 Need
2.2 Purpose
2.3 Collection of Information
2.4 Collection Techniques
2.5 Attorney General Approval
2.6 Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities
2.7 Contracting
2.8 Consistency With Other Laws
2.9 Undisclosed Participation in Organizations Within the United States
2.10 Human Experimentation
2.11 Prohibition on Assassination
2.12 Indirect Participation
Part 3. General Provisions
3.1 Congressional Oversight
3.2 Implementation
3.3 Procedures
3.4 Definitions
3.5 Purpose and Effect
3.6 Revocation

Timely and accurate information about the activities, capabilities, plans, and intentions of foreign powers, organizations, and persons, and their agents, is essential to the national security of the United States. All reasonable and lawful means must be used to ensure that the United States will receive the best intelligence available. For that purpose, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including the National Security Act of 1947, as amended [see Short Title note above], and as President of the United States of America, in order to provide for the effective conduct of United States intelligence activities and the protection of constitutional rights, it is hereby ordered as follows:

PART 1—GOALS, DIRECTION, DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES WITH RESPECT TO THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE EFFORT

1.1 Goals

The United States intelligence effort shall provide the President and the National Security Council with the necessary information on which to base decisions concerning the conduct and development of foreign, defense and economic policy, and the protection of United States national interests from foreign security threats. All departments and agencies shall cooperate fully to fulfill this goal.

(a) Maximum emphasis should be given to fostering analytical competition among appropriate elements of the Intelligence Community.

(b) All means, consistent with applicable United States law and this Order, and with full consideration of the rights of United States persons, shall be used to develop intelligence information for the President and the National Security Council. A balanced approach between technical collection efforts and other means should be maintained and encouraged.

(c) Special emphasis should be given to detecting and countering espionage and other threats and activities directed by foreign intelligence services against the United States Government, or United States corporations, establishments, or persons.

(d) To the greatest extent possible consistent with applicable United States law and this Order, and with full consideration of the rights of United States persons, all agencies and departments should seek to ensure full and free exchange of information in order to derive maximum benefit from the United States intelligence effort.

1.2 The National Security Council

(a) Purpose. The National Security Council (NSC) was established by the National Security Act of 1947 [see Short Title note above] to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign and military policies relating to the national security. The NSC shall act as the highest Executive Branch entity that provides review of, guidance for and direction to the conduct of all national foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, and special activities, and attendant policies and programs.

(b) Committees. The NSC shall establish such committees as may be necessary to carry out its functions and responsibilities under this Order. The NSC, or a committee established by it, shall consider and submit to the President a policy recommendation, including all dissents, on each special activity and shall review proposals for other sensitive intelligence operations.

1.3 National Foreign Intelligence Advisory Groups

(a) Establishment and Duties. The Director of Central Intelligence shall establish such boards, councils, or groups as required for the purpose of obtaining advice from within the Intelligence Community concerning:

(1) Production, review and coordination of national foreign intelligence;

(2) Priorities for the National Foreign Intelligence Program budget;

(3) Interagency exchanges of foreign intelligence information;

(4) Arrangements with foreign governments on intelligence matters;

(5) Protection of intelligence sources and methods;

(6) Activities of common concern; and

(7) Such other matters as may be referred by the Director of Central Intelligence.

(b) Membership. Advisory groups established pursuant to this section shall be chaired by the Director of Central Intelligence or his designated representative and shall consist of senior representatives from organizations within the Intelligence Community and from departments or agencies containing such organizations, as designated by the Director of Central Intelligence. Groups for consideration of substantive intelligence matters will include representatives of organizations involved in the collection, processing and analysis of intelligence. A senior representative of the Secretary of Commerce, the Attorney General, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense shall be invited to participate in any group which deals with other than substantive intelligence matters.

1.4 The Intelligence Community

The agencies within the Intelligence Community shall, in accordance with applicable United States law and with the other provisions of this Order, conduct intelligence activities necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and the protection of the national security of the United States, including:

(a) Collection of information needed by the President, the National Security Council, the Secretaries of State and Defense, and other Executive Branch officials for the performance of their duties and responsibilities;

(b) Production and dissemination of intelligence;

(c) Collection of information concerning, and the conduct of activities to protect against, intelligence activities directed against the United States, international terrorist and international narcotics activities, and other hostile activities directed against the United States by foreign powers, organizations, persons, and their agents;

(d) Special activities;

(e) Administrative and support activities within the United States and abroad necessary for the performance of authorized activities; and

(f) Such other intelligence activities as the President may direct from time to time.

1.5 Director of Central Intelligence

In order to discharge the duties and responsibilities prescribed by law, the Director of Central Intelligence shall be responsible directly to the President and the NSC and shall:

(a) Act as the primary adviser to the President and the NSC on national foreign intelligence and provide the President and other officials in the Executive Branch with national foreign intelligence;

(b) Develop such objectives and guidance for the Intelligence Community as will enhance capabilities for responding to expected future needs for national foreign intelligence;

(c) Promote the development and maintenance of services of common concern by designated intelligence organizations on behalf of the Intelligence Community;

(d) Ensure implementation of special activities;

(e) Formulate policies concerning foreign intelligence and counterintelligence arrangements with foreign governments, coordinate foreign intelligence and counterintelligence relationships between agencies of the Intelligence Community and the intelligence or internal security services of foreign governments, and establish procedures governing the conduct of liaison by any department or agency with such services on narcotics activities;

(f) Participate in the development of procedures approved by the Attorney General governing criminal narcotics intelligence activities abroad to ensure that these activities are consistent with foreign intelligence programs;

(g) Ensure the establishment by the Intelligence Community of common security and access standards for managing and handling foreign intelligence systems, information, and products;

(h) Ensure that programs are developed which protect intelligence sources, methods, and analytical procedures;

(i) Establish uniform criteria for the determination of relative priorities for the transmission of critical national foreign intelligence, and advise the Secretary of Defense concerning the communications requirements of the Intelligence Community for the transmission of such intelligence;

(j) Establish appropriate staffs, committees, or other advisory groups to assist in the execution of the Director's responsibilities;

(k) Have full responsibility for production and dissemination of national foreign intelligence, and authority to levy analytic tasks on departmental intelligence production organizations, in consultation with those organizations, ensuring that appropriate mechanisms for competitive analysis are developed so that diverse points of view are considered fully and differences of judgment within the Intelligence Community are brought to the attention of national policymakers;

(l) Ensure the timely exploitation and dissemination of data gathered by national foreign intelligence collection means, and ensure that the resulting intelligence is disseminated immediately to appropriate government entities and military commands;

(m) Establish mechanisms which translate national foreign intelligence objectives and priorities approved by the NSC into specific guidance for the Intelligence Community, resolve conflicts in tasking priority, provide to departments and agencies having information collection capabilities that are not part of the National Foreign Intelligence Program advisory tasking concerning collection of national foreign intelligence, and provide for the development of plans and arrangements for transfer of required collection tasking authority to the Secretary of Defense when directed by the President;

(n) Develop, with the advice of the program managers and departments and agencies concerned, the consolidated National Foreign Intelligence Program budget, and present it to the President and the Congress;

(o) Review and approve all requests for reprogramming National Foreign Intelligence Program funds, in accordance with guidelines established by the Office of Management and Budget;

(p) Monitor National Foreign Intelligence Program implementation, and, as necessary, conduct program and performance audits and evaluations;

(q) Together with the Secretary of Defense, ensure that there is no unnecessary overlap between national foreign intelligence programs and Department of Defense intelligence programs consistent with the requirement to develop competitive analysis, and provide to and obtain from the Secretary of Defense all information necessary for this purpose;

(r) In accordance with law and relevant procedures approved by the Attorney General under this Order, give the heads of the departments and agencies access to all intelligence, developed by the CIA or the staff elements of the Director of Central Intelligence, relevant to the national intelligence needs of the departments and agencies; and

(s) Facilitate the use of national foreign intelligence products by Congress in a secure manner.

1.6 Duties and Responsibilities of the Heads of Executive Branch Departments and Agencies

(a) The heads of all Executive Branch departments and agencies shall, in accordance with law and relevant procedures approved by the Attorney General under this Order, give the Director of Central Intelligence access to all information relevant to the national intelligence needs of the United States, and shall give due consideration to the requests from the Director of Central Intelligence for appropriate support for Intelligence Community activities.

(b) The heads of departments and agencies involved in the National Foreign Intelligence Program shall ensure timely development and submission to the Director of Central Intelligence by the program managers and heads of component activities of proposed national programs and budgets in the format designated by the Director of Central Intelligence, and shall also ensure that the Director of Central Intelligence is provided, in a timely and responsive manner, all information necessary to perform the Director's program and budget responsibilities.

(c) The heads of departments and agencies involved in the National Foreign Intelligence Program may appeal to the President decisions by the Director of Central Intelligence on budget or reprogramming matters of the National Foreign Intelligence Program.

1.7 Senior Officials of the Intelligence Community

The heads of departments and agencies with organizations in the Intelligence Community or the heads of such organizations, as appropriate, shall:

(a) Report to the Attorney General possible violations of federal criminal laws by employees and of specified federal criminal laws by any other person as provided in procedures agreed upon by the Attorney General and the head of the department or agency concerned, in a manner consistent with the protection of intelligence sources and methods, as specified in those procedures;

(b) In any case involving serious or continuing breaches of security, recommend to the Attorney General that the case be referred to the FBI for further investigation;

(c) Furnish the Director of Central Intelligence and the NSC, in accordance with applicable law and procedures approved by the Attorney General under this Order, the information required for the performance of their respective duties;

(d) Report to the Intelligence Oversight Board, and keep the Director of Central Intelligence appropriately informed, concerning any intelligence activities of their organizations that they have reason to believe may be unlawful or contrary to Executive order or Presidential directive;

(e) Protect intelligence and intelligence sources and methods from unauthorized disclosure consistent with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;

(f) Disseminate intelligence to cooperating foreign governments under arrangements established or agreed to by the Director of Central Intelligence;

(g) Participate in the development of procedures approved by the Attorney General governing production and dissemination of intelligence resulting from criminal narcotics intelligence activities abroad if their departments, agencies, or organizations have intelligence responsibilities for foreign or domestic narcotics production and trafficking;

(h) Instruct their employees to cooperate fully with the Intelligence Oversight Board; and

(i) Ensure that the Inspectors General and General Counsels for their organizations have access to any information necessary to perform their duties assigned by this Order.

1.8 The Central Intelligence Agency

All duties and responsibilities of the CIA shall be related to the intelligence functions set out below. As authorized by this Order; the National Security Act of 1947, as amended [see Short Title note above]; the CIA Act of 1949, as amended [probably means the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, see Short Title note set out under 50 U.S.C. 403a]; appropriate directives or other applicable law, the CIA shall:

(a) Collect, produce and disseminate foreign intelligence and counterintelligence, including information not otherwise obtainable. The collection of foreign intelligence or counterintelligence within the United States shall be coordinated with the FBI as required by procedures agreed upon by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General;

(b) Collect, produce and disseminate intelligence on foreign aspects of narcotics production and trafficking;

(c) Conduct counterintelligence activities outside the United States and, without assuming or performing any internal security functions, conduct counterintelligence activities within the United States in coordination with the FBI as required by procedures agreed upon [by] the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General;

(d) Coordinate counterintelligence activities and the collection of information not otherwise obtainable when conducted outside the United States by other departments and agencies;

(e) Conduct special activities approved by the President. No agency except the CIA (or the Armed Forces of the United States in time of war declared by Congress or during any period covered by a report from the President to the Congress under the War Powers Resolution (87 Stat. 855) [50 U.S.C. 1541 et seq.]) may conduct any special activity unless the President determines that another agency is more likely to achieve a particular objective;

(f) Conduct services of common concern for the Intelligence Community as directed by the NSC;

(g) Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of technical systems and devices relating to authorized functions;

(h) Protect the security of its installations, activities, information, property, and employees by appropriate means, including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors, and other persons with similar associations with the CIA as are necessary; and

(i) Conduct such administrative and technical support activities within and outside the United States as are necessary to perform the functions described in sections (a) and [sic] through (h) above, including procurement and essential cover and proprietary arrangements.

1.9 The Department of State

The Secretary of State shall:

(a) Overtly collect information relevant to United States foreign policy concerns;

(b) Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence relating to United States foreign policy as required for the execution of the Secretary's responsibilities;

(c) Disseminate, as appropriate, reports received from United States diplomatic and consular posts;

(d) Transmit reporting requirements of the Intelligence Community to the Chiefs of United States Missions abroad; and

(e) Support Chiefs of Missions in discharging their statutory responsibilities for direction and coordination of mission activities.

1.10 The Department of the Treasury

The Secretary of the Treasury shall:

(a) Overtly collect foreign financial and monetary information;

(b) Participate with the Department of State in the overt collection of general foreign economic information;

(c) Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence relating to United States economic policy as required for the execution of the Secretary's responsibilities; and

(d) Conduct, through the United States Secret Service, activities to determine the existence and capability of surveillance equipment being used against the President of the United States, the Executive Office of the President, and, as authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury or the President, other Secret Service protectees and United States officials. No information shall be acquired intentionally through such activities except to protect against such surveillance, and those activities shall be conducted pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.

1.11 The Department of Defense

The Secretary of Defense shall:

(a) Collect national foreign intelligence and be responsive to collection tasking by the Director of Central Intelligence;

(b) Collect, produce and disseminate military and military-related foreign intelligence and counterintelligence as required for execution of the Secretary's responsibilities;

(c) Conduct programs and missions necessary to fulfill national, departmental and tactical foreign intelligence requirements;

(d) Conduct counterintelligence activities in support of Department of Defense components outside the United States in coordination with the CIA, and within the United States in coordination with the FBI pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General;

(e) Conduct, as the executive agent of the United States Government, signals intelligence and communications security activities, except as otherwise directed by the NSC;

(f) Provide for the timely transmission of critical intelligence, as defined by the Director of Central Intelligence, within the United States Government;

(g) Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of technical systems and devices relating to authorized intelligence functions;

(h) Protect the security of Department of Defense installations, activities, property, information, and employees by appropriate means, including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors, and other persons with similar associations with the Department of Defense as are necessary;

(i) Establish and maintain military intelligence relationships and military intelligence exchange programs with selected cooperative foreign defense establishments and international organizations, and ensure that such relationships and programs are in accordance with policies formulated by the Director of Central Intelligence;

(j) Direct, operate, control and provide fiscal management for the National Security Agency and for defense and military intelligence and national reconnaissance entities; and

(k) Conduct such administrative and technical support activities within and outside the United States as are necessary to perform the functions described in sections (a) through (j) above.

1.12 Intelligence Components Utilized by the Secretary of Defense

In carrying out the responsibilities assigned in section 1.11, the Secretary of Defense is authorized to utilize the following:

(a) Defense Intelligence Agency, whose responsibilities shall include:

(1) Collection, production, or, through tasking and coordination, provision of military and military-related intelligence for the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, other Defense components, and, as appropriate, non-Defense agencies;

(2) Collection and provision of military intelligence for national foreign intelligence and counterintelligence products;

(3) Coordination of all Department of Defense intelligence collection requirements;

(4) Management of the Defense Attache system; and

(5) Provision of foreign intelligence and counterintelligence staff support as directed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(b) National Security Agency, whose responsibilities shall include:

(1) Establishment and operation of an effective unified organization for signals intelligence activities, except for the delegation of operational control over certain operations that are conducted through other elements of the Intelligence Community. No other department or agency may engage in signals intelligence activities except pursuant to a delegation by the Secretary of Defense;

(2) Control of signals intelligence collection and processing activities, including assignment of resources to an appropriate agent for such periods and tasks as required for the direct support of military commanders;

(3) Collection of signals intelligence information for national foreign intelligence purposes in accordance with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;

(4) Processing of signals intelligence data for national foreign intelligence purposes in accordance with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;

(5) Dissemination of signals intelligence information for national foreign intelligence purposes to authorized elements of the Government, including the military services, in accordance with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;

(6) Collection, processing and dissemination of signals intelligence information for counterintelligence purposes;

(7) Provision of signals intelligence support for the conduct of military operations in accordance with tasking, priorities, and standards of timeliness assigned by the Secretary of Defense. If provision of such support requires use of national collection systems, these systems will be tasked within existing guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence;

(8) Executing the responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense as executive agent for the communications security of the United States Government;

(9) Conduct of research and development to meet the needs of the United States for signals intelligence and communications security;

(10) Protection of the security of its installations, activities, property, information, and employees by appropriate means, including such investigations of applicants, employees, contractors, and other persons with similar associations with the NSA as are necessary;

(11) Prescribing, within its field of authorized operations, security regulations covering operating practices, including the transmission, handling and distribution of signals intelligence and communications security material within and among the elements under control of the Director of the NSA, and exercising the necessary supervisory control to ensure compliance with the regulations;

(12) Conduct of foreign cryptologic liaison relationships, with liaison for intelligence purposes conducted in accordance with policies formulated by the Director of Central Intelligence; and

(13) Conduct of such administrative and technical support activities within and outside the United States as are necessary to perform the functions described in sections (1) through (12) above, including procurement.

(c) Offices for the collection of specialized intelligence through reconnaissance programs, whose responsibilities shall include:

(1) Carrying out consolidated reconnaissance programs for specialized intelligence;

(2) Responding to tasking in accordance with procedures established by the Director of Central Intelligence; and

(3) Delegating authority to the various departments and agencies for research, development, procurement, and operation of designated means of collection.

(d) The foreign intelligence and counterintelligence elements of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, whose responsibilities shall include:

(1) Collection, production and dissemination of military and military-related foreign intelligence and counterintelligence, and information on the foreign aspects of narcotics production and trafficking. When collection is conducted in response to national foreign intelligence requirements, it will be conducted in accordance with guidance from the Director of Central Intelligence. Collection of national foreign intelligence, not otherwise obtainable, outside the United States shall be coordinated with the CIA, and such collection within the United States shall be coordinated with the FBI;

(2) Conduct of counterintelligence activities outside the United States in coordination with the CIA, and within the United States in coordination with the FBI; and

(3) Monitoring of the development, procurement and management of tactical intelligence systems and equipment and conducting related research, development, and test and evaluation activities.

(e) Other offices within the Department of Defense appropriate for conduct of the intelligence missions and responsibilities assigned to the Secretary of Defense. If such other offices are used for intelligence purposes, the provisions of Part 2 of this Order shall apply to those offices when used for those purposes.

1.13 The Department of Energy

The Secretary of Energy shall:

(a) Participate with the Department of State in overtly collecting information with respect to foreign energy matters;

(b) Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence necessary for the Secretary's responsibilities;

(c) Participate in formulating intelligence collection and analysis requirements where the special expert capability of the Department can contribute; and

(d) Provide expert technical, analytical and research capability to other agencies within the Intelligence Community.

1.14 The Federal Bureau of Investigation

Under the supervision of the Attorney General and pursuant to such regulations as the Attorney General may establish, the Director of the FBI shall:

(a) Within the United States conduct counterintelligence and coordinate counterintelligence activities of other agencies within the Intelligence Community. When a counterintelligence activity of the FBI involves military or civilian personnel of the Department of Defense, the FBI shall coordinate with the Department of Defense;

(b) Conduct counterintelligence activities outside the United States in coordination with the CIA as required by procedures agreed upon by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General;

(c) Conduct within the United States, when requested by officials of the Intelligence Community designated by the President, activities undertaken to collect foreign intelligence or support foreign intelligence collection requirements of other agencies within the Intelligence Community, or, when requested by the Director of the National Security Agency, to support the communications security activities of the United States Government;

(d) Produce and disseminate foreign intelligence and counterintelligence; and

(e) Carry out or contract for research, development and procurement of technical systems and devices relating to the functions authorized above.

PART 2—CONDUCT OF INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES

2.1 Need

Accurate and timely information about the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations, or persons and their agents is essential to informed decisionmaking in the areas of national defense and foreign relations. Collection of such information is a priority objective and will be pursued in a vigorous, innovative and responsible manner that is consistent with the Constitution and applicable law and respectful of the principles upon which the United States was founded.

2.2 Purpose

This Order is intended to enhance human and technical collection techniques, especially those undertaken abroad, and the acquisition of significant foreign intelligence, as well as the detection and countering of international terrorist activities and espionage conducted by foreign powers. Set forth below are certain general principles that, in addition to and consistent with applicable laws, are intended to achieve the proper balance between the acquisition of essential information and protection of individual interests. Nothing in this Order shall be construed to apply to or interfere with any authorized civil or criminal law enforcement responsibility of any department or agency.

2.3 Collection of Information

Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to collect, retain or disseminate information concerning United States persons only in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General, consistent with the authorities provided by Part 1 of this Order. Those procedures shall permit collection, retention and dissemination of the following types of information:

(a) Information that is publicly available or collected with the consent of the person concerned;

(b) Information constituting foreign intelligence or counterintelligence, including such information concerning corporations or other commercial organizations. Collection within the United States of foreign intelligence not otherwise obtainable shall be undertaken by the FBI or, when significant foreign intelligence is sought, by other authorized agencies of the Intelligence Community, provided that no foreign intelligence collection by such agencies may be undertaken for the purpose of acquiring information concerning the domestic activities of United States persons;

(c) Information obtained in the course of a lawful foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, international narcotics or international terrorism investigation;

(d) Information needed to protect the safety of any persons or organizations, including those who are targets, victims or hostages of international terrorist organizations;

(e) Information needed to protect foreign intelligence or counterintelligence sources or methods from unauthorized disclosure. Collection within the United States shall be undertaken by the FBI except that other agencies of the Intelligence Community may also collect such information concerning present or former employees, present or former intelligence agency contractors or their present or former employees, or applicants for any such employment or contracting;

(f) Information concerning persons who are reasonably believed to be potential sources or contacts for the purpose of determining their suitability or credibility;

(g) Information arising out of a lawful personnel, physical or communications security investigation;

(h) Information acquired by overhead reconnaissance not directed at specific United States persons;

(i) Incidentally obtained information that may indicate involvement in activities that may violate federal, state, local or foreign laws; and

(j) Information necessary for administrative purposes.

In addition, agencies within the Intelligence Community may disseminate information, other than information derived from signals intelligence, to each appropriate agency within the Intelligence Community for purposes of allowing the recipient agency to determine whether the information is relevant to its responsibilities and can be retained by it.

2.4 Collection Techniques

Agencies within the Intelligence Community shall use the least intrusive collection techniques feasible within the United States or directed against United States persons abroad. Agencies are not authorized to use such techniques as electronic surveillance, unconsented physical search, mail surveillance, physical surveillance, or monitoring devices unless they are in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Such procedures shall protect constitutional and other legal rights and limit use of such information to lawful governmental purposes. These procedures shall not authorize:

(a) The CIA to engage in electronic surveillance within the United States except for the purpose of training, testing, or conducting countermeasures to hostile electronic surveillance;

(b) Unconsented physical searches in the United States by agencies other than the FBI, except for:

(1) Searches by counterintelligence elements of the military services directed against military personnel within the United States or abroad for intelligence purposes, when authorized by a military commander empowered to approve physical searches for law enforcement purposes, based upon a finding of probable cause to believe that such persons are acting as agents of foreign powers; and

(2) Searches by CIA of personal property of non-United States persons lawfully in its possession.

(c) Physical surveillance of a United States person in the United States by agencies other than the FBI, except for:

(1) Physical surveillance of present or former employees, present or former intelligence agency contractors or their present or former employees, or applicants for any such employment or contracting; and

(2) Physical surveillance of a military person employed by a nonintelligence element of a military service.

(d) Physical surveillance of a United States person abroad to collect foreign intelligence, except to obtain significant information that cannot reasonably be acquired by other means.

2.5 Attorney General Approval

The Attorney General hereby is delegated the power to approve the use for intelligence purposes, within the United States or against a United States person abroad, of any technique for which a warrant would be required if undertaken for law enforcement purposes, provided that such techniques shall not be undertaken unless the Attorney General has determined in each case that there is probable cause to believe that the technique is directed against a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power. Electronic surveillance, as defined in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 [50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.], shall be conducted in accordance with that Act, as well as this Order.

2.6 Assistance to Law Enforcement Authorities

Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to:

(a) Cooperate with appropriate law enforcement agencies for the purpose of protecting the employees, information, property and facilities of any agency within the Intelligence Community;

(b) Unless otherwise precluded by law or this Order, participate in law enforcement activities to investigate or prevent clandestine intelligence activities by foreign powers, or international terrorist or narcotics activities;

(c) Provide specialized equipment, technical knowledge, or assistance of expert personnel for use by any department or agency, or, when lives are endangered, to support local law enforcement agencies. Provision of assistance by expert personnel shall be approved in each case by the General Counsel of the providing agency; and

(d) Render any other assistance and cooperation to law enforcement authorities not precluded by applicable law.

2.7 Contracting

Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to enter into contracts or arrangements for the provision of goods or services with private companies or institutions in the United States and need not reveal the sponsorship of such contracts or arrangements for authorized intelligence purposes. Contracts or arrangements with academic institutions may be undertaken only with the consent of appropriate officials of the institution.

2.8 Consistency With Other Laws

Nothing in this Order shall be construed to authorize any activity in violation of the Constitution or statutes of the United States.

2.9 Undisclosed Participation in Organizations Within the United States

No one acting on behalf of agencies within the Intelligence Community may join or otherwise participate in any organization in the United States on behalf of any agency within the Intelligence Community without disclosing his intelligence affiliation to appropriate officials of the organization, except in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Such participation shall be authorized only if it is essential to achieving lawful purposes as determined by the agency head or designee. No such participation may be undertaken for the purpose of influencing the activity of the organization or its members except in cases where:

(a) The participation is undertaken on behalf of the FBI in the course of a lawful investigation; or

(b) The organization concerned is composed primarily of individuals who are not United States persons and is reasonably believed to be acting on behalf of a foreign power.

2.10 Human Experimentation

No agency within the Intelligence Community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The subject's informed consent shall be documented as required by those guidelines.

2.11 Prohibition on Assassination

No person employed by or acting on behalf of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, assassination.

2.12 Indirect Participation

No agency of the Intelligence Community shall participate in or request any person to undertake activities forbidden by this Order.

PART 3—GENERAL PROVISIONS

3.1 Congressional Oversight

The duties and responsibilities of the Director of Central Intelligence and the heads of other departments, agencies, and entities engaged in intelligence activities to cooperate with the Congress in the conduct of its responsibilities for oversight of intelligence activities shall be as provided in title 50, United States Code, section 413. The requirements of section 662 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2422), and section 501 of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended (50 U.S.C. 413), shall apply to all special activities as defined in this Order.

3.2 Implementation

The NSC, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, and the Director of Central Intelligence shall issue such appropriate directives and procedures as are necessary to implement this Order. Heads of agencies within the Intelligence Community shall issue appropriate supplementary directives and procedures consistent with this Order. The Attorney General shall provide a statement of reasons for not approving any procedures established by the head of an agency in the Intelligence Community other than the FBI. The National Security Council may establish procedures in instances where the agency head and the Attorney General are unable to reach agreement on other than constitutional or other legal grounds.

3.3 Procedures

Until the procedures required by this Order have been established, the activities herein authorized which require procedures shall be conducted in accordance with existing procedures or requirements established under Executive Order No. 12036 [formerly set out above]. Procedures required by this Order shall be established as expeditiously as possible. All procedures promulgated pursuant to this Order shall be made available to the congressional intelligence committees.

3.4 Definitions

For the purposes of this Order, the following terms shall have these meanings:

(a) Counterintelligence means information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, or international terrorist activities, but not including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.

(b) Electronic surveillance means acquisition of a nonpublic communication by electronic means without the consent of a person who is a party to an electronic communication or, in the case of a nonelectronic communication, without the consent of a person who is visably [sic] present at the place of communication, but not including the use of radio direction-finding equipment solely to determine the location of a transmitter.

(c) Employee means a person employed by, assigned to or acting for an agency within the Intelligence Community.

(d) Foreign intelligence means information relating to the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations or persons, but not including counterintelligence except for information on international terrorist activities.

(e) Intelligence activities means all activities that agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to conduct pursuant to this Order.

(f) Intelligence Community and agencies within the Intelligence Community refer to the following agencies or organizations:

(1) The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA);

(2) The National Security Agency (NSA);

(3) The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA);

(4) The offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance programs;

(5) The Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State;

(6) The intelligence elements of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Energy;

(7) The staff elements of the Director of Central Intelligence; and

(8) Those elements of the Department of Homeland Security that are supervised by the Department's Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection through the Department's Assistant Secretary for Information Analysis, with the exception of those functions that involve no analysis of foreign intelligence information.

(g) The National Foreign Intelligence Program includes the programs listed below, but its composition shall be subject to review by the National Security Council and modification by the President:

(1) The programs of the CIA;

(2) The Consolidated Cryptologic Program, the General Defense Intelligence Program, and the programs of the offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance, except such elements as the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense agree should be excluded;

(3) Other programs of agencies within the Intelligence Community designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the department or by the President as national foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities;

(4) Activities of the staff elements of the Director of Central Intelligence;

(5) Activities to acquire the intelligence required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations by the United States military forces are not included in the National Foreign Intelligence Program.

(h) Special activities means activities conducted in support of national foreign policy objectives abroad which are planned and executed so that the role of the United States Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly, and functions in support of such activities, but which are not intended to influence United States political processes, public opinion, policies, or media and do not include diplomatic activities or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions.

(i) United States person means a United States citizen, an alien known by the intelligence agency concerned to be a permanent resident alien, an unincorporated association substantially composed of United States citizens or permanent resident aliens, or a corporation incorporated in the United States, except for a corporation directed and controlled by a foreign government or governments.

3.5 Purpose and Effect

This Order is intended to control and provide direction and guidance to the Intelligence Community. Nothing contained herein or in any procedures promulgated hereunder is intended to confer any substantive or procedural right or privilege on any person or organization.

3.6 Revocation

Executive Order No. 12036 of January 24, 1978, as amended, entitled “United States Intelligence Activities,” is revoked.

[For provisions relating to consideration of Commandant and Assistant Commandant for Intelligence of the Coast Guard as a “Senior Official of the Intelligence Community” for purposes of Ex. Ord. No. 12333, set out above, and all other relevant authorities, see Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §87, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10632, set out as a note under section 111 of Title 6, Domestic Security.]

Executive Order No. 12334

Ex. Ord. No. 12334, Dec. 4, 1981, 46 F.R. 59955, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12701, Feb. 14, 1990, 55 F.R. 5953, which established the President's Intelligence Oversight Board, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12863, §3.3, Sept. 13, 1993, 58 F.R. 48441, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12863. President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board

Ex. Ord. No. 12863, Sept. 13, 1993, 58 F.R. 48441, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13070, Dec. 15, 1997, 62 F.R. 66493; Ex. Ord. No. 13301, May 14, 2003, 68 F.R. 26981, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to enhance the security of the United States by improving the quality and effectiveness of intelligence available to the United States, and to assure the legality of activities of the Intelligence Community, it is ordered as follows:

PART I. ASSESSMENT OF INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES

Section 1.1. There is hereby established within the White House Office, Executive Office of the President, the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB). The PFIAB shall consist of not more than 16 members, who shall serve at the pleasure of the President and shall be appointed by the President from among trustworthy and distinguished citizens outside the Government who are qualified on the basis of achievement, experience and independence. The President shall establish the terms of the members upon their appointment. To the extent practicable, one-third of the PFIAB at any one time shall be comprised of members whose term of service does not exceed 2 years. The President shall designate a Chairman and Vice Chairman from among the members. The PFIAB shall utilize full-time staff and consultants as authorized by the President. Such staff shall be headed by an Executive Director, appointed by the President.

Sec. 1.2. The PFIAB shall assess the quality, quantity, and adequacy of intelligence collection, of analysis and estimates, and of counterintelligence and other intelligence activities. The PFIAB shall have the authority to review continually the performance of all agencies of the Federal Government that are engaged in the collection, evaluation, or production of intelligence or the execution of intelligence policy. The PFIAB shall further be authorized to assess the adequacy of management, personnel and organization in the intelligence agencies. The heads of departments and agencies of the Federal Government, to the extent permitted by law, shall provide the PFIAB with access to all information that the PFIAB deems necessary to carry out its responsibilities.

Sec. 1.3. The PFIAB shall report directly to the President and advise him concerning the objectives, conduct, management and coordination of the various activities of the agencies of the Intelligence Community. The PFIAB shall report periodically, but at least semiannually, concerning its findings and appraisals and shall make appropriate recommendations for the improvement and enhancement of the intelligence efforts of the United States.

Sec. 1.4. The PFIAB shall consider and recommend appropriate action with respect to matters, identified to the PFIAB by the Director of Central Intelligence, the Central Intelligence Agency, or other Government agencies engaged in intelligence or related activities, in which the advice of the PFIAB will further the effectiveness of the national intelligence effort. With respect to matters deemed appropriate by the President, the PFIAB shall advise and make recommendations to the Director of Central Intelligence, the Central Intelligence Agency, and other Government agencies engaged in intelligence and related activities, concerning ways to achieve increased effectiveness in meeting national intelligence needs.

PART II. OVERSIGHT OF INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES

Sec. 2.1. The Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB) is hereby established as a standing committee of the PFIAB. The IOB shall consist of no more than five members designated by the President from among the membership of the PFIAB. The Chairman of the PFIAB may also serve as the Chairman or a member of the IOB if so designated by the President. The IOB shall utilize such full-time staff and consultants as authorized by the Chairman of the IOB with the concurrence of the Chairman of the PFIAB.

Sec. 2.2. The IOB shall:

(a) prepare for the President reports of intelligence activities that the IOB believes may be unlawful or contrary to Executive order or Presidential directive;

(b) forward to the Attorney General reports received concerning intelligence activities that the IOB believes may be unlawful or contrary to Executive order or Presidential directive;

(c) review the internal guidelines of each agency within the Intelligence Community that concern the lawfulness of intelligence activities;

(d) review the practices and procedures of the Inspectors General and General Counsel of the Intelligence Community for discovering and reporting intelligence activities that may be unlawful or contrary to Executive order or Presidential directive; and

(e) conduct such investigations as the IOB deems necessary to carry out its functions under this order.

Sec. 2.3. The IOB shall report to the President. The IOB shall consider and take appropriate action with respect to matters identified by the Director of Central Intelligence, the Central Intelligence Agency or other agencies of the Intelligence Community. With respect to matters deemed appropriate by the President, the IOB shall advise and make appropriate recommendations to the Director of Central Intelligence, the Central Intelligence Agency and other agencies of the Intelligence Community.

Sec. 2.4. The heads of departments and agencies of the Intelligence Community, to the extent permitted by law, shall provide the IOB with all information that the IOB deems necessary to carry out its responsibilities. Inspectors General and General Counsel of the Intelligence Community, to the extent permitted by law, shall report to the IOB, at least on a quarterly basis and from time to time as necessary or appropriate, concerning intelligence activities that they have reason to believe may be unlawful or contrary to Executive order or Presidential directive.

PART III. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec. 3.1. Information made available to the PFIAB, or members of the PFIAB acting in their IOB capacity, shall be given all necessary security protection in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Each member of the PFIAB, each member of the PFIAB's staff and each of the PFIAB's consultants shall execute an agreement never to reveal any classified information obtained by virtue of his or her services with the PFIAB except to the President or to such persons as the President may designate.

Sec. 3.2. Members of the PFIAB shall serve without compensation but may receive transportation expenses and per diem allowance as authorized by law. Staff and consultants to the PFIAB shall receive pay and allowances as authorized by the President.

Sec. 3.3. Executive Order No. 12334 of December 4, 1981, as amended, and Executive Order No. 12537 of October 28, 1985, as amended [50 U.S.C. 403 note], are revoked.

Act Referred to in Other Sections

The National Security Act of 1947 is referred to in sections 47e, 402c of this title; section 469 of Appendix to this title; title 6 section 121; title 21 sections 1704, 1903.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 10 sections 113, 125, 155.

§401a. Definitions

As used in this Act:

(1) The term “intelligence” includes foreign intelligence and counterintelligence.

(2) The term “foreign intelligence” means information relating to the capabilities, intentions, or activities of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities.

(3) The term “counterintelligence” means information gathered, and activities conducted, to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities.

(4) The term “intelligence community” includes—

(A) the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, which shall include the Office of the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, the National Intelligence Council (as provided for in section 403–5(b)(3) 1 of this title), and such other offices as the Director may designate;

(B) the Central Intelligence Agency;

(C) the National Security Agency;

(D) the Defense Intelligence Agency;

(E) the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency;

(F) the National Reconnaissance Office;

(G) other offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national intelligence through reconnaissance programs;

(H) the intelligence elements of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Energy, and the Coast Guard;

(I) the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State;

(J) the Office of Intelligence and Analysis of the Department of the Treasury;

(K) the elements of the Department of Homeland Security concerned with the analyses of foreign intelligence information; and

(L) such other elements of any other department or agency as may be designated by the President, or designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the department or agency concerned, as an element of the intelligence community.


(5) The terms “national intelligence” and “intelligence related to the national security”—

(A) each refer to intelligence which pertains to the interests of more than one department or agency of the Government; and

(B) do not refer to counterintelligence or law enforcement activities conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation except to the extent provided for in procedures agreed to by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General, or otherwise as expressly provided for in this title.2


(6) The term “National Foreign Intelligence Program” refers to all programs, projects, and activities of the intelligence community, as well as any other programs of the intelligence community designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of a United States department or agency or by the President. Such term does not include programs, projects, or activities of the military departments to acquire intelligence solely for the planning and conduct of tactical military operations by United States Armed Forces.

(7) The term “congressional intelligence committees” means—

(A) the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

(B) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §3, as added Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §702, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3188; amended Pub. L. 103–359, title V, §501(a)(1), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3428; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XI, §1122(b)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2687; Pub. L. 107–56, title IX, §902, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 387; Pub. L. 107–108, title I, §105, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1397; Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §201(h), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2149; Pub. L. 107–306, title III, §353(a), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2401; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §921(e)(1), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1569; Pub. L. 108–177, title I, §105(d)(1), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2603.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, means act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended, known as the National Security Act of 1947. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of this title and Tables.

This title, referred to in par. (5)(B), probably should be “this Act”, meaning act July 26, 1947, see above, because this section is not a part of any title of act of July 26, 1947.

Amendments

2003—Par. (4)(E). Pub. L. 108–136 substituted “National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency” for “National Imagery and Mapping Agency”.

Par. (4)(H). Pub. L. 108–177, §105(d)(1)(A), struck out “the Department of the Treasury,” after “the Federal Bureau of Investigation,”.

Par. (4)(J) to (L). Pub. L. 108–177, §105(d)(1)(B), (C), added subpar. (J) and redesignated former subpars. (J) and (K) as (K) and (L), respectively.

2002—Par. (4)(J), (K). Pub. L. 107–296 added subpar. (J) and redesignated former subpar. (J) as (K).

Par. (7). Pub. L. 107–306 added par. (7).

2001—Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–56, §902(1), inserted “, or international terrorist activities” before period at end.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 107–56, §902(2), substituted “, and activities conducted,” for “and activities conducted”.

Par. (4)(H). Pub. L. 107–108 struck out “and” before “the Department of Energy” and inserted “, and the Coast Guard” before semicolon.

1996—Par. (4)(E). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “National Imagery and Mapping Agency” for “Central Imagery Office”.

1994—Par. (4)(E). Pub. L. 103–359 substituted “the Central Imagery Office” for “the central imagery authority within the Department of Defense”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–201 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1124 of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 193 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Authority of Secretary of State

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and references to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as a note under section 2651a of Title 22.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 402a, 403–2a, 403–5d, 403–8, 404j, 2366 of this title; section 2170b of Appendix to this title; title 5 section 552; title 5 App. section 8H; title 6 sections 122, 331, 482; title 8 section 1701; title 10 section 437; title 12 section 3414; title 18 section 2517; title 22 sections 1442a, 2291–4, 7302; title 28 section 540C; title 31 section 311.

1 So in original. Probably should be section “403–3(b)(3)”.

2 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER I—COORDINATION FOR NATIONAL SECURITY

§402. National Security Council

(a) Establishment; presiding officer; functions; composition

There is established a council to be known as the National Security Council (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Council”).

The President of the United States shall preside over meetings of the Council: Provided, That in his absence he may designate a member of the Council to preside in his place.

The function of the Council shall be to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to the national security so as to enable the military services and the other departments and agencies of the Government to cooperate more effectively in matters involving the national security.

The Council shall be composed of—

(1) the President;

(2) the Vice President;

(3) the Secretary of State;

(4) the Secretary of Defense;

(5) the Director for Mutual Security;

(6) the Chairman of the National Security Resources Board; and

(7) the Secretaries and Under Secretaries of other executive departments and of the military departments, the Chairman of the Munitions Board, and the Chairman of the Research and Development Board, when appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to serve at his pleasure.

(b) Additional functions

In addition to performing such other functions as the President may direct, for the purpose of more effectively coordinating the policies and functions of the departments and agencies of the Government relating to the national security, it shall, subject to the direction of the President, be the duty of the Council—

(1) to assess and appraise the objectives, commitments, and risks of the United States in relation to our actual and potential military power, in the interest of national security, for the purpose of making recommendations to the President in connection therewith; and

(2) to consider policies on matters of common interest to the departments and agencies of the Government concerned with the national security, and to make recommendations to the President in connection therewith.

(c) Executive secretary; appointment; staff employees

The Council shall have a staff to be headed by a civilian executive secretary who shall be appointed by the President. The executive secretary, subject to the direction of the Council, is authorized, subject to the civil-service laws and chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, to appoint and fix the compensation of such personnel as may be necessary to perform such duties as may be prescribed by the Council in connection with the performance of its functions.

(d) Recommendations and reports

The Council shall, from time to time, make such recommendations, and such other reports to the President as it deems appropriate or as the President may require.

(e) Participation of Chairman or Vice Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Chairman (or in his absence the Vice Chairman) of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may, in his role as principal military adviser to the National Security Council and subject to the direction of the President, attend and participate in meetings of the National Security Council.

(f) Participation by Director of National Drug Control Policy

The Director of National Drug Control Policy may, in the role of the Director as principal adviser to the National Security Council on national drug control policy, and subject to the direction of the President, attend and participate in meetings of the National Security Council.

(g) Board for Low Intensity Conflict

The President shall establish within the National Security Council a board to be known as the “Board for Low Intensity Conflict”. The principal function of the board shall be to coordinate the policies of the United States for low intensity conflict.

(h) Committee on Foreign Intelligence

(1) There is established within the National Security Council a committee to be known as the Committee on Foreign Intelligence (in this subsection referred to as the “Committee”).

(2) The Committee shall be composed of the following:

(A) The Director of Central Intelligence.

(B) The Secretary of State.

(C) The Secretary of Defense.

(D) The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, who shall serve as the chairperson of the Committee.

(E) Such other members as the President may designate.


(3) The function of the Committee shall be to assist the Council in its activities by—

(A) identifying the intelligence required to address the national security interests of the United States as specified by the President;

(B) establishing priorities (including funding priorities) among the programs, projects, and activities that address such interests and requirements; and

(C) establishing policies relating to the conduct of intelligence activities of the United States, including appropriate roles and missions for the elements of the intelligence community and appropriate targets of intelligence collection activities.


(4) In carrying out its function, the Committee shall—

(A) conduct an annual review of the national security interests of the United States;

(B) identify on an annual basis, and at such other times as the Council may require, the intelligence required to meet such interests and establish an order of priority for the collection and analysis of such intelligence; and

(C) conduct an annual review of the elements of the intelligence community in order to determine the success of such elements in collecting, analyzing, and disseminating the intelligence identified under subparagraph (B).


(5) The Committee shall submit each year to the Council and to the Director of Central Intelligence a comprehensive report on its activities during the preceding year, including its activities under paragraphs (3) and (4).

(i) 1 Committee on Transnational Threats

(1) There is established within the National Security Council a committee to be known as the Committee on Transnational Threats (in this subsection referred to as the “Committee”).

(2) The Committee shall include the following members:

(A) The Director of Central Intelligence.

(B) The Secretary of State.

(C) The Secretary of Defense.

(D) The Attorney General.

(E) The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, who shall serve as the chairperson of the Committee.

(F) Such other members as the President may designate.


(3) The function of the Committee shall be to coordinate and direct the activities of the United States Government relating to combatting transnational threats.

(4) In carrying out its function, the Committee shall—

(A) identify transnational threats;

(B) develop strategies to enable the United States Government to respond to transnational threats identified under subparagraph (A);

(C) monitor implementation of such strategies;

(D) make recommendations as to appropriate responses to specific transnational threats;

(E) assist in the resolution of operational and policy differences among Federal departments and agencies in their responses to transnational threats;

(F) develop policies and procedures to ensure the effective sharing of information about transnational threats among Federal departments and agencies, including law enforcement agencies and the elements of the intelligence community; and

(G) develop guidelines to enhance and improve the coordination of activities of Federal law enforcement agencies and elements of the intelligence community outside the United States with respect to transnational threats.


(5) For purposes of this subsection, the term “transnational threat” means the following:

(A) Any transnational activity (including international terrorism, narcotics trafficking, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the delivery systems for such weapons, and organized crime) that threatens the national security of the United States.

(B) Any individual or group that engages in an activity referred to in subparagraph (A).

(j) Participation of Director of Central Intelligence

The Director of Central Intelligence (or, in the Director's absence, the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence) may, in the performance of the Director's duties under this Act and subject to the direction of the President, attend and participate in meetings of the National Security Council.

(i) 2 Special Adviser to the President on International Religious Freedom

It is the sense of the Congress that there should be within the staff of the National Security Council a Special Adviser to the President on International Religious Freedom, whose position should be comparable to that of a director within the Executive Office of the President. The Special Adviser should serve as a resource for executive branch officials, compiling and maintaining information on the facts and circumstances of violations of religious freedom (as defined in section 6402 of title 22), and making policy recommendations. The Special Adviser should serve as liaison with the Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, Congress and, as advisable, religious nongovernmental organizations.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §101, 61 Stat. 496; Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §3, 63 Stat. 579; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972; Oct. 10, 1951, ch. 479, title V, §501(e)(1), 65 Stat. 378; Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §203, Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9115(f)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–125, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9115(f)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–125; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1311(f), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3986; Pub. L. 100–690, title I, §1003(a)(3), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4182; Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §703, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3189; Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §§802, 804, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3474, 3476; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title VII, §713(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–693; Pub. L. 105–292, title III, §301, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2800.)

References in Text

The civil-service laws, referred to in subsec. (c), are set forth in Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. See, particularly, section 3301 et seq. of Title 5.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (j), means act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended, known as the National Security Act of 1947. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

In subsec. (c), provisions that specified compensation of $10,000 per year for the executive secretary to the Council were omitted. Section 304(b) of Pub. L. 88–426 amended section 105 of Title 3, The President, to include the executive secretary of the Council among those whose compensation was authorized to be fixed by the President. Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 95–570 further amended section 105 of Title 3 to authorize the President to appoint and fix the pay of the employees of the White House Office subject to certain provisions.

In subsec. (c), “chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5” substituted for “the Classification Act of 1949, as amended” on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1998—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 105–277 added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–292 added subsec. (i) relating to Special Adviser to the President on International Religious Freedom.

1996—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–293, §802(2), added subsec. (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (j).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–293, §804, added subsec. (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 104–293, §802(1), redesignated subsec. (h) as (j).

1992—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–496 added subsec. (h).

1988—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 100–690, §§1003(a)(3), 1009, temporarily added subsec. (f), relating to participation by Director of National Drug Control Policy in meetings of National Security Council, and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.

1986—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–433 added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661 amended section identically adding subsec. (f).

1951—Subsec. (a). Act Oct. 10, 1951, inserted cl. (5) relating to Director for Mutual Security, in fourth paragraph, and renumbered former cls. (5) and (6) thereof as cls. (6) and (7), respectively.

1949—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 10, 1949, added the Vice President to the Council, removed the Secretaries of the military departments, to authorize the President to add, with the consent of the Senate, Secretaries and Under Secretaries of other executive departments and of the military department, and the Chairmen of the Munitions Board and the Research and Development Board.

Subsec. (c). Act Oct. 28, 1949, substituted “Classification Act of 1949” for “Classification Act of 1923, as amended”.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–690 effective Jan. 21, 1989, and repealed on Sept. 30, 1997, see sections 1012 and 1009, respectively, of Pub. L. 100–690.

Repeals

Act Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed (subject to a savings clause) by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8, 80 Stat. 632, 655.

Transfer of Functions

Office of Director for Mutual Security abolished and functions of Director, including those as a member of National Security Council, transferred to Director of Foreign Operations Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1953, eff. Aug. 1, 1953, 18 F.R. 4541, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Foreign Operations Administration abolished by Ex. Ord. No. 10610, May 9, 1955, 20 F.R. 3179, and its functions and offices transferred to Department of State to be administered by International Cooperation Administration. For later transfer, see section 2381 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and notes set out under that section.

National Security Resources Board, together with Office of Chairman, abolished by section 6 of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1953, eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634, set out under section 404 of this title. Functions of Chairman with limited exception, including his functions as a member of National Security Council transferred to Office of Defense Mobilization by section 2(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1953. Functions of Director of Office of Defense Mobilization with respect to being a member of National Security Council transferred to Director of Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1958, §4, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799, as amended by Pub. L. 85–763, Aug. 26, 1958, 72 Stat. 861, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For subsequent transfers to Office of Emergency Planning, Office of Emergency Preparedness, and President, see Transfer of Functions notes set out under section 404 of this title.

Munitions Board, together with office of Chairman, abolished by section 2 of Reorg. Plan No. 6 of 1953, eff. June 30, 1953, 18 F.R. 3743, 67 Stat. 638, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions vested in Munitions Board transferred to Secretary of Defense by section 1(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 6 of 1953.

Research and Development Board, together with office of Chairman, abolished by section 2 of Reorg. Plan No. 6 of 1953, eff. June 30, 1953, 18 F.R. 3743, 67 Stat. 638, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions vested in Board transferred to Secretary of Defense by section 1(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 6 of 1953.

National Security Council, together with its functions, records, property, personnel, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds (available or to be made available) transferred to Executive Office of President by Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1949, eff. Aug. 20, 1949, 14 F.R. 5227, 63 Stat. 1067, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Rule of Construction for Duplicate Authorization and Appropriation Provisions of Public Laws 99–500, 99–591, and 99–661

For rule of construction for certain duplicate provisions of Public Laws 99–500, 99–591, and 99–661, see section 6 of Pub. L. 100–26, set out as a note under section 2302 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section as Unaffected by Repeals

Repeals by section 542(a) of Mutual Security Act of 1954 did not repeal amendment to this section by act Oct. 10, 1951.

National Security Agency Act of 1959

Pub. L. 86–36, May 29, 1959, 73 Stat. 63, as amended by Pub. L. 87–367, title II, §§201, 204, Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 789, 791; Pub. L. 87–793, §1001(c), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 864; Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 1024, title III, §306(a), as added Mar. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88–290, 78 Stat. 170; Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §306(h), 78 Stat. 430; Oct. 6, 1964, Pub. L. 88–631, §3(d), 78 Stat. 1008; Sept. 6, 1966, Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), 80 Stat. 660; Oct. 8, 1966, Pub. L. 89–632, §1(e), 80 Stat. 878; Pub. L. 91–187, §2, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §402(a), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1977; Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §§601–603, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1154–1156, eff. Oct. 1, 1981; Pub. L. 99–335, title V, §507(a), June 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 99–569, title V, §505, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3200; Pub. L. 101–193, title V, §505(b), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1709; Pub. L. 101–194, title V, §506(c)(2), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1759; Pub. L. 102–88, title V, §503, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 102–183, title IV, §405, Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1267; Pub. L. 102–496, title III, §304(a), title IV, §405, title VIII, §803(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3183, 3186, 3253; Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §806(b)(2), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3442; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1064(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 445; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XVI, §1633(b)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2751; Pub. L. 107–108, title V, §506, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1406; Pub. L. 107–306, title VIII, §841(f), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2432; Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §377(c), title V, §501, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2630, 2633, provided: “That this Act [this note] may be cited as the ‘National Security Agency Act of 1959’. [Amended Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §402(a)(2), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1978.]

“[Sec. 2. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XVI, §1633(b)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2751.]

Sec. 3. [Amended section 1581(a) of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

“[Sec. 4. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XVI, §1633(b)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2751.]

Sec. 5. Officers and employees of the National Security Agency who are citizens or nationals of the United States may be granted additional compensation, in accordance with regulations which shall be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, not in excess of additional compensation authorized by section 207 of the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1949, as amended (5 U.S.C. 118h) [see 5 U.S.C. 5941], for employees whose rates of basic compensation are fixed by statute.

Sec. 6. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, nothing in this Act or any other law (including, but not limited to, the first section and section 2 of the Act of August 28, 1935 (5 U.S.C. 654) [repealed by Pub. L. 86–626, title I, §101, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 427]) shall be construed to require the disclosure of the organization or any function of the National Security Agency, or any information with respect to the activities thereof, or of the names, titles, salaries, or number of the persons employed by such agency.

“(b) The reporting requirements of section 1582 of title 10, United States Code, shall apply to positions established in the National Security Agency in the manner provided by section 4 of this Act.

“[Sec. 7. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 660.]

Sec. 8. The foregoing provisions of this Act shall take effect on the first day of the first pay period which begins later than the thirtieth day following the date of enactment of this Act [May 29, 1959].

Sec. 9. (a) Notwithstanding section 322 of the Act of June 30, 1932 ([former] 40 U.S.C. 278a), section 5536 of title 5, United States Code, and section 2675 of title 10, United States Code, the Director of the National Security Agency, on behalf of the Secretary of Defense, may lease real property outside the United States, for periods not exceeding ten years, for the use of the National Security Agency for special cryptologic activities and for housing for personnel assigned to such activities.

“(b) The Director of the National Security Agency, on behalf of the Secretary of Defense, may provide to certain civilian and military personnel of the Department of Defense who are assigned to special cryptologic activities outside the United States and who are designated by the Secretary of Defense for the purposes of this subsection—

“(1) allowances and benefits—

“(A) comparable to those provided by the Secretary of State to members of the Foreign Service under chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4081 et seq.) or any other provision of law; and

“(B) in the case of selected personnel serving in circumstances similar to those in which personnel of the Central Intelligence Agency serve, comparable to those provided by the Director of Central Intelligence to personnel of the Central Intelligence Agency;

“(2) housing (including heat, light, and household equipment) without cost to such personnel, if the Director of the National Security Agency, on behalf of the Secretary of Defense determines that it would be in the public interest to provide such housing; and

“(3) special retirement accrual in the same manner provided in section 303 of the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act (50 U.S.C. 403 note) [50 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.] and in section 18 of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949 [50 U.S.C. 403r].

“(c) The authority of the Director of the National Security Agency, on behalf of the Secretary of Defense, to make payments under subsections (a) and (b), and under contracts for leases entered into under subsection (a), is effective for any fiscal year only to the extent that appropriated funds are available for such purpose.

“(d) Members of the Armed Forces may not receive benefits under both subsection (b)(1) and title 37, United States Code, for the same purpose. The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.

“(e) Regulations issued pursuant to subsection (b)(1) shall be submitted to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate before such regulations take effect.

[Amended Pub. L. 102–496, title VIII, §803(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3253. Amendment by Pub. L. 102–496 effective on first day of fourth month beginning after Oct. 24, 1992, see section 805 of Pub. L. 102–496, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.]

[Amended Pub. L. 101–193, title V, §505(b), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1709.]

[Amended Pub. L. 99–335, title V, §507(a), June 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 628. Amendment by Pub. L. 99–335 effective Jan. 1, 1987, see section 702(a) of Pub. L. 99–335, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8401 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.]

[Amended Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §601, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1154.]

[Added Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §402(a)(1), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1977.]

Sec. 10. (a) The Director of the National Security Agency shall arrange for, and shall prescribe regulations concerning, language and language-related training programs for military and civilian cryptologic personnel. In establishing programs under this section for language and language-related training, the Director—

“(1) may provide for the training and instruction to be furnished, including functional and geographic area specializations;

“(2) may arrange for training and instruction through other Government agencies and, in any case in which appropriate training or instruction is unavailable through Government facilities, through nongovernmental facilities that furnish training and instruction useful in the fields of language and foreign affairs;

“(3) may support programs that furnish necessary language and language-related skills, including, in any case in which appropriate programs are unavailable at Government facilities, support through contracts, grants, or cooperation with nongovernmental educational institutions; and

“(4) may obtain by appointment or contract the services of individuals to serve as language instructors, linguists, or special language project personnel.

“(b)(1) In order to maintain necessary capability in foreign language skills and related abilities needed by the National Security Agency, the Director, without regard to subchapter IV of chapter 55 of title 5, United States Code, may provide special monetary or other incentives to encourage civilian cryptologic personnel of the Agency to acquire or retain proficiency in foreign languages or special related abilities needed by the Agency.

“(2) In order to provide linguistic training and support for cryptologic personnel, the Director—

“(A) may pay all or part of the tuition and other expenses related to the training of personnel who are assigned or detailed for language and language-related training, orientation, or instruction; and

“(B) may pay benefits and allowances to civilian personnel in accordance with chapters 57 and 59 of title 5, United States Code, and to military personnel in accordance with chapter 7 of title 37, United States Code, and applicable provisions of title 10, United States Code, when such personnel are assigned to training at sites away from their designated duty station.

“(c)(1) To the extent not inconsistent, in the opinion of the Secretary of Defense, with the operation of military cryptologic reserve units and in order to maintain necessary capability in foreign language skills and related abilities needed by the National Security Agency, the Director may establish a cryptologic linguist reserve. The cryptologic linguist reserve may consist of former or retired civilian or military cryptologic personnel of the National Security Agency and of other qualified individuals, as determined by the Director of the Agency. Each member of the cryptologic linguist reserve shall agree that, during any period of emergency (as determined by the Director), the member shall return to active civilian status with the National Security Agency and shall perform such linguistic or linguistic-related duties as the Director may assign.

“(2) In order to attract individuals to become members of the cryptologic linguist reserve, the Director, without regard to subchapter IV of chapter 55 of title 5, United States Code, may provide special monetary incentives to individuals eligible to become members of the reserve who agree to become members of the cryptologic linguist reserve and to acquire or retain proficiency in foreign languages or special related abilities.

“(3) In order to provide training and support for members of the cryptologic linguist reserve, the Director—

“(A) may pay all or part of the tuition and other expenses related to the training of individuals in the cryptologic linguist reserve who are assigned or detailed for language and language-related training, orientation, or instruction; and

“(B) may pay benefits and allowances in accordance with chapters 57 and 59 of title 5, United States Code, to individuals in the cryptologic linguist reserve who are assigned to training at sites away from their homes or regular places of business.

“(d)(1) The Director, before providing training under this section to any individual, may obtain an agreement with that individual that—

“(A) in the case of current employees, pertains to continuation of service of the employee, and repayment of the expenses of such training for failure to fulfill the agreement, consistent with the provisions of section 4108 of title 5, United States Code; and

“(B) in the case of individuals accepted for membership in the cryptologic linguist reserve, pertains to return to service when requested, and repayment of the expenses of such training for failure to fulfill the agreement, consistent with the provisions of section 4108 of title 5, United States Code.

“(2) The Director, under regulations prescribed under this section, may waive, in whole or in part, a right of recovery under an agreement made under this subsection if it is shown that the recovery would be against equity and good conscience or against the public interest.

“(e)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the Director may provide to family members of military and civilian cryptologic personnel assigned to representational duties outside the United States, in anticipation of the assignment of such personnel outside the United States or while outside the United States, appropriate orientation and language training that is directly related to the assignment abroad.

“(2) Language training under paragraph (1) may not be provided to any individual through payment of the expenses of tuition or other cost of instruction at a non-Government educational institution unless appropriate instruction is not available at a Government facility.

“(f) The Director may waive the applicability of any provision of chapter 41 of title 5, United States Code, to any provision of this section if he finds that such waiver is important to the performance of cryptologic functions.

“(g) The authority of the Director to enter into contracts or to make grants under this section is effective for any fiscal year only to the extent that appropriated funds are available for such purpose.

“(h) Regulations issued pursuant to this section shall be submitted to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate before such regulations take effect.

“(i) The Director of the National Security Agency, on behalf of the Secretary of Defense, may, without regard to section 4109(a)(2)(B) of title 5, United States Code, pay travel, transportation, storage, and subsistence expenses under chapter 57 of such title to civilian and military personnel of the Department of Defense who are assigned to duty outside the United States for a period of one year or longer which involves cryptologic training, language training, or related disciplines. [Added Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §402(a)(1), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1978, and amended Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §602, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1154.]

Sec. 11. (a)(1) The Director of the National Security Agency may authorize agency personnel within the United States to perform the same functions as officers and agents of the Department of Homeland Security, as provided in section 1315(b)(2) of title 40, United States Code, with the powers set forth in that section, except that such personnel shall perform such functions and exercise such powers—

“(A) at the National Security Agency Headquarters complex and at any facilities and protected property which are solely under the administration and control of, or are used exclusively by, the National Security Agency; and

“(B) in the streets, sidewalks, and the open areas within the zone beginning at the outside boundary of such facilities or protected property and extending outward 500 feet.

“(2) The performance of functions and exercise of powers under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall be limited to those circumstances where such personnel can identify specific and articulable facts giving such personnel reason to believe that the performance of such functions and exercise of such powers is reasonable to protect against physical damage or injury, or threats of physical damage or injury, to agency installations, property, or employees.

“(3) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to preclude, or limit in any way, the authority of any Federal, State, or local law enforcement agency, or any other Federal police or Federal protective service.

“(4) The rules and regulations enforced by such personnel shall be the rules and regulations prescribed by the Director and shall only be applicable to the areas referred to in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1).

“(5) Not later than July 1 each year through 2004, the Director shall submit to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate a report that describes in detail the exercise of the authority granted by this subsection and the underlying facts supporting the exercise of such authority, during the preceding fiscal year. The Director shall make each such report available to the Inspector General of the National Security Agency.

“(b) The Director of the National Security Agency is authorized to establish penalties for violations of the rules or regulations prescribed by the Director under subsection (a). Such penalties shall not exceed those specified in section 1315(c)(2) of title 40, United States Code.

“(c) Agency personnel designated by the Director of the National Security Agency under subsection (a) shall be clearly identifiable as United States Government security personnel while engaged in the performance of the functions to which subsection (a) refers.

“(d)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, agency personnel designated by the Director of the National Security Agency under subsection (a) shall be considered for purposes of chapter 171 of title 28, United States Code, or any other provision of law relating to tort liability, to be acting within the scope of their office or employment when such agency personnel take reasonable action, which may include the use of force, to—

“(A) protect an individual in the presence of such agency personnel from a crime of violence;

“(B) provide immediate assistance to an individual who has suffered or who is threatened with bodily harm; or

“(C) prevent the escape of any individual whom such agency personnel reasonably believe to have committed a crime of violence in the presence of such agency personnel.

“(2) Paragraph (1) shall not affect the authorities of the Attorney General under section 2679 of title 28, United States Code.

“(3) In this subsection, the term ‘crime of violence’ has the meaning given that term in section 16 of title 18, United States Code. [Added Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §402(a)(1), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1978; amended Pub. L. 107–108, title V, §506, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1406; Pub. L. 107–306, title VIII, §841(f), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2432; Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §377(c), title V, §501, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2630, 2633.]

Sec. 12. (a)(1) The Secretary of Defense (or his designee) may by regulation establish a personnel system for senior civilian cryptologic personnel in the National Security Agency to be known as the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service. The regulations establishing the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service shall—

“(A) meet the requirements set forth in section 3131 of title 5, United States Code, for the Senior Executive Service;

“(B) provide that positions in the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service meet requirements that are consistent with the provisions of section 3132(a)(2) of such title;

“(C) provide, without regard to section 2, rates of pay for the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service that are not in excess of the maximum rate or less than the minimum rate of basic pay established for the Senior Executive Service under section 5382 of such title, and that are adjusted at the same time and to the same extent as rates of basic pay for the Senior Executive Service are adjusted;

“(D) provide a performance appraisal system for the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service that conforms to the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 43 of such title;

“(E) provide for removal consistent with section 3592 of such title, and removal or suspension consistent with subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 7543 of such title (except that any hearing or appeal to which a member of the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service is entitled shall be held or decided pursuant to procedures established by regulations of the Secretary of Defense or his designee);

“(F) permit the payment of performance awards to members of the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service consistent with the provisions applicable to performance awards under section 5384 of such title;

“(G) provide that members of the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service may be granted sabbatical leaves consistent with the provisions of section 3396(c) of such title.[;] and

“(H) provide for the recertification of members of the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service consistent with the provisions of section 3393a of such title.

“(2) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense (or his designee) may—

“(A) make applicable to the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service any of the provisions of title 5, United States Code, applicable to applicants for or members of the Senior Executive Service; and

“(B) appoint, promote, and assign individuals to positions established within the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments and other personnel actions in the competitive service.

“(3) The President, based on the recommendations of the Secretary of Defense, may award ranks to members of the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service in a manner consistent with the provisions of section 4507 of title 5, United States Code.

“(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Director of the National Security Agency may detail or assign any member of the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service to serve in a position outside the National Security Agency in which the member's expertise and experience may be of benefit to the National Security Agency or another Government agency. Any such member shall not by reason of such detail or assignment lose any entitlement or status associated with membership in the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service.

[Amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1064(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 445.]

[Amended Pub. L. 101–194, title V, §506(c)(2), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1759. Amendment by Pub. L. 101–194 effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 506(d) of Pub. L. 101–194, set out as an Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note under section 3151 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.]

Sec. 13. (a) The Director of the National Security Agency may make grants to private individuals and institutions for the conduct of cryptologic research. An application for a grant under this section may not be approved unless the Director determines that the award of the grant would be clearly consistent with the national security.

“(b) The grant program established by subsection (a) shall be conducted in accordance with the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act of 1977 (41 U.S.C. 501 et seq.) [31 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.] to the extent that such Act is consistent with and in accordance with section 6 of this Act.

“(c) The authority of the Director to make grants under this section is effective for any fiscal year only to the extent that appropriated funds are available for such purpose. [Added Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §603, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1156.]

Sec. 14. Funds appropriated to an entity of the Federal Government other than an element of the Department of Defense that have been specifically appropriated for the purchase of cryptologic equipment, materials, or services with respect to which the National Security Agency has been designated as the central source of procurement for the Government shall remain available for a period of three fiscal years. [Added Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §603, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1156.]

Sec. 15. (a) No person may, except with the written permission of the Director of the National Security Agency, knowingly use the words ‘National Security Agency’, the initials ‘NSA’, the seal of the National Security Agency, or any colorable imitation of such words, initials, or seal in connection with any merchandise, impersonation, solicitation, or commercial activity in a manner reasonably calculated to convey the impression that such use is approved, endorsed, or authorized by the National Security Agency.

“(b) Whenever it appears to the Attorney General that any person is engaged or is about to engage in an act or practice which constitutes or will constitute conduct prohibited by subsection (a), the Attorney General may initiate a civil proceeding in a district court of the United States to enjoin such act or practice. Such court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination of such action and may, at any time before final determination, enter such restraining orders or prohibitions, or take such other action as is warranted, to prevent injury to the United States or to any person or class of persons for whose protection the action is brought. [Added Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §603, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1156.]

Sec. 16. (a) The purpose of this section is to establish an undergraduate training program, which may lead to the baccalaureate degree, to facilitate the recruitment of individuals, particularly minority high school students, with a demonstrated capability to develop skills critical to the mission of the National Security Agency, including mathematics, computer science, engineering, and foreign languages.

“(b) The Secretary of Defense is authorized, in his discretion, to assign civilian employees of the National Security Agency as students at accredited professional, technical, and other institutions of higher learning for training at the undergraduate level in skills critical to effective performance of the mission of the Agency.

“(c) The National Security Agency may pay, directly or by reimbursement to employees, expenses incident to assignments under subsection (b), in any fiscal year only to the extent that appropriated funds are available for such purpose.

“(d)(1) To be eligible for assignment under subsection (b), an employee of the Agency must agree in writing—

“(A) to continue in the service of the Agency for the period of the assignment and to complete the educational course of training for which the employee is assigned;

“(B) to continue in the service of the Agency following completion of the assignment for a period of one-and-a-half years for each year of the assignment or part thereof;

“(C) to reimburse the United States for the total cost of education (excluding the employee's pay and allowances) provided under this section to the employee if, prior to the employee's completing the educational course of training for which the employee is assigned, the assignment or the employee's employment with the Agency is terminated either by the Agency due to misconduct by the employee or by the employee voluntarily; and

“(D) to reimburse the United States if, after completing the educational course of training for which the employee is assigned, the employee's employment with the Agency is terminated either by the Agency due to misconduct by the employee or by the employee voluntarily, prior to the employee's completion of the service obligation period described in subparagraph (B), in an amount that bears the same ratio to the total cost of the education (excluding the employee's pay and allowances) provided to the employee as the unserved portion of the service obligation period described in subparagraph (B) bears to the total period of the service obligation described in subparagraph (B).

“(2) Subject to paragraph (3), the obligation to reimburse the United States under an agreement described in paragraph (1), including interest due on such obligation, is for all purposes a debt owing the United States.

“(3)(A) A discharge in bankruptcy under title 11, United States Code, shall not release a person from an obligation to reimburse the United States required under an agreement described in paragraph (1) if the final decree of the discharge in bankruptcy is issued within five years after the last day of the combined period of service obligation described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1).

“(B) The Secretary of Defense may release a person, in whole or in part, from the obligation to reimburse the United States under an agreement described in paragraph (1) when, in his discretion, the Secretary determines that equity or the interests of the United States so require.

“(C) The Secretary of Defense shall permit an employee assigned under this section who, prior to commencing a second academic year of such assignment, voluntarily terminates the assignment or the employee's employment with the Agency, to satisfy his obligation under an agreement described in paragraph (1) to reimburse the United States by reimbursement according to a schedule of monthly payments which results in completion of reimbursement by a date five years after the date of termination of the assignment or employment or earlier at the option of the employee.

“(e)(1) When an employee is assigned under this section to an institution, the Agency shall disclose to the institution to which the employee is assigned that the Agency employs the employee and that the Agency funds the employee's education.

“(2) Agency efforts to recruit individuals at educational institutions for participation in the undergraduate training program established by this section shall be made openly and according to the common practices of universities and employers recruiting at such institutions.

“(f) Chapter 41 of title 5 and subsections (a) and (b) of section 3324 of title 31, United States Code, shall not apply with respect to this section.

“(g) The Secretary of Defense may issue such regulations as may be necessary to implement this section. [Added Pub. L. 99–569, title V, §505, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3200.]

“[Sec. 17. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §806(b)(2), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3442.]

Sec. 18. (a) The Secretary of Defense may pay the expenses referred to in section 5742(b) of title 5, United States Code, in the case of any employee of the National Security Agency who dies while on a rotational tour of duty within the United States or while in transit to or from such tour of duty.

“(b) For the purposes of this section, the term ‘rotational tour of duty’, with respect to an employee, means a permanent change of station involving the transfer of the employee from the National Security Agency headquarters to another post of duty for a fixed period established by regulation to be followed at the end of such period by a permanent change of station involving a transfer of the employee back to such headquarters.” [Added Pub. L. 102–183, title IV, §405, Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1267; amended Pub. L. 102–496, title III, §304(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3183.]

Executive Order No. 10483

Ex. Ord. No. 10483, Sept. 2, 1953, 18 F.R. 5379, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10598, Feb. 28, 1955, 20 F.R. 1237, which provided for an Operations Coordinating Board, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 10700, Feb. 25, 1957, formerly set out below.

Executive Order No. 10700

Ex. Ord. No. 10700, Feb. 25, 1957, 22 F.R. 1111, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10773, July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 5061; Ex. Ord. No. 10782, Sept. 6, 1958, 23 F.R. 6971; Ex. Ord. 10838, Sept. 16, 1959, 24 F.R. 7519, which provided for the Operations Coordinating Board, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 10920, Feb. 18, 1961, 26 F.R. 1463.

Ex. Ord. No. 13228. Establishing the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council

Ex. Ord. No. 13228, Oct. 8, 2001, 66 F.R. 51812, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13284, §3, Jan. 23, 2003, 68 F.R. 4075; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §8, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10622, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. I hereby establish within the Executive Office of the President an Office of Homeland Security (the “Office”) to be headed by the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.

Sec. 2. Mission. The mission of the Office shall be to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. The Office shall perform the functions necessary to carry out this mission, including the functions specified in section 3 of this order.

Sec. 3. Functions. The functions of the Office shall be to coordinate the executive branch's efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States.

(a) National Strategy. The Office shall work with executive departments and agencies, State and local governments, and private entities to ensure the adequacy of the national strategy for detecting, preparing for, preventing, protecting against, responding to, and recovering from terrorist threats or attacks within the United States and shall periodically review and coordinate revisions to that strategy as necessary.

(b) Detection. The Office shall identify priorities and coordinate efforts for collection and analysis of information within the United States regarding threats of terrorism against the United States and activities of terrorists or terrorist groups within the United States. The Office also shall identify, in coordination with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, priorities for collection of intelligence outside the United States regarding threats of terrorism within the United States.

(i) In performing these functions, the Office shall work with Federal, State, and local agencies, as appropriate, to:

(A) facilitate collection from State and local governments and private entities of information pertaining to terrorist threats or activities within the United States;

(B) coordinate and prioritize the requirements for foreign intelligence relating to terrorism within the United States of executive departments and agencies responsible for homeland security and provide these requirements and priorities to the Director of Central Intelligence and other agencies responsible for collection of foreign intelligence;

(C) coordinate efforts to ensure that all executive departments and agencies that have intelligence collection responsibilities have sufficient technological capabilities and resources to collect intelligence and data relating to terrorist activities or possible terrorist acts within the United States, working with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, as appropriate;

(D) coordinate development of monitoring protocols and equipment for use in detecting the release of biological, chemical, and radiological hazards; and

(E) ensure that, to the extent permitted by law, all appropriate and necessary intelligence and law enforcement information relating to homeland security is disseminated to and exchanged among appropriate executive departments and agencies responsible for homeland security and, where appropriate for reasons of homeland security, promote exchange of such information with and among State and local governments and private entities.

(ii) Executive departments and agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, make available to the Office all information relating to terrorist threats and activities within the United States.

(c) Preparedness. The Office of Homeland Security shall coordinate national efforts to prepare for and mitigate the consequences of terrorist threats or attacks within the United States. In performing this function, the Office shall work with Federal, State, and local agencies, and private entities, as appropriate, to:

(i) review and assess the adequacy of the portions of all Federal emergency response plans that pertain to terrorist threats or attacks within the United States;

(ii) coordinate domestic exercises and simulations designed to assess and practice systems that would be called upon to respond to a terrorist threat or attack within the United States and coordinate programs and activities for training Federal, State, and local employees who would be called upon to respond to such a threat or attack;

(iii) coordinate national efforts to ensure public health preparedness for a terrorist attack, including reviewing vaccination policies and reviewing the adequacy of and, if necessary, increasing vaccine and pharmaceutical stockpiles and hospital capacity;

(iv) coordinate Federal assistance to State and local authorities and nongovernmental organizations to prepare for and respond to terrorist threats or attacks within the United States;

(v) ensure that national preparedness programs and activities for terrorist threats or attacks are developed and are regularly evaluated under appropriate standards and that resources are allocated to improving and sustaining preparedness based on such evaluations; and

(vi) ensure the readiness and coordinated deployment of Federal response teams to respond to terrorist threats or attacks, working with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, when appropriate.

(d) Prevention. The Office shall coordinate efforts to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States. In performing this function, the Office shall work with Federal, State, and local agencies, and private entities, as appropriate, to:

(i) facilitate the exchange of information among such agencies relating to immigration and visa matters and shipments of cargo; and, working with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, ensure coordination among such agencies to prevent the entry of terrorists and terrorist materials and supplies into the United States and facilitate removal of such terrorists from the United States, when appropriate;

(ii) coordinate efforts to investigate terrorist threats and attacks within the United States; and

(iii) coordinate efforts to improve the security of United States borders, territorial waters, and airspace in order to prevent acts of terrorism within the United States, working with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, when appropriate.

(e) Protection. The Office shall coordinate efforts to protect the United States and its critical infrastructure from the consequences of terrorist attacks. In performing this function, the Office shall work with Federal, State, and local agencies, and private entities, as appropriate, to:

(i) strengthen measures for protecting energy production, transmission, and distribution services and critical facilities; other utilities; telecommunications; facilities that produce, use, store, or dispose of nuclear material; and other critical infrastructure services and critical facilities within the United States from terrorist attack;

(ii) coordinate efforts to protect critical public and privately owned information systems within the United States from terrorist attack;

(iii) develop criteria for reviewing whether appropriate security measures are in place at major public and privately owned facilities within the United States;

(iv) coordinate domestic efforts to ensure that special events determined by appropriate senior officials to have national significance are protected from terrorist attack;

(v) coordinate efforts to protect transportation systems within the United States, including railways, highways, shipping, ports and waterways, and airports and civilian aircraft, from terrorist attack;

(vi) coordinate efforts to protect United States livestock, agriculture, and systems for the provision of water and food for human use and consumption from terrorist attack; and

(vii) coordinate efforts to prevent unauthorized access to, development of, and unlawful importation into the United States of, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosive, or other related materials that have the potential to be used in terrorist attacks.

(f) Response and Recovery. The Office shall coordinate efforts to respond to and promote recovery from terrorist threats or attacks within the United States. In performing this function, the Office shall work with Federal, State, and local agencies, and private entities, as appropriate, to:

(i) coordinate efforts to ensure rapid restoration of transportation systems, energy production, transmission, and distribution systems; telecommunications; other utilities; and other critical infrastructure facilities after disruption by a terrorist threat or attack;

(ii) coordinate efforts to ensure rapid restoration of public and private critical information systems after disruption by a terrorist threat or attack;

(iii) work with the National Economic Council to coordinate efforts to stabilize United States financial markets after a terrorist threat or attack and manage the immediate economic and financial consequences of the incident;

(iv) coordinate Federal plans and programs to provide medical, financial, and other assistance to victims of terrorist attacks and their families; and

(v) coordinate containment and removal of biological, chemical, radiological, explosive, or other hazardous materials in the event of a terrorist threat or attack involving such hazards and coordinate efforts to mitigate the effects of such an attack.

(g) Incident Management. Consistent with applicable law, including the statutory functions of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security shall be the official primarily responsible for advising and assisting the President in the coordination of domestic incident management activities of all departments and agencies in the event of a terrorist threat, and during and in the aftermath of terrorist attacks, major disasters, or other emergencies, within the United States. Generally, the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security shall serve as the principal point of contact for and to the President with respect to the coordination of such activities. The Assistant to the President for Homeland Security shall coordinate with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, as appropriate.

(h) Continuity of Government. The Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, in coordination with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, shall review plans and preparations for ensuring the continuity of the Federal Government in the event of a terrorist attack that threatens the safety and security of the United States Government or its leadership.

(i) Public Affairs. The Office, subject to the direction of the White House Office of Communications, shall coordinate the strategy of the executive branch for communicating with the public in the event of a terrorist threat or attack within the United States. The Office also shall coordinate the development of programs for educating the public about the nature of terrorist threats and appropriate precautions and responses.

(j) Cooperation with State and Local Governments and Private Entities. The Office shall encourage and invite the participation of State and local governments and private entities, as appropriate, in carrying out the Office's functions.

(k) Review of Legal Authorities and Development of Legislative Proposals. The Office shall coordinate a periodic review and assessment of the legal authorities available to executive departments and agencies to permit them to perform the functions described in this order. When the Office determines that such legal authorities are inadequate, the Office shall develop, in consultation with executive departments and agencies, proposals for presidential action and legislative proposals for submission to the Office of Management and Budget to enhance the ability of executive departments and agencies to perform those functions. The Office shall work with State and local governments in assessing the adequacy of their legal authorities to permit them to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, and recover from terrorist threats and attacks.

(l) Budget Review. The Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (the “Director”) and the heads of executive departments and agencies, shall identify programs that contribute to the Administration's strategy for homeland security and, in the development of the President's annual budget submission, shall review and provide advice to the heads of departments and agencies for such programs. The Assistant to the President for Homeland Security shall provide advice to the Director on the level and use of funding in departments and agencies for homeland security-related activities and, prior to the Director's forwarding of the proposed annual budget submission to the President for transmittal to the Congress, shall certify to the Director the funding levels that the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security believes are necessary and appropriate for the homeland security-related activities of the executive branch.

Sec. 4. Administration.

(a) The Office of Homeland Security shall be directed by the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.

(b) The Office of Administration within the Executive Office of the President shall provide the Office of Homeland Security with such personnel, funding, and administrative support, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations, as directed by the Chief of Staff to carry out the provisions of this order.

(c) Heads of executive departments and agencies are authorized, to the extent permitted by law, to detail or assign personnel of such departments and agencies to the Office of Homeland Security upon request of the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, subject to the approval of the Chief of Staff.

Sec. 5. Establishment of Homeland Security Council.

(a) I hereby establish a Homeland Security Council (the “Council”), which shall be responsible for advising and assisting the President with respect to all aspects of homeland security. The Council shall serve as the mechanism for ensuring coordination of homeland security-related activities of executive departments and agencies and effective development and implementation of homeland security policies.

(b) The Council shall have as its members the President, the Vice President, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, and such other officers of the executive branch as the President may from time to time designate. The Chief of Staff, the Chief of Staff to the Vice President, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, the Counsel to the President, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget also are invited to attend any Council meeting. The Secretary of State, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, and the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy shall be invited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments and agencies and other senior officials shall be invited to attend Council meetings when appropriate.

(c) The Council shall meet at the President's direction. When the President is absent from a meeting of the Council, at the President's direction the Vice President may preside. The Assistant to the President for Homeland Security shall be responsible, at the President's direction, for determining the agenda, ensuring that necessary papers are prepared, and recording Council actions and Presidential decisions.

Sec. 6. Original Classification Authority. I hereby delegate the authority to classify information originally as Top Secret, in accordance with Executive Order 12958 [50 U.S.C. 435 note] or any successor Executive Order, to the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.

Sec. 7. Continuing Authorities. This order does not alter the existing authorities of United States Government departments and agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security. All executive departments and agencies are directed to assist the Council and the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security in carrying out the purposes of this order.

Sec. 8. General Provisions.

(a) This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its departments, agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

(b) References in this order to State and local governments shall be construed to include tribal governments and United States territories and other possessions.

(c) References to the “United States” shall be construed to include United States territories and possessions.

Sec. 9. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12656, set out as a note under section 5195 of this title.]

George W. Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13231. Critical Infrastructure Protection in the Information Age

Ex. Ord. No. 13231, Oct. 16, 2001, 66 F.R. 53063, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to ensure protection of information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems, in the information age, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy.

(a) The information technology revolution has changed the way business is transacted, government operates, and national defense is conducted. Those three functions now depend on an interdependent network of critical information infrastructures. The protection program authorized by this order shall consist of continuous efforts to secure information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems. Protection of these systems is essential to the telecommunications, energy, financial services, manufacturing, water, transportation, health care, and emergency services sectors.

(b) It is the policy of the United States to protect against disruption of the operation of information systems for critical infrastructure and thereby help to protect the people, economy, essential human and government services, and national security of the United States, and to ensure that any disruptions that occur are infrequent, of minimal duration, and manageable, and cause the least damage possible. The implementation of this policy shall include a voluntary public-private partnership, involving corporate and nongovernmental organizations.

Sec. 2. Scope. To achieve this policy, there shall be a senior executive branch board to coordinate and have cognizance of Federal efforts and programs that relate to protection of information systems and involve:

(a) cooperation with and protection of private sector critical infrastructure, State and local governments’ critical infrastructure, and supporting programs in corporate and academic organizations;

(b) protection of Federal departments’ and agencies’ critical infrastructure; and

(c) related national security programs.

Sec. 3. Establishment. I hereby establish the “President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board” (the “Board”).

Sec. 4. Continuing Authorities. This order does not alter the existing authorities or roles of United States Government departments and agencies. Authorities set forth in 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35, and other applicable law, provide senior officials with responsibility for the security of Federal Government information systems.

(a) Executive Branch Information Systems Security. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has the responsibility to develop and oversee the implementation of government-wide policies, principles, standards, and guidelines for the security of information systems that support the executive branch departments and agencies, except those noted in section 4(b) of this order. The Director of OMB shall advise the President and the appropriate department or agency head when there is a critical deficiency in the security practices within the purview of this section in an executive branch department or agency. The Board shall assist and support the Director of OMB in this function and shall be reasonably cognizant of programs related to security of department and agency information systems.

(b) National Security Information Systems. The Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) shall have responsibility to oversee, develop, and ensure implementation of policies, principles, standards, and guidelines for the security of information systems that support the operations under their respective control. In consultation with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and the affected departments and agencies, the Secretary of Defense and the DCI shall develop policies, principles, standards, and guidelines for the security of national security information systems that support the operations of other executive branch departments and agencies with national security information.

(i) Policies, principles, standards, and guidelines developed under this subsection may require more stringent protection than those developed in accordance with subsection 4(a) of this order.

(ii) The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs shall advise the President and the appropriate department or agency head when there is a critical deficiency in the security practices of a department or agency within the purview of this section. The Board, or one of its standing or ad hoc committees, shall be reasonably cognizant of programs to provide security and continuity to national security information systems.

(c) Additional Responsibilities: The Heads of Executive Branch Departments and Agencies. The heads of executive branch departments and agencies are responsible and accountable for providing and maintaining adequate levels of security for information systems, including emergency preparedness communications systems, for programs under their control. Heads of such departments and agencies shall ensure the development and, within available appropriations, funding of programs that adequately address these mission areas. Cost-effective security shall be built into and made an integral part of government information systems, especially those critical systems that support the national security and other essential government programs. Additionally, security should enable, and not unnecessarily impede, department and agency business operations.

Sec. 5. Board Responsibilities. Consistent with the responsibilities noted in section 4 of this order, the Board shall recommend policies and coordinate programs for protecting information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems. Among its activities to implement these responsibilities, the Board shall:

(a) Outreach to the Private Sector and State and Local Governments. In consultation with affected executive branch departments and agencies, coordinate outreach to and consultation with the private sector, including corporations that own, operate, develop, and equip information, telecommunications, transportation, energy, water, health care, and financial services, on protection of information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems; and coordinate outreach to State and local governments, as well as communities and representatives from academia and other relevant elements of society.

(i) When requested to do so, assist in the development of voluntary standards and best practices in a manner consistent with 15 U.S.C. Chapter 7;

(ii) Consult with potentially affected communities, including the legal, auditing, financial, and insurance communities, to the extent permitted by law, to determine areas of mutual concern; and

(iii) Coordinate the activities of senior liaison officers appointed by the Attorney General, the Secretaries of Energy, Commerce, Transportation, the Treasury, and Health and Human Services, and the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for outreach on critical infrastructure protection issues with private sector organizations within the areas of concern to these departments and agencies. In these and other related functions, the Board shall work in coordination with the Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology of the Department of Commerce, the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC), and the National Communications System (NCS).

(b) Information Sharing. Work with industry, State and local governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that systems are created and well managed to share threat warning, analysis, and recovery information among government network operation centers, information sharing and analysis centers established on a voluntary basis by industry, and other related operations centers. In this and other related functions, the Board shall work in coordination with the NCS, the Federal Computer Incident Response Center, the NIPC, and other departments and agencies, as appropriate.

(c) Incident Coordination and Crisis Response. Coordinate programs and policies for responding to information systems security incidents that threaten information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems. In this function, the Department of Justice, through the NIPC and the Manager of the NCS and other departments and agencies, as appropriate, shall work in coordination with the Board.

(d) Recruitment, Retention, and Training Executive Branch Security Professionals. In consultation with executive branch departments and agencies, coordinate programs to ensure that government employees with responsibilities for protecting information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems, are adequately trained and evaluated. In this function, the Office of Personnel Management shall work in coordination with the Board, as appropriate.

(e) Research and Development. Coordinate with the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) on a program of Federal Government research and development for protection of information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems, and ensure coordination of government activities in this field with corporations, universities, Federally funded research centers, and national laboratories. In this function, the Board shall work in coordination with the National Science Foundation, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and with other departments and agencies, as appropriate.

(f) Law Enforcement Coordination with National Security Components. Promote programs against cyber crime and assist Federal law enforcement agencies in gaining necessary cooperation from executive branch departments and agencies. Support Federal law enforcement agencies’ investigation of illegal activities involving information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems, and support coordination by these agencies with other departments and agencies with responsibilities to defend the Nation's security. In this function, the Board shall work in coordination with the Department of Justice, through the NIPC, and the Department of the Treasury, through the Secret Service, and with other departments and agencies, as appropriate.

(g) International Information Infrastructure Protection. Support the Department of State's coordination of United States Government programs for international cooperation covering international information infrastructure protection issues.

(h) Legislation. In accordance with OMB circular A–19, advise departments and agencies, the Director of OMB, and the Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs on legislation relating to protection of information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems.

(i) Coordination with Office of Homeland Security. Carry out those functions relating to protection of and recovery from attacks against information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, that were assigned to the Office of Homeland Security by Executive Order 13228 of October 8, 2001 [set out above]. The Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, in coordination with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, shall be responsible for defining the responsibilities of the Board in coordinating efforts to protect physical assets that support information systems.

Sec. 6. Membership. (a) Members of the Board shall be drawn from the executive branch departments, agencies, and offices listed below; in addition, concerned Federal departments and agencies may participate in the activities of appropriate committees of the Board. The Board shall be led by a Chair and Vice Chair, designated by the President. Its other members shall be the following senior officials or their designees:

(i) Secretary of State;

(ii) Secretary of the Treasury;

(iii) Secretary of Defense;

(iv) Attorney General;

(v) Secretary of Commerce;

(vi) Secretary of Health and Human Services;

(vii) Secretary of Transportation;

(viii) Secretary of Energy;

(ix) Director of Central Intelligence;

(x) Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff;

(xi) Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency;

(xii) Administrator of General Services;

(xiii) Director of the Office of Management and Budget;

(xiv) Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy;

(xv) Chief of Staff to the Vice President;

(xvi) Director of the National Economic Council;

(xvii) Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs;

(xviii) Assistant to the President for Homeland Security;

(xix) Chief of Staff to the President; and

(xx) Such other executive branch officials as the President may designate.

Members of the Board and their designees shall be full-time or permanent part-time officers or employees of the Federal Government.

(b) In addition, the following officials shall serve as members of the Board and shall form the Board's Coordination Committee:

(i) Director, Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office, Department of Commerce;

(ii) Manager, National Communications System;

(iii) Vice Chair, Chief Information Officers’ (CIO) Council;

(iv) Information Assurance Director, National Security Agency;

(v) Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management; and

(vi) Director, National Infrastructure Protection Center, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Justice.

(c) The Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission may appoint a representative to the Board.

Sec. 7. Chair. (a) The Chair also shall be the Special Advisor to the President for Cyberspace Security. Executive branch departments and agencies shall make all reasonable efforts to keep the Chair fully informed in a timely manner, and to the greatest extent permitted by law, of all programs and issues within the purview of the Board. The Chair, in consultation with the Board, shall call and preside at meetings of the Board and set the agenda for the Board. The Chair, in consultation with the Board, may propose policies and programs to appropriate officials to ensure the protection of the Nation's information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems. To ensure full coordination between the responsibilities of the National Security Council (NSC) and the Office of Homeland Security, the Chair shall report to both the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and to the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security. The Chair shall coordinate with the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy on issues relating to private sector systems and economic effects and with the Director of OMB on issues relating to budgets and the security of computer networks addressed in subsection 4(a) of this order.

(b) The Chair shall be assisted by an appropriately sized staff within the White House Office. In addition, heads of executive branch departments and agencies are authorized, to the extent permitted by law, to detail or assign personnel of such departments and agencies to the Board's staff upon request of the Chair, subject to the approval of the Chief of Staff to the President. Members of the Board's staff with responsibilities relating to national security information systems, communications, and information warfare may, with respect to those responsibilities, also work at the direction of the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs.

Sec. 8. Standing Committees. (a) The Board may establish standing and ad hoc committees as appropriate. Representation on standing committees shall not be limited to those departments and agencies on the Board, but may include representatives of other concerned executive branch departments and agencies.

(b) Chairs of standing and ad hoc committees shall report fully and regularly on the activities of the committees to the Board, which shall ensure that the committees are well coordinated with each other.

(c) There are established the following standing committees:

(i) Private Sector and State and Local Government Outreach, chaired by the designee of the Secretary of Commerce, to work in coordination with the designee of the Chairman of the National Economic Council.

(ii) Executive Branch Information Systems Security, chaired by the designee of the Director of OMB. The committee shall assist OMB in fulfilling its responsibilities under 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35 and other applicable law.

(iii) National Security Systems. The National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee, as established by and consistent with NSD–42 and chaired by the Department of Defense, shall serve as a Board standing committee, and be redesignated the Committee on National Security Systems.

(iv) Incident Response Coordination, co-chaired by the designees of the Attorney General and the Secretary of Defense.

(v) Research and Development, chaired by a designee of the Director of OSTP.

(vi) National Security and Emergency Preparedness Communications. The NCS Committee of Principals is renamed the Board's Committee for National Security and Emergency Preparedness Communications. The reporting functions established above for standing committees are in addition to the functions set forth in Executive Order 12472 of April 3, 1984 [42 U.S.C. 5195 note], and do not alter any function or role set forth therein.

(vii) Physical Security, co-chaired by the designees of the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General, to coordinate programs to ensure the physical security of information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications, and the physical assets that support such systems. The standing committee shall coordinate its work with the Office of Homeland Security and shall work closely with the Physical Security Working Group of the Records Access and Information Security Policy Coordinating Committee to ensure coordination of efforts.

(viii) Infrastructure Interdependencies, co-chaired by the designees of the Secretaries of Transportation and Energy, to coordinate programs to assess the unique risks, threats, and vulnerabilities associated with the interdependency of information systems for critical infrastructures, including the development of effective models, simulations, and other analytic tools and cost-effective technologies in this area.

(ix) International Affairs, chaired by a designee of the Secretary of State, to support Department of State coordination of United States Government programs for international cooperation covering international information infrastructure issues.

(x) Financial and Banking Information Infrastructure, chaired by a designee of the Secretary of the Treasury and including representatives of the banking and financial institution regulatory agencies.

(xi) Other Committees. Such other standing committees as may be established by the Board.

(d) Subcommittees. The chair of each standing committee may form necessary subcommittees with organizational representation as determined by the Chair.

(e) Streamlining. The Board shall develop procedures that specify the manner in which it or a subordinate committee will perform the responsibilities previously assigned to the Policy Coordinating Committee. The Board, in coordination with the Director of OSTP, shall review the functions of the Joint Telecommunications Resources Board, established under Executive Order 12472 [42 U.S.C. 5195 note], and make recommendations about its future role.

Sec. 9. Planning and Budget. (a) The Board, on a periodic basis, shall propose a National Plan or plans for subjects within its purview. The Board, in coordination with the Office of Homeland Security, also shall make recommendations to OMB on those portions of executive branch department and agency budgets that fall within the Board's purview, after review of relevant program requirements and resources.

(b) The Office of Administration within the Executive Office of the President shall provide the Board with such personnel, funding, and administrative support, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations, as directed by the Chief of Staff to carry out the provisions of this order. Only those funds that are available for the Office of Homeland Security, established by Executive Order 13228 [set out above], shall be available for such purposes. To the extent permitted by law and as appropriate, agencies represented on the Board also may provide administrative support for the Board. The National Security Agency shall ensure that the Board's information and communications systems are appropriately secured.

(c) The Board may annually request the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, and the Intelligence Community, as that term is defined in Executive Order 12333 of December 4, 1981 [50 U.S.C. 401 note], to include in their budget requests to OMB funding for demonstration projects and research to support the Board's activities.

Sec. 10. Presidential Advisory Panels. The Chair shall work closely with panels of senior experts from outside of the government that advise the President, in particular: the President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) created by Executive Order 12382 of September 13, 1982, as amended, and the National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC or Council) created by this Executive Order. The Chair and Vice Chair of these two panels also may meet with the Board, as appropriate and to the extent permitted by law, to provide a private sector perspective.

(a) NSTAC. The NSTAC provides the President advice on the security and continuity of communications systems essential for national security and emergency preparedness.

(b) NIAC. There is hereby established the National Infrastructure Advisory Council, which shall provide the President advice on the security of information systems for critical infrastructure supporting other sectors of the economy: banking and finance, transportation, energy, manufacturing, and emergency government services. The NIAC shall be composed of not more than 30 members appointed by the President. The members of the NIAC shall be selected from the private sector, academia, and State and local government. Members of the NIAC shall have expertise relevant to the functions of the NIAC and generally shall be selected from industry Chief Executive Officers (and equivalently ranked leaders in other organizations) with responsibilities for the security of information infrastructure supporting the critical sectors of the economy, including banking and finance, transportation, energy, communications, and emergency government services. Members shall not be full-time officials or employees of the executive branch of the Federal Government.

(i) The President shall designate a Chair and Vice Chair from among the members of the NIAC.

(ii) The Chair of the Board established by this order will serve as the Executive Director of the NIAC.

(c) NIAC Functions. The NIAC will meet periodically to:

(i) enhance the partnership of the public and private sectors in protecting information systems for critical infrastructures and provide reports on this issue to the President, as appropriate;

(ii) propose and develop ways to encourage private industry to perform periodic risk assessments of critical information and telecommunications systems;

(iii) monitor the development of private sector Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) and provide recommendations to the Board on how these organizations can best foster improved cooperation among the ISACs, the NIPC, and other Federal Government entities;

(iv) report to the President through the Board, which shall ensure appropriate coordination with the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy under the terms of this order; and

(v) advise lead agencies with critical infrastructure responsibilities, sector coordinators, the NIPC, the ISACs, and the Board.

(d) Administration of the NIAC.

(i) The NIAC may hold hearings, conduct inquiries, and establish subcommittees, as appropriate.

(ii) Upon the request of the Chair, and to the extent permitted by law, the heads of the executive branch departments and agencies shall provide the Council with information and advice relating to its functions.

(iii) Senior Federal Government officials may participate in the meetings of the NIAC, as appropriate.

(iv) Members shall serve without compensation for their work on the Council. However, members may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law for persons serving intermittently in Federal Government service (5 U.S.C. 5701–5707).

(v) To the extent permitted by law, and subject to the availability of appropriations, the Department of Commerce, through the CIAO, shall provide the NIAC with administrative services, staff, and other support services and such funds as may be necessary for the performance of the NIAC's functions.

(e) General Provisions.

(i) Insofar as the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), may apply to the NIAC, the functions of the President under that Act, except that of reporting to the Congress, shall be performed by the Department of Commerce in accordance with the guidelines and procedures established by the Administrator of General Services.

(ii) The Council shall terminate 2 years from the date of this order, unless extended by the President prior to that date.

(iii) Executive Order 13130 of July 14, 1999, is hereby revoked.

Sec. 11. National Communications System. Changes in technology are causing the convergence of much of telephony, data relay, and internet communications networks into an interconnected network of networks. The NCS and its National Coordinating Center shall support use of telephony, converged information, voice networks, and next generation networks for emergency preparedness and national security communications functions assigned to them in Executive Order 12472 [42 U.S.C. 5195 note]. All authorities and assignments of responsibilities to departments and agencies in that order, including the role of the Manager of NCS, remain unchanged except as explicitly modified by this order.

Sec. 12. Counter-intelligence. The Board shall coordinate its activities with those of the Office of the Counter-intelligence Executive to address the threat to programs within the Board's purview from hostile foreign intelligence services.

Sec. 13. Classification Authority. I hereby delegate to the Chair the authority to classify information originally as Top Secret, in accordance with Executive Order 12958 of April 17, 1995, as amended [50 U.S.C. 435 note], or any successor Executive Order.

Sec. 14. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall supersede any requirement made by or under law.

(b) This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity, against the United States, its departments, agencies or other entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

George W. Bush.      

Executive Order No. 13260

Ex. Ord. No. 13260, Mar. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 13241, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §4, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10619, which established the President's Homeland Security Advisory Council and Senior Advisory Committees for Homeland Security, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §4, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10619, eff. Mar. 31, 2003.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in title 22 section 6402.

1 So in original. Another subsec. (i) is set out after subsec. (j).

2 So in original. Probably should be “(k)”.

§402a. Coordination of counterintelligence activities

(a) Establishment of Counterintelligence Policy Board

There is established within the executive branch of Government a National Counterintelligence Policy Board (in this section referred to as the “Board”). The Board shall report to the President through the National Security Council.

(b) Chairperson

The National Counterintelligence Executive under section 902 of the Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002 [50 U.S.C. 402b] shall serve as the chairperson of the Board.

(c) Membership

The membership of the National Counterintelligence Policy Board shall consist of the following:

(1) The National Counterintelligence Executive.

(2) Senior personnel of departments and elements of the United States Government, appointed by the head of the department or element concerned, as follows:

(A) The Department of Justice, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(B) The Department of Defense, including the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(C) The Department of State.

(D) The Department of Energy.

(E) The Central Intelligence Agency.

(F) Any other department, agency, or element of the United States Government specified by the President.

(d) Functions and discharge of functions

(1) The Board shall—

(A) serve as the principal mechanism for—

(i) developing policies and procedures for the approval of the President to govern the conduct of counterintelligence activities; and

(ii) upon the direction of the President, resolving conflicts that arise between elements of the Government conducting such activities; and


(B) act as an interagency working group to—

(i) ensure the discussion and review of matters relating to the implementation of the Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002; and

(ii) provide advice to the National Counterintelligence Executive on priorities in the implementation of the National Counterintelligence Strategy produced by the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive under section 904(e)(2) of that Act [50 U.S.C. 402c(e)(2)].


(2) The Board may, for purposes of carrying out its functions under this section, establish such interagency boards and working groups as the Board considers appropriate.

(e) Coordination of counterintelligence matters with Federal Bureau of Investigation

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (5), the head of each department or agency within the executive branch shall ensure that—

(A) the Federal Bureau of Investigation is advised immediately of any information, regardless of its origin, which indicates that classified information is being, or may have been, disclosed in an unauthorized manner to a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power;

(B) following a report made pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Federal Bureau of Investigation is consulted with respect to all subsequent actions which may be undertaken by the department or agency concerned to determine the source of such loss or compromise; and

(C) where, after appropriate consultation with the department or agency concerned, the Federal Bureau of Investigation undertakes investigative activities to determine the source of the loss or compromise, the Federal Bureau of Investigation is given complete and timely access to the employees and records of the department or agency concerned for purposes of such investigative activities.


(2) Except as provided in paragraph (5), the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall ensure that espionage information obtained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation pertaining to the personnel, operations, or information of departments or agencies of the executive branch, is provided through appropriate channels in a timely manner to the department or agency concerned, and that such departments or agencies are consulted in a timely manner with respect to espionage investigations undertaken by the Federal Bureau of Investigation which involve the personnel, operations, or information of such department or agency.

(3)(A) The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall submit to the head of the department or agency concerned a written assessment of the potential impact of the actions of the department or agency on a counterintelligence investigation.

(B) The head of the department or agency concerned shall—

(i) use an assessment under subparagraph (A) as an aid in determining whether, and under what circumstances, the subject of an investigation under paragraph (1) should be left in place for investigative purposes; and

(ii) notify in writing the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of such determination.


(C) The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the head of the department or agency concerned shall continue to consult, as appropriate, to review the status of an investigation covered by this paragraph, and to reassess, as appropriate, a determination of the head of the department or agency concerned to leave a subject in place for investigative purposes.

(4)(A) The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall notify appropriate officials within the executive branch, including the head of the department or agency concerned, of the commencement of a full field espionage investigation with respect to an employee within the executive branch.

(B) A department or agency may not conduct a polygraph examination, interrogate, or otherwise take any action that is likely to alert an employee covered by a notice under subparagraph (A) of an investigation described in that subparagraph without prior coordination and consultation with the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(5) Where essential to meet extraordinary circumstances affecting vital national security interests of the United States, the President may on a case-by-case basis waive the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), or (3), as they apply to the head of a particular department or agency, or the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Such waiver shall be in writing and shall fully state the justification for such waiver. Within thirty days, the President shall notify the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives that such waiver has been issued, and at that time or as soon as national security considerations permit, provide these committees with a complete explanation of the circumstances which necessitated such waiver.

(6) Nothing in this section may be construed to alter the existing jurisdictional arrangements between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Defense with respect to investigations of persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, nor to impose additional reporting requirements upon the Department of Defense with respect to such investigations beyond those required by existing law and executive branch policy.

(7) As used in this section, the terms “foreign power” and “agent of a foreign power” have the same meanings as set forth in sections 1 1801(a) and (b), respectively, of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §811, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3455; Pub. L. 106–120, title VI, §602, Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1620; Pub. L. 106–567, title VI, §605, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2853; Pub. L. 107–306, title VIII, §811(b)(5)(B), title IX, §903, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2424, 2433; Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §361(g), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2625.)

References in Text

The Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(B)(i), is title IX of Pub. L. 107–306, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2432, which enacted sections 402b and 402c of this title, amended this section, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 402b of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2002 Amendment note set out under section 401 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Counterintelligence and Security Enhancements Act of 1994 and also as part of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–177, which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by redesignating pars. (7) and (8) as (6) and (7), respectively, and striking out former par. (6), was executed by making the amendment to subsec. (e) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of subsec. (c) as (e) by Pub. L. 107–306, §903(a)(2), see below. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows:

“(6)(A) Not later each year than the date provided in section 415b of this title, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees (as defined in section 401a of this title) a report with respect to compliance with paragraphs (1) and (2) during the previous calendar year.

“(B) Not later than February 1 each year, the Director shall, in accordance with applicable security procedures, submit to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and House of Representatives a report with respect to compliance with paragraphs (1) and (2) during the previous calendar year.

“(C) The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall submit each report under this paragraph in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense.”

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–306, §903(a)(1), (3), added subsec. (b) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (b). Text read as follows: “The Board shall serve as the principal mechanism for—

“(1) developing policies and procedures for the approval of the President to govern the conduct of counterintelligence activities; and

“(2) resolving conflicts, as directed by the President, which may arise between elements of the Government which carry out such activities.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–306, §903(b), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 107–306, §811(b)(5)(B), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: “The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall, in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense, report annually, beginning on February 1, 1995, and continuing each year thereafter, to the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and, in accordance with applicable security procedures, the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate with respect to compliance with paragraphs (1) and (2) during the previous calendar year.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–306, §903(c), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–306, §903(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (c) as (e).

2000—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–567, §605(a)(1), substituted “paragraph (5)” for “paragraph (3)”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 106–567, §605(a)(1), (b), substituted “paragraph (5)” for “paragraph (3)” and inserted “in a timely manner” after “through appropriate channels” and “are consulted”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106–567, §605(a)(3), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 106–567, §605(a), (c), added par. (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 106–567, §605(a)(2), (4), redesignated par. (3) as (5) and substituted “paragraph (1), (2), or (3)” for “paragraph (1) or (2)”. Former par. (5) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (c)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 106–567, §605(a)(2), redesignated pars. (4) to (6) as (6) to (8), respectively.

1999—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 106–120 struck out “after a report has been provided pursuant to paragraph (1)(A)” before period at end.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–177 effective Dec. 31, 2003, see section 361(n) of Pub. L. 108–177, set out as a note under section 1611 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Annual Reports on Intelligence Activities of the People's Republic of China

Pub. L. 105–107, title III, §308, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2253, as amended by Pub. L. 107–306, title VIII, §811(b)(5)(D), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2424, related to annual reports to Congress by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation on intelligence activities of the People's Republic of China directed against or affecting the interests of the United States, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §361(f), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2625.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 402b of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

§402b. National Counterintelligence Executive

(a) Establishment

(1) There shall be a National Counterintelligence Executive, who shall be appointed by the President.

(2) It is the sense of Congress that the President should seek the views of the Attorney General, Secretary of Defense, and Director of Central Intelligence in selecting an individual for appointment as the Executive.

(b) Mission

The mission of the National Counterintelligence Executive shall be to serve as the head of national counterintelligence for the United States Government.

(c) Duties

Subject to the direction and control of the President, the duties of the National Counterintelligence Executive are as follows:

(1) To carry out the mission referred to in subsection (b) of this section.

(2) To act as chairperson of the National Counterintelligence Policy Board under section 402a of this title.

(3) To act as head of the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive under section 402c of this title.

(4) To participate as an observer on such boards, committees, and entities of the executive branch as the President considers appropriate for the discharge of the mission and functions of the Executive and the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive under section 402c of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–306, title IX, §902, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2432.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002, and also as part of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Purpose

Pub. L. 107–306, title IX, §901(b), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2432, provided that: “The purpose of this title [enacting this section and section 402c of this title, amending section 402a of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 401 of this title] is to facilitate the enhancement of the counterintelligence activities of the United States Government by—

“(1) enabling the counterintelligence community of the United States Government to fulfill better its mission of identifying, assessing, prioritizing, and countering the intelligence threats to the United States;

“(2) ensuring that the counterintelligence community of the United States Government acts in an efficient and effective manner; and

“(3) providing for the integration of all the counterintelligence activities of the United States Government.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 402a of this title.

§402c. Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive

(a) Establishment

There shall be an Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive.

(b) Head of Office

The National Counterintelligence Executive shall be the head of the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive.

(c) Location of Office

The Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive shall be located in the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.

(d) General Counsel

(1) There shall be in the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive a general counsel who shall serve as principal legal advisor to the National Counterintelligence Executive.

(2) The general counsel shall—

(A) provide legal advice and counsel to the Executive on matters relating to functions of the Office;

(B) ensure that the Office complies with all applicable laws, regulations, Executive orders, and guidelines; and

(C) carry out such other duties as the Executive may specify.

(e) Functions

Subject to the direction and control of the National Counterintelligence Executive, the functions of the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive shall be as follows:

(1) National threat identification and prioritization assessment

Subject to subsection (f) of this section, in consultation with appropriate department and agencies of the United States Government, and private sector entities, to produce on an annual basis a strategic planning assessment of the counterintelligence requirements of the United States to be known as the National Threat Identification and Prioritization Assessment.

(2) National Counterintelligence Strategy

Subject to subsection (f) of this section, in consultation with appropriate department and agencies of the United States Government, and private sector entities, and based on the most current National Threat Identification and Prioritization Assessment under paragraph (1), to produce on an annual basis a strategy for the counterintelligence programs and activities of the United States Government to be known as the National Counterintelligence Strategy.

(3) Implementation of National Counterintelligence Strategy

To evaluate on an ongoing basis the implementation of the National Counterintelligence Strategy and to submit to the President periodic reports on such evaluation, including a discussion of any shortfalls in the implementation of the Strategy and recommendations for remedies for such shortfalls.

(4) National counterintelligence strategic analyses

As directed by the Director of Central Intelligence and in consultation with appropriate elements of the departments and agencies of the United States Government, to oversee and coordinate the production of strategic analyses of counterintelligence matters, including the production of counterintelligence damage assessments and assessments of lessons learned from counterintelligence activities.

(5) National counterintelligence program budget

In consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence—

(A) to coordinate the development of budgets and resource allocation plans for the counterintelligence programs and activities of the Department of Defense, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, and other appropriate elements of the United States Government;

(B) to ensure that the budgets and resource allocation plans developed under subparagraph (A) address the objectives and priorities for counterintelligence under the National Counterintelligence Strategy; and

(C) to submit to the National Security Council periodic reports on the activities undertaken by the Office under subparagraphs (A) and (B).

(6) National counterintelligence collection and targeting coordination

To develop priorities for counterintelligence investigations and operations, and for collection of counterintelligence, for purposes of the National Counterintelligence Strategy, except that the Office may not—

(A) carry out any counterintelligence investigations or operations; or

(B) establish its own contacts, or carry out its own activities, with foreign intelligence services.

(7) National counterintelligence outreach, watch, and warning

(A) Counterintelligence vulnerability surveys

To carry out and coordinate surveys of the vulnerability of the United States Government, and the private sector, to intelligence threats in order to identify the areas, programs, and activities that require protection from such threats.

(B) Outreach

To carry out and coordinate outreach programs and activities on counterintelligence to other elements of the United States Government, and the private sector, and to coordinate the dissemination to the public of warnings on intelligence threats to the United States.

(C) Research and development

To ensure that research and development programs and activities of the United States Government, and the private sector, direct attention to the needs of the counterintelligence community for technologies, products, and services.

(D) Training and professional development

To develop policies and standards for training and professional development of individuals engaged in counterintelligence activities and to manage the conduct of joint training exercises for such personnel.

(f) Additional requirements regarding National Threat Identification and Prioritization Assessment and National Counterintelligence Strategy

(1) A National Threat Identification and Prioritization Assessment under subsection (e)(1) of this section, and any modification of such assessment, shall not go into effect until approved by the President.

(2) A National Counterintelligence Strategy under subsection (e)(2) of this section, and any modification of such strategy, shall not go into effect until approved by the President.

(3) The National Counterintelligence Executive shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees each National Threat Identification and Prioritization Assessment, or modification thereof, and each National Counterintelligence Strategy, or modification thereof, approved under this section.

(4) In this subsection, the term “congressional intelligence committees” means—

(A) the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

(B) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

(g) Personnel

(1) Personnel of the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive may consist of personnel employed by the Office or personnel on detail from any other department, agency, or element of the Federal Government. Any such detail may be on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, at the election of the head of the agency detailing such personnel.

(2) Notwithstanding section 104(d) 1 or any other provision of law limiting the period of the detail of personnel on a nonreimbursable basis, the detail of an officer or employee of United States or a member of the Armed Forces under paragraph (1) on a nonreimbursable basis may be for any period in excess of one year that the National Counterintelligence Executive and the head of the department, agency, or element concerned consider appropriate.

(3) The employment of personnel by the Office, including the appointment, compensation and benefits, management, and separation of such personnel, shall be governed by the provisions of law on such matters with respect to the personnel of the Central Intelligence Agency, except that, for purposes of the applicability of such provisions of law to personnel of the Office, the National Counterintelligence Executive shall be treated as the head of the Office.

(4) Positions in the Office shall be excepted service positions for purposes of title 5.

(h) Support

(1) The Attorney General, Secretary of Defense, and Director of Central Intelligence may each provide the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive such support as may be necessary to permit the Office to carry out its functions under this section.

(2) Subject to any terms and conditions specified by the Director of Central Intelligence, the Director may provide administrative and contract support to the Office as if the Office were an element of the Central Intelligence Agency.

(3) Support provided under this subsection may be provided on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, at the election of the official providing such support.

(i) Availability of funds for reimbursement

The National Counterintelligence Executive may, from amounts available for the Office, transfer to a department or agency detailing personnel under subsection (g) of this section, or providing support under subsection (h) of this section, on a reimbursable basis amounts appropriate to reimburse such department or agency for the detail of such personnel or the provision of such support, as the case may be.

(j) Contracts

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the National Counterintelligence Executive may enter into any contract, lease, cooperative agreement, or other transaction that the Executive considers appropriate to carry out the functions of the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive under this section.

(2) The authority under paragraph (1) to enter into contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, and other transactions shall be subject to any terms, conditions, and limitations applicable to the Central Intelligence Agency under law with respect to similar contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, and other transactions.

(k) Treatment of activities under certain administrative laws

The files of the Office shall be treated as operational files of the Central Intelligence Agency for purposes of section 701 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 431) to the extent such files meet criteria under subsection (b) of that section for treatment of files as operational files of an element of the Agency.

(l) Oversight by Congress

The location of the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive within the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence shall not be construed as affecting access by Congress, or any committee of Congress, to—

(1) any information, document, record, or paper in the possession of the Office; or

(2) any personnel of the Office.

(m) Construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed as affecting the authority of the Director of Central Intelligence, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, or the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation as provided or specified under the National Security Act of 1947 or under other provisions of law.

(Pub. L. 107–306, title IX, §904, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2434.)

References in Text

Section 104(d), referred to in subsec. (g)(2), is section 104(d) of Pub. L. 107–306, title I, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2387, which is not classified to the Code.

The National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsec. (m), is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002, and also as part of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 402a, 402b of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§403. Office of the Director of Central Intelligence

(a) Director of Central Intelligence

There is a Director of Central Intelligence who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Director shall—

(1) serve as head of the United States intelligence community;

(2) act as the principal adviser to the President for intelligence matters related to the national security; and

(3) serve as head of the Central Intelligence Agency.

(b) Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence

(1) There is a Deputy Director of Central Intelligence who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) There is a Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(3) Each Deputy Director of Central Intelligence shall have extensive national security expertise.

(c) Military status of Director and Deputy Directors

(1)(A) Not more than one of the individuals serving in the positions specified in subparagraph (B) may be a commissioned officer of the Armed Forces, whether in active or retired status.

(B) The positions referred to in subparagraph (A) are the following:

(i) The Director of Central Intelligence.

(ii) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence.

(iii) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management.


(2) It is the sense of Congress that, under ordinary circumstances, it is desirable that one of the individuals serving in the positions specified in paragraph (1)(B)—

(A) be a commissioned officer of the Armed Forces, whether in active or retired status; or

(B) have, by training or experience, an appreciation of military intelligence activities and requirements.


(3) A commissioned officer of the Armed Forces, while serving in a position specified in paragraph (1)(B)—

(A) shall not be subject to supervision or control by the Secretary of Defense or by any officer or employee of the Department of Defense;

(B) shall not exercise, by reason of the officer's status as a commissioned officer, any supervision or control with respect to any of the military or civilian personnel of the Department of Defense except as otherwise authorized by law; and

(C) shall not be counted against the numbers and percentages of commissioned officers of the rank and grade of such officer authorized for the military department of that officer.


(4) Except as provided in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (3), the appointment of an officer of the Armed Forces to a position specified in paragraph (1)(B) shall not affect the status, position, rank, or grade of such officer in the Armed Forces, or any emolument, perquisite, right, privilege, or benefit incident to or arising out of any such status, position, rank, or grade.

(5) A commissioned officer of the Armed Forces on active duty who is appointed to a position specified in paragraph (1)(B), while serving in such position and while remaining on active duty, shall continue to receive military pay and allowances and shall not receive the pay prescribed for such position. Funds from which such pay and allowances are paid shall be reimbursed from funds available to the Director of Central Intelligence.

(d) Duties of Deputy Directors

(1)(A) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence shall assist the Director of Central Intelligence in carrying out the Director's responsibilities under this Act.

(B) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence shall act for, and exercise the powers of, the Director of Central Intelligence during the Director's absence or disability or during a vacancy in the position of the Director of Central Intelligence.

(2) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management shall, subject to the direction of the Director of Central Intelligence, be responsible for the following:

(A) Directing the operations of the Community Management Staff.

(B) Through the Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection, ensuring the efficient and effective collection of national intelligence using technical means and human sources.

(C) Through the Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production, conducting oversight of the analysis and production of intelligence by elements of the intelligence community.

(D) Through the Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration, performing community-wide management functions of the intelligence community, including the management of personnel and resources.


(3)(A) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence takes precedence in the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence immediately after the Director of Central Intelligence.

(B) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management takes precedence in the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence immediately after the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence.

(e) Office of the Director of Central Intelligence

(1) There is an Office of the Director of Central Intelligence. The function of the Office is to assist the Director of Central Intelligence in carrying out the duties and responsibilities of the Director under this Act and to carry out such other duties as may be prescribed by law.

(2) The Office of the Director of Central Intelligence is composed of the following:

(A) The Director of Central Intelligence.

(B) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence.

(C) The Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management.

(D) The National Intelligence Council.

(E) The Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection.

(F) The Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production.

(G) The Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration.

(H) Such other offices and officials as may be established by law or the Director of Central Intelligence may establish or designate in the Office.


(3) To assist the Director in fulfilling the responsibilities of the Director as head of the intelligence community, the Director shall employ and utilize in the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence a professional staff having an expertise in matters relating to such responsibilities and may establish permanent positions and appropriate rates of pay with respect to that staff.

(4) The Office of the Director of Central Intelligence shall, for administrative purposes, be within the Central Intelligence Agency.

(f) Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection

(1) To assist the Director of Central Intelligence in carrying out the Director's responsibilities under this Act, there shall be an Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) The Assistant Director for Collection shall assist the Director of Central Intelligence in carrying out the Director's collection responsibilities in order to ensure the efficient and effective collection of national intelligence.

(g) Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production

(1) To assist the Director of Central Intelligence in carrying out the Director's responsibilities under this Act, there shall be an Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) The Assistant Director for Analysis and Production shall—

(A) oversee the analysis and production of intelligence by the elements of the intelligence community;

(B) establish standards and priorities relating to such analysis and production;

(C) monitor the allocation of resources for the analysis and production of intelligence in order to identify unnecessary duplication in the analysis and production of intelligence;

(D) direct competitive analysis of analytical products having National 1 importance;

(E) identify intelligence to be collected for purposes of the Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection; and

(F) provide such additional analysis and production of intelligence as the President and the National Security Council may require.

(h) Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration

(1) To assist the Director of Central Intelligence in carrying out the Director's responsibilities under this Act, there shall be an Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) The Assistant Director for Administration shall manage such activities relating to the administration of the intelligence community as the Director of Central Intelligence shall require.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §102, as added and amended Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §§805(a), 809(a), 810, 811, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3477, 3481, 3482; Pub. L. 105–107, title IV, §405, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2261; Pub. L. 105–272, title III, §306, Oct. 20, 1998, 112 Stat. 2401.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(1)(A), (e)(1), (f)(1), (g)(1), and (h)(1), means act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended, known as the National Security Act of 1947. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 403, acts July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §102, 61 Stat. 497; Apr. 4, 1953, ch. 16, 67 Stat. 19; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §704, 106 Stat. 3189; Jan. 6, 1996, Pub. L. 104–93, title VII, §701, 109 Stat. 977; Feb. 10, 1996, Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §570, 110 Stat. 353, related to establishment of Central Intelligence Agency and appointment and functions of its Director and Deputy Director prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §805(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3477.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (g)(2)(D) to (F). Pub. L. 105–272 added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpars. (D) and (E) as (E) and (F), respectively.

1997—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 105–107 added par. (4).

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–293, §809(a), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–293, §810, added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–293, §811, added subsec. (h).

Transfer of Functions

Missions and functions of elements of Central Intelligence Agency as specified in classified annex to Pub. L. 104–201, and related personnel, assets, and balances of appropriations and authorizations of appropriations, transferred to National Imagery and Mapping Agency, see sections 1111 and 1113 of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as notes under section 441 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Improvement of Equality of Employment Opportunities in the Intelligence Community

Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §319, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2614, provided that:

“(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) It is the recommendation of the Joint Inquiry of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, that the Intelligence Community should enhance recruitment of a more ethnically and culturally diverse workforce and devise a strategy to capitalize upon the unique cultural and linguistic capabilities of first generation Americans.

“(2) The Intelligence Community could greatly benefit from an increased number of employees who are proficient in foreign languages and knowledgeable of world cultures, especially in foreign languages that are critical to the national security interests of the United States. Particular emphasis should be given to the recruitment of United States citizens whose linguistic capabilities are acutely required for the improvement of the overall intelligence collection and analysis effort of the United States Government.

“(3) The Intelligence Community has a significantly lower percentage of women and minorities than the total workforce of the Federal government and the total civilian labor force.

“(4) Women and minorities continue to be under-represented in senior grade levels, and in core mission areas, of the intelligence community.

“(b) Pilot Project To Promote Equality of Employment Opportunities for Women and Minorities Throughout the Intelligence Community Using Innovative Methodologies.—The Director of Central Intelligence shall carry out a pilot project under this section to test and evaluate alternative, innovative methods to promote equality of employment opportunities in the intelligence community for women, minorities, and individuals with diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds, skills, language proficiency, and expertise.

“(c) Methods.—In carrying out the pilot project, the Director shall employ methods to increase diversity of officers and employees in the intelligence community.

“(d) Duration of Project.—The Director shall carry out the project under this section for a 3-year period.

“(e) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date the Director implements the pilot project under this section, the Director shall submit to Congress a report on the project. The report shall include—

“(1) an assessment of the effectiveness of the project; and

“(2) recommendations on the continuation of the project, as well recommendations as for improving the effectiveness of the project in meeting the goals of promoting equality of employment opportunities in the intelligence community for women, minorities, and individuals with diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds, skills, language proficiency, and expertise.

“(f) Diversity Plan.—(1) Not later than February 15, 2004, the Director of Central Intelligence shall submit to Congress a report which describes the plan of the Director, entitled the ‘DCI Diversity Strategic Plan’, and any subsequent revision to that plan, to increase diversity of officers and employees in the intelligence community, including the short- and long-term goals of the plan. The report shall also provide a detailed description of the progress that has been made by each element of the intelligence community in implementing the plan.

“(2) In implementing the plan, the Director shall incorporate innovative methods for recruitment and hiring that the Director has determined to be effective from the pilot project carried out under this section.

“(g) Intelligence Community Defined.—In this section, the term ‘intelligence community’ has the meaning given that term in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401(4) [401a(4)]).”

Report on Lessons Learned From Military Operations in Iraq

Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §357, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2621, provided that:

“(a) Report.—As soon as possible, but not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 2003], the Director of Central Intelligence shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the intelligence lessons learned as a result of Operation Iraqi Freedom, including lessons relating to the following:

“(1) The tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence.

“(2) The accuracy, timeliness, and objectivity of intelligence analysis.

“(3) The intelligence support available to policymakers and members of the Armed Forces in combat.

“(4) The coordination of intelligence activities and operations with military operations.

“(5) The strengths and limitations of intelligence systems and equipment.

“(6) Such other matters as the Director considers appropriate.

“(b) Recommendations.—The report under subsection (a) shall include such recommendations on improvement in the matters described in subsection (a) as the Director considers appropriate.

“(c) Appropriate Committees of Congress Defined.—In this section, the term ‘appropriate committees of Congress’ means—

“(1) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives; and

“(2) the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate.”

Support for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education

Pub. L. 103–178, title IV, §401, Dec. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 2037, authorized Director of Central Intelligence to carry out a program in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 to award cash prizes and visits to the Central Intelligence Agency (including the payment of costs associated with such visits) for students who participate in high school science fairs within the United States.

Central Intelligence Agency Consolidation Plan

Pub. L. 102–183, title VI, §601, Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1269, authorized funding in fiscal year 1992 for costs associated with the land acquisition and related expenditures necessary to implement a plan for consolidation of Central Intelligence Agency facilities. Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8083A, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1191.

Equal Employment Opportunity Plan

Pub. L. 100–453, title IV, §403, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1908, directed Director of Central Intelligence and Secretary of Defense, 90 days after Sept. 29, 1988, to submit to Congress a report setting forth an analysis of each equal employment opportunity group's representation in Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency respectively and proposing a plan for rectifying any underrepresentation of any such equal employment opportunity group by Sept. 30, 1991, and further directed submission of interim reports on Feb. 1, 1989, 1990, and 1991 concerning Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency respectively detailing efforts made, and progress realized, by each such agency in achieving objectives of each such plan, including, but not limited to, number of applications from, and hiring, promotion, and training of, members of each equal employment opportunity group.

Study of Intelligence Personnel Systems

Pub. L. 100–178, title VII, §701, Dec. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 1016, provided for submission, no later than Jan. 20, 1989, to Congress by Director of Central Intelligence Agency, of classified objective study to consist of a comprehensive review and comparative analysis of all personnel management and compensation systems affecting civilian personnel of agencies and entities of intelligence community, accompanied by such recommendations for legislative, regulative or other changes as determined advisable.

Compensation of Director and Deputy Director of Central Intelligence

Compensation of Director and Deputy Director, see sections 5313 and 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System

Pub. L. 88–643, Oct. 13, 1964, 78 Stat. 1043, as amended by Pub. L. 90–539, Sept. 30, 1968, 82 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 91–185, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 847; Pub. L. 91–626, §§1–6, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1872–1874; Pub. L. 93–31, May 8, 1973, 87 Stat. 65; Pub. L. 93–210, §1(a), Dec. 28, 1973, 87 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 94–361, title VIII, §801(b), July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 94–522, title I, §§101, 102, title II, §§201–213, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2467–2471; Ex. Ord. No. 12273, Jan. 16, 1981, 46 F.R. 5854; Ex. Ord. No. 12326, Sept. 30, 1981, 46 F.R. 48889; Pub. L. 97–269, title VI, §§602–611, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1145–1148, 1152–1153; Ex. Ord. No. 12443, Sept. 27, 1983, 48 F.R. 44751; Ex. Ord. No. 12485, July 13, 1984, 49 F.R. 28827; Pub. L. 98–618, title III, §302, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3300; Pub. L. 99–169, title VII, §702, Dec. 4, 1985, 99 Stat. 1008; Pub. L. 99–335, title V, §§501–506, June 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 622–624; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 99–569, title III, §302(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3192; Pub. L. 100–178, title IV, §§401(a), 402(a), (b)(1), (2), Dec. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 1012–1014; Pub. L. 100–453, title III, §302(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), (d)(1), (2), title V, §502, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1906, 1907, 1909; Pub. L. 101–193, title III, §§302–304(a), 307(b), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1703, 1707; Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 102–88, title III, §§302–305(a), 306–307(b), Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 431–433; Pub. L. 102–183, title III, §§302(a)–(c), 303(a), 304–306(b), 307, 309(a), 310(a), Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1262–1266; Pub. L. 102–496, title III, §304(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3183, known as the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act of 1964 for Certain Employees, was revised generally by Pub. L. 102–496, title VIII, §802, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3196. As so revised, Pub. L. 88–643, now known as the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act, has been transferred to chapter 38 (§2001 et seq.) of this title. All notes, Executive orders, and other provisions relating to this Act have been transferred to section 2001 of this title.

Communication of Restricted Data

Authorization for the communication of Restricted Data by the Central Intelligence Agency, see Ex. Ord. No. 10899, eff. Dec. 9, 1960, 25 F.R. 12729, set out as a note under section 2162 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Executive Order No. 10656

Ex. Ord. No. 10656, Feb. 6, 1956, 21 F.R. 859, which established the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 10938, May 4, 1961, 26 F.R. 3951, formerly set out below.

Executive Order No. 10938

Ex. Ord. No. 10938, May 4, 1961, 26 F.R. 3951, which established the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11460, Mar. 20, 1969, 34 F.R. 5535, formerly set out below.

Executive Order No. 11460

Ex. Ord. No. 11460, Mar. 20, 1969, 34 F.R. 5535, which established the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11984, May 4, 1977, 42 F.R. 23129, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 11984. Abolition of President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board

Ex. Ord. No. 11984, May 4, 1977, 42 F.R. 23129, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, and as President of the United States of America, in order to abolish the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Executive Order No. 11460 of March 20, 1969, is hereby revoked.

Jimmy Carter.      

Executive Order No. 12331

Ex. Ord. No. 12331, Oct. 20, 1981, 46 F.R. 51705, which established the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12537, Oct. 28, 1985, 50 F.R. 45083, formerly set out below.

Executive Order No. 12537

Ex. Ord. No. 12537, Oct. 28, 1985, 50 F.R. 45083, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12624, Jan. 6, 1988, 53 F.R. 489, which established the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12863, §3.3, Sept. 13, 1993, 58 F.R. 48441, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 403f, 411 of this title; title 5 section 2305; title 42 section 2162.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§403–1. Central Intelligence Agency

There is a Central Intelligence Agency. The function of the Agency shall be to assist the Director of Central Intelligence in carrying out the responsibilities referred to in paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 403–3(d) of this title.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §102A, as added Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §805(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3479.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 403–1, act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §102a, as added Dec. 9, 1983, Pub. L. 98–215, title IV, §403, 97 Stat. 1477, related to appointment of Director of the Intelligence Community Staff prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §705(a)(1), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3190.

Designation of Headquarters Compound of Central Intelligence Agency as the George Bush Center for Intelligence

Pub. L. 105–272, title III, §309, Oct. 20, 1998, 112 Stat. 2403, provided that:

“(a) Designation.—The headquarters compound of the Central Intelligence Agency located in Langley, Virginia, shall be known and designated as the ‘George Bush Center for Intelligence’.

“(b) References.—Any reference in a law, map, regulation, document, paper, or other record of the United States to the headquarters compound referred to in subsection (a) shall be deemed to be a reference to the ‘George Bush Center for Intelligence’.”

§403–2. Intelligence Community contracting

The Director of Central Intelligence shall direct that elements of the Intelligence Community, whenever compatible with the national security interests of the United States and consistent with the operational and security concerns related to the conduct of intelligence activities, and where fiscally sound, shall award contracts in a manner that would maximize the procurement of products in the United States. For purposes of this provision, the term “Intelligence Community” has the same meaning as set forth in paragraph 3.4(f) of Executive Order 12333, dated December 4, 1981, or successor orders.

(Pub. L. 102–183, title IV, §403, Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1267.)

References in Text

Executive Order 12333, referred to in text, is set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the authorization act cited as the credit to this section, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in the following prior authorization act: Pub. L. 102–88, title IV, §404, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 434.

§403–2a. Construction of intelligence community facilities; Presidential authorization

(a) No project for the construction of any facility, or improvement to any facility, having an estimated Federal cost in excess of $300,000, may be undertaken in any fiscal year unless specifically identified as a separate item in the President's annual fiscal year budget request or otherwise specifically authorized and appropriated if such facility or improvement would be used primarily by personnel of the intelligence community.

(b) As used in this section, the term “intelligence community” has the same meaning given that term in section 401a(4) of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8131, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2653.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1995, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

§403–2b. Limitation on construction of facilities to be used primarily by intelligence community

(a) In general

(1) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no project for the construction of any facility to be used primarily by personnel of any component of the intelligence community which has an estimated Federal cost in excess of $5,000,000 may be undertaken in any fiscal year unless such project is specifically identified as a separate item in the President's annual fiscal year budget request and is specifically authorized by the Congress.

(2) Notification

In the case of a project for the construction of any facility to be used primarily by personnel of any component of the intelligence community which has an estimated Federal cost greater than $1,000,000 but less than $5,000,000, or where any improvement project to such a facility has an estimated Federal cost greater than $1,000,000, the Director of Central Intelligence shall submit a notification to the intelligence committees specifically identifying such project.

(b) Exception

(1) In general

Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section but subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), a project for the construction of a facility to be used primarily by personnel of any component of the intelligence community may be carried out if the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence jointly determine—

(A) that the project is vital to the national security or to the protection of health, safety, or the quality of the environment, and

(B) that the requirement for the project is so urgent that deferral of the project for inclusion in the next Act authorizing appropriations for the intelligence community would be inconsistent with national security or the protection of health, safety, or environmental quality, as the case may be.

(2) Report

(A) When a decision is made to carry out a construction project under this subsection, the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence jointly shall submit a report in writing to the appropriate committees of Congress on that decision. Each such report shall include (i) the justification for the project and the current estimate of the cost of the project, (ii) the justification for carrying out the project under this subsection, and (iii) a statement of the source of the funds to be used to carry out the project. The project may then be carried out only after the end of the 7-day period beginning on the date the notification is received by such committees.

(B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a project referred to in paragraph (1) may begin on the date the notification is received by the appropriate committees of Congress under that paragraph if the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense jointly determine that—

(i) an emergency exists with respect to the national security or the protection of health, safety, or environmental quality; and

(ii) any delay in the commencement of the project would harm any or all of those interests.

(3) Projects primarily for CIA

If a project referred to in paragraph (1) is primarily for the Central Intelligence Agency, the Director of Central Intelligence shall make the determination and submit the report required by paragraphs (1) and (2).

(4) Limitation

A project carried out under this subsection shall be carried out within the total amount of funds appropriated for intelligence and intelligence-related activities that have not been obligated.

(c) Application

This section shall not apply to any project which is subject to subsection (a)(1)(A) or (c) of section 601.

(Pub. L. 103–359, title VI, §602, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3432; Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §314, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2610.)

References in Text

Section 601, referred to in subsec. (c), means section 601 of Pub. L. 103–359, title VI, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3431, which is not classified to the Code.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–177, §314(a), substituted “$5,000,000” for “$750,000” in pars. (1) and (2) and “$1,000,000” for “$500,000” in two places in par. (2).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–177, §314(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (C) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively, substituted “7-day period” for “21-day period”, and added subpar. (B).

Definitions

Section 604 of title VI of Pub. L. 103–359 provided that: “As used in this title [enacting this section and provisions set out as a note under section 403–3 of this title]:

“(1) Intelligence committees.—The term ‘intelligence committees’ means the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

“(2) Intelligence community.—The term ‘intelligence community’ has the same meaning given that term in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401a(4)).”

§403–3. Responsibilities of Director of Central Intelligence

(a) Provision of intelligence

(1) Under the direction of the National Security Council, the Director of Central Intelligence shall be responsible for providing national intelligence—

(A) to the President;

(B) to the heads of departments and agencies of the executive branch;

(C) to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior military commanders; and

(D) where appropriate, to the Senate and House of Representatives and the committees thereof.


(2) Such national intelligence should be timely, objective, independent of political considerations, and based upon all sources available to the intelligence community.

(b) National Intelligence Council

(1)(A) There is established within the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence the National Intelligence Council (hereafter in this section referred to as the “Council”). The Council shall be composed of senior analysts within the intelligence community and substantive experts from the public and private sector, who shall be appointed by, report to, and serve at the pleasure of, the Director of Central Intelligence.

(B) The Director shall prescribe appropriate security requirements for personnel appointed from the private sector as a condition of service on the Council, or as contractors of the Council or employees of such contractors, to ensure the protection of intelligence sources and methods while avoiding, wherever possible, unduly intrusive requirements which the Director considers to be unnecessary for this purpose.

(2) The Council shall—

(A) produce national intelligence estimates for the Government, including, whenever the Council considers appropriate, alternative views held by elements of the intelligence community;

(B) evaluate community-wide collection and production of intelligence by the intelligence community and the requirements and resources of such collection and production; and

(C) otherwise assist the Director in carrying out the responsibilities described in subsection (a) of this section.


(3) Within their respective areas of expertise and under the direction of the Director, the members of the Council shall constitute the senior intelligence advisers of the intelligence community for purposes of representing the views of the intelligence community within the Government.

(4) Subject to the direction and control of the Director of Central Intelligence, the Council may carry out its responsibilities under this subsection by contract, including contracts for substantive experts necessary to assist the Council with particular assessments under this subsection.

(5) The Director shall make available to the Council such staff as may be necessary to permit the Council to carry out its responsibilities under this subsection and shall take appropriate measures to ensure that the Council and its staff satisfy the needs of policymaking officials and other consumers of intelligence. The Council shall also be readily accessible to policymaking officials and other appropriate individuals not otherwise associated with the intelligence community.

(6) The heads of elements within the intelligence community shall, as appropriate, furnish such support to the Council, including the preparation of intelligence analyses, as may be required by the Director.

(c) Head of intelligence community

In the Director's capacity as head of the intelligence community, the Director shall—

(1) facilitate the development of an annual budget for intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States by—

(A) developing and presenting to the President an annual budget for the National Foreign Intelligence Program; and

(B) participating in the development by the Secretary of Defense of the annual budgets for the Joint Military Intelligence Program and the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities Program;


(2) establish the requirements and priorities to govern the collection of national intelligence by elements of the intelligence community;

(3) approve collection requirements, determine collection priorities, and resolve conflicts in collection priorities levied on national collection assets, except as otherwise agreed with the Secretary of Defense pursuant to the direction of the President;

(4) promote and evaluate the utility of national intelligence to consumers within the Government;

(5) eliminate waste and unnecessary duplication within the intelligence community;

(6) establish requirements and priorities for foreign intelligence information to be collected under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.), and provide assistance to the Attorney General to ensure that information derived from electronic surveillance or physical searches under that Act is disseminated so it may be used efficiently and effectively for foreign intelligence purposes, except that the Director shall have no authority to direct, manage, or undertake electronic surveillance or physical search operations pursuant to that Act unless otherwise authorized by statute or Executive order;

(7) protect intelligence sources and methods from unauthorized disclosure; and

(8) perform such other functions as the President or the National Security Council may direct.

(d) Head of Central Intelligence Agency

In the Director's capacity as head of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Director shall—

(1) collect intelligence through human sources and by other appropriate means, except that the Agency shall have no police, subpoena, or law enforcement powers or internal security functions;

(2) provide overall direction for the collection of national intelligence through human sources by elements of the intelligence community authorized to undertake such collection and, in coordination with other agencies of the Government which are authorized to undertake such collection, ensure that the most effective use is made of resources and that the risks to the United States and those involved in such collection are minimized;

(3) correlate and evaluate intelligence related to the national security and provide appropriate dissemination of such intelligence;

(4) perform such additional services as are of common concern to the elements of the intelligence community, which services the Director of Central Intelligence determines can be more efficiently accomplished centrally; and

(5) perform such other functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security as the President or the National Security Council may direct.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §705(a)(3), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3190; amended Pub. L. 103–178, title V, §502, Dec. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 2038; Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §§806, 807(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3479, 3480; Pub. L. 107–56, title IX, §901, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 387.)

References in Text

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (c)(6), is Pub. L. 95–511, Oct. 25, 1978, 92 Stat. 1783, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 36 (§1801 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 103 of act July 26, 1947, was renumbered section 107 and is classified to section 404 of this title.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (c)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 107–56 added par. (6) and redesignated former pars. (6) and (7) as (7) and (8), respectively.

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–293, §806(1), inserted “, or as contractors of the Council or employees of such contractors,” after “on the Council”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–293, §806(2), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–293, §806(3), added par. (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 104–293, §806(3), (5), redesignated par. (4) as (5) and inserted at end “The Council shall also be readily accessible to policymaking officials and other appropriate individuals not otherwise associated with the intelligence community.” Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 104–293, §806(3), redesignated par. (5) as (6).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–293, §807(a)(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “develop and present to the President an annual budget for the National Foreign Intelligence Program of the United States;”.

Subsec. (c)(3) to (7). Pub. L. 104–293, §807(a)(2), (3), added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) to (6) as (4) to (7), respectively.

1993—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–178 substituted “provide” for “providing”.

Pilot Program on Analysis of Signals and Other Intelligence by Intelligence Analysts of Various Elements of the Intelligence Community

Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §317, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2611, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Director of Central Intelligence shall, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, carry out a pilot program to assess the feasibility and advisability of permitting intelligence analysts of various elements of the intelligence community to access and analyze intelligence from the databases of other elements of the intelligence community in order to achieve the objectives set forth in subsection (c).

“(b) Covered Intelligence.—The intelligence to be analyzed under the pilot program under subsection (a) shall include the following:

“(1) Signals intelligence of the National Security Agency.

“(2) Such intelligence of other elements of the intelligence community as the Director shall select for purposes of the pilot program.

“(c) Objectives.—The objectives set forth in this subsection are as follows:

“(1) To enhance the capacity of the intelligence community to undertake ‘all source fusion’ analysis in support of the intelligence and intelligence-related missions of the intelligence community.

“(2) To reduce, to the extent possible, the amount of intelligence collected by the intelligence community that is not assessed, or reviewed, by intelligence analysts.

“(3) To reduce the burdens imposed on analytical personnel of the elements of the intelligence community by current practices regarding the sharing of intelligence among elements of the intelligence community.

“(d) Commencement.—The Director shall commence the pilot program under subsection (a) not later than December 31, 2003.

“(e) Various Mechanisms Required.—In carrying out the pilot program under subsection (a), the Director shall develop and utilize various mechanisms to facilitate the access to, and the analysis of, intelligence in the databases of the intelligence community by intelligence analysts of other elements of the intelligence community, including the use of so-called ‘detailees in place’.

“(f) Security.—(1) In carrying out the pilot program under subsection (a), the Director shall take appropriate actions to protect against the disclosure and unauthorized use of intelligence in the databases of the elements of the intelligence community which may endanger sources and methods which (as determined by the Director) warrant protection.

“(2) The actions taken under paragraph (1) shall include the provision of training on the accessing and handling of information in the databases of various elements of the intelligence community and the establishment of limitations on access to information in such databases regarding United States persons.

“(g) Assessment.—Not later than February 1, 2004, after the commencement under subsection (d) of the pilot program under subsection (a), the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence and the Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production shall jointly carry out an assessment of the progress of the pilot program in meeting the objectives set forth in subsection (c).

“(h) Report.—(1) The Director of Central Intelligence shall, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the assessment carried out under subsection (g).

“(2) The report shall include—

“(A) a description of the pilot program under subsection (a);

“(B) the findings of the Under Secretary and Assistant Director as a result of the assessment;

“(C) any recommendations regarding the pilot program that the Under Secretary and the Assistant Director jointly consider appropriate in light of the assessment; and

“(D) any recommendations that the Director and Secretary consider appropriate for purposes of the report.

“(i) Appropriate Committees of Congress Defined.—In this section, the term ‘appropriate committees of Congress’ means—

“(1) the Select Committee on Intelligence, the Committee on Armed Services, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

“(2) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, the Committee on Armed Services, and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.”

Standardized Transliteration of Names Into the Roman Alphabet

Pub. L. 107–306, title III, §352, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2401, provided that:

“(a) Method of Transliteration Required.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 27, 2002], the Director of Central Intelligence shall provide for a standardized method for transliterating into the Roman alphabet personal and place names originally rendered in any language that uses an alphabet other than the Roman alphabet.

“(b) Use by Intelligence Community.—The Director shall ensure the use of the method established under subsection (a) in—

“(1) all communications among the elements of the intelligence community; and

“(2) all intelligence products of the intelligence community.”

Standards for Spelling of Foreign Names and Places and for Use of Geographic Coordinates

Pub. L. 105–107, title III, §309, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2253, provided that:

“(a) Survey of Current Standards.—

“(1) Survey.—The Director of Central Intelligence shall carry out a survey of current standards for the spelling of foreign names and places, and the use of geographic coordinates for such places, among the elements of the intelligence community.

“(2) Report.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 20, 1997], the Director shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees a report on the survey carried out under paragraph (1). The report shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

“(b) Guidelines.—

“(1) Issuance.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director shall issue guidelines to ensure the use of uniform spelling of foreign names and places and the uniform use of geographic coordinates for such places. The guidelines shall apply to all intelligence reports, intelligence products, and intelligence databases prepared and utilized by the elements of the intelligence community.

“(2) Basis.—The guidelines under paragraph (1) shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be based on current United States Government standards for the transliteration of foreign names, standards for foreign place names developed by the Board on Geographic Names, and a standard set of geographic coordinates.

“(3) Submittal to congress.—The Director shall submit a copy of the guidelines to the congressional intelligence committees.

“(c) Congressional Intelligence Committees Defined.—In this section, the term ‘congressional intelligence committees’ means the following:

“(1) The Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate.

“(2) The Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.”

Periodic Reports on Expenditures

Section 807(c) of Pub. L. 104–293 provided that: “Not later than January 1, 1997, the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe guidelines to ensure prompt reporting to the Director and the Secretary on a periodic basis of budget execution data for all national, defense-wide, and tactical intelligence activities.”

Database Program Tracking

Section 807(d) of Pub. L. 104–293 provided that: “Not later than January 1, 1999, the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense shall develop and implement a database to provide timely and accurate information on the amounts, purposes, and status of the resources, including periodic budget execution updates, for all national, defense-wide, and tactical intelligence activities.”

Identification of Constituent Components of Base Intelligence Budget

Pub. L. 103–359, title VI, §603, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3433, provided that: “The Director of Central Intelligence shall include the same level of budgetary detail for the Base Budget that is provided for Ongoing Initiatives and New Initiatives to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate in the congressional justification materials for the annual submission of the National Foreign Intelligence Program of each fiscal year.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 401a, 403–1, 403–5, 403f, 403g, 404g, 404n–2, 411, 2011 of this title; title 8 section 1721.

§403–4. Authorities of Director of Central Intelligence

(a) Access to intelligence

To the extent recommended by the National Security Council and approved by the President, the Director of Central Intelligence shall have access to all intelligence related to the national security which is collected by any department, agency, or other entity of the United States.

(b) Approval of budgets

The Director of Central Intelligence shall provide guidance to elements of the intelligence community for the preparation of their annual budgets and shall approve such budgets before their incorporation in the National Foreign Intelligence Program.

(c) Role of DCI in reprogramming

No funds made available under the National Foreign Intelligence Program may be reprogrammed by any element of the intelligence community without the prior approval of the Director of Central Intelligence except in accordance with procedures issued by the Director. The Secretary of Defense shall consult with the Director of Central Intelligence before reprogramming funds made available under the Joint Military Intelligence Program.

(d) Transfer of funds or personnel within National Foreign Intelligence Program

(1)(A) In addition to any other authorities available under law for such purposes, the Director of Central Intelligence, with the approval of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, may transfer funds appropriated for a program within the National Foreign Intelligence Program to another such program and, in accordance with procedures to be developed by the Director and the heads of affected departments and agencies, may transfer personnel authorized for an element of the intelligence community to another such element for periods up to a year.

(B) The Director may only delegate any duty or authority given the Director under this subsection to the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management.

(2)(A) A transfer of funds or personnel may be made under this subsection only if—

(i) the funds or personnel are being transferred to an activity that is a higher priority intelligence activity;

(ii) the need for funds or personnel for such activity is based on unforeseen requirements;

(iii) the transfer does not involve a transfer of funds to the Reserve for Contingencies of the Central Intelligence Agency;

(iv) the transfer does not involve a transfer of funds or personnel from the Federal Bureau of Investigation; and

(v) subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary or head of the department which contains the affected element or elements of the intelligence community does not object to such transfer.


(B)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), the authority to object to a transfer under subparagraph (A)(v) may not be delegated by the Secretary or head of the department involved.

(ii) With respect to the Department of Defense, the authority to object to such a transfer may be delegated by the Secretary of Defense, but only to the Deputy Secretary of Defense.

(iii) An objection to a transfer under subparagraph (A)(v) shall have no effect unless submitted to the Director of Central Intelligence in writing.

(3) Funds transferred under this subsection shall remain available for the same period as the appropriations account to which transferred.

(4) Any transfer of funds under this subsection shall be carried out in accordance with existing procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications for the appropriate congressional committees. Any proposed transfer for which notice is given to the appropriate congressional committees shall be accompanied by a report explaining the nature of the proposed transfer and how it satisfies the requirements of this subsection. In addition, the congressional intelligence committees shall be promptly notified of any transfer of funds made pursuant to this subsection in any case in which the transfer would not have otherwise required reprogramming notification under procedures in effect as of October 24, 1992.

(5) The Director shall promptly submit to the congressional intelligence committees and, in the case of the transfer of personnel to or from the Department of Defense, the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives, a report on any transfer of personnel made pursuant to this subsection. The Director shall include in any such report an explanation of the nature of the transfer and how it satisfies the requirements of this subsection.

(e) Coordination with foreign governments

Under the direction of the National Security Council and in a manner consistent with section 3927 of title 22, the Director shall coordinate the relationships between elements of the intelligence community and the intelligence or security services of foreign governments on all matters involving intelligence related to the national security or involving intelligence acquired through clandestine means.

(f) Use of personnel

The Director shall, in coordination with the heads of departments and agencies with elements in the intelligence community, institute policies and programs within the intelligence community—

(1) to provide for the rotation of personnel between the elements of the intelligence community, where appropriate, and to make such rotated service a factor to be considered for promotion to senior positions; and

(2) to consolidate, wherever possible, personnel, administrative, and security programs to reduce the overall costs of these activities within the intelligence community.

(g) Standards and qualifications for performance of intelligence activities

The Director, acting as the head of the intelligence community, shall, in consultation with the heads of effected agencies, develop standards and qualifications for persons engaged in the performance of intelligence activities within the intelligence community.

(h) Termination of employment of CIA employees

Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, the Director may, in the Director's discretion, terminate the employment of any officer or employee of the Central Intelligence Agency whenever the Director shall deem such termination necessary or advisable in the interests of the United States. Any such termination shall not affect the right of the officer or employee terminated to seek or accept employment in any other department or agency of the Government if declared eligible for such employment by the Office of Personnel Management.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §705(a)(3), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3192; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(f)(5), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 510; Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §807(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3480; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(16), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 106–567, title I, §105, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2834; Pub. L. 107–306, title III, §§321, 353(b)(1)(A), (4), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2391, 2402.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 104 of act July 26, 1947, was renumbered section 108 and is classified to section 404a of this title.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 107–306, §353(b)(1)(A), substituted “congressional intelligence committees” for “Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives”.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 107–306, §353(b)(4), substituted “congressional intelligence committees” for “Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives”.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 107–306, §321, added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

2000—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–567, §105(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 106–567, §105(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (E) as cls. (i) to (v), respectively, of subpar. (A), in cl. (v) substituted “subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary or head” for “the Secretary or head”, and added subpar. (B).

1999—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–293 inserted at end “The Secretary of Defense shall consult with the Director of Central Intelligence before reprogramming funds made available under the Joint Military Intelligence Program.”

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives” for “Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives”.

Report on Compensation of Pilot Project Participants

Pub. L. 108–177, title IV, §405(c), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2633, provided that:

“(1) The Director of Central Intelligence shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees a report on the amount of compensation (including basic pay, bonuses, and employer contributions to the Thrift Savings Plan) of each employee of the Central Intelligence Agency participating in the pilot project required by section 402(b) of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107–306; 116 Stat. 2403; 50 U.S.C. 403–4 note), and on the amount that each such employee would have received had such employee received compensation under the existing system of compensation used by the Agency.

“(2) The report required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted together with the report required by paragraph (3) of such section 402(b).

“(3) In this subsection, the term ‘congressional intelligence committees’ has the meaning given that term in section 402(d) of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003.”

Implementation of Compensation Reform Plan

Pub. L. 107–306, title IV, §402, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2403, as amended by Pub. L. 108–177, title IV, §405(a), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2632, provided that:

“(a) Delay on Implementation on Compensation Reform Plan.—(1) The Director of Central Intelligence may not implement before the implementation date (described in paragraph (2)) a plan for the compensation of employees of the Central Intelligence Agency that differs from the plan in effect on October 1, 2002.

“(2) The implementation date referred to in paragraph (1) is the date of the enactment of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005.

“(3) It is the sense of Congress that an employee performance evaluation mechanism with evaluation training for managers and employees of the Central Intelligence Agency should be phased in before the implementation of any new compensation plan.

“(b) Pilot Project.—(1) The Director shall conduct a pilot project to test the efficacy and fairness of a plan for the compensation of employees of the Central Intelligence Agency that differs from the plan in effect on October 1, 2002, within any one component of the Central Intelligence Agency selected by the Director, other than a component for which a pilot project on employee compensation has been previously conducted.

“(2) The pilot project under paragraph (1) shall be conducted for a period of at least 1 year.

“(3) Not later than the date that is 45 days after the completion of the pilot project under paragraph (1), the Director shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees a report that contains an evaluation of the project and such recommendations as the Director considers appropriate for the modification of the plans for the compensation of employees throughout the Agency which are in effect on such date.

“(c) Sense of Congress on Implementation of Compensation Reform Plan for the National Security Agency.—It is the sense of Congress that—

“(1) the Director of the National Security Agency should not implement before February 1, 2004, a plan for the compensation of employees of the National Security Agency that differs from the plan in effect on October 1, 2002; and

“(2) an employee performance evaluation mechanism with evaluation training for managers and employees of the National Security Agency should be phased in before the implementation of any new compensation plan.

“(d) Congressional Intelligence Committees Defined.—In this section, the term ‘congressional intelligence committees’ means the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.”

Post-Employment Restrictions

Section 402 of Pub. L. 104–293 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 1996], the Director of Central Intelligence shall prescribe regulations requiring each employee of the Central Intelligence Agency designated by the Director for such purpose to sign a written agreement restricting the activities of the employee upon ceasing employment with the Central Intelligence Agency. The Director may designate a group or class of employees for such purpose.

“(b) Agreement Elements.—The regulations shall provide that an agreement contain provisions specifying that the employee concerned not represent or advise the government, or any political party, of any foreign country during the three-year period beginning on the cessation of the employee's employment with the Central Intelligence Agency unless the Director determines that such representation or advice would be in the best interests of the United States.

“(c) Disciplinary Actions.—The regulations shall specify appropriate disciplinary actions (including loss of retirement benefits) to be taken against any employee determined by the Director of Central Intelligence to have violated the agreement of the employee under this section.”

Personnel, Training, and Administrative Activities

Section 807(e) of Pub. L. 104–293 provided that: “Not later than January 31 of each year through 1999, the Director of Central Intelligence shall submit to the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives a report on the policies and programs the Director has instituted under subsection (f) of section 104 of the National Security Act of 1947 [50 U.S.C. 403–4(f)].”

Separation Pay Program for Voluntary Separation From Service

Pub. L. 103–36, §2, June 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 104, as amended by Pub. L. 103–226, §8(b), Mar. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 118; Pub. L. 104–93, title IV, §401, Jan. 6, 1996, 109 Stat. 968; Pub. L. 104–293, title IV, §401, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3468; Pub. L. 106–120, title IV, §402, Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1616; Pub. L. 107–108, title IV, §402, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1403; Pub. L. 107–306, title IV, §401, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2403, provided that:

“(a) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) the term ‘Director’ means the Director of Central Intelligence; and

“(2) the term ‘employee’ means an employee of the Central Intelligence Agency, serving under an appointment without time limitation, who has been currently employed for a continuous period of at least 12 months, except that such term does not include—

“(A) a reemployed annuitant under subchapter III of chapter 83 or chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, or another retirement system for employees of the Government; or

“(B) an employee having a disability on the basis of which such employee is or would be eligible for disability retirement under any of the retirement systems referred to in subparagraph (A).

“(b) Establishment of Program.—In order to avoid or minimize the need for involuntary separations due to downsizing, reorganization, transfer of function, or other similar action, the Director may establish a program under which employees may be offered separation pay to separate from service voluntarily (whether by retirement or resignation). An employee who receives separation pay under such program may not be reemployed by the Central Intelligence Agency for the 12-month period beginning on the effective date of the employee's separation. An employee who receives separation pay under this section on the basis of a separation occurring on or after the date of the enactment of the Federal Workforce Restructuring Act of 1994 [Mar. 30, 1994] and accepts employment with the Government of the United States within 5 years after the date of the separation on which payment of the separation pay is based shall be required to repay the entire amount of the separation pay to the Central Intelligence Agency. If the employment is with an Executive agency (as defined by section 105 of title 5, United States Code), the Director of the Office of Personnel Management may, at the request of the head of the agency, waive the repayment if the individual involved possesses unique abilities and is the only qualified applicant available for the position. If the employment is with an entity in the legislative branch, the head of the entity or the appointing official may waive the repayment if the individual involved possesses unique abilities and is the only qualified applicant available for the position. If the employment is with the judicial branch, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts may waive the repayment if the individual involved possesses unique abilities and is the only qualified applicant available for the position.

“(c) Bar on Certain Employment.—

“(1) Bar.—An employee may not be separated from service under this section unless the employee agrees that the employee will not—

“(A) act as agent or attorney for, or otherwise represent, any other person (except the United States) in any formal or informal appearance before, or, with the intent to influence, make any oral or written communication on behalf of any other person (except the United States) to the Central Intelligence Agency; or

“(B) participate in any manner in the award, modification, extension, or performance of any contract for property or services with the Central Intelligence Agency,

during the 12-month period beginning on the effective date of the employee's separation from service.

“(2) Penalty.—An employee who violates an agreement under this subsection shall be liable to the United States in the amount of the separation pay paid to the employee pursuant to this section times the proportion of the 12-month period during which the employee was in violation of the agreement.

“(d) Limitations.—Under this program, separation pay may be offered only—

“(1) with the prior approval of the Director; and

“(2) to employees within such occupational groups or geographic locations, or subject to such other similar limitations or conditions, as the Director may require.

“(e) Amount and Treatment for Other Purposes.—Such separation pay—

“(1) shall be paid in a lump sum;

“(2) shall be equal to the lesser of—

“(A) an amount equal to the amount the employee would be entitled to receive under section 5595(c) of title 5, United States Code, if the employee were entitled to payment under such section; or

“(B) $25,000;

“(3) shall not be a basis for payment, and shall not be included in the computation, of any other type of Government benefit; and

“(4) shall not be taken into account for the purpose of determining the amount of any severance pay to which an individual may be entitled under section 5595 of title 5, United States Code, based on any other separation.

“(f) Termination.—No amount shall be payable under this section based on any separation occurring after September 30, 2005.

“(g) Regulations.—The Director shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section.

“(h) Reporting Requirements.—

“(1) Offering notification.—The Director may not make an offering of voluntary separation pay pursuant to this section until 30 days after submitting to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate a report describing the occupational groups or geographic locations, or other similar limitations or conditions, required by the Director under subsection (d).

“(2) Annual report.—At the end of each of the fiscal years 1993 through 1997, the Director shall submit to the President and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate a report on the effectiveness and costs of carrying out this section.

“(i) Remittance of Funds.—The Director shall remit to the Office of Personnel Management for deposit in the Treasury of the United States to the credit of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund (in addition to any other payments which the Director is required to make under subchapter III of chapter 83 and subchapter II of chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code), an amount equal to 15 percent of the final basic pay of each employee who, in fiscal year 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, or 2005 retires voluntarily under section 8336, 8412, or 8414 of such title or resigns and to whom a voluntary separation incentive payment has been or is to be paid under this section. The remittance required by this subsection shall be in lieu of any remittance required by section 4(a) of the Federal Workforce Restructuring Act of 1994 (5 U.S.C. 8331 note).”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 403–5, 403f, 411 of this title; title 21 section 1703.

§403–5. Responsibilities of Secretary of Defense pertaining to National Foreign Intelligence Program

(a) In general

The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence, shall—

(1) ensure that the budgets of the elements of the intelligence community within the Department of Defense are adequate to satisfy the overall intelligence needs of the Department of Defense, including the needs of the chairman 1 of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the commanders of the unified and specified commands and, wherever such elements are performing governmentwide functions, the needs of other departments and agencies;

(2) ensure appropriate implementation of the policies and resource decisions of the Director of Central Intelligence by elements of the Department of Defense within the National Foreign Intelligence Program;

(3) ensure that the tactical intelligence activities of the Department of Defense complement and are compatible with intelligence activities under the National Foreign Intelligence Program;

(4) ensure that the elements of the intelligence community within the Department of Defense are responsive and timely with respect to satisfying the needs of operational military forces;

(5) eliminate waste and unnecessary duplication among the intelligence activities of the Department of Defense; and

(6) ensure that intelligence activities of the Department of Defense are conducted jointly where appropriate.

(b) Responsibility for performance of specific functions

Consistent with sections 403–3 and 403–4 of this title, the Secretary of Defense shall ensure—

(1) through the National Security Agency (except as otherwise directed by the President or the National Security Council), the continued operation of an effective unified organization for the conduct of signals intelligence activities and shall ensure that the product is disseminated in a timely manner to authorized recipients;

(2) through the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (except as otherwise directed by the President or the National Security Council), with appropriate representation from the intelligence community, the continued operation of an effective unified organization within the Department of Defense—

(A) for carrying out tasking of imagery collection;

(B) for the coordination of imagery processing and exploitation activities;

(C) for ensuring the dissemination of imagery in a timely manner to authorized recipients; and

(D) notwithstanding any other provision of law, for—

(i) prescribing technical architecture and standards related to imagery intelligence and geospatial information and ensuring compliance with such architecture and standards; and

(ii) developing and fielding systems of common concern related to imagery intelligence and geospatial information;


(3) through the National Reconnaissance Office (except as otherwise directed by the President or the National Security Council), the continued operation of an effective unified organization for the research and development, acquisition, and operation of overhead reconnaissance systems necessary to satisfy the requirements of all elements of the intelligence community;

(4) through the Defense Intelligence Agency (except as otherwise directed by the President or the National Security Council), the continued operation of an effective unified system within the Department of Defense for the production of timely, objective military and military-related intelligence, based upon all sources available to the intelligence community, and shall ensure the appropriate dissemination of such intelligence to authorized recipients;

(5) through the Defense Intelligence Agency (except as otherwise directed by the President or the National Security Council), effective management of Department of Defense human intelligence activities, including defense attaches; and

(6) that the military departments maintain sufficient capabilities to collect and produce intelligence to meet—

(A) the requirements of the Director of Central Intelligence;

(B) the requirements of the Secretary of Defense or the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff;

(C) the requirements of the unified and specified combatant commands and of joint operations; and

(D) the specialized requirements of the military departments for intelligence necessary to support tactical commanders, military planners, the research and development process, the acquisition of military equipment, and training and doctrine.

(c) Use of elements of Department of Defense

The Secretary of Defense, in carrying out the functions described in this section, may use such elements of the Department of Defense as may be appropriate for the execution of those functions, in addition to, or in lieu of, the elements identified in this section.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §105, as added Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §706(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3194; amended Pub. L. 103–359, title V, §501(a)(2), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3428; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XI, §1114(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2684; Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §808, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3481; Pub. L. 107–306, title VIII, §811(b)(1)(A), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2421; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §921(e)(2), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1569; Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §361(a), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2625.)

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–136, §921(e)(2), substituted “National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency” for “National Imagery and Mapping Agency”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–177 struck out subsec. (d) which related to annual evaluations of performance and responsiveness of certain elements of the intelligence community.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 108–136, §921(e)(2), substituted “National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency” for “National Imagery and Mapping Agency”.

2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–306 amended heading and text of subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Director of Central Intelligence, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall submit each year to the Committee on Foreign Intelligence of the National Security Council and the appropriate congressional committees (as defined in section 404d(c) of this title) an evaluation of the performance and the responsiveness of the National Security Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office, and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in meeting their national missions.”

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–293, §808(1), inserted “, in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence,” after “Secretary of Defense” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–201 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “through the Central Imagery Office (except as otherwise directed by the President or the National Security Council), with appropriate representation from the intelligence community, the continued operation of an effective unified organization within the Department of Defense for carrying out tasking of imagery collection, for the coordination of imagery processing and exploitation activities, and for ensuring the dissemination of imagery in a timely manner to authorized recipients;”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–293, §808(2), added subsec. (d).

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–359 substituted “the Central Imagery Office” for “a central imagery authority”.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–177 effective Dec. 31, 2003, see section 361(n) of Pub. L. 108–177, set out as a note under section 1611 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–201 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1124 of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 193 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Role of Director of Central Intelligence in Experimental Personnel Program for Certain Scientific and Technical Personnel

Pub. L. 106–567, title V, §501, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2850, as amended by Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §921(g), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1570, provided that: “If the Director of Central Intelligence requests that the Secretary of Defense exercise any authority available to the Secretary under section 1101(b) of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (Public Law 105–261; 5 U.S.C. 3104 note) to carry out a program of special personnel management authority at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency in order to facilitate recruitment of eminent experts in science and engineering at such agencies, the Secretary shall respond to such request not later than 30 days after the date of such request.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in section 411 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§403–5a. Assistance to United States law enforcement agencies

(a) Authority to provide assistance

Subject to subsection (b) of this section, elements of the intelligence community may, upon the request of a United States law enforcement agency, collect information outside the United States about individuals who are not United States persons. Such elements may collect such information notwithstanding that the law enforcement agency intends to use the information collected for purposes of a law enforcement investigation or counterintelligence investigation.

(b) Limitation on assistance by elements of Department of Defense

(1) With respect to elements within the Department of Defense, the authority in subsection (a) of this section applies only to the following:

(A) The National Security Agency.

(B) The National Reconnaissance Office.

(C) The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.

(D) The Defense Intelligence Agency.


(2) Assistance provided under this section by elements of the Department of Defense may not include the direct participation of a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in an arrest or similar activity.

(3) Assistance may not be provided under this section by an element of the Department of Defense if the provision of such assistance will adversely affect the military preparedness of the United States.

(4) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations governing the exercise of authority under this section by elements of the Department of Defense, including regulations relating to the protection of sources and methods in the exercise of such authority.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of subsection (a) of this section:

(1) The term “United States law enforcement agency” means any department or agency of the Federal Government that the Attorney General designates as law enforcement agency for purposes of this section.

(2) The term “United States person” means the following:

(A) A United States citizen.

(B) An alien known by the intelligence agency concerned to be a permanent resident alien.

(C) An unincorporated association substantially composed of United States citizens or permanent resident aliens.

(D) A corporation incorporated in the United States, except for a corporation directed and controlled by a foreign government or governments.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §105A, as added Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §814(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3483; amended Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §921(e)(3), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1569.)

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 108–136 substituted “National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency” for “National Imagery and Mapping Agency”.

§403–5b. Disclosure of foreign intelligence acquired in criminal investigations; notice of criminal investigations of foreign intelligence sources

(a) Disclosure of foreign intelligence

(1) Except as otherwise provided by law and subject to paragraph (2), the Attorney General, or the head of any other department or agency of the Federal Government with law enforcement responsibilities, shall expeditiously disclose to the Director of Central Intelligence, pursuant to guidelines developed by the Attorney General in consultation with the Director, foreign intelligence acquired by an element of the Department of Justice or an element of such department or agency, as the case may be, in the course of a criminal investigation.

(2) The Attorney General by regulation and in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence may provide for exceptions to the applicability of paragraph (1) for one or more classes of foreign intelligence, or foreign intelligence with respect to one or more targets or matters, if the Attorney General determines that disclosure of such foreign intelligence under that paragraph would jeopardize an ongoing law enforcement investigation or impair other significant law enforcement interests.

(b) Procedures for notice of criminal investigations

Not later than 180 days after October 26, 2001, the Attorney General, in consultation with the Director of Central Intelligence, shall develop guidelines to ensure that after receipt of a report from an element of the intelligence community of activity of a foreign intelligence source or potential foreign intelligence source that may warrant investigation as criminal activity, the Attorney General provides notice to the Director of Central Intelligence, within a reasonable period of time, of his intention to commence, or decline to commence, a criminal investigation of such activity.

(c) Procedures

The Attorney General shall develop procedures for the administration of this section, including the disclosure of foreign intelligence by elements of the Department of Justice, and elements of other departments and agencies of the Federal Government, under subsection (a) of this section and the provision of notice with respect to criminal investigations under subsection (b) of this section.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §105B, as added Pub. L. 107–56, title IX, §905(a)(2), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 388.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 403–5b, act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §105B, as added Pub. L. 106–120, title V, §501(a)(1), Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1616, which related to protection of operational files of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, was renumbered by subsequent acts and transferred, see section 432 of this title.

§403–5c. Transferred

Codification

Section, act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §105C, formerly §105B, as added Pub. L. 106–120, title V, §501(a)(1), Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1616; renumbered §105C, Pub. L. 107–56, title IX, §905(a)(1), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 388; amended Pub. L. 107–306, title III, §353(b)(5), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2402; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §921(e)(4), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1569, which related to protection of operational files of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, was renumbered section 702 of act July 26, 1947, by Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §922(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1573, and was transferred to section 432 of this title.

§403–5d. Foreign intelligence information

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, it shall be lawful for foreign intelligence or counterintelligence (as defined in section 401a of this title) or foreign intelligence information obtained as part of a criminal investigation to be disclosed to any Federal law enforcement, intelligence, protective, immigration, national defense, or national security official in order to assist the official receiving that information in the performance of his official duties. Any Federal official who receives information pursuant to this provision may use that information only as necessary in the conduct of that person's official duties subject to any limitations on the unauthorized disclosure of such information. Consistent with the responsibility of the Director of Central Intelligence to protect intelligence sources and methods, and the responsibility of the Attorney General to protect sensitive law enforcement information, it shall be lawful for information revealing a threat of actual or potential attack or other grave hostile acts of a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power, domestic or international sabotage, domestic or international terrorism, or clandestine intelligence gathering activities by an intelligence service or network of a foreign power or by an agent of a foreign power, within the United States or elsewhere, obtained as part of a criminal investigation to be disclosed to any appropriate Federal, State, local, or foreign government official for the purpose of preventing or responding to such a threat. Any official who receives information pursuant to this provision may use that information only as necessary in the conduct of that person's official duties subject to any limitations on the unauthorized disclosure of such information, and any State, local, or foreign official who receives information pursuant to this provision may use that information only consistent with such guidelines as the Attorney General and Director of Central Intelligence shall jointly issue.

(2) Definition

In this section, the term “foreign intelligence information” means—

(A) information, whether or not concerning a United States person, that relates to the ability of the United States to protect against—

(i) actual or potential attack or other grave hostile acts of a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power;

(ii) sabotage or international terrorism by a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power; or

(iii) clandestine intelligence activities by an intelligence service or network of a foreign power or by an agent of a foreign power; or


(B) information, whether or not concerning a United States person, with respect to a foreign power or foreign territory that relates to—

(i) the national defense or the security of the United States; or

(ii) the conduct of the foreign affairs of the United States.

(Pub. L. 107–56, title II, §203(d), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 281; Pub. L. 107–296, title VIII, §897(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2257.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section by section 224 of Pub. L. 107–56, see Termination Date of 2001 Amendment note set out under section 2510 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2002—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–296 inserted at end “Consistent with the responsibility of the Director of Central Intelligence to protect intelligence sources and methods, and the responsibility of the Attorney General to protect sensitive law enforcement information, it shall be lawful for information revealing a threat of actual or potential attack or other grave hostile acts of a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power, domestic or international sabotage, domestic or international terrorism, or clandestine intelligence gathering activities by an intelligence service or network of a foreign power or by an agent of a foreign power, within the United States or elsewhere, obtained as part of a criminal investigation to be disclosed to any appropriate Federal, State, local, or foreign government official for the purpose of preventing or responding to such a threat. Any official who receives information pursuant to this provision may use that information only as necessary in the conduct of that person's official duties subject to any limitations on the unauthorized disclosure of such information, and any State, local, or foreign official who receives information pursuant to this provision may use that information only consistent with such guidelines as the Attorney General and Director of Central Intelligence shall jointly issue.”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

§403–5e. Transferred

Codification

Section, act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §105D, as added Pub. L. 107–306, title V, §502(a), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2405, which related to protection of operational files of the National Reconnaissance Office, was renumbered section 703 of act July 26, 1947, by Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §922(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1573, and was transferred to section 432a of this title.

§403–6. Appointment of officials responsible for intelligence-related activities

(a) Concurrence of DCI in certain appointments

(1) In the event of a vacancy in a position referred to in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense shall obtain the concurrence of the Director of Central Intelligence before recommending to the President an individual for appointment to the position. If the Director does not concur in the recommendation, the Secretary may make the recommendation to the President without the Director's concurrence, but shall include in the recommendation a statement that the Director does not concur in the recommendation.

(2) Paragraph (1) applies to the following positions:

(A) The Director of the National Security Agency.

(B) The Director of the National Reconnaissance Office.

(C) The Director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.

(b) Consultation with DCI in certain appointments

(1) In the event of a vacancy in a position referred to in paragraph (2), the head of the department or agency having jurisdiction over the position shall consult with the Director of Central Intelligence before appointing an individual to fill the vacancy or recommending to the President an individual to be nominated to fill the vacancy.

(2) Paragraph (1) applies to the following positions:

(A) The Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency.

(B) The Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research.

(C) The Director of the Office of Intelligence of the Department of Energy.

(D) The Director of the Office of Counterintelligence of the Department of Energy.

(E) The Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis of the Department of the Treasury.


(3) In the event of a vacancy in the position of the Assistant Director, National Security Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall provide timely notice to the Director of Central Intelligence of the recommendation of the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of an individual to fill the position in order that the Director of Central Intelligence may consult with the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation before the Attorney General appoints an individual to fill the vacancy.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §706(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3195; amended Pub. L. 103–359, title V, §501(a)(3), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3428; Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §815(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3484; Pub. L. 107–108, title III, §308, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IX, §921(e)(5), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1569; Pub. L. 108–177, title I, §105(c), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2603.)

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 108–136 substituted “National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency” for “National Imagery and Mapping Agency”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 108–177 added subpar. (E).

2001—Subsec. (b)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 107–108 added subpars. (C) and (D) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “The Director of the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of the Department of Energy.”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–293 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to appointment of individuals responsible for intelligence-related activities for provisions relating to administrative provisions pertaining to defense elements within the intelligence community.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–359 substituted “Central Imagery Office” for “central imagery authority” in heading and text.

Similar Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section are contained in section 201(a) and (b) of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§403–7. Prohibition on using journalists as agents or assets

(a) Policy

It is the policy of the United States that an element of the Intelligence Community may not use as an agent or asset for the purposes of collecting intelligence any individual who—

(1) is authorized by contract or by the issuance of press credentials to represent himself or herself, either in the United States or abroad, as a correspondent of a United States news media organization; or

(2) is officially recognized by a foreign government as a representative of a United States media organization.

(b) Waiver

Pursuant to such procedures as the President may prescribe, the President or the Director of Central Intelligence may waive subsection (a) of this section in the case of an individual if the President or the Director, as the case may be, makes a written determination that the waiver is necessary to address the overriding national security interest of the United States. The Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate shall be notified of any waiver under this subsection.

(c) Voluntary cooperation

Subsection (a) of this section shall not be construed to prohibit the voluntary cooperation of any person who is aware that the cooperation is being provided to an element of the United States Intelligence Community.

(Pub. L. 104–293, title III, §309, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3467.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

§403–8. Reaffirmation of longstanding prohibition against drug trafficking by employees of the intelligence community

(a) Finding

Congress finds that longstanding statutes, regulations, and policies of the United States prohibit employees, agents, and assets of the elements of the intelligence community, and of every other Federal department and agency, from engaging in the illegal manufacture, purchase, sale, transport, and distribution of drugs.

(b) Obligation of employees of intelligence community

Any employee of the intelligence community having knowledge of a fact or circumstance that reasonably indicates that an employee, agent, or asset of an element of the intelligence community is involved in any activity that violates a statute, regulation, or policy described in subsection (a) of this section shall report such knowledge to an appropriate official.

(c) Intelligence community defined

In this section, the term “intelligence community” has the meaning given that term in section 401a(4) of this title.

(Pub. L. 106–120, title III, §313, Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1615.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

§403a. Definitions relating to Central Intelligence Agency

When used in sections 403a to 403s of this title, the term—

(a) “Agency” means the Central Intelligence Agency;

(b) “Director” means the Director of Central Intelligence;

(c) “Government agency” means any executive department, commission, council, independent establishment, corporation wholly or partly owned by the United States which is an instrumentality of the United States, board, bureau, division, service, office, officer, authority, administration, or other establishment, in the executive branch of the Government.

(June 20, 1949, ch. 227, §1, 63 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 86–707, title V, §511(a)(3), (c)(1), Sept. 6, 1960, 74 Stat. 800, 801.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1960—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–707, §511(c)(1), substituted “Government.” for “Government; and”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–707, §511(a)(3), repealed subsec. (d) which defined “continental United States”. See section 5921 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Short Title

Act June 20, 1949, ch. 227, §10, formerly §12, 63 Stat. 212; renumbered §10, July 7, 1958, Pub. L. 85–507, §21(b)(2), 72 Stat. 337, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 403a et seq. of this title] may be cited as the ‘Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949’.”

Separability

Act June 20, 1949, §9, formerly §11, 63 Stat. 212; renumbered §9, July 7, 1958, Pub. L. 85–507, §21(b)(2), 72 Stat. 337, provided that: “If any provision of this Act [enacting sections 403a et seq. of this title], or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of this Act or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby.”

Act Referred to in Other Sections

The Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949 is referred to in title 5 sections 2305, 5373; title 10 section 444.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 403e, 403f of this title.

§403b. Seal of office of Central Intelligence Agency

The Director of Central Intelligence shall cause a seal of office to be made for the Central Intelligence Agency, of such design as the President shall approve, and judicial notice shall be taken thereof.

(June 20, 1949, ch. 227, §2, 63 Stat. 208.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 403a, 403e, 403f of this title.

§403c. Procurement authority of Central Intelligence Agency

(a) Purchases and contracts for supplies and services

In the performance of its functions the Central Intelligence Agency is authorized to exercise the authorities contained in sections 2304(a)(1) to (6), (10), (12), (15), (17), and sections 2305(a) to (c), 2306, 2307, 2308, 2309, 2312, and 2313 of title 10.1

(b) “Agency head” defined

In the exercise of the authorities granted in subsection (a) of this section, the term “Agency head” shall mean the Director, the Deputy Director, or the Executive of the Agency.

(c) Classes of purchases and contracts; finality of decision; powers delegable

The determinations and decisions provided in subsection (a) of this section to be made by the Agency head may be made with respect to individual purchases and contracts or with respect to classes of purchases or contracts, and shall be final. Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the Agency head is authorized to delegate his powers provided in this section, including the making of such determinations and decisions, in his discretion and subject to his direction, to any other officer or officers or officials of the Agency.

(d) Powers not delegable; written findings

The power of the Agency head to make the determinations or decisions specified in paragraphs (12) and (15) of section 2304(a) and section 2307(a) of title 10 1 shall not be delegable. Each determination or decision required by paragraphs (12) and (15) of section 2304(a), by sections 2306 and 2313, or by section 2307(a) of title 10,1 shall be based upon written findings made by the official making such determinations, which findings shall be final and shall be available within the Agency for a period of at least six years following the date of the determination.

(June 20, 1949, ch. 227, §3, 63 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 97–269, title V, §502(a), Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1145; Pub. L. 104–106, div. E, title LVI, §5607(f), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 702.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

In subsecs. (a) and (d), references to the appropriate sections of title 10 were substituted for references to sections 2(c)(1) to (6), (10), (12), (15), (17), 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 of the Armed Services Procurement Act of 1947 (Public Law 413, 80th Congress), on authority of section 49(b) of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 640, section 1 of which enacted Title 10, Armed Forces. Prior to the enactment of Title 10, sections 2 to 6 and 10 of the Armed Services Procurement Act of 1947 were classified to sections 151 to 155 and 159 of Title 41, Public Contracts. Cited sections of the Act were restated in sections of Title 10 as follows:

 
ActTitle 10
2(c) 2304(a)
3 2305(a)–(c)
4 2306, 2313
5 2307
5(a) 2307(a)
6 2312
10 2308, 2309

Sections 2304 and 2305 of title 10 were amended generally by Pub. L. 98–369, and as so amended contain provisions differing from those referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d). Section 2308 of title 10 was repealed by Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1503(b)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3297. For similar provisions, see section 2311 of title 10.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–106 struck out subsec. (e) which read as follows: “Notwithstanding subsection (e) of section 759 of title 40, the provisions of section 759 of title 40 relating to the procurement of automatic data processing equipment or services shall not apply with respect to such procurement by the Central Intelligence Agency.”

1982—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–269 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective 180 days after Feb. 10, 1996, see section 5701 of Pub. L. 104–106, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 702.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 703 of title VII of Pub. L. 97–269 provided that: “The provisions of titles IV and V [enacting former section 202 of Title 10, Armed Forces, and amending this section] and of this title [which, except for enacting this note was not classified to the Code] shall become effective upon the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 1982].”

Procurement of Automatic Data Processing Equipment or Services; Contracts Made Before September 27, 1982

Section 502(b) of Pub. L. 97–269 provided that: “Subsection (e) of section 3 of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. 403c(e)), as added by subsection (a) of this section, does not apply to a contract made before the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 1982].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 403a, 403e, 403f of this title.

1 See Codification note below.

§403d. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–507, §21(b)(2), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 337

Section, act June 20, 1949, ch. 227, §4, 63 Stat. 208, related to education and training of officers and employees. See section 4101 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section was enacted as part of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

§403e. Central Intelligence Agency personnel; allowances and benefits

(a) Travel, allowances, and related expenses for officers and employees assigned to duty stations outside United States

Under such regulations as the Director may prescribe, the Agency, with respect to its officers and employees assigned to duty stations outside the several States of the United States of America, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, but including the District of Columbia, shall—

(1)(A) pay the travel expenses of officers and employees of the Agency, including expenses incurred while traveling pursuant to authorized home leave;

(B) pay the travel expenses of members of the family of an officer or employee of the Agency when proceeding to or returning from his post of duty; accompanying him on authorized home leave; or otherwise traveling in accordance with authority granted pursuant to the terms of sections 403a to 403s of this title or any other Act;

(C) pay the cost of transporting the furniture and household and personal effects of an officer or employee of the Agency to his successive posts of duty and, on the termination of his services, to his residence at time of appointment or to a point not more distant, or, upon retirement, to the place where he will reside;

(D) pay the cost of packing and unpacking, transporting to and from a place of storage, and storing the furniture and household and personal effects of an officer or employee of the Agency, when he is absent from his post of assignment under orders, or when he is assigned to a post to which he cannot take or at which he is unable to use such furniture and household and personal effects, or when it is in the public interest or more economical to authorize storage; but in no instance shall the weight or volume of the effects stored together with the weight or volume of the effects transported exceed the maximum limitations fixed by regulations, when not otherwise fixed by law;

(E) pay the cost of packing and unpacking, transporting to and from a place of storage, and storing the furniture and household and personal effects of an officer or employee of the Agency in connection with assignment or transfer to a new post, from the date of his departure from his last post or from the date of his departure, from his place of residence in the case of a new officer or employee and for not to exceed three months after arrival at the new post, or until the establishment of residence quarters, whichever shall be shorter; and in connection with separation of an officer or employee of the Agency, the cost of packing and unpacking, transporting to and from a place of storage, and storing for a period not to exceed three months, his furniture and household and personal effects; but in no instance shall the weight or volume of the effects stored together with the weight or volume of the effects transported exceed the maximum limitations fixed by regulations, when not otherwise fixed by law.1

(F) pay the travel expenses and transportation costs incident to the removal of the members of the family of an officer or employee of the Agency and his furniture and household and personal effects, including automobiles, from a post at which, because of the prevalence of disturbed conditions, there is imminent danger to life and property, and the return of such persons, furniture, and effects to such post upon the cessation of such conditions; or to such other post as may in the meantime have become the post to which such officer or employee has been assigned.

(2) Charge expenses in connection with travel of personnel, their dependents, and transportation of their household goods and personal effects, involving a change of permanent station, to the appropriation for the fiscal year current when any part of either the travel or transportation pertaining to the transfer begins pursuant to previously issued travel and transfer orders, notwithstanding the fact that such travel or transportation may not all be effected during such fiscal year, or the travel and transfer orders may have been issued during the prior fiscal year.

(3)(A) Order to any of the several States of the United States of America (including the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States) on leave of absence each officer or employee of the Agency who was a resident of the United States (as described above) at time of employment, upon completion of two years’ continuous service abroad, or as soon as possible thereafter.

(B) While in the United States (as described in paragraph (3)(A) of this subsection) 2 on leave, the service of any officer or employee shall be available for work or duties in the Agency or elsewhere as the Director may prescribe; and the time of such work or duty shall not be counted as leave.

(C) Where an officer or employee on leave returns to the United States (as described in paragraph (3)(A) of this subsection),2 leave of absence granted shall be exclusive of the time actually and necessarily occupied in going to and from the United States (as so described) and such time as may be necessarily occupied in awaiting transportation.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, transport for or on behalf of an officer or employee of the Agency, a privately owned motor vehicle in any case in which it shall be determined that water, rail, or air transportation of the motor vehicle is necessary or expedient for all or any part of the distance between points of origin and destination, and pay the costs of such transportation. Not more than one motor vehicle of any officer or employee of the Agency may be transported under authority of this paragraph during any four-year period, except that, as a replacement for such motor vehicle, one additional motor vehicle of any such officer or employee may be so transported during such period upon approval, in advance, by the Director and upon a determination, in advance, by the Director that such replacement is necessary for reasons beyond the control of the officer or employee and is in the interest of the Government. After the expiration of a period of four years following the date of transportation under authority of this paragraph of a privately owned motor vehicle of any officer or employee who has remained in continuous service outside the several States of the United States of America, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, but including the District of Columbia, during such period, the transportation of a replacement for such motor vehicle for such officer or employee may be authorized by the Director in accordance with this paragraph.

(5)(A) In the event of illness or injury requiring the hospitalization of an officer or full time employee of the Agency incurred while on assignment abroad, in a locality where there does not exist a suitable hospital or clinic, pay the travel expenses of such officer or employee by whatever means the Director deems appropriate and without regard to the Standardized Government Travel Regulations and section 5731 of title 5, to the nearest locality where a suitable hospital or clinic exists and on the recovery of such officer or employee pay for the travel expenses of the return to the post of duty of such officer or employee. If the officer or employee is too ill to travel unattended, the Director may also pay the travel expenses of an attendant;

(B) Establish a first-aid station and provide for the services of a nurse at a post at which, in the opinion of the Director, sufficient personnel is employed to warrant such a station: Provided, That, in the opinion of the Director, it is not feasible to utilize an existing facility;

(C) In the event of illness or injury requiring hospitalization of an officer or full time employee of the Agency incurred in the line of duty while such person is assigned abroad, pay for the cost of the treatment of such illness or injury at a suitable hospital or clinic;

(D) Provide for the periodic physical examination of officers and employees of the Agency and for the cost of administering inoculation or vaccinations to such officers or employees.

(6) Pay the costs of preparing and transporting the remains of an officer or employee of the Agency or a member of his family who may die while in travel status or abroad, to his home or official station, or to such other place as the Director may determine to be the appropriate place of interment, provided that in no case shall the expense payable be greater than the amount which would have been payable had the destination been the home or official station.

(7) Pay the costs of travel of new appointees and their dependents, and the transportation of their household goods and personal effects, from places of actual residence in foreign countries at time of appointment to places of employment and return to their actual residences at the time of appointment or a point not more distant: Provided, That such appointees agree in writing to remain with the United States Government for a period of not less than twelve months from the time of appointment.

Violation of such agreement for personal convenience of an employee or because of separation for misconduct will bar such return payments and, if determined by the Director or his designee to be in the best interests of the United States, any money expended by the United States on account of such travel and transportation shall be considered as a debt due by the individual concerned to the United States.

(b) Allowances and benefits comparable to those paid members of Foreign Service; special requirements; persons detailed or assigned from other agencies; regulations

(1) The Director may pay to officers and employees of the Agency, and to persons detailed or assigned to the Agency from other agencies of the Government or from the Armed Forces, allowances and benefits comparable to the allowances and benefits authorized to be paid to members of the Foreign Service under chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4081 et seq.) or any other provision of law.

(2) The Director may pay allowances and benefits related to officially authorized travel, personnel and physical security activities, operational activities, and cover-related activities (whether or not such allowances and benefits are otherwise authorized under this section or any other provision of law) when payment of such allowances and benefits is necessary to meet the special requirements of work related to such activities. Payment of allowances and benefits under this paragraph shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Director. Rates for allowances and benefits under this paragraph may not be set at rates in excess of those authorized by section 5724 and 5724a of title 5 when reimbursement is provided for relocation attributable, in whole or in part, to relocation within the United States.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or any other provision of law relating to the officially authorized travel of Government employees, the Director, in order to reflect Agency requirements not taken into account in the formulation of Government-wide travel procedures, may by regulation—

(A) authorize the travel of officers and employees of the Agency, and of persons detailed or assigned to the Agency from other agencies of the Government or from the Armed Forces who are engaged in the performance of intelligence functions, and

(B) provide for payment for such travel, in classes of cases, as determined by the Director, in which such travel is important to the performance of intelligence functions.


(4) Members of the Armed Forces may not receive benefits under both this section and title 37 for the same purpose. The Director and Secretary of Defense shall prescribe joint regulations to carry out the preceding sentence.

(5) Regulations, other than regulations under paragraph (1), issued pursuant to this subsection shall be submitted to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate before such regulations take effect.

(June 20, 1949, ch. 227, §4, formerly §5, 63 Stat. 209; renumbered §4, Pub. L. 85–507, §21(b)(2), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 337; amended Pub. L. 86–707, title III, §§301(b), 323, title V, §511(a)(3), (c)(2)–(5), Sept. 6, 1960, 74 Stat. 795, 798, 800, 801; Pub. L. 97–89, title V, §501, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1152; Pub. L. 103–359, title IV, §401, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3427; Pub. L. 108–177, title IV, §401, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2631.)

References in Text

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071, as amended. Chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 is classified generally to subchapter IX (§4081 et seq.) of chapter 52 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of Title 22 and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (a)(3)(B), (C), “this subsection” substituted for “this section” as the probable intent of Congress in view of the designation of the existing provisions of this section as subsec. (a) and the addition of subsec. (b) by Pub. L. 97–89, title V, §501, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1152.

Section was enacted as part of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, and not as part of the National Security Act of 1947 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 108–177 inserted “, other than regulations under paragraph (1),” after “Regulations”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(5)(A). Pub. L. 103–359, §401(1)(A)–(D), struck out “, not the result of vicious habits, intemperance, or misconduct on his part,” after “the Agency” and substituted “the Director deems” for “he shall deem”, “section 5731 of title 5” for “section 10 of the Act of March 3, 1933 (47 Stat. 1516; 5 U.S.C. 73b)”, and “the recovery of such officer or employee” for “his recovery”.

Pub. L. 103–359, §401(1)(E), which directed the substitution of “the return to the post of duty of such officer or employee” for “his return to his post”, was executed by making the substitution for “his return to his post of duty” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(5)(B). Pub. L. 103–359, §401(2), substituted “the opinion of the Director” for “his opinion” in two places.

Subsec. (a)(5)(C). Pub. L. 103–359, §401(3), struck out “, not the result of vicious habits, intemperance, or misconduc