TITLE 33—NAVIGATION AND NAVIGABLE WATERS

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Navigable Waters Generally
1
2.
International Rules for Navigation at Sea [Repealed]
61
3.
Navigation Rules for Harbors, Rivers, and Inland Waters Generally
151
4.
Navigation Rules for Great Lakes and Their Connecting and Tributary Waters [Repealed]
241
5.
Navigation Rules for Red River of the North and Rivers Emptying Into Gulf of Mexico and Tributaries [Repealed]
301
5A.
Exemption of Navy or Coast Guard Vessels From Certain Navigation Rules [Repealed]
360
6.
General Duties of Ship Officers and Owners After Collision or Other Accident [Repealed]
361
7.
Regulations for the Suppression of Piracy
381
8.
Summary Trials for Certain Offenses Against Navigation Laws
391
9.
Protection of Navigable Waters and of Harbor and River Improvements Generally
401
10.
Anchorage Grounds and Harbor Regulations Generally
471
11.
Bridges Over Navigable Waters
491
12.
River and Harbor Improvements Generally
540
13.
Mississippi River Commission
641
14.
California Debris Commission
661
15.
Flood Control
701
16.
Lighthouses
711
17.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
851
18.
Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation
901
19.
Saint Lawrence Seaway
981
20.
Pollution of the Sea by Oil [Repealed]
1001
21.
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea [Repealed]
1051
22.
Sea Grant Colleges and Marine Science Development
1101
23.
Pollution Control of Navigable Waters [Omitted or Transferred]
1151
24.
Vessel Bridge-to-Bridge Communication
1201
25.
Ports and Waterways Safety Program
1221
26.
Water Pollution Prevention and Control
1251
27.
Ocean Dumping
1401
28.
Pollution Casualties on the High Seas: United States Intervention
1471
29.
Deepwater Ports
1501
30.
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
1601
31.
Ocean Pollution Research and Development and Monitoring Planning [Repealed]
1701
32.
Inland Waterways Trust Fund
1801
33.
Prevention of Pollution From Ships
1901
34.
Inland Navigational Rules
2001
35.
Artificial Reefs
2101
36.
Water Resources Development
2201
37.
Organotin Antifouling Paint Control
2401
38.
Dumping of Medical Waste by Public Vessels
2501
39.
Shore Protection from Municipal or Commercial Waste
2601
40.
Oil Pollution
2701
41.
National Coastal Monitoring
2801
42.
Estuary Restoration
2901
43.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps
3001
44.
Oceans and Human Health
3101
45.
Tsunami Warning and Education
3201
46.
National Levee Safety Program
3301

        

CHAPTER 1—NAVIGABLE WATERS GENERALLY

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
1.
Regulations by Secretary of the Army for navigation of waters generally.
2.
Regulations for navigation of South and Southwest Passes of Mississippi River; penalties.
3.
Regulations to prevent injuries from target practice.
4.
Water gauges on Mississippi River and tributaries.
5.
Abolition of tolls on Government canals, canalized rivers, etc.; expense of operation, repairs to and reconstruction of canals, etc.; Panama Canal excepted; levies by non-Federal interest.
6.
Free passage to harbor of Michigan City, Indiana.
7.
Use of Government iron pier in Delaware Bay.
8.
Toll free rivers in Alabama.
9.
Des Moines River as toll free.
10.
Waters in Louisiana Purchase as public highways.
11.
Authority for compact between Middle Northwest States as to jurisdiction of offenses committed on boundary waters.
12.
Port Arthur Ship Canal.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—WATERS DECLARED NONNAVIGABLE: CHANGE OF NAME

21.
Bayou Cocodrie, Louisiana.
22.
Bayou Meto, Arkansas.
23.
Bear Creek, Mississippi.
24.
Big Tarkio River, Missouri.
25.
Cache River, Arkansas.
26.
Calumet River, Cook County, Illinois, old channel.
26a.
Additional portion of Calumet River, old channel, abandoned as navigable water.
26b.
Portion of Calumet River, Chicago, as nonnavigable stream.
27.
Chicago River at Chicago, Illinois.
27a.
Chicago River, West Fork of South Branch.
27b.
Chicago River, West arm of South Fork of South Branch.
28.
Crum River; old channel at mouth, Delaware Bay.
29.
Cuivre River, Missouri.
29a.
East River, Wisconsin.
30.
Grand River, Missouri, above Brunswick.
31.
Iowa River, Iowa, above Toolsboro.
32.
Lake George, Mississippi.
33.
Little River, Arkansas, from Big Lake to Marked Tree.
34.
Mill Slough, Oregon.
35.
Mississippi River, West Channel, opposite La Crosse, Wisconsin.
36.
Mosquito Creek, South Carolina.
37.
Nodaway River, Missouri.
38.
Oklawaha River, Florida; Kyle and Young Canal and “Morrison Landing extension” substituted.
39.
Ollala Slough, Oregon.
40.
One Hundred and Two River, Missouri.
41.
Osage River, Missouri.
42.
Platte River, Missouri.
43.
Saint Marys River, Ohio and Indiana.
44.
Sturgeon Bay, Illinois.
45.
Swan Creek, Toledo, Ohio.
46.
Tchula Lake, Mississippi.
47.
Eagle Lake, Louisiana-Mississippi.
48.
Noxubee River, Mississippi.
49.
Bayou Saint John in New Orleans.
50.
Turtle Bay and Turtle Bayou, Texas.
51.
Scajaquada Creek, New York.
52.
Park River, Connecticut.
53.
Benton Harbor Canal, Michigan.
53a.
Additional portion of Benton Harbor Canal, abandoned as navigable water.
54.
Burr Creek, Bridgeport, Connecticut.
55.
Bayou Savage (or Chantilly) in New Orleans.
56.
Fort Point Channel and South Bay, Boston, Massachusetts.
57.
Pike Creek, Wisconsin.
58.
Acushnet River section of New Bedford and Fairhaven Harbor, Massachusetts.
59.
West River in West Haven, Connecticut.
59a.
Back Cove, Portland, Maine.
59b.
Bayous Terrebonne and LeCarpe, Louisiana.
59c.
East River, New York.
59c–1.
East and Hudson Rivers, New York.
59c–2.
East River, New York.
59c–3.
Queens County, New York.
59d.
River Raisin, Michigan.
59e.
Bayou Lafourche, Louisiana.
59e–1.
Additional portion of Bayou Lafourche, Louisiana.
59f.
Boston Inner Harbor and Fort Point Channel, Massachusetts.
59g.
Steele and Washington Bayous, and Lake Washington, Mississippi.
59h.
Northern Embarcadero area, San Francisco, California.
59h–1.
San Francisco, California, waterfront area.
59i.
Patapsco River, Maryland.
59j.
Delaware River, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania; permanent structures.
59j–1.
Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of the Delaware River.
59k.
Wicomico River, Maryland.
59l.
Nonapplicability of prohibitions and provisions for review and approval concerning wharves and piers.
59m.
Lake Oswego, Oregon; Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; and Lake George, New York.
59n.
Hudson River, Hudson County, New Jersey.
59n–1.
Caven Point, New Jersey.
59o.
Hackensack River, Hudson County, New Jersey.
59p.
Kenduskeag Stream, Penobscot County, Maine.
59q.
Erie Basin, Buffalo Harbor, New York.
59q–1.
Union Canal, Outer Buffalo Harbor, New York.
59r.
Trent River, Craven County, North Carolina.
59s.
Green River, Washington.
59t.
Burnham Canal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
59u.
Lawyer's Ditch, Essex County, New Jersey.
59v.
Middle River, Maryland.
59w.
Norton Basin and Jamaica Bay, New York.
59x.
Exemption from General Bridge Act of 1946.
59y.
Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of Coney Island Creek and Gravesend Bay, New York.
59z.
Declaration of nonnavigability of bodies of water in Ridgefield, New Jersey.
59aa.
Nonnavigability of Wisconsin River.
59bb.
Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of Lake Erie.
59bb–1.
Declaration of nonnavigability for Lake Erie, New York.
59cc.
Declaration of nonnavigability of portion of Hudson River, New York.
59dd.
Declaration of nonnavigability of portions of Cleveland Harbor, Ohio.
59ee.
Portion of Sacramento River Barge Canal declared to not be navigable waters of United States.
59ee–1.
Declaration of nonnavigability for portion of Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel.
59ff.
Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of Pelican Island, Texas.
59gg.
Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of Cuyahoga County, Ohio.
59hh.
Declaration of nonnavigability for portion of Pelican Island, Texas.
59ii.
Declaration of nonnavigability of a portion of the canal known as the James River and Kanawha Canal in Richmond, Virginia.
59jj.
Designation of nonnavigability for portions of Gloucester County, New Jersey.
59kk.
Wateree River.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§1. Regulations by Secretary of the Army for navigation of waters generally

It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Army to prescribe such regulations for the use, administration, and navigation of the navigable waters of the United States as in his judgment the public necessity may require for the protection of life and property, or of operations of the United States in channel improvement, covering all matters not specifically delegated by law to some other executive department. Such regulations shall be posted, in conspicuous and appropriate places, for the information of the public; and every person and every corporation which shall violate such regulations shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, on conviction thereof in any district court of the United States within whose territorial jurisdiction such offense may have been committed, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $500, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) not exceeding six months, in the discretion of the court.

Any regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army in pursuance of this section may be enforced as provided in section 413 of this title, the provisions whereof are made applicable to the said regulations.

(Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §4, 28 Stat. 362; June 13, 1902, ch. 1079, §§6, 11, 32 Stat. 374; Aug. 8, 1917, ch. 49, §7, 40 Stat. 266; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

The first paragraph of this section is from section 4 of act Aug. 18, 1894, popularly known as the “River and Harbor Act of 1894”, as amended.

As originally enacted, said section 4 made it the duty of the Secretary of War to prescribe rules and regulations for the use, administration, and navigation of any or all canals and similar works of navigation owned, operated, or maintained by the United States, and provided for the posting of such regulations and the punishment of violations thereof.

Said section 4 was amended by section 11 of act June 13, 1902, principally by adding to the original section provisions authorizing the Secretary also to prescribe regulations to govern the speed and movement of vessels and other water craft in any public navigable channel which had been improved under authority of Congress, whenever in his judgment such regulations were necessary to protect such improved channel from injury or to prevent interference with the operations of the United States in improving navigable waters or injury to any plant that might be employed in such operations.

Section 4 was also amended by section 7 of act Aug. 8, 1917, to read as set forth in the first paragraph hereof.

The last paragraph of this section is from section 6 of act June 13, 1902. Said section 6 is also the source of the last proviso in section 499 of this title.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Rules and Regulations

Administrative provisions covering definitions which the Coast Guard uses to examine waters to determine whether the Coast Guard has jurisdiction on those waters under particular laws of the United States are set out in chapter I, subchapter A, part 2, of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, in the Code of Federal Regulations. Such part 2, consisting of sections 2.01–1 to 2.10–10, sets out definitions of jurisdictional terms and provides for the availability of jurisdictional decisions.

§2. Regulations for navigation of South and Southwest Passes of Mississippi River; penalties

The Secretary of the Army is authorized to make such rules and regulations for the navigation of the South and Southwest Passes of the Mississippi River as to him shall seem necessary or expedient for the purpose of preventing any obstruction to the channels through said South and Southwest Passes and any injury to the works therein constructed. The term “South and Southwest Passes”, as employed in this section, shall be construed as embracing the entire extent of channel in each case, between the upper ends of the works at the head of the pass and the outer or sea ends of the jetties at the entrance from the Gulf of Mexico; and any willful violation of any rule or regulation made by the Secretary of the Army in pursuance of this section shall be deemed a misdemeanor, for which the owner or owners, agent or agents, master or pilot of the vessel so offending shall be separately or collectively responsible, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than $100, nor exceeding $500, or by imprisonment for not exceeding three months, or by both fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court.

(Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 264, §5, 35 Stat. 818; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

These provisions were part of section 5 of act Mar. 3, 1909, popularly known as the “River and Harbor Appropriation Act of 1909”.

These provisions superseded previous similar provisions relating to the navigation of the South Pass only, contained in act Aug. 11, 1888, ch. 860, §5, 25 Stat. 424, amended by act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §3, 26 Stat. 452.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§3. Regulations to prevent injuries from target practice

Authority to adopt regulations—In the interest of the national defense, and for the better protection of life and property on the navigable waters of the United States, the Secretary of the Army is authorized and empowered to prescribe such regulations as he may deem best for the use and navigation of any portion or area of the navigable waters of the United States or waters under the jurisdiction of the United States endangered or likely to be endangered by Artillery fire in target practice or otherwise, or by the proving operations of the Government ordnance proving grounds at Sandy Hook, New Jersey, or at any Government ordnance proving ground that may be established elsewhere on or near such waters, and of any portion or area of said waters occupied by submarine mines, mine fields, submarine cables, or other material and accessories pertaining to seacoast fortifications, or by any plant or facility engaged in the execution of any public project of river and harbor improvement; and the said Secretary shall have like power to regulate the transportation of explosives upon any of said waters: Provided, That the authority conferred shall be so exercised as not unreasonably to interfere with or restrict the food fishing industry, and the regulations prescribed in pursuance hereof shall provide for the use of such waters by food fishermen operating under permits granted by the Department of the Army.

Detail of vessels to enforce regulations—To enforce the regulations prescribed pursuant to this section, the Secretary of the Army, may detail any public vessel in the service of the Department of the Army, or, upon the request of the Secretary of the Army, the head of any other department may enforce, and the head of any such department is authorized to enforce, such regulations by means of any public vessel of such department.

Posting and violation of regulations—The regulations made by the Secretary of the Army pursuant to this section shall be posted in conspicuous and appropriate places, designated by him, for the information of the public; and every person who and every corporation which shall willfully violate any regulations made by the said Secretary pursuant to this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof in any court of competent jurisdiction shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $500, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) not exceeding six months, in the discretion of the court.

Venue and jurisdiction of offenses; procedure—Offenses against the provisions of this section, or any regulation made pursuant thereto, committed in any Territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States where there is no court having general jurisdiction of crimes against the United States, shall be cognizable in any court of such place or Territory having original jurisdiction of criminal cases in the place or Territory in which the offense has been committed, with the same right of appeal in all cases as is given in other criminal cases where imprisonment not exceeding six months forms a part of the penalty, and jurisdiction is conferred upon such courts and such courts shall exercise the same for such purposes; and in case any such offense be committed beyond the territorial jurisdiction of any court having jurisdiction thereof, the offense shall be deemed and held to have been committed within the jurisdiction in which the offender may be found or into which he is first brought, and shall be tried by the court having jurisdiction thereof.

(July 9, 1918, ch. 143, subch. XIX, §§1–4, 40 Stat. 892, 893; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Undesignated pars. 1 to 4 of this section are from sections 1 to 4, respectively, of act July 9, 1918, popularly known as the “Army Appropriation Act of 1919”.

Undesignated pars. 1 and 2 of this section superseded similar provisions of act Aug. 8, 1917, ch. 49, §8, 40 Stat. 266.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Coast Artillery changed to Artillery under authority of section 306(a) of act June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title III, 64 Stat. 269. Section 306(a) of act June 28, 1950 was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in section 3063 continued the Artillery as a basic branch of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of certain functions insofar as they pertain to Air Force, and to extent that they were not previously transferred to Secretary of the Air Force and Department of the Air Force from Secretary of the Army and Department of the Army, see Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 40 [App. A(55)], July 22, 1949.

§4. Water gauges on Mississippi River and tributaries

The Secretary of the Army is authorized and directed to have water gauges established, and daily observations made of the rise and fall of the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

For the purpose of securing the uninterrupted gauging of the waters of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, as provided for in this section, upon the application of the Chief of Engineers, the Secretary of the Army is authorized to draw his warrant or requisition, from time to time, upon the Secretary of the Treasury for such sums as may be necessary to do such work, not to exceed in the aggregate for each year the sum of $9,600.

(R.S. §5252; Aug. 11, 1888, ch. 860, §6, 25 Stat. 424; June 13, 1902, ch. 1079, §9, 32 Stat. 374; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1076, §1(15), 68 Stat. 967.)

Codification

R.S. §5252 derived from Res. Feb. 21, 1871, No. 40, 16 Stat. 598.

The first paragraph of this section is from R.S. §5252, which, as enacted, authorized and directed the establishment of water gauges and the making of daily observations at or in the vicinity of certain enumerated places, and at such other places as the Secretary of War might deem advisable. It further provided that the expenditure should be made from the appropriation for the improvement of rivers and harbors and that the annual cost of the observations should not exceed $5,000. These latter provisions were apparently modified by section 6 of act Aug. 11, 1888, as amended by section 9 of act June 13, 1902, which was substantially the second paragraph of this section. As originally enacted, section 6 of act Aug. 11, 1888, provided for the gauging of the waters of the Lower Mississippi and tributaries, and limited the cost for each year to the amount appropriated in the act for such purpose.

Amendments

1954—Act Aug. 30, 1954, repealed proviso requiring that an itemized statement of expenses incurred in gauging waters of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, as provided in this section, should accompany the annual report of the Chief of Engineers.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Appropriations

Section 2 of act June 26, 1934, ch. 756, 48 Stat. 1225, which was classified to section 725a of former Title 31, Money and Finance, repealed the permanent appropriation under the title “Gauging waters of the Mississippi and its tributaries (fiscal year) (8–961.54)” effective July 1, 1935, and provided that such portions of any Acts as make permanent appropriations to be expended under such account are amended so as to authorize, in lieu thereof, annual appropriations from the general fund of the Treasury in identical terms and in such amounts as now provided by the laws providing such permanent appropriations.

§5. Abolition of tolls on Government canals, canalized rivers, etc.; expense of operation, repairs to and reconstruction of canals, etc.; Panama Canal excepted; levies by non-Federal interest

(a) No tolls or operating charges whatever shall be levied upon or collected from any vessel, dredge, or other water craft for passing through any lock, canal, canalized river, or other work for the use and benefit of navigation, now belonging to the United States or that may be hereafter acquired or constructed; and for the purpose of preserving and continuing the use and navigation of said canals and other public works without interruption, the Secretary of the Army, upon the recommendation of the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, is authorized to draw his warrant or requisition, from time to time, upon the Secretary of the Treasury to pay the actual expenses of operating, maintaining, and keeping said works in repair, which warrants or requisitions shall be paid by the Secretary of the Treasury out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated: Provided, That whenever, in the judgment of the Secretary of the Army, the condition of any of the aforesaid works is such that its entire reconstruction is absolutely essential to its efficient and economical maintenance and operation as herein provided for, the reconstruction thereof may include such modifications in plan and location as may be necessary to provide adequate facilities for existing navigation: Provided further, That the modifications are necessary to make the reconstructed work conform to similar works previously authorized by Congress and forming a part of the same improvement, and that such modifications shall be considered and approved by the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors and be recommended by the Chief of Engineers before the work of reconstruction is commenced: And provided further, That nothing contained in this section shall be held to apply to the Panama Canal.

(b) No taxes, tolls, operating charges, fees, or any other impositions whatever shall be levied upon or collected from any vessel or other water craft, or from its passengers or crew, by any non-Federal interest, if the vessel or water craft is operating on any navigable waters subject to the authority of the United States, or under the right to freedom of navigation on those waters, except for—

(1) fees charged under section 2236 of this title;

(2) reasonable fees charged on a fair and equitable basis that—

(A) are used solely to pay the cost of a service to the vessel or water craft;

(B) enhance the safety and efficiency of interstate and foreign commerce; and

(C) do not impose more than a small burden on interstate or foreign commerce; or


(3) property taxes on vessels or watercraft, other than vessels or watercraft that are primarily engaged in foreign commerce if those taxes are permissible under the United States Constitution.

(July 5, 1884, ch. 229, §4, 23 Stat. 147; Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 264, §6, 35 Stat. 818; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1076, §1(15), 68 Stat. 967; Pub. L. 107–295, title IV, §445, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2133; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §829(a), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2597.)

Codification

Section is from act July 5, 1884, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1884”.

The section, as originally enacted, was as follows:

“No tolls or operating charges whatsoever shall be levied or collected upon any vessel or vessels, dredges, or other passing water-craft through any canal or other work for the improvement of navigation belonging to the United States; and for the purpose of preserving and continuing the use and navigation of said canals, rivers, and other public works without interruption, the Secretary of War, upon the application of the chief engineer in charge of said works, is hereby authorized to draw his warrant or requisition from time to time upon the Secretary of the Treasury to pay the actual expenses of operating and keeping said works in repair, which warrants or requisitions shall be paid by the Secretary of the Treasury, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated: Provided, however, That an itemized statement of said expenses shall accompany the annual report of the chief of engineers.”

It was amended by act March 3, 1909, to read substantially as set forth above.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 108–176 added par. (3).

2002—Pub. L. 107–295 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1954—Act Aug. 30, 1954, repealed last proviso requiring that an itemized statement of expenses incurred in operating, maintaining, keeping in repair, and reconstructing locks, canals, etc., other than the Panama Canal, as provided in this section, should accompany the annual report of the Chief of Engineers.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §829(b), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2597, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] is effective on and after November 25, 2002.”

Termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors and Reassignment of Duties and Responsibilities

For termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors 180 days after Oct. 31, 1992, and reassignment of duties and responsibilities by Secretary of Army, see section 223 of Pub. L. 102–580, set out as a note under section 541 of this title.

Appropriations

Section 2 of act June 26, 1934, ch. 756, 48 Stat. 1225, which was classified to section 725a of former Title 31, Money and Finance, repealed the permanent appropriation under the title “Operating and care of canals and other works of navigation (8x881)” effective July 1, 1935, and provided that such portions of any Acts as make permanent appropriations to be expended under such account are amended so as to authorize, in lieu thereof, annual appropriations from the general fund of the Treasury in identical terms and in such amounts as now provided by the laws providing such permanent appropriations.

§6. Free passage to harbor of Michigan City, Indiana

The passage of vessels to and from the harbor of Michigan City, in Indiana, shall be free and not subject to toll or charge.

(R.S. §5247.)

Codification

R.S. §5247 derived from acts June 23, 1866, ch. 138, §1, 14 Stat. 73; Mar. 2, 1867, ch. 144, §2, 14 Stat. 421.

§7. Use of Government iron pier in Delaware Bay

The Government iron pier in Delaware Bay near Lewes, Delaware, shall be open to public use under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Army.

(July 27, 1916, ch. 260, §1, 39 Stat. 394; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section is from act July 27, 1916, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1916”.

A further provision of act July 27, 1916, repealed act Mar. 3, 1891, ch. 542, 26 Stat. 969, which authorized a transfer of the iron pier to the Treasury Department.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§8. Toll free rivers in Alabama

The Tennessee, Coosa, Cahawba, and Black Warrior Rivers, within the State of Alabama, shall be forever free from toll for all property belonging to the United States, and for all persons in their service, and for all citizens of the United States, except as to such tolls as may be allowed by Act of Congress.

(R.S. §5244.)

Codification

R.S. §5244 derived from act May 23, 1828, ch. 75, §7, 4 Stat. 290.

Another R.S. 5244 is classified to section 43 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

§9. Des Moines River as toll free

The Des Moines River shall forever remain free from any toll, or other charge whatever, for any property of the United States, or persons in their service, passing along the same.

(R.S. §5246.)

Codification

R.S. §5246 derived from acts Aug. 8, 1846, ch. 103, §3, 9 Stat. 78; Jan. 20, 1870, ch. 7, 16 Stat. 61.

§10. Waters in Louisiana Purchase as public highways

All the navigable rivers and waters in the former Territories of Orleans and Louisiana shall be and forever remain public highways.

(R.S. §5251.)

Codification

R.S. §5251 derived from act Mar. 3, 1811, ch. 46, §12, 2 Stat. 606.

§11. Authority for compact between Middle Northwest States as to jurisdiction of offenses committed on boundary waters

The consent of the Congress is given to the States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Nebraska, or any two or more of them, by such agreement or compact as they may deem desirable or necessary, or as may be evidenced by legislative acts enacted by any two or more of said States, not in conflict with the Constitution of the United States or any law thereof, to determine and settle the jurisdiction to be exercised by said States, respectively, over offenses arising out of the violation of the laws of any of said States upon any of the waters forming the boundary lines between any two or more of said States, or waters through which such boundary line extends, and that the consent of the Congress be, and the same is, given to the concurrent jurisdiction agreed to by the States of Minnesota and South Dakota, as evidenced by the act of the Legislature of the State of Minnesota approved April 20, 1917, and the act of the Legislature of the State of South Dakota approved February 13, 1917.

(Mar. 4, 1921, ch. 176, 41 Stat. 1447.)

Codification

This section is from a resolution entitled a “Joint Resolution giving consent of the Congress of the United States to the States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Nebraska, or any two or more of said States, to agree upon the jurisdiction to be exercised by said States over boundary waters between any two or more of said States”.

§12. Port Arthur Ship Canal

After there shall be conveyed to the United States, free of cost, a valid title to the line of water communication between Taylors Bayou and Sabine Pass, in the State of Texas, known as the Port Arthur Ship Canal, together with a valid title to the turning basin as existing June 19, 1906, and to the artificial slip on which the lumber dock of the Port Arthur Canal and Dock Company is built, the said waterways shall thereupon become free public waters of the United States, and be subject to the laws enacted by Congress for the maintenance, preservation, protection, and regulation of navigable waters: Provided, That the company or corporation conveying title to said canal as aforesaid shall also convey to the United States, free of cost, the fee to a strip of land one hundred and fifty feet wide along the westerly margin of the canal, except that where the right of way of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company prevents the transfer of such strip of land along the westerly margin of said canal there shall be conveyed such strip on the easterly margin thereof as may be necessary to make up such one hundred and fifty feet of width, with the reservation that until Congress shall have authorized and provided for the enlargement and widening of said canal the said company or corporation, its successors or assigns, shall have the right to control, occupy, and use the said strip of land and every part thereof in the same manner and to the same extent as before the execution and delivery of the conveyance, and also the right to transfer, lease, sell, quitclaim, or otherwise dispose of said property and every part thereof, subject to the grant made to the United States. The charges for the use of said docks and wharves shall be just and reasonable and shall not be greater than charges for similar services at other ports of the United States on the Gulf of Mexico.

(June 19, 1906, ch. 3436, §1, 34 Stat. 302.)

Codification

This section is from a proviso following provisions establishing an additional collection district in the State of Texas to be known as the district of Sabine; the establishment of the said district being conditioned on the making of the conveyance referred to in this section.

Further provisions of the said proviso authorizing the Secretary of War to accept the said waterways as the property of the United States, and directing that the Act take effect only when the requirements of the section be fully complied with to the satisfaction of the Secretary of War, have been omitted as executed and obsolete.

SUBCHAPTER II—WATERS DECLARED NONNAVIGABLE: CHANGE OF NAME

§21. Bayou Cocodrie, Louisiana

Bayou Cocodrie, from its source to its junction with Bayou Chicot, in the State of Louisiana, is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws enacted by the Congress for the preservation and protection of such waters.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Feb. 25, 1921, ch. 71, §§1, 2, 41 Stat. 1145.)

Codification

The first sentence hereof is section 1 and the second sentence section 2 of act Feb. 25, 1921, entitled “An Act to declare Bayou Cocodrie nonnavigable from its source to its junction with Bayou Chicot”.

§22. Bayou Meto, Arkansas

The Bayou Meto, in the State of Arkansas, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

(Aug. 8, 1917, ch. 49, §16, 40 Stat. 268.)

§23. Bear Creek, Mississippi

Bear Creek in Humphreys, Leflore, and Sunflower Counties, in the State of Mississippi, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and the laws of the United States.

The right of Congress to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Mar. 3, 1923, ch. 229, §§1, 2, 42 Stat. 1442.)

Codification

The first sentence hereof is section 1 and the last sentence section 2 of act Mar. 3, 1923, entitled “An Act declaring Bear Creek in Humphreys, Leflore, and Sunflower counties, Mississippi, to be a nonnavigable stream”.

§24. Big Tarkio River, Missouri

The Big Tarkio River, in the counties of Holt and Atchison, in the State of Missouri, is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws enacted by Congress for the preservation and protection of such waters.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Feb. 15, 1910, ch. 33, §§1, 2, 36 Stat. 194.)

Codification

The first sentence hereof is section 1 and the last sentence section 2 of act Feb. 15, 1910, entitled “An Act to declare Big Tarkio River, in Holt and Atchison counties, Missouri, nonnavigable”.

§25. Cache River, Arkansas

The Cache River in the State of Arkansas is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States. This provision shall become void after one year from July 27, 1916, unless within said period the Legislature of Arkansas shall pass an act expressly approving this declaration. The right of the Congress to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(July 27, 1916, ch. 260, §1, 39 Stat. 399.)

Codification

Section was a provision of section 1 of act July 27, 1916, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1916”.

Approval of Declaration

See Arkansas Laws 1917, ch. 2, act 406.

§26. Calumet River, Cook County, Illinois, old channel

The portion of the old channel of the Calumet River in the northwest quarter of section thirty, township thirty-seven north, range fifteen east, of the third principal meridian, in Cook County, Illinois, which lies outside of the new channel lines as established by the United States and shown on “Map of the Calumet River, Illinois, from Lake Michigan to Calumet Lake, to accompany report of W. G. Ewing, United States attorney to the Attorney-General, respecting cession of right of way for improvement of said river under Act of Congress approved July fifth, eighteen hundred and eighty-four,” is hereby abandoned as navigable water from and after the time that a navigable channel shall be cut through said quarter section within the new channel lines of the river as shown on the said map.

The portion of the old channel of the Calumet River in the north quarter of fractional section 7, township 37 north, range 15 east, of the third principal meridian, south of the Indian boundary line, in Cook County, Illinois, which lies outside of the new channel lines as established by the United States and shown on “map of the Calumet River, Illinois, from Lake Michigan to Calumet Lake, to accompany report of W. G. Ewing, United States attorney, to the Attorney General, respecting cession of right of way for improvement of said river, under Act of Congress approved July 5, 1884”, is abandoned as navigable water.

(Apr. 21, 1904, ch. 1409, 33 Stat. 239, 240; Feb. 27, 1915, ch. 68, 38 Stat. 817.)

References in Text

Act of Congress approved July 5, 1884, referred to in text, is act July 5, 1884, ch. 229, 23 Stat. 143, which provided in part for the appropriation of $50,000 for the continuing improvement of the Calumet River, provided that no part of such appropriation be expended until the right of way should have been conveyed to the United States, free from expense, and the United States released from liability to adjacent property owners, to the satisfaction of the Secretary of War.

§26a. Additional portion of Calumet River, old channel, abandoned as navigable water

The portion of the old channel of the Calumet River in sections eighteen and nineteen, township thirty-seven north, range fifteen east, of the third principal meridian, in Cook County, Illinois, which lies outside of the new channel lines established by the United States and shown on the map referred to in section 26 of this title, and which lies outside of the exterior limits of the turning basin to be established on said Calumet River in said sections, is abandoned as navigable water of the United States from and after the time when the United States shall have secured title to the land necessary for the establishment of the turning basin at some point, to be approved by the Chief of Engineers, between One hundred and thirteenth Street and One hundred and seventeenth Street in the city of Chicago.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 144, §1, 37 Stat. 816.)

§26b. Portion of Calumet River, Chicago, as nonnavigable stream

The portion of the Calumet River, in the city of Chicago, county of Cook, State of Illinois, lying between the intersections of this river with the two lines described below, is a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States:

Beginning at a point on the south line of the north half of section 36, township 37 north, range 14 east, of the third principal meridian, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three and seven-hundredths feet west of the east line of said section; thence northwesterly on a straight line to a point three thousand two hundred and eighty feet west of the east line and seven hundred and eighty-five feet south of the north line of said section; and

Beginning at a point five hundred and eighty-five feet east of the west line and seven hundred and thirty-two feet north of the south line of section 31, township 37 north, range 15 east, of the third principal meridian; thence north forty-six degrees and thirty minutes east along a straight line to the easterly water's edge of said river.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(June 14, 1937, ch. 338, §§2, 3, 50 Stat. 258, 259.)

§27. Chicago River at Chicago, Illinois

All of that portion of the West Fork of the South Branch of the Chicago River in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, extending west from the west line of the collateral channel of the sanitary district of Chicago, in the northwest quarter of section 36, township 39 north, range 13 east, of the third principal meridian, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States. The right of Congress to alter, amend, or repeal this provision is expressly reserved.

The provisions of sections 401 and 403 of this title shall not apply to that portion of the west arm of the South Fork of the South Branch of the Chicago River, lying between the east line of Ashland Avenue and the north line of Thirty-ninth Street, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, as the same now exists or may hereafter be extended. All rights, authority, or control over that part of the Chicago River possessed or assumed by the United States are relinquished and abandoned, and all rights, authority, or control over the same that were possessed by the State of Illinois are fully restored to said State.

As soon as the city of Chicago, or any other governmental agency or any corporation thereunto duly authorized by the Secretary of the Army, shall have constructed, after June 7, 1924, a new channel for the South Branch of the Chicago River between West Polk Street and West Nineteenth Street in said city of Chicago, then, and in that event, so much of the channel of the South Branch of the Chicago River as shall be superseded and replaced by said new channel in accordance with the permit of the Secretary of the Army shall be discontinued and abandoned.

(Jan. 24, 1923, ch. 33, §§1, 2, 42 Stat. 1171; Feb. 27, 1923, ch. 142, 42 Stat. 1323; June 7, 1924, ch. 337, 43 Stat. 646; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

The two sentences comprising the first paragraph of this section are, respectively, sections 1 and 2 of act Jan. 24, 1923.

The second paragraph of this section is from act Feb. 27, 1923.

The last paragraph of this section is from act June 7, 1924.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§27a. Chicago River, West Fork of South Branch

That portion of the West Fork of the South Branch of the Chicago River in Cook County, Illinois, lying between the west line (produced north) of the Collateral Channel of the Sanitary District of Chicago, in the northwest quarter of section 36, township 39 north, range 13 east, third principal meridian, and a line one thousand three hundred feet east of and parallel to the west line of section 30 (section line in South Western Avenue), township 39 north, range 13 east, third principal meridian, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, as the same now exists or may hereafter be extended, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Aug. 30, 1935, ch. 831, §10, 49 Stat. 1048.)

§27b. Chicago River, West arm of South Fork of South Branch

The portion of the west arm of the South Fork of the South Branch of the Chicago River, as established by the ordinance of the city of Chicago on July 17, 1911, in the southwest quarter of section 32, township 39 north, range 14 east of the third principal meridian, in the city of Chicago, county of Cook, State of Illinois, lying westerly of a straight line drawn from a point in south dock line of the said west arm 203.94 feet westerly of the point of intersection of the south dock line of the said west arm with the west dock line of the east arm of the South Fork of the South Branch of the Chicago River as established by said city of Chicago ordinance of July 17, 1911, measured along the south dock line of said west arm, thence to a point in the north dock line of the said west arm said point being 278 feet westerly of the intersection of the north dock line of the said west arm with the west dock line of the South Fork of the South Branch of the Chicago River as established by said city of Chicago ordinance of July 17, 1911, measured along the north dock line of said west arm of the South Fork of the South Branch of the Chicago River, is declared to be and is on and after September 1, 1959 to be regarded as a nonnavigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States: Provided, That plans for a suitable bulkhead to retain any fill to be placed in the waterway shall be submitted to and approved by the Corps of Engineers, United States Army, prior to the placing of such fill.

(Pub. L. 86–218, Sept. 1, 1959, 73 Stat. 448.)

§28. Crum River; old channel at mouth, Delaware Bay

After the channel of the Crum River where the same empties into the Delaware River has been changed, diverted, and straightened under the authority given to Alba B. Johnson and Samuel M. Vauclain and the Baldwin Locomotive Works by Act July 27, 1916, chapter 260, the said Crum River, as so straightened, shall be a public navigable stream, and the course and channel of the said river, as it existed July 27, 1916, from the right-of-way of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway Company to the low-water line in the Delaware River shall be abandoned and vacated when the above-mentioned new channel shall have been completed to a depth of four feet at mean low water, with a bottom width of sixty-two feet and width of one hundred feet at mean low-water level: Provided, That the Government shall have such right, title, and interest in and to the bed of said new channel as will assure the public the right to the perpetual use of said channel for all the purposes of navigation and commerce.

(July 27, 1916, ch. 260, §1, 39 Stat. 393.)

References in Text

Act July 27, 1916, chapter 260, referred to in text, is act July 27, 1916, ch. 260, 39 Stat. 393, which is classified to sections 7, 25, 28, 38, 424, and 648 to 650 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section is from a provision of section 1 of act July 27, 1916, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1916”.

The portion of that section authorizing the changing, diverting, and straightening of the channel of the river has been omitted as temporary and executed.

§29. Cuivre River, Missouri

Cuivre River, in the counties of Lincoln and Saint Charles, in the State of Missouri, being the dividing line, is declared not to be a navigable stream, and shall be so treated by the Secretary of the Army and all other authorities.

(Mar. 23, 1900, ch. 88, 31 Stat. 50; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§29a. East River, Wisconsin

All of that portion of the East River, in the county of Brown, State of Wisconsin, extending from Baird Street, in the city of Green Bay, east and south is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America.

The right of Congress to alter, amend or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Aug. 30, 1935, ch. 831, §9, 49 Stat. 1048.)

§30. Grand River, Missouri, above Brunswick

Grand River in the State of Missouri above the city of Brunswick, in the county of Chariton in said State, is declared to be not a navigable stream and shall be so treated by the Secretary of the Army and by all other authorities.

(Feb. 15, 1905, ch. 574, 33 Stat. 715; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§31. Iowa River, Iowa, above Toolsboro

So much of the Iowa River within the State of Iowa, as lies north of the town of Wapello, and so much of the said river within the State of Iowa, as lies between the town of Toolsboro and the town of Wapello, in the county of Louisa, shall not be deemed a navigable river or public highway, but dams and bridges may be constructed across it.

(R.S. §5248; Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §1, 28 Stat. 356.)

Codification

R.S. §5248 derived from Res. July 13, 1868, No. 55, 15 Stat. 257; act May 6, 1870, ch. 92, 16 Stat. 121.

The portion of this section relating to the Iowa river north of the town of Wapello is from R.S. §5248.

The remainder the section, relating to so much of the river as lies between Toolsboro and Wapello, is from act Aug. 18, 1894.

§32. Lake George, Mississippi

Lake George, in Yazoo County, in the State of Mississippi, is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws enacted by the Congress for the preservation and protection of such waters.

The right of Congress to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(May 24, 1922, ch. 198, §§1, 2, 42 Stat. 552.)

Codification

The two sentences comprising this section are respectively sections 1 and 2 of act May 24, 1922, entitled “An act declaring Lake George, Yazoo County, Mississippi, to be a nonnavigable stream”.

§33. Little River, Arkansas, from Big Lake to Marked Tree

Little River, from Big Lake in Mississippi County to Marked Tree in Poinsett County, Arkansas, is declared to be not a navigable waterway of the United States within the meaning of the laws enacted by Congress for the protection of such waterways.

(Mar. 2, 1919, ch. 95, §4, 40 Stat. 1287.)

Codification

Section is from section 4 of act Mar. 2, 1919, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1919”.

§34. Mill Slough, Oregon

Mill Slough, a tidal tributary of Coos Bay, lying within the limits of the city of Marshfield, State of Oregon, is declared to be not a navigable waterway of the United States, within the meaning of the laws enacted by Congress for the preservation and protection of such waterways, and the consent of Congress is given to the filling in of said slough by the said city of Marshfield.

(Oct. 23, 1913, ch. 33, 38 Stat. 233.)

§35. Mississippi River, West Channel, opposite La Crosse, Wisconsin

The branch of the Mississippi River flowing between Grand Island and the mainland opposite the city of La Crosse, State of Wisconsin, and known as the West Channel, is declared unnavigable, and the said city of La Crosse is relieved of the necessity of maintaining a draw or pontoon bridge over said West Channel.

(Feb. 23, 1901, ch. 470, 31 Stat. 804.)

§36. Mosquito Creek, South Carolina

Mosquito Creek, in Colleton County, South Carolina, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

(Aug. 8, 1917, ch. 49, §15, 40 Stat. 268.)

§37. Nodaway River, Missouri

Nodaway River, in the counties of Andrew, Holt, and Nodaway, in the State of Missouri, is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws enacted by Congress for the preservation and protection of such waters.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Feb. 15, 1910, ch. 32, §§1, 2, 36 Stat. 194.)

§38. Oklawaha River, Florida; Kyle and Young Canal and “Morrison Landing extension” substituted

Upon the conveyance to the United States, free of cost, title to the land occupied by what is known as the “Kyle and Young Canal” and the “Morrison Landing extension” of the same, on the Oklawaha River, in the State of Florida, together with title to a strip of land on the east side of said canal of such width as in the judgment of the Secretary of the Army may be required for the future widening of said canal and extension by the United States, the said canal and extension shall become a free public waterway of the United States in place of the natural bed of the river.

(July 27, 1916, ch. 260, §1, 39 Stat. 396; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§39. Ollala Slough, Oregon

All of that portion of Ollala Slough in Lincoln County, Oregon, above a point where a line that is one hundred and twenty rods south and running east and west and parallel with the section line between sections 8 and 17 in township 11 south, range 10 west of the Willamette meridian, crosses said stream, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream.

(Feb. 26, 1917, ch. 119, 39 Stat. 937.)

§40. One Hundred and Two River, Missouri

One Hundred and Two River south of the north boundary line of Andrew County, Missouri, as now located, is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws enacted by Congress for the preservation and protection of such waters.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Feb. 15, 1910, ch. 31, §§1, 2, 36 Stat. 194.)

§41. Osage River, Missouri

The Osage River in the State of Missouri above the point where the south line of sections 15 and 16 in township 40 north, of range 22 west, of the fifth principal meridian, and in the county of Benton, State of Missouri, crosses said river, is declared not to be a navigable stream, and shall be so treated by the Secretary of the Army and by all other authorities.

(Mar. 4, 1904, ch. 393, 33 Stat. 58; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

This section superseded act June 24, 1902, ch. 1154, 32 Stat. 398, which declared that the Osage River above the point where the dividing line between the counties of Benton and Saint Clair crosses the river should not be a navigable stream.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§42. Platte River, Missouri

The Platte River in the State of Missouri is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States, and jurisdiction over said river is declared to be vested in the State of Missouri.

The right of Congress to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Feb. 16, 1921, ch. 62, §§1, 2, 41 Stat. 1105.)

Codification

The two sentences of this section are, respectively, from sections 1 and 2 of act Feb. 16, 1921, entitled “An Act declaring the Platte River to be a nonnavigable stream”.

§43. Saint Marys River, Ohio and Indiana

Saint Marys River, Ohio and Indiana, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

(Aug. 8, 1917, ch. 49, §17, 40 Stat. 268.)

§44. Sturgeon Bay, Illinois

So much of the west fork of Sturgeon Bay within the county of Mercer and State of Illinois as lies west of the line between the east half and the west half of the east half of section 25, in township 14 north, range 6 west of the fourth principal meridian, and so much of the east fork of said Sturgeon Bay as lies north of the north line of section 30, in township 14 north, range 5 west of the fourth principal meridian, shall not be deemed navigable waters of the United States.

(Feb. 7, 1907, No. 13, 34 Stat. 1421.)

§45. Swan Creek, Toledo, Ohio

Swan Creek, a stream lying within the limits of the city of Toledo, State of Ohio, is declared to be not a navigable waterway of the United States within the meaning of the laws enacted by Congress for the preservation and protection of such waterways, and the consent of Congress is given for the filling in of said creek by the local authorities.

(Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 142, §13, 38 Stat. 1055.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 4, 1915, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1915”.

§46. Tchula Lake, Mississippi

Tchula Lake, in Holmes County, in the State of Mississippi, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right of Congress to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(July 1, 1922, ch. 266, §§1, 2, 42 Stat. 816.)

Codification

The two sentences comprising this section are, respectively, sections 1 and 2 of act July 1, 1922, entitled “An act declaring Tchula Lake, Holmes County, Mississippi, to be a nonnavigable stream”.

§47. Eagle Lake, Louisiana-Mississippi

Eagle Lake, which lies partly within the limits of the State of Mississippi, in Warren County, and partly within the limits of the State of Louisiana, in Madison Parish, is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(June 2, 1926, ch. 445, §§1, 2, 44 Stat. 681.)

§48. Noxubee River, Mississippi

That portion of the Noxubee River in Noxubee County, in the State of Mississippi is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right of Congress to amend or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Feb. 24, 1934, ch. 25, §§1, 2, 48 Stat. 356.)

§49. Bayou Saint John in New Orleans

Bayou Saint John, in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws enacted by Congress for the preservation and protection of such waters.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(June 5, 1936, ch. 530, §§1, 2, 49 Stat. 1484.)

§50. Turtle Bay and Turtle Bayou, Texas

Turtle Bay and Turtle Bayou, in Chambers County, in the State of Texas, are declared to be nonnavigable waterways within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States of America.

The existing project for Turtle Bayou, Texas, authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Act approved June 25, 1910 (Act June 25, 1910, ch. 382, 36 Stat. 630), is abandoned.

The right of Congress to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Mar. 10, 1937, ch. 36, §§1–3, 50 Stat. 28.)

References in Text

The Rivers and Harbors Act approved June 25, 1910, referred to in text, is act June 25, 1910, ch. 382, 36 Stat. 630, as amended, which is classified to sections 546, 564, and 643 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

§51. Scajaquada Creek, New York

Scajaquada Creek, Erie County, New York, is declared to be nonnavigable east of a line one hundred and thirty feet west of the west line of Niagara Street, city of Buffalo, county of Erie, New York, within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(May 14, 1937, ch. 183, §§1, 2, 50 Stat. 165.)

§52. Park River, Connecticut

The Park River, a minor tributary of the Connecticut River, located in Hartford County, Connecticut, is declared to be a nonnavigable waterway within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States of America.

The right of Congress to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(May 24, 1937, ch. 246, §§1, 2, 50 Stat. 201.)

§53. Benton Harbor Canal, Michigan

The Benton Harbor Canal at and above the west line of Ninth Street, in the city of Benton Harbor and State of Michigan, is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(June 2, 1937, ch. 288, §§1–3, 50 Stat. 243.)

§53a. Additional portion of Benton Harbor Canal, abandoned as navigable water

The Benton Harbor Canal, from the west line of Ninth Street extended northerly to the west line of Riverview Drive extended northerly in the city of Benton Harbor and State of Michigan, be, and the same is hereby, declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

(Pub. L. 88–88, §1, Aug. 5, 1963, 77 Stat. 118.)

§54. Burr Creek, Bridgeport, Connecticut

That portion of Burr Creek in the city of Bridgeport, Connecticut, lying north of a line across the creek beginning at the point of intersection of the south side of Yacht Street extended and the west harbor line of the harbor lines established by the Secretary of War December 9, 1924, thence south eighty-five degrees forty-six minutes seventeen seconds east to the east harbor line of said creek, is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

Any project heretofore authorized by any Act of Congress, insofar as such project relates to the above described portion of Burr Creek in the city of Bridgeport, Connecticut, is abandoned.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Aug. 12, 1937, ch. 607, 50 Stat. 632; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§55. Bayou Savage (or Chantilly) in New Orleans

Bayou Savage, also styled Bayou Chantilly, in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, is declared to be a nonnavigable waterway within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Aug. 16, 1937, ch. 650, 50 Stat. 649.)

§56. Fort Point Channel and South Bay, Boston, Massachusetts

The portion of the tidewaters in the waterway in which is located Fort Point Channel and South Bay in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, lying above the easterly side of the highway bridge over Fort Point Channel at Dorchester Avenue in the city of Boston is declared to be a nonnavigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(May 13, 1955, ch. 37, 69 Stat. 48.)

§57. Pike Creek, Wisconsin

Pike Creek, in the State of Wisconsin, above the easterly side of the highway bridge at Sixth Avenue in the city of Kenosha is declared to be a nonnavigable stream within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(July 26, 1955, ch. 377, 69 Stat. 373.)

§58. Acushnet River section of New Bedford and Fairhaven Harbor, Massachusetts

The portion of the waterway in the city of New Bedford and the towns of Fairhaven and Acushnet lying north of the Coggeshall Street Bridge (north 41 degrees 31 minutes 00 seconds), is declared to be a nonnavigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States. Any project heretofore authorized by any Act of Congress, insofar as such project relates to the above-described portions of the Acushnet River section of New Bedford and Fairhaven Harbor, is hereby abandoned.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Aug. 3, 1955, ch. 495, 69 Stat. 443.)

§59. West River in West Haven, Connecticut

The portion of the waterway in which is located the West River in the town of West Haven, Connecticut, and the city of New Haven, Connecticut, lying northerly of a line extending north 85 degrees 54 minutes 43.5 seconds east, from a point (1,158.535 feet from the most westerly corner of the existing bulkhead and pier line) whose coordinates in the Corps of Engineers Harbor Line System are north 4,616.76 and west 9,450.80, is declared to be a nonnavigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The line hereinbefore described shall be established as a combined pierhead and bulkhead line of the West River.

Any project heretofore authorized by an Act of Congress, insofar as such project relates to the above-described portion of the West River, is hereby abandoned.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 649, 69 Stat. 576.)

§59a. Back Cove, Portland, Maine

(a) Portion declared nonnavigable

That portion of Back Cove at Portland, Maine, lying southerly of a line across the twelve-foot Federal project channel in Back Cove twenty-five hundred feet upstream from the Tukey Bridge, to the head of Back Cove, is declared to be a nonnavigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

(b) Portion abandoned

That portion of the twelve-foot Federal project channel in Back Cove lying southerly of a line across the channel twenty-five hundred feet upstream from the Tukey Bridge, to the head of Back Cove, a distance of approximately thirty-five hundred feet, is abandoned.

(c) Preservation of right to alter, amend or repeal section

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Pub. L. 85–126, Aug. 13, 1957, 71 Stat. 344.)

§59b. Bayous Terrebonne and LeCarpe, Louisiana

Bayou Terrebonne west of Barrow Street and Bayou LeCarpe west of the Intracoastal Waterway in the city of Houma, State of Louisiana, are declared to be not navigable waters of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved.

(Pub. L. 86–226, §§2, 3, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 455.)

§59c. East River, New York

That portion of the East River, in New York County, State of New York, lying between the south line of East Seventeenth Street, extended eastwardly, the United States pierhead line as it existed on July 1, 1965, and the south line of East Thirtieth Street, extended eastwardly, is hereby declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and the laws of the United States.

(Pub. L. 89–298, title III, §307, Oct. 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1094.)

§59c–1. East and Hudson Rivers, New York

Those portions of the East and Hudson Rivers in New York County, State of New York, lying shoreward of a line within the United States Pierhead Line as it exists on August 13, 1968, and bounded on the north by the north side of Spring Street extended westerly and the south side of Robert F. Wagner, Senior Place extended eastwardly, are hereby declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States. This declaration shall apply only to portions of the above-described area which are bulkheaded and filled. Plans for bulkheading and filling shall be approved by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, on the basis of engineering studies to determine the location and structural stability of the bulkheading and filling in order to preserve and maintain the remaining navigable waterway. Local interests shall reimburse the Federal Government for any engineering costs incurred under this section.

(Pub. L. 90–483, title I, §113, Aug. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 736.)

§59c–2. East River, New York

If the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, finds that the proposed project to be erected at the location to be declared non-navigable under this section is in the public interest, on the basis of engineering studies to determine the location and structural stability of the bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structures in order to preserve and maintain the remaining navigable waterway and on the basis of environmental studies conducted pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.], then those portions of the East River in New York County, State of New York, bounded and described as follows are hereby declared to be not navigable waters of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and the consent of Congress is hereby given to the filling in of all or any part thereof or the erection of permanent pile-supported structures thereon: That portion of the East River in New York County, State of New York, lying shoreward of a line with the United States pierhead line as it exists on March 7, 1974, bounded on the north by the south side of Rutgers Slip extended easterly, and bounded on the south by the southeasterly border of Battery Park at a point adjacent to the westerly end of South Street extended south by southwest, is hereby declared to be non-navigable waters of the United States. This declaration shall apply only to portions of the above-described area which are bulkheaded and filled or occupied by permanent pile-supported structures. Plans for bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structures shall be approved by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers. Local interests shall reimburse the Federal Government for engineering and all other costs incurred under this section.

(Pub. L. 93–251, title I, §51, Mar. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 26.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

§59c–3. Queens County, New York

(a) Description of nonnavigable area

Subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, the area of Long Island City, Queens County, New York, that—

(1) is not submerged;

(2) as of October 12, 1996, lies between the southerly high water line of Anable Basin (also known as the “11th Street Basin”) and the northerly high water line of Newtown Creek; and

(3) extends from the high water line (as of October 12, 1996) of the East River to the original high water line of the East River;


is declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States.

(b) Requirement that area be improved

(1) In general

The declaration of nonnavigability under subsection (a) of this section shall apply only to those portions of the area described in subsection (a) of this section that are, or will be, bulkheaded, filled, or otherwise occupied by permanent structures or other permanent physical improvements (including parkland).

(2) Applicability of Federal law

Improvements described in paragraph (1) shall be subject to applicable Federal laws, including—

(A) sections 401 and 403 of this title;

(B) section 1344 of this title;

(C) the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(c) Expiration date

The declaration of nonnavigability under subsection (a) of this section shall expire with respect to a portion of the area described in subsection (a) of this section, if the portion—

(1) is not bulkheaded, filled, or otherwise occupied by a permanent structure or other permanent physical improvement (including parkland) in accordance with subsection (b) of this section by the date that is 20 years after October 12, 1996; or

(2) requires an improvement described in subsection (b)(2) of this section that is subject to a permit under an applicable Federal law, and the improvement is not commenced by the date that is 5 years after the date of issuance of the permit.

(Pub. L. 104–303, title V, §556, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3782.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(C), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

§59d. River Raisin, Michigan

The old channel of the River Raisin in Monroe County, Michigan, lying between the Monroe Harbor range front light and Raisin Point, its entrance into Lake Erie, is declared to be not a navigable stream of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and the laws of the United States, and the consent of Congress is hereby given for the filling in of the old channel by the riparian owners on such channel.

(Pub. L. 89–298, title III, §308, Oct. 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1094.)

§59e. Bayou Lafourche, Louisiana

Bayou Lafourche, in the State of Louisiana, between Canal Boulevard, city of Thibodaux, Parish of Lafourche, State of Louisiana, and the head of the bayou at its junction with the Mississippi River levee at the city of Donaldsonville, Parish of Ascension, State of Louisiana, is hereby declared to be a nonnavigable waterway of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States. The existing project for Bayou Lafourche, Louisiana, authorized by the Acts of August 30, 1935 (49 Stat. 1028) and July 14, 1960 (74 Stat. 480) is hereby deauthorized in the reach of Bayou Lafourche herein declared nonnavigable.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is hereby expressly reserved.

(Pub. L. 90–149, Nov. 22, 1967, 81 Stat. 507.)

References in Text

The provisions of the Acts of August 30, 1935 (49 Stat. 1028) and July 14, 1960 (74 Stat. 480), referred to in text, authorizing the Bayou Lafourche, Louisiana, project, are not classified to the Code.

Portion of Bayou Lafourche Declared To Be Navigable Waterway

Pub. L. 101–595, title III, §314, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2987, provided that: “Bayou Lafourche, in the State of Louisiana, between the Percy Brown Road (Hwy 648), city of Thibodaux, parish of Lafourche, and the Southern Pacific Railroad bridge crossing the bayou, city of Thibodaux, parish of Lafourche, is declared to be navigable waterway of the United States under chapter 11 of title 33, United States Code.”

§59e–1. Additional portion of Bayou Lafourche, Louisiana

Bayou Lafourche, in the State of Louisiana, between Canal Boulevard, city of Thibodaux, parish of Lafourche and the Southern Pacific Railroad bridge crossing the bayou, city of Thibodaux, parish of Lafourche, is hereby declared to be a nonnavigable waterway of the United States within the meaning of the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 U.S.C. 525 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 99–307, §5, May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 447.)

References in Text

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in text, is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

§59f. Boston Inner Harbor and Fort Point Channel, Massachusetts

That portion of Boston Inner Harbor and Fort Point Channel in Suffolk County, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, lying within the following described area is hereby declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States: Beginning at the intersection of the northeasterly sideline of Northern Avenue and the westerly United States Pierhead Line of the Fort Point Channel and running northwesterly by the northwesterly sideline of Northern Avenue to the westerly sideline of Atlantic Avenue: thence turning and running northerly and northwesterly by the westerly sideline of Atlantic Avenue and of Commercial Street to the southeasterly sideline of Hanover Street; thence turning and running northeasterly by the southeasterly sideline of Hanover Street to the southwesterly property line of the United States Coast Guard Base; thence turning and running southeasterly by the southwesterly property line of the United States Coast Guard Base to the southeasterly property line of the United States Coast Guard Base; thence turning and running northeasterly by the southeasterly property line of the United States Coast Guard Base extended to the United States Pierhead Line; thence turning and running southeasterly, southerly and southwesterly by the United States Pierhead Line, to the point of beginning.

(Pub. L. 90–312, May 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 125.)

§59g. Steele and Washington Bayous, and Lake Washington, Mississippi

Steele Bayou, in Warren, Issaquena, Sharkey, and Washington Counties, Mississippi, Washington Bayou, in Issaquena and Washington Counties, Mississippi, and Lake Washington, in Washington County, Mississippi, are hereby declared to be nonnavigable within the meaning of the laws of the United States.

(Pub. L. 90–483, title I, §108(a), Aug. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 735.)

§59h. Northern Embarcadero area, San Francisco, California

That portion of the Northern Embarcadero area, beginning at the intersection of the northwesterly line of Bryant Street with the southwesterly line of Spear Street, which intersection lies on the line of jurisdiction of the San Francisco Port Authority; following thence westerly and northerly along said line of jurisdiction as described in the State of California Harbor and Navigation Code Section 1770, as amended in 1961, to its intersection with the easterly line of Van Ness Avenue produced northerly; thence northerly along said easterly line of Van Ness Avenue produced to its intersection with the United States Government pier-head line; thence following said pier-head line easterly and southerly to its intersection with the northwesterly line of Bryant Street produced northeasterly; thence southwesterly along said northwesterly line of Bryant Street produced to the point of beginning, is hereby declared to be nonnavigable waters within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and the consent of Congress is hereby given for the filling in of all or any part of the described area. This declaration shall apply only to portions of the above-described area which are bulkheaded and filled or are occupied by permanent pile-supported structures. Plans for bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structures shall be approved by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, on the basis of engineering studies to determine the location and structural stability of the bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structures in order to preserve and maintain the remaining navigable waterway. Local interests shall reimburse the Federal Government for any engineering costs incurred under this section.

(Pub. L. 90–483, title I, §114, Aug. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 736.)

References in Text

Section 1770 of the State of California Harbor and Navigation Code was repealed by Cal. Stats. 1970, ch. 385, p. 799, §2.

§59h–1. San Francisco, California, waterfront area

(a) Area to be declared nonnavigable; public interest

Unless the Secretary finds, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations), that the proposed projects to be undertaken within the boundaries of the portion of the San Francisco, California, waterfront area described in subsection (b) are not in the public interest, such portion is declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States.

(b) Northern embarcadero south of Bryant Street

The portion of the San Francisco, California, waterfront area referred to in subsection (a) is as follows: Beginning at the intersection of the northeasterly prolongation of that portion of the northwesterly line of Bryant Street lying between Beale Street and Main Street with the southwesterly line of Spear Street, which intersection lies on the line of jurisdiction of the San Francisco Port Commission; following thence southerly along said line of jurisdiction as described in the State of California Harbor and Navigation Code Section 1770, as amended in 1961, to its intersection with the southeasterly line of Townsend Street; thence northeasterly along said southeasterly line of Townsend Street, to its intersection with a line that is parallel and distant 10 feet southerly from the existing southern boundary of Pier 40 produced; thence easterly along said parallel line, to its point of intersection with the United States Government Pierhead line; thence northerly along said Pierhead line to its intersection with a line parallel with, and distant 10 feet easterly from, the existing easterly boundary line of Pier 30–32; thence northerly along said parallel line and its northerly prolongation, to a point of intersection with a line parallel with, and distant 10 feet northerly from, the existing northerly boundary of Pier 30–32; thence westerly along last said parallel line to its intersection with the United States Government Pierhead line; thence northerly along said Pierhead line, to its intersection aforementioned northwesterly line of Bryant Street produced northeasterly; thence southwesterly along said northwesterly line of Bryant Street produced to the point of beginning.

(c) Requirement that area be improved

The declaration of nonnavigability under subsection (a) applies only to those parts of the area described in subsection (b) that are or will be bulkheaded, filled, or otherwise occupied by permanent structures and does not affect the applicability of any Federal statute or regulation applicable to such parts the day before November 8, 2007, including sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(d) Expiration date

If, 20 years from November 8, 2007, any area or part thereof described in subsection (b) is not bulkheaded or filled or occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities, in accordance with the requirements set out in subsection (c), or if work in connection with any activity permitted in subsection (c) is not commenced within 5 years after issuance of such permits, then the declaration of nonnavigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(Pub. L. 110–114, title V, §5052, Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1211.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 110–114, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§59i. Patapsco River, Maryland

That portion of the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River located generally south of Pratt Street, east of Light Street, north of Key Highway, in the city of Baltimore, State of Maryland, and being more particularly described as all of that portion of the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River lying west of a series of lines beginning at the point formed by the intersection of the south side of Pratt Street, as now laid out, and the west side of Pier 3 and running thence binding on the west side of Pier 3, south 04 degrees 19 minutes 47 seconds east 726.59 feet to the southwest corner of Pier 3; thence crossing the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River, south 23 degrees 01 minutes 15 seconds west 855.36 feet to the point formed by the intersection of the existing pierhead and bulkhead line and the east side of Battery Avenue, last said point of intersection being the end of the first line of the fourth parcel of land conveyed by J. and F. Realty, Incorporated to Allegheny Pepsi-Cola Bottling Company by deed dated December 22, 1965, and recorded among the Land Record of Baltimore City in Liber J. F. C. numbered 2006 folio 345, the location of said pierhead and bulkhead line is based upon the Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District, Baltimore, Maryland, coordinate value for station LIV of said pierhead and bulkhead line, the coordinate value as referred to the Lambert grid plane coordinate system for the State of Maryland of said station LIV being east 2,111,161.40, north 527,709.27 and thence binding on the east side of Battery Avenue, south 03 degrees 09 minutes 07 seconds east 568 feet, more or less, to intersect the north side of Key Highway as now laid out and located is hereby declared to be not a navigable stream of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and the consent of Congress is hereby given for the filling in of all or any part of the described area.

(Pub. L. 90–483, title I, §115, Aug. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 736.)

§59j. Delaware River, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania; permanent structures

That portion of the Delaware River in Philadelphia County, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, lying between all that certain lot or piece of ground situate in the second and fifth wards of the city of Philadelphia described as follows:

Beginning at a point on the easterly side of Delaware Avenue (variable width) said side being the bulkhead line of the Delaware River (approved by the Secretary of War on September 10, 1940), at the distance of 1,833.652 feet from an angle point on the easterly side of said Delaware Avenue south of Washington Avenue;

thence extending along the easterly side of said Delaware Avenue the following courses and distances, (1) north 0 degree 45 minutes 33.2 seconds west 2,524.698 feet to a point; (2) north 9 degrees 36 minutes 25 seconds east, 2,168.160 feet to a point; (3) north 13 degrees 26 minutes 45.8 seconds east, 2,039.270 feet to a point; (4) north 20 degrees 12 minutes 52.4 seconds east, 35.180 feet to an angle point in Delaware Avenue; thence continuing north 20 degrees 12 minutes 52.4 seconds east along the said bulkhead line, the distance of 574.970 feet to a point on the south house line of Callowhill Street produced;

thence extending along the south house line of Callowhill Street produced south 80 degrees 47 minutes 30.6 seconds east, the distance of 523.908 feet to a point on the pierhead line of the Delaware River (approved by the Secretary of War on September 10, 1940);

thence extending along the said pierhead line the following courses and distances, (1) south 17 degrees 52 minutes 48.5 seconds west, 605.262 feet to a point; (2) south 14 degrees 14 minutes 14.7 seconds west, 1,372.530 feet to a point; (3) south 10 degrees 37 minutes 35.3 seconds west, 1,252.160 feet to a point; (4) south 8 degrees 23 minutes 50.4 seconds west, 1,450.250 feet to a point; (5) south 2 degrees 22 minutes 45.9 seconds west, 1,221.670 feet to a point; (6) south 1 degree 4 minutes 36 seconds east, 1,468.775 feet to a point on the north house line of Catherine Street extended, thence extending north 76 degrees 56 minutes 29.2 seconds west, the distance of 555.911 feet to the first mentioned point and place of beginning is hereby declared not to be a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Consent of Congress is hereby given, for the filling or erection of permanent structures in all or any part of the described area.

(Pub. L. 92–605, §1, Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1493.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Permanent Structures in Above-Described Area; Approval of Plans

Section 2 of Pub. L. 92–605 provided that: “This declaration [this section] shall apply only to portions of the above-described area which are filled or occupied by permanent structures. No such filling or erection of structures in the above-described area shall be commenced until the plans therefor have been approved by the Secretary of the Army who shall, prior to granting such approval, give consideration to all factors affecting the general public interest and the impact of the proposed work on the environment.”

§59j–1. Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of the Delaware River

(a) Area to be declared non-navigable; public interest

Unless the Secretary finds, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations), that the proposed projects in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to be undertaken within the boundaries described below, are not in the public interest then, subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, those portions of the Delaware River, bounded and described as follows, are declared to be non-navigable waters of the United States:

(1) Liberty Landing. [Omitted]

(2) Marina Towers and World Trade Center—Pier 25 North. [Omitted]

(3) Marine Trade Center—Pier 24 North. [Omitted]

(4) National Sugar Company “Sugar House”. [Omitted]

(5) Rivercenter. [Omitted]

(b) Limits on applicability; regulatory requirements

The declaration under subsection (a) of this section shall apply only to those parts of the areas described in subsection (a) of this section which are or will be bulkheaded and filled or otherwise occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities. All such work is subject to all applicable Federal statutes and regulations, including, but not necessarily limited to, sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

(c) Expiration date

If, 20 years from November 17, 1988, any area or part thereof described in subsection (a) (except 30 years from November 17, 1988, in the case of the area or any part thereof described in subsection (a)(5)) is not bulkheaded or filled or occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities, in accordance with the requirements set out in subsection (b) of this section, or if work in connection with any activity permitted in subsection (b) of this section is not commenced within 5 years after issuance of such permits, then the declaration of non-navigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(Pub. L. 100–676, §38, Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4032; Pub. L. 110–114, title III, §3181(g), Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1162.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

The text of the boundary descriptions contained in pars. (1) to (5) of subsec. (a), which is not set out in the Code, appears at 102 Stat. 4032 to 4038.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–114 substituted “subsection (a) (except 30 years from November 17, 1988, in the case of the area or any part thereof described in subsection (a)(5))” for “subsection (a) of this section”.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 100–676, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§59k. Wicomico River, Maryland

(a) If the Secretary of the Army acting through the Chief of Engineers, finds that the proposed project in Salisbury, Maryland, to be undertaken at the locations to be declared nonnavigable under this section is in the public interest, on the basis of engineering studies to determine the location and structural stability of any bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structures, in order to preserve and maintain the remaining navigable waterway and on the basis of environmental studies conducted pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.], then those portions of the South Prong of the Wicomico River in Wicomico County, State of Maryland, bounded and described as follows, are declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and the consent of Congress is hereby given, consistent with subsection (b) of this section, to the filling in of a part thereof or the erection of permanent pile-supported structures thereon: That portion of the South Prong of the Wicomico River in Salisbury, Maryland, bounded on the east by the west side of United States Route 13; on the west by the west side of the Mill Street Bridge; on the south by a line five feet landward from the present water's edge at high tide extending the entire length of the South Prong from the east boundary at United States Route 13 to the west boundary at the Mill Street Bridge; and on the north by a line five feet landward from the present water's edge at high tide extending the entire length of the South Prong from the east boundary at United States Route 13 to the west boundary at the Mill Street Bridge.

(b) This declaration shall apply only to the portions of the areas described in subsection (a) of this section which are bulkheaded and filled or occupied by permanent pile-supported structures. Plans for bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structures shall be approved by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers. Such bulkheaded and filled areas or areas occupied by permanent pile-supported structures shall not reduce the existing width of the Wicomico River to less than sixty feet and a minimum depth of five feet shall be maintained within such sixty-foot width of the Wicomico River. Local interests shall reimburse the Federal Government for engineering and all other costs incurred under this section.

(Pub. L. 93–251, title I, §97, Mar. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 40.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

§59l. Nonapplicability of prohibitions and provisions for review and approval concerning wharves and piers

The prohibitions and provisions for review and approval concerning wharves and piers in waters of the United States as set forth in sections 403 and 565 of this title shall not apply to any body of water located entirely within one State which is, or could be, considered to be a navigable body of water of the United States solely on the basis of historical use in interstate commerce.

(Pub. L. 94–587, §154, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2932.)

§59m. Lake Oswego, Oregon; Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; and Lake George, New York

For the purposes of section 403 of this title the following bodies of water are declared nonnavigable: Lake Oswego, Oregon; Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; and Lake George, New York.

(Pub. L. 94–587, §162, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2934.)

Codification

“Section 403 of this title” substituted in text for “section 10 of the Act of March 3, 1899 (30 Stat. 1151) (33 U.S.C. 401)” as the probable intent of Congress in that section 10 of said act is set out as section 403 of this title while section 401 of this title is based on section 9 of the act of Mar. 3, 1899.

§59n. Hudson River, Hudson County, New Jersey

(a) If the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, finds that the proposed project to be erected at the location to be declared nonnavigable under this section is in the public interest, on the basis of engineering studies to determine the location and structural stability of any bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structure, in order to preserve and maintain the remaining navigable waterway and on the basis of environmental studies conducted pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.], then that portion of the Hudson River in Hudson County, State of New Jersey, bounded and described as follows is hereby declared to be nonnavigable water of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and the consent of Congress is hereby given to the filling in of all or any part thereof and the erection of permanent pile-supported structures thereon:

Such portion is in the township of North Bergen in the county of Hudson and State of New Jersey, and is more particularly described as follows: At a point in the easterly right-of-way of New Jersey Shore Line Railroad (formerly New Jersey Junction Railroad) said point being located northerly, measured along said easterly right-of-way, 81.93 feet from Station 54+42.4 as shown on construction drawing dated May 23, 1931, of River Road, filed in the Office of the Hudson County Engineer, Jersey City, New Jersey:

thence (1) northerly and along said easterly right-of-way on a bearing of north 12 degrees 11 minutes 14 seconds east, a distance of 280 feet to a point;

thence (2) south 75 degrees 28 minutes 24 seconds east, a distance of 310 feet to a point;

thence (3) south 17 degrees 15 minutes 41 seconds east, a distance of 101.70 feet to a point;

thence (4) south 62 degrees 18 minutes 12 seconds east a distance of 355.64 feet to a point in the exterior solid fill line of April 7, 1903, and the bulkhead line of April 28, 1904, on the Hudson River;

thence (5) along said exterior solid fill and bulkhead lines south 28 degrees 55 minutes 51 seconds west, a distance of 523 feet to a point in the northerly line of lands now or formerly of New York State Realty and Terminal Company;

thence (6) north 61 degrees 34 minutes 29 seconds west, and along said northerly line of the New York State Realty and Terminal Company, a distance of 590.08 feet to a point in the aforementioned easterly right-of-way of the New Jersey Shore Line Railroad;

thence (7) northerly and along said easterly right-of-way of the New Jersey Shore Line Railroad on a curve to the left a radius of 995.09 feet, an arc length of 170.96 feet to a point therein;

thence (8) northerly, still along the same, on a bearing of north 12 degrees 11 minutes 14 seconds east, a distance of 81.93 feet to the point and place of beginning.


Said parcel containing 8 acres being the same more or less.

(b) The declaration in subsection (a) of this section shall apply only to portions of the above-described area which are either bulkheaded and filled or occupied by permanent pile-supported structures. Plans for bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structures shall be approved by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers. Local interests shall reimburse the Federal Government for engineering and all other costs incurred under this section.

(Pub. L. 94–587, §178, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2937.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

§59n–1. Caven Point, New Jersey

That portion of the Hudson River in the New York Bay consisting of—

(1) all that piece or parcel of land, containing 120.54 acres, situate, lying and being in the city of Jersey City, Hudson County, State of New Jersey, upon or around that certain lot or piece of land known as the Caven Point Area; and

(2) all that piece or parcel of land, containing 18 acres more or less, situate on the northwesterly side of New Jersey State Highway Route 185,


more particularly described in the Congressional Record dated March 11, 1986, pages S2446–2447, is hereby declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and the laws of the United States, except for the purposes of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.].

(Pub. L. 99–662, title XI, §1118, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4237.)

References in Text

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, referred to in text, is act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–500, §2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, which is classified generally to chapter 26 (§1251 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1251 of this title and Tables.

§59o. Hackensack River, Hudson County, New Jersey

(a) If the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers finds that the proposed project to be erected at the location to be declared nonnavigable under this section is in the public interest, on the basis of engineering studies to determine the location and structural stability of any bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structure, in order to preserve and maintain the remaining navigable waterway, and on the basis of environmental studies conducted pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.], then those portions of the Hackensack River in Hudson County, State of New Jersey, bounded and described as follows are hereby declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States, and the consent of Congress is hereby given to the filling in of all or any part thereof and the erection of permanent pile-supported structures thereon:

Beginning at a point where the southeasterly shoreline (mean high water line) of the Hackensack River intersects the easterly line of the Erie Railroad said point property being 2,015.38 feet northerly along said railroad property from where it intersects the northerly line of the Meadowlands Parkway (100 feet wide) and running from:

thence north 19 degrees 20 minutes 54 seconds west 50.00 feet;

thence north 37 degrees 30 minutes 08 seconds east 615.38 feet;

thence north 03 degrees 02 minutes 56 seconds east, 2,087 feet;

thence north 31 degrees 11 minutes 06 seconds east 577 feet;

thence north 74 degrees 29 minutes 18 seconds east 541.25 feet;

thence south 62 degrees 01 minutes 31 seconds east 400 feet;

thence south 55 degrees 46 minutes 27 seconds east 612.52 feet;

thence south 34 degrees 13 minutes 33 seconds west 517.79 feet;

thence south 55 degrees 46 minutes 27 seconds east 158.81 feet;

thence south 34 degrees 13 minutes 33 seconds west 310 feet;

thence north 55 degrees 26 minutes 27 seconds north 15 feet;

thence south 34 degrees 13 minutes 33 seconds west 592 feet;

thence running in a southwesterly direction along the shoreline (mean high water line) of the Hackensack River, a distance of 2,360 feet being the same more or less to the easterly property line of the Erie Railroad and the point or place of beginning.


Said parcel containing 67.6 acres being the same more or less.

(b) The declaration in subsection (a) of this section shall apply only to portions of the described area which are either bulkheaded and filled or occupied by permanent pile-supported structures. Plans for bulkheading and filling and permanent pile-supported structures shall be approved by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers. Local interests shall reimburse the Federal Government for engineering and all other costs incurred under this section.

(Pub. L. 94–587, §179, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2938.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

§59p. Kenduskeag Stream, Penobscot County, Maine

The Kenduskeag Stream, a minor tributary of the Penobscot River, located in Penobscot County, in the State of Maine, be, and the same is hereby, declared to be a nonnavigable waterway within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States of America.

(July 11, 1947, ch. 236, §1, 61 Stat. 316.)

§59q. Erie Basin, Buffalo Harbor, New York

That portion of the Erie Basin in the Buffalo Harbor lying within the following described area is hereby declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and the laws of the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–520, §1, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 3033.)

References in Text

The following described area, referred to in text, refers to the metes and bounds description of that portion of the Erie Basin in the Buffalo Harbor set out in the second paragraph of section 1 of Pub. L. 96–520, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 3033–3035, which is not classified to the Code.

§59q–1. Union Canal, Outer Buffalo Harbor, New York

The portion of the Union Canal, also known as the Union Ship Canal, an appendage of the Buffalo Outer Harbor, located in the City of Buffalo, State of New York, is declared to be a nonnavigable waterway of the United States within the meaning of the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 U.S.C. 525, et seq.) from a point two hundred feet west of Fuhrmann Boulevard east to its terminus.

(Pub. L. 100–202, §101(l) [title III, §332], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–358, 1329–384.)

References in Text

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in text, is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

§59r. Trent River, Craven County, North Carolina

Those portions of the Trent River in the city of New Bern, county of Craven, State of North Carolina, bounded and described in Committee Print 95–56 of the Committee on Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives are hereby declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States within the meaning of the laws of the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–520, §3, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 3036.)

Change of Name

Committee on Public Works and Transportation of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

§59s. Green River, Washington

For the purposes of section 401 of this title, the portion of the Green River in the State of Washington lying upstream from that State Highway 516 bridge which is in existence on October 26, 1981, is hereby declared to be not a navigable waterway.

(Pub. L. 97–68, §2(b), Oct. 26, 1981, 95 Stat. 1040.)

§59t. Burnham Canal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

The portion of the Burnham Canal, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which is underneath and west of a point one hundred feet east of South Eleventh Street is declared to be not a navigable water of the United States within the meaning of the Constitution and laws of the United States. The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is hereby expressly reserved.

(Pub. L. 97–468, title V, §503, Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2552.)

§59u. Lawyer's Ditch, Essex County, New Jersey

The body of water known as Lawyer's Ditch located at block 5,000 in the city of Newark, county of Essex, New Jersey, is declared to be a nonnavigable waterway of the United States within the meaning of the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 U.S.C. 525 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 99–307, §3, May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 446.)

References in Text

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in text, is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

§59v. Middle River, Maryland

(a) Description

That portion of the waterway in which is located Dark Head Creek in the community of Middle River, Baltimore County, Maryland, lying northwest of a line extending south 68 degrees 37 minutes 56 seconds west from a point (227.50 feet from the northeast corner of the existing bulkhead and pier line) whose coordinates in the Maryland State Coordinate System are north 544967.24 and east 962701.05 (latitude north 39 degrees 19 minutes 42 seconds and longitude west 76 degrees 25 minutes 29.5 seconds) and thence south 44 degrees 48 minutes 20 seconds west, 350.12 feet to a point (at the southwest corner of the existing bulkhead and pier line) whose coordinates in the Maryland State Coordinate System are north 544635.94 and east 962242.46 (latitude north 39 degrees 19 minutes 39 seconds and longitude west 76 degrees 25 minutes 35.4 seconds), is declared to be a nonnavigable water of the United States for purposes of the navigation servitude.

(b) Pierhead and bulkhead line of Dark Head Creek

The line described in subsection (a) of this section shall be established as a combined pierhead and bulkhead line of Dark Head Creek.

(c) Previously authorized projects

Any project heretofore authorized by any Act of Congress, insofar as such project is within the boundaries of Dark Head Creek as described in subsection (a) of this section, is not authorized after November 17, 1986.

(d) Reservation of rights

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is hereby expressly reserved.

(Pub. L. 99–662, title XI, §1160, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4257.)

§59w. Norton Basin and Jamaica Bay, New York

The two portions of Norton Basin and Jamaica Bay, New York, that are particularly described in Committee Print 99–58 of the Committee on Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives are hereby declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States for purposes of the navigation servitude.

(Pub. L. 99–662, title XI, §1168, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4259.)

Change of Name

Committee on Public Works and Transportation of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

§59x. Exemption from General Bridge Act of 1946

(a) Waters declared nonnavigable

The waters described in subsection (b) of this section are declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States for purposes of the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 U.S.C. 525 et seq.).

(b) Waters described

The waters referred to in subsection (a) of this section are a drainage canal which—

(1) is an unnamed tributary of the creek known as Newton Creek, located at block 641 (formerly designated as block 860) in the city of Camden, New Jersey;

(2) originates at the north bank of Newton Creek approximately 1,200 feet east of the confluence of Newton Creek and the Delaware River; and

(3) terminates at drainage culverts on the west side of Interstate Highway 676.

(Pub. L. 100–448, §16, Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1845; Pub. L. 100–457, title III, §325, Sept. 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 2150.)

References in Text

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in subsec. (a), is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 100–448 and Pub. L. 100–457 enacted identical sections.

§59y. Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of Coney Island Creek and Gravesend Bay, New York

(a) Area to be declared non-navigable; public interest

Unless the Secretary finds, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations), that the proposed projects to be undertaken within the boundaries in the portions of Coney Island Creek and Gravesend Bay, New York, described below, are not in the public interest then, subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, those portions of such Creek and Bay, bounded and described as follows, are declared to be non-navigable waters of the United States:

Beginning at the corner formed by the intersection of the Westerly Line of Cropsey Avenue, and the Northernmost United States Pierhead Line of Coney Island Creek.

Running thence south 12 degrees 41 minutes 03 seconds E and along the westerly line of Cropsey Avenue, 98.72 feet to the northerly channel line as shown on Corps of Engineers Map Numbered F. 150 and on Survey by Rogers and Giollorenzo Numbered 13959 dated October 31, 1986.

Running thence in a westerly direction and along the said northerly channel line the following bearings and distances:

South 48 degrees 59 minutes 27 seconds west, 118.77 feet; south 37 degrees 07 minutes 01 seconds west, 232.00 feet; south 23 degrees 17 minutes 10 seconds west, 430.03 feet; south 31 degrees 25 minutes 46 seconds west, 210.95 feet; south 79 degrees 22 minutes 49 seconds west, 244.18 feet; north 55 degrees 00 minutes 29 seconds west, 183.10 feet; north 41 degrees 47 minutes 04 seconds west, 315.16 feet;

North 41 degrees 17 minutes 43 seconds west, 492.47 feet to the said Pierhead Line; thence north 73 degrees 58 minutes 40 seconds west and along said pierhead line, 2,665.25 feet to the intersection of the United States bulkhead line;

Thence north 0 degree 19 minutes 35 seconds west and along the United States Bulkhead line 1,138.50 feet to the intersection of the westerly prolongation of the center line of 26th Avenue,

Thence north 58 degrees 25 minutes 06 seconds east and along the center line of said 26th Avenue, 2,320.85 feet to the westerly line of Cropsey Avenue, then southeasterly and along the southerly line of Cropsey Avenue the following bearings and distances:

South 31 degrees 34 minutes 54 seconds east, 4,124.59 feet; and

South 12 degrees 41 minutes 03 seconds east, 710.74 feet to the point or place of beginning.


Coordinates and bearings are in the system as established by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey for the Borough of Brooklyn. The Secretary shall make the public interest determination separately for each proposed project, using reasonable discretion, within 150 days after submission of appropriate plans for each proposed project.

(b) Limits on applicability; regulatory requirements

The declaration under subsection (a) of this section shall apply only to those parts of the areas described in subsection (a) of this section which are or will be bulkheaded and filled or otherwise occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities. All such work is subject to all applicable Federal statutes and regulations, including, but not necessarily limited to, sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

(c) Expiration date

If, 20 years from November 17, 1988, any area or part thereof described in subsection (a) of this section is not bulkheaded or filled or occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities, in accordance with the requirements set out in subsection (b) of this section, or if work in connection with any activity permitted in subsection (b) of this section is not commenced within 5 years after issuance of such permits, then the declaration of non-navigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(Pub. L. 100–676, §39, Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4039.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 100–676, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§59z. Declaration of nonnavigability of bodies of water in Ridgefield, New Jersey

The three bodies of water located at block 4004, lots 1 and 2, and block 4003, lot 1, in the Borough of Ridgefield, County of Bergen, New Jersey, which have their mouths at the Hackensack River at 40 degrees 49 minutes 58 seconds north latitude and 74 degrees 01 minute 46 seconds west longitude, 40 degrees 49 minutes 46 seconds north latitude and 74 degrees 01 minute 55 seconds west longitude, and 40 degrees 49 minutes 35 seconds north latitude and 74 degrees 02 minutes 04 seconds west longitude, respectively, and the body of water located at block 4006, lot 1, in the Borough of Ridgefield, County of Bergen, New Jersey, which has its mouth at the Hackensack River at 40 degrees 49 minutes 15 seconds north latitude and 74 degrees 01 minute 52 seconds west longitude, are declared to be nonnavigable waterways of the United States within the meaning of the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 U.S.C. 525 et seq.) and section 401 of this title.

(Pub. L. 100–676, §54, Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4046.)

References in Text

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in text, is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

§59aa. Nonnavigability of Wisconsin River

The portion of the Wisconsin River above the hydroelectric dam at Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, is hereby declared to be a nonnavigable waterway of the United States for purposes of title 46, including but not limited to the provisions of such title relating to vessel inspection and vessel licensure, and the other maritime laws of the United States.

(Pub. L. 101–595, title III, §318, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2988.)

§59bb. Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of Lake Erie

(a) Area to be declared nonnavigable; public interest

Unless the Secretary finds, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations), that the proposed projects to be undertaken within the boundaries of Lake Erie described in Committee Print 101–48 of the Committee on Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives, dated July 1990, are not in the public interest then, subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, those portions of Lake Erie, bounded and described in such Committee print, are declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States.

(b) Limits on applicability; regulatory requirements

The declaration under subsection (a) of this section shall apply only to those parts of the areas described in the Committee print referred to in subsection (a) of this section which are or will be bulkheaded and filled or otherwise occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities. All such work is subject to all applicable Federal statutes and regulations including, but not limited to, sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

(c) Expiration date

If, 20 years from November 28, 1990, any area or part thereof described in the Committee print referred to in subsection (a) of this section is not bulkheaded or filled or occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities, in accordance with the requirements set out in subsection (b) of this section, or if work in connection with any activity permitting 1 in subsection (b) of this section is not commenced within 5 years after issuance of such permits, then the declaration of nonnavigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(Pub. L. 101–640, title IV, §408, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4647.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Change of Name

Committee on Public Works and Transportation of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 101–640, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “permitted”.

§59bb–1. Declaration of nonnavigability for Lake Erie, New York

(a) Area to be declared nonnavigable; public interest

Unless the Secretary finds, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations), that the proposed projects to be undertaken within the boundaries in the portion of Erie County, New York, described in subsection (b) of this section, are not in the public interest then, subject to subsection (c) of this section, those portions of such county that were once part of Lake Erie and are now filled are declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States.

(b) Boundaries

The portion of Erie County, New York, referred to in subsection (a) of this section is all that tract or parcel of land, situated in the town of Hamburg and the city of Lackawanna, Erie County, New York, being part of Lots 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 of the Ogden Gore Tract and part of Lots 23, 24, and 36 of the Buffalo Creek Reservation, Township 10, Range 8 of the Holland Land Company's Survey and more particularly bounded and described as follows:

[Omitted.]

(c) Limits on applicability; regulatory requirements

The declaration under subsection (a) of this section shall apply to those parts of the areas described in subsection (b) of this section that are filled portions of Lake Erie. Any work on these filled portions shall be subject to all applicable Federal statutes and regulations, including sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(d) Expiration date

If, 20 years from December 11, 2000, any area or part thereof described in subsection (a) of this section is not occupied by permanent structures in accordance with the requirements set out in subsection (c) of this section, or if work in connection with any activity permitted in subsection (c) of this section is not commenced within 5 years after issuance of such permits, then the declaration of nonnavigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(Pub. L. 106–541, title III, §346, Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2614.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

The provisions of subsec. (b) of this section, which contain the text of the boundary descriptions, have been omitted. Such provisions appear at 114 Stat. 2614 to 2618.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 106–541, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§59cc. Declaration of nonnavigability of portion of Hudson River, New York

(a) Declaration of nonnavigability

Subject to subsections (c), (d), and (e) of this section, the area described in subsection (b) of this section is declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States.

(b) Area subject to declaration

The area described in this subsection is the portion of the Hudson River, New York, described as follows (according to coordinates and bearings in the system used on the Borough Survey, Borough President's Office, New York, New York):

Beginning at a point in the United States Bulkhead Line approved by the Secretary of War, July 31, 1941, having a coordinate of north 1918.003 west 9806.753;

Running thence easterly, on the arc of a circle curving to the left, whose radial line bears north 3°–44′–20″ east, having a radius of 390.00 feet and a central angle of 22°–05′–50″, 150.41 feet to a point of tangency;

Thence north 71°–38′–30″ east, 42.70 feet;

Thence south 11°–05′–40″ east, 33.46 feet;

Thence south 78°–54′–20″ west, 0.50 feet;

Thence south 11°–05′–40″ east, 2.50 feet;

Thence north 78°–54′–20″ east, 0.50 feet;

Thence south 11°–05′–40″ east, 42.40 feet to a point of curvature;

Thence southerly, on the arc of a circle curving to the right, having a radius of 220.00 feet and a central angle of 16°–37′–40″, 63.85 feet to a point of compound curvature;

Thence still southerly, on the arc of a circle curving to the right, having a radius of 150.00 feet and a central angle of 38°–39′–00″, 101.19 feet to another point of compound curvature;

Thence westerly, on the arc of a circle curving to the right, having a radius of 172.05 feet and a central angle of 32°–32′–03″, 97.69 feet to a point of curve intersection;

Thence south 13°–16′–57″ east, 50.86 feet to a point of curve intersection;

Thence westerly, on the arc of a circle curving to the left, whose radial bears north 13°–16′–57″ west, having a radius of 6.00 feet and a central angle of 180°–32′–31″, 18.91 feet to a point of curve intersection;

Thence southerly, on the arc of a circle curving to the left, whose radial line bears north 75°–37′–11″ east, having a radius of 313.40 feet and a central angle of 4°–55′–26″, 26.93 feet to a point of curve intersection;

Thence south 70°–41′–45″ west, 36.60 feet;

Thence north 13°–45′–00″ west, 42.87 feet;

Thence south 76°–15′–00″ west, 15.00 feet;

Thence south 13°–45′–00″ east, 44.33 feet;

Thence south 70°–41′–45″ west, 128.09 feet to a point in the United States Pierhead Line approved by the Secretary of War, 1936;

Thence north 63°–08′–48″ west, along the United States Pierhead Line approved by the Secretary of War, 1936, 114.45 feet to an angle point therein;

Thence north 61°–08′–00″ west, still along the United States Pierhead Line approved by the Secretary of War, 1936, 202.53 feet;

The following three courses being along the lines of George Soilan Park as shown on map prepared by The City of New York, adopted by the Board of Estimate, November 13, 1981, Acc. N° 30071 and lines of property leased to Battery Park City Authority and B. P. C. Development Corp;

Thence north 77°–35′–20″ east, 231.35 feet;

Thence north 12°–24′–40″ west, 33.92 feet;

Thence north 54°–49′–00″ east, 171.52 feet to a point in the United States Bulkhead Line approved by the Secretary of War, July 31, 1941;

Thence north 12°–24′–40″ west, along the United States Bulkhead Line approved by the Secretary of War, July 31, 1941, 62.26 feet to the point or place of beginning; 1

(c) Determination of public interest

The declaration made in subsection (a) of this section shall not take effect if the Secretary of the Army (acting through the Chief of Engineers), using reasonable discretion, finds that the proposed project is not in the public interest—

(1) before the date which is 120 days after the date of the submission to the Secretary of appropriate plans for the proposed project; and

(2) after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations).

(d) Limitation on applicability of declaration

(1) Affected area

The declaration made in subsection (a) of this section shall apply only to those portions of the area described in subsection (b) of this section which are or will be occupied by permanent structures (including docking facilities) comprising the proposed project.

(2) Application of other laws

Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, all activities conducted in the area described in subsection (b) of this section are subject to all Federal laws which apply to such activities, including—

(A) sections 401 and 403 of this title;

(B) section 1344 of this title; and

(C) the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(e) Expiration date

The declaration made in subsection (a) of this section shall expire—

(1) on the date which is 6 years after December 18, 1991, if work on the proposed project to be performed in the area described in subsection (b) of this section is not commenced before such date; or

(2) on the date which is 20 years after December 18, 1991, for any portion of the area described in subsection (b) of this section which on such date is not bulkheaded, filled, or occupied by a permanent structure (including docking facilities).

(f) “Proposed project” defined

For the purposes of this section, the term “proposed project” means any project for the rehabilitation and development of—

(1) the structure located in the area described in subsection (b) of this section, commonly referred to as Pier A; and

(2) the area surrounding such structure.

(Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1078, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2015.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(C), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.

§59dd. Declaration of nonnavigability of portions of Cleveland Harbor, Ohio

(a) to (c) Omitted

(d) Area to be declared nonnavigable; public interest

Unless the Secretary of the Army finds, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations), that the proposed projects to be undertaken within the boundaries in the portions of Cleveland Harbor, Ohio, described below, are not in the public interest then, subject to subsections (e) and (f) of this section, those portions of such Harbor, bounded and described as follows, are declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States:

Situated in the City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County and State of Ohio, T7N, R13W and being more fully described as follows:

Beginning at an iron pin monument at the intersection of the centerline of East 9th Street (99 feet wide) with the centerline of relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., (70 feet wide) at Cleveland Regional Geodetic Survey Grid System, (CRGS) coordinates N92,679.734, E86,085.955;

Thence south 56°–06′–52″ west on the centerline of relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., a distance of 89.50 feet to a drill hole set.

Thence north 33°–53′–08″ west a distance of 35.00 feet to a drill hole set on the north-westerly right-of-way line of relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., said point being the true place of beginning of the parcel herein described.

Thence south 56°–06′–52″ west on the northwesterly right-of-way line of relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., a distance of 23.39 feet to a 5/8 inch re-bar set;

Thence southwesterly on the northwesterly right-of-way line of relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., along the arc of a curve to the left with a radius of 335.00 feet, and whose chord bears south 42°–36′–52″ west 156.41 feet, an arc distance of 157.87 feet to a 5/8 inch re-bar set;

Thence south 29°–06′–52″ west on the northwesterly right-of-way line of relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., a distance of 119.39 feet to a 5/8 inch re-bar set;

Thence southwesterly on the northwesterly right-of-way of relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., along the arc of a curve to the right with a radius of 665.00 feet, and whose chord bears south 32°–22′–08″ west 75.50 feet, an arc distance of 75.54 feet to a 5/8 inch re-bar set;

Thence north 33°–53′–08″ west a distance of 279.31 feet to a drill hole set;

Thence south 56°–06′–52″ west a distance of 37.89 feet to a drill hole set;

Thence north 33°–53′–08″ west a distance of 127.28 feet to a point;

Thence north 11°–06′–52″ east a distance of 225.00 feet to a point;

Thence south 78°–53′–08″ east a distance of 150.00 feet to a drill hole set;

Thence north 11°–06′–52″ east a distance of 32.99 feet to a drill hole set;

Thence north 33°–53′–08″ east a distance of 46.96 feet to a drill hole set;

Thence north 56°–06′–52″ east a distance of 140.36 feet to a drill hole set on the southwesterly right-of-way line of East 9th Street;

Thence south 33°–53′–08″ east on the southwesterly right-of-way line of East 9th Street a distance of 368.79 feet to a drill hole set;

Thence southwesterly along the arc of a curve to the right with a radius of 40.00 feet, and whose chord bears south 11°–06′–52″ west 56.57 feet, an arc distance of 62.83 feet to the true place of beginning containing 174,764 square feet (4.012 acres) more or less.

(e) Limits on applicability; regulatory requirements

The declaration under subsection (d) of this section shall apply only to those parts of the areas described in subsection (d) of this section which are or will be bulkheaded and filled or otherwise occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities. All such work is subject to all applicable Federal statutes and regulations, including sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

(f) Expiration date

If, 20 years from December 18, 1991, any area or part thereof described in subsection (d) of this section is not bulkheaded or filled or occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities, in accordance with the requirements set out in subsection (e) of this section, or if work in connection with any activity permitted in subsection (e) of this section is not commenced within 5 years after issuance of such permit, then the declaration of nonnavigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1079, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2017.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 1079 of Pub. L. 102–240. Subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 1079 of Pub. L. 102–240 provided for deauthorization of a portion of a project for harbor modification of Cleveland Harbor which was authorized by section 202(a) of the Water Resources Development Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–662, title II, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4095, which is not classified to the Code.

§59ee. Portion of Sacramento River Barge Canal declared to not be navigable waters of United States

For purposes of bridge administration, the Sacramento River Barge Canal, which connects the Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel with the Sacramento River in West Sacramento, Yolo County, California, is declared to not be navigable waters of the United States for purposes of the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 U.S.C. 525 et seq.) from the eastern boundary of the Port of Sacramento to a point 1,200 feet east of the William G. Stone Lock.

(Pub. L. 102–241, §34, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2223.)

References in Text

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in text, is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

§59ee–1. Declaration of nonnavigability for portion of Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel

All waters within such portion of the project are declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States solely for the purposes of the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 U.S.C. 525 et seq.) and section 401 of this title.

(Pub. L. 106–541, title III, §347(a)(2), Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2618.)

References in Text

“Such portion of the project”, referred to in text, means “The portion of the project for navigation, Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel, California, authorized by section 202(a) of the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (100 Stat. 4092), beginning from the confluence of the Sacramento River and the Barge Canal to a point 3,300 feet west of the William G. Stone Lock western gate (including the William G. Stone Lock and the Bascule Bridge and Barge Canal).” See first sentence of section 347(a)(2) of Pub. L. 106–541, Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2618.

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in text, is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of the last sentence of section 347(a)(2) of Pub. L. 106–541.

§59ff. Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of Pelican Island, Texas

(a) Descriptions of nonnavigable areas

Subject to the provisions of subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section, those portions of Pelican Island, Texas, which are not submerged and which are within the following property descriptions, are declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States:

(1) to (5) Omitted.

(b) Exceptions

Notwithstanding the declaration under subsection (a) of this section, the following portions of Pelican Island, Texas, within those lands described in subsection (a) of this section shall remain navigable waters of the United States:

(1) to (3) Omitted.

(c) Requirement that areas be improved

The declaration under subsection (a) of this section shall apply only to those parts of the areas described in subsection (a) of this section and not described in subsection (b) of this section which are or will be bulkheaded and filled or otherwise occupied by permanent structures or other permanent physical improvements, including marina facilities. All such work is subject to applicable Federal statutes and regulations, including sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

(d) Expiration

If, 20 years from December 19, 1991, any area or part thereof described in subsection (a) of this section and not described in subsection (b) of this section is not bulkheaded or filled or occupied by permanent structures or other permanent physical improvements, including marina facilities, in accordance with the requirements set out in subsection (c) of this section, or if work is not commenced within five years after issuance of any permits required to be obtained under subsection (c) of this section, then the declaration of nonnavigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(Pub. L. 102–241, §52, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2228.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

The text of the boundary descriptions contained in pars. (1) to (5) of subsec. (a) and pars. (1) to (3) of subsec. (b), which is not set out in the Code, appears at 105 Stat. 2228 to 2231.

§59gg. Declaration of nonnavigability for portions of Cuyahoga County, Ohio

(a) Area to be declared nonnavigable; public interest

Unless the Secretary finds, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations), that the proposed projects to be undertaken within the boundaries in the portions of the county of Cuyahoga, Ohio, described as follows, are not in the public interest then, subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, those portions of such county, bounded and described as follows, are declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States:

Situated in the city of Cleveland, county of Cuyahoga, and State of Ohio, T7N, R13W, and known as being a part of original two acre lots numbers 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 and the northerly extensions thereof, and being more fully described as follows:

Beginning at the intersection of the centerline of East 9th Street (99 feet wide) with the centerline of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E. (70 feet wide); thence south 56 degrees 06 minutes 52 seconds west on the centerline of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., a distance of 112.89 feet to a point; thence north 33 degrees 53 minutes 08 seconds west a distance of 35.00 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar on the northwesterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E.; thence southwesterly on the northwesterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., along the arc of a curve to the left, with a radius of 335.00 feet and whose chord bears south 42 degrees 36 minutes 52 seconds west 156.41 feet, an arc distance of 157.87 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar; thence south 29 degrees 06 minutes 52 seconds west on the northwesterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., a distance of 119.39 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar; thence southwesterly on the northwesterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., along the arc of a curve to the right, with a radius of 665.00 feet and whose chord bears south 39 degrees, 49 minutes 33 seconds west 247.19 feet, an arc distance of 248.64 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar and the true place of beginning of the parcel herein described; thence southwesterly on the northwesterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., along the arc of a curve to the right, with a radius of 665.00 feet and whose chord bears south 53 degrees, 17 minutes 33 seconds west 64.05 feet, an arc distance of 64.08 feet to a 5/8-rebar set; thence south 56 degrees 03 minutes 30 seconds west on the northwesterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., a distance of 248.38 feet to a 5/8-rebar set; thence northwesterly on the northeasterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., along the arc of a curve to the right, with a radius of 265.00 feet and whose chord bears north 79 degrees 02 minutes 42 seconds west 374.09 feet, an arc distance of 415.31 feet to a drill hole set; thence north 34 degrees 08 minutes 55 seconds west on the northeasterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., a distance of 505.30 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar set; thence northwesterly on the northeasterly right-of-way line of Relocated Erieside Avenue, N.E., along the arc of a curve to the left, with a radius of 112.00 feet and whose chord bears north 40 degrees 32 minutes 41 seconds west 24.95 feet, an arc distance of 25.01 feet to a drill hole set on the southerly right-of-way line of former Erieside Avenue, as vacated by city of Cleveland Ordinance No. 1100–87, passed June 16, 1987; thence northeasterly on the former right-of-way line along the arc of a curve to the right, with a radius of 515.00 feet and whose chord bears north 75 degrees 36 minutes 18 seconds east 136.45 feet, an arc distance of 136.85 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar set; thence north 86 degrees 13 minutes 04 seconds east on said former right-of-way line a distance of 294.57 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar set; thence north 52 degrees 57 minutes 23 seconds east on said former right-of-way line a distance of 56.98 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar set; thence south 33 degrees 53 minutes 08 seconds east a distance of 244.65 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar set; thence south 78 degrees 53 minutes 08 seconds east a distance of 105.04 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar set; thence north 56 degrees 06 minutes 52 seconds east a distance of 70.75 feet to a 5/8-inch rebar set; thence south 33 degrees 53 minutes 08 seconds east a distance of 274.74 feet to the true place of beginning containing 325,706 square feet (7.477 acres) more or less.

(b) Limits on applicability; regulatory requirements

The declaration under subsection (a) of this section shall apply to those parts of the areas described in subsection (a) of this section which are or will be bulkheaded and filled or otherwise occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities. All such work is subject to all applicable Federal statutes and regulations, including sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

(c) Expiration date

If, 20 years from October 31, 1992, any area or part thereof described in subsection (a) of this section is not bulkheaded or filled or occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities, in accordance with the requirements set forth in subsection (b) of this section, or if work in connection with any activity permitted in subsection (b) of this section is not commenced within 5 years after issuance of such permits, then the declaration of nonnavigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(Pub. L. 102–580, title III, §335, Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4853.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 3 of Pub. L. 102–580, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§59hh. Declaration of nonnavigability for portion of Pelican Island, Texas

(a) In general

The Secretary of the Army is authorized to convey to the City 1 of Galveston, Texas, fee simple absolute title to all or any part of a parcel of land containing approximately 605 acres known as the San Jacinto Disposal Area located on the east end of Galveston Island, Texas, in the W.A.A. Wallace Survey, A–647 and A–648, City 1 of Galveston, Galveston County, Texas, being part of the old Fort San Jacinto site, at the fair market value of such parcel to be determined in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section. Such conveyance shall only be made by the Secretary of the Army upon the agreement of the Secretary and the City 1 as to all compensation due herein.

(b) Compensation for conveyance

(1) In general

Upon receipt of compensation from the city of Galveston, the Secretary shall convey the parcel, or any part of the parcel, as described in subsection (a) of this section.

(2) Full parcel

If the full 605-acre parcel is conveyed, the compensation shall be—

(A) conveyance to the Department of the Army of fee simple absolute title to a parcel of land containing approximately 564 acres on Pelican Island, Texas, in the Eneas Smith Survey, A–190, Pelican Island, city of Galveston, Galveston County, Texas, adjacent to property currently owned by the United States, with the fair market value of the parcel being determined in accordance with subsection (d) of this section; and

(B) payment to the United States of an amount equal to the difference between the fair market value of the parcel to be conveyed under subsection (a) of this section and the fair market value of the parcel to be conveyed under subparagraph (A).

(3) Partial parcel

If the conveyance is 125 acres or less, compensation shall be an amount equal to the fair market value of the parcel to be conveyed, with the fair market value of the parcel being determined in accordance with subsection (d) of this section.

(c) Disposition of spoil

Costs of maintaining the Galveston Harbor and Channel will continue to be governed by the Local Cooperation Agreement (LCA) between the United States of America and the City 1 of Galveston dated October 18, 1973, as amended. Upon conveyance of the parcel, or any part of the parcel, described in subsection (a) of this section, the Department of the Army shall be compensated directly for the present value of the total costs to the Department for disposal of dredge material and site preparation pursuant to the LCA, if any,,2 in excess of the present value of the total costs that would have been incurred if this conveyance had not been made.

(d) Determination of fair market value

The fair market value of the land to be conveyed pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be determined by independent appraisers using the market value method.

(e) Navigational servitude

(1) Declaration of nonnavigability; public interest

Unless the Secretary finds, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional public planning organizations), that the proposed projects to be undertaken within the parcel described in subsection (a) of this section are not in the public interest then, subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), such parcel is declared to be nonnavigable waters of the United States.

(2) Limits on applicability; regulatory requirements

The declaration under paragraph (1) shall apply only to those parts of the parcel described in subsection (a) of this section which are or will be bulkheaded and filled or otherwise occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities. All such work is subject to all applicable Federal statutes and regulations including, but not limited to, sections 401 and 403 of this title, section 1344 of this title, and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

(3) Expiration date

If, 20 years after October 28, 1993, any area or part thereof described in subsection (a) of this section is not bulkheaded or filled or occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities, in accordance with the requirements set out in paragraph (2), or if work in connection with any activity permitted in paragraph (2) is not commenced within 5 years after issuance of such permits, then the declaration of nonnavigability for such area or part thereof shall expire.

(f) Survey and study

The 605-acre parcel and the 564-acre parcel shall be surveyed and further legally described prior to conveyance. Not later than 60 days following October 28, 1993, if he deems it necessary, the Secretary of the Army shall complete a review of the applicability of section 1344 of this title to the said parcels.

(Pub. L. 103–126, title I, §108, Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1320; Pub. L. 106–53, title V, §585, Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 377.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–53, §585(1), inserted “all or any part of” after “absolute title to” in first sentence.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–53, §585(2), amended heading and text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Upon receipt of compensation from the City of Galveston, the Secretary shall convey the parcel as described in subsection (a) of this section. Such compensation shall include—

“(1) conveyance to the Department of the Army of fee simple absolute title to a parcel of land containing approximately 564 acres on Pelican Island, Texas, in the Eneas Smith Survey, A–190, Pelican Island, City of Galveston, Galveston County, Texas, adjacent to property currently owned by the United States. The fair market value of such parcel will be determined in accordance with the provision of subsection (d) of this section; and

“(2) payment to the United States of an amount equal to the difference of the fair market value of the parcel to be conveyed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section and the fair market value of the parcel to be conveyed pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–53, §585(3), in second sentence, inserted “, or any part of the parcel,” after “parcel” and “, if any,” after “LCA”.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

2 So in original.

§59ii. Declaration of nonnavigability of a portion of the canal known as the James River and Kanawha Canal in Richmond, Virginia

(a) Canal declared nonnavigable

The portion of the canal known as the James River and Kanawha Canal in Richmond, Virginia, located between the Great Ship Lock on the east and the limits of the City of Richmond on the west is hereby declared to be a nonnavigable waterway of the United States for purposes of subtitle II of title 46.

(b) Ensuring public safety

The Secretary of Transportation shall provide such technical advice, information, and assistance as the City of Richmond, Virginia, or its designee may request to insure that the vessels operating on the waters declared nonnavigable by subsection (a) of this section are built, maintained, and operated in a manner consistent with protecting public safety.

(c) Termination of declaration

(1) In general

The Secretary of Transportation may terminate the effectiveness of the declaration made by subsection (a) of this section by publishing a determination that vessels operating on the waters declared nonnavigable by subsection (a) of this section have not been built, maintained, and operated in a manner consistent with protecting public safety.

(2) Public input

Before making a determination under this subsection, the Secretary of Transportation shall—

(A) consult with appropriate State and local government officials regarding whether such a determination is necessary to protect public safety and will serve the public interest; and

(B) provide to persons who might be adversely affected by the determination the opportunity for comment and a hearing on whether such action is necessary to protect public safety and will serve the public interest.

(Pub. L. 106–32, §2, June 1, 1999, 113 Stat. 115.)

Findings

Pub. L. 106–32, §1, June 1, 1999, 113 Stat. 115, provided that: “The Congress finds the following:

“(1) The canal known as the James River and Kanawha Canal played an important part in the economic development of the Commonwealth of Virginia and the City of Richmond.

“(2) The canal ceased to operate as a functioning waterway in the conduct of commerce in the late 1800s.

“(3) Portions of the canal have been found by a Federal district court to be nonnavigable.

“(4) The restored portion of the canal will be utilized to provide entertainment and education to visitors and will play an important part in the economic development of downtown Richmond.

“(5) The restored portion of the canal will not be utilized for general public boating, and will be restricted to activities similar to those conducted on similar waters in San Antonio, Texas.

“(6) The continued classification of the canal as a navigable waterway based upon historic usage that ceased more than 100 years ago does not serve the public interest and is unnecessary to protect public safety.

“(7) Congressional action is required to clarify that the canal is no longer to be considered a navigable waterway for purposes of subtitle II of title 46, United States Code.”

§59jj. Designation of nonnavigability for portions of Gloucester County, New Jersey

(a) Designation

(1) In general

The Secretary of the Army (referred to in section 1 as the “Secretary”) shall designate as nonnavigable the areas described in paragraph (3) 2 unless the Secretary, after consultation with local and regional public officials (including local and regional planning organizations), makes a determination that 1 or more projects proposed to be carried out in 1 or more areas described in paragraph (2) are not in the public interest.

(2) Description of areas

The areas referred to in paragraph (1) are certain parcels of property situated in the West Deptford Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, as depicted on Tax Assessment Map #26, Block #328, Lots #1, 1.03, 1.08, and 1.09, more fully described as follows:

(A) Beginning at the point in the easterly line of Church Street (49.50 feet wide), said beginning point being the following 2 courses from the intersection of the centerline of Church Street with the curved northerly right-of-way line of Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines Railroad (66.00 feet wide)—

(i) along said centerline of Church Street N. 11°28′50″ E. 38.56 feet; thence

(ii) along the same N. 61°28′35″ E. 32.31 feet to the point of beginning.


(B) Said beginning point also being the end of the thirteenth course and from said beginning point runs; thence, along the aformentioned 3 Easterly line of Church Street—

(i) N. 11°28′50″ E. 1052.14 feet; thence

(ii) crossing Church Street, N. 34°19′51″ W. 1590.16 feet; thence

(iii) N. 27°56′37″ W. 3674.36 feet; thence

(iv) N. 35°33′54″ W. 975.59 feet; thence

(v) N. 57°04′39″ W. 481.04 feet; thence

(vi) N. 36°22′55″ W. 870.00 feet to a point in the Pierhead and Bulkhead Line along the Southeasterly shore of the Delaware River; thence

(vii) along the same line N. 53°37′05″ E. 1256.19 feet; thence

(viii) still along the same, N. 86°10′29″ E. 1692.61 feet; thence, still along the same the following thirteenth courses

(ix) S. 67°44′20″ E. 1090.00 feet to a point in the Pierhead and Bulkhead Line along the Southwesterly shore of Woodbury Creek; thence

(x) S. 39°44′20″ E. 507.10 feet; thence

(xi) S. 31°01′38″ E. 1062.95 feet; thence

(xii) S. 34°34′20″ E. 475.00 feet; thence

(xiii) S. 32°20′28″ E. 254.18 feet; thence

(xiv) S. 52°55′49″ E. 964.95 feet; thence

(xv) S. 56°24′40″ E. 366.60 feet; thence

(xvi) S. 80°31′50″ E. 100.51 feet; thence

(xvii) N. 75°30′00″ E. 120.00 feet; thence

(xviii) N. 53°09′00″ E. 486.50 feet; thence

(xix) N. 81°18′00″ E. 132.00 feet; thence

(xx) S. 56°35′00″ E. 115.11 feet; thence

(xxi) S. 42°00′00″ E. 271.00 feet; thence

(xxii) S. 48°30′00″ E. 287.13 feet to a point in the Northwesterly line of Grove Avenue (59.75 feet wide); thence

(xxiii) S. 23°09′50″ W. 4120.49 feet; thence

(xxiv) N. 66°50′10″ W. 251.78 feet; thence

(xxv) S. 36°05′20″ E. 228.64 feet; thence

(xxvi) S. 58°53′00″ W. 1158.36 feet to a point in the Southwesterly line of said River Lane; thence

(xxvii) S. 41°31′35″ E. 113.50 feet; thence

(xxviii) S. 61°28′35″ W. 863.52 feet to the point of beginning.


(C)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), beginning at a point in the centerline of Church Street (49.50 feet wide) where the same is intersected by the curved northerly line of Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines Railroad right-of-way (66.00 feet wide), along that Railroad, on a curve to the left, having a radius of 1465.69 feet, an arc distance of 1132.14 feet—

(I) N. 88°45′47″ W. 1104.21 feet; thence

(II) S. 69°06′30″ W. 1758.95 feet; thence

(III) N. 23°04′43″ W. 600.19 feet; thence

(IV) N. 19°15′32″ W. 3004.57 feet; thence

(V) N. 44°52′41″ W. 897.74 feet; thence

(VI) N. 32°26′05″ W. 2765.99 feet to a point in the Pierhead and Bulkhead Line along the Southeasterly shore of the Delaware River; thence

(VII) N. 53°37′05″ E. 2770.00 feet; thence

(VIII) S. 36°22′55″ E. 870.00 feet; thence

(IX) S. 57°04′39″ E. 481.04 feet; thence

(X) S. 35°33′54″ E. 975.59 feet; thence

(XI) S. 27°56′37″ E. 3674.36 feet; thence

(XII) crossing Church Street, S. 34°19′51″ E. 1590.16 feet to a point in the easterly line of Church Street; thence

(XIII) S. 11°28′50″ W. 1052.14 feet; thence

(XIV) S. 61°28′35″ W. 32.31 feet; thence

(XV) S. 11°28′50″ W. 38.56 feet to the point of beginning.


(ii) The parcel described in clause (i) does not include the parcel beginning at the point in the centerline of Church Street (49.50 feet wide), that point being N. 11°28′50″ E. 796.36 feet, measured along the centerline, from its intersection with the curved northerly right-of-way line of Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines Railroad (66.00 feet wide)—

(I) N. 78°27′40″ W. 118.47 feet; thence

(II) N. 15°48′40″ W. 120.51 feet; thence

(III) N. 77°53′00″ E 189.58 feet to a point in the centerline of Church Street; thence

(IV) S. 11°28′50″ W. 183.10 feet to the point of beginning.

(b) Limits on applicability; regulatory requirements

(1) In general

The designation under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall apply to those parts of the areas described in subsection (a) of this section that are or will be bulkheaded and filled or otherwise occupied by permanent structures, including marina facilities.

(2) Applicable law

All activities described in paragraph (1) shall be subject to all applicable Federal law, including—

(A) the Act of March 3, 1899 (30 Stat. 1121, chapter 425);

(B) section 1344 of this title; and

(C) the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(c) Termination of designation

If, on the date that is 20 years after November 12, 2001, any area or portion of an area described in subsection (a)(3) 4 of this section is not bulkheaded, filled, or otherwise occupied by permanent structures (including marina facilities) in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, or if work in connection with any activity authorized under subsection (b) of this section is not commenced by the date that is 5 years after the date on which permits for the work are issued, the designation of nonnavigability under subsection (a)(1) of this section for that area or portion of an area shall terminate.

(Pub. L. 107–66, title I, §107, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 494.)

References in Text

Act of March 3, 1899, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(A), is act Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, 30 Stat. 1121, as amended, which enacted sections 401, 403, 404, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411 to 416, 418, 502, 549, and 687 of this title and amended section 686 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(C), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “this”.

2 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(2)”.

3 So in original. Probably should be “aforementioned”.

4 So in original. Probably should be “subsection (a)(2)”.

§59kk. Wateree River

For purposes of bridge administration, the portion of the Wateree River in the State of South Carolina, from a point 100 feet upstream of the railroad bridge located at approximately mile marker 10.0 to a point 100 feet downstream of such bridge, is declared to not be navigable waters of the United States for purposes of the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 U.S.C. 525 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 108–293, title VI, §610, Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1058.)

References in Text

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in text, is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of chapter 11 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

CHAPTER 2—INTERNATIONAL RULES FOR NAVIGATION AT SEA

§§61 to 63. Repealed. Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §5, 65 Stat. 407

Section 61, acts Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 320; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 96, related to adoption of rules for navigation on high seas. See section 1602 of this title.

Section 62, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 320, 321, defined “sailing vessel”, “steam vessel”, and “under way”. See section 1601 of this title.

Section 63, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 321, defined “visible”.

Effective Date of Repeal

Section 5 of act Oct. 11, 1951, provided that the repeal of these sections is effective upon the taking effect of regulations proclaimed under section 1 of act Oct. 11, 1951. Such regulations were proclaimed by Proc. No. 3030 of Aug. 1, 1953, 18 F.R. 4983, and were to be effective Jan. 1, 1954.

§§71 to 84. Repealed. Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §5, 65 Stat. 407

Section 71, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 321, provided that rules concerning lights be complied with from sunset to sunrise.

Section 72, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 321, related to lights of steam vessel under way.

Section 73, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 321, related to lights of vessel towing another vessel or vessels.

Section 74, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 322, related to lights and day signals of vessel not under control and of telegraph cable vessel.

Section 75, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 322, related to lights of sailing vessel under way and of vessel in tow.

Section 76, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 322, related to lights of small vessel under way in bad weather.

Section 77, acts Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 322; May 28, 1894, ch. 83, 28 Stat. 82, related to substitute lights for small vessel and rowing boats.

Section 78, acts Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 323; Feb. 19, 1900, ch. 22, §1, 31 Stat. 30, related to lights of pilot vessel on and off duty, and steam pilot vessel.

Section 79, acts Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 323; May 28, 1894, ch. 83, 28 Stat. 82; Jan. 19, 1907, ch. 300, §1, 34 Stat. 850, related to lights and day signals of fishing vessels and boats.

Section 80, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 324, related to lights on overtaken vessel.

Section 81, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 324, related to lights on vessel at anchor or aground.

Section 82, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 325, authorized additional lights and signals when necessary.

Section 83, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 325, related to special lights for ships of war and recognition signals.

Section 84, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 325, related to day signal of steam vessel under sail.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1954, see note set out under sections 61 to 63 of this title.

§§91, 92. Repealed. Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §5, 65 Stat. 407

Section 91, acts Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 325; June 10, 1896, ch. 401, §1, 29 Stat. 381, related to sound signals for fog.

Section 92, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 325, related to speed in fog.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1954, see note set out under sections 61 to 63 of this title.

§§101 to 113. Repealed. Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §5, 65 Stat. 407

Section 101, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 326, provided suggestion for ascertainment of risk of collision.

Section 102, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 326, related to sailing vessels approaching one another.

Section 103, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 326, related to steam vessels meeting end on.

Section 104, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327, related to steam vessels crossing.

Section 105, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327, related to steam and sailing vessels meeting.

Section 106, acts Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327; May 28, 1894, ch. 83, 28 Stat. 83, provided that vessel having the right-of-way keep course.

Section 107, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327, related to crossing ahead of vessel having right-of-way.

Section 108, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327, related to duty of steam vessel to slacken speed.

Section 109, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327, provided that overtaking vessel keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel, defined “overtaken vessel”.

Section 110, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327, related to steam vessel in narrow channel.

Section 111, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327, related to right of way of fishing vessels or boats, and obstruction of fairways.

Section 112, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 327, related to special circumstances requiring departure from rules.

Section 113, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 328, related to sound signals of steam vessel indicating course.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1954, see note set out under sections 61 to 63 of this title.

§121. Repealed. Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §5, 65 Stat. 407

Section, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 328, related to additional precautions.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1954, see note set out under sections 61 to 63 of this title.

§131. Repealed. Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §5, 65 Stat. 407

Section, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 328, related to local rules for harbors and inland waters.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1954, see note set out under sections 61 to 63 of this title.

§141. Repealed. Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §5, 65 Stat. 407

Section, acts Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, 26 Stat. 328; May 28, 1894, ch. 83, 28 Stat. 83, related to distress signals.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1954, see note set out under sections 61 to 63 of this title.

§142. Repealed. Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §5, 65 Stat. 407

Section, act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, §1, as added Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 595, §1, 49 Stat. 668, related to orders to helmsmen.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1954, see note set out under sections 61 to 63 of this title.

§§143 to 143b. Repealed. Pub. L. 88–131, §3, Sept. 24, 1963, 77 Stat. 194

Section 143, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §1, 65 Stat. 406, related to adoption of rules for prevention of collisions on the high seas, and to their geographical applicability.

Section 143a, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §2, 65 Stat. 407, provided that Navy and Coast Guard be exempt from the requirements of the rules.

Section 143b, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, 65 Stat. 408, related to identity of regulations authorized to be proclaimed.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1965, see Proc. No. 3632, Dec. 29, 1964, 29 F.R. 19167, and section 3 of Pub. L. 88–131, both set out as notes under section 1051 of this title.

Proclamation No. 3030

Proc. No. 3030, Aug. 19, 1953, 18 F.R. 4983, which was the enabling proclamation for adopting Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1948, under act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §1, 65 Stat. 406, was superseded by Proc. No. 3632, Dec. 29, 1964, 29 F.R. 19167, set out as a note under former section 1051 of this title.

Executive Order No. 10402

Ex. Ord. No. 10402, Oct. 30, 1952, 17 F.R. 9917, which enforced the Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12234, Sept. 3, 1980, 45 F.R. 58801, set out as a note under section 1602 of this title.

§144. Repealed. Pub. L. 88–131, §3, Sept. 4, 1963, 77 Stat. 194

Section, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. A, 65 Stat. 408, related to applicability of sections 144 to 147d of this title, provided that rules concerning lights be complied with from sunset to sunrise, and defined terms used in sections 145 to 147d of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1965, see Proc. No. 3632, Dec. 29, 1964, 29 F.R. 19167, and section 3 of Pub. L. 88–131, both set out as notes under section 1051 of this title.

§§145 to 145n. Repealed. Pub. L. 88–131, §3, Sept. 24, 1963, 77 Stat. 194

Section 145, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 408, related to lights of power-driven vessels under way and of seaplanes under way on the water.

Section 145a, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 410, related to lights of vessel or seaplane towing or pushing other vessels or seaplanes.

Section 145b, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 410, related to lights and day signals of vessel not under command and of vessels engaged in specified operations.

Section 145c, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 411, related to lights of sailing vessel under way and of vessel or seaplane in tow and of vessels being pushed ahead.

Section 145d, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 411, related to lights of small vessel in bad weather.

Section 145e, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 411, related to substitute lights for small vessel and rowing boats.

Section 145f, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 412, related to lights of pilot vessel on and off duty.

Section 145g, acts Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 413; June 26, 1953, ch. 155, §1, 67 Stat. 83, related to lights and day signals of fishing vessels.

Section 145h, acts Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 414, related to stern and tail lights.

Section 145i, acts Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 414; June 26, 1953, ch. 155, §2, 67 Stat. 83, related to lights on vessels or seaplanes at anchor or aground.

Section 145j, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 415, related to additional lights and signals when necessary.

Section 145k, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 415, related to special lights for ships of war, for vessels sailing under convoy and for seaplanes on the water, recognition signals adopted by shipowners, and lights of naval and military vessels and seaplanes of special construction.

Section 145l, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 415, related to day signal of steam vessel under sail.

Section 145m, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 415, related to sound signals under conditions of restricted visibility.

Section 145n, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. B, 65 Stat. 417, related to speed in weather restricting visibility.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1965, see Proc. No. 3632, Dec. 29, 1964, 29 F.R. 19167, and section 3 of Pub. L. 88–131, both set out as notes under section 1051 of this title.

§§146 to 146k. Repealed. Pub. L. 88–131, §3, Sept. 24, 1963, 77 Stat. 194

Section 146, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 417, provided methods of obeying and construing sections 146 to 146k, suggestion for ascertainment of risk of collision, and advice concerning the operation of seaplanes.

Section 146a, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 417, related to sailing vessels approaching one another.

Section 146b, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 417, related to power-driven vessels meeting end on.

Section 146c, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 418, related to power-driven vessels crossing.

Section 146d, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 418, related to vessels or seaplanes meeting.

Section 146e, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 418, related to the course of vessels having the right of way, and the duty in aiding to avert collision.

Section 146f, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 418, related to crossing ahead of vessel having right of way.

Section 146g, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 418, related to duty of power-driven vessel to slacken speed.

Section 146h, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 418, provided that overtaking vessel keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel, defined “overtaken vessel”.

Section 146i, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 419, related to power-driven vessels in narrow channels and in nearing bends in a channel.

Section 146j, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 419, related to right of way of fishing vessels, and obstruction of fairways.

Section 146k, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. C, 65 Stat. 419, related to special circumstances requiring departure from rules.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1965, see Proc. No. 3632, Dec. 29, 1964, 29 F.R. 19167, and section 3 of Pub. L. 88–131, both set out as notes under section 1051 of this title.

§§147 to 147d. Repealed. Pub. L. 88–131, §3, Sept. 24, 1963, 77 Stat. 194

Section 147, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. D, 65 Stat. 419, related to sound signals of vessels indicating course.

Section 147a, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. D, 65 Stat. 419, related to additional precautions.

Section 147b, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. D, 65 Stat. 420, related to local rules for harbors and inland waters.

Section 147c, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. D, 65 Stat. 420, related to distress signals.

Section 147d, act Oct. 11, 1951, ch. 495, §6, Pt. D, 65 Stat. 420, related to orders to helmsmen, and has been omitted.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1963, see Proc. No. 3632, Dec. 29, 1964, 29 F.R. 19167, and section 3 of Pub. L. 88–131, both set out as notes under section 1051 of this title.

CHAPTER 3—NAVIGATION RULES FOR HARBORS, RIVERS, AND INLAND WATERS GENERALLY

SUBCHAPTER I—PRELIMINARY

Sec.
151.
High seas and inland waters demarcation lines.
152.
Regulation of length of towlines.
153.
Penalty for use of unlawful towline.
154 to 159. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—RULES CONCERNING LIGHTS, ETC.

171 to 183. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—SOUND SIGNALS FOR FOG, ETC.; SPEED

191, 192.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—STEERING AND SAILING RULES AND SIGNALS

201 to 213. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—NO VESSEL UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES TO NEGLECT PROPER PRECAUTIONS

221, 222.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—DISTRESS SIGNALS

231.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—ORDERS

232.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—PRELIMINARY

§151. High seas and inland waters demarcation lines

(a) Establishment and purpose

The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall establish appropriate identifiable demarcation lines dividing the high seas from harbors, rivers, and other inland waters of the United States, for the purpose of determining the applicability of special navigational rules in lieu of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea.

(b) Applicability of other statutes; limitation; position

The Secretary shall also establish appropriate identifiable lines dividing inland waters of the United States from the high seas for the purpose of determining the applicability of each statute that refers to this section or this section, as amended. These lines may not be located more than twelve nautical miles seaward of the base line from which the territorial sea is measured. These lines may differ in position for the purposes of different statutes.

(c) “United States” defined

For the purposes of this section, the term “United States” includes the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

(Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §2, 28 Stat. 672; Pub. L. 96–324, §1, Aug. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1020; Pub. L. 96–376, §13, Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 96–591, §9, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3436.)

References in Text

The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, referred to in subsec. (a), are maintained and published by the United States Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, in the publication Navigation Rules, which is available for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. See International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 note under section 1602 of this title.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, 30 Stat. 96, which comprises a major part of this chapter.

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–324 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted provision authorizing the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating to establish demarcation lines for provision authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to establish demarcation lines, and inserted provision specifying the purpose of establishing demarcation lines as determining the applicability of special navigational rules in lieu of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–324 added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–591 and Pub. L. 96–376 made identical amendments by striking out reference to the Canal Zone.

Pub. L. 96–324 added subsec. (c).

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Territorial Sea of United States

For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

§152. Regulation of length of towlines

The Commandant of the Coast Guard shall prepare regulations limiting the length of hawsers between towing vessels and seagoing barges in tow and the length of such tows within any of the inland waters of the United States designated and defined from time to time pursuant to section 151 of this title, and such regulations shall have the force of law.

(May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §14, 35 Stat. 428; June 17, 1910, ch. 301, §§4, 6, 36 Stat. 537, 538; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §1, 37 Stat. 736; June 30, 1932, ch. 314, §§501, 502, 47 Stat. 415; May 27, 1936, ch. 463, §1, 49 Stat. 1380; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. II, §2(a), eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2731, 53 Stat. 1432; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097; Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, §§1, 20, 63 Stat. 496, 561.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, 30 Stat. 96, which comprises a major part of this chapter.

Transfer of Functions

“Commandant of the Coast Guard” substituted in text for provision that the Chairman of the Light House Board, the Supervising Inspector General of the Steamboat Inspection Service and the Commissioner of Navigation shall convene as a board to prepare regulations, and for approval of the regulations by the Secretary of Commerce and Labor.

Secretary of Commerce and Labor designated Secretary of Commerce by act Mar. 4, 1913, which created Department of Labor.

Sections 4 and 6 of act June 17, 1910, established in Department of Commerce and Labor a Bureau of Lighthouses with a Commissioner of Lighthouses as its head, and transferred duties of Light House Board to such Commissioner. Said sections 4 and 6 were repealed by section 20 of act Aug. 4, 1949, section 1 of which reestablished Coast Guard by enacting Title 14, Coast Guard. Section 2(a) of Reorg. Plan No. II, of 1939, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, consolidated Bureau of Lighthouses with Coast Guard, the Chief of which is Commandant of the Coast Guard.

Supervising Inspector General of the Steamboat Inspection Service and Commissioner of Navigation of Bureau of Navigation were affected by Secretary's authority to retain or dismiss officers and employees upon consolidation of bureaus under section 502(b) of act June 30, 1932.

Steamboat Inspection Service and Bureau of Navigation consolidated into Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection to be under direction of a chief of bureau by section 501 of act June 30, 1932.

Director of the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection was designation given to chief of such Bureau by Secretary of Commerce under section 502(b) of act June 30, 1932.

Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation was designation given to Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection by act May 27, 1936.

Functions of Secretary of Commerce and Director of Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation under this section transferred to Commandant of the Coast Guard by Reorg. Plan No. 3, of 1946, §§101 to 104, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation, and functions, powers, and duties relating to Coast Guard of Secretary of the Treasury and of other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury transferred to Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, however, provided that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, Coast Guard shall operate as part of Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of the Treasury, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of the Treasury with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, 1281, set out in the Appendix to Title 5. Functions of Coast Guard, and Commandant of the Coast Guard, excepted from transfer when Coast Guard is operating as part of Navy under sections 1 and 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

§153. Penalty for use of unlawful towline

The master of the towing vessel shall be liable to the suspension or revocation of his license for any willful violation of regulations issued pursuant to section 152 of this title in the manner prescribed for incompetency, misconduct, or unskillfulness.

(May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §15, 35 Stat. 429.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, 30 Stat. 96, which comprises a major part of this chapter.

§154. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 96; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §1, 62 Stat. 249; Aug. 8, 1953, ch. 386, §1, 67 Stat. 497, provided for adoption of rules of navigation of harbors, rivers, and inland waters. See section 2001 of this title.

Prior rules for preventing collision prescribed by R.S. §4233 to be followed by vessels of the Navy and mercantile marine of the United States, applicable originally to all waters, were superseded as to navigation on the high seas and waters connected therewith by the International Rules (act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802 [sec. 61 et seq. of this title]) were superseded as to navigation on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal, by act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64 (section 241 et seq. of this title); were adopted as special rules for the navigation of harbors, rivers, and inland waters of the United States, except the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal by act of Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102 (see section 301 et seq. of this title); and were superseded by act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, as to navigation of all harbors, rivers, and inland waters of the United States except as specified in this paragraph, leaving them applicable solely to the Red River of the North and the rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico and their tributaries (see section 2001 et seq. of this title).

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

§§155 to 159. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 155, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 96, defined “sailing vessel”, “steam vessel”, and “under way”. See section 2003 of this title.

Section 156, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 96, defined “visible”. See section 2003 of this title.

Section 157, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §2, 30 Stat. 102; May 25, 1914, ch. 98, 38 Stat. 381; June 30, 1932, ch. 314, §§501, 502(b), 47 Stat. 415; May 27, 1936, ch. 463, §1, 49 Stat. 1380; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat 1097; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §3, 62 Stat. 249; Aug. 14, 1958, Pub. L. 85–656, §1, 72 Stat. 612, provided for promulgation of special rules by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, and covered publication of rules and hearings in connection therewith. See section 2071 of this title.

Section 157a, Pub. L. 88–163, Oct. 30, 1963, 77 Stat. 281, provided for regulations for navigation or operation under bridges over navigable waters. See section 2001 et seq. of this title.

Section 158, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §3, 30 Stat. 102; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §3, 62 Stat. 249; Aug. 14, 1958, Pub. L. 85–656, §1, 72 Stat. 612, set out penalties for violations by pilots, engineers, mates, or masters. See section 2072 of this title.

Section 159, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §4, 30 Stat. 103; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §3, 62 Stat. 249; Aug. 14, 1958, Pub. L. 85–656, §1, 72 Stat. 612, provided for a penalty for violations by vessels. See section 2072 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—RULES CONCERNING LIGHTS, ETC.

§§171 to 183. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 171, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 96, made general provision for the application of rules regarding lights. See section 2020 of this title.

Section 172, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 96, related to lights of steam vessels underway. See section 2023 of this title.

Section 173, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 97; May 20, 1936, ch. 433, 49 Stat. 1367; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §2, 62 Stat. 249; Aug. 14, 1958, Pub. L. 85–635, §1, 72 Stat. 590, related to lights of vessels towing or pushing another vessel. See section 2024 of this title.

Section 174, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 97; Mar. 1, 1933, ch. 157, 47 Stat. 1417, related to lights of sailing vessels underway and vessels being towed. See sections 2024 and 2025 of this title.

Section 175, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 97, related to lights of small vessels underway in bad weather. See section 2023 of this title.

Section 176, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 98, related to lights of rowboats. See section 2025 of this title.

Section 177, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 98; Feb. 19, 1900, ch. 22, §1, 31 Stat. 30, related to lights of pilot vessels on and off duty. See section 2029 of this title.

Section 178, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 98; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, related to lights of fishing vessels. See section 2026 of this title.

Section 179, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 98; Aug. 14, 1958, Pub. L. 85–635, §2, 72 Stat. 590, related to lights of overtaken vessels. See section 2022 of this title.

Section 180, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 98; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 128, §1, 54 Stat. 150; Aug. 5, 1963, Pub. L. 88–84, §1, 77 Stat. 116; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6, 80 Stat. 937, related to lights of vessels at anchor. See section 2030 of this title.

Section 181, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 99, related to additional lights when necessary. See section 2022 of this title.

Section 182, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 99, related to special lights for ships of war and convoy. See section 2071 of this title.

Section 183, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 99, related to day signal of vessels under sail. See section 2025 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—SOUND SIGNALS FOR FOG, ETC.; SPEED

§§191, 192. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 191, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 99; Aug. 5, 1963, Pub. L. 88–84, §2, 77 Stat. 116, made general provision for sound signals for fog, etc. See section 2035 of this title.

Section 192, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 99, related to speed of vessels in fog, etc. See section 2006 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—STEERING AND SAILING RULES AND SIGNALS

§§201 to 213. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 201, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 100, related to ascertainment of risk of collision. See section 2007 of this title.

Section 202, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 100, related to sailing vessels approaching one another. See section 2012 of this title.

Section 203, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 100; Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 595, §2, 49 Stat. 669, related to steam vessels approaching, meeting, or passing one another. See section 2013 et seq. of this title.

Section 204, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 101, related to steam vessels crossing. See section 2015 of this title.

Section 205, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 101; Nov. 5, 1966, Pub. L. 89–764, §1, 80 Stat. 1313, related to steam and sailing vessels meeting. See section 2018 of this title.

Section 206, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 101, provided that vessel having the right of way was to keep course. See section 2017 of this title.

Section 207, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 101, related to situation when a vessel crosses ahead of a vessel having the right-of-way. See section 2015 of this title.

Section 208, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 101, related to duty of steam vessels to slacken speed. See section 2006 of this title.

Section 209, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 101, provided that an overtaking vessel keep out of the way and defined the term “overtaking vessel”. See section 2013 of this title.

Section 210, acts June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 101; Nov. 5, 1966, Pub. L. 89–764, §2, 80 Stat. 1313, related to operation of steam vessels in a narrow channel. See section 2009 of this title.

Section 211, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 102, related to right of way of fishing vessels or boats. See section 2018 of this title.

Section 212, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 102, provided for departure from the rules in special circumstances. See section 2002 of this title.

Section 213, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 102, related to signal to be given that a vessel's engines are going at full speed astern. See section 2034 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER V—NO VESSEL UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES TO NEGLECT PROPER PRECAUTIONS

§§221, 222. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 221, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 102, related to usual additional precautions generally required. See section 2002 of this title.

Section 222, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 102, related to suspension of rules regarding the exhibition of lights on vessels of war or of the Coast Guard. See section 2001 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER VI—DISTRESS SIGNALS

§231. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 102, related to distress signals. See section 2037 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER VII—ORDERS

§232. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section, act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, as added Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 595, §2, 49 Stat. 669, related to orders to helmsmen.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

CHAPTER 4—NAVIGATION RULES FOR GREAT LAKES AND THEIR CONNECTING AND TRIBUTARY WATERS

Prior rules for preventing collision prescribed by R.S. §4233 to be followed by vessels of the Navy and mercantile marine of the United States, applicable originally to all waters, were superseded as to navigation on the high seas and waters connected therewith by the International Rules (act Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802 [sec. 61 et seq. of this title]) were superseded as to navigation on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal, by act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64 (section 241 et seq. of this title); were adopted as special rules for the navigation of harbors, rivers, and inland waters of the United States, except the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal by act of Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102 (see section 301 et seq. of this title); and were superseded as to navigation of all harbors, rivers, and inland waters of the United States, except the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal and the Red River of the North and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico and their tributaries by act June 7, 1897, ch. 4, §1, 30 Stat. 96 (section 151 et seq. of this title), leaving them applicable solely to the Red River of the North and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. See section 2001 et seq. of this title.

SUBCHAPTER I—PRELIMINARY

§§241 to 244. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 241, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 645; Mar. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85–350, §1, 72 Stat. 49, required adoption of rules for navigation of Great Lakes and connecting and tributary waters. See section 2001 of this title.

Section 242, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 645, defined “sailing vessel”, “steam vessel” and “under way”. See section 2003 of this title.

Section 243, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §3, 28 Stat. 649; Feb. 14, 1903, ch. 552, §10, 32 Stat. 829; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §1, 37 Stat. 736; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, related to authority of Commandant of the Coast Guard to establish necessary regulations. See section 2071 of this title.

Section 244, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §2, 28 Stat. 649; Mar. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85–350, §2, 72 Stat. 49, related to liability of persons and private vessels for violation of provisions. See section 2072 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Mar. 1, 1983, pursuant to 47 F.R. 15135, Apr. 8, 1982, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—RULES CONCERNING LIGHTS, ETC.

§§251 to 262. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 251, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 645; May 17, 1928, ch. 600, 45 Stat. 592, related to time for lights and exclusivity of prescribed lights, and defined “visible”. See section 2020 of this title.

Section 252, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 645; May 17, 1928, ch. 600, 45 Stat. 592; Feb. 28, 1929, ch. 370, 45 Stat. 1405; May 9, 1932, ch. 175, §1, 47 Stat. 152; Mar. 18, 1948, ch. 138, §§1–3, 62 Stat. 82, related to lights of steam vessels under way. See section 2023 of this title.

Section 253, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 646, related to lights of steam vessels having a tow other than a raft. See section 2024 of this title.

Section 254, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 646, related to lights of steam vessels having a raft in tow. See section 2024 of this title.

Section 255, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 646, related to lights of sailing vessels under way and vessels in tow. See sections 2024 and 2025 of this title.

Section 256, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 646; May 17, 1928, ch. 601, §1, 45 Stat. 593; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, related to lights of small tugs, boats on River St. Lawrence, ferryboats, rafts and canal boats.

Section 257, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 646, related to lights of small vessels under way in bad weather.

Section 258, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 647; May 17, 1928, ch. 600, 45 Stat. 592; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 128, §2, 54 Stat. 150; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), 96 Stat. 2440, related to lights of vessels at anchor. See section 2030 of this title.

Section 259, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 647; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, related to lights of produce boats, canal boats, etc., navigating by hand or horsepower or by sail or by current, or at anchor.

Section 260, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 647, related to lights of open boats.

Section 261, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 647, related to use of torch by sailing vessels on approach of steamer.

Section 262, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 647, related to suspension of lights by vessels of war or Coast Guard vessels. See section 2001 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Mar. 1, 1983, pursuant to 47 F.R. 15135, Apr. 8, 1982, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—SOUND SIGNALS FOR FOG, ETC.; SPEED

§§271, 272. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 271, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 647; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097; Mar. 18, 1948, ch. 138, §4, 62 Stat. 82, related to sound signals in fog, etc., of steam and sailing vessels under way, at anchor or aground. See section 2032 et seq. of this title.

Section 272, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 648, related to speed in fog, etc. See sections 2019 and 2035 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Mar. 1, 1983, pursuant to 47 F.R. 15135, Apr. 8, 1982, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—STEERING AND SAILING RULES

§§281 to 293. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 281, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 648, related to steering and sailing rules for sailing vessels approaching one another. See section 2012 of this title.

Section 282, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 648, related to steam vessels meeting end on. See section 2014 of this title.

Section 283, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 648, related to steam vessels crossing. See section 2015 of this title.

Section 284, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 648; Nov. 5, 1966, Pub. L. 89–764, §3, 80 Stat. 1313, related to steam and sailing vessels meeting. See section 2018 of this title.

Section 285, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649, related to maintenance of course and speed by vessel having right-of-way. See section 2017 of this title.

Section 286, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649, related to duty of steam vessel to slacken speed. See section 2017 of this title.

Section 287, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649, related to duty of overtaking vessel to keep out of the way. See section 2013 of this title.

Section 288, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649, related to whistle signals of steam vessels to indicate course. See section 2034 of this title.

Section 289, acts Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649; Nov. 5, 1966, Pub. L. 89–764, §4, 80 Stat. 1313, related to right-of-way when steam vessels meet in narrow channels having current and certain rivers, etc. See section 2009 of this title.

Section 290, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649, related to steam vessels passing in narrow channels and slackening speed when meeting in narrow channels. See section 2008 of this title.

Section 291, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649, related to dissent to or misunderstanding of signal given and duty to reduce speed. See section 2034 of this title.

Section 292, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649, related to departure from rules to avert immediate danger. See section 2002 of this title.

Section 293, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 649, related to usual additional precautions generally required. See section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Mar. 1, 1983, pursuant to 47 F.R. 15135, Apr. 8, 1982, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER V—ORDERS

§294. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, as added Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 595, §3, 49 Stat. 669, related to orders to helmsmen.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Mar. 1, 1983, pursuant to 47 F.R. 15135, Apr. 8, 1982, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER VI—VESSELS NOT UNDER WAY

§295. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section, act Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, as added Mar. 18, 1948, ch. 138, §5, 62 Stat. 82, related to day and night signals for vessels anchored, not under command, or aground. See section 2035 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Mar. 1, 1983, pursuant to 47 F.R. 15135, Apr. 8, 1982, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

CHAPTER 5—NAVIGATION RULES FOR RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AND RIVERS EMPTYING INTO GULF OF MEXICO AND TRIBUTARIES

The rules for preventing collisions prescribed by R.S. §4233, as amended, formed the basis of this chapter. Those rules as enacted were not limited in application to the navigation of any waters. But they were superseded as to navigation on the high seas and in all coast waters of the United States, except such as were otherwise provided for, by the adoption of “Revised International Regulations” by act Mar. 3, 1885, ch. 354, 23 Stat. 438; and these regulations were superseded by the adoption of the subsequent regulations of act Aug. 19, 1890, set out as section 61 et seq. and section 1051 et seq. of this title. The rules prescribed by R.S. §4233 were further superseded, as to navigation on the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal, by the rules applying to such navigation prescribed by act Feb. 8, 1895 (section 241 et seq. of this title). The provisions of R.S. §§4233, 4412, and 4413 and regulations pursuant thereto were adopted as special rules for the navigation of harbors, rivers, and inland waters of the United States (except the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal) by act Feb. 19, 1895. R.S. §§4412 and 4413 were classified to section 381 of former Title 46, Shipping. But thereafter the rules prescribed by R.S. §4233, were further superseded as to navigation of all harbors, rivers, and inland waters except the Red River of the North and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico and their tributaries, by the rules applying to all such waters other than the specific exceptions, of act June 7, 1897 (section 151 et seq. of this title). The rules prescribed by R.S. §4233, therefore, remained in force only as to the navigation of the Red River of the North and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico and their tributaries. See section 2001 et seq. of this title.

SUBCHAPTER I—PRELIMINARY

§§301 to 303. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 301, R.S. §4233; Aug. 19, 1890, ch. 802, 26 Stat. 320; Feb. 8, 1895, ch. 64, §1, 28 Stat. 645; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; June 7, 1897, ch. 4, 30 Stat. 96; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 250; Aug. 8, 1953, ch. 386, §2, 67 Stat. 497, made provision for the adoption of rules for navigation on the Red River of the North and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico and tributaries. See section 2001 et seq. of this title.

Section 302, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1457, §10, 33 Stat. 1032; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 250, defined the terms “steam vessel”, “under way”, “visible”, and “distinct blast”. See section 2003 of this title.

Section 303, act Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §3, 28 Stat. 672, set penalties for violation by vessels. See section 2072 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—RULES CONCERNING LIGHTS

§§311 to 323. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 311, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 250, related generally to the times during which rules for the display of lights were to be followed. See section 2020 of this title.

Section 312, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 250; Aug. 14, 1958, Pub. L. 85–635, §3, 72 Stat. 590, set out requirements for lights on vessels towing alongside or pushing a vessel or vessels. See section 2024 of this title.

Section 313, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 251, related to lights of vessels towing a vessel or vessels astern. See section 2024 of this title.

Section 314, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 251, related to lights of seagoing steam vessels under way. See section 2023 of this title.

Section 315, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 251, related to lights of river steamers. See section 2023 of this title.

Section 316, R.S. §4233; Mar. 3, 1893, ch. 202, 27 Stat. 557; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 251, related to requirements of additional lights and to requirements of lights on steam vessels not otherwise provided for. See section 2023 of this title.

Section 317, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 251, related to lights of sailing vessels under way and vessels being towed. See sections 2024 and 2025 of this title.

Section 318, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 251, related to lights of small vessels in bad weather. See sections 2020 and 2022 of this title.

Section 319, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 128, §3, 54 Stat. 151; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 252; Aug. 14, 1958, Pub. L. 85–635, §4, 72 Stat. 591, related to lights of overtaken vessels. See section 2022 of this title.

Section 320, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Mar. 3, 1897, ch. 389, §5, 29 Stat. 689; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 252, related to lights of sailing and steam pilot vessels. See sections 2025 and 2029 of this title.

Section 321, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 252, related to lights on motorboats. See section 2023 of this title.

Section 322, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 252; Aug. 5, 1963, Pub. L. 88–84, §3, 77 Stat. 116; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(1)(D), 80 Stat. 941, related to lights of vessels at anchor. See section 2030 of this title.

Section 323, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Mar. 3, 1897, ch. 389, §12, 29 Stat. 690; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 253, related to lights on warships and Coast Guard cutters. See section 2001 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—SOUND SIGNALS FOR FOG, ETC.

§331. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Mar. 3, 1897, ch. 389, §12, 29 Stat. 690; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 253; Aug. 5, 1963, Pub. L. 88–84, §4, 77 Stat. 117, related to manner of giving signals for vessels under way, in fog or bad weather, or at anchor. See section 2035 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—STEERING AND SAILING RULES

§§341 to 351. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 341, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Mar. 3, 1897, ch. 389, §12, 29 Stat. 690; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 253, related to rate of speed in fog or bad weather conditions. See sections 2006 and 2019 of this title.

Section 341a, R.S. §4233; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 254, related to ascertainment of risk of collision. See section 2007 of this title.

Section 342, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 26 Stat. 672; Mar. 3, 1897, ch. 389, §12, 29 Stat. 690; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 253, related to situation in which sailing vessels were approaching one another. See section 2012 of this title.

Section 343, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 254, related to steam vessels meeting end on. See section 2014 of this title.

Section 344, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 254, related to signals to be given in the situation where steam vessels are crossing. See sections 2015 and 2034 of this title.

Section 345, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 255; Nov. 5, 1966, Pub. L. 89–764, §5, 80 Stat. 1313, related to steam vessels and sailing vessels meeting. See section 2018 of this title.

Section 346, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 255, related to duty of steam vessels to slacken speed. See sections 2006, 2017 of this title.

Section 347, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 255, related to duty of an overtaking vessel to keep out of the way. See section 2013 of this title.

Section 348, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 255, set out rule that a vessel having the right of way was to keep course. See section 2017 of this title.

Section 348a, R.S. §4233, Rule 23(A), as added Pub. L. 89–764, §6, Nov. 5, 1966, 80 Stat. 1313, related to rule that a steam vessel could not hamper safe passage of a large vessel or vessel in tow. See section 2018 of this title.

Section 349, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 255, related to danger signals, responding signals, and additional signals. See section 2032 et seq. of this title.

Section 350, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Mar. 3, 1897, ch. 389, §13, 29 Stat 690; May 21 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 256, related to departures from the rules to avoid collision. See sections 2008 and 2017 of this title.

Section 351, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Mar. 3, 1897, ch. 389, §13, 29 Stat. 690; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 256, related to usual additional precautions required. See section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER V—ORDERS

§352. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section, R.S. §4233; Feb. 19, 1895, ch. 102, §1, 28 Stat. 672; Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 595, §4, 49 Stat. 669; May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 256, related to orders given to helmsmen.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER VI—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§§353 to 356. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 353, R.S. §4233A, as added May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 256; amended Aug. 14, 1958, Pub. L. 85–656, §2, 72 Stat. 612, related to establishment of special rules. See section 2001 of this title.

Section 354, R.S. §4233B, as added May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 256, related to penalties for violations by pilots, engineers, mates, or masters. See section 2072 of this title.

Section 355, R.S. §4233C, as added May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §4, 62 Stat. 257, related to penalties for violation of the rules by a vessel. See sections 2002 and 2072 of this title.

Section 356, acts May 21, 1948, ch. 328, §5, 62 Stat. 257; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), 80 Stat. 938, related to exempted status of Navy and Coast Guard vessels from complying with International Rules of the Road. See section 2001 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

CHAPTER 5A—EXEMPTION OF NAVY OR COAST GUARD VESSELS FROM CERTAIN NAVIGATION RULES

§§360, 360a. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–591, §8(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435

Section 360, acts Dec. 3, 1945, ch. 511, §1, 59 Stat. 590; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), 80 Stat. 938, provided that vessels of special construction be exempted from requirements with regard to number and position of lights. See section 2001 of this title.

Section 360a, acts Dec. 3, 1945, ch. 511, §2, 59 Stat. 591; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), 80 Stat. 938, related to publication of notice when the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard was operating made findings or certifications described in section 360 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 24, 1981, see section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

CHAPTER 6—GENERAL DUTIES OF SHIP OFFICERS AND OWNERS AFTER COLLISION OR OTHER ACCIDENT

§§361 to 368. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–89, §4(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 599

Section 361, act June 20, 1874, ch. 344, §10, 18 Stat. 128; 1946 Reorg. Plan. No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, required filing of reports to Coast Guard on accidents involving United States vessels and provided penalty for failure to comply. See sections 6101, 6103 of Title 46, Shipping.

Section 362, act June 20, 1874, ch. 344, §11, 18 Stat. 128; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, required reporting of probable loss of vessels and provided penalty for failure to comply. See sections 6101, 6103 of Title 46.

Section 363, acts June 20, 1874, ch. 344, §12, 18 Stat. 128; Feb. 14, 1903, ch. 552, §10, 32 Stat. 829; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §1, 37 Stat. 736; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, related to transmission of reports by Coast Guard officials to Commandant of Coast Guard.

Section 364, acts June 20, 1874, ch. 344, §13, 18 Stat. 128; Mar. 3, 1897, ch. 389, §11, 29 Stat. 689; Feb. 14, 1903, ch. 552, §10, 32 Stat. 829; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §1, 37 Stat. 736; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, related to remission and recovery of penalties. See section 2107 of Title 46.

Section 365, act Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 153, §15, 38 Stat. 1184; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, related to reports by owners of barges in tow. See section 6101 of Title 46.

Section 366, act Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 153, §15, 38 Stat. 1184; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, required Commandant of Coast Guard to transmit annually to Congress a summary of reports transmitted to him by Coast Guard officials as required under sections 361 to 365 of this title. See section 6307 of Title 46.

Section 367, act Sept. 4, 1890, ch. 875, §1, 26 Stat. 425, related to duty of master of a vessel in collision to give aid, and to give name of his vessel together with other information about his vessel. See sections 2303, 2304 of Title 46.

Section 368, act Sept. 4, 1890, ch. 875, §2, 26 Stat. 425, set out penalties for failure to give aid as required by section 367 of this title. See sections 2303, 2304 of Title 46.

Act Sept. 4, 1890, ch. 875, §3, 26 Stat. 425, which provided that sections 367 and 368 of this title were to take effect at a time to be fixed by President by proclamation (effective Dec. 15, 1890, by Presidential Proclamation of Nov. 18, 1890, 26 Stat. 1561), was repealed by Pub. L. 98–89, §4(b), 97 Stat. 599.

CHAPTER 7—REGULATIONS FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF PIRACY

Sec.
381.
Use of public vessels to suppress piracy.
382.
Seizure of piratical vessels generally.
383.
Resistance of pirates by merchant vessels.
384.
Condemnation of piratical vessels.
385.
Seizure and condemnation of vessels fitted out for piracy.
386.
Commissioning private vessels for seizure of piratical vessels.
387.
Duties of officers of customs and marshals as to seizure.

        

§381. Use of public vessels to suppress piracy

The President is authorized to employ so many of the public armed vessels as in his judgment the service may require, with suitable instructions to the commanders thereof, in protecting the merchant vessels of the United States and their crews from piratical aggressions and depredations.

(R.S. §4293.)

Codification

R.S. §4293 derived from acts Mar. 3, 1819, ch. 77, §1, 3 Stat. 510; Jan. 30, 1823, ch. 7, 3 Stat. 721.

§382. Seizure of piratical vessels generally

The President is authorized to instruct the commanders of the public armed vessels of the United States to subdue, seize, take, and send into any port of the United States, any armed vessel or boat, or any vessel or boat, the crew whereof shall be armed, and which shall have attempted or committed any piratical aggression, search, restraint, depredation, or seizure, upon any vessel of the United States, or of the citizens thereof, or upon any other vessel; and also to retake any vessel of the United States, or its citizens, which may have been unlawfully captured upon the high seas.

(R.S. §4294.)

Codification

R.S. §4294 derived from acts Mar. 3, 1819, ch. 77, §2, 3 Stat. 512; Jan. 30, 1823, ch. 7, 3 Stat. 721.

§383. Resistance of pirates by merchant vessels

The commander and crew of any merchant vessel of the United States, owned wholly, or in part, by a citizen thereof, may oppose and defend against any aggression, search, restraint, depredation, or seizure, which shall be attempted upon such vessel, or upon any other vessel so owned, by the commander or crew of any armed vessel whatsoever, not being a public armed vessel of some nation in amity with the United States, and may subdue and capture the same; and may also retake any vessel so owned which may have been captured by the commander or crew of any such armed vessel, and send the same into any port of the United States.

(R.S. §4295.)

Codification

R.S. §4295 derived from acts Mar. 3, 1819, ch. 77, §3, 3 Stat. 513; Jan. 30, 1823, ch. 7, 3 Stat. 721.

§384. Condemnation of piratical vessels

Whenever any vessel, which shall have been built, purchased, fitted out in whole or in part, or held for the purpose of being employed in the commission of any piratical aggression, search, restraint, depredation, or seizure, or in the commission of any other act of piracy as defined by the law of nations, or from which any piratical aggression, search, restraint, depredation, or seizure shall have been first attempted or made, is captured and brought into or captured in any port of the United States, the same shall be adjudged and condemned to their use, and that of the captors after due process and trial in any court having admiralty jurisdiction, and which shall be holden for the district into which such captured vessel shall be brought; and the same court shall thereupon order a sale and distribution thereof accordingly, and at its discretion.

(R.S. §4296.)

Codification

R.S. §4296 derived from acts Mar. 3, 1819, ch. 77, §4, 3 Stat. 513; Jan. 30, 1823, ch. 7, 3 Stat. 721; Aug. 5, 1861, ch. 48, §1, 12 Stat. 314.

§385. Seizure and condemnation of vessels fitted out for piracy

Any vessel built, purchased, fitted out in whole or in part, or held for the purpose of being employed in the commission of any piratical aggression, search, restraint, depredation, or seizure, or in the commission of any other act of piracy, as defined by the law of nations, shall be liable to be captured and brought into any port of the United States if found upon the high seas, or to be seized if found in any port or place within the United States, whether the same shall have actually sailed upon any piratical expedition or not, and whether any act of piracy shall have been committed or attempted upon or from such vessel or not; and any such vessel may be adjudged and condemned, if captured by a vessel authorized as mentioned in section 386 of this title to the use of the United States, and to that of the captors, and if seized by a collector, surveyor, or marshal, then to the use of the United States.

(R.S. §4297.)

References in Text

Surveyor, referred to in text, is probably an obsolete office in view of act July 5, 1932, ch. 430, title I, §1, 47 Stat. 584, which abolished the offices of surveyors of customs, except at the Port of New York. Ports of delivery, except those which were made ports of entry, were abolished and the use of the term “port of delivery” was discontinued under the President's plan of reorganization of the customs service communicated to Congress by message dated Mar. 3, 1913.

Codification

R.S. §4297 derived from act Aug. 5, 1861, ch. 48, §1, 12 Stat. 314.

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished with such offices to be terminated not later than December 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

§386. Commissioning private vessels for seizure of piratical vessels

The President is authorized to instruct the commanders of the public-armed vessels of the United States, and to authorize the commanders of any other armed vessels sailing under the authority of any letters of marque and reprisal granted by Congress, or the commanders of any other suitable vessels, to subdue, seize, take, and, if on the high seas, to send into any port of the United States, any vessel or boat built, purchased, fitted out, or held as mentioned in section 385 of this title.

(R.S. §4298.)

Codification

R.S. §4298 derived from act Aug. 5, 1861, ch. 48, §2, 12 Stat. 315.

§387. Duties of officers of customs and marshals as to seizure

The collectors of the several ports of entry, the surveyors of the several ports of delivery, and the marshals of the several judicial districts within the United States, shall seize any vessel or boat built, purchased, fitted out, or held as mentioned in section 385 of this title, which may be found within their respective ports or districts, and to cause the same to be proceeded against and disposed of as provided by that section.

(R.S. §4299.)

References in Text

Surveyors of the several ports of delivery, referred to in text, are probably obsolete offices in view of act July 5, 1932, ch. 430, title I, §1, 47 Stat. 584, which abolished the offices of surveyors of customs, except at the Port of New York. Ports of delivery, except those which were made ports of entry, were abolished and the use of the term “port of delivery” was discontinued under the President's plan of reorganization of the customs service communicated to Congress by message dated Mar. 3, 1913.

Codification

R.S. §4299 derived from act Aug. 5, 1861, ch. 48, §3, 12 Stat. 315.

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later than December 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1, of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

CHAPTER 8—SUMMARY TRIALS FOR CERTAIN OFFENSES AGAINST NAVIGATION LAWS

Sec.
391.
Summary trials authorized.
392.
Complaint and answer; jury trial.
393.
Amendments of complaint and adjournments.
394.
Challenge to jurors.
395.
Limit of sentence.
396.
Recovery of penalties and forfeitures generally.

        

§391. Summary trials authorized

Whenever a complaint shall be made against any master, officer, or seaman of any vessel belonging, in whole or in part, to any citizen of the United States, of the commission of any offense, not capital or otherwise infamous, against any law of the United States made for the protection of persons or property engaged in commerce or navigation, it shall be the duty of the United States attorney to investigate the same, and the general nature thereof, and if, in his opinion, the case is such as should be summarily tried, he shall report the same to the district judge, and the judge shall forthwith, or as soon as the ordinary business of the court will permit, proceed to try the cause, and for that purpose may, if necessary, hold a special session of the court, either in term time or vacation.

(R.S. §4300; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909.)

Codification

R.S. §4300 derived from act June 11, 1864, ch. 121, §2, 13 Stat. 124.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948, substituted “United States attorney” for “district attorney”. See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes set out thereunder.

§392. Complaint and answer; jury trial

At the summary trial of offenses against the laws for the protection of persons or property engaged in commerce or navigation, it shall not be necessary that the accused shall have been previously indicted, but a statement of complaint, verified by oath in writing, shall be presented to the court, setting out the offense in such manner as clearly to apprise the accused of the character of the offense complained of, and to enable him to answer the complaint. The complaint or statement shall be read to the accused, who may plead to or answer the same, or make a counterstatement. The trial shall thereupon be proceeded with in a summary manner, and the case shall be decided by the court, unless, at the time for pleading or answering, the accused shall demand a jury, in which case the trial shall be upon the complaint and plea of not guilty.

(R.S. §4301.)

Codification

R.S. §4301 derived from act June 11, 1864, ch. 121, §§3, 4, 13 Stat. 125.

§393. Amendments of complaint and adjournments

It shall be lawful for the court to allow the United States attorney to amend his statement of complaint at any stage of the proceedings, before verdict, if, in the opinion of the court, such amendment will work no injustice to the accused; and if it appears to the court that the accused is unprepared to meet the charge as amended, and that an adjournment of the cause will promote the ends of justice, such adjournment shall be made, until a further day, to be fixed by the court.

(R.S. §4302; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909.)

Codification

R.S. §4302 derived from act June 11, 1864, ch. 121, §6, 13 Stat. 125.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948, substituted “United States attorney” for “district attorney”. See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes set out thereunder.

§394. Challenge to jurors

At the trial in summary cases, if by jury, the United States and the accused shall each be entitled to three peremptory challenges. Challenges for cause, in such cases, shall be tried by the court without the aid of triers.

(R.S. §4303.)

Codification

R.S. §4303 derived from act June 11, 1864, ch. 121, §7, 13 Stat. 125.

§395. Limit of sentence

It shall not be lawful for the court to sentence any person convicted in such trial to any greater punishment than imprisonment in jail for one year, or to a fine exceeding $500, or both, in its discretion, in those cases where the laws of the United States authorize such imprisonment and fine.

(R.S. §4304.)

Codification

R.S. §4304 derived from act June 11, 1864, ch. 121, §5, 13 Stat. 125.

§396. Recovery of penalties and forfeitures generally

All the penalties and forfeitures which may be incurred for offenses against title 48 of the Revised Statutes may be sued for, prosecuted, and recovered in such court, and be disposed of in such manner, as any penalties and forfeitures which may be incurred for offenses against the laws relating to the collection of duties, except when otherwise expressly prescribed.

(R.S. §4305.)

References in Text

Title 48 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was in the original “this Title”, meaning title 48 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§4131 to 4305. For complete classification of R.S. §§4131 to 4305 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §4305 derived from act Dec. 31, 1792, ch. 1, §29, 1 Stat. 298.

CHAPTER 9—PROTECTION OF NAVIGABLE WATERS AND OF HARBOR AND RIVER IMPROVEMENTS GENERALLY

SUBCHAPTER I—IN GENERAL

Sec.
401.
Construction of bridges, causeways, dams or dikes generally; exemptions.
402.
Construction of bridges, etc., over Illinois and Mississippi Canal.
403.
Obstruction of navigable waters generally; wharves; piers, etc.; excavations and filling in.
403a.
Creation or continuance of obstruction of navigable waters.
403b.
Lighting at docks and boat launching facilities.
404.
Establishment of harbor lines; conditions to grants for extension of piers, etc.
405.
Establishment and modification of harbor lines on Potomac and Anacostia Rivers.
406.
Penalty for wrongful construction of bridges, piers, etc.; removal of structures.
407.
Deposit of refuse in navigable waters generally.
407a.
Deposit of debris of mines and stamp works.
408.
Taking possession of, use of, or injury to harbor or river improvements.
409.
Obstruction of navigable waters by vessels; floating timber; marking and removal of sunken vessels.
410.
Exception as to floating loose timber, sack rafts, etc.; violation of regulations; penalty.
411.
Penalty for wrongful deposit of refuse; use of or injury to harbor improvements, and obstruction of navigable waters generally.
412.
Liability of masters, pilots, etc., and of vessels engaged in violations.
413.
Duty of United States attorneys and other Federal officers in enforcement of provisions; arrest of offenders.
414.
Removal by Secretary of the Army of sunken water craft generally; liability of owner, lessee, or operator.
415.
Summary removal of water craft obstructing navigation; liability of owner, lessee, or operator.
416.
Appropriations for removal of sunken water craft.
417.
Expenses of investigations by Department of the Army.
418.
Provisions for protection of New York Harbor unaffected.
419.
Regulation by Secretary governing transportation and dumping of dredgings, refuse, etc., into navigable waters; oyster lands; appropriations.
419a.
Management practices to extend capacity and useful life of dredged material disposal areas.
420.
Piers and cribs on Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers.
421.
Deposit of refuse, etc., in Lake Michigan near Chicago.
422.
Modification and extension of harbor lines at Chicago.
423.
Establishment of pierhead and bulkhead lines in Wilmington Harbor, California.
424.
Establishment of pierhead or bulkhead lines in Newport Harbor, California.
424a.
Modification of harbor lines in Newport Harbor, California.
425.
Omitted.
426.
Investigations concerning erosion of shores of coastal and lake waters.
426–1.
Coastal Engineering Research Center; establishment; powers and functions.
426–2.
Board on Coastal Engineering Research.
426–3.
Transfer of functions of Beach Erosion Board.
426a.
Additional investigations concerning erosion of shores of coastal and lake waters; payment of costs; “shores” defined.
426b.
Applicability of existing laws; projects referred to Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors.
426c.
Report by Coastal Engineering Research Center.
426d.
Payment of expenses.
426e.
Federal aid in protection of shores.
426e–1.
Shore protection projects.
426f.
Reimbursements.
426g.
Storm and hurricane restoration and impact minimization program.
426g–1.
State and regional plans.
426h.
Repealed.
426h–1.
Definitions.
426i.
Shore damage prevention or mitigation.
426i–1.
Construction of shoreline protection projects by non-Federal interests.
426i–2.
National coastal data bank.
426j.
Repealed.
426k.
Five year demonstration program to temporarily increase diversion of water from Lake Michigan at Chicago, Illinois.
426l.
Protection of Lake Ontario.
426m.
Collection and removal of drift and debris from publicly maintained commercial boat harbors and adjacent land and water areas.
426n.
Technical assistance to States and local governments; cost sharing.
426o.
Great Lakes material disposal.
426o–1.
Great Lakes dredging levels adjustment.
426o–2.
Great Lakes navigation and protection.
426p.
Corps of Engineers.
427 to 430. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—OIL POLLUTION OF COASTAL WATERS

431 to 437. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—NEW YORK HARBOR, HARBOR OF HAMPTON ROADS, AND HARBOR OF BALTIMORE

441.
Deposit of refuse prohibited; penalty.
442.
Liability of officers of towing vessel.
443.
Permit for dumping; penalty for taking or towing boat or scow without permit.
444.
Dumping at other place than designated dumping grounds; penalty; person liable; excuses for deviation.
445.
Equipment and marking of boats or scows.
446.
Inspectors; appointment, powers, and duties.
447.
Bribery of inspector; penalty.
448.
Return of permit; penalty for failure to return.
449.
Disposition of dredged matter; persons liable; penalty.
450.
Liability of vessel.
451.
Supervisor of harbor; appointment and duties.
451a.
Harbors subject to this subchapter.
451b.
Waters included within subchapter.
452.
Taking shellfish or otherwise interfering with navigation in New York Harbor channels; penalty; arrest and procedure.
453.
Regulations for navigation of Ambrose Channel; exclusion of tows and sailing vessels.
454.
Consent of Congress to obstruction of waters by New York City.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—POTOMAC RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES IN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

461 to 464. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—NAVIGABLE WATERS OF MARYLAND

465.
Authority to dredge; riparian rights of United States.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

466 to 466g. Transferred.
466g–1.
Controversies involving construction or application of interstate compacts and pollution of waters.
466h to 466n. Transferred or Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM

467.
Definitions.
467a.
Inspection of dams.
467b.
Investigation reports to Governors.
467c.
Determination of danger to human life and property.
467d.
National dam inventory.
467e.
Interagency Committee on Dam Safety.
467f.
National dam safety program.
467f–1.
Lock and dam security.
467g.
Research.
467g–1.
Dam safety training.
467h.
Reports.
467i.
Statutory construction.
467j.
Authorization of appropriations.
467k to 467m. Repealed.
467n.
Recovery of dam modification costs required for safety purposes.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—IN GENERAL

§401. Construction of bridges, causeways, dams or dikes generally; exemptions

It shall not be lawful to construct or commence the construction of any bridge, causeway, dam, or dike over or in any port, roadstead, haven, harbor, canal, navigable river, or other navigable water of the United States until the consent of Congress to the building of such structures shall have been obtained and until the plans for (1) the bridge or causeway shall have been submitted to and approved by the Secretary of Transportation, or (2) the dam or dike shall have been submitted to and approved by the Chief of Engineers and Secretary of the Army. However, such structures may be built under authority of the legislature of a State across rivers and other waterways the navigable portions of which lie wholly within the limits of a single State, provided the location and plans thereof are submitted to and approved by the Secretary of Transportation or by the Chief of Engineers and Secretary of the Army before construction is commenced. When plans for any bridge or other structure have been approved by the Secretary of Transportation or by the Chief of Engineers and Secretary of the Army, it shall not be lawful to deviate from such plans either before or after completion of the structure unless modification of said plans has previously been submitted to and received the approval of the Secretary of Transportation or the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of the Army. The approval required by this section of the location and plans or any modification of plans of any bridge or causeway does not apply to any bridge or causeway over waters that are not subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and that are not used and are not susceptible to use in their natural condition or by reasonable improvement as a means to transport interstate or foreign commerce.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §9, 30 Stat. 1151; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, §107(b), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(f), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”, and together with section 403 of this title superseded act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §7, 26 Stat. 454, as amended by act July 13, 1892, ch. 158, §3, 27 Stat. 88, which prohibited the erection of obstructions to navigation, and prohibited the erection of bridges over navigable waters under State legislation before the approval of the plans by the Secretary of War, and prohibited the alteration of channels unless authorized by that Secretary.

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 amended section generally to reflect transfer of certain functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army under this section to Secretary of Transportation. See Transfer of Functions note below.

1982—Pub. L. 97–322 inserted sentence at end relating to exemption.

Transfer of Functions

Enforcement functions of Secretary or other official in Department of Transportation related to compliance with permits for bridges across navigable waters issued under this section with respect to pre-construction, construction, and initial operation of transportation system for Canadian and Alaskan natural gas were transferred to the Federal Inspector, Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, until the first anniversary of date of initial operation of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, see Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1979, §§102(c), 203(a), 44 F.R. 33663, 33666, 93 Stat. 1373, 1376, effective July 1, 1979, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System abolished and functions and authority vested in Inspector transferred to Secretary of Energy by section 3012(b) of Pub. L. 102–486, set out as an Abolition of Office of Federal Inspector note under section 719e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. Functions and authority vested in Secretary of Energy subsequently transferred to Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects by section 720d(f) of Title 15.

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department of the Army [formerly War] under this section to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§402. Construction of bridges, etc., over Illinois and Mississippi Canal

The provisions of section 401 of this title are made applicable alike to the completed and uncompleted portions of the Illinois and Mississippi Canal. Whenever the Secretary of the Army shall approve plans for a bridge to be built across said canal he may, in his discretion, and subject to such terms and conditions as in his judgment are equitable, expedient, and just to the public, grant to the person or corporation building and owning such bridge a right of way across the lands of the United States on either side of and adjacent to the said canal; also the privilege of occupying so much of said lands as may be necessary for the piers, abutments, and other portions of the bridge structure and approaches.

(June 13, 1902, ch. 1079, §10, 32 Stat. 374; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section is from part of act June 13, 1902, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1902”.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§403. Obstruction of navigable waters generally; wharves; piers, etc.; excavations and filling in

The creation of any obstruction not affirmatively authorized by Congress, to the navigable capacity of any of the waters of the United States is prohibited; and it shall not be lawful to build or commence the building of any wharf, pier, dolphin, boom, weir, breakwater, bulkhead, jetty, or other structures in any port, roadstead, haven, harbor, canal, navigable river, or other water of the United States, outside established harbor lines, or where no harbor lines have been established, except on plans recommended by the Chief of Engineers and authorized by the Secretary of the Army; and it shall not be lawful to excavate or fill, or in any manner to alter or modify the course, location, condition, or capacity of, any port, roadstead, haven, harbor, canal, lake, harbor or refuge, or inclosure within the limits of any breakwater, or of the channel of any navigable water of the United States, unless the work has been recommended by the Chief of Engineers and authorized by the Secretary of the Army prior to beginning the same.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §10, 30 Stat. 1151; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

Prior Provisions

This section and section 9 of act Mar. 3, 1899 (section 401 of this title), superseded provisions of act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §7, 26 Stat. 454, as amended by act July 13, 1892, ch. 158, §3, 27 Stat. 110, which prohibited the erection of obstructions to navigation, and prohibited the erection of bridges over navigable waters under State legislation before the approval of the plans by the Secretary of War, and prohibited the alteration of channels unless authorized by said Secretary.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Enforcement functions of Secretary of the Army, Chief of Engineers, or other official in Corps of Engineers of the United States Army related to compliance with permits for structures in navigable waters issued under this section with respect to pre-construction, construction, and initial operation of transportation system for Canadian and Alaskan natural gas were transferred to the Federal Inspector, Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, until the first anniversary of date of initial operation of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, see Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1979, §§102(b), 203(a), 44 F.R. 33663, 33666, 93 Stat. 1373, 1376, effective July 1, 1979, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System abolished and functions and authority vested in Inspector transferred to Secretary of Energy by section 3012(b) of Pub. L. 102–486, set out as an Abolition of Office of Federal Inspector note under section 719e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. Functions and authority vested in Secretary of Energy subsequently transferred to Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects by section 720d(f) of Title 15.

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670 §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§403a. Creation or continuance of obstruction of navigable waters

The creation of any obstruction, not affirmatively authorized by law, to the navigable capacity of any waters, in respect of which the United States has jurisdiction, is hereby prohibited. The continuance of any such obstruction, except bridges, piers, docks, and wharves, and similar structures erected for business purposes, whether heretofore or hereafter created, shall constitute an offense and each week's continuance of any such obstruction shall be deemed a separate offense. Every person and every corporation which shall be guilty of creating or continuing any such unlawful obstruction in this act mentioned, or who shall violate the provisions of the last four preceding sections of this act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) not exceeding one year, or by both such punishments, in the discretion of the court, the creating or continuing of any unlawful obstruction in this act mentioned may be prevented and such obstruction may be caused to be removed by the injunction of any district court exercising jurisdiction in any district in which such obstruction may be threatened or may exist; and proper proceedings in equity to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney-General of the United States.

(Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §10, 26 Stat. 454; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167.)

References in Text

This act, referred to in text, is act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, 26 Stat. 426. Sections 6 to 9 of the Act are not classified to the Code. For complete classification of this act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Text of section, which was previously omitted from the Code, was restored in view of conflicting court decisions as to whether or not section had been repealed or superseded. See eg. United States v. Wishkah Boom Co., 136 F. 42 (9th Cir. 1905), (appeal dismissed [1906] 202 U.S. 613); United States v. Wilson, 235 F.2d 251 (2d Cir. 1956).

§403b. Lighting at docks and boat launching facilities

Whenever the Secretary considers a permit application for a dock or a boat launching facility under section 403 of this title, the Secretary shall consider the needs of such facility for lighting from sunset to sunrise to make such facility's presence known within a reasonable distance.

(Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §946, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4200.)

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2201 of this title.

§404. Establishment of harbor lines; conditions to grants for extension of piers, etc.

Where it is made manifest to the Secretary of the Army that the establishment of harbor lines is essential to the preservation and protection of harbors he may, and is, authorized to cause such lines to be established, beyond which no piers, wharves, bulkheads, or other works shall be extended or deposits made, except under such regulations as may be prescribed from time to time by him: Provided, That, whenever the Secretary of the Army grants to any person or persons permission to extend piers, wharves, bulkheads, or other works, or to make deposits in any tidal harbor or river of the United States beyond any harbor lines established under authority of the United States, he shall cause to be ascertained the amount of tidewater displaced by any such structure or by any such deposits, and he shall, if he deem it necessary, require the parties to whom the permission is given to make compensation for such displacement either by excavating in some part of the harbor, including tidewater channels between high and low water mark, to such an extent as to create a basin for as much tidewater as may be displaced by such structure or by such deposits, or in any other mode that may be satisfactory to him.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §11, 30 Stat. 1151; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

Prior Provisions

This section and section 406 of this title, superseded act Aug. 11, 1888, ch. 860, §12, 25 Stat. 425, as amended by act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §12, 26 Stat. 455, which authorized the establishment of harbor lines, and prescribed a penalty for a violation of the section or any rule made in pursuance of it.

Section also superseded act Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §9, 28 Stat. 364, which contained provisions for compensation for tide water displaced similar to the proviso in this section.

Act Aug. 5, 1886, ch. 929, §2, 24 Stat. 329, which was probably omitted from the Code as superseded by this section, provided that: “In places where harbor-lines have not been established, and where deposits of de├┐AE1bris of mines or stamp works can be made without injury to navigation, within lines to be established by the Secretary of War, said officer may, and is hereby authorized to, cause such lines to be established; and within such lines such deposits may be made, under regulations to be from time to time prescribed by him.”

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§405. Establishment and modification of harbor lines on Potomac and Anacostia Rivers

The provisions of section 404 of this title are made applicable to the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers, and after July 25, 1912, harbor lines in the District of Columbia, or elsewhere on said rivers, shall be established or modified as therein provided.

(July 25, 1912, ch. 253, §1, 37 Stat. 206.)

Codification

Section is from part of section 1 of act July 25, 1912, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1912”.

§406. Penalty for wrongful construction of bridges, piers, etc.; removal of structures

Every person and every corporation that shall violate any of the provisions of sections 401, 403, and 404 of this title or any rule or regulation made by the Secretary of the Army in pursuance of the provisions of section 404 of this title shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $2,500 nor less than $500, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) not exceeding one year, or by both such punishments, in the discretion of the court. And further, the removal of any structures or parts of structures erected in violation of the provisions of the said sections may be enforced by the injunction of any district court exercising jurisdiction in any district in which such structures may exist, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §12, 30 Stat. 1151; Feb. 20, 1900, ch. 23, §2, 31 Stat. 32; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

Amendments

1911—Act Mar. 3, 1911, transferred to the District Courts the enforcement powers formerly lodged in the Circuit Courts.

1900—Act Feb. 20, 1900, substituted “section eleven” for “section fourteen” where first appearing, which for codification purposes, was translated as “section 404 of this title”.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§407. Deposit of refuse in navigable waters generally

It shall not be lawful to throw, discharge, or deposit, or cause, suffer, or procure to be thrown, discharged, or deposited either from or out of any ship, barge, or other floating craft of any kind, or from the shore, wharf, manufacturing establishment, or mill of any kind, any refuse matter of any kind or description whatever other than that flowing from streets and sewers and passing therefrom in a liquid state, into any navigable water of the United States, or into any tributary of any navigable water from which the same shall float or be washed into such navigable water; and it shall not be lawful to deposit, or cause, suffer, or procure to be deposited material of any kind in any place on the bank of any navigable water, or on the bank of any tributary of any navigable water, where the same shall be liable to be washed into such navigable water, either by ordinary or high tides, or by storms or floods, or otherwise, whereby navigation shall or may be impeded or obstructed: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall extend to, apply to, or prohibit the operations in connection with the improvement of navigable waters or construction of public works, considered necessary and proper by the United States officers supervising such improvement or public work: And provided further, That the Secretary of the Army, whenever in the judgment of the Chief of Engineers anchorage and navigation will not be injured thereby, may permit the deposit of any material above mentioned in navigable waters, within limits to be defined and under conditions to be prescribed by him, provided application is made to him prior to depositing such material; and whenever any permit is so granted the conditions thereof shall be strictly complied with, and any violation thereof shall be unlawful.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §13, 30 Stat. 1152; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

Prior Provisions

This section and sections 408, 411, and 412 of this title, superseded act Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §§6, 7, 8, 28 Stat. 363, which prohibited the depositing of refuse in navigable waters for the improvement of which money had been appropriated, and the injury to sea walls and other works built by the Government, and prescribed penalties for violations, including penalties against masters, etc., and vessels.

Section also superseded act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §6, 26 Stat. 453, which prohibited obstructing navigation by deposits of refuse, etc., in navigable waters.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Short Title

This section is popularly known as the “Refuse Act of 1899”.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

Termination of Discharge Permit Program

No permits for discharges into navigable waters to be issued under this section after Oct. 18, 1972, and the discharge permit program to be carried out instead under section 1342 of this title, with applications under this section pending on Oct. 18, 1972, to be deemed applications for permits under section 1342, see section 1342 of this title.

Executive Order No. 11574

Ex. Ord. No. 11574, Dec. 23, 1970, 35 F.R. 19627, which provided for administration of a permit program to regulate discharge of pollutants and other refuse matter into navigable waters or their tributaries and placement of such matter on their banks, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.

§407a. Deposit of debris of mines and stamp works

In places where harbor-lines have not been established, and where deposits of debris of mines or stamp works can be made without injury to navigation, within lines to be established by the Secretary of the Army, said officer may, and is authorized to, cause such lines to be established; and within such lines such deposits may be made, under regulations to be from time to time prescribed by him.

(Aug. 5, 1886, ch. 929, §2, 24 Stat. 329; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§408. Taking possession of, use of, or injury to harbor or river improvements

It shall not be lawful for any person or persons to take possession of or make use of for any purpose, or build upon, alter, deface, destroy, move, injure, obstruct by fastening vessels thereto or otherwise, or in any manner whatever impair the usefulness of any sea wall, bulkhead, jetty, dike, levee, wharf, pier, or other work built by the United States, or any piece of plant, floating or otherwise, used in the construction of such work under the control of the United States, in whole or in part, for the preservation and improvement of any of its navigable waters or to prevent floods, or as boundary marks, tide gauges, surveying stations, buoys, or other established marks, nor remove for ballast or other purposes any stone or other material composing such works: Provided, That the Secretary of the Army may, on the recommendation of the Chief of Engineers, grant permission for the temporary occupation or use of any of the aforementioned public works when in his judgment such occupation or use will not be injurious to the public interest: Provided further, That the Secretary may, on the recommendation of the Chief of Engineers, grant permission for the alteration or permanent occupation or use of any of the aforementioned public works when in the judgment of the Secretary such occupation or use will not be injurious to the public interest and will not impair the usefulness of such work.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §14, 30 Stat. 1152; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 99–88, title I, §100, Aug. 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 315.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

Prior Provisions

Section superseded act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §9, 26 Stat. 426, which prohibited persons taking possession of or using or injuring government works in navigable waters.

Act Aug. 14, 1876, ch. 267, §3, 19 Stat. 139, penalizing persons injuring any pier breakwater, or other work of the United States for the improvement of rivers or harbors or navigation, was probably omitted from the Code as superseded by this section.

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–88 inserted further proviso empowering Secretary, on recommendation of Chief of Engineers, to grant permission for alteration or permanent occupation or use of any of public works mentioned in this section when in judgment of Secretary such occupation or use will not be injurious to public interest and will not impair usefulness of such work.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§409. Obstruction of navigable waters by vessels; floating timber; marking and removal of sunken vessels

It shall not be lawful to tie up or anchor vessels or other craft in navigable channels in such a manner as to prevent or obstruct the passage of other vessels or craft; or to sink, or permit or cause to be sunk, vessels or other craft in navigable channels; or to float loose timber and logs, or to float what is known as “sack rafts of timber and logs” in streams or channels actually navigated by steamboats in such manner as to obstruct, impede, or endanger navigation. And whenever a vessel, raft or other craft is wrecked and sunk in a navigable channel, it shall be the duty of the owner, lessee, or operator of such sunken craft to immediately mark it with a buoy or beacon during the day and, unless otherwise granted a waiver by the Commandant of the Coast Guard, a light at night, and to maintain such marks until the sunken craft is removed or abandoned, and the neglect or failure of the said owner, lessee, or operator so to do shall be unlawful; and it shall be the duty of the owner, lessee, or operator of such sunken craft to commence the immediate removal of the same, and prosecute such removal diligently, and failure to do so shall be considered as an abandonment of such craft, and subject the same to removal by the United States as provided for in sections 411 to 416, 418, and 502 of this title. The Commandant of the Coast Guard may waive the requirement to mark a wrecked vessel, raft, or other craft with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and granting such a waiver would not create an undue hazard to navigation.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §15, 30 Stat. 1152; Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §939(a), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4199; Pub. L. 108–293, title III, §301, Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1041.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–293 substituted “day and, unless otherwise granted a waiver by the Commandant of the Coast Guard, a light” for “day and a lighted lantern” in second sentence and inserted at end “The Commandant of the Coast Guard may waive the requirement to mark a wrecked vessel, raft, or other craft with a light at night if the Commandant determines that placing a light would be impractical and granting such a waiver would not create an undue hazard to navigation.”

1986—Pub. L. 99–662 substituted “or to sink” for “or to voluntarily or carelessly sink”, struck out “accidentally or otherwise,” after “navigable channel,”, and inserted “, lessee, or operator” after “owner” in three places.

§410. Exception as to floating loose timber, sack rafts, etc.; violation of regulations; penalty

The prohibition contained in section 409 of this title against floating loose timber and logs, or sack rafts, so called, of timber and logs in streams or channels actually navigated by steamboats, shall not apply to any navigable river or waterway of the United States or any part thereof whereon the floating of loose timber and logs and sack rafts of timber and logs is the principal method of navigation. But such method of navigation on such river or waterway or part thereof shall be subject to the rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army as provided in this section.

The Secretary of the Army shall have power, and he is authorized and directed to prescribe rules and regulations, which he may at any time modify, to govern and regulate the floating of loose timber and logs, and sack rafts, (so called) of timber and logs and other methods of navigation on the streams and waterways, or any thereof, of the character, as to navigation, heretofore in this section described. The said rules and regulations shall be so framed as to equitably adjust conflicting interests between the different methods or forms of navigation; and the said rules and regulations shall be published at least once in such newspaper or newspapers of general circulation as in the opinion of the Secretary of the Army shall be best adapted to give notice of said rules and regulations to persons affected thereby and locally interested therein. And all modifications of said rules and regulations shall be similarly published. And such rules and regulations when so prescribed and published as to any such stream or waterway shall have the force of law, and any violation thereof shall be a misdemeanor, and every person convicted of such violation shall be punished by a fine of not exceeding $2,500 nor less than $500, or by imprisonment (in case of a natural person) for not less than thirty days nor more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court: Provided, That the proper action to enforce the provisions of this section may be commenced before any magistrate judge, judge, or court of the United States, and such magistrate judge, judge, or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in the case of crimes or misdemeanors committed against the United States.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section at any time is reserved.

(May 9, 1900, ch. 387, §§1–3, 31 Stat. 172; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

“Magistrate judge” substituted in text for “magistrate” pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, “magistrate” was substituted for “commissioner” pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§411. Penalty for wrongful deposit of refuse; use of or injury to harbor improvements, and obstruction of navigable waters generally

Every person and every corporation that shall violate, or that shall knowingly aid, abet, authorize, or instigate a violation of the provisions of sections 407, 408, 409, 414, and 415 of this title shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of up to $25,000 per day, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) for not less than thirty days nor more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court, one-half of said fine to be paid to the person or persons giving information which shall lead to conviction.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §16, 30 Stat. 1153; Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §218(a), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3696.)

Codification

Section is from part of section 16 of act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”. The balance of such section, relating to liability of masters, pilots, and so forth and of vessels engaged in violations, is classified to section 412 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–303 substituted “407, 408, 409, 414, and 415” for “407, 408, and 409” and “of up to $25,000 per day” for “not exceeding twenty-five hundred dollars nor less than five hundred dollars”.

§412. Liability of masters, pilots, etc., and of vessels engaged in violations

Any and every master, pilot, and engineer, or person or persons acting in such capacity, respectively, on board of any boat or vessel who shall knowingly engage in towing any scow, boat, or vessel loaded with any material specified in section 407 of this title to any point or place of deposit or discharge in any harbor or navigable water, elsewhere than within the limits defined and permitted by the Secretary of the Army, or who shall willfully injure or destroy any work of the United States contemplated in section 408 of this title, or who shall willfully obstruct the channel of any waterway in the manner contemplated in section 409 of this title, shall be deemed guilty of a violation of this Act, and shall upon conviction be punished as provided in section 411 of this title, and shall also have his license revoked or suspended for a term to be fixed by the judge before whom tried and convicted. And any boat, vessel, scow, raft, or other craft used or employed in violating any of the provisions of sections 407, 408, 409, 414, and 415 of this title shall be liable for the pecuniary penalties specified in section 411 of this title, and in addition thereto for the amount of the damages done by said boat, vessel, scow, raft, or other craft, which latter sum shall be placed to the credit of the appropriation for the improvement of the harbor or waterway in which the damage occurred, and said boat, vessel, scow, raft, or other craft may be proceeded against summarily by way of libel in any district court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §16, 30 Stat. 1153; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §218(a)(1), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3696.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, 30 Stat. 1148, as amended, popularly known as the Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899, which enacted sections 401, 403, 404, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411 to 416, 418, 502, 549, and 687 of this title, and amended section 686 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section is from part of section 16 of act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”. The balance of such section, relating to penalties for the wrongful deposit of refuse, is classified to section 411 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–303 substituted “407, 408, 409, 414, and 415 of this title” for “407, 408, and 409 of this title”.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§413. Duty of United States attorneys and other Federal officers in enforcement of provisions; arrest of offenders

The Department of Justice shall conduct the legal proceedings necessary to enforce the provisions of sections 401, 403, 404, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411, and 412 of this title; and it shall be the duty of United States attorneys to vigorously prosecute all offenders against the same whenever requested to do so by the Secretary of the Army or by any of the officials hereinafter designated, and it shall furthermore be the duty of said United States attorneys to report to the Attorney General of the United States the action taken by him against offenders so reported, and a transcript of such reports shall be transmitted to the Secretary of the Army by the Attorney General; and for the better enforcement of the said provisions and to facilitate the detection and bringing to punishment of such offenders, the officers and agents of the United States in charge of river and harbor improvements, and the assistant engineers and inspectors employed under them by authority of the Secretary of the Army, and the United States collectors of customs and other revenue officers shall have power and authority to swear out process, and to arrest and take into custody, with or without process, any person or persons who may commit any of the acts or offenses prohibited by the said sections, or who may violate any of the provisions of the same: Provided, That no person shall be arrested without process for any offense not committed in the presence of some one of the aforesaid officials: And provided further, That whenever any arrest is made under such sections, the person so arrested shall be brought forthwith before a magistrate judge, judge, or court of the United States for examination of the offenses alleged against him; and such magistrate judge, judge, or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in case of crimes against the United States.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §17, 30 Stat. 1153; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

Prior Provisions

Act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §11, 26 Stat. 455, was probably omitted from the Code as superseded by this section, or as rendered obsolete by act March 3, 1899, different sections of which superseded provisions of the act of 1890, the enforcement of which was provided for by section 11. It read as follows: “It shall be the duty of officers and agents having the supervision, on the part of the United States, of the works in progress for the preservation and improvement of said navigable waters, and, in their absence, of the United States collectors of customs and other revenue officers to enforce the provisions of this act by giving information to the district attorney of the United States for the district in which any violation of any provision of this act shall have been committed: Provided, That the provisions of this act shall not apply to Torch Lake, Houghton County, Michigan.”

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948, substituted “United States attorneys” for “district attorneys of the United States” and “district attorneys”. See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes set out thereunder.

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

“Magistrate judge” substituted in text for “magistrate” pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, “magistrate” was substituted for “commissioner” pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate were ordered abolished with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of the offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

§414. Removal by Secretary of the Army of sunken water craft generally; liability of owner, lessee, or operator

(a) Whenever the navigation of any river, lake, harbor, sound, bay, canal, or other navigable waters of the United States shall be obstructed or endangered by any sunken vessel, boat, water craft, raft, or other similar obstruction, and such obstruction has existed for a longer period than thirty days, or whenever the abandonment of such obstruction can be legally established in a less space of time, the sunken vessel, boat, water craft, raft, or other obstruction shall be subject to be broken up, removed, sold, or otherwise disposed of by the Secretary of the Army at his discretion, without liability for any damage to the owners of the same: Provided, That in his discretion, the Secretary of the Army may cause reasonable notice of such obstruction of not less than thirty days, unless the legal abandonment of the obstruction can be established in a less time, to be given by publication, addressed “To whom it may concern,” in a newspaper published nearest to the locality of the obstruction, requiring the removal thereof: And provided also, That the Secretary of the Army may, in his discretion, at or after the time of giving such notice, cause sealed proposals to be solicited by public advertisement, giving reasonable notice of not less than ten days, for the removal of such obstruction as soon as possible after the expiration of the above specified thirty days’ notice, in case it has not in the meantime been so removed, these proposals and contracts, at his discretion, to be conditioned that such vessel, boat, water craft, raft, or other obstruction, and all cargo and property contained therein, shall become the property of the contractor, and the contract shall be awarded to the bidder making the proposition most advantageous to the United States: Provided, That such bidder shall give satisfactory security to execute the work: Provided further, That any money received from the sale of any such wreck, or from any contractor for the removal of wrecks, under this paragraph shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States.

(b) The owner, lessee, or operator of such vessel, boat, watercraft, raft, or other obstruction as described in this section shall be liable to the United States for the cost of removal or destruction and disposal as described which exceeds the costs recovered under subsection (a) of this section. Any amount recovered from the owner, lessee, or operator of such vessel pursuant to this subsection to recover costs in excess of the proceeds from the sale or disposition of such vessel shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury of the United States.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §19, 30 Stat. 1154; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §939(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4199.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

Prior Provisions

Section superseded act June 14, 1880, ch. 211, §4, 21 Stat. 197, and act Aug. 2, 1882, ch. 375, 22 Stat. 208, which required the Secretary of War to give notice to the persons interested in wrecks obstructing navigation of the purpose of the Secretary to remove the same unless such parties should do so, and authorized the Secretary to remove the same on the failure of the parties interested to do so, and to sell the same to the highest bidder, and also authorized the Secretary to dispose of any sunken vessel or cargo before removal.

Section also superseded act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §8, 26 Stat. 454, which authorized the Secretary of War to remove wrecks remaining for more than two months.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–662 designated existing provision as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

For transfer of certain functions insofar as they pertain to Air Force, and to extent that they were not previously transferred to Secretary of the Air Force and Department of the Air Force from Secretary of the Army and Department of the Army, see Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 40 [App. A(57)], July 22, 1949.

§415. Summary removal of water craft obstructing navigation; liability of owner, lessee, or operator

(a) Removal authority

Under emergency, in the case of any vessel, boat, water craft, or raft, or other similar obstruction, sinking of grounding, or being unnecessarily delayed in any Government canal or lock, or in any navigable waters mentioned in section 414 of this title, in such manner as to stop, seriously interfere with, or specially endanger navigation, in the opinion of the Secretary of the Army, or any agent of the United States to whom the Secretary may delegate proper authority, the Secretary of the Army or any such agent shall have the right to take immediate possession of such boat, vessel, or other water craft, or raft, so far as to remove or to destroy it and to clear immediately the canal, lock, or navigable waters aforesaid of the obstruction thereby caused, using his best judgment to prevent any unnecessary injury; and no one shall interfere with or prevent such removal or destruction: Provided, That the officer or agent charged with the removal or destruction of an obstruction under this section may in his discretion give notice in writing to the owners of any such obstruction requiring them to remove it: And provided further, That the actual expense, including administrative expenses, of removing any such obstruction as aforesaid shall be a charge against such craft and cargo; and if the owners thereof fail or refuse to reimburse the United States for such expense within thirty days after notification, then the officer or agent aforesaid may sell the craft or cargo, or any part thereof that may not have been destroyed in removal, and the proceeds of such sale shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States.

(b) Removal requirement

Not later than 24 hours after the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating issues an order to stop or delay navigation in any navigable waters of the United States because of conditions related to the sinking or grounding of a vessel, the owner or operator of the vessel, with the approval of the Secretary of the Army, shall begin removal of the vessel using the most expeditious removal method available or, if appropriate, secure the vessel pending removal to allow navigation to resume. If the owner or operator fails to begin removal or to secure the vessel pending removal or fails to complete removal on an expedited basis, the Secretary of the Army shall remove or destroy the vessel using the summary removal procedures under subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Liability of owner, lessee, or operator

The owner, lessee, or operator of such vessel, boat, watercraft, raft, or other obstruction as described in this section shall be liable to the United States for the actual cost, including administrative costs, of removal or destruction and disposal as described which exceeds the costs recovered under subsection (a) of this section. Any amount recovered from the owner, lessee, or operator of such vessel pursuant to this subsection to recover costs in excess of the proceeds from the sale or disposition of such vessel shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury of the United States.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §20, 30 Stat. 1154; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §939(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4199; Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §218(b), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3696.)

Codification

Section is from part of section 20 of act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”. Another part of that section, appropriating money necessary to execute its provisions, is classified to section 416 of this title.

Section 20 of act Mar. 3, 1899, also contained a repealing clause with a proviso saving pending actions and rights of actions. It was amended by act Feb. 20, 1900, ch. 23, §3, 31 Stat. 32, and again amended by act June 13, 1902, ch. 1079, §12, 32 Stat. 375, by adding another proviso which is classified to section 418 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–303, §218(b)(1), substituted “actual expense, including administrative expenses, of removing” for “expense of removing”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–303, §218(b)(4), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–303, §218(b)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c) and substituted “actual cost, including administrative costs, of removal” for “cost of removal”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–662 designated existing provision as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

For transfer of certain functions insofar as they pertain to Air Force, and to extent that they were not previously transferred to Secretary of the Air Force and Department of the Air Force from Secretary of the Army and Department of the Army, see Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 40 [App. A(57)], July 22, 1949.

§416. Appropriations for removal of sunken water craft

Such sum of money as may be necessary to execute sections 414 and 415 of this title is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be paid out on the requisition of the Secretary of the Army.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §20(a), formerly §20, 30 Stat. 1155; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; renumbered §20(a), Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §939(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4199.)

Codification

Section is from part of section 20(a) of act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”. See Codification and Amendment notes set out under section 415 of this title.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Appropriations

Section 2 of act June 26, 1934, ch. 756, 48 Stat. 1225, which was classified to section 725a of former Title 31, Money and Finance, repealed the permanent appropriation under the title “Removing sunken vessels or craft obstructing or endangering navigation (8x888)” effective July 1, 1935, and provided that such portions of any acts as make permanent appropriations to be expended under such account are amended so as to authorize, in lieu thereof, annual appropriations from the general fund of the Treasury in identical terms and in such amounts as now provided by the laws providing such permanent appropriations.

§417. Expenses of investigations by Department of the Army

Expenses incurred by the Engineer Department of the Department of the Army in all investigations, inspections, hearings, reports, service of notice, or other action incidental to examination of plans or sites of bridges or other structures built or proposed to be built in or over navigable waters, or to examinations into alleged violations of laws for the protection and preservation of navigable waters, or to the establishment or marking of harbor lines, shall be payable from any funds which may be available for the improvement, maintenance, operation, or care of the waterways or harbors affected, or if such funds are not available in sums judged by the Chief of Engineers to be adequate, then from any funds available for examinations, surveys, and contingencies of rivers and harbors.

(Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1482, §6, 33 Stat. 1148; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§418. Provisions for protection of New York Harbor unaffected

Nothing contained in sections 401, 403, 404, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411 to 416, and 502 of this title shall be construed as repealing, modifying, or in any manner affecting the provisions of subchapter III of this chapter.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §20(a), formerly §20, 30 Stat. 1154; Feb. 20, 1900, ch. 23, §3, 31 Stat. 32; June 13, 1902, ch. 1079, §12, 32 Stat. 375; renumbered §20(a), Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §939(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4199.)

References in Text

Subchapter III (§441 et seq.) of this chapter, referred to in text, was in the original a reference to the Act of June 29, 1888, as amended by section 3 of the river and harbor Act of August 18, 1894.

Codification

Section is from part of section 20(a) of act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”. See Codification and Amendment notes set out under section 415 of this title.

§419. Regulation by Secretary governing transportation and dumping of dredgings, refuse, etc., into navigable waters; oyster lands; appropriations

The Secretary of the Army is authorized and empowered to prescribe regulations to govern the transportation and dumping into any navigable water, or waters adjacent thereto, of dredgings, earth, garbage, and other refuse materials of every kind or description, whenever in his judgment such regulations are required in the interest of navigation. Such regulations shall be posted in conspicuous and appropriate places for the information of the public; and every person or corporation which shall violate the said regulations, or any of them, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be subject to the penalties prescribed in sections 411 and 412 of this title, for violation of the provisions of section 407 of this title: Provided, That any regulations made in pursuance hereof may be enforced as provided in section 413 of this title, the provisions whereof are made applicable to the said regulations: Provided further, That this section shall not apply to any waters within the jurisdictional boundaries of any State which are now or may hereafter be used for the cultivation of oysters under the laws of such State, except navigable channels which have been or may hereafter be improved by the United States, or to be designated as navigable channels by competent authority, and in making such improvements of channels, the material dredged shall not be deposited upon any ground in use in accordance with the laws of such State for the cultivation of oysters, except in compliance with said laws: And provided further, That any expense necessary in executing this section may be paid from funds available for the improvement of the harbor or waterway, for which regulations may be prescribed, and in case no such funds are available the said expense may be paid from appropriations made by Congress for examinations, surveys, and contingencies of rivers and harbors.

(Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1482, §4, 33 Stat. 1147; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§419a. Management practices to extend capacity and useful life of dredged material disposal areas

The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, shall utilize and encourage the utilization of such management practices as he determines appropriate to extend the capacity and useful life of dredged material disposal areas such that the need for new dredged material disposal areas is kept to a minimum. Management practices authorized by this section shall include, but not be limited to, the construction of dikes, consolidation and dewatering of dredged material, and construction of drainage and outflow facilities.

(Pub. L. 94–587, §148, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2931.)

§420. Piers and cribs on Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers

The owners of sawmills on the Mississippi River and the Saint Croix River in the States of Wisconsin and Minnesota are authorized and empowered under the direction of the Secretary of the Army, to construct piers or cribs in front of their mill property on the banks of the river, for the protection of their mills and rafts against damage by floods and ice: Provided, however, That the piers or cribs so constructed shall not interfere with or obstruct the navigation of the river. And in case any pier or crib constructed under authority of this section shall at any time, and for any cause, be found to obstruct the navigation of the river, the Government expressly reserves the right to remove or direct the removal of it, at the cost and expense of the owners thereof.

(R.S. §5254; May 1, 1882, ch. 112, 22 Stat. 52; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

R.S. §5254 derived from act Mar. 3, 1873, ch. 278, 17 Stat. 606.

Amendments

1882—Act May 1, 1882, inserted reference to Saint Croix River in the States of Wisconsin and Minnesota.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§421. Deposit of refuse, etc., in Lake Michigan near Chicago

It shall not be lawful to throw, discharge, dump, or deposit, or cause, suffer, or procure, to be thrown, discharged, dumped, or deposited, any refuse matter of any kind or description whatever other than that flowing from streets and sewers and passing therefrom in a liquid state into Lake Michigan, at any point opposite or in front of the county of Cook, in the State of Illinois, or the county of Lake in the State of Indiana, within eight miles from the shore of said lake, unless said material shall be placed inside of a breakwater so arranged as not to permit the escape of such refuse material into the body of the lake and cause contamination thereof; and no officer of the Government shall dump or cause or authorize to be dumped any material contrary to the provisions of this section: Provided, however, That the provisions of this section shall not apply to work in connection with the construction, repair, and protection of breakwaters and other structures built in aid of navigation, or for the purpose of obtaining water supply. Any person violating any provision of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be fined for each offense not exceeding $1,000.

(June 23, 1910, ch. 359, 36 Stat. 593.)

Codification

Section is from act June 23, 1910, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Act of 1910”.

§422. Modification and extension of harbor lines at Chicago

The Secretary of the Army is authorized, in his discretion, to modify and extend harbor lines in front of the city of Chicago in such manner as to permit park extension work which may be desired by the municipal authorities, including the changing and widening of the southern entrance to the Chicago Harbor.

(Aug. 26, 1912, ch. 408, §5, 37 Stat. 626; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section is from act Aug. 26, 1912, popularly known as the “Deficiency Appropriation Act for 1912”.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§423. Establishment of pierhead and bulkhead lines in Wilmington Harbor, California

The Secretary of the Army is authorized to fix and establish pierhead and bulkhead lines, either or both, in the inner harbor of San Pedro, otherwise known as Wilmington Harbor, California, beyond which no piers, wharves, bulkheads, or other works shall be extended or deposits made except under such regulations as shall be prescribed from time to time by the Secretary of the Army.

(Mar. 26, 1908, No. 14, 35 Stat. 569; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§424. Establishment of pierhead or bulkhead lines in Newport Harbor, California

The Secretary of the Army is authorized and directed to fix and establish pierhead and bulkhead lines, either or both, at Newport Harbor, California, in accordance with plan dated United States Engineer Office, Los Angeles, California, March 25, 1913, and entitled “Newport Bay, California”, showing harbor lines, beyond which no piers, wharfs, bulkheads, or other works shall be extended or deposit made, except under such regulations as shall be prescribed from time to time by the Secretary of the Army.

(July 27, 1916, ch. 260, §3, 39 Stat. 411; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section is from act July 27, 1916, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1916”.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§424a. Modification of harbor lines in Newport Harbor, California

The Secretary of the Army is authorized to modify from time to time, the harbor lines at Newport Harbor, California, established in pursuance of section 424 of this title: Provided, That in his opinion such modification will not injuriously affect the interests of navigation.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 467, §10, 43 Stat. 1197; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§425. Omitted

Codification

Section, act June 7, 1924, ch. 316, §9, 43 Stat. 606, directed Secretary of War to investigate depositing of polluting substances into navigable streams and report the results to Congress not later than two years from June 7, 1924.

§426. Investigations concerning erosion of shores of coastal and lake waters

The Chief of Engineers of the United States Army, under the direction of the Secretary of the Army, is authorized and directed to cause investigations and studies to be made in cooperation with the appropriate agencies of the various States on the Atlantic, Pacific, and gulf coasts and on the Great Lakes, and of the States of Alaska and Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States, with a view to devising effective means of preventing erosion of the shores of coastal and lake waters by waves and currents; and any expenses incident and necessary thereto may be paid from funds appropriated for General Investigations, Civil Functions, Department of the Army: Provided, That the Department of the Army may release to the appropriate cooperating agencies information obtained by these investigations and studies prior to the formal transmission of reports to Congress: Provided further, That no money shall be expended under authority of this section in any State which does not provide for cooperation with the agents of the United States and contribute to the project such funds or services as the Secretary of the Army may deem appropriate and require; that there shall be organized under the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, a Board of seven members, of whom four shall be officers of the Corps of Engineers and three shall be civilian engineers selected by the Chief of Engineers with regard to their special fitness in the field of beach erosion and shore protection. The Board will furnish such technical assistance as may be directed by the Chief of Engineers in the conduct of such studies as may be undertaken and will review the reports of the investigations made. In the consideration of such studies as may be referred to the Board by the Chief of Engineers, the Board shall, when it considers it necessary and with the sanction of the Chief of Engineers, make, as a board or through its members, personal examination of localities under investigation: Provided further, That the civilian members of the Board may be paid at rates not to exceed $100 a day for each day of attendance at Board meetings, not to exceed thirty days per annum, in addition to the traveling and other necessary expenses connected with their duties on the Board in accordance with the provisions of section 5703 of title 5.

(July 3, 1930, ch. 847, §2, 46 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 86–645, title I, §103, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 484.)

References in Text

The Board, referred to in text, means the Beach Erosion Board, which was abolished by Pub. L. 88–172, §1, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 304. See note set out below.

Codification

“Section 5703 of title 5” substituted in text for “section 5 of the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946, as amended (5 U.S.C. 73b–2)”, on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1960—Pub. L. 86–645, among other changes, substituted provisions requiring the three civilian members of the Board to be civilian engineers selected by the Chief of Engineers with regard to their special fitness in the field of beach erosion and shore protection for provisions which required the civilian members to be selected with regard to their special fitness from among the State agencies cooperating with the Department of the Army, and provisions authorizing payment of civilian members at rates not to exceed $100 a day, for not more than 30 days per annum, for provisions which required the States to pay the salaries of the civilian members.

Abolition of Beach Erosion Board

Pub. L. 88–172, §1, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 304, provided in part: “That the Board established by section 2 of the River and Harbor Act approved July 3, 1930, as amended (33 U.S.C. 426), referred to as the Beach Erosion Board, is hereby abolished.” For the transfer of functions of the Beach Erosion Board to the Coastal Engineering Research Center and the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, see sections 426–1 and 426–3 of this title. For termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors 180 days after Oct. 31, 1992, and reassignment of duties and responsibilities by Secretary of Army, see section 223 of Pub. L. 102–580, set out as a note under section 541 of this title.

Great Lakes Levels Study

Pub. L. 99–662, title VII, §706, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4158, authorized Secretary of the Army, in cooperation with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency, International Joint Commission, and other appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies and the private sector, to conduct a study of shoreline protection and beach erosion control policy and related projects of the Secretary, in view of the current situation and long-term expected increases in levels of the Great Lakes and directed Secretary, within three years after Nov. 17, 1986, to transmit the study, together with supporting documentation and recommendations to Congress.

Study of Rising Oceans

Pub. L. 99–662, title VII, §731, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4165, authorized Secretary of the Army, in cooperation with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and other appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies and the private sector, to conduct a study of shoreline protection and beach erosion control policy and related projects of the Secretary, in view of the prospect for long-term increases in levels of the ocean and directed Secretary, within three years after Nov. 17, 1986, to transmit the study, together with supporting documentation and recommendations to Congress.

Application of Existing Law to Surveys Relating to Shore Protection

Pub. L. 87–874, §103(b), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1179, provided that: “All provisions of existing law relating to surveys of rivers and harbors shall apply to surveys relating to shore protection and section 2 of the River and Harbor Act approved July 3, 1930, as amended (33 U.S.C. 426), is modified to the extent inconsistent herewith.”

§426–1. Coastal Engineering Research Center; establishment; powers and functions

There shall be established under the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, a Coastal Engineering Research Center which, except as hereinafter provided in section 426–3 of this title, shall be vested with all the functions of the Beach Erosion Board, including the authority to make general investigations as provided in section 426a of this title, and such additional functions as the Chief of Engineers may assign.

(Pub. L. 88–172, §1, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 304.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 1 of Pub. L. 88–172. The remainder of said section 1, abolishing the Beach Erosion Board, is classified as a note under section 426 of this title.

Abolition of Beach Erosion Board

Section 1 of Pub. L. 88–172 abolished Beach Erosion Board, and is set out as a note under section 426 of this title. For the transfer of certain functions of said Board to Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, see section 426–3 of this title. For termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors 180 days after Oct. 31, 1992, and reassignment of duties and responsibilities by Secretary of Army, see section 223 of Pub. L. 102–580, set out as a note under section 541 of this title.

§426–2. Board on Coastal Engineering Research

The functions of the Coastal Engineering Research Center established by section 426–1 of this title, shall be conducted with the guidance and advice of a Board on Coastal Engineering Research, constituted by the Chief of Engineers in the same manner as the present Beach Erosion Board.

(Pub. L. 88–172, §2, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 305.)

Compensation of Board

Pub. L. 91–611, title I, §105, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1819, provided that: “The civilian members of the Board on Coastal Engineering Research authorized by the Act of November 7, 1963 (33 U.S.C. 426–2) may be paid at rates not to exceed the daily equivalent of the rate for GS–18 for each day of attendance at Board meetings, not to exceed thirty days per year, in addition to the traveling and other necessary expenses connected with their duties on the Board in accordance with the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 5703(b), (d), and 5707.”

[References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.]

Abolition of Beach Erosion Board

Section 1 of Pub. L. 88–172 abolished Beach Erosion Board, and is set out as a note under section 426 of this title. For transfer of functions of Board to Coastal Engineering Research Center and Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, see sections 426–1 and 426–3 of this title. For termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors 180 days after Oct. 31, 1992, and reassignment of duties and responsibilities by Secretary of Army, see section 223 of Pub. L. 102–580, set out as a note under section 541 of this title.

§426–3. Transfer of functions of Beach Erosion Board

All functions of the Beach Erosion Board pertaining to review of reports of investigations made concerning erosion of the shores of coastal and lake waters, and the protection of such shores, are hereby transferred to the Board established by section 541 of this title, referred to as the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors.

(Pub. L. 88–172, §3, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 305.)

Termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors and Reassignment of Duties and Responsibilities

For termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors 180 days after Oct. 31, 1992, and reassignment of duties and responsibilities by Secretary of Army, see section 223 of Pub. L. 102–580, set out as a note under section 541 of this title.

Abolition of Beach Erosion Board

Section 1 of Pub. L. 88–172 abolished Beach Erosion Board, and is set out as a note under section 426 of this title. For transfer of certain functions of Board to Coastal Engineering Research Center, see section 426–1 of this title.

§426a. Additional investigations concerning erosion of shores of coastal and lake waters; payment of costs; “shores” defined

In addition to participating in cooperative investigations and studies with agencies of the various States as authorized in section 426 of this title, it shall be the duty of the Chief of Engineers, through the Coastal Engineering Research Center, to make general investigations with a view to preventing erosion of the shores of the United States by waves and currents and determining the most suitable methods for the protection, restoration, and development of beaches; and to publish from time to time such useful data and information concerning the erosion and protection of beaches and shore lines as the Center may deem to be of value to the people of the United States. The cost of the general investigations authorized by sections 426a to 426d of this title shall be borne wholly by the United States. As used in said sections, the word “shores” includes the shore lines of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and estuaries and bays directly connected therewith.

(July 31, 1945, ch. 334, §1, 59 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 88–172, §1, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 304.)

Codification

Coastal Engineering Research Center has been substituted for Beach Erosion Board pursuant to Pub. L. 88–172, §1, providing in part for the abolition of the Beach Erosion Board, which is set out as a note under section 426 of this title. For transfer of investigatory functions of the Beach Erosion Board to the Coastal Engineering Research Center, see section 426–1 of this title.

§426b. Applicability of existing laws; projects referred to Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors

All provisions of existing law relating to examinations and surveys and to works of improvement of rivers and harbors shall apply, insofar as practicable, to examinations and surveys and to works of improvement relating to shore protection; except that all projects having to do with shore protection shall be referred for consideration and recommendation to the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors.

(July 31, 1945, ch. 334, §2, 59 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 88–172, §1, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 304.)

Codification

Provision for the referral of projects having to do with shore protection for consideration and recommendation to the Beach Erosion Board have been omitted as obsolete in view of the abolition of the Beach Erosion Board and the transfer of its review function to the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors by Pub. L. 88–172, §1. See section 426–3 of this title.

Termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors and Reassignment of Duties and Responsibilities

For termination of Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors 180 days after Oct. 31, 1992, and reassignment of duties and responsibilities by Secretary of Army, see section 223 of Pub. L. 102–580, set out as a note under section 541 of this title.

§426c. Report by Coastal Engineering Research Center

The Coastal Engineering Research Center, in making its report on any cooperative investigation and studies under the provisions of section 426 of this title, relating to shore protection work shall, in addition to any other matters upon which it may be required to report, state its opinion as to (a) the advisability of adopting the project; (b) what public interest, if any, is involved in the proposed improvement; and (c) what share of the expense, if any, should be borne by the United States.

(July 31, 1945, ch. 334, §3, 59 Stat. 508; Pub. L. 88–172, §1, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 304.)

Codification

Coastal Engineering Research Center has been substituted for Beach Erosion Board pursuant to Pub. L. 88–172, §1, providing in part for the abolition of the Beach Erosion Board, which is set out as a note under section 426 of this title. For transfer of investigatory functions of the Beach Erosion Board to the Coastal Engineering Research Center see section 426–1 of this title.

§426d. Payment of expenses

Any expenses incident and necessary in the undertaking of the general investigations authorized by sections 426a to 426d of this title may be paid from funds appropriated prior to or after July 31, 1945, for examinations, surveys, and contingencies for rivers and harbors.

(July 31, 1945, ch. 334, §4, 59 Stat. 508.)

§426e. Federal aid in protection of shores

(a) Declaration of policy

With the purpose of preventing damage to the shores and beaches of the United States, its Territories and possessions and promoting and encouraging the healthful recreation of the people, it is declared to be the policy of the United States, subject to sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title, to promote shore protection projects and related research that encourage the protection, restoration, and enhancement of sandy beaches, including beach restoration and periodic beach nourishment, on a comprehensive and coordinated basis by the Federal Government, States, localities, and private enterprises. In carrying out this policy, preference shall be given to areas in which there has been a Federal investment of funds and areas with respect to which the need for prevention or mitigation of damage to shores and beaches is attributable to Federal navigation projects or other Federal activities.

(b) Federal contribution; maximum amount; exceptions

The Federal contribution in the case of any project referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall not exceed one-half of the cost of the project, and the remainder shall be paid by the State, municipality, or other political subdivision in which the project is located, except that (1) the costs allocated to the restoration and protection of Federal property shall be borne fully by the Federal Government, (2) Federal participation in the cost of a project for restoration and protection of State, county, and other publicly owned shore parks and conservation areas may be, in the discretion of the Chief of Engineers, not more than 70 per centum of the total cost exclusive of land costs, when such areas: Include a zone which excludes permanent human habitation; include but are not limited to recreational beaches; satisfy adequate criteria for conservation and development of the natural resources of the environment; extend landward a sufficient distance to include, where appropriate, protective dunes, bluffs, or other natural features which serve to protect the uplands from damage; and provide essentially full park facilities for appropriate public use, all of which shall meet with the approval of the Chief of Engineers, and (3) Federal participation in the cost of a project providing hurricane protection may be, in the discretion of the Secretary 1 not more than 70 per centum of the total cost exclusive of land costs.

(c) Periodic beach nourishment; “construction” defined

When in the opinion of the Chief of Engineers the most suitable and economical remedial measures would be provided by periodic beach nourishment, the term “construction” may be construed for the purposes of sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title to include the deposit of sand fill at suitable intervals of time to furnish sand supply to project shores for a length of time specified by the Chief of Engineers.

(d) Shores other than public

Shores other than public will be eligible for Federal assistance if there is benefit such as that arising from public use or from the protection of nearby public property or if the benefits to those shores are incidental to the project, and the Federal contribution to the project shall be adjusted in accordance with the degree of such benefits.

(e) Authorization of projects

(1) In general

No Federal contributions shall be made with respect to a project under sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title unless the plan therefor shall have been specifically adopted and authorized by Congress after investigation and study by the Coastal Engineering Research Center under the provisions of section 426 of this title as amended and supplemented, or, in the case of a small project under section 426g or 426h 2 of this title, unless the plan therefor has been approved by the Chief of Engineers.

(2) Studies

(A) In general

The Secretary shall—

(i) recommend to Congress studies concerning shore protection projects that meet the criteria established under sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title (including subparagraph (B)(iii)) and other applicable law;

(ii) conduct such studies as Congress requires under applicable laws; and

(iii) report the results of the studies to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

(B) Recommendations for shore protection projects

(i) In general

The Secretary shall recommend to Congress the authorization or reauthorization of shore protection projects based on the studies conducted under subparagraph (A).

(ii) Considerations

In making recommendations, the Secretary shall consider the economic and ecological benefits of the shore protection project.

(C) Coordination of projects

In conducting studies and making recommendations for a shore protection project under this paragraph, the Secretary shall—

(i) determine whether there is any other project being carried out by the Secretary or the head of another Federal agency that may be complementary to the shore protection project; and

(ii) if there is such a complementary project, describe the efforts that will be made to coordinate the projects.

(3) Shore protection projects

(A) In general

The Secretary shall construct, or cause to be constructed, any shore protection project authorized by Congress, or separable element of such a project, for which funds have been appropriated by Congress.

(B) Agreements

(i) Requirement

After authorization by Congress, and before commencement of construction, of a shore protection project or separable element, the Secretary shall enter into a written agreement with a non-Federal interest with respect to the project or separable element.

(ii) Terms

The agreement shall—

(I) specify the life of the project; and

(II) ensure that the Federal Government and the non-Federal interest will cooperate in carrying out the project or separable element.

(C) Coordination of projects

In constructing a shore protection project or separable element under this paragraph, the Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, coordinate the project or element with any complementary project identified under paragraph (2)(C).

(Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 960, §1, 60 Stat. 1056; July 28, 1956, ch. 768, 70 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 87–874, title I, §103(a)(1)–(3), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1178; Pub. L. 88–172, §1, Nov. 7, 1963, 77 Stat. 304; Pub. L. 91–611, title II, §208, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1829; Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(a), (b), (e)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3698, 3703.)

References in Text

Section 426h of this title, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 110–114, title II, §2038(b), Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1100.

Codification

Coastal Engineering Research Center, referred to in subsec. (e), has been substituted for Beach Erosion Board pursuant to Pub. L. 88–172, §1, providing in part for the abolition of the Beach Erosion Board and for transfer of functions of the Beach Erosion Board to the Coastal Engineering Research Center. See section 426–1 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–303, §227(a), inserted “and beaches” after “damage to the shores” and substituted “sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title, to promote shore protection projects and related research that encourage the protection, restoration, and enhancement of sandy beaches, including beach restoration and periodic beach nourishment, on a comprehensive and coordinated basis by the Federal Government, States, localities, and private enterprises. In carrying out this policy, preference shall be given to areas in which there has been a Federal investment of funds and areas with respect to which the need for prevention or mitigation of damage to shores and beaches is attributable to Federal navigation projects or other Federal activities.” for “the following provisions of sections 426e to 426h of this title to assist in the construction, but not the maintenance, of works for the restoration and protection against erosion, by waves and currents, of the shores of the United States, its Territories and possessions.”

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–303, §227(e)(2), substituted “Secretary” for “Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers,” and struck out second period at end.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–303, §227(b), (e)(2)(B), inserted subsec. heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted heading, realigned margin, inserted “or 426h” after “under section 426g”, and added pars. (2) and (3).

1970—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–611 provided for designation of existing provisions as cls. (1) and (2) by insertion of “(1)” after “except that” and substitution of “(2)” for “and, further, that” and added cl. (3).

1962—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–874, §103(a)(1), (2), increased maximum limit on amount of Federal contributions from one-third to one-half of project cost, provided that costs for restoration and protection of Federal property shall be borne fully by the Federal Government, and that costs for restoration and protection of State, county and other publicly owned shore parks and conservation areas may be borne by Federal Government up to not more than 70 per centum, exclusive of land costs, when such areas include a zone which excludes permanent human habitation, include recreational beaches, satisfy criteria for conservation and development of natural resources, extend landward enough to include natural features to protect uplands, and provide essentially full park facilities for public use, all of which meet with approval of Chief of Engineers.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 87–874, §103(a)(3), required approval of plans by Chief of Engineers in case of a small project under section 426g of this title.

1956—Act July 28, 1956, extended assistance to privately owned shores, to include shores of Territories and possessions, substituted “restoration” for “improvement”, defined “construction”, and struck out provisions which authorized Federal aid toward the repair and protection of seawalls constructed by political subdivisions to protect important public highways.

Beach Recreation

Pub. L. 106–541, title II, §220, Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2596, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 11, 2000], the Secretary shall develop and implement procedures to ensure that all of the benefits of a beach restoration project, including those benefits attributable to recreation, hurricane and storm damage reduction, and environmental protection and restoration, are displayed in reports for such projects.”

Shore Management Program

Pub. L. 106–53, title II, §213, Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 291, provided that:

“(a) Review.—The Secretary shall review the implementation of the Corps of Engineers shore management program, with particular attention to—

“(1) inconsistencies in implementation among the divisions and districts of the Corps of Engineers; and

“(2) complaints by or potential inequities regarding property owners in the Savannah District, including an accounting of the number and disposition of complaints in the Savannah District during the 5-year period preceding the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 1999].

“(b) Report.—As expeditiously as practicable, but not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 1999], the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate a report describing the results of the review under subsection (a).”

Report on Shores of the United States

Pub. L. 106–53, title II, §215(c), Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 293, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 1999], the Secretary shall report to Congress on the state of the shores of the United States.

“(2) Contents.—The report shall include—

“(A) a description of—

“(i) the extent of, and economic and environmental effects caused by, erosion and accretion along the shores of the United States; and

“(ii) the causes of such erosion and accretion;

“(B) a description of resources committed by Federal, State, and local governments to restore and renourish shores;

“(C) a description of the systematic movement of sand along the shores of the United States; and

“(D) recommendations regarding—

“(i) appropriate levels of Federal and non-Federal participation in shore protection; and

“(ii) use of a systems approach to sand management.

“(3) Use of specific location data.—In developing the report, the Secretary shall use data from specific locations on the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Great Lakes, and Gulf of Mexico.”

Report to Congress on Shoreline Protection Programs

Pub. L. 101–640, title III, §309, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4638, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990], the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the advisability of not participating in the planning, implementation, or maintenance of any beach stabilization or renourishment project involving Federal funds unless the State in which the proposed project will be located has established or committed to establish a beach front management program that includes—

“(1) restrictions on new development seaward of an erosion setback line (based on preproject beach size) of at least 30 times the annual erosion rate;

“(2) restrictions on construction of new structural stabilization projects, such as seawalls and groins, and their reconstruction if damaged by 50 percent or more;

“(3) provisions for the relocation of structures in erosion-prone areas;

“(4) provisions to assure public access to beaches stabilized or renourished with Federal funds after January 1, 1991; and

“(5) such other provisions as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation to prevent hazardous or environmentally damaging shoreline development.”

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

2 See References in Text note below.

§426e–1. Shore protection projects

(a) In general

In accordance with the Act of July 3, 1930 (33 U.S.C. 426) of this title, and notwithstanding administrative actions, it is the policy of the United States to promote beach nourishment for the purposes of flood damage reduction and hurricane and storm damage reduction and related research that encourage the protection, restoration, and enhancement of sandy beaches, including beach restoration and periodic beach renourishment for a period of 50 years, on a comprehensive and coordinated basis by the Federal Government, States, localities, and private enterprises.

(b) Preference

In carrying out the policy under subsection (a), preference shall be given to—

(1) areas in which there has been a Federal investment of funds for the purposes described in subsection (a); and

(2) areas with respect to which the need for prevention or mitigation of damage to shores and beaches is attributable to Federal navigation projects or other Federal activities.

(c) Applicability

The Secretary shall apply the policy under subsection (a) to each shore protection and beach renourishment project (including shore protection and beach renourishment projects constructed before November 8, 2007).

(Pub. L. 110–114, title II, §2018, Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1077.)

References in Text

The Act of July 3, 1930, referred to in subsec. (a), is act July 3, 1930, ch. 847, 46 Stat. 918. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 110–114, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§426f. Reimbursements

(a) In general

The Secretary is authorized to reimburse non-Federal interests for work done by them, after initiation of the survey studies which form the basis for the project or separable element of the project, on authorized projects or separable elements which individually do not exceed $1,000,000 in total cost: Provided, That the work which may have been done on the projects or separable elements is approved by the Chief of Engineers as being in accordance with the authorized projects or separable elements: Provided further, That such reimbursement shall be subject to appropriations applicable thereto or funds available therefor and shall not take precedence over other pending projects or separable elements of higher priority for improvements.

(b) Agreements

(1) Requirement

After authorization of reimbursement by the Secretary under this section, and before commencement of construction, of a shore protection project, the Secretary shall enter into a written agreement with the non-Federal interest with respect to the project or separable element.

(2) Terms

The agreement shall—

(A) specify the life of the project; and

(B) ensure that the Federal Government and the non-Federal interest will cooperate in carrying out the project or separable element.

(Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 960, §2, 60 Stat. 1056; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; July 28, 1956, ch. 768, 70 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 87–874, title I, §103(a)(4), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1178; Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(c)(1), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3699.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–303 inserted section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted “Secretary” for “Secretary of the Army” and “non-Federal interests” for “local interests”, inserted “or separable element of the project” after “project”, inserted “or separable elements” after “projects” wherever appearing, and added subsec. (b).

1962—Pub. L. 87–874 substituted provisions which authorize the Secretary of the Army to reimburse local interests for work done on authorized projects which individually do not exceed $1,000,000 in cost, and provide that such reimbursement shall be subject to applicable appropriations or available funds and not take priority over pending projects of higher priority, for provisions which authorized the Chief of Engineers to cause to be paid to the political subdivision involved the amount authorized by Congress.

1956—Act July 28, 1956, substituted “or other political subdivision involved” for “or political subdivision”.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

§426g. Storm and hurricane restoration and impact minimization program

(a) Construction of small shore and beach restoration and protection projects

(1) In general

The Secretary may carry out a program for the construction of small shore and beach restoration and protection projects not specifically authorized by Congress that otherwise comply with section 426e of this title if the Secretary determines that such construction is advisable.

(2) Local cooperation

The local cooperation requirement of section 426e of this title shall apply to a project under this section.

(3) Completeness

A project under this subsection—

(A) shall be complete; and

(B) shall not commit the United States to any additional improvement to ensure the successful operation of the project; except for participation in periodic beach nourishment in accordance with—

(i) section 426e of this title; and

(ii) the procedure for projects authorized after submission of a survey report.

(b) National shoreline erosion control development and demonstration program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct under the program authorized by subsection (a) a national shoreline erosion control development and demonstration program (referred to in this section as the “demonstration program”).

(2) Requirements

(A) In general

The demonstration program shall include provisions for—

(i) projects consisting of planning, design, construction, and monitoring of prototype engineered and native and naturalized vegetative shoreline erosion control devices and methods;

(ii) monitoring of the applicable prototypes;

(iii) detailed engineering and environmental reports on the results of each project carried out under the demonstraton 1 program; and

(iv) technology transfers, as appropriate, to private property owners, State and local entities, nonprofit educational institutions, and nongovernmental organizations.

(B) Determination of feasibility

A project under the demonstration program shall not be carried out until the Secretary determines that the project is feasible.

(C) Emphasis

A project under the demonstration program shall emphasize, to the maximum extent practicable—

(i) the development and demonstration of innovative technologies;

(ii) efficient designs to prevent erosion at a shoreline site, taking into account the lifecycle cost of the design, including cleanup, maintenance, and amortization;

(iii) new and enhanced shore protection project design and project formulation tools the purposes of which are to improve the physical performance, and lower the lifecycle costs, of the projects;

(iv) natural designs, including the use of native and naturalized vegetation or temporary structures that minimize permanent structural alterations to the shoreline;

(v) the avoidance of negative impacts to adjacent shorefront communities;

(vi) in areas with substantial residential or commercial interests located adjacent to the shoreline, designs that do not impair the aesthetic appeal of the interests;

(vii) the potential for long-term protection afforded by the technology; and

(viii) recommendations developed from evaluations of the program established under the Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 1962–5 2 note),2 including—

(I) adequate consideration of the subgrade;

(II) proper filtration;

(III) durable components;

(IV) adequate connection between units; and

(V) consideration of additional relevant information.

(D) Sites

(i) In general

Each project under the demonstration program may be carried out at—

(I) a privately owned site with substantial public access; or

(II) a publicly owned site on open coast or in tidal waters.

(ii) Selection

The Secretary shall develop criteria for the selection of sites for projects under the demonstration program, including criteria based on—

(I) a variety of geographic and climatic conditions;

(II) the size of the population that is dependent on the beaches for recreation or the protection of private property or public infrastructure;

(III) the rate of erosion;

(IV) significant natural resources or habitats and environmentally sensitive areas; and

(V) significant threatened historic structures or landmarks.

(3) Consultation

The Secretary shall carry out the demonstration program in consultation with—

(A) the Secretary of Agriculture, particularly with respect to native and naturalized vegetative means of preventing and controlling shoreline erosion;

(B) Federal, State, and local agencies;

(C) private organizations;

(D) the Coastal Engineering Research Center established by section 426–1 of this title; and

(E) applicable university research facilities.

(4) Completion of demonstration

After carrying out the initial construction and evaluation of the performance and cost of a project under the demonstration program, the Secretary may—

(A) amend, at the request of a non-Federal interest of the project, the partnership agreement for a federally authorized shore protection project in existence on the date on which initial construction of the project under the demonstration program is complete to incorporate the project constructed under the demonstration program as a feature of the shore protection project, with the future cost sharing of the project constructed under the demonstration program to be determined by the project purposes of the shore protection project; or

(B) transfer all interest in and responsibility for the completed project constructed under the demonstration program to a non-Federal interest or another Federal agency.

(5) Agreements

The Secretary may enter into a partnership agreement with the non-Federal interest or a cooperative agreement with the head of another Federal agency under the demonstration program—

(A) to share the costs of construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of a project under the demonstration program;

(B) to share the costs of removing the project, or element of the project if the Secretary determines that the project or element of the project is detrimental to public or private property, public infrastructure, or public safety; or

(C) to specify ownership of the completed project if the Secretary determines that the completed project will not be part of a Corps of Engineers project.

(6) Report

Not later than December 31, 2008, and every 3 years thereafter, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report describing—

(A) the activities carried out and accomplishments made under the demonstration program since the previous report under this paragraph; and

(B) any recommendations of the Secretary relating to the program.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary may expend, from any appropriations made available to the Secretary for the purpose of carrying out civil works, not more than $30,000,000 during any fiscal year to pay the Federal share of the costs of construction of small shore and beach restoration and protection projects or small projects under this section.

(2) Limitation

The total amount expended for a project under this section shall—

(A) be sufficient to pay the cost of Federal participation in the project (including periodic nourishment as provided for under section 426e of this title), as determined by the Secretary; and

(B) be not more than $5,000,000.

(Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 960, §3, 60 Stat. 1056; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; July 28, 1956, ch. 768, 70 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 87–874, title I, §103(a)(4), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1178; Pub. L. 89–298, title III, §310(b), Oct. 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1095; Pub. L. 91–611, title I, §112(b), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1821; Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §915(e), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4191; Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(e)(2)(C), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3703; Pub. L. 106–53, title II, §226, Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 298; Pub. L. 110–114, title II, §2038(a), Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1097.)

References in Text

The Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(C)(viii), is Pub. L. 93–251, title I, §54, Mar. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 26, formerly set out as a note under section 1962d–5 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

2007—Pub. L. 110–114 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to authorization of small shore and beach restoration and protection projects not specifically authorized by Congress.

1999—Pub. L. 106–53 substituted “$3,000,000” for “$2,000,000”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–303 substituted “Secretary” for “Secretary of the Army”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–662 substituted “$30,000,000” for “$25,000,000” and “$2,000,000” for “$1,000,000”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–611 increased authorized annual allotment for Federal share of project construction costs from $10,000,000 to $25,000,000 and the limitation on allotment for any single project from $500,000 to $1,000,000.

1965—Pub. L. 89–298 increased authorized annual allotment for Federal share of project construction costs from $3,000,000 to $10,000,000 and the limitation on allotment for any single project from $400,000 to $500,000.

1962—Pub. L. 87–874 substituted provisions which authorize the Secretary of the Army to undertake small shore and beach projects not specifically authorized by Congress, which otherwise comply with section 426e of this title, and to allot from any civil works appropriations hereafter made, an amount not to exceed $3,000,000 for the Federal share of such projects in any one fiscal year, provide that no such single project shall be allotted more than $400,000, including periodic nourishment, that provisions of local cooperation shall apply, and that the work shall be complete and not commit the United States to any additional improvement except for periodic beach nourishment, and as may result from procedure applying to projects authorized after submission of survey reports, for provisions which permitted the Chief of Engineers to make advance payments, not exceeding the United States pro rata part of the value of the labor and materials actually put in, and to undertake construction of restoration and protective works under sections 426e to 426h of this title upon the request of, and contribution of funds by, the interested political subdivision.

1956—Act July 28, 1956, substituted “restoration and protective works under sections 426e to 426h of this title” for “improvement and protective works”.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 915(i) of Pub. L. 99–662 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 426i, 577, 603a, 701g, 701r, and 701s of this title] shall not apply to any project under contract for construction on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 17, 1986].”

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Section 112(c) of Pub. L. 91–611 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 577 of this title] shall not apply to any project under contract for construction on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 1970].”

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941, which created Department of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

1 So in original. Probably should be “demonstration”.

2 See References in Text note below.

§426g–1. State and regional plans

The Secretary may—

(1) cooperate with any State in the preparation of a comprehensive State or regional plan for the conservation of coastal resources located within the boundaries of the State;

(2) encourage State participation in the implementation of the plan; and

(3) submit to Congress reports and recommendations with respect to appropriate Federal participation in carrying out the plan.

(Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 960, §4, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(d)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3700.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 4 of act Aug. 13, 1946, was renumbered section 5 of that act, and was classified to section 426h of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

§426h. Repealed. Pub. L. 110–114, title II, §2038(b), Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1100

Section, act Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 960, §5, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(e)(1), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3700; amended Pub. L. 106–53, title V, §581, Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 109–234, title II, §2305, June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 110–161, div. C, title I, §113, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 1944, related to national shoreline erosion control development and demonstration program.

A prior section 426h, acts Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 960, §5, formerly §4, 60 Stat. 1057; July 28, 1956, ch. 768, 70 Stat. 703; renumbered §5, Oct. 12, 1996, Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(d)(1), 110 Stat. 3700, defined the word “shores” as used in sections 426e to 426h of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(e)(1), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3700.

§426h–1. Definitions

In sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title, the following definitions apply:

(1) Erosion control program

The term “erosion control program” means the national shoreline erosion control development and demonstration program established under this section.

(2) Secretary

The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of the Army.

(3) Separable element

The term “separable element” has the meaning provided by section 2213(f) of this title.

(4) Shore

The term “shore” includes each shoreline of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, the Great Lakes, and lakes, estuaries, and bays directly connected therewith.

(5) Shore protection project

The term “shore protection project” includes a project for beach nourishment, including the replacement of sand.

(Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 960, §6, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(e)(1), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3702.)

§426i. Shore damage prevention or mitigation

(a) In general

The Secretary of the Army is authorized to investigate, study, plan, and implement structural and nonstructural measures for the prevention or mitigation of shore damages attributable to Federal navigation works and shore damage attributable to the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, if a non-Federal public body agrees to operate and maintain such measures, and, in the case of interests in real property acquired in conjunction with nonstructural measures, to operate and maintain the property for public purposes in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(b) Cost sharing

The costs of implementing measures under this section shall be cost-shared in the same proportion as the cost-sharing provisions applicable to the project causing the shore damage.

(c) Requirement for specific authorization

No such project shall be initiated without specific authorization by Congress if the Federal first cost exceeds $5,000,000.

(d) Coordination

The Secretary shall—

(1) coordinate the implementation of the measures under this section with other Federal and non-Federal shore protection projects in the same geographic area; and

(2) to the extent practicable, combine mitigation projects with other shore protection projects in the same area into a comprehensive regional project.

(Pub. L. 90–483, title I, §111, Aug. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 735; Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §§915(f), 940, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4191, 4199; Pub. L. 106–53, title II, §214, Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 291.)

Amendments

1999—Pub. L. 106–53 designated first sentence as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and inserted “and shore damage attributable to the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway” after “navigation works”, designated second sentence as subsec. (b) and inserted heading, and designated third sentence as subsec. (c), inserted heading, and substituted “$5,000,000” for “$2,000,000”, and added subsec. (d).

1986—Pub. L. 99–662, §940, amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, is authorized to investigate, study, and construct projects for the prevention or mitigation of shore damages attributable to Federal navigation works. The cost of installing, operating, and maintaining such projects shall be borne entirely by the United States. No such project shall be constructed without specific authorization by Congress if the estimated first cost exceeds $2,000,000.”

Pub. L. 99–662, §915(f), substituted “$2,000,000” for “$1,000,000”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 915(f) of Pub. L. 99–662 not applicable to any project under contract for construction on Nov. 17, 1986, see section 915(i) of Pub. L. 99–662, set out as a note under section 426g of this title.

§426i–1. Construction of shoreline protection projects by non-Federal interests

(a) Authority

Non-Federal interests are authorized to undertake shoreline protection projects on the coastline of the United States, subject to obtaining any permits required pursuant to Federal and State laws in advance of actual construction.

(b) Studies and engineering

(1) By non-Federal interests

A non-Federal interest may prepare, for review and approval by the Secretary, the necessary studies and engineering for any construction to be undertaken under subsection (a) of this section.

(2) By Secretary

Upon request of an appropriate non-Federal interest, the Secretary may undertake all necessary studies and engineering for any construction to be undertaken under subsection (a) of this section and provide technical assistance in obtaining all necessary permits for such construction if the non-Federal interest contracts with the Secretary to furnish the United States funds for the studies and engineering during the period that the studies and engineering will be conducted.

(c) Completion of studies

The Secretary is authorized to complete and transmit to the appropriate non-Federal interests any study for shoreline protection which was initiated before October 31, 1992, or, upon the request of such non-Federal interest, to terminate the study and transmit the partially completed study to the non-Federal interest for completion. Studies subject to this subsection shall be completed without regard to the requirements of subsection (b) of this section.

(d) Authority to carry out improvement

(1) In general

Any non-Federal interest which has received from the Secretary pursuant to subsection (b) or (c) of this section a favorable recommendation to carry out a shoreline protection project or separable element thereof, based on the results of completed studies and engineering for the project or element, may carry out the project or element if a final environmental impact statement has been filed for the project or element.

(2) Permits

Any plan of improvement proposed to be implemented in accordance with this subsection shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements for obtaining the appropriate permits required under the Secretary's authority and such permits shall be granted subject to the non-Federal interest's acceptance of the terms and conditions of such permits if the Secretary determines that the applicable regulatory criteria and procedures have been satisfied.

(3) Monitoring

The Secretary shall monitor any project for which permits are granted under this subsection in order to ensure that such project is constructed (and, in those cases where such activities will not be the responsibility of the Secretary, operated and maintained) in accordance with the terms and conditions of such permits.

(e) Reimbursement

(1) General rule

Subject to the enactment of appropriation Acts, the Secretary is authorized to reimburse any non-Federal interest an amount equal to the estimate of the Federal share, without interest, of the cost of any authorized shoreline protection project, or separable element thereof, constructed under this section—

(A) if, after authorization and before initiation of construction of the project or separable element, the Secretary approves the plans for construction of such project by such non-Federal interest and enters into a written agreement with the non-Federal interest with respect to the project or separable element (including the terms of cooperation); and

(B) if the Secretary finds, after a review of studies and engineering prepared pursuant to this section, that construction of the project or separable element is economically justified and environmentally acceptable.

(2) Matters to be considered in reviewing plans

In reviewing plans under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider budgetary and programmatic priorities and other factors that the Secretary deems appropriate.

(3) Monitoring

The Secretary shall regularly monitor and audit any project for shore protection constructed under this section by a non-Federal interest in order to ensure that such construction is in compliance with the plans approved by the Secretary and that the costs are reasonable.

(4) Limitation on reimbursements

No reimbursement shall be made under this section unless and until the Secretary has certified that the work for which reimbursement is requested has been performed in accordance with applicable permits or approved plans.

(Pub. L. 102–580, title II, §206, Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4828; Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §227(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3700.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–303 inserted before semicolon “and enters into a written agreement with the non-Federal interest with respect to the project or separable element (including the terms of cooperation)”.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 3 of Pub. L. 102–580, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§426i–2. National coastal data bank

(1) Establishment of data bank

Not later than 2 years after August 17, 1999, the Secretary shall establish a national coastal data bank containing data on the geophysical and climatological characteristics of the shores of the United States.

(2) Content

To the extent practicable, the national coastal data bank shall include data regarding current and predicted shore positions, information on federally authorized shore protection projects, and data on the movement of sand along the shores of the United States, including impediments to such movement caused by natural and manmade features.

(3) Access

The national coastal data bank shall be made readily accessible to the public.

(Pub. L. 106–53, title II, §215(d), Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 293.)

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 106–53, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§426j. Repealed. Pub. L. 110–114, title II, §2037(b)(1), Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1096

Section, Pub. L. 94–587, §145, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2931; Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §933, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4197; Pub. L. 100–676, §35, Nov. 17, 1988, 102 Stat. 4031; Pub. L. 102–580, title II, §207, Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4829; Pub. L. 106–53, title II, §217(a), Aug. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 294, related to placement on State beaches of sand dredged in constructing and maintaining navigation inlets and channels adjacent to such beaches.

Existing Projects

Pub. L. 110–114, title II, §2037(b)(2), Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1096, provided that: “The Secretary [of the Army] may complete any project being carried out under section 145 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1976 [this section] on the day before the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 2007].”

§426k. Five year demonstration program to temporarily increase diversion of water from Lake Michigan at Chicago, Illinois

(a) Authorization of Secretary of the Army; purpose; amounts of increase; incremental accomplishment; effects on Illinois Waterway; responsibilities for development, implementation, and supervision

In order to alleviate water damage on the shoreline of Lake Michigan and others of the Great Lakes during periods of abnormally high water levels in the Great Lakes, and to improve the water quality of the Illinois Waterway, the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, is authorized to carry out a five-year demonstration program to temporarily increase the diversion of water from Lake Michigan at Chicago, Illinois, for the purpose of testing the practicability of increasing the average annual diversion from the present limit of three thousand two hundred cubic feet per second to ten thousand cubic feet per second. The demonstration program will increase the controllable diversion by various amounts calculated to raise the average annual diversion above three thousand two hundred cubic feet per second up to ten thousand cubic feet per second. The increase in diversion rate will be accomplished incrementally and will take into consideration the effects of such increase on the Illinois Waterway. The program will be developed by the Chief of Engineers in cooperation with the State of Illinois and the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. The program will be implemented by the State of Illinois and the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago under the supervision of the Chief of Engineers.

(b) Establishment of monthly controllable diversion rates; average annual level of Lake Michigan and total diversion for succeeding accounting year

During the demonstration program a controllable diversion rate will be established for each month calculated to establish an annual average diversion from three thousand two hundred cubic feet per second to not more than ten thousand cubic feet per second. When the level of Lake Michigan is below its average level, the total diversion for the succeeding accounting year shall not exceed three thousand two hundred cubic feet per second on an annual basis. The average level of Lake Michigan will be based upon the average monthly level for the period from 1900 to 1975.

(c) River stages approaching bankfull conditions on Illinois Waterway or Mississippi River or further increased diversion adversely affecting St. Lawrence Seaway water levels: limitation on diversion

When river stages approach or are predicted to approach bankfull conditions at the established flood warning stations on the Illinois Waterway or the Mississippi River, or when further increased diversion of water from Lake Michigan would adversely affect water levels necessary for navigational requirements of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in its entirety throughout the Saint Lawrence River and Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway, water shall not be diverted directly from Lake Michigan at the Wilmette, O'Brien, or Chicago River control structures other than as necessary for navigational requirements.

(d) Additional study and demonstration program: determination of effects on Great Lakes levels and Illinois Waterway water quality and susceptibility to additional flooding and investigation of other adverse or beneficial impacts; report and recommendations to Congress

The Chief of Engineers shall conduct a study and a demonstration program to determine the effects of the increased diversion on the levels of the Great Lakes, on the water quality of the Illinois Waterway, and on the susceptibility of the Illinois Waterway to additional flooding. The study and demonstration program will also investigate any adverse or beneficial impacts which result from this section. The Chief of Engineers, at the end of five years after October 22, 1976, will submit to the Congress the results of this study and demonstration program including recommendations whether to continue this authority or to change the criteria stated in subsection (b) of this section.

(e) “Controllable diversion” defined

For purposes of this section, controllable diversion is defined as that diversion at Wilmette, O'Brien, and Chicago River control structures which is not attributable to leakage or which is not necessary for navigational requirements.

(Pub. L. 94–587, §166, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2934.)

§426l. Protection of Lake Ontario

(a) Plan for shoreline protection and beach erosion control; report to Congress

The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, is directed to develop a plan for shoreline protection and beach erosion control along Lake Ontario, and report on such plan to the Congress as soon as practicable. Such report shall include recommendations on measures of protection and proposals for equitable cost sharing, together with recommendations for regulating the level of Lake Ontario to assure maximum protection of the natural environment and to hold shoreline damage to a minimum.

(b) Minimization of damage and erosion to Lake Ontario shoreline

Until the Congress receives and acts upon the report required under subsection (a) of this section, all Federal agencies having responsibilities affecting the level of Lake Ontario shall, consistent with existing authority, make every effort to discharge such responsibilities in a manner so as to minimize damage and erosion to the shoreline of Lake Ontario.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $2,000,000.

(d) Short title

This section may be cited as the “Lake Ontario Protection Act of 1976.”

(Pub. L. 94–587, §180, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2939.)

§426m. Collection and removal of drift and debris from publicly maintained commercial boat harbors and adjacent land and water areas

(a) Congressional findings

The Congress finds that drift and debris on or in publicly maintained commercial boat harbors and the land and water areas immediately adjacent thereto threaten navigational safety, public health, recreation, and the harborfront environment.

(b) Responsibility of Secretary of the Army for development of projects; project undertakings exempt from specific Congressional approval

(1) The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, shall be responsible for developing projects for the collection and removal of drift and debris from publicly maintained commercial boat harbors and from land and water areas immediately adjacent thereto.

(2) The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, is authorized to undertake projects developed under paragraph (1) of this subsection without specific congressional approval when the total Federal cost for the project is less than $400,000.

(c) Federal share of costs; responsibility of non-Federal interests in future project development to recover cost or repair sources

The Federal share of the cost of any project developed pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be two-thirds of the cost of the project. The remainder of such costs shall be paid by the State, municipality, or other political subdivision in which the project is to be located, except that any costs associated with the collections and removal of drift and debris from federally owned lands shall be borne by the Federal Government. Non-Federal interests in future project development under subsection (b) of this section shall be required to recover the full cost of drift or debris removal from any identified owner of piers or other potential sources of drift or debris, or to repair such sources so that they no longer create a potential source of drift or debris.

(d) Responsibility for providing lands, easements, and right-of-way necessary for projects; agreement to maintain projects and hold United States free from damages; regulation of project area following project completion; technical advice

Any State, municipality, or other political subdivision where any project developed pursuant to subsection (b) of this section is located shall provide all lands, easements, and right-of-way necessary for the project, including suitable access and disposal areas, and shall agree to maintain such projects and hold and save the United States free from any damages which may result from the non-Federal sponsor's performance of, or failure to perform, any of its required responsibilities of cooperation for the project. Non-Fededal 1 interest shall agree to regulate any project area following project completion so that such area will not become a future source of drift and debris. The Chief of Engineers shall provide technical advice to non-Federal interests on the implementation of this subsection.

(e) Definitions

For the purposes of this section—

(1) the term “drift” includes any buoyant material that, when floating in the navigable waters of the United States, may cause damage to a commercial or recreational vessel; and

(2) the term “debris” includes any abandoned or dilapidated structure or any sunken vessel or other object that can reasonably be expected to collapse or otherwise enter the navigable waters of the United States as drift within a reasonable period.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1986.

(Pub. L. 94–587, §202, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2945; Pub. L. 99–662, title XI, §1129(a), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4246.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–662 amended subsec. (f) generally, substituting “such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1986” for “not to exceed $4,000,000 per fiscal year for fiscal years 1978 and 1979”.

1 So in original.

§426n. Technical assistance to States and local governments; cost sharing

(a) Upon request of the Governor of a State, or the appropriate official of local government, the Secretary is authorized to provide designs, plans, and specifications, and such other technical assistance as he deems advisable to such State or local government for its use in carrying out—

(1) projects for removing accumulated snags and other debris, and clearing and straightening channels in navigable streams and tributaries thereof; and

(2) projects for renovating navigable streams and tributaries thereof by means of predominantly nonstructural methods judged by the Secretary to be cost effective, for the purpose of improved drainage, water quality, and habitat diversity.


(b) The non-Federal share of the cost of any designs, plans, specifications or technical assistance provided under subsection (a) of this section shall be 50 percent.

(Pub. L. 99–662, title IX, §942, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4199.)

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2201 of this title.

§426o. Great Lakes material disposal

In planning and implementing any navigation project (including maintenance thereof) on the Great Lakes and adjacent waters, the Secretary shall consult and cooperate with concerned States in selecting disposal areas for dredged material which is suitable for beach nourishment.

(Pub. L. 99–662, title XI, §1154, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4256.)

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2201 of this title.

§426o–1. Great Lakes dredging levels adjustment

(a) Definition of Great Lake

In this section, the term “Great Lake” means Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron (including Lake St. Clair), Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario (including the St. Lawrence River to the 45th parallel of latitude).

(b) Dredging levels

In operating and maintaining Federal channels and harbors of, and the connecting channels between, the Great Lakes, the Secretary shall conduct such dredging as is necessary to ensure minimal operation depths consistent with the original authorized depths of the channels and harbors when water levels in the Great Lakes are, or are forecast to be, below the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985.

(Pub. L. 106–541, title III, §343, Dec. 11, 2000, 114 Stat. 2613.)

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 106–541, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§426o–2. Great Lakes navigation and protection

(a) Great Lakes navigation

Using available funds, the Secretary shall expedite the operation and maintenance, including dredging, of the navigation features of the Great Lakes and Connecting Channels for the purpose of supporting commercial navigation to authorized project depths.

(b) Great Lakes pilot project

Using available funds, the Director of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, in coordination with the Secretary, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Commandant of the Coast Guard, and the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, shall carry out a pilot project, on an emergency basis, to control and prevent further spreading of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in the Great Lakes and Connecting Channels.

(c) Great Lakes and Connecting Channels defined

In this section, the term “Great Lakes and Connecting Channels” includes Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario, all connecting waters between and among such lakes used for commercial navigation, any navigation features in such lakes or waters that are a Federal operation or maintenance responsibility, and areas of the Saint Lawrence River that are operated or maintained by the Federal Government for commercial navigation.

(Pub. L. 110–114, title V, §5014, Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1195.)

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 110–114, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§426p. Corps of Engineers

(a) Technical and other assistance

The Secretary of the Army may—

(1) provide emergency assistance to prevent or reduce damage attributable to high water levels in the Great Lakes, including provision of sandbags, sheeting, and stones and other armoring devices (taking account of flooding and erosion of other property which may be caused by such activity) but not including construction of permanent structures;

(2) provide technical assistance to individuals and local governments with respect to measures to prevent or reduce such damage; and

(3) compile and disseminate information on—

(A) water levels of the Great Lakes,

(B) techniques for prevention or reduction of such damage, and

(C) emergency relief available to persons who suffer economic injury attributable to high water levels in the Great Lakes.

(b) Issuance of permits

(1) Consideration of flooding and erosion

In issuing a permit under—

(A) section 403 of this title; or

(B) section 1344 of this title;


for any activity carried out with assistance under this title, the Secretary of the Army shall take account of flooding and erosion of other property which may be caused by such activity.

(2) Bank stabilization

(A) General rule

In issuing permits under sections 403 and 1344 of this title for a project involving dredging of any portion of the Great Lakes, the Secretary of the Army shall, if feasible, encourage for bank stabilization purposes the disposal of nonhazardous compatible sand from such project on shorelines affected by erosion.

(B) Consultation

In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary of the Army shall consult affected State and local governments.

(Pub. L. 100–707, title II, §203, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4712.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is title II of Pub. L. 100–707, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4711, known as the “Great Lakes Planning Assistance Act of 1988”. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.

Short Title

Pub. L. 100–707, title II, §201, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4711, provided that: “This title [enacting this section, amending sections 3501 to 3503 of Title 16, Conservation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 3501 and 3505 of Title 16] may be cited as the ‘Great Lakes Planning Assistance Act of 1988’.”

Great Lakes Damage Assistance and Prevention; Damage Assistance Program

Pub. L. 100–707, title II, §202, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4711, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Director is authorized to provide assistance to Great Lakes States in the establishment of State programs to reduce and prevent damage attributable to high water levels in the Great Lakes.

“(b) Grants.—Upon application by a Great Lakes State within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1988], the Director may make a one-time grant to the State of not more than $250,000 for use by the State for—

“(1) preparation of plans for mitigation, warning, emergency operations, and emergency assistance;

“(2) coordination of available State and Federal assistance;

“(3) development and implementation of nonstructural measures to reduce or prevent damage attributable to high water levels in the Great Lakes, including establishment of setback requirements and other conditions on construction and reconstruction of public and private facilities, mapping of flooding zones, and technical assistance; and

“(4) assisting local governments in developing and implementing plans for nonstructural reduction and prevention of damages attributable to high water levels in the Great Lakes.

“(c) Technical Assistance.—The Director may provide technical assistance to Great Lakes States for carrying out any activity carried out with assistance under this section.

“(d) State Matching.—A State which receives a grant under this section shall match the grant with an amount of funds from non-Federal sources equal to 25 percent of the amount of the grant.

“(e) Authorization.—There are authorized to be appropriated for making grants under this section not more than $2,000,000 for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1988.”

Great Lakes Damage Assistance and Prevention; Definitions

Pub. L. 100–707, title II, §205, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4715, as amended by Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410, provided that: “For purposes of this title [see Short Title note above]—

“(1) Director.—The term ‘Director’ means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

“(2) High water levels.—The term ‘high water levels’ means water levels above the long-term average of water levels from 1900.

“(3) Local government.—The term ‘local government’ means a county, city, village, town, district, or other political subdivision of a Great Lakes State and an Indian tribe or authorized tribal organization.

“(4) Great lakes state.—The term ‘Great Lakes State’ means Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and New York.”

§§427 to 430. Repealed. July 31, 1945, ch. 334, §5, 59 Stat. 508

Section 427, act June 26, 1936, ch. 849, §1, 49 Stat. 1982, related to improvement and protection of beaches and defined “beach”.

Section 428, act June 26, 1936, ch. 849, §2, 49 Stat. 1982, related to investigations by Beach Erosion Board and duties of Board. See section 426–1 of this title.

Section 429, act June 26, 1936, ch. 849, §3, 49 Stat. 1983, related to investigative reports by Beach Erosion Board. See section 426–1 of this title.

Section 430, act June 26, 1936, ch. 849, §4, 49 Stat. 1983, related to payment of expenses incident to investigations by Board. See section 426–1 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—OIL POLLUTION OF COASTAL WATERS

§§431 to 437. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §108, Apr. 3, 1970, 84 Stat. 113

Section 431, acts June 7, 1924, ch. 316, §1, 43 Stat. 604; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §211(a), 80 Stat. 1252, related to the short title for this subchapter.

Section 432, acts June 7, 1924, ch. 316, §2, 43 Stat. 604; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §211(a), 80 Stat. 1252, defined “oil,” “person”, “coastal navigable waters of the United States”, and “Secretary”.

Section 433, acts June 7, 1924, ch. 316, §3, 43 Stat. 605; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §211(a), 80 Stat. 1253, related to prohibition against discharge of oil generally.

Section 434, acts June 7, 1924, ch. 316, §4, 43 Stat. 605; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §211(a), 80 Stat. 1253, related to penalties for violation of oil discharge prohibition and liability of vessel.

Section 435, act June 7, 1924, ch. 316, §5, 43 Stat. 605; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097; act Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §211(a), 80 Stat. 1254, related to revocation or suspension of licenses of officers of offending vessels.

Section 436, acts June 7, 1924, ch. 316, §7, 43 Stat. 605; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §211(a), 80 Stat. 1254, related to authorization of use of certain personnel in enforcement of this subchapter and arrest of offenders.

Section 437, acts June 7, 1924, ch. 316, §8, 43 Stat. 606; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §211(a), 80 Stat. 1254, related to affect of this subchapter on preexisting laws for preservation and protection of navigable waters.

See section 1251 et seq. of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—NEW YORK HARBOR, HARBOR OF HAMPTON ROADS, AND HARBOR OF BALTIMORE

§441. Deposit of refuse prohibited; penalty

The placing, discharging, or depositing, by any process or in any manner, of refuse, dirt, ashes, cinders, mud, sand, dredgings, sludge, acid, or any other matter of any kind, other than that flowing from streets, sewers, and passing therefrom in a liquid state, in the waters of any harbor subject to this subchapter, within the limits which shall be prescribed by the supervisor of the harbor, is strictly forbidden, and every such act is made a misdemeanor, and every person engaged in or who shall aid, abet, authorize, or instigate a violation of this section, shall, upon conviction, be punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both, such fine to be not less than $250 nor more than $2,500, and the imprisonment to be not less than thirty days nor more than one year, either or both united, as the judge before whom conviction is obtained shall decide, one-half of said fine to be paid to the person or persons giving information which shall lead to conviction of this misdemeanor.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §1, 25 Stat. 209; Pub. L. 85–802, §1(1), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 970.)

Prior Provisions

Section 1 of act June 29, 1888, superseded act Aug. 5, 1886, ch. 929, §3, 24 Stat. 329, which provided that: “It shall not be lawful to cast, throw, empty, or unlade, or cause, suffer, or procure to be cast, thrown, emptied, or unladen, either from or out of any ship, vessel, lighter, barge, boat, or other craft, or from the shore, pier, wharf, or mills of any kind whatever, any ballast, stone, slate, gravel, earth, slack, rubbish, wreck, filth, slabs, edgings, sawdust, slag or cinders or other refuse or mill-waste of any kind, into New York Harbor: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall extend, or be construed to extend, to the casting out, unlading, or throwing out of any ship or vessel, lighter, barge, boat, or other craft, any stones, rocks, bricks, lime, or other materials used, or to be used, in or toward the building, repairing, or keeping in repair any quay, pier, wharf, weir, bridge, building, or other work lawfully erected or to be erected on the banks or sides of said harbor, or to the casting out, unloading or depositing of any material excavated for the improvement of navigable waters, into such places and in such manner as may be deemed by the United States officer supervising the improvement of said harbor most judicious and practicable and for the best interests of such improvement.”

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–802 substituted “waters of any harbor subject to this subchapter,” for “tidal waters of the harbor of New York, or its adjacent or tributary waters, or in those of long Island Sound,”.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 85–802 provided that: “This Act [amending this section and sections 442, 446, 447, 449, 451, and 451a of this title and enacting section 451b of this title] shall take effect on the sixtieth day after the date of its enactment [Aug. 28, 1958].”

§442. Liability of officers of towing vessel

Any and every master and engineer, or person or persons acting in such capacity, respectively, on board of any boat or vessel, who shall knowingly engage in towing any scow, boat, or vessel loaded with any such prohibited matter to any point or place of deposit, or discharge in the waters of any harbor subject to this subchapter, or to any point or place elsewhere than within the limits defined and permitted by the supervisor of the harbor, shall be deemed guilty of a violation of section 441 of this title, and shall, upon conviction, be punishable as provided for offenses in violation of section 441 of this title, and shall also have his license revoked or suspended for a term to be fixed by the judge before whom tried and convicted.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §2, 25 Stat. 209; Pub. L. 85–802, §1(2), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 970.)

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–802 substituted “any harbor subject to this subchapter” for “the harbor of New York, or in its adjacent or tributary waters, or in those of Long Island Sound”, and struck out “hereinafter mentioned” after “supervisor of the harbor”.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–802 effective on sixtieth day after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–802, set out as a note under section 441 of this title.

§443. Permit for dumping; penalty for taking or towing boat or scow without permit

In all cases of receiving on board of any scows or boats such forbidden matter or substance as described in section 441 of this title, the owner or master, or person acting in such capacity on board of such scows or boats, before proceeding to take or tow the same to the place of deposit, shall apply for and obtain from the supervisor of the harbor appointed, as provided in section 451 of this title, a permit defining the precise limits within which the discharge of such scows or boats may be made; and it shall not be lawful for the owner or master, or person acting in such capacity, of any tug or towboat to tow or move any scow or boat so loaded with such forbidden matter until such permit shall have been obtained; and every person violating the foregoing provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than $1,000 nor less than $500, and in addition thereto the master of any tug or towboat so offending shall have his license revoked or suspended for a term to be fixed by the judge before whom tried and convicted.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §3, 25 Stat. 209; Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §3, 28 Stat. 360; May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §8, 35 Stat. 426.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 3 of act June 29, 1888. Said section 3 of act June 29, 1888, enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title.

Section 3 of act June 29, 1888, as originally enacted, provided as follows:

“In all cases of receiving on board of any scows or boats such forbidden matter or substance as herein described, it shall be the duty of the owner or master, or person acting in such capacity, on board of such scows or boats, before proceeding to take or tow the same to the place of deposit, to apply for and obtain from the supervisor of the harbor appointed hereunder a permit defining the precise limits within which the discharge of such scows or boats may be made; and any deviation from such dumping or discharging place specified in such permit shall be a misdemeanor within the meaning of this act; and the master and engineer, or person or persons acting in such capacity, on board of any towboat towing such scows or boats, shall be equally guilty of such offense with the master or person acting in the capacity of master of the scow, and be liable to equal punishment.”

Section 3 was amended by act Aug. 18, 1894, to read as follows:

“In all cases of receiving on board of any scows or boats such forbidden matter or substance as herein described, the owner or master, or person acting in such capacity on board of such scows or boats, before proceeding to take or tow the same to the place of deposit, shall apply for and obtain from the supervisor of the harbor appointed hereunder a permit defining the precise limits within which the discharge of such scows or boats may be made; and it shall not be lawful for the owner or master, or person acting in such capacity, of any tug or towboat to tow or move any scow or boat so loaded with such forbidden matter until such permit shall have been obtained; and every person violating the foregoing provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than one thousand nor less than five hundred dollars, and in addition thereto the master of any tug or towboat so offending shall have his license revoked, or suspended for a term to be fixed by the judge before whom tried and convicted. And any deviation from such dumping or discharging place specified in such permit shall be a misdemeanor, and the owner and master, or person acting in the capacity of master, of any scows or boats dumping or discharging such forbidden matter in any place other than that specified in such permit shall be liable to punishment therefor as provided in section one of the said Act of June twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight [section 441 of this title]; and the owner and master, or person acting in the capacity of master, of any tug or towboat towing such scows or boats shall be liable to equal punishment with the owner and master, or person acting in the capacity of master, of the scows or boats; and further, every scowman or other employee on board of both scows and towboats shall be deemed to have knowledge of the place of dumping specified in such permit, and the owners and masters, or persons acting in the capacity of masters, shall be liable to punishment, as aforesaid, for any unlawful dumping, within the meaning of this Act or of the said Act of June twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, which may be caused by the negligence or ignorance of such scowman or other employee; and, further, neither defect in machinery nor avoidable accidents to scows or towboats, nor unfavorable weather, nor improper handling or moving of scows or boats of any kind whatsoever, shall operate to release the owners and masters and employees of scows and towboats from the penalties hereinbefore mentioned. Every scow or boat engaged in the transportation of dredgings, earth, sand, mud, cellar dirt, garbage, or other offensive material of any description shall have its name or number and owner's name painted in letters and numbers at least fourteen inches long on both sides of the scow or boat; these names and numbers shall be kept distinctly legible at all times, and no scow or boat not so marked shall be used to transport or dump any such material. The supervisor of the harbor of New York, designated as provided in section five of the said Act of June twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight [section 451 of this title], is authorized and directed to appoint inspectors and deputy inspectors, and, for the purpose of enforcing the provisions of this Act and of the Act aforesaid, and of detecting and bringing to punishment offenders against the same, the said supervisor of the harbor, and the inspectors and deputy inspectors so appointed by him, shall have power and authority: First. To arrest and take into custody, with or without process, any person or persons who may commit any of the acts or offenses prohibited by this section and by the Act of June twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, aforesaid, or who may violate any of the provisions of the same: Provided, That no person shall be arrested without process for any offense not committed in the presence of the supervisor or his inspectors or deputy inspectors, or either of them: And provided further, That whenever any such arrest is made the person or persons so arrested shall be brought forthwith before a commissioner, judge, or court of the United States for examination of the offenses alleged against him; and such commissioner, judge, or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in case of crimes against the United States. Second. To go on board of any scow or towboat engaged in unlawful dumping of prohibited material, or in moving the same without a permit as required in this section of this Act, and to seize and hold said boats until they are discharged by action of the commissioner, judge, or court of the United States before whom the offending persons are brought. Third. To arrest and take into custody any witness or witnesses to such unlawful dumping of prohibited material, the said witnesses to be released under proper bonds. Fourth. To go on board of any towboat having in tow scows or boats loaded with such prohibited material, and accompany the same to the place of dumping whenever such action appears to be necessary to secure compliance with the requirements of this Act and of the Act aforesaid. Fifth. To enter gas and oil works and all other manufacturing works for the purpose of discovering the disposition made of sludge, acid, or other injurious material, whenever there is good reason to believe that such sludge, acid, or other injurious material is allowed to run into the tidal waters of the harbor in violation of section one of the aforesaid Act of June twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight [section 441 of this title]. Every person who, directly or indirectly, gives any sum of money or other bribe, present, or reward or makes any offer of the same to any inspector, deputy inspector, or other employee of the office of the supervisor of the harbor with intent to influence such inspector, deputy inspector, or other employee to permit or overlook any violation of the provisions of this section or of the said Act of June twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, shall, on conviction thereof, be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not less than six months nor more than one year. Every permit issued in accordance with the provisions of this section of this Act which may not be taken up by an inspector or deputy inspector shall be returned within forty-eight hours after issuance to the office of the supervisor of the harbor; such permit shall bear an indorsement by the master of the towboat, or the person acting in such capacity, stating whether the permit has been used, and if so the time and place of dumping. Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be liable to a fine of not more than five hundred dollars nor less than one hundred dollars.”

Section 3 was further amended by act May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §8, to read as set forth in this section and sections 444 to 448 of this title.

§444. Dumping at other place than designated dumping grounds; penalty; person liable; excuses for deviation

Any deviation from such dumping or discharging place specified in such permit shall be a misdemeanor, and the owner and master, or person acting in the capacity of master, of any scows or boats dumping or discharging such forbidden matter in any place other than that specified in such permit shall be liable to punishment therefor as provided in section 441 of this title; and the owner and master, or person acting in the capacity of master, of any tug or towboat towing such scows or boats shall be liable to equal punishment with the owner and master, or person acting in the capacity of master, of the scows or boats; and, further, every scowman or other employee on board of both scows and towboats shall be deemed to have knowledge of the place of dumping specified in such permit, and the owners and masters, or persons acting in the capacity of masters, shall be liable to punishment, as aforesaid, for any unlawful dumping, within the meaning of this Act and this subchapter, which may be caused by the negligence or ignorance of such scowman or other employee; and, further, neither defect in machinery nor avoidable accidents to scows or towboats, nor unfavorable weather, nor improper handling or moving of scows or boats of any kind whatsoever shall operate to release the owners and master and employees of scows and towboats from the penalties mentioned in section 441 of this title.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §3, 25 Stat. 209; Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §3, 28 Stat. 360; May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §8, 35 Stat. 426.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, 28 Stat. 356, as amended, which enacted sections 1, 31, and 452 of this title and amended sections 443 to 448 and 499 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 3 of act June 29, 1888. Said section 3 of act June 29, 1888, enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 443 of this title.

§445. Equipment and marking of boats or scows

Every scow or boat engaged in the transportation of dredgings, earth, sand, mud, cellar dirt, garbage, or other offensive material of any description shall have its name or number and owner's name painted in letters and numbers at least fourteen inches long on both sides of the scow or boat; these names and numbers shall be kept distinctly legible at all times, and no scow or boat not so marked shall be used to transport or dump any such material. Each such scow or boat shall be equipped at all times with a life line or rope extending at least the length of and three feet above the deck thereof, such rope to be attached to the coaming thereof, also with a life preserver and a life buoy for each person on board thereof, also with anchor to weigh not less than two hundred and seventy-five pounds, and at least one hundred feet of cable attached thereto; a list of the names of all men employed on any such scow or boat shall be kept by the owner or master thereof and the said list shall be open to the inspection of all parties. Failure to comply with any of the foregoing provisions shall render the owner of such scow or boat liable upon conviction thereof to a penalty of not more than $500: Provided, That the requirements in regard to life line or rope contained in this section shall not apply to any scow or boat the deck outside the coaming or rail of which shall not exceed one foot in width: And provided further, That on any such scow or boat its name or number and owner's name painted in letters and numbers, at least fourteen inches long on both ends of such scow or boat, shall be a compliance with the provisions of this section in regard to name, number, and owner's name.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §3, 25 Stat. 209; Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §3, 28 Stat. 360; May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §8, 35 Stat. 427; Feb. 16, 1909, ch. 132, 35 Stat. 623.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 3 of act June 29, 1888. Said section 3 of act June 29, 1888, enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 443 of this title.

Provisos are from act Feb. 16, 1909.

§446. Inspectors; appointment, powers, and duties

Each supervisor of a harbor is authorized and directed to appoint inspectors and deputy inspectors, and for the purposes of enforcing this subchapter and the Act of August 18, 1894, entitled “An Act making appropriations for the construction, repair, and preservation of certain public works on rivers and harbors, and for other purposes” (28 Stat. 338), and of detecting and bringing to punishment offenders against the same, the said supervisor of the harbor, and the inspectors and deputy inspectors so appointed by him, shall have power and authority.

First. To arrest and take into custody, with or without process, any person or persons who may commit any of the acts or offenses prohibited by this subchapter, or who may violate any of the provisions of the same: Provided, That no person shall be arrested without process for any offense not committed in the presence of the supervisor or his inspectors or deputy inspectors, or either of them: And provided further, That whenever any such arrest is made the person or persons so arrested shall be brought forthwith before a magistrate judge, judge, or court of the United States for examination of the offenses alleged against him; and such magistrate judge, judge, or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in case of crimes against the United States.

Second. To go on board of any scow or towboat engaged in unlawful dumping of prohibited material, or in moving the same without a permit, as required in sections 443 to 448 of this title, or otherwise violating sections 443 to 448 of this title, and to seize and hold said boats until they are discharged by action of the magistrate judge, judge, or court of the United States before whom the offending persons are brought.

Third. To arrest and take into custody any witness or witnesses to such unlawful dumping of prohibited material, the said witnesses to be released under proper bonds.

Fourth. To go on board of any towboat having in tow scows or boats loaded with such prohibited material, and accompany the same to the place of dumping, whenever such action appears to be necessary to secure compliance with the requirements of this subchapter and of the Act aforesaid.

Fifth. To enter gas and oil works and all other manufacturing works for the purpose of discovering the disposition made of sludge, acid, or other injurious material, whenever there is good reason to believe that such sludge, acid, or other injurious material is allowed to run into tidal waters of the harbor in violation of section 441 of this title.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §3, 25 Stat. 209; Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §3, 28 Stat. 360; May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §8, 35 Stat. 427; Pub. L. 85–802, §1(3), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 970; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

References in Text

Act of August 18, 1894, referred to in provision preceding First paragraph, and Act aforesaid, referred to in Fourth paragraph, mean act Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, 28 Stat. 356, as amended, which enacted sections 1, 31, and 452 of this title and amended sections 443 to 448 and 499 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Sections 443 to 448 of this title, referred to in the Second paragraph, were in the original “this section of this Act” meaning section 3 of act June 29, 1888, which enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title. The provision of section 3 relating to issuance of permits is classified to section 443 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 3 of act June 29, 1888. Said section 3 of act June 29, 1888, enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 443 of this title.

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–802 substituted “Each supervisor of a harbor is authorized and directed to appoint inspectors and deputy inspectors, and, for the purposes of enforcing this subchapter” for “The supervisor of the harbor of New York, designated as provided in section 451 of this title, is authorized and directed to appoint inspectors and deputy inspectors, and for the purpose of enforcing sections 1, 31, and this subchapter”.

Change of Name

“Magistrate judge” substituted in text for “magistrate” pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, “magistrate” substituted for “commissioner” pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–802 effective on sixtieth day after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–802, set out as a note under section 441 of this title.

§447. Bribery of inspector; penalty

Every person who, directly or indirectly, gives any sum of money or other bribe, present, or reward, or makes any offer of the same to any inspector, deputy inspector, or other employee of the office of any supervisor of a harbor with intent to influence such inspector, deputy inspector, or other employee to permit or overlook any violation of the provisions of this subchapter, shall, on conviction thereof, be fined not less than $500 nor more than $1,000, and be imprisoned not less than six months nor more than one year.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §3, 25 Stat. 209; Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §3, 28 Stat. 360; May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §8, 35 Stat. 428; Pub. L. 85–802, §1(4), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 970.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 3 of act June 29, 1888. Said section 3 of act June 29, 1888, enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 443 of this title.

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–802 substituted “any supervisor of a harbor” for “the supervisor of the harbor”.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–802 effective on sixtieth day after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–802, set out as a note under section 441 of this title.

§448. Return of permit; penalty for failure to return

Every permit issued in accordance with the provisions of sections 443 to 448 of this title, which may not be taken up by an inspector or deputy inspector, shall be returned within four days after issuance to the office of the supervisor of the harbor; such permit shall bear an indorsement by the master of the towboat, or the person acting in such capacity, stating whether the permit has been used, and, if so, the time and place of dumping. Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be liable to a fine of not more than $500 nor less than $100.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §3, 25 Stat. 209; Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §3, 28 Stat. 360; May 28, 1908, ch. 212, §8, 35 Stat. 428.)

References in Text

Sections 443 to 448 of this title, referred to in text, were in the original “this section of this Act”, meaning section 3 of act June 29, 1888, which enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title. The provision of section 3 relating to issuance of permits is classified to section 443 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 3 of act June 29, 1888. Said section 3 of act June 29, 1888 enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title. See Codification note set out under section 443 of this title.

§449. Disposition of dredged matter; persons liable; penalty

All mud, dirt, sand, dredgings, and material of every kind and description whatever taken, dredged, or excavated from any slip, basin, or shoal in any harbor subject to this subchapter, and placed on any boat, scow, or vessel for the purpose of being taken or towed upon the waters of that harbor to a place of deposit, shall be deposited and discharged at such place or within such limits as shall be defined and specified by the supervisor of the harbor, as in sections 443 to 448 of this title prescribed, and not otherwise. Every person, firm, or corporation being the owner of any slip, basin, or shoal, from which such mud, dirt, sand, dredgings, and material shall be taken, dredged, or excavated, and every person, firm, or corporation in any manner engaged in the work of dredging or excavating any such slip, basin, or shoal, or of removing such mud, dirt, sand, or dredgings therefrom, shall severally be responsible for the deposit and discharge of all such mud, dirt, sand, or dredgings at such place or within such limits so defined and prescribed by said supervisor of the harbor; and for every violation of the provisions of this section the person offending shall be guilty of an offense, and shall be punished by a fine equal to the sum of $5 for every cubic yard of mud, dirt, sand, dredgings, or material not deposited or discharged as required by this section.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §4, 25 Stat. 210; Pub. L. 85–802, §1(5), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 970.)

References in Text

Sections 443 to 448 of this title, referred to in text, were in the original “the third section of this Act”, meaning section 3 of act June 29, 1888, which enacted sections 443 to 448 of this title. The provision of section 3 relating to specification of the limits within which to discharge is classified to section 443 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 4 of act June 29, 1888, which enacted sections 449 and 450 of this title.

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–802 substituted “any harbor subject to this subchapter” for “the harbor of New York, or the waters adjacent or tributary thereto” and “the waters of that harbor” for “the waters of the harbor of New York”.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–802 effective on sixtieth day after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–802, set out as a note under section 441 of this title.

§450. Liability of vessel

Any boat or vessel used or employed in violating any provision of this subchapter, shall be liable to the pecuniary penalties imposed thereby, and may be proceeded against, summarily by way of libel in any district court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §4, 25 Stat. 210.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of section 4 of act June 29, 1888, which enacted sections 449 and 450 of this title.

§451. Supervisor of harbor; appointment and duties

An officer of the Corps of Engineers shall, for each harbor subject to this subchapter, be designated by the Secretary of the Army as supervisor of the harbor, to act under the direction of the Chief of Engineers in enforcing the provisions of this subchapter, and in detecting offenders against the same. Each such officer shall have personal charge and supervision under the Chief of Engineers, and shall direct the patrol boats and other means to detect and bring to punishment offenders against the provisions of this subchapter.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §5, 25 Stat. 210; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; June 29, 1949, ch. 278, 63 Stat. 300; July 12, 1952, ch. 707, 66 Stat. 596; Pub. L. 85–802, §1(6), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 970.)

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–802 inserted “for each harbor subject to this subchapter,” and substituted “Each such officer” for “This officer”.

1952—Act July 12, 1952, transferred enforcement responsibilities of this section from a Naval officer to the Army district engineer at New York.

1949—Act June 29, 1949, struck out “shall receive the sea-pay of his grade and” after “this officer”.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–802 effective on sixtieth day after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–802, set out as a note under section 441 of this title.

§451a. Harbors subject to this subchapter

The following harbors shall be subject to this subchapter:

(1) The harbor of New York.

(2) The harbor of Hampton Roads.

(3) The harbor of Baltimore.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §6, 25 Stat. 210; Pub. L. 85–802, §1(7), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 970.)

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–802 substituted provisions making harbors of New York, Hampton Roads, and Baltimore subject to this subchapter for appropriation provisions.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–802 effective on sixtieth day after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–802, set out as a note under section 441 of this title.

§451b. Waters included within subchapter

For the purposes of this subchapter—

(1) The term “harbor of New York” means the tidal waters of the harbor of New York, its adjacent and tributary waters, and those of Long Island Sound.

(2) The term “harbor of Hampton Roads” means the tidal waters of the harbors of Norfolk, Portsmouth, Newport News, Hampton Roads, and their adjacent and tributary waters, so much of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries as lies within the State of Virginia, and so much of the Atlantic Ocean and its tributaries as lies within the jurisdiction of the United States within or to the east of the State of Virginia.

(3) The term “harbor of Baltimore” means the tidal waters of the harbor of Baltimore and its adjacent and tributary waters, and so much of Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries as lies within the State of Maryland.

(June 29, 1888, ch. 496, §7, as added Pub. L. 85–802, §1(8), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 970.)

Effective Date

Section effective on sixtieth day after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–802, set out as an Effective Date of 1958 Amendment note under section 441 of this title.

§452. Taking shellfish or otherwise interfering with navigation in New York Harbor channels; penalty; arrest and procedure

It shall be unlawful for any person or persons to engage in fishing or dredging for shellfish in any of the channels leading to and from the harbor of New York, or to interfere in any way with the safe navigation of those channels by ocean steamships and ships of deep draft.

Any person or persons violating the foregoing provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by fine or imprisonment, or both, such fine to be not more than $250 nor less than $50, and the imprisonment to be not more than six months nor less than thirty days, either or both united, as the judge before whom conviction is obtained shall decide.

It shall be the duty of the United States supervisor of the harbor to enforce this section, and the deputy inspectors of the said supervisor shall have authority to arrest and take into custody, with or without process, any person or persons, who may commit any of the acts or offenses prohibited by this section: Provided, That no person shall be arrested without process for any offense not committed in the presence of the supervisor or his inspector or deputy inspectors, or either of them: And provided further, That whenever any such arrest is made the person or persons so arrested shall be brought forthwith before a magistrate judge, judge, or court of the United States for examination of the offenses alleged against him; and such magistrate judge, judge or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in case of crimes against the United States.

(Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §2, 28 Stat. 360; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act June 29, 1888, ch. 496, 25 Stat. 209, which comprises this subchapter.

Change of Name

“Magistrate judge” substituted in text for “magistrate” pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, “magistrate” was substituted for “commissioner” pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

§453. Regulations for navigation of Ambrose Channel; exclusion of tows and sailing vessels

The Secretary of the Army is authorized to make such rules and regulations for the navigation of Ambrose Channel as he may deem necessary or expedient to insure its safe use in all kinds of weather, night and day, for all vessels under control and running under their own power, and to this end he may, in his discretion, forbid its use to tows of every description and to sailing vessels.

(Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 144, §1, 37 Stat. 803; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act June 29, 1888, ch. 496, 25 Stat. 209, which comprises this subchapter.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

§454. Consent of Congress to obstruction of waters by New York City

The consent of Congress is given to the city of New York, in the State of New York, to obstruct navigation of any river or other waterway which does not form a connecting link between other navigable waters of the United States, and lying wholly within the limits of said city, by closing all or any portion of the same or by building structures in or over the same when the said city shall be lawfully authorized to do so by the State of New York: Provided, however, That any such obstruction shall be unlawful unless the location and plans for the proposed work or works before the commencement thereof shall have been filed with and approved by the Secretary of the Army and Chief of Engineers; and when the plans for any such obstruction have been approved by the Chief of Engineers and by the Secretary of the Army it shall not be lawful to deviate from such plans either before or after the completion of such obstruction, unless the modification of such plans has previously been submitted to and received the approval of the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of the Army: And provided further, That the city of New York shall be liable for any damage that may be inflicted upon private property by reason of any of the provisions of this section.

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section is expressly reserved, and the United States shall incur no liability for the alteration, amendment, or repeal thereof to the city of New York, or to the owner or owners, or any other persons interested in any obstruction which shall have been constructed under its provisions.

(June 25, 1910, ch. 436, §§1, 2, 36 Stat. 866, 867; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act June 29, 1888, ch. 496, 25 Stat. 209, which comprises this subchapter.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under section 401 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(A), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449 amended section 401 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(A).

SUBCHAPTER IV—POTOMAC RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES IN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

§§461 to 464. Repealed. Mar. 3, 1901, ch. 854, §1636, 31 Stat. 1434

Section 461, act May 19, 1896, ch. 208, §1, 29 Stat. 126, prohibited deposit of ballast, dirt, ashes or oyster shells into Potomac River except for purpose of making a wharf and then only after approval.

Section 462, act May 19, 1896, ch. 208, §2, 29 Stat. 127, prohibited deposit of dead fish, dead animals, fruits, vegetables, ice, snow, filth or trash of any kind into Potomac River.

Section 463, act May 19, 1896, ch. 208, §3, 29 Stat. 127, related to penalties.

Section 464, act May 19, 1896, ch. 208, §4, 29 Stat. 127, provided that none of these provisions be construed to interfere with any work or improvements in harbor or river area.

SUBCHAPTER V—NAVIGABLE WATERS OF MARYLAND

§465. Authority to dredge; riparian rights of United States

Subject to the provisions of section 403 of this title authority is granted to dredge, without cost to the United States, in the navigable waters of the United States included within the State of Maryland and outside the limits of projects for improvement of navigation facilities approved by Congress, regardless of rights accruing to the United States as riparian owner under the laws of the State of Maryland: Provided, That in the opinion of the Chief of Engineers such dredging will improve facilities for navigation.

(July 3, 1930, ch. 847, §12, 46 Stat. 949.)

SUBCHAPTER VI—WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

§§466 to 466g. Transferred

Codification

Sections 466 to 466g of this title were transferred to sections 1151 to 1160 of this title and were subsequently omitted in the general amendment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by Pub. L. 92–500, §2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816. See section 1251 et seq. of this title.

Section 466, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §1, 62 Stat. 1155; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 498; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §1(a), 75 Stat. 204; Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §1(a), 79 Stat. 903; 1966 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. May 10, 1966, §§1(a), (e)(1), 5, 31 F.R. 6857, 80 Stat. 1608, which related to Congressional declaration of policy, was transferred to section 1151 of this title.

Section 466–1, act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §2, as added Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §2(a), 79 Stat. 903; amended 1966 Reorg. Plan. No. 2, eff. May 10, 1966, §1(a), (b), 31 F.R. 6857, 80 Stat. 1608; Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §110(a), 84 Stat. 113, which provided for a Federal Water Quality Administration, was transferred to section 1152 of this title.

Section 466a, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §3, formerly §2, 62 Stat. 1155; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 498; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §§1(b), 2, 75 Stat. 204; renumbered §3, Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §2(a), 79 Stat. 903; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title I, §101, 80 Stat. 1246, which provided for comprehensive water pollution programs, was transferred to section 1153 of this title.

Section 466b, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §4, formerly §3, 62 Stat. 1157; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 498; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §1(b), 75 Stat. 204; renumbered §4, Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §2(a), 79 Stat. 903, which provided for interstate cooperation, was transferred to section 1154 of this title.

Section 466c, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §5, formerly §4, 62 Stat. 1158; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 499; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §§1(b), (c), 3, 75 Stat. 204, 205; renumbered §5, Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §2(a), 79 Stat. 903; 1966 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. May 10, 1966, §1(a), 31 F.R. 6857, 80 Stat. 1608; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §201(b), (c)(1), 80 Stat. 1247, 1248; Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §105, 84 Stat. 111, which provided for research, experiments, and studies, was transferred to section 1155 of this title.

Section 466c–1, act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §6, as added Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §3, 79 Stat. 905; amended Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §201(a), 80 Stat. 1246; Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §106, 84 Stat. 113, which provided grants for research and development, was transferred to section 1156 of this title.

Section 466d, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §7, formerly §5, 62 Stat. 1158; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 499; June 25, 1959, Pub. L. 86–70, §28(a), 73 Stat. 148; July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–624, §23(a), 74 Stat. 417; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §§1(b), 4(a), (b), 75 Stat. 204, 205; renumbered §7 and amended Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §§2(a), 7(a), 79 Stat. 903, 910; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §202, 80 Stat. 1248, which provided grants for water pollution control programs, was transferred to section 1157 of this title.

Section 466e, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §8, formerly §6, 62 Stat. 1158; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 502; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §§1(b), 5, 75 Stat. 204, 206; renumbered §8 and amended Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §§2(a), 4, 7(b), 79 Stat. 903, 906, 910; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §§203(a), 204, 205, 80 Stat. 1248–1250; Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §111, 84 Stat. 113, which provided grants for construction of sewerage treatment works, was transferred to section 1158 of this title.

Section 466f, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §9, formerly §7, 62 Stat. 1159; July 17, 1952, ch. 927, 66 Stat. 755; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 503; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §§1(b)–(d), 6(a), (b), 75 Stat. 204, 207; renumbered §9, Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §2(a), 79 Stat. 903; 1966 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. May 10, 1966, §1(a), (c)(1), (2), 31 F.R. 6857, 80 Stat. 1608, which provided for a Water Pollution Control Advisory Board, was transferred to section 1159 of this title.

Section 466g, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §10, formerly §8, 62 Stat. 1159; July 17, 1952, ch. 927, 66 Stat. 755; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 504; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §§1(b), 7, 75 Stat. 204, 207; renumbered §10 and amended Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §§2(a), 5, 7(c), (d), 79 Stat. 903, 907, 910; 1966 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. May 10, 1966, §1(a), (d)(1), (2), 31 F.R. 6857, 80 Stat. 1608; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §§206–208, 80 Stat. 1250; Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §112, 84 Stat. 114, which provided for enforcement measures against pollution of interstate or navigable waters, was transferred to section 1160 of this title.

§466g–1. Controversies involving construction or application of interstate compacts and pollution of waters

(a) Jurisdiction of actions by States

The United States district courts shall have original jurisdiction (concurrent with that of the Supreme Court of the United States, and concurrent with that of any other court of the United States or of any State of the United States in matters in which the Supreme Court, or any other court, has original jurisdiction) of any case or controversy—

(1) which involves the construction or application of an interstate compact which (A) in whole or in part relates to the pollution of the waters of an interstate river system or any portion thereof, and (B) expresses the consent of the States signatory to said compact to be sued in a district court in any case or controversy involving the application or construction thereof; and

(2) which involves pollution of the waters of such river system, or any portion thereof, alleged to be in violation of the provisions of said compact; and

(3) in which one or more of the States signatory to said compact is a plaintiff or plaintiffs; and

(4) which is within the judicial power of the United States as set forth in the Constitution of the United States.

(b) Amount in controversy; residence, situs or citizenship; nature, character, or legal status of parties

The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of a case or controversy such as is referred to in subsection (a) of this section, without any requirement, limitation, or regard as to the sum or value of the matter in controversy, or of the place of residence or situs or citizenship, or of the nature, character, or legal status, of any of the proper parties plaintiff or defendant in said case or controversy other than the signatory State or States plaintiff or plaintiffs referred to in paragraph (3) of subsection (a) of this section: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing a State to sue its own citizens in said courts.

(c) Suits between States signatory to interstate compact

The original jurisdiction conferred upon the district courts by this section shall include, but not be limited to, suits between States signatory to such interstate compact: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing a State to sue another State which is not a signatory to such compact in said courts.

(d) Venue

The venue of such case or controversy shall be as prescribed by law: Provided, That in addition thereto, such case or controversy may be brought in in any judicial district in which the acts of pollution complained of, or any portion thereof, occur, regardless of the place or places of residence, or situs, of any of the parties plaintiff or defendant.

(Pub. L. 87–830, §1, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 957.)

Separability

Section 2 of Pub. L. 87–830 provided that: “If any part or application of this Act [this section] should be declared invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction, said invalidity shall not affect the other parts, or the other applications, of said Act.”

§§466h to 466l. Transferred

Codification

Sections 466h to 466l of this title were transferred to sections 1171 to 1175 of this title and were subsequently omitted in the general amendment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by Pub. L. 92–500, §2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816. See section 1251 et seq. of this title.

Section 466h, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §21, formerly §9, 62 Stat. 1160; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 506; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §8, 75 Stat. 210; renumbered §11 and amended Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §§2(a), 7(e), 79 Stat. 903, 910; 1966 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. May 10, 1966, §1(a), 31 F.R. 6857, 80 Stat. 1608; renumbered §21 and amended Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §§102, 103, 84 Stat. 91, 107, which provided for cooperation by all Federal agencies in pollution control, was transferred to section 1171 of this title.

Section 466i, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §22, formerly §10, 62 Stat. 1160; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 506; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §1(b), (d), (e), 75 Stat. 204; renumbered §12 and amended Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §§2(a), 6, 79 Stat. 903, 909; 1966 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. May 10, 1966, §1(a), 31 F.R. 6857, 80 Stat. 1608; renumbered §22 and amended Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §§102, 104, 84 Stat. 91, 110, which provided for rules and regulations, was transferred to section 1172 of this title.

Section 466j, acts June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §23, formerly §11, 62 Stat. 1161; July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 506; June 25, 1959, Pub. L. 86–70, §28(b), 73 Stat. 148; July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–624, §23(b), 74 Stat. 418; July 20, 1961, Pub. L. 87–88, §9, 75 Stat. 210; renumbered §13, Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §2(a), 79 Stat. 903; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §209, 80 Stat. 1251; renumbered §23, Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §102, 84 Stat. 91, which related to definitions, was transferred to section 1173 of this title.

Section 466k, act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §24, formerly §12, as added July 9, 1956, ch. 518, §1, 70 Stat. 506; renumbered §14, Oct. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–234, §2(a), 79 Stat. 903; renumbered §24 and amended Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §§102, 107, 84 Stat. 91, 113, which related to application of other laws, was transferred to section 1174 of this title.

Section 466l, act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §26, formerly §16, as added Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §210, 80 Stat. 1252; renumbered §26, Apr. 3, 1970, Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §102, 84 Stat. 91, which provided for studies and analysis of costs estimates and reports to Congress, was transferred to section 1175 of this title.

§§466m, 466n. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–224, title I, §102, Apr. 3, 1970, 84 Stat. 91

Section 466m, act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §17, as added Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §210, 80 Stat. 1252, authorized a study by Secretary of the Interior, and a report to Congress not later than July 1, 1967, of the extent of pollution of the navigable waters of the United States from litter and sewage deposited into such waters from watercraft.

Section 466n, act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, §18, as added Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–753, title II, §210, 80 Stat. 1252, authorized a study by Secretary of the Interior, and a report to Congress not later than Jan. 30, 1968, relating to incentives, including, but not limited to, tax and other financial incentives, to assist in the construction of industrial anti-pollution facilities.

SUBCHAPTER VII—DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM

§467. Definitions

In this subchapter, the following definitions apply:

(1) Board

The term “Board” means a National Dam Safety Review Board established under section 467f(f) of this title.

(2) Dam

The term “dam”—

(A) means any artificial barrier that has the ability to impound water, wastewater, or any liquid-borne material, for the purpose of storage or control of water, that—

(i) is 25 feet or more in height from—

(I) the natural bed of the stream channel or watercourse measured at the downstream toe of the barrier; or

(II) if the barrier is not across a stream channel or watercourse, from the lowest elevation of the outside limit of the barrier;


 to the maximum water storage elevation; or

(ii) has an impounding capacity for maximum storage elevation of 50 acre-feet or more; but


(B) does not include—

(i) a levee; or

(ii) a barrier described in subparagraph (A) that—

(I) is 6 feet or less in height regardless of storage capacity; or

(II) has a storage capacity at the maximum water storage elevation that is 15 acre-feet or less regardless of height;


 unless the barrier, because of the location of the barrier or another physical characteristic of the barrier, is likely to pose a significant threat to human life or property if the barrier fails (as determined by the Director).

(3) Director

The term “Director” means the Administrator of FEMA.

(4) Federal agency

The term “Federal agency” means a Federal agency that designs, finances, constructs, owns, operates, maintains, or regulates the construction, operation, or maintenance of a dam.

(5) Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety

The term “Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety” means the FEMA publication, numbered 93 and dated June 1979, that defines management practices for dam safety at all Federal agencies.

(6) FEMA

The term “FEMA” means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(7) Hazard reduction

The term “hazard reduction” means the reduction in the potential consequences to life and property of dam failure.

(8) ICODS

The term “ICODS” means the Interagency Committee on Dam Safety established by section 467e of this title.

(9) Program

The term “Program” means the national dam safety program established under section 467f of this title.

(10) State

The term “State” means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

(11) State dam safety agency

The term “State dam safety agency” means a State agency that has regulatory authority over the safety of non-Federal dams.

(12) State dam safety program

The term “State dam safety program” means a State dam safety program approved and assisted under section 467f(e) of this title.

(13) United States

The term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, means all of the States.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §2, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(4), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685; amended Pub. L. 107–310, §3(e)(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2451; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 467, Pub. L. 92–367, §1, Aug. 8, 1972, 86 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(a), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4260, defined term “dam” as used in this subchapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, §215(c)(1).

A prior section 2 of Pub. L. 92–367 was renumbered section 3 by section 215(c)(3) of Pub. L. 104–303 and is classified to section 467a of this title.

Amendments

2002—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(e)(2)(A), substituted “section 467f(f)” for “section 467f(h)”.

Par. (12). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(e)(2)(B), substituted “section 467f(e)” for “section 467f(f)”.

Change of Name

“Administrator of FEMA” substituted for “Director of FEMA” in par. (3) on authority of section 612(c) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6, Domestic Security. Any reference to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in title VI of Pub. L. 109–295 or an amendment by title VI to be considered to refer and apply to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency until Mar. 31, 2007, see section 612(f)(2) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6.

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–460, §1(a), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3401, provided that: “This section [amending sections 467d, 467f, and 467j of this title] may be cited as the ‘Dam Safety Act of 2006’.”

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–310, §1(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2450, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 467g–1 of this title and amending this section and sections 467e to 467g and 467h to 467j of this title] may be cited as the ‘Dam Safety and Security Act of 2002’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Section 1206 of title XII of Pub. L. 99–662 provided that: “This title [enacting sections 467f to 467n and 2311 of this title and amending this section and sections 467a and 467b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Dam Safety Act of 1986’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 92–367, as added by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(1), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685, provided that: “This Act [enacting this subchapter] may be cited as the ‘National Dam Safety Program Act’.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Congressional Statement of Purpose; National Dam Safety Program

Section 215(a) of Pub. L. 104–303 provided that: “The purpose of this section [enacting this section and sections 467d to 467j of this title, amending sections 467a to 467c of this title and section 3802 of Title 25, Indians, repealing former sections 467 and 467d to 467m of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] is to reduce the risks to life and property from dam failure in the United States through the establishment and maintenance of an effective national dam safety program to bring together the expertise and resources of the Federal and non-Federal communities in achieving national dam safety hazard reduction. It is not the intent of this section to preempt any other Federal or State authorities nor is it the intent of this section to mandate State participation in the grant assistance program to be established under this section.”

Effect on Other Dam Safety Programs

Section 215(b) of Pub. L. 104–303 provided that: “Nothing in this section (including the amendments made by this section) [enacting this section and sections 467d to 467j of this title, amending sections 467a to 467c of this title and section 3802 of Title 25, Indians, repealing former sections 467 and 467d to 467m of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall preempt or otherwise affect any dam safety program of a Federal agency other than the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including any program that regulates, permits, or licenses any activity affecting a dam.”

§467a. Inspection of dams

(a) In general

As soon as practicable, the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, shall carry out a national program of inspection of dams for the purpose of protecting human life and property. All dams in the United States shall be inspected by the Secretary except (1) dams under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Reclamation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, or the International Boundary and Water Commission, (2) dams which have been constructed pursuant to licenses issued under the authority of the Federal Power Act [16 U.S.C. 791a et seq.], (3) dams which have been inspected within the twelve-month period immediately prior to August 8, 1972, by a State agency and which the Governor of such State requests be excluded from inspection, and (4) dams which the Secretary of the Army determines do not pose any threat to human life or property. The Secretary may inspect dams which have been licensed under the Federal Power Act upon request of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and dams under the jurisdiction of the International Boundary and Water Commission upon request of such Commission.

(b) State participation

On request of a State dam safety agency, with respect to any dam the failure of which would affect the State, the head of a Federal agency shall—

(1) provide information to the State dam safety agency on the construction, operation, or maintenance of the dam; or

(2) allow any official of the State dam safety agency to participate in the Federal inspection of the dam.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §3, formerly §2, Aug. 8, 1972, 86 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 95–91, title IV, §402(a)(1)(A), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 583; renumbered §3 and amended Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(3), (5), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685, 3687.)

References in Text

The Federal Power Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 10, 1920, ch. 285, 41 Stat. 1063, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 12 (§791a et seq.) of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 791a of Title 16 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3 of Pub. L. 92–367 was renumbered section 4 and is classified to section 467b of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–303 inserted section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

Transfer of Functions

“Federal Energy Regulatory Commission” substituted in text for “Federal Power Commission” on authority of Pub. L. 95–91, title IV, §402(a)(1)(A), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 583, which is classified to section 7172(a)(1)(A) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

§467b. Investigation reports to Governors

As soon as practicable after inspection of a dam, the Secretary shall notify the Governor of the State in which such dam is located the results of such investigation. In any case in which any hazardous conditions are found during an inspection, upon request by the owner, the Secretary, acting through the Chief of Engineers, may perform detailed engineering studies to determine the structural integrity of the dam, subject to reimbursement of such expense by the owner of such dam. The Secretary shall immediately notify the Governor of any hazardous conditions found during an inspection. The Secretary shall provide advice to the Governor, upon request, relating to timely remedial measures necessary to mitigate or obviate any hazardous conditions found during an inspection.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §4, formerly §3, Aug. 8, 1972, 86 Stat. 507; Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1204, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4263; renumbered §4 and amended Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(3), (6), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685, 3687.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 4 of Pub. L. 92–367 was renumbered section 5 and is classified to section 467c of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–303 inserted section catchline.

1986—Pub. L. 99–662 inserted “In any case in which any hazardous conditions are found during an inspection, upon request by the owner, the Secretary, acting through the Chief of Engineers, may perform detailed engineering studies to determine the structural integrity of the dam, subject to reimbursement of such expense by the owner of such dam.”

§467c. Determination of danger to human life and property

For the purpose of determining whether a dam (including the waters impounded by such dam) constitutes a danger to human life or property, the Secretary shall take into consideration the possibility that the dam might be endangered by overtopping, seepage, settlement, erosion, sediment, cracking, earth movement, earthquakes, failure of bulkheads, flashboard, gates on conduits, or other conditions which exist or which might occur in any area in the vicinity of the dam.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §5, formerly §4, Aug. 8, 1972, 86 Stat. 507; renumbered §5 and amended Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(3), (7), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685, 3687.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467d of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–303 inserted section catchline.

§467d. National dam inventory

The Secretary of the Army shall maintain and update information on the inventory of dams in the United States. Such inventory of dams shall include any available information assessing each dam based on inspections completed by either a Federal agency or a State dam safety agency.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §6, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(8), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3687; amended Pub. L. 109–460, §1(b), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3401.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 467d, Pub. L. 92–367, §5, Aug. 8, 1972, 86 Stat. 507, directed Secretary report to Congress on or before July 1, 1974, on activities under this subchapter, including in report an inventory of dams in the United States, a review of each inspection made, recommendations to State Governors and implementation of those recommendations, recommendations for comprehensive national program for inspection and safety regulation, and recommendations on responsibilities which should be assumed by Federal, State, and local governments and by public and private interests, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685.

A prior section 6 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467e of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–460 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, may maintain and periodically publish updated information on the inventory of dams in the United States.”

§467e. Interagency Committee on Dam Safety

(a) Establishment

There is established an Interagency Committee on Dam Safety—

(1) comprised of a representative of each of the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, the Department of Labor, FEMA, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the United States Section of the International Boundary Commission; and

(2) chaired by the Director.

(b) Duties

ICODS shall encourage the establishment and maintenance of effective Federal programs, policies, and guidelines intended to enhance dam safety for the protection of human life and property through coordination and information exchange among Federal agencies concerning implementation of the Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §7, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(8), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3687; amended Pub. L. 107–310, §2, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2450.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 467e, Pub. L. 92–367, §6, Aug. 8, 1972, 86 Stat. 507, directed that existing liabilities and obligations be unaffected, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685.

A prior section 7 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467f of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–310 substituted “Federal programs” for “Federal and State programs” and “through coordination and information exchange among Federal agencies concerning implementation of the Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety.” for “through—

“(1) coordination and information exchange among Federal agencies and State dam safety agencies; and

“(2) coordination and information exchange among Federal agencies concerning implementation of the Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§467f. National dam safety program

(a) In general

The Director, in consultation with ICODS and State dam safety agencies, and the Board shall establish and maintain, in accordance with this section, a coordinated national dam safety program. The Program shall—

(1) be administered by FEMA to achieve the objectives set forth in subsection (c) of this section;

(2) involve, to the extent appropriate, each Federal agency; and

(3) include—

(A) each of the components described in subsection (d) of this section;

(B) the strategic plan described in subsection (b) of this section; and

(C) assistance for State dam safety programs described in subsection (e) of this section.

(b) Duties

The Director shall prepare a strategic plan—

(1) to establish goals, priorities, performance measures, and target dates toward effectively administering this subchapter in order to improve the safety of dams in the United States; and

(2) to the extent feasible, to establish cooperation and coordination with, and assistance to, interested governmental entities in all States.

(c) Objectives

The objectives of the Program are to—

(1) ensure that new and existing dams are safe through the development of technologically and economically feasible programs and procedures for national dam safety hazard reduction;

(2) encourage acceptable engineering policies and procedures to be used for dam site investigation, design, construction, operation and maintenance, and emergency preparedness;

(3) encourage the establishment and implementation of effective dam safety programs in each State based on State standards;

(4) develop and encourage public awareness projects to increase public acceptance and support of State dam safety programs;

(5) develop technical assistance materials for Federal and non-Federal dam safety programs;

(6) develop mechanisms with which to provide Federal technical assistance for dam safety to the non-Federal sector; and

(7) develop technical assistance materials, seminars, and guidelines to improve security for dams in the United States.

(d) Components

(1) In general

The Program shall consist of—

(A) a Federal element and a non-Federal element; and

(B) leadership activity, technical assistance activity, and public awareness activity.

(2) Elements

(A) Federal

The Federal element shall incorporate the activities and practices carried out by Federal agencies under section 467e of this title to implement the Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety.

(B) Non-Federal

The non-Federal element shall consist of—

(i) the activities and practices carried out by States, local governments, and the private sector to safely build, regulate, operate, and maintain dams; and

(ii) Federal activities that foster State efforts to develop and implement effective programs for the safety of dams.

(3) Functional activities

(A) Leadership

The leadership activity shall be the responsibility of FEMA and shall be exercised by chairing the Board to coordinate national efforts to improve the safety of the dams in the United States.

(B) Technical assistance

The technical assistance activity shall consist of the transfer of knowledge and technical information among the Federal and non-Federal elements described in paragraph (2).

(C) Public awareness

The public awareness activity shall provide for the education of the public, including State and local officials, in the hazards of dam failure, methods of reducing the adverse consequences of dam failure, and related matters.

(e) Assistance for State dam safety programs

(1) In general

To encourage the establishment and maintenance of effective State programs intended to ensure dam safety, to protect human life and property, and to improve State dam safety programs, the Director shall provide assistance with amounts made available under section 467j of this title to assist States in establishing, maintaining, and improving dam safety programs in accordance with the criteria specified in paragraph (2).

(2) Criteria and budgeting requirement

For a State to be eligible for assistance under this subsection, a State dam safety program must be working toward meeting the following criteria and budgeting requirement:

(A) Criteria

A State dam safety program must be authorized by State legislation to include, at a minimum—

(i) the authority to review and approve plans and specifications to construct, enlarge, modify, remove, and abandon dams;

(ii) the authority to perform periodic inspections during dam construction to ensure compliance with approved plans and specifications;

(iii) a requirement that, on completion of dam construction, State approval must be given before operation of the dam;

(iv) the authority to require or perform periodic evaluations of all dams and reservoirs to determine the extent of the threat to human life and property in case of failure;

(v)(I) the authority to require or perform the inspection, at least once every 5 years, of all dams and reservoirs that would pose a significant threat to human life and property in case of failure to determine the continued safety of the dams and reservoirs; and

(II) a procedure for more detailed and frequent safety inspections;

(vi) a requirement that all inspections be performed under the supervision of a State-registered professional engineer with related experience in dam design and construction;

(vii) the authority to issue notices, when appropriate, to require owners of dams to perform necessary maintenance or remedial work, install and monitor instrumentation, improve security, revise operating procedures, or take other actions, including breaching dams when necessary;

(viii) regulations for carrying out the legislation of the State described in this subparagraph;

(ix) provision for necessary funds—

(I) to ensure timely repairs or other changes to, or removal of, a dam in order to protect human life and property; and

(II) if the owner of the dam does not take action described in subclause (I), to take appropriate action as expeditiously as practicable;


(x) a system of emergency procedures to be used if a dam fails or if the failure of a dam is imminent; and

(xi) an identification of—

(I) each dam the failure of which could be reasonably expected to endanger human life;

(II) the maximum area that could be flooded if the dam failed; and

(III) necessary public facilities that would be affected by the flooding.

(B) Budgeting requirement

For a State to be eligible for assistance under this subsection, State appropriations must be budgeted to carry out the legislation of the State under subparagraph (A).

(3) Work plans

The Director shall enter into a 1 agreement with each State receiving assistance under paragraph (2) to develop a work plan necessary for the State dam safety program to reach a level of program performance specified in the agreement.

(4) Maintenance of effort

Assistance may not be provided to a State under this subsection for a fiscal year unless the State enters into such agreement with the Director as the Director requires to ensure that the State will maintain the aggregate expenditures of the State from all other sources for programs to ensure dam safety for the protection of human life and property at or above a level equal to the average annual level of such expenditures for the 2 fiscal years preceding the fiscal year.

(5) Approval of programs

(A) Submission

For a State to be eligible for assistance under this subsection, a plan for a State dam safety program shall be submitted to the Director for approval.

(B) Approval

A State dam safety program shall be deemed to be approved 120 days after the date of receipt by the Director unless the Director determines within the 120-day period that the State dam safety program fails to meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) through (3).

(C) Notification of disapproval

If the Director determines that a State dam safety program does not meet the requirements for approval, the Director shall immediately notify the State in writing and provide the reasons for the determination and the changes that are necessary for the plan to be approved.

(6) Review of State dam safety programs

Using the expertise of the Board, the Director shall periodically review State dam safety programs. If the Board finds that a State dam safety program has proven inadequate to reasonably protect human life and property and the Director concurs, the Director shall revoke approval of the State dam safety program, and withhold assistance under this subsection, until the State dam safety program again meets the requirements for approval.

(f) Board

(1) Establishment

The Director shall establish an advisory board to be known as the “National Dam Safety Review Board” to monitor the safety of dams in the United States, to monitor State implementation of this section, and to advise the Director on national dam safety policy.

(2) Authority

The Board may use the expertise of Federal agencies and enter into contracts for necessary studies to carry out this section.

(3) Voting membership

The Board shall consist of 11 voting members selected by the Director for expertise in dam safety, of whom—

(A) 1 member shall represent the Department of Agriculture;

(B) 1 member shall represent the Department of Defense;

(C) 1 member shall represent the Department of the Interior;

(D) 1 member shall represent FEMA;

(E) 1 member shall represent the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission;

(F) 5 members shall be selected by the Director from among State dam safety officials; and

(G) 1 member shall be selected by the Director to represent the private sector.

(4) Nonvoting membership

The Director, in consultation with the Board, may invite a representative of the National Laboratories of the Department of Energy and may invite representatives from Federal or State agencies or dam safety experts, as needed, to participate in meetings of the Board.

(5) Duties

(A) In general

The Board shall encourage the establishment and maintenance of effective programs, policies, and guidelines to enhance dam safety for the protection of human life and property throughout the United States.

(B) Coordination and information exchange among agencies

In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Board shall encourage coordination and information exchange among Federal and State dam safety agencies that share common problems and responsibilities for dam safety, including planning, design, construction, operation, emergency action planning, inspections, maintenance, regulation or licensing, technical or financial assistance, research, and data management.

(6) Work groups

The Director may establish work groups under the Board to assist the Board in accomplishing its goals. The work groups shall consist of members of the Board and other individuals selected by the Director.

(7) Compensation of members

(A) Federal employees

Each member of the Board who is an officer or employee of the United States shall serve without compensation in addition to compensation received for the services of the member as an officer or employee of the United States.

(B) Other members

Each member of the Board who is not an officer or employee of the United States shall serve without compensation.

(8) Travel expenses

(A) Representatives of Federal agencies

To the extent amounts are made available in advance in appropriations Acts, each member of the Board who represents a Federal agency shall be reimbursed of appropriations for travel expenses by his or her agency, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for an employee of an agency under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, while away from the home or regular place of business of the member in the performance of services for the Board.

(B) Other individuals

To the extent amounts are made available in advance in appropriations Acts, each member of the Board who represents a State agency, the member of the Board who represents the private sector, and each member of a work group created under paragraph (1) shall be reimbursed for travel expenses by FEMA, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for an employee of an agency under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, while away from home or regular place of business of the member in performance of services for the Board.

(9) Applicability of Federal Advisory Committee Act

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Board.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §8, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(8), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3688; amended Pub. L. 107–310, §3(a)–(e)(1), (f), (g), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2450, 2451; Pub. L. 109–460, §1(c), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3401.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(9), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 467f, Pub. L. 92–367, §7, as added Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4260; amended Pub. L. 102–580, title II, §209(a), Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4830, related to funding for State dam safety programs, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685.

A prior section 8 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467g of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(c)(1), substituted “performance measures, and target dates toward effectively administering this subchapter in order to” for “and target dates to”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(c)(2)(A), struck out “substantially” after “to include” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(iv) to (vi). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(c)(2)(B), (C), added cl. (iv) and redesignated former cls. (iv) and (v) as (v) and (vi), respectively. Former cl. (vi) redesignated (vii).

Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(vii). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(c)(2)(B), (D), redesignated cl. (vi) as (vii) and inserted “install and monitor instrumentation,” after “remedial work,”. Former cl. (vii) redesignated (viii).

Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(viii) to (xi). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(c)(2)(B), redesignated cls. (vii) to (x) as (viii) to (xi), respectively.

2002—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(a)(1), substituted “strategic plan described in subsection (b)” for “implementation plan described in subsection (e)”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(a)(2), substituted “subsection (e)” for “subsection (f)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(b), amended heading and text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Director shall—

“(1) not later than 270 days after October 12, 1996, develop the implementation plan described in subsection (e) of this section;

“(2) not later than 300 days after October 12, 1996, submit to the appropriate authorizing committees of Congress the implementation plan described in subsection (e) of this section; and

“(3) by regulation, not later than 360 days after October 12, 1996—

“(A) develop and implement the Program;

“(B) establish goals, priorities, and target dates for implementation of the Program; and

“(C) to the extent feasible, provide a method for cooperation and coordination with, and assistance to, interested governmental entities in all States.”

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(c), added par. (7).

Subsec. (d)(3)(A). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(d), substituted “and shall be exercised by chairing the Board to coordinate national efforts to improve the safety of the dams in the United States” for “and shall be exercised by chairing ICODS to coordinate Federal efforts in cooperation with State dam safety officials”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(e)(1), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (e). Text read as follows: “The Director shall—

“(1) develop an implementation plan for the Program that shall set, through fiscal year 2002, year-by-year targets that demonstrate improvements in dam safety; and

“(2) recommend appropriate roles for Federal agencies and for State and local units of government, individuals, and private organizations in carrying out the implementation plan.”

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(f)(1), substituted “the Director shall provide assistance with amounts made available under section 467j of this title to assist States in establishing, maintaining, and improving dam safety programs in accordance with the criteria specified in paragraph (2).” for “the Director shall provide assistance with amounts made available under section 467j of this title to assist States in establishing and maintaining dam safety programs—

“(A) in accordance with the criteria specified in paragraph (2); and

“(B) in accordance with more advanced requirements and standards established by the Board and the Director with the assistance of established criteria such as the Model State Dam Safety Program published by FEMA, numbered 123 and dated April 1987, and amendments to the Model State Dam Safety Program.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(f)(2)(A), in introductory provisions, struck out “primary” after “For a State to be eligible for” and “, and for a State to be eligible for advanced assistance under this subsection, a State dam safety program must meet the following criteria and budgeting requirement and be working toward meeting the advanced requirements and standards established under paragraph (1)(B)” before colon.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(f)(2)(B)(i), substituted “A State” for “For a State to be eligible for assistance under this subsection, a State” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(f)(2)(B)(ii), inserted “improve security,” before “revise operating procedures,”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(f)(3), substituted “agreement” for “contract” in two places.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(e)(1), redesignated subsec. (h) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(g)(1), substituted “The Director shall establish” for “The Director may establish” and “to monitor the safety of dams in the United States, to monitor State implementation of this section, and to advise the Director on national dam safety policy” for “to monitor State implementation of this section”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(g)(2)(A), (B), substituted “Voting membership” for “Membership” in heading and “11 voting members” for “11 members” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(3)(F), (G). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(g)(2)(C), added subpars. (F) and (G) and struck out former subpars. (F) and (G) which read as follows:

“(F) 5 members shall be selected by the Director from among dam safety officials of States; and

“(G) 1 member shall be selected by the Director to represent the United States Committee on Large Dams.”

Subsec. (f)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(g)(3)(B), added pars. (4) to (6). Former pars. (4) to (6) redesignated (7) to (9), respectively.

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(g)(3)(A), redesignated par. (4) as (7).

Subsec. (f)(8). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(g)(4), added par. (8) and struck out heading and text of former par. (8). Text read as follows: “Each member of the Board shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for an employee of an agency under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, while away from the home or regular place of business of the member in the performance of services for the Board.”

Pub. L. 107–310, §3(g)(3)(A), redesignated par. (5) as (8).

Subsec. (f)(9). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(g)(3)(A), redesignated par. (6) as (9).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(e)(1), struck out heading and text of subsec. (g). Text read as follows: “At the request of any State that has or intends to develop a State dam safety program, the Director shall provide training for State dam safety staff and inspectors.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–310, §3(e)(1), redesignated subsec. (h) as (f).

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 So in original. Probably should be “an”.

§467f–1. Lock and dam security

(a) Standards

The Secretary, in consultation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Coast Guard, shall develop standards for the security of locks and dams, including the testing and certification of vessel exclusion barriers.

(b) Site surveys

At the request of a lock or dam owner, the Secretary shall provide technical assistance, on a reimbursable basis, to improve lock or dam security.

(c) Cooperative agreement

The Secretary may enter into a cooperative agreement with a nonprofit alliance of public and private organizations that has the mission of promoting safe waterways and seaports to carry out testing and certification activities, and to perform site surveys, under this section.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated $3,000,000 to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 110–114, title V, §5024, Nov. 8, 2007, 121 Stat. 1203.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007, and not as part of the National Dam Safety Program Act which comprises this subchapter.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2 of Pub. L. 110–114, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§467g. Research

(a) In general

The Director, in cooperation with the Board, shall carry out a program of technical and archival research to develop and support—

(1) improved techniques, historical experience, and equipment for rapid and effective dam construction, rehabilitation, and inspection;

(2) devices for the continued monitoring of the safety of dams;

(3) development and maintenance of information resources systems needed to support managing the safety of dams; and

(4) initiatives to guide the formulation of effective public policy and advance improvements in dam safety engineering, security, and management.

(b) Consultation

The Director shall provide for State participation in research under subsection (a) of this section and periodically advise all States and Congress of the results of the research.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §9, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(8), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3692; amended Pub. L. 107–310, §4, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2453.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 467g, Pub. L. 92–367, §8, as added Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4261, set out the requisite features of State dam safety programs and provided for program approval and periodic review, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685.

A prior section 9 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467h of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–310, §4(1), in introductory provisions, substituted “in cooperation with the Board” for “in cooperation with ICODS” and inserted “and support” after “develop”.

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 107–310, §4(2)–(4), added pars. (3) and (4).

§467g–1. Dam safety training

At the request of any State that has or intends to develop a State dam safety program, the Director shall provide training for State dam safety staff and inspectors.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §10, as added Pub. L. 107–310, §5(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2453.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 10 of Pub. L. 92–367 was renumbered section 11, and is classified to section 467h of this title.

Another prior section 10 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467i of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

§467h. Reports

Not later than 90 days after the end of each odd-numbered fiscal year, the Director shall submit a report to Congress that—

(1) describes the status of the Program;

(2) describes the progress achieved by Federal agencies during the 2 preceding fiscal years in implementing the Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety;

(3) describes the progress achieved in dam safety by States participating in the Program; and

(4) includes any recommendations for legislative and other action that the Director considers necessary.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §11, formerly §10, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(8), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3692; renumbered §11 and amended Pub. L. 107–310, §§5(1), 6, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2453.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 467h, Pub. L. 92–367, §9, as added Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4262, provided for creation of National Dam Safety Review Board, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685.

A prior section 11 of Pub. L. 92–367 was renumbered section 12, and is classified to section 467i of this title.

Another prior section 11 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467j of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–310, §6, struck out subsec. designations and headings for subsecs. (a) and (b) and text of subsec. (a) which read as follows: “Not later than 180 days after October 12, 1996, the Director shall report to Congress on the availability of dam insurance and make recommendations concerning encouraging greater availability.”

§467i. Statutory construction

Nothing in this subchapter and no action or failure to act under this subchapter shall—

(1) create any liability in the United States or its officers or employees for the recovery of damages caused by such action or failure to act;

(2) relieve an owner or operator of a dam of the legal duties, obligations, or liabilities incident to the ownership or operation of the dam; or

(3) preempt any other Federal or State law.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §12, formerly §11, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(8), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3693; renumbered §12, Pub. L. 107–310, §5(1), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2453.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 467i, Pub. L. 92–367, §10, as added Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4262, related to consultation of Federal officers with State officials when dam operated or proposed by Federal agency is operated or proposed in a State, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685.

A prior section 12 of Pub. L. 92–367 was renumbered section 13, and is classified to section 467j of this title.

Another prior section 12 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467k of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

§467j. Authorization of appropriations

(a) National dam safety program

(1) Annual amounts

There are authorized to be appropriated to FEMA to carry out sections 467e, 467f, and 467h of this title (in addition to any amounts made available for similar purposes included in any other Act and amounts made available under subsections (b) through (e) of this section), $6,500,000 for fiscal year 2007, $7,100,000 for fiscal year 2008, $7,600,000 for fiscal year 2009, $8,300,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $9,200,000 for fiscal year 2011, to remain available until expended.

(2) Allocation

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C), for each fiscal year, amounts made available under this subsection to carry out section 467f of this title shall be allocated among the States as follows:

(i) One-third among States that qualify for assistance under section 467f(e) of this title.

(ii) Two-thirds among States that qualify for assistance under section 467f(e) of this title, to each such State in proportion to—

(I) the number of dams in the State that are listed as State-regulated dams on the inventory of dams maintained under section 467d of this title; as compared to

(II) the number of dams in all States that are listed as State-regulated dams on the inventory of dams maintained under section 467d of this title.

(B) Maximum amount of allocation

The amount of funds allocated to a State under this paragraph may not exceed 50 percent of the reasonable cost of implementing the State dam safety program.

(C) Determination

The Director and the Board shall determine the amount allocated to States.

(b) National dam inventory

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 467d of this title $650,000 for fiscal year 2007, $700,000 for fiscal year 2008, $750,000 for fiscal year 2009, $800,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $850,000 for fiscal year 2011.

(c) Research

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 467g of this title $1,600,000 for fiscal year 2007, $1,700,000 for fiscal year 2008, $1,800,000 for fiscal year 2009, $1,900,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $2,000,000 for fiscal year 2011, to remain until expended.

(d) Dam safety training

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 467g–1 of this title $550,000 for fiscal year 2007, $600,000 for fiscal year 2008, $650,000 for fiscal year 2009, $700,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $750,000 for fiscal year 2011.

(e) Staff

There is authorized to be appropriated to FEMA for the employment of such additional staff personnel as are necessary to carry out sections 467f through 467g–1 of this title $700,000 for fiscal year 2007, $800,000 for fiscal year 2008, $900,000 for fiscal year 2009, $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $1,100,000 for fiscal year 2011.

(f) Limitation on use of amounts

Amounts made available under this subchapter may not be used to construct or repair any Federal or non-Federal dam.

(Pub. L. 92–367, §13, formerly §12, as added Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(8), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3693; renumbered §13 and amended Pub. L. 107–310, §§5(1), 7, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2453; Pub. L. 109–460, §1(d), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3401.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 467j, Pub. L. 92–367, §11, as added Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4262; amended Pub. L. 102–580, title II, §209(b), Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4830, related to training for State dam safety inspectors, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685.

A prior section 13 of Pub. L. 92–367 was classified to section 467l of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–303.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(d)(1), substituted “$6,500,000 for fiscal year 2007, $7,100,000 for fiscal year 2008, $7,600,000 for fiscal year 2009, $8,300,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $9,200,000 for fiscal year 2011” for “$6,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2006”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(d)(2), substituted “$650,000 for fiscal year 2007, $700,000 for fiscal year 2008, $750,000 for fiscal year 2009, $800,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $850,000 for fiscal year 2011” for “$500,000 for each fiscal year”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(d)(3), substituted “$1,600,000 for fiscal year 2007, $1,700,000 for fiscal year 2008, $1,800,000 for fiscal year 2009, $1,900,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $2,000,000 for fiscal year 2011” for “$1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2006”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(d)(4), substituted “$550,000 for fiscal year 2007, $600,000 for fiscal year 2008, $650,000 for fiscal year 2009, $700,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $750,000 for fiscal year 2011” for “$500,000 for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2006”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–460, §1(d)(5), substituted “$700,000 for fiscal year 2007, $800,000 for fiscal year 2008, $900,000 for fiscal year 2009, $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $1,100,000 for fiscal year 2011” for “$600,000 for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2006”.

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–310, §7(a)(2), substituted “$6,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2006, to remain available until expended” for “$1,000,000 for fiscal year 1998, $2,000,000 for fiscal year 1999, $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2000, $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, and $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2002”.

Pub. L. 107–310, §7(a)(1), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 467h of this title.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 107–310, §7(b)(1), substituted “section 467f(e)” for “section 467f(f)”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 107–310, §7(b)(2), struck out “needing primary assistance and States needing advanced assistance under section 467f(f) of this title” before period at end.

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 107–310, §7(c), added subsecs. (c) to (e) and struck out former subsecs. (c) to (e) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1998 through 2002 for dam safety training, research, and staff.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§§467k to 467m. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–303, title II, §215(c)(2), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3685

Section 467k, Pub. L. 92–367, §12, as added Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4262; amended Pub. L. 100–418, title V, §5115(c), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 102–580, title II, §209(c), Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4830, related to development of improved dam inspection techniques.

Section 467l, Pub. L. 92–367, §13, as added Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4262; amended Pub. L. 102–580, title II, §209(d), Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4830, related to dam inventory updates.

Section 467m, Pub. L. 92–367, §14, as added Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1201(b), Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4263, provided that inspection funds were not to be used for repair or construction of any dam.

§467n. Recovery of dam modification costs required for safety purposes

(a) After November 17, 1986, costs incurred in the modification by the Secretary of dams and related facilities constructed or operated by the Secretary, the cause of which results from new hydrologic or seismic data or changes in state-of-the-art design or construction criteria deemed necessary for safety purposes, shall be recovered in accordance with the provisions in this subsection:

(1) Fifteen percent of the modification costs shall be assigned to project purposes in accordance with the cost allocation in effect for the project at the time the work is initiated. Non-Federal interests shall share the costs assigned to each purpose in accord with the cost sharing in effect at the time of initial project construction: Provided, That the Secretary of the Interior shall recover costs assigned to irrigation in accordance with repayment provisions of Public Law 98–404.

(2) Repayment under this subsection, with the exception of costs assigned to irrigation, may be made, with interest, over a period of not more than thirty years from the date of completion of the work. The interest rate used shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration average market yields on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States with remaining periods to maturity comparable to the applicable reimbursable period during the month preceding the fiscal year in which the costs are incurred, plus a premium of one-eighth of one percentage point for transaction costs. To the extent that more than one interest rate is determined pursuant to the preceding sentence, the Secretary of the Treasury shall establish an interest rate at the weighted average of the rates so determined.


(b) Nothing in this section affects the authority of the Secretary to perform work pursuant to Public Law 84–99, as amended (33 U.S.C. 701n) or cost sharing for such work.

(Pub. L. 99–662, title XII, §1203, Nov. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 4263.)

References in Text

Public Law 98–404, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 98–404, Aug. 28, 1984, 98 Stat. 1481, known as The Reclamation Safety of Dams Act Amendments of 1984, which amended sections 508 and 509 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1984 Amendment note set out under section 506 of Title 43 and Tables.

Public Law 84–99, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 28, 1955, ch. 194, 69 Stat. 186, which amended section 701n of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Dam Safety Act of 1986, and also as part of the Water Resources Development Act of 1986, and not as part of the National Dam Safety Program Act which comprises this subchapter.

“Secretary” Defined

Secretary means the Secretary of the Army, see section 2201 of this title.

CHAPTER 10—ANCHORAGE GROUNDS AND HARBOR REGULATIONS GENERALLY

Sec.
471.
Establishment by Secretary of Homeland Security of anchorage grounds and regulations generally.
472.
Marking anchorage grounds by Commandant of the Coast Guard.
473.
Repealed.
474.
Anchorage and general regulations for St. Marys River.
475.
Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
476.
Restrictions on tanker traffic in Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

        

§471. Establishment by Secretary of Homeland Security of anchorage grounds and regulations generally

The Secretary of Homeland Security is authorized, empowered, and directed to define and establish anchorage grounds for vessels in all harbors, rivers, bays, and other navigable waters of the United States whenever it is manifest to the said Secretary that the maritime or commercial interests of the United States require such anchorage grounds for safe navigation and the establishment of such anchorage grounds shall have been recommended by the Chief of Engineers, and to adopt suitable rules and regulations in relation thereto; and such rules and regulations shall be enforced by the Coast Guard under the direction of the Secretary of Transportation: Provided, That at ports or places where there is no Coast Guard vessel available such rules and regulations may be enforced by the Chief of Engineers under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security. In the event of the violation of any such rules and regulations by the owner, master, or person in charge of any vessel, such owner, master, or person in charge of such vessel shall be liable to a penalty of $100; and the said vessel may be holden for the payment of such penalty, and may be seized and proceeded against summarily by libel for the recovery of the same in any United States district court for the district within which such vessel may be and in the name of the officer designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security.

(Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 142, §7, 38 Stat. 1053; Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, §§1, 20, 63 Stat. 496, 561; Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, §902(j), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 568.)

Codification

Section was from the Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1915.

Prior Provisions

Section probably supersedes acts May 16, 1888, ch. 257, §§1, 2, 25 Stat. 151, relative to anchorage grounds in port of New York, Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 424, §1, 30 Stat. 1074, extending anchorage regulations for port of New York, Feb. 6, 1893, ch. 64, §§1, 2, 27 Stat. 431, relative to anchorage grounds in port of Chicago, and June 6, 1900, ch. 819, §§1, 2, 31 Stat. 682, relative to anchorage grounds in Kennebec River.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–241 substituted “Secretary of Homeland Security” for “Secretary of Transportation” wherever appearing in the original.

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.

Transfer of Functions

“Coast Guard” and “Coast Guard vessel” substituted in text for “Revenue Cutter Service” and “revenue cutter”, respectively, the Revenue Cutter Service and Life-Saving Service having been combined to form the Coast Guard by act Jan. 28, 1915, ch. 20, §1, 38 Stat. 800. That act was repealed by act Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, §20, 63 Stat. 561, section 1 of which reestablished the Coast Guard by enacting Title 14, Coast Guard.

“Secretary of Transportation” substituted for “Secretary of the Treasury” in provision covering enforcement of rules and regulations by Coast Guard pursuant to section 6(b)(1) of Pub. L. 89–670, which transferred to Secretary of Transportation functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Treasury and of other offices and officers of Department of the Treasury relating to Coast Guard. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, however, provided that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, the Coast Guard shall operate as part of the Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation. For subsequent transfers relating to the Secretary of Transportation and the Coast Guard, see below.

Section 6(g)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other officers and offices of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating generally to water vessel anchorages under this section to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect the transfer made by section 6(g)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(1)(A).

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§472. Marking anchorage grounds by Commandant of the Coast Guard

The Commandant of the Coast Guard shall provide, establish, and maintain, out of the annual appropriations for the Coast Guard, buoys or other suitable marks for marking anchorage grounds for vessels in waters of the United States, when such anchorage grounds have been defined and established by proper authority in accordance with the laws of the United States.

(Sept. 15, 1922, ch. 313, 42 Stat. 844; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. II, §2(a), eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2731, 53 Stat. 1432.)

Transfer of Functions

“Commandant of the Coast Guard” and “Coast Guard” substituted in text for “Commissioner of Lighthouses” and “Lighthouse Service”, respectively, on authority of Reorg. Plan No. II of 1939, §2(a), set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which transferred and consolidated the Bureau of Lighthouses (of which the Lighthouse Service was a part and of which the Commissioner of Lighthouses was the head) and its functions with the Coast Guard (of which the Commandant was the Chief).

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of the Treasury, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of the Treasury with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, 1281, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions of Coast Guard, and Commandant of Coast Guard, excepted from transfer when Coast Guard is operating as part of Navy under sections 1 and 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation, and functions, powers, and duties relating to Coast Guard of Secretary of the Treasury and of other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury transferred to Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, however, provided that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, Coast Guard shall operate as part of the Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§473. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 637

Section, act Mar. 2, 1895, ch. 172, §2, 28 Stat. 740, provided that the powers and authority conferred upon the harbor master, District of Columbia, may in his absence or disability be exercised by the pilot of the harbor police boat.

§474. Anchorage and general regulations for St. Marys River

The Commandant of the Coast Guard is authorized and directed to adopt and prescribe suitable rules and regulations governing the movements and anchorage of vessels and rafts in Saint Marys River from Point Iroquois, on Lake Superior, to Point Detour, on Lake Huron, and for the purpose of enforcing the observance of such regulations the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to detail one or more Coast Guard vessels for duty upon the request of the Commandant of the Coast Guard on said river.

All officers of the Coast Guard who are directed to enforce the regulations prescribed by the above rules are empowered and directed, in case of necessity, or when a proper notice has been disregarded, to use the force at their command to remove from channels or stop any vessel found violating the prescribed rules.

In the event of the violation of any such regulations or rules of the Commandant of the Coast Guard by the owners, master, or person in charge of such vessel, such owners, master, or person in charge shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding $200: Provided, That the Commandant of the Coast Guard may remit said fine on such terms as he may prescribe: Provided also, That nothing in this section shall be construed to amend or repeal chapter 1 4 of this title.

(Mar. 6, 1896, ch. 49, §§1–3, 29 Stat. 54, 55; Apr. 26, 1906, ch. 1874, §§1, 2, 34 Stat. 136; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §1, 37 Stat. 736; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097; Oct. 14, 1949, ch. 393, §§1, 20, 63 Stat. 496, 561; Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938.)

References in Text

Chapter 4 of this title, referred to in last par., was in the original “the Act entitled ‘An Act to regulate navigation on the Great Lakes, and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal,’ approved February eighth, eighteen hundred and ninety-five”, which was classified generally to chapter 4 (§241 et seq.) of this title and was repealed by Pub. L. 96–591, §8(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3435, eff. Mar. 1, 1983, pursuant to 47 F.R. 15135, Apr. 8, 1982. See section 7 of Pub. L. 96–591, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2001 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

“Coast Guard vessels” and “Coast Guard” substituted in text for “revenue cutters” and “Revenue-Cutter Service”, respectively, the Revenue Cutter Service and Life-Saving Service having been combined to form the Coast Guard by act Jan. 28, 1915, ch. 20, §1, 38 Stat. 800. That act was repealed by act Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, §20, 63 Stat. 561, section 1 of which reestablished the Coast Guard by enacting Title 14, Coast Guard.

Secretary of Commerce and Labor designated Secretary of Commerce by act Mar. 4, 1913, which created Department of Labor.

Functions of Secretary of Commerce under this section transferred to Commandant of Coast Guard by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1946, §§101–104, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of the Treasury, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of the Treasury with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, 1281, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions of Coast Guard, and Commandant of Coast Guard, excepted from transfer when Coast Guard is operating as part of Navy under sections 1 and 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation, and functions, powers, and duties relating to Coast Guard of Secretary of the Treasury and of other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury transferred to Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, however, provided that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, Coast Guard shall operate as part of Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 See References in Text note below.

§475. Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

For the proper control, protection, and defense of the naval station, harbor, and entrance channel at Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, the Secretary of the Navy is authorized, empowered, and directed to adopt and prescribe suitable rules and regulations governing the navigation, movement, and anchorage of vessels of whatsoever character in the waters of Pearl Harbor, island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, and in the entrance channel to said harbor, and to take all necessary measures for the proper enforcement of such rules and regulations.

(Aug. 22, 1912, ch. 335, 37 Stat. 341.)

Codification

Section is from the Naval Appropriation Act for 1913.

Admission of Hawaii as State

Admission of Hawaii into the Union was accomplished Aug. 21, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3309, Aug. 21, 1959, 24 F.R. 6868, 73 Stat. c74, as required by sections 1 and 7(c) of Pub. L. 86–3, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 4, set out as notes preceding section 491 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§476. Restrictions on tanker traffic in Puget Sound and adjacent waters

(a) The Congress finds that—

(1) the navigable waters of Puget Sound in the State of Washington, and the natural resources therein, are a fragile and important national asset;

(2) Puget Sound and the shore area immediately adjacent thereto is threatened by increased domestic and international traffic of tankers carrying crude oil in bulk which increases the possibility of vessel collisions and oil spills; and

(3) it is necessary to restrict such tanker traffic in Puget Sound in order to protect the navigable waters thereof, the natural resources therein, and the shore area immediately adjacent thereto, from environmental harm.


(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, on and after October 18, 1977, no officer, employee, or other official of the Federal Government shall, or shall have authority to, issue, renew, grant, or otherwise approve any permit, license, or other authority for constructing, renovating, modifying, or otherwise altering a terminal, dock, or other facility in, on, or immediately adjacent to, or affecting the navigable waters of Puget Sound, or any other navigable waters in the State of Washington east of Port Angeles, which will or may result in any increase in the volume of crude oil capable of being handled at any such facility (measured as of October 18, 1977), other than oil to be refined for consumption in the State of Washington.

(Pub. L. 95–136, §5, Oct. 18, 1977, 91 Stat. 1168.)

CHAPTER 11—BRIDGES OVER NAVIGABLE WATERS

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
491.
Approval of and deviation from plans; exemptions.
492.
Bridge as post route; limitation as to charges against Government; telegraph and telephone lines.
493.
Use of railroad bridges by other railroad companies.
494.
Obstruction of navigation; alterations and removals; lights and signals; draws.
495.
Violations of orders respecting bridges and accessory works.
496.
Time for commencement and completion of bridge.
497.
“Persons” defined.
498.
Reservation of right to alter or repeal.
498a, 498b. Repealed.
499.
Regulations for drawbridges.
500.
Deflection of current; liability to riparian owners.
501.
Omitted.
502.
Alteration, removal, or repair of bridge or accessory obstructions to navigation.
503 to 507. Repealed.
508.
Amount of tolls.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ALTERATION OF BRIDGES

511.
Definitions.
512.
Obstruction of navigation.
513.
Notice, hearings, and findings.
514.
Submission and approval of general plans and specifications.
515.
Contracts for project; guaranty of cost.
516.
Apportionment of cost.
517.
Payment of share of United States.
518.
Authorization of appropriations.
519.
Noncompliance with orders; penalties; removal of bridge.
520.
Review of findings and orders.
521.
Regulations and orders.
522.
Existing provisions of law.
523.
Relocation of bridges.
524.
Applicability of administrative procedure provisions.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—GENERAL BRIDGE AUTHORITY

525.
Construction and operation of bridges.
526, 526a.
Repealed.
527.
Acquisition of interstate bridges by public agencies; amount of damages.
528.
Statement of construction costs of privately owned interstate bridges; investigation of costs; conclusiveness of findings; review.
529.
Repealed.
530.
Bridges included and excluded.
531.
International bridges.
532.
Eminent domain.
533.
Penalties for violations.
534.
Conveyance of right, title, and interest of United States in bridges transferred to States or political subdivisions; terms and conditions.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—INTERNATIONAL BRIDGES

535.
Congressional consent to construction, maintenance, and operation of international bridges; conditions of consent.
535a.
Congressional consent to State agreements with Canada and Mexico; Secretary of State's approval of agreements.
535b.
Presidential approval; recommendations of Federal officials.
535c.
Secretary of Transportation's approval; commencement and completion requirements; extension of time limits.
535d.
Repealed.
535e.
Ownership.
535f.
Applicability of provisions.
535g.
Federal navigable waters and commerce jurisdiction unaffected.
535h.
Report of Secretary of Transportation's approval during fiscal year.
535i.
Reservation of right to alter or repeal.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§491. Approval of and deviation from plans; exemptions

When, after March 23, 1906, authority is granted by Congress to any persons to construct and maintain a bridge across or over any of the navigable waters of the United States, such bridge shall not be built or commenced until the plans and specifications for its construction, together with such drawings of the proposed construction and such map of the proposed location as may be required for a full understanding of the subject, have been submitted to the Secretary of Transportation for the Secretary's approval, nor until the Secretary shall have approved such plans and specifications and the location of such bridge and accessory works; and when the plans for any bridge to be constructed under the provisions of sections 491 to 498 of this title, have been approved by the Secretary it shall not be lawful to deviate from such plans, either before or after completion of the structure, unless the modification of such plans has previously been submitted to and received the approval of the Secretary. This section shall not apply to any bridge over waters which are not subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and which are not used and are not susceptible to use in their natural condition or by reasonable improvement as a means to transport interstate or foreign commerce.

(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, §1, 34 Stat. 84; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, §107(c), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 98–557, §17(g)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2869.)

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–557 substituted “for the Secretary's approval, nor until the Secretary” for “and Chief of Engineers for their approval, nor until they” and struck out “by the Chief of Engineers and” after “have been approved”, “of the Chief of Engineers and” after “received the approval”, and “of Transportation” after “by the Secretary” and after “of the Secretary”.

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.

1982—Pub. L. 97–322 inserted sentence at end relating to exemption.

Short Title

Sections 491 to 498 of this title are popularly known as the “Bridge Act of 1906” and the “General Bridge Act of 1906”.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department of the Army [formerly War] under this section to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(B), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(B) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(B).

§492. Bridge as post route; limitation as to charges against Government; telegraph and telephone lines

Any bridge built in accordance with the provisions of sections 491 to 498 of this title, shall be a lawful structure and shall be recognized and known as a post route, upon which no higher charge shall be made for the transmission over the same of the mails, the troops, and the munitions of war of the United States than the rate per mile paid for the transportation over any railroad, street railway, or public highway leading to said bridge; and the United States shall have the right to construct, maintain, and repair, without any charge therefor, telegraph and telephone lines across and upon said bridge and its approaches; and equal privileges in the use of said bridge and its approaches shall be granted to all telegraph and telephone companies.

(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, §2, 34 Stat. 85.)

§493. Use of railroad bridges by other railroad companies

All railroad companies desiring the use of any railroad bridge built in accordance with the provisions of sections 491 to 498 of this title, shall be entitled to equal rights and privileges relative to the passage of railway trains or cars over the same and over the approaches thereto upon payment of a reasonable compensation for such use; and in case of any disagreement between the parties in regard to the terms of such use or the sums to be paid all matters at issue shall be determined by the Secretary of Transportation upon hearing the allegations and proofs submitted to him.

(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, §3, 34 Stat. 85; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War”. See Transfer of Functions note below.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department of the Army [formerly War] under this section to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(B), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(B) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(B).

§494. Obstruction of navigation; alterations and removals; lights and signals; draws

No bridge erected or maintained under the provisions of sections 491 to 498 of this title, shall at any time unreasonably obstruct the free navigation of the waters over which it is constructed, and if any bridge erected in accordance with the provisions of said sections, shall, in the opinion of the Secretary of Homeland Security at any time unreasonably obstruct such navigation, either on account of insufficient height, width of span, or otherwise, or if there be difficulty in passing the draw opening or the drawspan of such bridge by rafts, steamboats, or other water craft, it shall be the duty of the Secretary of Homeland Security after giving the parties interested reasonable opportunity to be heard, to notify the persons owning or controlling such bridge to so alter the same as to render navigation through or under it reasonably free, easy, and unobstructed, stating in such notice the changes required to be made, and prescribing in each case a reasonable time in which to make such changes, and if at the end of the time so specified the changes so required have not been made, the persons owning or controlling such bridge shall be deemed guilty of a violation of said sections; and all such alterations shall be made and all such obstructions shall be removed at the expense of the persons owning or operating said bridge. The persons owning or operating any such bridge shall maintain, at their own expense, such lights and other signals thereon as the Commandant of the Coast Guard shall prescribe. If the bridge shall be constructed with a draw, then the draw shall be opened promptly by the persons owning or operating such bridge upon reasonable signal for the passage of boats and other water craft.

(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, §4, 34 Stat. 85; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §1, 37 Stat. 736; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §§101–104, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(a), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, §902(k), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 568.)

Prior Provisions

Act July 5, 1884, ch. 229, §8, 23 Stat. 148, relating to authority of Secretary of War to require owners of bridges which obstruct navigation to relieve the situation or be penalized, was probably omitted from the Code as superseded by this section and section 495 of this title, which by section 498b of this title were made applicable to bridges authorized prior to March 23, 1906.

Section would seem to supersede a provision of act Aug. 7, 1882, ch. 433, §1, 22 Stat. 309, which read as follows: “That all parties owning, occupying, or operating bridges over any navigable river shall maintain at their own expense, from sunset to sunrise, throughout the year, such lights on their bridges as may be required by the Light-House Board for the security of navigation: and in addition thereto all persons owning, occupying, or operating any bridge over any navigable river shall, in any event, maintain all lights on their bridge that may be necessary for the security of navigation.”

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–241, which directed substitution of “Secretary of Homeland Security” for “Secretary of Transportation”, was executed by making the substitution both places “Secretary of Transportation” appeared, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1987—Pub. L. 100–17 struck out last sentence relating to tolls.

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating to reasonableness of tolls and to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States under this section transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by section 6(g)(4)(A), (6)(B) of Pub. L. 89–670. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(4)(A), (6)(B) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(4)(A), (6)(B).

Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation, and functions, powers, and duties relating to Coast Guard of Secretary of the Treasury and of other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury transferred to Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, however, provided that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, Coast Guard shall operate as part of Navy in time of war or when the President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of the Treasury, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of the Treasury with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, 1281, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions of Coast Guard, and Commandant of Coast Guard, excepted from transfer when Coast Guard is operating as part of Navy under sections 1 and 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

“Commandant of the Coast Guard” substituted in text for “Secretary of Commerce” on authority of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1946, §§101 to 104, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Secretary of Commerce and Labor redesignated Secretary of Labor by act Mar. 4, 1913, which enacted Department of Labor.

Connecticut River Bridges

Acts Aug. 7, 1939, ch. 503, 53 Stat. 1234, and Apr. 24, 1946, ch. 214, 60 Stat. 122, were amended by act Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 631, 69 Stat. 552, to provide that the last sentence of this section should not be applicable to bridges constructed pursuant to acts Aug. 7, 1939 and Apr. 24, 1946.

§495. Violations of orders respecting bridges and accessory works

(a) Criminal penalties for violation; misdemeanor; fine; new offenses; jurisdiction: suits for recovery of removal expenses, enforcement of removal, and obstruction-to-navigation causes or questions

Any persons who shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with the lawful order of the Secretary of Transportation or the Chief of Engineers, made in accordance with the provisions of sections 491 to 498 of this title, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished in any court of competent jurisdiction by a fine not exceeding $5,000, and every month such persons shall remain in default shall be deemed a new offense and subject such persons to additional penalties therefor; and in addition to the penalties above described the Secretary of Transportation and the Chief of Engineers may, upon refusal of the persons owning or controlling any such bridge and accessory works to comply with any lawful order issued by the Secretary of Transportation or Chief of Engineers in regard thereto, cause the removal of such bridge and accessory works at the expense of the persons owning or controlling such bridge, and suit for such expense may be brought in the name of the United States against such persons, and recovery had for such expense in any court of competent jurisdiction; and the removal of any structures erected or maintained in violation of the provisions of said sections, or the order or direction of the Secretary of Transportation or Chief of Engineers made in pursuance thereof may be enforced by injunction, mandamus, or other summary process, upon application to the district court in the district in which such structure may, in whole or in part, exist, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States at the request of the Secretary of Transportation; and in case of any litigation arising from any obstruction or alleged obstruction to navigation created by the construction of any bridge under said sections, the cause or question arising may be tried before the district court of the United States in any district which any portion of said obstruction or bridge touches.

(b) Civil penalties for violation; separate offenses; notice and hearing; assessment, collection, and remission; civil actions

Whoever violates any provision of sections 491 to 498 of this title, or any order issued under sections 491 to 498 of this title, shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter. Each day a violation continues shall be deemed a separate offense. No penalty may be assessed under this subsection until the person charged is given notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the charge. The Secretary of Transportation may assess and collect any civil penalty incurred under this subsection and, in his discretion, may remit, mitigate, or compromise any penalty until the matter is referred to the Attorney General. If a person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under this subsection fails to pay that penalty, an action may be commenced in the district court of the United States for any district in which the violation occurs for such penalty.

(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, §5, 34 Stat. 85; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§289, 291, 36 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, §108(c), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 108–293, title VI, §601(a), Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1050.)

Codification

The words “district court” were substituted for “circuit court,” upon incorporation into the Code, the Circuit Courts being abolished by act Mar. 3, 1911, and their powers and duties transferred to the district courts by section 291 of that act.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–293 substituted “$5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter” for “$1,000”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–322, §108(c)(1)–(3), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), provided for punishment of persons who shall “willfully” fail to comply with lawful orders, and struck out “shall be deemed guilty of a violation of said sections, and any persons who shall be guilty of a violation of said sections” after “sections 491 to 498 of this title,”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–322, §108(c)(4), added subsec. (b).

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department the Army [formerly War] under this section to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(B), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 941. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(B) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(B).

§496. Time for commencement and completion of bridge

Whenever Congress shall after March 23, 1906, by law authorize the construction of any bridge over or across any of the navigable waters of the United States, and no time for the commencement and completion of such bridge is named in said Act, the authority thereby granted shall cease and be null and void unless the actual construction of the bridge authorized in such Act be commenced within one year and completed within three years from the date of the passage of such Act.

(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, §6, 34 Stat. 86.)

§497. “Persons” defined

The word “persons” as used in sections 491 to 498 of this title, shall be construed to import both the singular and the plural, as the case demands, and shall include municipalities, quasi-municipal corporations, corporations, companies, and associations.

(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, §7, 34 Stat. 86.)

§498. Reservation of right to alter or repeal

The right to alter, amend, or repeal sections 491 to 498 of this title, is expressly reserved as to any and all bridges which may be built in accordance with the provisions of said sections, and the United States shall incur no liability for the alteration, amendment, or repeal thereof to the owner or owners or any other persons interested in any bridge which shall have been constructed in accordance with its provisions.

(Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, §8, 34 Stat. 86.)

§498a. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(b), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174

Section, act June 10, 1930, ch. 441, §17, 46 Stat. 552, provided that, in the case of bridges authorized prior to June 10, 1930, by Acts of Congress, where Congress has specifically reserved the right to regulate tolls, such bridges, with respect to regulation of all tolls, be subject to sections 491 to 498 of this title.

§498b. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(c), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174

Section, act June 27, 1930, ch. 640, §1, 46 Stat. 821, provided that, in case of any bridge authorized prior to Mar. 23, 1906, by Act of Congress, where Congress has specifically reserved the right to alter, amend, or repeal such Act, regulation of all tolls be subject to sections 491 to 498 of this title.

§499. Regulations for drawbridges

(a) Criminal penalties for violations; enforcement; rules and regulations

It shall be the duty of all persons owning, operating, and tending the drawbridges built prior to August 18, 1894, or which may thereafter be built across the navigable rivers and other waters of the United States, to open, or cause to be opened, the draws of such bridges under such rules and regulations as in the opinion of the Secretary of Transportation the public interests require to govern the opening of drawbridges for the passage of vessels and other water crafts, and such rules and regulations, when so made and published, shall have the force of law. Every such person who shall willfully fail or refuse to open, or cause to be opened, the draw of any such bridge for the passage of a boat or boats, as provided in such regulations, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than $2,000 nor less than $1,000, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) for not exceeding one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court: Provided, That the proper action to enforce the provisions of this subsection may be commenced before any magistrate judge, judge, or court of the United States, and such magistrate judge, judge, or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in case of crimes against the United States: Provided further, That whenever, in the opinion of the Secretary of Transportation, the public interests require it, he may make rules and regulations to govern the opening of drawbridges for the passage of vessels and other water crafts, and such rules and regulations, when so made and published, shall have the force of law, and any willful violation thereof shall be punished as hereinbefore provided: Provided further, That any regulations made in pursuance of this section may be enforced as provided in section 413 of this title, the provisions whereof are made applicable to the said regulations. Any rules and regulations made in pursuance of this section shall, to the extent practical and feasible, provide for regularly scheduled openings of drawbridges during seasons of the year, and during times of the day, when scheduled openings would help reduce motor vehicle traffic delays and congestion on roads and highways linked by drawbridges.

(b) Nonstructural vessel appurtenances; unreasonable delays

No vessel owner or operator shall signal a drawbridge to open for any nonstructural vessel appurtenance which is not essential to navigation or which is easily lowered and no person shall unreasonably delay the opening of a draw after the signal required by rules or regulations under this section has been given. The Secretary of Transportation shall issue rules and regulations to implement this subsection.

(c) Civil penalties for violation; notice and hearing; assessment, collection, and remission; civil actions

Whoever violates any rule or regulation issued under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter. No penalty may be assessed under this subsection until the person charged is given notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the charge. The Secretary of Transportation may assess and collect any civil penalty incurred under this subsection and, in his discretion, may remit, mitigate, or compromise any penalty until the matter is referred to the Attorney General. If a person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under this subsection fails to pay that penalty, an action may be commenced in the district court of the United States for any district in which the violation occurs for such penalty.

(Aug. 18, 1894, ch. 299, §5, 28 Stat. 362; June 13, 1902, ch. 1079, §6, 32 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, §108(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 100–448, §21, Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1846; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117; Pub. L. 108–293, title VI, §601(b), Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1050.)

Codification

The last proviso of subsec. (a) of this section was from a part of section 6 of act June 13, 1902, which reads as follows: “Any regulations heretofore or hereafter prescribed by the Secretary of War in pursuance of the fourth and fifth sections of the river and harbor Act of August eighteenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-four [this section and section 1 of this title], and any regulations hereafter prescribed in pursuance of the aforesaid section four as amended by section eleven of this Act [section 1 of this title], may be enforced as provided in section seventeen of the river and harbor Act of March third, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine [section 413 of this title], the provisions whereof are hereby made applicable to the said regulations.”

The last paragraph of section 1 of this title is also from a part of section 6 of act June 13, 1902.

Except for the last proviso of subsec. (a), this section was from act Aug. 18, 1894.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–293 substituted “$5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter” for “$1,000”.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–448 inserted at end “Any rules and regulations made in pursuance of this section shall, to the extent practical and feasible, provide for regularly scheduled openings of drawbridges during seasons of the year, and during times of the day, when scheduled openings would help reduce motor vehicle traffic delays and congestion on roads and highways linked by drawbridges.”

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–322, §108(a)(1)–(4), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a); struck out from second sentence after “boats,” the clause “or who shall unreasonably delay the opening of said draw after reasonable signal shall have been given,”; substituted in first proviso “subsection” for “section”; and in second proviso provided for punishment of “willful” violation of rules and regulations.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 97–322, §108(a)(5), added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Change of Name

“Magistrate judge” substituted in text for “magistrate” pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, “magistrate” substituted for “commissioner” pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other officers and offices of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating to drawbridge operating regulations under this section to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(2).

§500. Deflection of current; liability to riparian owners

Whenever complaint shall be made to the Secretary of the Army that by reason of the placing in any navigable waters of the United States of any bridge pier or abutment, the current of such waters has been so deflected from its natural course as to cause by producing caving of banks or otherwise serious damage or danger to property, it shall be his duty to make inquiry, and if it shall be ascertained that the complaint is well founded, he shall cause the owners or persons operating such bridge to repair such damage or prevent such danger to property by such means as he shall indicate and within such time as he may name, and in default thereof the owners or persons operating such bridge shall be liable in any court of competent jurisdiction to the persons injured in a sum double the amount of said injury: Provided, however, That nothing herein contained shall be construed so as to affect any rights of action which may have existed prior to August 11, 1888.

(Aug. 11, 1888, ch. 860, §2, 25 Stat. 423; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat 501.)

Codification

Section was from the River and Harbor Appropriation Act of 1888.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted “Title 10, Armed Forces” which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army and other offices and officers of Department of the Army under sections 491 to 498 of this title to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(g)(6)(B), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 931. Pub. L. 97–449 amended sections 491 to 498 of this title to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(B) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(B).

§501. Omitted

Codification

Section, R.S. §5250, gave assent of Congress to construction of bridges across the Maquoketa River in Iowa.

§502. Alteration, removal, or repair of bridge or accessory obstructions to navigation

(a) Criminal penalties for violation; alteration or removal requirements; notice and hearing; specification of changes; time for compliance; notice to United States attorney; misdemeanor; fine; new offenses

Whenever the Secretary of Transportation shall have good reason to believe that any railroad or other bridge over any of the navigable waterways of the United States is an unreasonable obstruction to the free navigation of such waters on account of insufficient height, width of span, or otherwise, or where there is difficulty in passing the draw opening or the draw span of such bridge by rafts, steamboats, or other water craft, it shall be the duty of the said Secretary, first giving the parties reasonable opportunity to be heard, to give notice to the persons or corporations owning or controlling such bridge so to alter the same as to render navigation through or under it reasonably free, easy, and unobstructed; and in giving such notice he shall specify the changes that are required to be made, and shall prescribe in each case a reasonable time in which to make them. If at the end of such time the alteration has not been made, the Secretary of Transportation shall forthwith notify the United States attorney for the district in which such bridge is situated, to the end that the criminal proceedings hereinafter in this section mentioned may be taken. If the persons, corporation, or association owning or controlling any railroad or other bridge shall, after receiving notice to that effect, as hereinbefore required, from the Secretary of Transportation and within the time prescribed by him willfully fail or refuse to remove the same or to comply with the lawful order of the Secretary of the Army in the premises, such persons, corporation, or association shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $5,000, and every month such persons, corporation, or association shall remain in default in respect to the removal or alteration of such bridge shall be deemed a new offense, and subject the persons, corporation, or association so offending to the penalties above prescribed.

(b) Proper repair requirement

No owner or operator of any bridge, drawbridge, or causeway shall endanger, unreasonably obstruct, or make hazardous the free navigation of any navigable water of the United States by reason of the failure to keep the bridge, drawbridge, or causeway and any accessory works in proper repair.

(c) Civil penalties for violation; separate offenses; notice and hearing; assessment, collection, and remission; civil actions

Whoever violates any provision of this section, or any order issued under this section, shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter. Each day a violation continues shall be deemed a separate offense. No penalty may be assessed under this subsection until the person charged is given notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the charge. The Secretary of Transportation may assess and collect any civil penalty incurred under this subsection and, in his discretion, may remit, mitigate, or compromise any penalty until the matter is referred to the Attorney General. If a person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under this subsection fails to pay that penalty, an action may be commenced in the district court of the United States for any district in which the violation occurs for such penalty.

(Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 425, §18, 30 Stat. 1153; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §§1, 39, 62 Stat. 909, 992; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, §108(b), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 108–293, title VI, §601(c), Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1050.)

Codification

Section is from act Mar. 3, 1899, popularly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”.

The words “or from the existing circuit courts,” which followed “district courts” in the proviso were superseded by the abolition of the circuit courts and the transfer of their jurisdiction to the district courts, by act Mar. 3, 1911.

Prior Provisions

This section superseded act Aug. 11, 1888, ch. 860, §§9, 10, 25 Stat. 424, as amended by act Sept. 19, 1890, ch. 907, §§4, 5, 26 Stat. 453, which required the Secretary of War to provide against obstructions to navigation by bridges, and prescribed a punishment on the owner's default in making the required alterations.

The Secretary of War was authorized to make the required changes in bridges obstructing navigation on the owner's failure to do so, and the Attorney General was required to institute proceedings against the owner for the recovery of the cost of such changes, by act July 5, 1884, ch. 229, §8, 23 Stat. 148.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–293 substituted “$5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter” for “$1,000”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–322 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing, and struck out “recommended by the Chief of Engineers” after “specify the charges”.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 97–322 added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1948—Act June 25, 1948, §39, repealed proviso at end relating to appeals. See sections 1252 and 1253 of title 28.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948, substituted “United States attorney” for “district attorney of the United States”. See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes thereunder.

Effective Date of 1948 Amendment

Amendment by act June 25, 1948 effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Limitation on Application

Section as not applicable to bridges constructed under sections 491 to 498 of this title, see section 494 of this title.

§503 to 507. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(d), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174

Section 503, act Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 597, §1, 49 Stat. 670, provided that, on and after Aug. 21, 1935, tolls over any bridge over any of the navigable waters of the United States, if such bridge is used for travel or transportation in interstate or foreign commerce, be just and reasonable and specified bridges to which sections 503 to 507 of this title not apply.

Section 504, acts Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 597, §2, 49 Stat. 671; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), 96 Stat. 2440, authorized Secretary of Transportation to determine reasonableness of any toll charged for passage or transit over any bridge to which sections 503 to 507 of this title applied and to prescribe an order establishing a reasonable toll, which order was to take effect thirty days after issuance.

Section 505, acts Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 597, §3, 49 Stat. 671; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), 96 Stat. 2440, provided for judicial review of orders of the Secretary of Transportation prescribing reasonable tolls.

Section 506, acts Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 597, §4, 49 Stat. 671; Oct. 15, 1970, Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §235, 84 Stat. 930; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), 96 Stat. 2440, authorized Secretary of Transportation to hold hearings in determining reasonableness of tolls, to require attendance of witnesses, and to punish witnesses for failure to attend such hearings.

Section 507, act Aug. 21, 1935, ch. 597, §5, 49 Stat. 672, related to punishment for failure to obey an order prescribing toll.

§508. Amount of tolls

Tolls for passage or transit over any bridge constructed under the authority of the Act of March 23, 1906 (34 Stat. 84; 33 U.S.C. 491–498), commonly known as the “Bridge Act of 1906”, the General Bridge Act of 1946 [33 U.S.C. 525 et seq.], and the International Bridge Act of 1972 [33 U.S.C. 535 et seq.] shall be just and reasonable.

(Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(i), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174.)

References in Text

Act of March 23, 1906 (34 Stat. 84; 33 U.S.C. 491–498), commonly known as the “Bridge Act of 1906”, referred to in text, is act Mar. 23, 1906, ch. 1130, 34 Stat. 84, as amended, which enacted sections 491 to 498 of this title. For complete classification of this Act of the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 491 of this title and Tables.

The General Bridge Act of 1946, referred to in text, is title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§525 et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 525 of this title and Tables.

The International Bridge Act of 1972, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 92–434, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 731, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter IV (§535 et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 535 of this title and Tables.

SUBCHAPTER II—ALTERATION OF BRIDGES

§511. Definitions

When used in this subchapter, unless the context indicates otherwise—

The term “alteration” includes changes of any kind, reconstruction, or removal in whole or in part.

The term “bridge” means a lawful bridge over navigable waters of the United States, including approaches, fenders, and appurtenances thereto, which is used and operated for the purpose of carrying railroad traffic, or both railroad and highway traffic, or if a State, county, municipality, or other political subdivision is the owner or joint owner thereof, which is used and operated for the purpose of carrying highway traffic.

The term “bridge owner” means any State, county, municipality, or other political subdivision, or any corporation, association, partnership, or individual owning, or jointly owning, any bridge, and, when any bridge shall be in the possession or under the control of any trustee, receiver, trustee in a case under title 11, or lessee, such terms shall include both the owner of the legal title and the person or the entity in possession or control of such bridge.

The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Transportation.

The term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, includes the Territories and possessions of the United States.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §1, 54 Stat. 497; July 16, 1952, ch. 889, §1, 66 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §323, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2679; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted provision that the term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Transportation for provision that it meant the Secretary of War acting directly or through the Chief of Engineers.

1978—Pub. L. 95–598 substituted in definition of “bridge owner” the phrase “trustee in a case under title 11” for “trustee in bankruptcy”.

1952—Act of July 16, 1952, redefined “bridge” and “bridge owner”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as an Effective Dates note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Short Title

Sections 511 to 523 of this title are popularly known as the “Hobbs Bridge Act” and also as the “Truman-Hobbs Act”.

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other officers and offices of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating to obstructive bridges under this subchapter to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(3).

§512. Obstruction of navigation

No bridge shall at any time unreasonably obstruct the free navigation of any navigable waters of the United States.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §2, 54 Stat. 498.)

§513. Notice, hearings, and findings

Whenever any bridge shall, in the opinion of the Secretary, at any time unreasonably obstruct such navigation, it shall be the duty of the Secretary, after notice to interested parties, to hold a hearing at which the bridge owner, those interested in water navigation thereunder or therethrough, those interested in either railroad or highway traffic thereover, and any other party or parties in interest shall have full opportunity to offer evidence and be heard as to whether any alteration of such bridge is needed, and if so what alterations are needed, having due regard to the necessity of free and unobstructed water navigation and to the necessities of the rail or highway traffic. If, upon such hearing, the Secretary determines that any alterations of such bridge are necessary in order to render navigation through or under it reasonably free, easy, and unobstructed, having due regard also for the necessities of rail or highway traffic thereover, he shall so find and shall issue and cause to be served upon interested parties an order requiring such alterations of such bridge as he finds to be reasonably necessary for the purposes of navigation.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §3, 54 Stat. 498.)

§514. Submission and approval of general plans and specifications

After the service of an order under this subchapter, it shall be the duty of the bridge owner to prepare and submit to the Secretary of Transportation, within a reasonable time as prescribed by the Secretary, general plans and specifications to provide for the alteration of such bridge in accordance with such order, and for such additional alteration of such bridge as the bridge owner may desire to meet the necessities of railroad or highway traffic, or both. The Secretary may approve or reject such general plans and specifications, in whole or in part, and may require the submission of new or additional plans and specifications, but when the Secretary shall have approved general plans and specifications, they shall be final and binding upon all parties unless changes therein be afterward approved by the Secretary and the bridge owner.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §4, 54 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 94–587, §119, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2924.)

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–587 substituted provision for preparation and submission of general plans and specifications within a reasonable time as prescribed by the Secretary after the service of an order for provision for such action within ninety days after service of his order.

§515. Contracts for project; guaranty of cost

After approval of such general plans and specifications by the Secretary, and after notification of such approval, the bridge owner shall, in such manner and within such times as the Secretary may prescribe, take bids for the alteration of such bridge in accordance with such general plans and specifications. All bids, including any bid for all or part of the project submitted by the bridge owner, shall be submitted to the Secretary, together with a recommendation by the bridge owner as to the most competent bid or bids, and at the same time the bridge owner shall submit to the Secretary a written guaranty that the total cost of the project, including the cost of such work as is to be performed by the bridge owner and not included in the work to be performed by contract, shall not exceed the sum stated in said guaranty. The Secretary may direct the bridge owner to reject all bids and to take new bids, or may authorize the bridge owner to proceed with the project, by contract, or partly by contract and partly by the bridge owner, or wholly by the bridge owner. Upon such authorization and fixing of the proportionate shares of the cost as provided in section 516 of this title, the bridge owner shall, within a reasonable time to be prescribed by the Secretary, proceed with the work of alteration; and the cost thereof shall be borne by the United States and by the bridge owner, as provided in sections 516 and 517 of this title: Provided, That where funds have been appropriated for part only of a project, the bridge owner may take bids for part only of the work. In the event the bridge owner proceeds with the alteration through the taking of successive partial bids, the bridge owner shall, if required by the Secretary, submit a revised guaranty of cost after bids are accepted for successive parts of the work.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §5, 54 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 85–640, §1(a), (b), Aug. 14, 1958, 72 Stat. 595.)

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–640 struck out provisions which required bridge owner to take bids within 90 days after notification of approval of general plans and specifications, and inserted provisions permitting the taking of partial bids where funds have been appropriated for part of a project, and requiring the bridge owner, if requested, to submit a revised guaranty of cost.

§516. Apportionment of cost

At the time the Secretary shall authorize the bridge owner to proceed with the project, as provided in section 515 of this title, and after an opportunity to the bridge owner to be heard thereon, the Secretary shall determine and issue an order specifying the proportionate shares of the total cost of the project to be borne by the United States and by the bridge owner. Such apportionment shall be made on the following basis: The bridge owner shall bear such part of the cost as is attributable to the direct and special benefits which will accrue to the bridge owner as a result of the alteration, including the expectable savings in repair or maintenance costs; and that part of the cost attributable to the requirements of traffic by railroad or highway, or both, including any expenditure for increased carrying capacity of the bridge, and including such proportion of the actual capital cost of the old bridge or of such part of the old bridge as may be altered or changed or rebuilt, as the used service life of the whole or a part, as the case may be, bears to the total estimated service life of the whole or such part: Provided, That in the event the alteration or relocation of any bridge may be desirable for the reason that the bridge unreasonably obstructs navigation, but also for some other reason, the Secretary may require equitable contribution from any interested person, firm, association, corporation, municipality, county, or State desiring such alteration or relocation for such other reason, as a condition precedent to the making of an order for such alteration or relocation. The United States shall bear the balance of the cost, including that part attributable to the necessities of navigation: And provided further, That where the bridge owner proceeds with the alteration on a successive partial bid basis the Secretary is authorized to issue an order of apportionment of cost for the entire alteration based on the accepted bid for the first part of the alteration and an estimate of cost for the remainder of the work. The Secretary is authorized to revise the order of apportionment of cost, to the extent he deems reasonable and proper, to meet any changed conditions.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §6, 54 Stat. 499; July 16, 1952, ch. 889, §2, 66 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 85–640, §1(c), Aug. 14, 1958, 72 Stat. 595.)

Amendments

1958—Pub. L. 85–640 permitted issuance of an order of apportionment of cost for entire alteration based on the accepted bid for first part of alteration and an estimate of cost for remainder of work where bridge owner proceeds with alteration on a successive partial bid basis.

1952—Act July 16, 1952, made railroads share equally with proprietors of highways in bearing cost of alterations necessary to remove obstacles to navigation.

§517. Payment of share of United States

Following service of the order requiring alteration of the bridge, the Secretary of Transportation may make partial payments as the work progresses to the extent that funds have been appropriated. The total payments out of Federal funds shall not exceed the proportionate share of the United States of the total cost of the project paid or incurred by the bridge owner, and, if such total cost exceeds the cost guaranteed by the bridge owner, shall not exceed the proportionate share of the United States of such guaranteed cost, except that if the cost of the work exceeds the guaranteed cost by reason of emergencies, conditions beyond the control of the owner, or unforeseen or undetermined conditions, the Secretary of Transportation may, after full review of all the circumstances, provide for additional payments by the United States to help defray such excess cost to the extent he deems to be reasonable and proper, and shall certify such additional payments to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment. All payments to any bridge owner herein provided for shall be made by the Secretary of the Treasury through the Fiscal Service upon certifications of the Secretary of Transportation.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §7, 54 Stat. 499; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. III, §1(a)(1), eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2107, 54 Stat. 1231; Pub. L. 85–640, §1(d), Aug. 14, 1958, 72 Stat. 596; Pub. L. 91–605, title I, §118, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1725; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing, which substitution had previously been made by Pub. L. 91–605. See, also, Transfer of Functions note below.

1970—Pub. L. 91–605 substituted provision permitting Secretary of Transportation to make payments for design work performed prior to the actual commencement of bridge alteration but after the order to alter has been issued for provision requiring Secretary of War to approve alteration plans, the cost guaranty, the fixing of proportionate shares as between the United States and bridge owner, and the commencement of the alteration, before the Chief of Engineers may make payments for bridge alteration, inserted reference to Secretary of Transportation in second sentence, and substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” in third sentence.

1958—Pub. L. 85–640 struck out provisions which required Secretary of War to furnish to Secretary of the Treasury a certified copy of his approval of the plans and specifications and guaranty, and of his order fixing the proportionate shares, and which required the Secretary of the Treasury to set aside the share of the United States for the project.

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other officers and offices of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating to obstructive bridges under this subchapter to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(3).

“Fiscal Service” substituted in text for “Division of Disbursement” on authority of section 1(a)(1) of Reorg. Plan No. III of 1940, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2107, 54 Stat. 1231, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which consolidated such division into Fiscal Service of Department of the Treasury. See section 306 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

§518. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §8, 54 Stat. 500.)

Alteration of Bridges

Pub. L. 108–90, title II, Oct. 1, 2003, 117 Stat. 1144, provided in part: “That in fiscal year 2004 and thereafter, funds for bridge alteration projects conducted pursuant to the Act of June 21, 1940 (33 U.S.C. 511 et seq.) shall be available for such projects only to the extent that the steel, iron, and manufactured products used in such projects are produced in the United States, unless contrary to law or international agreement, or unless the Commandant of the Coast Guard determines such action to be inconsistent with the public interest or the cost unreasonable.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 108–7, div. I, title I, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 389.

§519. Noncompliance with orders; penalties; removal of bridge

Any bridge owner who shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order of the Secretary, made in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished in any court of competent jurisdiction by a fine not exceeding $5,000, and every month such bridge owner shall remain in default shall be deemed a new offense and subject such bridge owner to additional penalties therefor. In addition to the penalties above prescribed the Secretary may, upon the failure or refusal of any bridge owner to comply with any lawful order issued by the Secretary in regard thereto, cause the removal of any such bridge and accessory works at the expense of the bridge owner; and suit for such expense may be brought in the name of the United States against such bridge owner and recovery had for such expense in any court of competent jurisdiction. The removal of any bridge erected or maintained in violation of the provisions of this subchapter or the order or direction of the Secretary made in pursuance thereof, and compliance with any order of the Secretary made with respect to any bridge in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter, may be enforced by injunction, mandamus, or other summary process upon application to the district court of any district in which such bridge may, in whole or in part, exist, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States at the request of the Secretary.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §9, 54 Stat. 500.)

§520. Review of findings and orders

Any order made or issued under section 516 of this title may be reviewed by the court of appeals for any judicial circuit in which the bridge in question is wholly or partly located, if a petition for such review is filed within three months after the date such order is issued. The judgment of any such court shall be final except that it shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certification or certiorari, in the manner provided in section 1254 of title 28. The review by such Court shall be limited to questions of law, and the findings of fact by the Secretary, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. Upon such review, such Court shall have power to affirm or, if the order is not in accordance with law, to modify or to reverse the order, with or without remanding the case for a rehearing as justice may require. Proceedings under this section shall not operate as a stay of any order of the Secretary issued under provisions of this subchapter other than section 516 of this title, or relieve any bridge owner of any liability or penalty under such provisions.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §10, 54 Stat. 501; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107.)

Codification

“Section 1254 of title 28” substituted in text for “sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code, as amended” on authority of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 869, section 1 of which enacted Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Prior to the enactment of Title 28, sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code were classified to sections 346 and 347 of Title 28.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted “court of appeals” for “circuit court of appeals”.

§521. Regulations and orders

The Secretary is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations, and to make and issue such orders, as may be necessary or appropriate for carrying out the provisions of this subchapter.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §11, 54 Stat. 501.)

§522. Existing provisions of law

(a) Obstructing navigation; criminal penalties

The first sentence of section 494 of this title, and section 502 of this title, shall be inapplicable with respect to any bridge to which the provisions of this subchapter are applicable, except to the extent provided in this section.

(b) Construction, reconstruction, or alteration of bridges not completed on July 1, 1939; apportionment of costs

Any bridge, the construction, reconstruction, or alteration of which was required by an order of the Secretary issued prior to July 1, 1939, and was not completed on such date, and in the case of which no penalties have accrued at the time of the enactment of this subchapter, shall be constructed, reconstructed, or altered as required by such order, and not in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter. In the case of any such bridge, however, the Secretary shall apportion the cost of the project between the bridge owner and the United States, and payment of the share of the United States shall be made, in the same manner as if the provisions of this subchapter applied to such construction, reconstruction, or alteration, subject to the following limitations:

(1) In case such construction, reconstruction, or alteration has not begun on or before April 1, 1940, such apportionment of cost shall be made only if (A) the construction, reconstruction, or alteration is carried out in accordance with plans and specifications, and pursuant to bids, approved by the Secretary, and (B) the bridge owner has submitted to the Secretary a written guaranty of cost as provided for in section 515 of this title.

(2) The Secretary's determination as to such apportionment, and as to such plans and specifications and bids, shall be final.

(3) Such apportionment shall not be made if such construction, reconstruction, or alteration is not completed within the time fixed in such order of the Secretary or within such additional time as the Secretary, for good cause shown, may allow.

(c) Construction, reconstruction, or alteration of bridges not begun on July 1, 1939

Any bridge (except a bridge to which subsection (b) of this section applies) the construction, reconstruction, or alteration of which was required by an order of the Secretary issued prior to July 1, 1939, and was not begun before such date, shall be subject to the provisions of this subchapter as though such order had not been issued, and compliance with the provisions of this subchapter and with such orders as may be issued thereunder shall be considered to constitute compliance with such order issued prior to July 1, 1939, and with the provisions of law under which it was issued.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §12, 54 Stat. 501.)

§523. Relocation of bridges

If the owner of any bridge and the Secretary shall agree that in order to remove an obstruction to navigation, or for any other purpose, a relocation of such bridge or the construction of a new bridge upon a new location would be preferable to an alteration of the existing bridge, such relocation or new construction may be carried out at such new site and upon such terms as may be acceptable to the bridge owner and the Secretary, and the cost of such relocation or new construction, including also any expense of changes in and additions to rights-of-way, stations, tracks, spurs, sidings, switches, signals, and other railroad facilities and property, and relocation of shippers required for railroad connection with the bridge at the new site, shall be apportioned as between the bridge owner and the United States in the manner which is provided for in section 516 of this title in the case of an alteration and the share of the United States paid from the appropriation authorized in section 518 of this title: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the United States to pay any part of the expense of building any bridge across a navigable stream which the Secretary of Transportation shall not find to be, in fact, a relocation of an existing bridge.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §13, 54 Stat. 502; July 16, 1952, ch. 889, §4, 66 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War”. See Transfer of Functions note below.

1952—Act July 16, 1952, struck out “used for railroad traffic” after “owner of any bridge”.

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other officers and offices of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating to obstructive bridges under this subchapter to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(3).

§524. Applicability of administrative procedure provisions

In the administration of this Act, hearings and other procedures shall be exempted from the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of title 5, except as to the requirements of section 552 of title 5.

(July 16, 1952, ch. 889, §3, 66 Stat. 733.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act July 16, 1952, ch. 889, 66 Stat. 732, which enacted this section and amended sections 511, 516, and 523 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act June 21, 1940, ch. 409, 54 Stat. 497, which comprises this subchapter.

“Subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of title 5” and “section 552 of title 5” substituted in text for “the Administrative Procedure Act (60 Stat. 237)” and “section 3 thereof”, respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

SUBCHAPTER III—GENERAL BRIDGE AUTHORITY

§525. Construction and operation of bridges

(a) Consent of Congress

The consent of Congress is granted for the construction, maintenance, and operation of bridges and approaches thereto over the navigable waters of the United States, in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter.

(b) Approval of plans

The location and plans for such bridges shall be approved by the Secretary of Transportation before construction is commenced, and, in approving the location and plans of any bridge, the Secretary may impose any specific conditions relating to the maintenance and operation of the structure which the Secretary may deem necessary in the interest of public navigation, and the conditions so imposed shall have the force of law. This subsection shall not apply to any bridge over waters which are not subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and which are not used and are not susceptible to use in their natural condition or by reasonable improvement as a means to transport interstate or foreign commerce.

(c) Private highway toll bridges

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, it shall be unlawful to construct or commence the construction of any privately owned highway toll bridge until the location and plans thereof shall also have been submitted to and approved by the highway department or departments of the State or States in which the bridge and its approaches are situated; and where such bridge shall be between two or more States and the highway departments thereof shall be unable to agree upon the location and plans therefor, or if they, or either of them, shall fail or refuse to act upon the location and plans submitted, such location and plans then shall be submitted to the Secretary of Transportation and, if approved by the Secretary of Transportation, approval by the highway departments shall not be required.

(Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §502, 60 Stat. 847; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §103(a), 63 Stat. 380; 1949 Reorg. Plan No. 7, §1, eff. Aug. 19, 1949, 14 F.R. 5288, 63 Stat. 1070; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, §107(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), (3), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 98–557, §17(g)(2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2869.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–557 struck out “the Chief of Engineers and” before “the Secretary of Transportation” and substituted “the Secretary” for “they” wherever appearing.

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War”. See Transfer of Functions note below.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(3), substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Public Roads Administration” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–322 inserted exemption provision at end.

Short Title

Section 501 of title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, provided that: “This title [enacting this subchapter] may be cited as the ‘General Bridge Act of 1946’.”

Transfer of Functions

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department of the Army [formerly War] under this section to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(C).

Functions of Public Roads Administration transferred to Bureau of Public Roads within General Services Administration by section 103(a) of act June 30, 1949. See Historical and Revision Notes under section 303(b) of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works. Section 303(b) of Title 40 was amended generally by Pub. L. 109–313, §2(a)(1), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1734, and, as so amended, no longer relates to the Federal Works Agency and Commissioner of Public Buildings. See 2006 Amendment note under section 303 of Title 40.

Bureau of Public Roads within General Services Administration transferred to Department of Commerce by section 1 of Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1949.

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of Commerce, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Commerce, with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 5 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of Commerce and other offices and officers of Department of Commerce under subsec. (c) of this section relating generally to highways transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation by section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(C).

Reservation of Right To Alter, Amend, or Repeal

Section 511 of title V of act Aug. 2, 1946, provided that: “The right to alter, amend, or repeal this title [this subchapter] is hereby expressly reserved as to any and all bridges which may be built under authority hereof.”

§526. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(e), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174

Section, acts Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §503, 60 Stat. 847; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), 96 Stat. 2440, provided that tolls charged for transit over any interstate bridge be just and reasonable and authorized Secretary of Transportation to prescribe reasonable rates of toll for such transit, which rates were to be legal rates demanded and received. See section 508 of this title.

§526a. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(f), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174

Section, act Pub. L. 93–87, title I, §133(b), Aug. 13, 1973, 87 Stat. 267, authorized Secretary of Transportation to promulgate regulations establishing guidelines governing any increase in tolls for use of any bridge constructed pursuant to either the General Bridge Act of 1906 or the General Bridge Act of 1946.

Study of Toll Bridge Authority; Investigation and Study of Federal Statutes and Regulations; Report to Congress

Section 133(a) of Pub. L. 93–87 directed Secretary of Transportation to study the existing Federal laws and regulations governing toll bridges over navigable waters of United States and submit a report containing recommendations regarding action to be taken to assure reasonable nationwide tolls no later than July 1, 1974, except in the case of the toll bridge at Chester, Illinois, where the Secretary was directed to submit a similar report no later than Dec. 31, 1973, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(f), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174.

§527. Acquisition of interstate bridges by public agencies; amount of damages

After the completion of any interstate toll bridge constructed by an individual, firm, or corporation, as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, either of the States in which the bridge is located, or any public agency or political subdivision of either of such States, within or adjoining which any part of such bridge is located, or any two or more of them jointly, may at any time acquire and take over all right, title, and interest in such bridge and its approaches, and any interest in real property for public purposes by condemnation or expropriation. If at any time after the expiration of five years after the completion of such bridge the same is acquired by condemnation or expropriation, the amount of damages or compensation to be allowed shall not include good will, going value, or prospective revenues or profits, but shall be limited to the sum of (1) the actual cost of constructing such bridge and its approaches, less a reasonable deduction for actual depreciation in value; (2) the actual costs of acquiring such interests in real property; (3) actual financing and promotion costs, not to exceed 10 per centum of the sum of the cost of constructing the bridge and its approaches and acquiring such interests in real property; and (4) actual expenditures for necessary improvements.

(Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §504, 60 Stat. 848; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War”. See Transfer of Functions note below.

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department of the Army [formerly War] under this subchapter to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(C).

§528. Statement of construction costs of privately owned interstate bridges; investigation of costs; conclusiveness of findings; review

Within ninety days after the completion of a privately owned interstate toll bridge, the owner shall file with the Secretary of Transportation and with the highway departments of the States in which the bridge is located, a sworn itemized statement showing the actual original cost of constructing the bridge and its approaches, the actual cost of acquiring any interest in real property necessary therefor, and the actual financing and promotion costs. The Secretary of Transportation may, and upon request of a highway department shall, at any time within three years after the completion of such bridge, investigate such costs and determine the accuracy and the reasonableness of the costs alleged in the statement of costs so filed, and shall make a finding of the actual and reasonable costs of constructing, financing, and promoting such bridge. For the purpose of such investigation the said individual, firm, or corporation, its successors and assigns, shall make available all of its records in connection with the construction, financing, and promotion thereof. The findings of the Secretary of Transportation as to the reasonable costs of the construction, financing, and promotion of the bridge shall be conclusive for the purposes mentioned in section 527 of this title subject only to review in a court of equity for fraud or gross mistake.

(Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §505, 60 Stat. 848; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440.)

Amendments

1983—Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department of the Army [formerly War] under this subchapter to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(C).

§529. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(e), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174

Section, acts Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §506, 60 Stat. 848; May 25, 1948, ch. 336, 62 Stat. 267, related to adjusting rates of tolls charged on an interstate bridge constructed or taken over by State or political subdivision thereof to provide fund to pay reasonable costs of maintaining and operating such bridge and a sinking fund to amortize amount paid for such bridge, with such bridge to be operated and maintained free of tolls after a sinking fund sufficient for such amortization had been provided.

§530. Bridges included and excluded

The provisions of this subchapter shall apply only to bridges over navigable waters of the United States, the construction of which is approved after August 2, 1946, under the provisions of this subchapter; and the provisions of the first proviso of section 401 of this title, and the provisions of sections 491 to 498 of this title, shall not apply to such bridges.

(Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §507, 60 Stat. 849.)

§531. International bridges

This subchapter shall not be construed to authorize the construction of any bridge which will connect the United States, or any Territory or possession of the United States, with any foreign country.

(Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §508, 60 Stat. 849.)

§532. Eminent domain

There are conferred upon any individual, his heirs, legal representatives, or assigns, any firm or corporation, its successors or assigns, or any State, political subdivision, or municipality authorized in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter to build a bridge between two or more States, all such rights and powers to enter upon lands and acquire, condemn, occupy, possess, and use real estate and other property in the respective States needed for the location, construction, operation, and maintenance of such bridge and its approaches, as are possessed by railroad corporations for railroad purposes or by bridge corporations for bridge purposes in the State in which such real estate or other property is situated, upon making just compensation therefor to be ascertained and paid according to the laws of such State, and the proceedings therefor shall be the same as in the condemnation or expropriation of property for public purposes in such State.

(Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §509, 60 Stat. 849.)

§533. Penalties for violations

(a) Criminal penalties for violation

Any person who willfully fails or refuses to comply with any lawful order of the Secretary of Transportation or the Chief of Engineers issued under the provisions of this subchapter, or who willfully fails to comply with any specific condition imposed by the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of Transportation relating to the maintenance and operation of bridges, or who willfully refuses to produce books, papers, or documents in obedience to a subpena or other lawful requirement under this subchapter, or who otherwise willfully violates any provisions of this subchapter, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not to exceed $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(b) Civil penalties for violation; separate offenses; notice and hearing; assessment, collection, and remission; civil actions

Whoever violates any provision of this subchapter, or any order issued under this subchapter, shall be liable to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter. Each day a violation continues shall be deemed a separate offense. No penalty may be assessed under this subsection until the person charged is given notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the charge. The Secretary of Transportation may assess and collect any civil penalty incurred under this subsection and, in his discretion, may remit, mitigate, or compromise any penalty until the matter is referred to the Attorney General. If a person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under this subsection fails to pay that penalty, an action may be commenced in the district court of the United States for any district in which the violation occurs for such penalty.

(Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, §510, 60 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, §108(d), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 108–293, title VI, §601(d), Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1050.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–293 substituted “$5,000 for a violation occurring in 2004; $10,000 for a violation occurring in 2005; $15,000 for a violation occurring in 2006; $20,000 for a violation occurring in 2007; and $25,000 for a violation occurring in 2008 and any year thereafter” for “$1,000”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–449 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of War” wherever appearing. See Transfer of Functions note below.

1982—Pub. L. 97–322 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), made willfulness an element of the described offenses, and added subsec. (b).

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other offices and officers of Department of the Army [formerly War] under this subchapter to extent that they relate generally to location and clearances of bridges and causeways in navigable waters of United States to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(6)(C).

§534. Conveyance of right, title, and interest of United States in bridges transferred to States or political subdivisions; terms and conditions

The Secretary of the Army is authorized to transfer or convey to State authorities or political subdivisions thereof all right, title, and interest of the United States, in and to any and all bridges heretofore or hereafter constructed or acquired in connection with the improvement of canals, rivers and harbors, or works of flood control, together with the necessary lands, easements, or rights-of-way, upon such terms and conditions and with or without consideration, as may be determined to be in the best interest of the United States by the Chief of Engineers: Provided, That such transferred bridges shall be toll-free.

(May 17, 1950, ch. 188, title I, §109, 64 Stat. 168.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the General Bridge Act of 1946 which comprises this subchapter.

SUBCHAPTER IV—INTERNATIONAL BRIDGES

§535. Congressional consent to construction, maintenance, and operation of international bridges; conditions of consent

The consent of Congress is hereby granted to the construction, maintenance, and operation of any bridge and approaches thereto, which will connect the United States with any foreign country (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as an “international bridge”) and to the collection of tolls for its use, so far as the United States has jurisdiction. Such consent shall be subject to (1) the approval of the proper authorities in the foreign country concerned; (2) the provisions of sections 491 to 498 of this title, except section 496 of this title, whether or not such bridge is to be built across or over any of the navigable waters of the United States; and (3) of the provisions of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 92–434, §2, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 731.)

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 92–434 provided: “That this Act [enacting this subchapter and amending section 129 of Title 23, Highways] may be cited as the ‘International Bridge Act of 1972’.”

§535a. Congressional consent to State agreements with Canada and Mexico; Secretary of State's approval of agreements

The consent of Congress is hereby granted for a State or a subdivision or instrumentality thereof to enter into agreements—

(1) with the Government of Canada, a Canadian Province, or a subdivision or instrumentality of either, in the case of a bridge connecting the United States and Canada, or

(2) with the Government of Mexico, a Mexican State, or a subdivision or instrumentality of either, in the case of a bridge connecting the United States and Mexico,


for the construction, operation, and maintenance of such bridge in accordance with the applicable provisions of this subchapter. The effectiveness of such agreement shall be conditioned on its approval by the Secretary of State.

(Pub. L. 92–434, §3, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 731.)

§535b. Presidential approval; recommendations of Federal officials

No bridge may be constructed, maintained, and operated as provided in section 535 of this title unless the President has given his approval thereto. In the course of determining whether to grant such approval, the President shall secure the advice and recommendations of (1) the United States section of the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, in the case of a bridge connecting the United States and Mexico, and (2) the heads of such departments and agencies of the Federal Government as he deems appropriate to determine the necessity for such bridge.

(Pub. 92–434, §4, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 731.)

§535c. Secretary of Transportation's approval; commencement and completion requirements; extension of time limits

The approval of the Secretary of Transportation, as required by section 491 of this title, shall be given only subsequent to the President's approval, as provided for in section 535b of this title, and shall be null and void unless the construction of the bridge is commenced within two years and completed within five years from the date of the Secretary's approval: Provided, however, That the Secretary, for good cause shown, may extend for a reasonable time either or both of the time limits herein provided.

(Pub. L. 92–434, §5, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 732.)

§535d. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(g), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174

Section, Pub. L. 92–434, §6, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 732, directed that tolls charged for use of an international bridge constructed or acquired under this subchapter by private individual, company, or other private entity be collected for a reasonable period for amortization of construction or acquisition costs, plus interest and reasonable return, that at end of such period the United States portion of bridge become the property of the State having jurisdiction over such United States portion, and that accurate records on expenditures and tolls collected be kept and annually reported to Secretary of Transportation, with authority for Secretary to conduct audits.

§535e. Ownership

(a) Sale, assignment, or transfer; Secretary of Transportation's approval

Nothing in this subchapter shall be deemed to prevent the individual, corporation, or other entity to which, pursuant to this subchapter, authorization has been given to construct, operate, and maintain an international bridge and the approaches thereto, from selling, assigning, or transferring the rights, powers, and privileges conferred by this subchapter: Provided, That such sale, assignment, or transfer shall be subject to approval by the Secretary of Transportation.

(b) State status of original applicant upon acquisition of right, title, and interest after termination of private entity licenses, contracts, or orders

Upon the acquisition by a State or States, or by a subdivision or instrumentality thereof, of the right, title, and interest of a private individual, corporation, or other private entity, in and to an international bridge, any license, contract, or order issued or entered into by the Secretary of Transportation, to or with such private individual, corporation, or other private entity, shall be deemed terminated forthwith. Thereafter, the State, subdivision, or instrumentality so acquiring shall operate and maintain such bridge in the same manner as if it had been the original applicant, and the provisions of section 535d 1 of this title shall not apply.

(Pub. L. 92–434, §8, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 732.)

References in Text

Section 535d of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was repealed by Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §135(g), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 174.

1 See References in Text note below.

§535f. Applicability of provisions

This subchapter shall apply to all international bridges constructed under the authority of this subchapter. Section 535a of this title and section 129(a)(3) of title 23, shall apply to all international bridges the construction of which has been heretofore approved by Congress, notwithstanding any conflicting provision in any Act authorizing the construction of such a bridge or in any agreement entered into by the Federal Government and a State.

(Pub. L. 92–434, §9, Sept. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 733.)