TITLE 50, APPENDIX—WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE

 
ActSec.
Proclamations, Executive Orders, Joint Resolutions and Treaties Respecting War, Neutrality and Peace ............ Notes prec. sec. 1
Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 1
Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act of 1918 [Omitted] 101
Selective Draft Act of 1917 [Omitted or Repealed] 201
Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 [Omitted or Repealed] 301
Office of Selective Service Records 321
Service Extension Act of 1941 [Repealed] 351
Army Reserve and Retired Personnel Service Law of 1940 [Omitted] 401
Military Selective Service Act 451
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act 501
First War Powers Act, 1941 [Repealed, Omitted, or Transferred] 601
Second War Powers Act, 1942 [Repealed or Omitted] 631
Exportation Restrictions on Certain Articles [Repealed or Omitted] 701
Requisition of Military Equipment, Materials and Supplies [Omitted] 711
Territorial Use of Army and Extension of Service Period [Omitted, Transferred, or Repealed] 731
Civilian Protection From War Hazards [Omitted] 741
Decorations, etc., for Merchant Marine [Repealed] 751
Use of Public Lands for War Purposes [Repealed] 756
Miscellaneous Provisions Affecting Military Establishment [Omitted, Repealed, or Transferred] 761
Photographing, Mapping or Other Representation of Military or Defense Properties [Omitted] 781
Exemption of Certain Articles From Import Duties and Taxes [Omitted or Repealed] 791
Temporary Appointments, Promotions, etc., of Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard Officers [Omitted or Repealed] 806
Jurisdiction of Prizes and Prize Proceedings [Transferred] 821
Certain Allowance Assistance for Civilian and Military Personnel [Repealed or Omitted] 831
Free Entry of Gifts From Members of Armed Forces [Omitted] 846
Free Postage for Armed Forces Personnel [Omitted] 891
Emergency Price Control Act of 1942 [Omitted] 901
Stabilization Act of 1942 [Omitted] 961
Extension of Sugar Controls [Omitted] 981
Missing Persons Act [Repealed] 1001
Small Business Mobilization Act [Omitted, Transferred, or Repealed] 1101
War and Defense Contract Acts [Omitted or Repealed] 1151
National Emergency and War Shipping Acts 1251
Farm Labor Supply Appropriation Act, 1944 [Omitted] 1351
War Overtime Pay Act of 1943 [Repealed] 1401
Training of Nurses Through Grants to Institutions [Omitted] 1451
Civilian Reemployment of Members of Merchant Marine [Repealed] 1471
War Labor Disputes Act [Omitted] 1501
Voluntary Enlistments in Regular Military Establishment [Repealed] 1531
Women's Army Corps [Repealed] 1551
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration [Omitted] 1571
Temporary Appointments of Army Nurse Corps Members, etc., as Officers of Army of United States [Repealed] 1591
Disposal of Materials on Public Lands [Omitted] 1601
Surplus Property Act of 1944 1611
War Mobilization and Reconversion Act of 1944 [Omitted] 1651
Fleet Admiral of Navy and General of Army [Repealed] 1691
Disposal of Censored Mail [Omitted] 1701
Disbursing Officers’ Additional Functions [Transferred] 1705
General of Marine Corps [Omitted] 1711
Admiral in Coast Guard [Repealed] 1721
Exception of Navy or Coast Guard Vessels From Certain Navigation Rules [Transferred] 1731
Sale of Surplus War-Built Vessels 1735
Rehabilitation of Philippines [Omitted] 1751
Return and Interment of Persons Buried Outside United States [Repealed] 1811
Veterans’ Emergency Housing Program [Repealed or Omitted] 1821
Naval Vessels as Atomic Targets [Omitted] 1841
Admission of Alien Fiancées Into United States [Omitted] 1851
Military Assistance to Philippine Republic [Omitted] 1861
Naval Aid to China [Omitted] 1871
Naval Aid to Foreign Nations [Omitted] 1876
Housing and Rent Acts 1881
Stabilization of Economy and Commodity Prices 1911
Domestic Rubber-Producing Industry [Omitted] 1921
Disposal of Government-Owned Rubber-Producing Facilities 1941
Displaced Persons, Refugees and Orphans [Omitted] 1951
American-Japanese Evacuation Claims 1981
Restitution for World War II Internment of Japanese-Americans and Aleuts 1989
Medical Care for Philippine Veterans [Repealed] 1991
War Claims 2001
Micronesian War and Postwar Claims [Omitted] 2018
Export Controls [Omitted] 2021
Alien Property Damage Claims [Omitted] 2041
Defense Production Act of 1950 2061
Domestic Minerals Program Extension 2181
Domestic Tungsten, Asbestos, Fluorspar and Columbium-Tantalum Purchase Programs [Omitted] 2191
Dependents Assistance Act of 1950 [Omitted or Repealed] 2201
Civil Defense 2251
Emergency Food Aid to India [Omitted] 2311
Korean Combat Pay [Repealed] 2351
World War II License Agreements 2371
Emergency Ship Repair Program [Repealed] 2391
Export Regulation 2401

PROCLAMATIONS, EXECUTIVE ORDERS, JOINT RESOLUTIONS AND TREATIES RESPECTING WAR, NEUTRALITY AND PEACE

I. PROCLAMATIONS OF STATE OF WAR

Proc. No. 2374, Nov. 4, 1939, 12:04 p.m., 4 F.R. 4493, 54 Stat. 2671, proclaimed a state of war between Germany and France; Poland; and the United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa.

Proc. No. 2398, Apr. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1569, 54 Stat. 2698, proclaimed a state of war between Germany and Norway.

Proc. No. 2404, May 11, 1940, 5 F.R. 1689, 54 Stat. 2703, proclaimed a state of war between Germany and Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands.

Proc. No. 2407, June 10, 1940, 10:20 p.m., E.S.T., 5 F.R. 2191, 54 Stat. 2706, proclaimed a state of war between Italy and France and United Kingdom.

Proc. No. 2443, Nov. 15, 1940, 5 F.R. 4523, 54 Stat. 2763, proclaimed a state of war between Italy and Greece.

Proc. No. 2473, Apr. 10, 1941, 6 F.R. 1905, 55 Stat. 1627, proclaimed a state of war between Germany-Italy and Yugoslavia.

Proc. No. 2477, Apr. 15, 1941, 6 F.R. 1995, 55 Stat. 1631, proclaimed a state of war between Hungary and Yugoslavia.

Proc. No. 2479, Apr. 24, 1941, 6 F.R. 2133, 55 Stat. 1636, proclaimed a state of war between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia and Greece.

II. PROCLAMATIONS OF UNITED STATES NEUTRALITY

Proc. No. 2348, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3809, 54 Stat. 2629, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and France; Poland; United Kingdom, India, Australia, and New Zealand.

Proc. No. 2353, Sept. 8, 1939, 4 F.R. 3851, 54 Stat. 2643, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and Union of South Africa.

Proc. No. 2359, Sept. 10, 1939, 4 F.R. 3857, 54 Stat. 2652, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and Canada.

Proc. No. 2399, Apr. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1569, 54 Stat. 2699, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and Norway.

Proc. No. 2405, May 11, 1940, 5 F.R. 1689, 54 Stat. 2704, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands.

Proc. No. 2408, June 10, 1940, 10:20 p.m. E.S.T., 5 F.R. 2191, 54 Stat. 2707, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Italy and France and United Kingdom.

Proc. No. 2444, Nov. 15, 1940, 5 F.R. 4523, 54 Stat. 2764, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Italy and Greece.

See, also, notes under the Neutrality Act of 1939, sections 441, 444, 445, 447 to 451, 453 to 457 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

III. MISCELLANEOUS PROCLAMATIONS AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS

National Emergency of 1939

Proc. No. 2352, Sept. 8, 1939, 4 F.R. 3851, 54 Stat. 2643, proclaimed national emergency in connection with enforcement of neutrality which was terminated by Proc. No. 2974, set out below.

National Emergency of 1941

Proc. No. 2487, May 27, 1941, 6 F.R. 2617, 55 Stat. 1647, proclaimed an unlimited national emergency which was terminated by Proc. No. 2974, set out below.

Proc. No. 2685. Removal of Alien Enemies

Proc. No. 2685, Apr. 11, 1946, 11 F.R. 4079, 60 Stat. Pt. 2, p. 1342, provided:

1. All alien enemies within the continental limits of the United States brought here from other American republics after December 7, 1941, who are within the territory of the United States without admission under the immigration laws, shall, if their continued residence in the Western Hemisphere is deemed by the Secretary of State to be prejudicial to the future security or welfare of the Americas, be subject upon the order of the Secretary of State to removal from the United States and may be required to depart therefrom in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary of State may prescribe.

2. In all cases in which the Secretary of State shall have ordered the removal of an alien enemy under the authority of this proclamation or in which the Attorney General shall have ordered the removal of an alien enemy under the authority of Proclamation No. 2655 of July 14, 1945, thirty days shall be considered, and is hereby declared to be, a reasonable time for such alien enemy to effect the recovery, disposal, and removal of his goods and effects, and for his departure.

3. This proclamation supersedes Proclamation No. 2662 of September 8, 1945, entitled “Removal of Alien Enemies.”

Harry S. Truman.      

Proc. No. 2914. National Emergency, 1950

Proc. No. 2914, Dec. 16, 1950, 15 F.R. 9029, 64 Stat. a454 provided:

WHEREAS recent events in Korea and elsewhere constitute a grave threat to the peace of the world and imperil the efforts of this country and those of the United Nations to prevent aggression and armed conflict; and

WHEREAS world conquest by communist imperialism is the goal of the forces of aggression that have been loosed upon the world; and

WHEREAS, if the goal of communist imperialism were to be achieved, the people of this country would no longer enjoy the full and rich life they have with God's help built for themselves and their children; they would no longer enjoy the blessings of the freedom of worshipping as they severally choose, the freedom of reading and listening to what they choose, the right of free speech including the right to criticize their Government, the right to choose those who conduct their Government, the right to engage freely in collective bargaining, the right to engage freely in their own business enterprises, and the many other freedoms and rights which are a part of our way of life; and

Whereas the increasing menace of the forces of communist aggression requires that the national defense of the United States be strengthened as speedily as possible:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, do proclaim the existence of a national emergency, which requires that the military, naval, air, and civilian defenses of this country be strengthened as speedily as possible to the end that we may be able to repeal any and all threats against our national security and to fulfill our responsibilities in the efforts being made through the United Nations and otherwise to bring about lasting peace.

I summon all citizens to make a united effort for the security and well-being of our beloved country and to place its needs foremost in thought and action that the full moral and material strength of the Nation may be readied for the dangers which threaten us.

I summon our farmers, our workers in industry, and our businessmen to make a mighty production effort to meet the defense requirements of the Nation and to this end to eliminate all waste and inefficiency and to subordinate all lesser interests to the common good.

I summon every person and every community to make, with a spirit of neighborliness, whatever sacrifices are necessary for the welfare of the Nation.

I summon all State and local leaders and officials to cooperate fully with the military and civilian defense agencies of the United States in the national defense program.

I summon all citizens to be loyal to the principles upon which our Nation is founded, to keep faith with our friends and allies, and to be firm in our devotion to the peaceful purposes for which the United Nations was founded.

I am confident that we will meet the dangers that confront us with courage and determination, strong in the faith that we can thereby “secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity.”

Harry S. Truman.      

Proc. No. 2974. Termination of Wartime Emergencies

Proc. No. 2974, Apr. 28, 1952, 17 F.R. 3813, 66 Stat. c31, provided in part:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, do proclaim that the national emergencies declared to exist by the proclamations of September 8, 1939 [set out above], and May 27, 1941 [set out above], terminated this day upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Peace with Japan.

Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to affect Proclamation No. 2914 [set out above], issued by the President on December 16, 1950, declaring that world conquest by communist imperialism is the goal of the forces of aggression that have been loosed upon the world, and proclaiming the existence of a national emergency requiring that the military, naval, air, and civilian defenses of this country be strengthened as speedily as possible to the end that we may be able to repel any and all threats against our national security and to fulfill our responsibilities in the efforts being made through the United Nations and otherwise to bring about lasting peace; and nothing herein shall be construed to affect the continuation of the said emergency of September 8, 1939, as specified in the Emergency Powers Interim Continuation Act, approved April 14, 1952 (Public Law 313—82d Congress), for the purpose of continuing the use of property held under the Act of October 14, 1940, ch. 862, 54 Stat. 1125, as amended [sections 1521 to 1524, 1531 to 1536, 1541 to 1553, 1561 to 1564, 1571 to 1576, 1581 to 1590 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare].

Harry S. Truman.      

Executive Order No. 8233

Ex. Ord. No. 8233, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3822, referred to regulations governing enforcement of neutrality of the United States.

Ex. Ord. No. 8234. Regulations Governing Passage and Control of Vessels Through Panama Canal in any War in Which the United States is Neutral

Ex. Ord. No. 8234, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3823, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 8382, Mar. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1185, provided:

WHEREAS the treaties of the United States, in any war in which the United States is a neutral, impose on the United States certain obligations to both neutral and belligerent nations;

AND WHEREAS the treaties of the United States, in any war in which the United States is a neutral, require that the United States exert all the vigilance within their power to carry out their obligations as a neutral;

AND WHEREAS treaties of the United States require that the Panama Canal shall be free and open, on terms of entire equality, to the vessels of commerce and of war of all nations observing the rules laid down in Article 3 of the so-called Hay-Pauncefote treaty concluded between the United States and Great Britain, November 18, 1901:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 5 of the Panama Canal Act, approved August 24, 1912 (ch. 390, sec. 5, 37 Stat. 562), as amended by the act of July 5, 1932 (ch. 425, 47 Stat. 578), I hereby prescribe the following regulations governing the passage and control of vessels through the Panama Canal or any part thereof, including the locks and approaches thereto, in any war in which the United States is a neutral;

1. Whenever considered necessary, in the opinion of the Governor of the Panama Canal, to prevent damage or injury to vessels or to prevent damage or injury to the Canal or its appurtenances, or to secure the observance of the rules, regulations, rights, or obligations of the United States, the Canal authorities may at any time, as a condition precedent to transit of the Canal, inspect any vessel, belligerent or neutral, other than a public vessel, including its crew and cargo, and, for and during the passage through the Canal, place armed guards thereon, and take full possession and control of such vessel and remove therefrom the officers and crew thereof and all other persons not specially authorized by the Canal authorities to go or remain on board thereof during such passage.

2. A public vessel of a belligerent or neutral nation shall be permitted to pass through the Canal only after her commanding officer has given written assurance to the authorities of the Panama Canal that the rules, regulations, and treaties of the United States will be faithfully observed.

3. Possession of cameras on board vessels; photographing from vessels. While on board any vessel in transit through the Panama Canal, no person shall (a) have or remain in possession of any camera, or (b) make any photograph, sketch, picture, drawing, map, or graphical representation of any of the locks of the Panama Canal, or of any portion of any such lock, or of any area within or adjacent to any such lock, or of any object or structure within or upon any such area, without first obtaining the permission of the Governor of The Panama Canal, and promptly submitting the product obtained to the Governor for such action as he may deem necessary. The master of every vessel that transmits the Panama Canal (a) shall prior to the beginning of each transit cause all cameras on board such vessel, or which are brought on board by embarking passengers, or otherwise, to be collected and delivered to him, and shall retain the said cameras in his possession, in a secure and inaccessible place, until the disembarkation of the original possessors thereof or until the transit through the Canal is completed, and (b) shall during such transit take such further action, in cooperation with the Canal authorities, as may be necessary to prevent the making, by any person on board such vessel in the waters of the Canal Zone, of any photograph, sketch, picture, drawing, map, or graphical representation which is forbidden by this paragraph; but these provisions shall not apply with respect to any person who has obtained permission as provided in this paragraph. Any person who shall violate any provision of this paragraph shall be punishable as provided in section 9 of title 2 of the [former] Canal Zone Code.

The foregoing regulations are in addition to the “Rules and Regulations for the Operation and Navigation of the Panama Canal and Approaches Thereto, including all Waters under its Jurisdiction” prescribed by Executive Order No. 4314 of September 25, 1925, as amended, and the provisions of proclamations and executive orders pertaining to the Canal Zone issued in conformity with the laws and treaties of the United States.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.      

Proc. No. 2350, eff. Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3821, 54 Stat. 2368, referred to regulations concerning neutrality in the Canal Zone.

Ex. Ord. No. 9723. Termination of President's War Relief Control Board

Ex. Ord. No. 9723, May 14, 1946, 11 F.R. 5345, provided:

Executive Order No. 9205 of July 25, 1942, is revoked, and the President's War Relief Control Board established by that order is hereby terminated. The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to liquidate all of the activities and obligations and wind up all of the affairs of the Board as rapidly as practicable, and to utilize therefore such of the personnel property, records, and unexpended appropriations of the Board as may be necessary.

Harry S. Truman.      

IV. DECLARATIONS OF WAR BY UNITED STATES

War Between United States and Germany

Declared by Joint Res. April 6, 1917, 40 Stat. 1.

War Between United States and Austria-Hungary

Declared by Joint Res. Dec. 7, 1917, 40 Stat. 429.

War Between United States and Japan

Declared by Joint Res. Dec. 8, 1941, 4:10 p.m., E.S.T., ch. 561, 55 Stat. 795.

War Between United States and Germany

Declared by Joint Res. Dec. 11, 1941, 3:05 p.m. E.S.T., ch. 564, 55 Stat. 796.

War Between United States and Italy

Declared by Joint Res. Dec. 11, 1941, 3:06 p.m., E.S.T., ch. 565, 55 Stat. 797.

War Between the United States and Bulgaria

Declared by Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 323, 56 Stat. 307.

War Between United States and Hungary

Declared by Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 324, 56 Stat. 307.

War Between United States and Rumania

Declared by Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 325, 56 Stat. 307.

Proc. No. 2563. Proclamation of State of War Between United States and Hungary, Bulgaria, and Rumania

Proc. No. 2563, July 17, 1942, 7 F.R. 5535, 56 Stat. 1970, proclaimed that a state of war existed between the United States and Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria.

V. TERMINATION OF STATE OF WAR

Cessation of Hostilities

The cessation of hostilities of World War II was officially proclaimed by the President of the United States, Proclamation No. 2714, Dec. 31, 1946, 12 F.R. 1, 61 Stat. 1048, in the following language:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim the cessation of hostilities of World War II, effective twelve o'clock noon, December 31, 1946.

Treaties of Peace With Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania, and Finland

On the 10th day of February 1947, separate Treaties of Peace were concluded by designated Allied and Associated Powers, including the United States of America, with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania.

Each of these Treaties contained a recital in the Preamble that the Allied and Associated Powers named therein

Have therefore agreed to declare the cessation of the state of war and for this purpose to conclude the present Treaty of Peace, and have accordingly appointed the undersigned Plenipotentiaries who, after presentation of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions: * * *.

The full text of the Treaties of Peace with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania and Finland are set out in 61 Stat. 1245, 1915, 2065, 1757.

On the same date a Treaty of Peace was concluded with Finland. The United States is not a signatory thereto.

Treaty of Peace with Japan

The Treaty of Peace with Japan signed at the city of San Francisco on the 8th day of September 1951, Chapter I, Article 1, provides:

(a) The state of war between Japan and each of the Allied Powers is terminated as from the date on which the present Treaty comes into force between Japan and the Allied Power concerned as provided for in Article 23.

Article 23 of Chapter VII, above referred to, provides:

(a) The present Treaty shall be ratified by the States which sign it, including Japan, and will come into force for all the States which have then ratified it, when instruments of ratification have been deposited by Japan and by a majority, including the United States of America as the principal occupying Power, of the following States [here would appear the names of such of the following States as are signatories to the present Treaty], namely Australia, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, France, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States of America. The present Treaty shall come into force for each State which subsequently ratifies it, on the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

(b) If the Treaty has not come into force within nine months after the date of the deposit of Japan's ratification, any State which has ratified it may bring the Treaty into force between itself and Japan by a notification to that effect given to the Government of Japan and of the United States of America not later than three years after the date of deposit of Japan's ratification.

Ratification of Japanese Peace Treaty

The Treaty of Peace with Japan, signed at San Francisco on September 8, 1951, was ratified by the United States Senate on March 20, 1952. For Resolution of ratification, see Congressional Record, Vol. 98, No. 46, Thursday, March 20, 1952, p. 2634.

Germany

Joint Resolution of Congress

Joint Res. Oct. 19, 1951, ch. 519, 65 Stat. 451, provided: “That the state of war declared to exist between the United States and the Government of Germany by the joint resolution of Congress approved December 11, 1941, is hereby terminated and such termination shall take effect on the date of enactment of this resolution [Oct. 19, 1951]: Provided, however, That notwithstanding this resolution and any proclamation issued by the President pursuant thereto, any property or interest which prior to January 1, 1947, was subject to vesting or seizure under the provisions of the Trading With the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 411), as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, 41 to 44 of this Appendix] or which has heretofore been vested or seized under that Act, including accruals to or proceeds of any such property or interest, shall continue to be subject to the provisions of that Act in the same manner and to the same extent as if this resolution had not been adopted and such proclamation had not been issued. Nothing herein and nothing in such proclamation shall alter the status, as it existed immediately prior hereto, under that Act, of Germany or of any person with respect to any such property or interest.”

Proclamation No. 2950

Proc. No. 2950, Oct. 25, 1951, 16 F.R. 10915, 66 Stat. c3, proclaimed that the state of war between the United States and the Government of Germany declared on Dec. 11, 1941 was terminated on Oct. 19, 1951.

VI. AUTHORIZATION TO EMPLOY ARMED FORCES

Maintenance of International Peace and Security in Southeast Asia

Pub. L. 88–408, Aug. 10, 1964, 78 Stat. 384, which authorized the President to take all necessary measures to repeal armed attack against the forces of the United States in the interest of the maintenance of peace and security in Southeast Asia, was terminated by Pub. L. 91–672, §12, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2055, effective upon the day that the second session of the Ninety-first Congress was last adjourned. The second session of the Ninety-first Congress adjourned sine die on January 2, 1971.

Termination of Hostilities in Indochina

Pub. L. 92–129, title IV, §401, Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 360, provided that: “It is hereby declared to be the sense of Congress that the United States terminate at the earliest practicable date all military operations of the United States in Indochina, and provide for the prompt and orderly withdrawal of all United States military forces at a date certain subject to the release of all American prisoners of war held by the Government of North Vietnam and forces allied with such Government, and an accounting for all Americans missing in action who have been held by or known to such Government or such forces. The Congress hereby urges and requests the President to implement the above expressed policy by initiating immediately the following actions:

“(1) Negotiate with the Government of North Vietnam for an immediate cease-fire by all parties to the hostilities in Indochina.

“(2) Negotiate with the Government of North Vietnam for the establishing of a final date for the withdrawal from Indochina of all military forces of the United States contingent upon the release at a date certain of all American prisoners of war held by the Government of North Vietnam and forces allied with such Government.

“(3) Negotiate with the Government of North Vietnam for an agreement which would provide for a series of phased and rapid withdrawals of United States military forces from Indochina subject to a corresponding series of phased releases of American prisoners of war, and for the release of any remaining American prisoners of war concurrently with the withdrawal of all remaining military forces of the United States by not later than the date established pursuant to paragraph (2) hereof.”

Proc. No. 3504. Interdiction of the Delivery of Offensive Weapons to Cuba

Proc. No. 3504, Oct. 23, 1962, 27 F.R. 10401, 77 Stat. 958, provided:

WHEREAS the peace of the world and the security of the United States and of all American States are endangered by reason of the establishment by the Sino-Soviet powers of an offensive military capability in Cuba, including bases for ballistic missiles with a potential range covering most of North and South America;

WHEREAS by a Joint Resolution passed by the Congress of the United States and approved on October 3, 1962, it was declared that the United States is determined to prevent by whatever means may be necessary, including the use of arms, the Marxist-Leninist regime in Cuba from extending, by force or the threat of force, its aggressive or subversive activities to any part of this hemisphere, and to prevent in Cuba the creation or use of an externally supported military capability endangering the security of the United States; and

WHEREAS the Organ of Consultation of the American Republics meeting in Washington on October 23, 1962, recommended that the Member States, in accordance with Articles 6 and 8 of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, take all measures, individually and collectively, including the use of armed force, which they may deem necessary to ensure that the Government of Cuba cannot continue to receive from the Sino-Soviet powers military material and related supplies which may threaten the peace and security of the Continent and to prevent the missiles in Cuba with offensive capability from ever becoming an active threat to the peace and security of the Continent:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOHN F. KENNEDY, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority conferred upon me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, in accordance with the aforementioned resolutions of the United States Congress and of the Organ of Consultation of the American Republics, and to defend the security of the United States, do hereby proclaim that the forces under my command are ordered, beginning at 2:00 P.M. Greenwich time October 24, 1962, to interdict, subject to the instructions herein contained, the delivery of offensive weapons and associated material to Cuba.

For the purposes of this Proclamation, the following are declared to be prohibited materiel:

Surface-to-surface missiles; bomber aircraft; bombs, air-to-surface rockets and guided missiles; warheads for any of the above weapons; mechanical or electronic equipment to support or operate the above items; and any other classes of materiel hereafter designated by the Secretary of Defense for the purpose of effectuating this Proclamation.

To enforce this order, the Secretary of Defense shall take appropriate measures to prevent the delivery of prohibited materiel to Cuba, employing the land, sea and air forces of the United States in cooperation with any forces that may be made available by other American States.

The Secretary of Defense may make such regulations and issue such directives as he deems necessary to ensure the effectiveness of this order, including the designation, within a reasonable distance of Cuba, of prohibited or restricted zones and of prescribed routes.

Any vessel or craft which may be proceeding toward Cuba may be intercepted and may be directed to identify itself, its cargo, equipment and stores and its ports of call, to stop, to lie to, to submit to visit and search, or to proceed as directed. Any vessel or craft which fails or refuses to respond to or comply with directions shall be subject to being taken into custody. Any vessel or craft which it is believed is en route to Cuba and may be carrying prohibited materiel or may itself constitute such materiel shall, wherever possible, be directed to proceed to another destination of its own choice and shall be taken into custody if it fails or refuses to obey such directions. All vessels or craft taken into custody shall be sent into a port of the United States for appropriate disposition.

In carrying out this order, force shall not be used except in case of failure or refusal to comply with directions, or with regulations or directives of the Secretary of Defense issued hereunder, after reasonable efforts have been made to communicate them to the vessel or craft, or in case of self-defense. In any case, force shall be used only to the extent necessary.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed.

 Done in the City of Washington this twenty-third day of October in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and eighty-seventh.

[seal]

John Fitzgerald Kennedy.      

Proc. No. 3507. Terminating Authority Granted and Orders Issued in Proc. No. 3504

Proc. No. 3507, Nov. 21, 1962, 27 F.R. 11525, 77 Stat. 961, provided:

I, JOHN F. KENNEDY, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, do hereby proclaim that at 11 p.m., Greenwich Time, November 20, 1962, I terminated the authority conferred upon the Secretary of Defense by Proclamation No. 3504, dated October 23, 1962 [set out above], and revoked the orders contained therein to forces under my command.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed.

 DONE at the City of Washington this 21st day of November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-two and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and eighty-seventh.

[seal]

John F. Kennedy.      

Middle East Stabilization

Pub. L. 85–7, §§1–6, Mar. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 5, set out as chapter 24A (§1961 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, authorizes the President to provide economic and military assistance, and, if he determines it necessary, to use armed forces under certain circumstances to maintenance of national independence in the Middle East.

Protection of Security of Formosa

Joint Res. Jan. 29, 1955, ch. 4, 8:42 A.M., 69 Stat. 7, which authorized the President of the United States to employ the Armed Forces of the United States for the purpose of securing and protecting Formosa and Pescadores against armed attack, was repealed by Pub. L. 93–475, §3, Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1439.

TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT OF 1917

ACT OCT. 6, 1917, CH. 106, 40 STAT. 411

Sec.
1.
Designation of Act.
2.
Definitions.
3.
Acts prohibited.
4.
Licenses to enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance companies; change of name; doing business in United States.
5.
Suspension of provisions relating to ally of enemy; regulation of transactions in foreign exchange of gold or silver, property transfers, vested interests, enforcement and penalties.
6.
Alien Property Custodian; general powers and duties.
6a.
Incurment of expenses by Office of Alien Property Custodian.
6b.
Omitted.
7.
Lists of enemy or ally of enemy officers, directors or stockholders of corporations in United States; acts constituting trade with enemy prior to passage of Act; conveyance of property to custodian; voluntary payment to custodian by holder; acts under order, rule, or regulation.
8.
Contracts, mortgages, or pledges against or with enemy or ally of enemy; abrogation of contracts; suspension of limitations.
9.
Claims to property transferred to custodian; notice of claim; filing; return of property; suits to recover; sale of claimed property in time of war or during national emergency.
10.
Acts permitted; applications for patents, or registration of trade-marks or copyrights; payment of tax in relation thereto; licenses under enemy owned patent or copyright; statements by licensees; term and cancellation; suits against licensees; restraining infringements; powers of attorney; keeping secret inventions.
11.
Importations prohibited.
12.
Property transferred to Alien Property Custodian.
13.
Statements by masters of vessels and owners of cargoes before granting clearances.
14.
False manifest; refusal of clearance; reports of gold or silver coin in cargoes for export.
15.
Omitted.
16.
Offenses; punishment; forfeitures of property.
17.
Rules by district courts; appeals.
18.
Jurisdiction of courts of Philippines and Canal Zone of offenses.
19.
Print, newspaper or publication in foreign languages.
20.
Fees of agents, attorneys, or representatives.
21.
Claims of naturalized citizens as affected by expatriation.
22.
Fugitives from justice barred from recovery.
23.
Payment of income, etc., by Alien Property Custodian.
24.
Payment of taxes and expenses by Alien Property Custodian.
25.
Investments by Custodian in participating certificates issued by Secretary of the Treasury; transfers to and payments from German, Austrian or Hungarian special deposit accounts; allocation of payments.
26.
Allocation of “unallocated interest fund”.
27.
Return by Custodian, to United States, of payments under licenses, assignments or sales of patents.
28.
“Unallocated interest fund” defined.
29.
Waiver by Custodian of demand for property; acceptance of less amount; approval of Attorney General.
30.
Attachment or garnishment of funds or property held by Custodian.
31.
“Member of the former ruling family” defined.
32.
Return of property.
33.
Notice of claim; institution of suits; computation of time.
34.
Payment of debts.
35.
Hearings on claims; rules and regulations; delegation of powers.
36.
Taxes.
37.
Insurance of property.
38.
Shipment of relief supplies; definitions.
39.
Retention of properties or interests of Germany and Japan and their nationals; proceeds covered into Treasury; ex gratia payment to Switzerland.
40.
Intercustodial conflicts involving enemy property; authority of President to conclude; delegation of authority.
41.
Divestment of estates, trusts, insurance policies, annuities, remainders, pensions, workmen's compensation and veterans’ benefits; exceptions; notice of divestment.
42.
Claims for proceeds from sale of certain certificates: jurisdiction, limitations; divestment of copyrights: “copyrights” defined, rights of licensees and assignees, reproduction rights of United States, transfer of interests, payment of royalties to Attorney General, suits for infringement.
43.
Divestment of trademarks.
44.
Motion picture prints, transfer of title.

        

Termination of World War and Emergency

The Trading with the enemy Act was expressly excepted from the operation and effect of Joint Res. Mar. 3, 1921, ch. 136, 41 Stat. 1359, declaring that certain Acts of Congress, joint resolutions, and proclamations should be construed as though the World War had ended and the then present or existing emergency expired.

§1. Designation of Act

This Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] shall be known as the “Trading with the enemy 1 Act.”

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §1, 40 Stat. 411.)

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§2. Definitions

The word “enemy,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean, for the purposes of such trading and of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix]—

(a) Any individual, partnership, or other body of individuals, of any nationality, resident within the territory (including that occupied by the military and naval forces) of any nation with which the United States is at war, or resident outside the United States and doing business within such territory, and any corporation incorporated within such territory of any nation with which the United States is at war or incorporated within any country other than the United States and doing business within such territory.

(b) The government of any nation with which the United States is at war, or any political or municipal subdivision thereof, or any officer, official, agent, or agency thereof.

(c) Such other individuals, or body or class of individuals, as may be natives, citizens, or subjects of any nation with which the United States is at war, other than citizens of the United States, wherever resident or wherever doing business, as the President, if he shall find the safety of the United States or the successful prosecution of the war shall so require, may, by proclamation, include within the term “enemy.”

The words “ally of enemy,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean—

(a) Any individual, partnership, or other body of individuals, of any nationality, resident within the territory (including that occupied by the military and naval forces) of any nation which is an ally of a nation with which the United States is at war, or resident outside the United States and doing business within such territory, and any corporation incorporated within such territory of such ally nation, or incorporated within any country other than the United States and doing business within such territory.

(b) The government of any nation which is an ally of a nation with which the United States is at war, or any political or municipal subdivision of such ally nation, or any officer, official, agent, or agency thereof.

(c) Such other individuals, or body or class of individuals, as may be natives, citizens, or subjects of any nation which is an ally of a nation with which the United States is at war, other than citizens of the United States, wherever resident or wherever doing business, as the President, if he shall find the safety of the United States or the successful prosecution of the war shall so require, may, by proclamation, include within the term “ally of enemy.”

The word “person,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean an individual, partnership, association, company, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or corporation or body politic.

The words “United States,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean all land and water, continental or insular, in any way within the jurisdiction of the United States or occupied by the military or naval forces thereof.

The words “the beginning of the war,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean midnight ending the day on which Congress has declared or shall declare war or the existence of a state of war.

The words “end of the war,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean the date of proclamation of exchange of ratifications of the treaty of peace, unless the President shall, by proclamation, declare a prior date, in which case the date so proclaimed shall be deemed to be the “end of the war” within the meaning of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix].

The words “bank or banks,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean and include national banks, State banks, trust companies, or other banks or banking associations doing business under the laws of the United States, or of any State of the United States.

The words “to trade,” as used herein, shall be deemed to mean—

(a) Pay, satisfy, compromise, or give security for the payment or satisfaction of any debt or obligation.

(b) Draw, accept, pay, present for acceptance or payment, or indorse any negotiable instrument or chose in action.

(c) Enter into, carry on, complete, or perform any contract, agreement, or obligation.

(d) Buy or sell, loan or extend credit, trade in, deal with, exchange, transmit, transfer, assign, or otherwise dispose of, or receive any form of property.

(e) To have any form of business or commercial communication or intercourse with.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §2, 40 Stat. 411.)

World War I Proclamations Enumerating Enemies

The following Presidential Proclamations issued during World War I declared the partnerships and persons enumerated therein to be “enemies”:

Proc. Feb. 5, 1918, 40 Stat. 1745.

Proc. May 31, 1918, 40 Stat. 1786.

Proc. Aug. 10, 1918, 40 Stat. 1833.

Proc. Aug. 14, 1918, 40 Stat. 1837.

Proc. Nov. 29, 1918, 40 Stat. 1899.

§3. Acts prohibited

It shall be unlawful—

(a) For any person in the United States, except with the license of the President, granted to such person, or to the enemy, or ally of enemy, as provided in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] to trade, or attempt to trade, either directly or indirectly, with, to, or from, or for, or on account of, or on behalf of, or for the benefit of, any other person, with knowledge or reasonable cause to believe that such other person is an enemy or ally of enemy, or is conducting or taking part in such trade, directly or indirectly, for, or on account of, or on behalf of, or for the benefit of, an enemy or ally of enemy.

(b) For any person, except with the license of the President, to transport or attempt to transport into or from the United States, or for any owner, master, or other person in charge of a vessel of American registry to transport or attempt to transport from any place to any other place, any subject or citizen of an enemy or ally of enemy nation, with knowledge or reasonable cause to believe that the person transported or attempted to be transported is such subject or citizen.

(c) For any person (other than a person in the service of the United States Government or of the Government of any nation, except that of an enemy or ally of enemy nation, and other than such persons or classes of persons as may be exempted hereunder by the President or by such person as he may direct), to send, or take out of, or bring into, or attempt to send, or take out of, or bring into the United States, any letter or other writing or tangible form of communication, except in the regular course of the mail; and it shall be unlawful for any person to send, take, or transmit, or attempt to send, take, or transmit out of the United States, any letter or other writing, book, map, plan, or other paper, picture, or any telegram, cablegram, or wireless message, or other form of communication intended for or to be delivered, directly or indirectly, to an enemy or ally of enemy: Provided, however, That any person may send, take, or transmit out of the United States anything herein forbidden if he shall first submit the same to the President, or to such officer as the President may direct, and shall obtain the license or consent of the President, under such rules and regulations, and with such exemptions, as shall be prescribed by the President.

(d) Whenever, during the present war, the President shall deem that the public safety demands it, he may cause to be censored under such rules and regulations as he may from time to time establish, communications by mail, cable, radio, or other means of transmission passing between the United States and any foreign country he may from time to time specify, or which may be carried by any vessel or other means of transportation touching at any port, place, or territory of the United States and bound to or from any foreign country. Any person who willfully evades or attempts to evade the submission of any such communication to such censorship or willfully uses or attempts to use any code or other device for the purpose of concealing from such censorship the intended meaning of such communication shall be punished as provided in section sixteen of this Act [section 16 of this Appendix].

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §3, 40 Stat. 412.)

Delegation of Functions

Delegation of President's powers under subsec. (a) of this section to Secretary of the Treasury and Alien Property Custodian; and transfer of Alien Property Custodian's powers to Attorney General, see Ex. Ord. Nos. 9095 and 9788, set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Powers conferred upon President by subsec. (a) of this section delegated to Secretary of the Treasury by Memorandum of the President dated Feb. 12, 1942, 7 F.R. 1409.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§4. Licenses to enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance companies; change of name; doing business in United States

(a) Every enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance company, and every enemy or ally of enemy, doing business within the United States through an agency or branch office, or otherwise, may within thirty days after the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917], apply to the President for a license to continue to do business; and, within thirty days after such application, the President may enter an order either granting or refusing to grant such license. The license, if granted, may be temporary or otherwise, and for such period of time, and may contain such provisions and conditions regulating the business, agencies, managers and trustees and the control and disposition of the funds of the company, or of such enemy or ally of enemy, as the President shall deem necessary for the safety of the United States; and any license granted hereunder may be revoked or regranted or renewed in such manner and at such times as the President shall determine: Provided, however, That reasonable notice of his intent to refuse to grant a license or to revoke a license granted to any reinsurance company shall be given by him to all insurance companies incorporated within the United States and known to the President to be doing business with such reinsurance company: Provided further, That no insurance company, organized within the United States, shall be obligated to continue any existing contract, entered into prior to the beginning of the war, with any enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance company, but any such company may abrogate and cancel any such contract by serving thirty days’ notice in writing upon the President of its election to abrogate such contract.

For a period of thirty days after the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917], and further pending the entry of such order by the President, after application made by any enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance company, within such thirty days as above provided, the provisions of the President's proclamation of April sixth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, relative to agencies in the United States of certain insurance companies, as modified by the provisions of the President's proclamation of July thirteenth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, relative to marine and war-risk insurance, shall remain in full force and effect so far as it applies to such German insurance companies, and the conditions of said proclamation of April sixth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, as modified by said proclamation of July thirteenth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, shall also during said period of thirty days after the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917], and pending the order of the President as herein provided, apply to any enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance company, anything in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] to the contrary notwithstanding. It shall be unlawful for any enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance company, to whom license is granted, to transmit out of the United States any funds belonging to or held for the benefit of such company or to use any such funds as the basis for the establishment directly or indirectly of any credit within or outside of the United States to, or for the benefit of, or on behalf of, or on account of, an enemy or ally of enemy.

For a period of thirty days after the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917], and further pending the entry of such order by the President, after application made within such thirty days by any enemy or ally of enemy, other than an insurance or reinsurance company as above provided, it shall be lawful for such enemy or ally of enemy to continue to do business in this country and for any person to trade with, to, from, for, on account of, on behalf of or for the benefit of such enemy or ally of enemy, anything in this Act [said sections] to the contrary notwithstanding: Provided, however, That the provisions of sections three and sixteen hereof [sections 3 and 16 of this Appendix] shall apply to any act or attempted act of transmission or transfer of money or other property out of the United States and to the use or attempted use of such money or property as the basis for the establishment of any credit within or outside of the United States to, or for the benefit of, or on behalf of, or on account of, an enemy or ally of enemy.

If no license is applied for within thirty days after the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917], or if a license shall be refused to any enemy or ally of enemy, whether insurance or reinsurance company, or other person, making application, or if any license granted shall be revoked by the President, the provisions of sections three and sixteen hereof [sections 3 and 16 of this Appendix] shall forthwith apply to all trade or to any attempt to trade with, to, from, for, buy, on account of, or on behalf of, or for the benefit of such company or other person: Provided, however, That after such refusal or revocation, anything in this Act [said sections] to the contrary notwithstanding, it shall be lawful for a policyholder or for an insurance company, not an enemy or ally of enemy, holding insurance or having effected reinsurance in or with such enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance company, to receive payment of, and for such enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance company to pay any premium, return premium, claim, money, security, or other property due or which may become due on or in respect to such insurance or reinsurance in force at the date of such refusal or revocation of license; and nothing in this Act [said sections] shall vitiate or nullify then existing policies or contracts of insurance or reinsurance, or the conditions thereof; and any such policyholder or insurance company, not an enemy or ally of enemy, having any claim to or upon money or other property of the enemy or ally of enemy insurance or reinsurance company in the custody or control of the alien property custodian, hereinafter provided for, or of the Treasurer of the United States, may make application for the payment thereof and may institute suit as provided in section nine hereof [section 9 of this Appendix].

(b) During the present war, no enemy, or ally of enemy, and no partnership of which he is a member or was a member at the beginning of the war, shall for any purpose assume or use any name other than that by which such enemy or partnership was ordinarily known at the beginning of the war, except under license from the President.

Whenever, during the present war, in the opinion of the President the public safety or public interest requires, the President may prohibit any or all foreign insurance companies from doing business in the United States, or the President may license such company or companies to do business upon such terms as he may deem proper.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §4, 40 Stat. 413.)

References in Text

Proclamation of April 6, 1917, 40 Stat. 1654, and Proclamation of July 13, 1917, 40 Stat. 1684, referred to in subsec. (a), are set out below.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Proclamation of April 6, 1917

40 Stat. 1654

WHEREAS, certain insurance companies, incorporated under the laws of the German Empire, have been admitted to transact the business of insurance in various States of the United States, by means of separate United States branches established pursuant to the laws of such States, and are now engaged in business under the supervision of the Insurance Departments thereof, with assets in the United States deposited with Insurance Departments or in the hands of resident trustees, citizens of the United States, for the protection of all policyholders in the United States;

AND WHEREAS, the interests of the citizens of the United States in the protection afforded by such insurance are of great magnitude, so that it is deemed to be important that the agencies of such companies in the United States be permitted to continue in business;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WOODROW WILSON, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the powers vested in me as such, hereby declare and proclaim that such branch establishments of German insurance companies now engaged in the transaction of business in the United States pursuant to the laws of the several States are hereby authorized and permitted to continue the transaction of their business in accordance with the laws of such States in the same manner and to the same extent as though a state of war did not now exist; provided, however, that all funds of such establishments now in the possession of their managers or agents, or which shall hereafter come into their possession, shall be subject to such rules and regulations concerning the payment and disposition thereof as shall be prescribed by the insurance supervising officials of the State in which the principal office of such establishment in the United States is located, but in no event shall any funds belonging to or held for the benefit of such companies be transmitted outside of the United States nor be used as the basis for the establishment directly or indirectly of any credit within or outside of the United States to or for the benefit or use of the enemy or any of his allies without the permission of this Government.

Proclamation of July 13, 1917

40 Stat. 1684

WHEREAS, certain insurance companies, incorporated under the laws of the German Empire, have been admitted to transact the business of marine and war risk insurance in various States of the United States, by means of separate United States branches established pursuant to the laws of such States, and are now engaged in such business under the supervision of the Insurance Departments thereof, with assets in the United States deposited with Insurance Departments or in the hands of resident trustees, citizens of the United States, for the protection of all policyholders in the United States;

AND WHEREAS, the nature of marine and war risk insurance is such that those conducting it must of necessity be in touch with the movements of ships and cargoes, and it has been considered by the Government of great importance that this information should not be obtained by alien enemies;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WOODROW WILSON, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the powers vested in me as such, hereby declare and proclaim that such branch establishments of German insurance companies now engaged in the transaction of business in the United States pursuant to the laws of the several States are hereby prohibited from continuing the transaction of the business of marine and war risk insurance either as direct insurers or re-insurers; and all individuals, firms, and insurance companies incorporated under the laws of any of the States or Territories of the United States, or of any foreign country, and established pursuant to the laws of such States and now engaged in the United States in the business of marine and war risk insurance either as direct insurers or re-insurers are hereby prohibited from reinsuring with companies incorporated under the laws of the German Empire, no matter where located; and all persons in the United States are prohibited from insuring against marine or war risks with insurance companies incorporated under the laws of the German Empire or with individuals, firms, and insurance companies incorporated under the laws of any of the States or Territories of the United States or of any foreign country and now engaged in the business of marine or war risk insurance in the United States, which re-insure business originating in the United States with companies incorporated under the laws of the German Empire, no matter where located.

The foregoing prohibitions shall extend and operate as to all existing contracts for insurance and re-insurance which are hereby suspended for the period of the war, except that they shall not operate to vitiate or prevent the insurance or re-insurance of, and the payment or receipt of, premiums on insurance or re-insurance under existing contracts on vessels or interest at risk on the date of this proclamation, and such insurance or re-insurance, if for a voyage, shall continue in force until arrival at destination, and if for time, until thirty days from the date of this proclamation.

§5. Suspension of provisions relating to ally of enemy; regulation of transactions in foreign exchange of gold or silver, property transfers, vested interests, enforcement and penalties

(a) The President, if he shall find it compatible with the safety of the United States and with the successful prosecution of the war, may, by proclamation, suspend the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] so far as they apply to an ally of enemy, and he may revoke or renew such suspension from time to time; and the President may grant licenses, special or general, temporary or otherwise, and for such period of time and containing such provisions and conditions as he shall prescribe, to any person or class of persons to do business as provided in subsection (a) of section four hereof [section 4(a) of this Appendix], and to perform any act made unlawful without such license in section three hereof [section 3 of this Appendix], and to file and prosecute applications under subsection (b) of section ten hereof [section 10(b) of this Appendix]; and he may revoke or renew such licenses from time to time, if he shall be of opinion that such grant or revocation or renewal shall be compatible with the safety of the United States and with the successful prosecution of the war; and he may make such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with law, as may be necessary and proper to carry out the provisions of this Act [said sections]; and the President may exercise any power or authority conferred by this Act [said sections] through such officer or officers as he shall direct.

If the President shall have reasonable cause to believe that any act is about to be performed in violation of section three hereof [section 3 of this Appendix] he shall have authority to order the postponement of the performance of such act for a period not exceeding ninety days, pending investigation of the facts by him.

(b)(1) During the time of war, the President may, through any agency that he may designate, and under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, by means of instructions, licenses, or otherwise—

(A) investigate, regulate, or prohibit, any transactions in foreign exchange, transfers of credit or payments between, by, through, or to any banking institution, and the importing, exporting, hoarding, melting, or earmarking of gold or silver coin or bullion, currency or securities, and

(B) investigate, regulate, direct and compel, nullify, void, prevent or prohibit, any acquisition holding, withholding, use, transfer, withdrawal, transportation, importation or exportation of, or dealing in, or exercising any right, power, or privilege with respect to, or transactions involving, any property in which any foreign country or a national thereof has any interest,


by any person, or with respect to any property, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; and any property or interest of any foreign country or national thereof shall vest, when, as, and upon the terms, directed by the President, in such agency or person as may be designated from time to time by the President, and upon such terms and conditions as the President may prescribe such interest or property shall be held, used, administered, liquidated, sold, or otherwise dealt with in the interest of and for the benefit of the United States, and such designated agency or person may perform any and all acts incident to the accomplishment or furtherance of these purposes; and the President shall, in the manner hereinabove provided, require any person to keep a full record of, and to furnish under oath, in the form of reports or otherwise, complete information relative to any act or transaction referred to in this subdivision either before, during, or after the completion thereof, or relative to any interest in foreign property, or relative to any property in which any foreign country or any national thereof has or has had any interest, or as may be otherwise necessary to enforce the provisions of this subdivision, and in any case in which a report could be required, the President may, in the manner hereinabove provided, require the production, or if necessary to the national security or defense, the seizure, of any books of account, records, contracts, letters, memoranda, or other papers, in the custody or control of such person.

(2) Any payment, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or delivery of property or interest therein, made to or for the account of the United States, or as otherwise directed, pursuant to this subdivision or any rule, regulation, instruction, or direction issued hereunder shall to the extent thereof be a full acquittance and discharge for all purposes of the obligation of the person making the same; and no person shall be held liable in any court for or in respect to anything done or omitted in good faith in connection with the administration of, or in pursuance of and in reliance on, this subdivision, or any rule, regulation, instruction, or direction issued hereunder.

(3) As used in this subdivision the term “United States” means the United States and any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof: Provided, however, That the foregoing shall not be construed as a limitation upon the power of the President, which is hereby conferred, to prescribe from time to time, definitions, not inconsistent with the purposes of this subdivision, for any or all of the terms used in this subdivision. As used in this subdivision the term “person” means an individual, partnership, association, or corporation.

(4) The authority granted to the President by this section does not include the authority to regulate or prohibit, directly or indirectly, the importation from any country, or the exportation to any country, whether commercial or otherwise, regardless of format or medium of transmission, of any information or informational materials, including but not limited to, publications, films, posters, phonograph records, photographs, microfilms, microfiche, tapes, compact disks, CD ROMs, artworks, and news wire feeds. The exports exempted from regulation or prohibition by this paragraph do not include those which are otherwise controlled for export under section 5 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 [section 2404 of this Appendix], or under section 6 of that Act [section 2405 of this Appendix] to the extent that such controls promote the nonproliferation or antiterrorism policies of the United States, or with respect to which acts are prohibited by chapter 37 of title 18, United States Code.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §5, 40 Stat. 415; Sept. 24, 1918, ch. 176, §5, 40 Stat. 966; Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, §2, 48 Stat. 1; May 7, 1940, ch. 185, §1, 54 Stat. 179; Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, §301, 55 Stat. 839; Proc. No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352; Pub. L. 95–223, title I, §§101(a), 102, 103(b), Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1625, 1626; Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2502(a)(1), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1371; Pub. L. 103–236, title V, §525(b)(1), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 474.)

Codification

Words “, including the Philippine Islands, and the several courts of first instance of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall have jurisdiction in all cases, civil or criminal, arising under this subdivision in the Philippine Islands and concurrent jurisdiction with the district courts of the United States of all cases, civil or criminal, arising upon the high seas” following “to the jurisdiction thereof:” in subsec. (b)(3) were omitted upon the authority of 1946 Proc. No. 2695, which granted the Philippine Islands independence, and which was issued pursuant to section 1394 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. Proc. No. 2695 is set out as a note under section 1394 of Title 22.

Subsec. (b) is also classified to section 95a of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–236 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “The authority granted to the President in this subsection does not include the authority to regulate or prohibit, directly or indirectly, the importation from any country, or the exportation to any country, whether commercial or otherwise, of publications, films, posters, phonograph records, photographs, microfilms, microfiche, tapes, or other informational materials, which are not otherwise controlled for export under section 5 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 or with respect to which no acts are prohibited by chapter 37 of title 18, United States Code.”

1988—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–418 added par. (4).

1977—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–223, §§101(a), 102, substituted “During the time of war, the President may, through any agency that he may designate, and under such rules and regulations” for “During the time of war or during any other period of national emergency declared by the President, the President may, through any agency, that he may designate, or otherwise, and under such rules and regulations” in provisions preceding subpar. (A), and, in provisions following subpar. (B), struck out “; and the President may, in the manner hereinabove provided, take other and further measures not inconsistent herewith for the enforcement of this subdivision” after “control of such person”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–22, §103(b), struck out provisions that whoever willfully violated any of the provisions of this subdivision or of any license, order, rule, or regulation issued thereunder, could be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, could be imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both; and that any officer, director, or agent of any corporation who knowingly participated in that violation could be punished by a like fine, imprisonment, or both.

1941—Subsec. (b). Act Dec. 18, 1941, considerably broadened the powers of the President to take, administer, control, use and liquidate foreign-owned property and added a flexibility of control which enabled the President and the agencies designated by him to cope with the problems surrounding alien property, its ownership or control, on the basis of the particular facts in each case.

1940—Subsec. (b). Act May 7, 1940, included dealings in evidences of indebtedness or ownership of property in which foreign states, nationals or political subdivisions thereof have an interest.

1933—Subsec. (b). Act Mar. 9, 1933, among other things, extended President's power to any time of war national emergency, permitted regulations to be issued by any agency designated by President, provided for furnishing under oath of complete information relative to transactions under the subsection, and placed sanctions on violations to the extent of a $10,000 fine or ten years imprisonment.

1918—Subsec. (b). Act Sept. 24, 1918, inserted provisions relating to hoarding or melting of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency and to regulation of transactions in bonds or certificates of indebtedness.

Delegation of Functions

Delegation of President's powers under subsec. (b) of this section to Secretary of the Treasury and Alien Property Custodian; and transfer of Alien Property Custodian's powers to Attorney General, see Ex. Ord. Nos. 9095 and 9788, set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Powers conferred upon President by subsec. (b) of this section delegated to Secretary of the Treasury by Memorandum of President dated Feb. 12, 1942, 7 F.R. 1409.

Limitation on Exercise of Emergency Authorities

Pub. L. 103–236, title V, §525(b)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 474, provided that: “The authorities conferred upon the President by section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act [subsec. (b) of this section], which were being exercised with respect to a country on July 1, 1977, as a result of a national emergency declared by the President before such date, and are being exercised on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 30, 1994], do not include the authority to regulate or prohibit, directly or indirectly, any activity which, under section 5(b)(4) of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended by paragraph (1) of this subsection, may not be regulated or prohibited.”

Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2502(a)(2), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1371, provided that: “The authorities conferred upon the President by section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act [subsec. (b) of this section], which were being exercised with respect to a country on July 1, 1977, as a result of a national emergency declared by the President before such date, and are being exercised on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1988], do not include the authority to regulate or prohibit, directly or indirectly, any activity which, under section 5(b)(4) of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as added by paragraph (1) of this subsection, may not be regulated or prohibited.”

Extension and Termination of National Emergency Powers Under the Trading With the Enemy Act

Pub. L. 95–223, title I, §101(b), (c), Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1625, provided that:

“(b) Notwithstanding the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending subsec. (b)(1) of this section], the authorities conferred upon the President by section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act [subsec. (b) of this section], which were being exercised with respect to a country on July 1, 1977, as a result of a national emergency declared by the President before such date, may continue to be exercised with respect to such country, except that, unless extended, the exercise of such authorities shall terminate (subject to the savings provisions of the second sentence of section 101(a) of the National Emergencies Act [section 1601(a) of this title]) at the end of the two-year period beginning on the date of enactment of the National Emergencies Act [Sept. 14, 1976]. The President may extend the exercise of such authorities for one-year periods upon a determination for each such extension that the exercise of such authorities with respect to such country for another year is in the national interest of the United States.

“(c) The termination and extension provisions of subsection (b) of this section supersede the provisions of section 101(a) [section 1601(a) of this title] and of title II [section 1621 et seq. of this title] of the National Emergencies Act to the extent that the provisions of subsection (b) of this section are inconsistent with those provisions.”

Continuation of the Exercise of Certain Authorities Under the Trading With the Enemy Act

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2012–14, Sept. 10, 2012, 77 F.R. 56753, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Secretary of the Treasury

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95–223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 13, 2011 (76 FR 57623, September 15, 2011), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2012.

I hereby determine that the continuation for 1 year of the exercise of those authorities with respect to Cuba is in the national interest of the United States.

Therefore, consistent with the authority vested in me by section 101(b) of Public Law 95–223, I continue for 1 year, until September 14, 2013, the exercise of those authorities with respect to Cuba, as implemented by the Cuban Assets Control Regulations, 31 C.F.R. Part 515.

The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to publish this determination in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      


Prior extensions were contained in the following:

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2011–15, Sept. 13, 2011, 76 F.R. 57623.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2010–13, Sept. 2, 2010, 75 F.R. 54459.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2009–27, Sept. 11, 2009, 74 F.R. 47431.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2008–27, Sept. 12, 2008, 73 F.R. 54055.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2007–32, Sept. 13, 2007, 72 F.R. 53409.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2006–23, Sept. 13, 2006, 71 F.R. 54399.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2005–35, Sept. 12, 2005, 70 F.R. 54607.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2004–45, Sept. 10, 2004, 69 F.R. 55497.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2003–36, Sept. 12, 2003, 68 F.R. 54325.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 02–31, Sept. 13, 2002, 67 F.R. 58681.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2001–26, Sept. 12, 2001, 66 F.R. 47943.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 2000–29, Sept. 12, 2000, 65 F.R. 55883.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 99–36, Sept. 10, 1999, 64 F.R. 51885.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 98–35, Sept. 11, 1998, 63 F.R. 50455.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 97–32, Sept. 12, 1997, 62 F.R. 48729.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 96–43, Aug. 27, 1996, 61 F.R. 46529.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 95–41, Sept. 8, 1995, 60 F.R. 47659.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 94–46, Sept. 8, 1994, 59 F.R. 47229.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 93–38, Sept. 13, 1993, 58 F.R. 51209.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 92–45, Aug. 28, 1992, 57 F.R. 43125.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 91–52, Sept. 13, 1991, 56 F.R. 48415.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 90–38, Sept. 5, 1990, 55 F.R. 37309.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 89–25, Aug. 28, 1989, 54 F.R. 37089.

Determination of President of the United States, No. 88–22, Sept. 8, 1988, 53 F.R. 35289.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Aug. 27, 1987, 51 F.R. 33397.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Aug. 20, 1986, 51 F.R. 30201.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 5, 1985, 50 F.R. 36563.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 11, 1984, 49 F.R. 35927.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 7, 1983, 48 F.R. 40695.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 8, 1982, 47 F.R. 39797.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 10, 1981, 46 F.R. 45321.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 8, 1980, 45 F.R. 59549.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 12, 1979, 44 F.R. 53153.

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 8, 1978, 43 F.R. 40449.

Proc. No. 8271. Termination of the Exercise of Authorities Under the Trading With the Enemy Act With Respect to North Korea

Proc. No. 8271, June 26, 2008, 73 F.R. 36785, provided:

I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 101(b) of Public Law 95–223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), hereby find that the continuation of the exercise of authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.) (TWEA) with respect to North Korea, as authorized in Proclamation 2914 of December 16, 1950, most recently continued under Presidential Determination 2007–32 of September 13, 2007 (72 FR 53407), and implemented by the regulations set forth below, is no longer in the national interest of the United States.

Section 1. The exercise of TWEA authorities with respect to North Korea, which were implemented by the Foreign Assets Control Regulations, 31 C.F.R. part 500, and the Transaction Control Regulations, 31 C.F.R. part 505, and that were continued by Presidential Determination 2007–32 of September 13, 2007, is terminated, and Presidential Determination 2007–32 is rescinded with respect to North Korea.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to take all appropriate measures within the Secretary's authority to give effect to this proclamation.

Sec. 3. This proclamation is not intended to, and does not, create any right, benefit, or privilege, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity, by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, instrumentalities, or entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

Sec. 4. This proclamation is effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on June 27, 2008.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth day of June, in the year of our Lord two thousand eight, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-second.

George W. Bush.      

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Approval of Regulations

Act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title I, §1, 48 Stat. 1, provided that: “The actions, regulations, rules, licenses, orders and proclamations heretofore or hereafter taken, promulgated, made, or issued by the President of the United States or the Secretary of the Treasury since March 4, 1933, pursuant to the authority conferred by subdivision (b) of section 5 of the act of October 6, 1917, as amended [section 5(b) of this Appendix], are hereby approved and confirmed.”

Executive Orders

Ex. Ord. No. 6260, as amended, respecting hoarding, export, and earmarking of gold coin, bullion, or currency and transactions in foreign exchange; Ex. Ord. No. 6560, as amended, respecting transactions in foreign exchange, transfers of credit, and export of coin and currency; Ex. Ord. No. 8389, as amended, regulating transactions in foreign exchange and foreign-owned property and providing for the reporting of all foreign-owned property; Ex. Ord. No. 9747, respecting continuance of functions of Alien Property Custodian and Treasury Department in Philippines; Ex. Ord. No. 9760, respecting diplomatic property of Germany and Japan; and Ex. Ord. No. 10348, continuing in force orders and regulations relating to blocked property, see notes set out under section 95a of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and section 6 of this Appendix.

§6. Alien Property Custodian; general powers and duties

The President is authorized to appoint, prescribe the duties of, and fix the salary of an official to be known as the alien property custodian, who shall be empowered to receive all money and property in the United States due or belonging to an enemy, or ally of enemy, which may be paid, conveyed, transferred, assigned, or delivered to said custodian under the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix]; and to hold, administer, and account for the same under the general direction of the President and as provided in this Act [said sections]. The President may further employ in the District of Columbia and elsewhere and fix the compensation of such clerks, attorneys, investigators, accountants, and other employees as he may find necessary for the due administration of the provisions of this Act [said sections]; Provided, That such clerks, investigators, accountants, and other employees shall be appointed from lists of eligibles to be supplied by the Civil Service Commission 1 and in accordance with the civil-service law.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §6, 40 Stat. 415; Pub. L. 92–310, title II, §235, June 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 214; Pub. L. 94–273, §11(5), Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 378; Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2501(b), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1371.)

Codification

Provisions that limited the salary of the alien property custodian to not more than $5,000 per annum have been omitted as obsolete and superseded. Sections 1202 and 1204 of the Classification Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 972, 973, repealed the Classification Act of 1923 and all other laws or parts of laws inconsistent with the 1949 Act. The Classification Act of 1949 was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8(a), 80 Stat. 632, and reenacted as chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Section 5102 of Title 5 contains the applicability provisions of the 1949 Act, and section 5103 of Title 5 authorizes the Office of Personnel Management to determine the applicability to specific positions and employees.

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–418 struck out before period at end “: Provided further, That the President shall cause a detailed report to be made to Congress on the first day of April of each year of all proceedings had under this Act during the year preceding. Such report shall contain a list of all persons appointed or employed, with the salary or compensation paid to each, and a statement of the different kinds of property taken into custody and the disposition made thereof”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–273 substituted “April” for “January”.

1972—Pub. L. 92–310 struck out provisions which required the Alien Property Custodian to give a bond.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by statute in United States Civil Service Commission transferred to Director of Office of Personnel Management (except as otherwise specified) by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1978, §102, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783, set out under section 1101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective Jan. 1, 1979, as provided by section 1–102 of Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, set out under section 1101 of Title 5.

Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1947, §101, eff. July 1, 1947, 12 F.R. 4534, 61 Stat. 951, transferred functions vested by law in Alien Property Custodian or Office of Alien Property Custodian to Attorney General, except that those relating to property or interests in Philippines transferred to President. For text of this plan and provisions relating to transfer of records, property, personnel, and funds, see the text of the plan, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Previous office of Alien Property Custodian abolished and functions and personnel transferred to Department of Justice by Ex. Ord. No. 6694, eff. July 1, 1934.

Expenses and Compensation of Alien Property Custodian

Act May 16, 1928, ch. 580, §1, 45 Stat. 574, contained the following provision: “All expenses of the office of the Alien Property Custodian authorized by * * * [the Trading With the Enemy Act], including compensation of the Alien Property Custodian at not to exceed $10,000 per annum; shall be paid from interest and collections on trust funds and other properties under the control of such Custodian.”

Report to Congress; Inclusion of Claims Filed Under Section 32(a)(2)(D) of This Appendix

Act Sept. 29, 1950, ch. 1108, §2, 64 Stat. 1081, provided that: “There shall be included in the report made to Congress pursuant to section 6 of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [this section], a statement of (1) the names and nationalities of persons who have filed notice of claim for the return of any property or interest under section 1 of this Act [section 32(a)(2)(D) of this Appendix], the date of the filing of such notice of claim, and the estimated value of the property or interest, and (2) the names and nationalities of persons to whom returns have been made of any property or interest under section 1 of this Act [section 32(a)(2)(D) of this Appendix] and the value of such property or interest.”

Executive Order No. 9095

Ex. Ord. No. 9095, Mar. 11, 1942, 7 F.R. 1971, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 9193, July 6, 1942, 7 F.R. 5205; Ex. Ord. No. 9567, June 8, 1945, 10 F.R. 6917, which established the Office of the World War II Alien Property Custodian and provided for the compensation, functions, etc., of the Alien Property Custodian, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.

Ex. Ord. No. 9142. Transfer of Certain Functions, Property and Personnel From Department of Justice to Alien Property Custodian

Ex. Ord. No. 9142, Apr. 21, 1942, 7 F.R. 2985, provided:

1. All authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties, and functions transferred or delegated to the Department of Justice, to be administered under the supervision of the Attorney General, by Executive Order No. 6694 of May 1, 1934, or vested in, transferred or delegated to, the Attorney General or the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Claims Division of the Department of Justice, by Executive Order No. 8136 of May 15, 1939, are hereby transferred to the Alien Property Custodian provided for by Executive Order No. 9095, dated March 11, 1942.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 5 hereof, all property of the Alien Property Division of the Department of Justice, including records, files, supplies, furniture, and equipment, and all funds, securities, choses in action, real estate, patents, trade-marks, copyrights, and all other property of whatsoever kind, held or administered by the Attorney General under and pursuant to the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], are hereby transferred to the Alien Property Custodian, to be administered and disposed of under his supervision and direction.

3. All administrative or general or other expenses of the Office of the Alien Property Custodian in the administration of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], including the administration of Executive Order No. 9095, may be paid out of any funds or other property transferred to the Alien Property Custodian hereunder, whether or not such expenses relate to the property transferred hereunder, or were incurred before or after March 11, 1942.

4. The personnel of the Alien Property Division of the Department of Justice is hereby transferred to the Office of the Alien Property Custodian without loss of such civil service status or eligibility therefor as they may have.

5. All litigation in which the Alien Property Custodian or the Office of the Alien Property Custodian is interested shall be conducted under the supervision of the Attorney General. The Department of Justice and the Attorney General shall from time to time render such advice on legal matters to the Alien Property Custodian and the Office of the Alien Property Custodian as the Attorney General and the Alien Property Custodian may from time to time agree upon. For the purpose of defraying such expenses as may be incurred by the Department of Justice or the Attorney General in the rendering of advice as aforesaid or in the conduct of litigation in which the Alien Property Custodian or the Office of Alien Property Custodian is interested, including expenses for salaries of personnel and all other charges, the Alien Property Custodian may from time to time make available out of the funds or other property in his possession or control such funds as the Attorney General and the Alien Property Custodian may from time to time agree to be necessary therefor. Nothing in this order shall be construed to require the Department of Justice to surrender possession of any files and records relating to any litigation heretofore or hereafter conducted by it.

6. This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the authority heretofore granted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

7. This order shall remain in force during the continuance of the present war and for six months after the termination thereof.

8. All prior Executive orders insofar as they are in conflict herewith are hereby superseded.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.      

Ex. Ord. No. 9325. Payment of Expenses of the Office of Alien Property Custodian

Ex. Ord. No. 9325, Apr. 7, 1943, 8 F.R. 1682, provided:

1. Until it is otherwise provided, the Alien Property Custodian is authorized and empowered to pay out of any funds lawfully in his custody or under his control all necessary expenses incurred by the Office of Alien Property Custodian in carrying out the powers and duties vested in him pursuant to Title III of the First War Powers Act, 1941 [sections 616 to 618 of this Appendix], and the applicable orders issued thereunder. Such expenses shall be allocated and recovered as provided in section 2 hereof.

2. The Alien Property Custodian is authorized to retain, allocate and recover, as a charge against any specific property or any other property of which the former owner of the specific property was divested, expenses attributable to such specific property with respect to which he has exercised or may hereafter exercise any power heretofore or hereafter conferred upon him. In addition to such expenses, the Alien Property Custodian is authorized to retain, allocate and recover at such time or times as he may deem practicable, as a charge against money or property in his custody or under his control, such amounts as may be necessary in connection with the general administrative expenses of the Office of Alien Property Custodian which have been or may be paid and which are not practicably allocable to a specific property.

3. The power and authority herein granted shall not be limited by the filing of a claim or the institution of a suit relating to any property subject to the authority of the Alien Property Custodian.

4. This order shall not be construed as a limitation upon or in derogation of any powers heretofore granted.

5. The Office of Alien Property Custodian shall submit to the Bureau of the Budget [now the Office of Management and Budget] (a) prior to April 30, 1943, an estimate of general administrative expenses for the remainder of the current fiscal year, (b) prior to the end of the current and of each subsequent fiscal year, at such time as may be specified by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, an estimate of such expenses for the succeeding fiscal year, and (c) any supplemental estimates of such expenses if and as the need arises. After April 30, 1943, no general administrative expenses authorized to be paid pursuant to this order shall be incurred or paid by the Office of Alien Property Custodian beyond the amounts approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget upon submissions as above set forth.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.      

Executive Order No. 9747

Ex. Ord. No. 9747, July 3, 1946, 11 F.R. 7518, provided that the powers of the Alien Property Custodian under Ex. Ord. No. 9095, formerly set out above, should continue to be exercised in the Philippines after July 4, 1946. It also provided that the Secretary of the Treasury should continue to exercise his powers in the Philippines under Ex. Ord. No. 8389, eff. Apr. 10, 1940, set out as a note under section 95a of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Ex. Ord. No. 9760. Authority of Secretary of State Regarding Diplomatic Property of Germany and Japan

Ex. Ord. No. 9760, July 23, 1946, 11 F.R. 7999, provided:

1. The Secretary of State is authorized and empowered as he deems necessary in the national interest to direct, manage, supervise, or control diplomatic and consular property within the United States owned or controlled by Germany or Japan, including all assets on the premises of such property.

2. The Alien Property Custodian shall not exercise any power and authority conferred upon him by any other Executive order with respect to diplomatic and consular property within the United States owned or controlled by Germany or Japan except so far as the Secretary of State releases his authority over such diplomatic and consular property under this order and so notifies the Alien Property Custodian in writing.

3. When the Secretary of State determines to exercise any power and authority conferred upon him by this order with respect to any property over which the Secretary of the Treasury is exercising any control and so notifies the Secretary of the Treasury in writing, the Secretary of the Treasury shall release all control of such property, except as authorized or directed by the Secretary of State.

4. This order supersedes all conflicting provisions of prior Executive orders, including Executive Orders Nos. 8389, as amended [set out under section 95a of Title 12, Banks and Banking] and 9095, as amended [set out above].

5. The Secretary of State is authorized to prescribe from time to time regulations, rulings, and instructions to carry out the purposes of this order.

Harry S. Truman.      

Ex. Ord. No. 9788. Termination of Office of World War II Alien Property Custodian and Transference of Its Functions to the Attorney General

Ex. Ord. No. 9788, Oct. 14, 1946, 11 F.R. 11981, provided:

1. The Office of Alien Property Custodian in the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President, established by Executive Order No. 9095 of March 11, 1942 [formerly set out above], is hereby terminated; and all authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties, and functions vested in such Office or in the Alien Property Custodian or transferred or delegated thereto are hereby vested in or transferred or delegated to the Attorney General, as the case may be, and shall be administered by him or under his direction and control by such officers and agencies of the Department of Justice as he may designate.

2. All property or interests vested in or transferred to the Alien Property Custodian or seized by him, and all proceeds thereof, which are held or administered by him on the effective date of this order are hereby transferred to the Attorney General.

3. All personnel, property, records, and funds of the Office of Alien Property Custodian are hereby transferred to the Department of Justice.

4. This order supersedes all prior Executive orders to the extent that they are in conflict with this order.

5. This order shall become effective on October 15, 1946.

Harry S. Truman.      

Executive Order No. 9818

Ex. Ord. No. 9818, Jan. 7, 1947, 12 F.R. 133, formerly set out under section 1382 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, established the Philippine Alien Property Administration.

Executive Order No. 9989

Ex. Ord. No. 9989, Aug. 20, 1948, 13 F.R. 4891, which transferred jurisdiction over blocked assets to the Attorney General, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11281, May 13, 1966, 31 F.R. 7215, set out below.

Executive Order No. 10348

Ex. Ord. No. 10348, Apr. 26, 1952, 17 F.R. 3769, which continued in force Ex. Ord. No. 9989, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11281, May 13, 1966, 31 F.R. 7215, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 11281. Transferring Jurisdiction Over Blocked Assets From Attorney General to Secretary of the Treasury

Ex. Ord. No. 11281, May 13, 1966, 31 F.R. 7215, provided:

WHEREAS before October 1, 1948, the Secretary of the Treasury administered the blocking controls and other restrictions over property and interests of certain foreign countries or their nationals that had been imposed, under the authority of section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 5(b)), by means of and under Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended [set out under section 95a of Title 12, Banks and Banking]; and

WHEREAS by Executive Order No. 9989 of August 20, 1948, jurisdiction over the property and interests which remained blocked or restricted under Executive Order No. 8389 on September 30, 1948, was transferred, effective October 1, 1948, to the Attorney General to aid him in carrying out his functions as successor to the Alien Property Custodian, including, among others, the function of vesting property pursuant to the provisions of the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39,and 41 to 44 of this Appendix]; and

WHEREAS by Executive Order No. 10644 of November 7, 1955 [formerly set out under section 1631a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse], the Attorney General was designated to carry out the functions of the President under Title II of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 (as added by the Act of August 9, 1955, Public Law 285, 84th Congress, 69 Stat. 562) [sections 1631 to 1631o of Title 22], including certain vesting and blocking functions required by section 202 of that Act (22 U.S.C. 1631a), and the Attorney General, as designee of the President, exercises controls under Executive Order No. 8389 with respect to the net proceeds of certain property that are carried, pursuant to section 202, in blocked accounts with the Treasury; and

WHEREAS the functions of vesting property under the Trading with the Enemy Act and under section 202 of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 have been terminated; and

WHEREAS the blocking controls not exercised by the Attorney General under Executive Order No. 8389 are limited in application to property of Hungary or its nationals acquired on or before January 1, 1945; property of Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania or nationals of those countries acquired on or before December 7, 1945; property of East Germany or its nationals acquired on or before December 31, 1946, and certain securities scheduled in General Rulings No. 5 and No. 5B, as amended (8 CFR 511.205 and 511.205b); and

WHEREAS the Office of Alien Property, through which the Attorney General carries out or has carried out the various responsibilities described above, will be abolished on or before June 30, 1966, and the Attorney General thereafter will not be in a position to administer blocking controls under Executive Order No. 8389 efficiently; and

WHEREAS in the interest of efficiency it is desirable to return to the Secretary of the Treasury jurisdiction over the property and interests remaining subject to such blocking controls:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], Title II of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 and section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The authority granted to the Attorney General by Executive Order No. 9989 with respect to property and interests blocked or otherwise subject to restriction under Executive Order No. 8389 [set out under section 95a of Title 12, Banks and Banking] is hereby terminated and Executive Order No. 9989 [formerly set out above] is hereby superseded.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of the Treasury shall hereafter be responsible for the administration of the controls exercisable under Executive Order No. 8389 [set out under section 95a of Title 12, Banks and Banking] and he is authorized and directed to take such action as he may deem necessary with respect to any property or interest that remains blocked or restricted under Executive Order No. 8389 on the effective date of this order. In the performance of the functions and duties hereby reassigned to him, the Secretary of the Treasury may act personally or through any officer, person, agency or instrumentality designated by him.

Sec. 3. All orders, regulations, rulings, instructions or licenses issued prior to the effective date of this order by the Attorney General or the Secretary of the Treasury with respect to any of the property or interests referred to in Section 2 shall continue in full force and effect except as hereafter amended, modified or revoked by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Sec. 4. No person affected by any order, regulation, ruling, instruction, license or other action issued or taken by either the Attorney General or the Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of Executive Order No. 8389 may challenge the validity thereof or otherwise excuse any action, or failure to act, on the ground that it was within the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Treasury rather than the Attorney General or vice versa.

Sec. 5. Section 1 of Executive Order No. 10644 of November 7, 1955 [formerly set out under section 1631a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse], is hereby amended to read as follows:

Section 1. (a) With the exception of the functions referred to in subsection (b) of this section, the Attorney General, and, as designated by the Attorney General for this purpose, any Assistant Attorney General are hereby designated and empowered to perform the functions conferred by Title II of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 upon the President, and the functions conferred by that title upon any designee of the President.

“(b) The Secretary of the Treasury, and any officer, person, agency or instrumentality designated by the Secretary of the Treasury for this purpose, as hereby designated and empowered to perform the functions conferred upon the President by section 202 of Title II with respect to the release of blocked property and of the net proceeds of property that are carried in blocked accounts with the Treasury.”

Sec. 6. Executive Order No. 8389, this order and all delegations, designations, regulations, rulings, instructions and licenses issued or to be issued under Executive Order No. 8389 or this order are hereby continued in force according to their terms for the duration of the period of the national emergency proclaimed by Proclamation No. 2914 of December 16, 1950 [set out preceding section 1 of this Appendix]. Executive Order No. 10348 of April 26, 1952 [formerly set out above] is hereby superseded.

Sec. 7. Nothing in this order shall be deemed to revoke or limit any powers heretofore conferred on the Secretary of the Treasury by or under any statute or Executive order, or to revoke or limit any powers heretofore conferred upon the Attorney General by or under any statute or Executive order other than Executive Order No. 9989 [formerly set out above] or No. 10644.

Sec. 8. This order shall become effective at midnight, May 15, 1966.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

1 See Transfer of Functions note below.

§6a. Incurment of expenses by Office of Alien Property Custodian

After June 30, 1945, the Office of Alien Property Custodian shall not incur any obligations for the expenses of said Office except pursuant to a further annual authorization by the Congress specifically therefor.

(Dec. 22, 1944, ch. 660, title I, 58 Stat. 855.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Trading with the enemy Act which comprises sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Report to Congress on Expenses

Act Dec. 22, 1944, ch. 660, title I, 58 Stat. 855, provided in part that on or before Apr. 1, 1945, the Alien Property Custodian make a report to the Appropriations Committees of the House and Senate giving detailed information on all administrative and nonadministrative expenses incurred in connection with the activities of the Office of Alien Property Custodian.

§6b. Omitted

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 90–470, title II, Aug. 9, 1968, 82 Stat. 673, which authorized Attorney General to pay, out of certain funds or other property or interest, expenses incurred in carrying out Trading With the Enemy Act and International Claims Settlement Act, was from the Department of Justice Appropriation Act, 1969, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were carried in the following prior appropriation acts:

Nov. 8, 1967, Pub. L. 90–133, title II, 81 Stat. 416.

Nov. 8, 1966, Pub. L. 89–797, title II, 80 Stat. 1484.

Sept. 2, 1965, Pub. L. 89–164, title II, 79 Stat. 625.

Aug. 31, 1964, Pub. L. 88–527, title II, 78 Stat. 716.

Dec. 30, 1963, Pub. L. 88–245, title II, 77 Stat. 781.

Oct. 18, 1962, Pub. L. 87–843, title II, 76 Stat. 1085.

Sept. 21, 1961, Pub. L. 87–264, title II, 75 Stat. 550.

Aug. 31, 1960, Pub. L. 86–678, title II, 74 Stat. 564.

July 13, 1959, Pub. L. 86–84, title II, 73 Stat. 189.

June 30, 1958, Pub. L. 85–474, title II, 72 Stat. 252.

June 11, 1957, Pub. L. 85–49, title II, 71 Stat. 63.

June 20, 1956, ch. 414, title II, 70 Stat. 308.

July 7, 1955, ch. 279, title II, 69 Stat. 273.

July 2, 1954, ch. 456, title II, 68 Stat. 421.

Aug. 5, 1953, ch. 328, title II, 67 Stat. 375.

July 10, 1952, ch. 651, title II, 66 Stat. 559.

Oct. 22, 1951, ch. 533, title II, 65 Stat. 585.

Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. III, title II, 64 Stat. 619.

July 20, 1949, ch. 354, title II, 63 Stat. 461.

§7. Lists of enemy or ally of enemy officers, directors or stockholders of corporations in United States; acts constituting trade with enemy prior to passage of Act; conveyance of property to custodian; voluntary payment to custodian by holder; acts under order, rule, or regulation

(a) Every corporation incorporated within the United States, and every unincorporated association, or company, or trustee, or trustees within the United States, issuing shares or certificates representing beneficial interests, shall, under such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe and, within sixty days after the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917] and at such other times thereafter as the President may require, transmit to the alien property custodian a full list, duly sworn to, of every officer, director, or stockholder known to be, or whom the representative of such corporation, association, company, or trustee has reasonable cause to believe to be an enemy or ally of enemy resident within the territory, or a subject or citizen residing outside of the United States, of any nation with which the United States is at war, or resident within the territory, or a subject or citizen residing outside of the United States, of any ally of any nation with which the United States is at war, together with the amount of stock or shares owned by each such officer, director, or stockholder, or in which he has any interest.

The President may also require a similar list to be transmitted of all stock or shares owned on February third, nineteen hundred and seventeen, by any person now defined as an enemy or ally of enemy, or in which any such person had any interest; and he may also require a list to be transmitted of all cases in which said corporation, association, company, or trustee has reasonable cause to believe that the stock or shares on February third, nineteen hundred and seventeen, were owned or are owned by such enemy or ally of enemy, though standing on the books in the name of another: Provided, however, That the name of any such officer, director, or stockholder, shall be stricken permanently or temporarily from such list by the alien property custodian when he shall be satisfied that he is not such enemy or ally of enemy.

Any person in the United States who holds or has or shall hold or have custody or control of any property beneficial or otherwise, alone or jointly with others, of, for, or on behalf of an enemy or ally of enemy, or of any person whom he may have reasonable cause to believe to be an enemy or ally of enemy and any person in the United States who is or shall be indebted in any way to an enemy or ally of enemy, or to any person whom he may have reasonable cause to believe to be an enemy or ally of enemy, shall, with such exceptions and under such rules and regulations as the President shall prescribe, and within thirty days after the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917], or within thirty days after such property shall come within his custody or control, or after such debt shall become due, report the fact to the alien-property custodian by written statement under oath containing such particulars as said custodian shall require. The President may also require a similar report of all property so held, of, for, or on behalf of, and of all debts so owed to, any person now defined as an enemy or ally of enemy, on February third, nineteen hundred and seventeen: Provided, That the name of any person shall be stricken from the said report by the alien property custodian, either temporarily or permanently, when he shall be satisfied that such person is not an enemy or ally of enemy. The President may extend the time for filing the lists or reports required by this section for an additional period not exceeding ninety days.

(b) Nothing in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] contained shall render valid or legal, or be construed to recognize as valid or legal, any act or transaction constituting trade with, to, from, for or on account of, or on behalf or for the benefit of an enemy performed or engaged in since the beginning of the war and prior to the passage of this Act [said sections] or any such act or transaction hereafter performed or engaged in except as authorized hereunder, which would otherwise have been or be void, illegal, or invalid at law. No conveyance, transfer, delivery, payment, or loan of money or other property, in violation of section three hereof [section 3 of this Appendix], made after the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917] and not under license as herein provided shall confer or create any right or remedy in respect thereof; and no person shall by virtue of any assignment, indorsement, or delivery to him of any debt, bill, note, or other obligation or chose in action by, from, or on behalf of, or on account of, or for the benefit of an enemy or ally of enemy have any right or remedy against the debtor, obligor, or other person liable to pay, fulfill, or perform the same unless said assignment, indorsement, or delivery was made prior to the beginning of the war or shall be made under license as herein provided, or unless, if made after the beginning of the war and prior to the date of passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917], the person to whom the same was made shall prove lack of knowledge and of reasonable cause to believe on his part that the same was made by, from or on behalf of, or on account of, or for the benefit of an enemy or ally of enemy; and any person who knowingly pays, discharges, or satisfies any such debt, note, bill, or other obligation or chose in action shall, on conviction thereof, be deemed to violate section three hereof [section 3 of this Appendix]: Provided, That nothing in this Act [said sections] contained shall prevent the carrying out, completion, or performance of any contract, agreement, or obligation originally made with or entered into by an enemy or ally of enemy where, prior to the beginning of the war and not in contemplation thereof, the interest of such enemy or ally of enemy devolved by assignment or otherwise upon a person not an enemy or ally of enemy, and no enemy or ally of enemy will be benefited by such carrying out, completion, or performance otherwise than by release from obligation thereunder.

Nothing in this Act [said sections] shall be deemed to prevent payment of money belonging or owing to an enemy or ally of enemy to a person within the United States not an enemy or ally of enemy, for the benefit of such person or of any other person within the United States, not an enemy or ally of enemy, if the funds so paid shall have been received prior to the beginning of the war and such payments arise out of transactions entered into prior to the beginning of the war, and not in contemplation thereof: Provided, That such payment shall not be made without the license of the President, general or special, as provided in this Act [said sections].

Nothing in this Act [said sections] shall be deemed to authorize the prosecution of any suit or action at law or in equity in any court within the United States by an enemy or ally of enemy prior to the end of the war, except as provided in section ten hereof [section 10 of this Appendix]: Provided, however, That an enemy or ally of enemy licensed to do business under this Act [said sections] may prosecute and maintain any such suit or action so far as the same arises solely out of the business transacted within the United States under such license and so long as such license remains in full force and effect: And provided further, That an enemy or ally of enemy may defend by counsel any suit in equity or action at law which may be brought against him.

Receipt of notice from the President to the effect that he has reasonable ground to believe that any person is an enemy or ally of enemy shall be prima facie defense to any one receiving the same, in any suit or action at law or in equity brought or maintained, or to any right or set-off or recoupment asserted by, such person and based on failure to complete or perform since the beginning of the war any contract or other obligation. In any prosecution under section sixteen hereof [section 16 of this Appendix] proof of receipt of notice from the President to the effect that he has reasonable cause to believe that any person is an enemy or ally of enemy shall be prima facie evidence that the person receiving such notice has reasonable cause to believe such other person to be an enemy or ally of enemy within the meaning of section three hereof [section 3 of this Appendix].

(c) If the President shall so require any money or other property including (but not thereby limiting the generality of the above) patents, copyrights, applications therefor, and rights to apply for the same, trade marks, choses in action, and rights and claims of every character and description owing or belonging to or held for, by, on account of, or on behalf of, or for the benefit of, an enemy or ally of enemy not holding a license granted by the President hereunder, which the President after investigation shall determine is so owning or so belongs or is so held, shall be conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid over to the Alien Property Custodian, or the same may be seized by the Alien Property Custodian; and all property thus acquired shall be held, administered and disposed of as elsewhere provided in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix].

Any requirement made pursuant to this Act [said sections], or a duly certified copy thereof, may be filed, registered, or recorded in any office for the filing, registering, or recording of conveyances, transfers, or assignments of any such property or rights as may be covered by such requirement (including the proper office for filing, registering, or recording conveyances, transfers, or assignments of patents, copyrights, trade-marks, or any rights therein or any other rights); and if so filed, registered, or recorded shall impart the same notice and have the same force and effect as a duly executed conveyance, transfer, or assignment to the Alien Property Custodian so filed, registered, or recorded.

Whenever any such property shall consist of shares of stock or other beneficial interest in any corporation, association, or company or trust, it shall be the duty of the corporation, association, or company or trustee or trustees issuing such shares or any certificates or other instruments representing the same or any other beneficial interest to cancel upon its, his, or their books all shares of stock or other beneficial interest standing upon its, his, or their books in the name of any person or persons, or held for, on account of, or on behalf of, or for the benefit of any person or persons who shall have been determined by the President, after investigation, to be an enemy or ally of enemy, and which shall have been required to be conveyed, transferred, assigned, or delivered to the Alien Property Custodian or seized by him, and in lieu thereof to issue certificates or other instruments for such shares or other beneficial interest to the Alien Property Custodian or otherwise, as the Alien Property Custodian shall require.

The sole relief and remedy of any person having any claim to any money or other property heretofore or hereafter conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid over to the Alien Property Custodian, or required so to be, or seized by him shall be that provided by the terms of this Act [said sections], and in the event of sale or other disposition of such property by the Alien Property Custodian, shall be limited to and enforced against the net proceeds received therefrom and held by the Alien Property Custodian or by the Treasurer of the United States.

(d) If not required to pay, convey, transfer, assign, or deliver under the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, any person not an enemy or ally of enemy who owes to, or holds for, or on account of, or on behalf of, or for the benefit of an enemy or of an ally of enemy not holding a license granted by the President hereunder, any money or other property, or to whom any obligation or form of liability to such enemy or ally of enemy is presented for payment, may, at his option, with the consent of the President, pay, convey, transfer, assign, or deliver to the alien property custodian said money or other property under such rules and regulations as the President shall prescribe.

(e) No person shall be held liable in any court for or in respect to anything done or omitted in pursuance of any order, rule, or regulation made by the President under the authority of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix].

Any payment, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or delivery of money or property made to the alien property custodian hereunder shall be a full acquittance and discharge for all purposes of the obligation of the person making the same to the extent of same. The alien property custodian and such other persons as the President may appoint shall have power to execute, acknowledge, and deliver any such instrument or instruments as may be necessary or proper to evidence upon the record or otherwise such acquittance and discharge, and shall, in case of payment to the alien property custodian of any debt or obligation owed to an enemy or ally of enemy, deliver up any notes, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness or obligation, or any security therefor in which such enemy or ally of enemy had any right or interest that may have come into the possession of the alien property custodian, with like effect as if he or they, respectively, were duly appointed by the enemy or ally of enemy, creditor, or obligee. The President shall issue to every person so appointed a certificate of the appointment and authority of such person, and such certificate shall be received in evidence in all courts within the United States. Whenever any such certificate of authority shall be offered to any registrar, clerk, or other recording officer, Federal or otherwise, within the United States, such officer shall record the same in like manner as a power of attorney, and such record or a duly certified copy thereof shall be received in evidence in all courts of the United States or other courts within the United States.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §7, 40 Stat. 416; Nov. 4, 1918, ch. 201, §1, 40 Stat. 1020.)

Amendments

1918—Subsec. (c). Act Nov. 4, 1918, amended subsec. (c) generally, inserting provisions on recording of property transfers, cancellation of enemy owned stock by corporations, and restriction of claims to relief provided by terms of the Act.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§8. Contracts, mortgages, or pledges against or with enemy or ally of enemy; abrogation of contracts; suspension of limitations

(a) Any person not an enemy or ally of enemy holding a lawful mortgage, pledge, or lien, or other right in the nature of security in property of an enemy or ally of enemy which, by law or by the terms of the instrument creating such mortgage, pledge, or lien, or right, may be disposed of on notice or presentation or demand, and any person not an enemy or ally of enemy who is a party to any lawful contract with an enemy or ally of enemy, the terms of which provide for a termination thereof upon notice or for acceleration of maturity on presentation or demand, may continue to hold said property, and, after default, may dispose of the property in accordance with law or may terminate or mature such contract by notice or presentation or demand served or made on the alien property custodian in accordance with the law and the terms of such instrument or contract and under such rules and regulations as the President shall prescribe; and such notice and such presentation and demand shall have, in all respects, the same force and effect as if duly served or made upon the enemy or ally of enemy personally: Provided, That no such rule or regulation shall require that notice or presentation or demand shall be served or made in any case in which, by law or by the terms of said instrument or contract, no notice, presentation, or demand was, prior to the passage of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917], required; and that in case were, by law or by the terms of such instrument or contract, notice is required, no longer period of notice shall be required: Provided further, That if, on any such disposition of property, a surplus shall remain after the satisfaction of the mortgage, pledge, lien, or other right in the nature of security, notice of that fact shall be given to the President pursuant to such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, and such surplus shall be held subject to his further order.

(b) Any contract entered into prior to the beginning of the war between any citizen of the United States or any corporation organized within the United States, and an enemy or ally of an enemy, the terms of which provide for the delivery, during or after any war in which a present enemy or ally of enemy nation has been or is now engaged, of anything produced, mined, or manufactured in the United States, may be abrogated by such citizen or corporation by serving thirty days’ notice in writing upon the alien property custodian of his or its election to abrogate such contract.

(c) The running of any statute of limitations shall be suspended with reference to the rights or remedies on any contract or obligation entered into prior to the beginning of the war between parties neither of whom is an enemy or ally of enemy, and containing any promise to pay or liability for payment which is evidenced by drafts or other commercial paper drawn against or secured by funds or other property situated in an enemy or ally of enemy country, and no suit shall be maintained on any such contract or obligation in any court within the United States until after the end of the war, or until the said funds or property shall be released for the payment or satisfaction of such contract or obligation: Provided, however, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the suspension of the running of the statute of limitations in all other cases where such suspension would occur under existing law.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §8, 40 Stat. 418.)

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§9. Claims to property transferred to custodian; notice of claim; filing; return of property; suits to recover; sale of claimed property in time of war or during national emergency

(a) Any person not an enemy or ally of enemy claiming any interest, right, or title in any money or other property which may have been conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the Alien Property Custodian or seized by him hereunder and held by him or by the Treasurer of the United States, or to whom any debt may be owing from an enemy or ally of enemy whose property or any part thereof shall have been conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the Alien Property Custodian or seized by him hereunder and held by him or by the Treasurer of the United States may file with the said custodian a notice of his claim under oath and in such form and containing such particulars as the said custodian shall require; and the President, if application is made therefor by the claimant, may order the payment, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or delivery to said claimant of the money or other property so held by the Alien Property Custodian or by the Treasurer of the United States, or of the interest therein to which the President shall determine said claimant is entitled: Provided, That no such order by the President shall bar any person from the prosecution of any suit at law or in equity against the claimant to establish any right, title, or interest which he may have in such money or other property. If the President shall not so order within sixty days after the filing of such application or if the claimant shall have filed the notice as above required and shall have made no application to the President, said claimant may institute a suit in equity in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or in the district court of the United States for the district in which such claimant resides, or, if a corporation, where it has its principal place of business (to which suit the Alien Property Custodian or the Treasurer of the United States, as the case may be, shall be made a party defendant), to establish the interest, right, title, or debt so claimed, and if so established the court shall order the payment, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or delivery to said claimant of the money or other property so held by the Alien Property Custodian or by the Treasurer of the United States or the interest therein to which the court shall determine said claimant is entitled. If suit shall be so instituted, then such money or property shall be retained in the custody of the Alien Property Custodian, or in the Treasury of the United States, as provided in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], and until any final judgment or decree which shall be entered in favor of the claimant shall be fully satisfied by payment or conveyance, transfer, assignment, or delivery by the defendant, or by the Alien Property Custodian, or Treasurer of the United States on order of the court, or until final judgment or decree shall be entered against the claimant or suit otherwise terminated: Provided further, That upon a determination made by the President, in time of war or during any national emergency declared by the President, that the interest and welfare of the United States require the sale of any property or interest or any part thereof claimed in any suit filed under this subsection and pending on or after the date of enactment [Oct. 22, 1962] of this proviso the Alien Property Custodian or any successor officer, or agency may sell such property or interest or part thereof, in conformity with law applicable to sales of property by him, at any time prior to the entry of final judgment in such suit. No such sale shall be made until thirty days have passed after the publication of notice in the Federal Register of the intention to sell. The net proceeds of any such sale shall be deposited in a special account established in the Treasury, and shall be held in trust by the Secretary of the Treasury pending the entry of final judgment in such suit. Any recovery of any claimant in any such suit in respect of the property or interest or part thereof so sold shall be satisfied from the net proceeds of such sale unless such claimant, within sixty days after receipt of notice of the amount of net proceeds of sale serves upon the Alien Property Custodian, or any successor officer or agency, and files with the court an election to waive all claims to the net proceeds, or any part thereof, and to claim just compensation instead. If the court finds that the claimant has established an interest, right, or title in any property in respect of which such an election has been served and filed, it shall proceed to determine the amount which will constitute just compensation for such interest, right, or title, and shall order payment to the claimant of the amount so determined. An order for the payment of just compensation hereunder shall be a judgment against the United States and shall be payable first from the net proceeds of the sale in an amount not to exceed the amount the claimant would have received had he elected to accept his proportionate part of the net proceeds of the sale, and the balance, if any, shall be payable in the same manner as are judgments in cases arising under section 1346 of title 28, United States Code. The Alien Property Custodian or any successor officer or agency shall, immediately upon the entry of final judgment, notify the Secretary of the Treasury of the determination by final judgment of the claimant's interest and right to the proportionate part of the net proceeds from the sale, and the final determination by judgment of the amount of just compensation in the event the claimant has elected to recover just compensation for the interest in the property he claimed.

(b) In respect of all money or other property conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the Alien Property Custodian or seized by him hereunder and held by him or by the Treasurer of the United States, if the President shall determine that the owner thereof at the time such money or other property was required to be so conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the Alien Property Custodian or at the time when it was voluntarily delivered to him or was seized by him was—

(1) A citizen or subject of any nation or State or free city other than Germany or Austria or Hungary or Austria-Hungary, and is at the time of the return of such money or other property hereunder a citizen or subject of any such nation or State or free city; or

(2) A woman who, at the time of her marriage, was a subject or citizen of a nation which has remained neutral in the war, or of a nation which was associated with the United States in the prosecution of said war, and who, prior to April 6, 1917, intermarried with a subject or citizen of Germany or Austria-Hungary and that the money or other property concerned was not acquired by such woman, either directly or indirectly from any subject or citizen of Germany or Austria-Hungary subsequent to January 1, 1917; or

(3) A woman who at the time of her marriage was a citizen of the United States, and who prior to April 6, 1917, intermarried with a subject or citizen of Germany or Austria-Hungary, and that the money or other property concerned, was not acquired by such woman, either directly or indirectly, from any subject or citizen of Germany or Austria-Hungary subsequent to January 1, 1917; or who was a daughter of a resident citizen of the United States and herself a resident or former resident thereof, or the minor daughter or daughters of such woman, she being deceased; or

(3A) An individual who was at such time a citizen or subject of Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Austria-Hungary, or not a citizen or subject of any nation, state or free city, and that the money or other property concerned was acquired by such individual while a bona fide resident of the United States, and that such individual, on January 1, 1926, and at the time of the return of the money or other property, shall be a bona fide resident of the United States; or

(3B) Any individual who at such time was not a subject or citizen of Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Austria-Hungary, and who is now a citizen or subject of a neutral or allied country: Provided, however, That nothing contained herein shall be construed as limiting or abrogating any existing rights of an individual under the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix]; or

(4) A citizen or subject of Germany or Austria or Hungary or Austria-Hungary and was at the time of the severance of diplomatic relations between the United States and such nations, respectively, accredited to the United States as a diplomatic or consular officer of any such nation, or the wife or minor child of such officer, and that the money or other property concerned was within the territory of the United States by reason of the service of such officer in such capacity; or

(5) A citizen or subject of Germany or Austria-Hungary, who by virtue of the provisions of sections 4067, 4068, 4069, and 4070 of the Revised Statutes [sections 21 to 24 of title 50] and of the proclamations and regulations thereunder, was transferred, after arrest, into the custody of the War Department of the United States for detention during the war and is at the time of the return of his money or other property hereunder living within the United States; or

(6) A partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals outside the United States, or a corporation incorporated within any country other than the United States, and was entirely owned at such time by subjects or citizens of nations, States, or free cities other than Germany or Austria or Hungary or Austria-Hungary and is so owned at the time of the return of its money or other property hereunder; or

(7) The Government of Bulgaria or Turkey, or any political or municipal subdivision thereof; or

(8) The Government of Germany or Austria or Hungary or Austria-Hungary, and that the money or other property concerned was the diplomatic or consular property of such Government; or

(9) An individual who was at such time a citizen or subject of Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Austria-Hungary, or who is not a citizen or subject of any nation, State or free city, and that such money or other property, or the proceeds thereof, if the same has been converted, does not exceed in value the sum of $10,000, or although exceeding in value the sum of $10,000 is nevertheless susceptible of division, and the part thereof to be returned hereunder does not exceed in value the sum of $10,000: Provided, That an individual shall not be entitled, under this paragraph, to the return of any money or other property owned by a partnership, association, unincorporated body of individuals, or corporation at the time it was conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the Alien Property Custodian, or seized by him hereunder; or

(10) A partnership, association, other unincorporated body of individuals, or corporation, and that it is not otherwise entitled to the return of its money or other property, or any part thereof, under this section, and that such money or other property, or the proceeds thereof, if the same has been converted, does not exceed in value the sum of $10,000, or although exceeding in value the sum of $10,000, is nevertheless susceptible of division, and the part thereof to be returned hereunder does not exceed in value the sum of $10,000; or

(11) A partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, having its principal place of business within any country other than Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Austria-Hungary, or a corporation, organized or incorporated within any country other than Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Austria-Hungary, and that the control of, or more than 50 per centum of the interests or voting power in, any such partnership, association, other unincorporated body of individuals, or corporation, was at such time, and is at the time of the return of any money or other property, vested in citizens or subjects of nations, States, or free cities other than Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Austria-Hungary: Provided, however, That this subsection shall not affect any rights which any citizen or subject may have under paragraph (1) of this subsection; or

(12) A partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or a corporation, and was entirely owned at such time by subjects or citizens of nations, States, or free cities other than Austria or Hungary, or Austria-Hungary and is so owned at the time of the return of its money or other property, and has filed the written consent provided for in subsection (m) of this section; or

(13) A partnership, association or other unincorporated body of individuals, having its principal place of business at such time within any country other than Austria, Hungary, or Austria-Hungary, or a corporation organized or incorporated within any country other than Austria, Hungary, or Austria-Hungary, and that the written consent provided for in subsection (m) has been filed; or

(14) An individual who at such time was a citizen or subject of Germany or who, at the time of the return of any money or other property, is a citizen or subject of Germany or is not a citizen or subject of any nation, State, or free city, and that the written consent provided for in subsection (m) of this section has been filed; or

(15) Repealed. Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1016, §3, 70 Stat. 1073.

(16) An individual, partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or a corporation, and that the written consent provided for in subsection (m) has been filed, and that no suit or proceeding against the United States or any agency thereof is pending in respect of such return, and that such individual has filed a written waiver renouncing on behalf of himself, his heirs, successors, and assigns any claim based upon the fact that at the time of such return he was in fact entitled to such return under any other provision of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix]; or

(17) A partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or a corporation, and was entirely owned at such time by citizens of Austria and is so owned at the time of the return of its money or other property; or

(18) A partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, having its principal place of business at such time within Austria, or a corporation organized or incorporated within Austria; or

(19) An individual who at such time was a citizen of Austria or who, at the time of the return of any money or other property, is a citizen of Austria; or

(20) A partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or a corporation, and was entirely owned at such time by citizens of Hungary and is so owned at the time of the return of its money or other property; or

(21) A partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, having its principal place of business at such time within Hungary, or a corporation organized or incorporated within Hungary; or

(22) An individual who at such time was a citizen of Hungary or who, at the time of the return of any money or other property, is a citizen of Hungary;

Then the President, without any application being made therefor, may order the payment, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or delivery of such money or other property held by the Alien Property Custodian or by the Treasurer of the United States, or of the interest therein to which the President shall determine such person entitled, either to the said owner or to the person by whom said property was conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid over to the Alien Property Custodian: Provided, That no person shall be deemed or held to be a citizen or subject of Germany or Austria or Hungary or Austria-Hungary for the purposes of this section, even though he was such citizen or subject at the time first specified in this subsection, if he has become or shall become, ipso facto or through exercise of option, a citizen or subject of any nation or State or free city other than Germany, Austria, or Hungary, (first) under the terms of such treaties of peace as have been or may be concluded subsequent to November 11, 1918, between Germany or Austria or Hungary (of the one part) and the United States and/or three or more of the following-named powers: The British Empire, France, Italy, and Japan (of the other part), or (second) under the terms of such treaties as have been or may be concluded in pursuance of the treaties of peace aforesaid between any nation, State, or free city (of the one part) whose territories, in whole or in part, on August 4, 1914, formed a portion of the territory of Germany or Austria-Hungary and the United States and/or three or more of the following-named powers: The British Empire, France, Italy, and Japan (of the other part). For the purposes of this section any citizen or subject of a State or free city which at the time of the proposed return of money or other property of such citizen or subject hereunder forms a part of the territory of any one of the following nations: Germany, Austria, or Hungary, shall be deemed to be a citizen or subject of such nation. And the receipt of the said owner or of the person by whom said money or other property was conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid over to the Alien Property Custodian shall be a full acquittance and discharge of the Alien Property Custodian or the Treasurer of the United States, as the case may be, and of the United States in respect to all claims of all persons heretofore or hereafter claiming any right, title, or interest in said money or other property, or compensation or damages arising from the capture of such money or other property by the President or the Alien Property Custodian: Provided further, however, That except as herein provided no such action by the President shall bar any person from the prosecution of any suit at law or in equity to establish any right, title, or interest which he may have therein.

(c) Any person whose money or other property the President is authorized to return under the provisions of subsection (b) hereof may file notice of claim for the return of such money or other property, as provided in subsection (a) hereof, and thereafter may make application to the President for allowance of such claim and/or may institute suit in equity to recover such money or other property, as provided in said subsection, and with like effect. The President or the court, as the case may be, may make the same determinations with respect to citizenship and other relevant facts that the President is authorized to make under the provisions of subsection (b) hereof.

(d) Whenever an individual, deceased, would have been entitled, if living, to the return of any money or other property without filing the written consent provided for in subsection (m), then his legal representative may proceed for the return of such money or other property in the same manner as such individual might proceed if living, and such money or other property may be returned to such legal representative without requiring the appointment of an administrator, or an ancillary administrator, by a court in the United States, or to any such ancillary administrator, for distribution directly to the persons entitled thereto. Return in accordance with the provisions of this subsection may be made in any case where an application or court proceeding by any legal representative, under the provisions of this subsection before its amendment by the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §12(a), 45 Stat. 271] is pending and undetermined at the time of the enactment of such Act. All bonds or other security given under the provisions of this subsection before such amendment shall be canceled or released and all sureties thereon discharged.

(e) No money or other property shall be returned nor any debt allowed under this section to any person who is a citizen or subject of any nation which was associated with the United States in the prosecution of the war, unless such nation in like case extends reciprocal rights to citizens of the United States: Provided, That any arrangement made by a foreign nation for the release of money and other property of American citizens and certified by the Secretary of State to the Attorney General as fair and the most advantageous arrangement obtainable shall be regarded as meeting this requirement; nor in any event shall a debt be allowed under this section unless it was owing to and owned by the claimant prior to October 6, 1917, and as to claimants other than citizens of the United States unless it arose with reference to the money or other property held by the Alien Property Custodian or Treasurer of the United States hereunder; nor shall a debt be allowed under this section unless notice of the claim has been filed, or application therefor has been made, prior to the date of the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, 45 Stat. 254].

(f) Except as herein provided, the money or other property conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the Alien Property Custodian, shall not be liable to lien, attachment, garnishment, trustee process, or execution, or subject to any order or decree of any court.

(g) Whenever an individual, deceased, would have been entitled, if living, to the return of any money or other property upon filing the written consent provided for in subsection (m), then his legal representative may proceed for the return of such money or other property in the same manner as such individual might proceed if living, and such money or other property may be returned, upon filing the written consent provided for in subsection (m), to such legal representative without requiring the appointment of an administrator, or an ancillary administrator, by a court in the United States, or to any such ancillary administrator, for distribution to the persons entitled thereto. This subsection shall not be construed as extinguishing or diminishing any right which any citizen of the United States may have had under this subsection prior to its amendment by the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §12(c), 45 Stat. 271] to receive in full his interest in the property of any individual dying before such amendment.

(h) The aggregate value of the money or other property returned under paragraphs (9) and (10) of subsection (b) to any one person, irrespective of the number of trusts involved, shall in no case exceed $10,000.

(i) For the purposes of paragraphs (9) and (10) of subsection (b) of this section accumulated net income, dividends, interest, annuities, and other earnings, shall be considered as part of the principal.

(j) The Alien Property Custodian is authorized and directed to return to the person entitled thereto, whether or not an enemy or ally of enemy and regardless of the value, any patent, trademark, print, label, copyright, or right therein or claim thereto, which was conveyed, transferred, assigned, or delivered to the Alien Property Custodian, or seized by him, and which has not been sold, licensed, or otherwise disposed of under the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], and to return any such patent, trademark, print, label, copyright, or right therein or claim thereto, which has been licensed, except that any patent, trade-mark, print, label, copyright, or right therein or claim thereto, which is returned by the Alien Property Custodian and which has been licensed, or in respect of which any contract has been entered into, or which is subject to any lien or encumbrance, shall be returned subject to the license, contract, lien, or encumbrance.

(k) Except as provided in section 27 [section 27 of this Appendix], paragraphs (12) to (22), both inclusive, of subsection (b) of this section shall apply to the proceeds received from the sale, license, or other disposition of any patent, trademark, print, label, copyright, or right therein or claim thereto, conveyed, transferred, assigned, or delivered to the Alien Property Custodian, or seized by him.

(l) This section shall apply to royalties paid to the Alien Property Custodian, in accordance with a judgment or decree in a suit brought under subsection (f) of section 10 [section 10(f) of this Appendix]; but shall not apply to any other money paid to the Alien Property Custodian under section 10 [section 10 of this Appendix].

(m) No money or other property shall be returned under paragraph (12), (13), (14), or (16) of subsection (b) or under subsection (g) or (n) or (to the extent therein provided) under subsection (p), unless the person entitled thereto files a written consent to a postponement of the return of an amount equal to 20 per centum of the aggregate value of such money or other property (at the time, as nearly as may be, of the return), as determined by the Alien Property Custodian, and the investment of such amount in accordance with the provisions of section 25 [section 25 of this Appendix]. Such amount shall be deducted from the money to be returned to such person, so far as possible, and the balance shall be deducted from the proceeds of the sale of so much of the property as may be necessary, unless such person pays the balance to the Alien Property Custodian, except that no property shall be sold prior to the expiration of six years from the date of the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, 45 Stat. 254] without the consent of the person entitled thereto. The amounts so deducted shall be returned to the persons entitled thereto as provided in subsection (f) of section 25 [section 25(f) of this Appendix]. The sale of any such property shall be made in accordance with the provisions of section 12 [section 12 of this Appendix], except that the provisions of such section relating to sales or resales to, or for the benefit of, citizens of the United States shall not be applicable. If such aggregate value of the money or other property to be returned under paragraph (12), (13), (14), or (16) of subsection (b) or under subsection (g) is less than $2,000, then the written consent shall not be required and the money or other property shall be returned in full without the temporary retention and investment of 20 per centum thereof.

(n) In the case of property consisting of stock or other interest in any corporation, association, company, or trust, or of bonded or other indebtedness thereof, evidenced by certificates of stock or by bonds or by other certificates of interest therein or indebtedness thereof, or consisting of dividends or interest or other accruals thereon, where the right, title, and interest in the property (but not the actual certificate or bond or other certificate of interest or indebtedness) was conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the Alien Property Custodian, or seized by him, if the President determines that the owner thereof or of any interest therein has acquired such ownership by assignment, transfer, or sale of such certificate or bond or other certificate of interest or indebtedness, (it being the intent of this subsection that such assignment, transfer, or sale shall not be deemed invalid hereunder by reason of such conveyance, transfer, assignment, delivery, or payment to the Alien Property Custodian or seizure by him) and that the written consent provided for in subsection (m) of this section has been filed, then the President may make in respect of such property an order of the same character, upon the same conditions, and with the same effect, as in cases provided for in subsection (b), including the benefits of subsection (c).

(o) The provisions of paragraph (12), (13), (14), (17), (18), (19), (20), (21), or (22) of subsection (b), or of subsection (m) or (n) of this section, and (except to the extent therein provided) the provisions of paragraph (16) of subsection (b), shall not be construed as diminishing or extinguishing any right under any other provision of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] in force immediately prior to the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, 45 Stat. 254].

(p) The Alien Property Custodian shall transfer the money or other property in the trust of any partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or corporation, the existence of which has terminated, to trusts in the names of the persons (including the German Government and members of the former ruling family) who have succeeded to its claim or interest; and the provisions of subsection (a) of this section relating to the collection of a debt (by order of the President or of a court) out of money or other property held by the Alien Property Custodian or the Treasurer of the United States shall be applicable to the debts of such successor and any such debt may be collected out of the money or other property in any of such trusts if not returnable under subsection (a) of this section. Subject to the above provisions as to the collection of debts, each such successor (except the German Government and members of the former ruling family) may proceed for the return of the amount so transferred to his trust, in the same manner as such partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or corporation might proceed if still in existence. If such partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or corporation, would have been entitled to the return of its money or other property only upon filing the written consent provided for in subsection (m), then the successor shall be entitled to the return under this subsection only upon filing such written consent.

(q) The return of money or other property under paragraph (15), (17), (18), (19), (20), (21), or (22) of subsection (b) (relating to the return of Austrian and Hungarian nationals) shall be subject to the limitations imposed by subsections (d) and (e) of section 7 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §7(d), (e), 45 Stat. 265, 266].

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §9, 40 Stat. 419; July 11, 1919, ch. 6, §1, 41 Stat. 35; June 5, 1920, ch. 241, 41 Stat. 977; Feb. 27, 1921, ch. 76, 41 Stat. 1147; Dec. 21, 1921, ch. 13, 42 Stat. 351; Dec. 27, 1922, ch. 13, 42 Stat. 1065; Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 285, §1, 42 Stat. 1511; May 7, 1926, ch. 252, 44 Stat. 406; Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §§11–14, 20, 45 Stat. 270–273, 277; June 25, 1936, ch. 804, 49 Stat. 1921; Aug. 24, 1937, ch. 745, 50 Stat. 748; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107; Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1016, §3, 70 Stat. 1073; Pub. L. 87–846, title II, §203, Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1113.)

Amendments

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–846 inserted provisions for sale of claimed property in time of war or during national emergency, publication of notice in Federal Register of intention to sell, deposit of net proceeds of sale in a special account in the Treasury, satisfaction of the claim from such net proceeds, election to waive claims to net proceeds and to claim just compensation, judicial determination of amount of compensation, order for payment, judgment against United States and notification of Secretary of the Treasury respecting the determination of election made.

1956—Subsec. (b)(15). Act Aug. 6, 1956, repealed par. (15) which related to property of the Austro-Hungarian Bank.

1937—Subsec. (e). Act Aug. 24, 1937, inserted proviso that arrangements by foreign nations certified by Secretary of State would be regarded as meeting reciprocity requirement for return of property.

1928—Subsec. (b)(12) to (22). Act Mar. 10, 1928, §11, added pars. (12) to (22).

Subsec. (d). Act Mar. 10, 1928, §12(a), amended subsec. (d) generally.

Subsec. (e). Act Mar. 10, 1928, §12(b), inserted “; nor shall a debt be allowed under this section unless notice of the claim has been filed, or application therefor has been made, prior to the date of the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928” before period at end.

Subsec. (g). Act Mar. 10, 1928, §12(c), amended subsec. (g) generally.

Subsecs. (l) to (q). Act Mar. 10, 1928, §§13, 14, added subsecs. (l) to (q).

1926—Subsec. (b)(3A), (3B). Act May 7, 1926, added pars. (3A) and (3B).

1923—Act Mar. 4, 1923, added pars. (9) to (11) of subsec. (b), and subsecs. (g) to (j) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (k).

1922—Subsec. (a). Act Dec. 27, 1922, increased time limit for instituting a suit from eighteen to thirty months.

1921—Subsec. (a). Act Dec. 21, 1921, increased time limit for instituting a suit from six to eighteen months.

Subsec. (b). Act Feb. 27, 1921, added to pars. (2) and (3) requirement that money or property be acquired subsequent to Jan. 1, 1917, and struck out in par. (3) requirement that citizenship be by birth in the United States.

1920—Act June 5, 1920, added pars. (1) to (8) of subsec. (b) and added subsecs. (c) to (g), latter two subsecs. having formerly been last two paragraphs, respectively, of subsec. (b).

1919—Act July 11, 1919, struck out requirement of owner's assent to the transfer of property to the Custodian, gave the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia co-extensive jurisdiction with the District Courts over suits, and inserted proviso permitting the Custodian to acquit his responsibility by transferring the property of persons, who were enemies by reason of residence in enemy occupied countries, to those persons or their designated representatives.

Change of Name

In subsec. (a), act June 25, 1936, substituted “the district court of the United States for the District of Columbia” for “the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia”, and act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted “United States District Court for the District of Columbia” for “district court of the United States for the District of Columbia”.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928

Act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, 45 Stat. 254, known as the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, provided for the settlement of certain claims of American nationals against Germany, Austria, and Hungary, and the nationals of Germany, Austria, and Hungary against the United States, and for the ultimate return of all property held by the Alien Property Custodian.

Sections 9(c) to 19 of the act were classified to sections 9, 10, 20, and 22 to 31 of this Appendix. Sections 1 to 9(b) of the act are not classified to the Code.

The act has been amended to extend the time of presenting claims under it several times as follows: Acts Mar. 10, 1930, ch. 175, 46 Stat. 84; June 14, 1932, ch. 259, 47 Stat. 318; Mar. 3, 1933, ch. 210, 47 Stat. 1488; June 12, 1933, ch. 60, 48 Stat. 125; June 18, 1934, ch. 608, 48 Stat. 1019; June 27, 1934, ch. 851, 48 Stat. 1267; June 26, 1936, ch. 852, 49 Stat. 1984; May 23, 1938, ch. 263, 52 Stat. 437. The act of May 23, 1938, was the final extension and it allowed the presentation of claims up to 12 years after Mar. 10, 1938.

Act Aug. 6, 1947, ch. 506, 61 Stat. 789, amended section 4(b), (c) of act Mar. 10, 1928, to change the order of priority for payment of claims out of the German special deposit account.

Effect of Termination of State of War Between United States and Germany

Termination of war by Joint Res. Oct. 19, 1951, ch. 519, 65 Stat. 451, as not affecting property already vested, see said Joint Res. Oct. 19, 1951, set out as a note preceding section 1 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§10. Acts permitted; applications for patents, or registration of trade-marks or copyrights; payment of tax in relation thereto; licenses under enemy owned patent or copyright; statements by licensees; term and cancellation; suits against licensees; restraining infringements; powers of attorney; keeping secret inventions

Nothing contained in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] shall be held to make unlawful any of the following acts:

(a) Repealed. Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 910, §13, 60 Stat. 944.

(b) Any citizen of the United States, or any corporation organized within the United States, may, when duly authorized by the President, pay to an enemy or ally of enemy any tax, annuity, or fee which may be required by the laws of such enemy or ally of enemy nation in relation to patents and trade-marks, prints, labels, and copyrights; and any such citizen or corporation may file and prosecute an application for letters patent or for registration of trade-mark, print, label, or copyright in the country of an enemy, or of an ally of enemy after first submitting such application to the President and receiving license so to file and prosecute, and to pay the fees required by law and customary agents’ fees, the maximum amount of which in each case shall be subject to the control of the President.

(c) Any citizen of the United States or any corporation organized within the United States desiring to manufacture, or cause to be manufactured, a machine, manufacture, composition of matter, or design, or to carry on, or to use any trade-mark, print, label or cause to be carried on, a process under any patent or copyrighted matter owned or controlled by an enemy or ally of enemy at any time during the existence of a state of war may apply to the President for a license; and the President is authorized to grant such a license, nonexclusive or exclusive as he shall deem best, provided he shall be of the opinion that such grant is for the public welfare, and that the applicant is able and intends in good faith to manufacture, or cause to be manufactured, the machine, manufacture, composition of matter, or design, or to carry on, or cause to be carried on, the process or to use the trade-mark, print, label or copyrighted matter. The President may prescribe the conditions of this license, including the fixing of prices of articles and products necessary to the health of the military and naval forces of the United States or the successful prosecution of the war, and the rules and regulations under which such license may be granted and the fee which shall be charged therefor, not exceeding $100, and not exceeding one per centum of the fund deposited as hereinafter provided. Such license shall be a complete defense to any suit at law or in equity instituted by the enemy or ally of enemy owners of the letters patent, trade-mark, print, label or copyright, or otherwise, against the licensee for infringement or for damages, royalty, or other money award on account of anything done by the licensee under such license, except as provided in subsection (f) hereof.

(d) The licensee shall file with the President a full statement of the extent of the use and enjoyment of the license, and of the prices received in such form and at such stated periods (at least annually) as the President may prescribe; and the licensee shall pay at such times as may be required to the alien property custodian not to exceed five per centum of the gross sums received by the licensee from the sale of said inventions or use of the trade-mark, print, label or copyrighted matter, or, if the President shall so order, five per centum of the value of the use of such inventions, trade-marks, prints, labels or copyrighted matter to the licensee as established by the President; and sums so paid shall be deposited by said alien property custodian forthwith in the Treasury of the United States as a trust fund for the said licensee and for the owner of the said patent, trade-mark, print, label or copyright registration as hereinafter provided, to be paid from the Treasury upon order of the court, as provided in subsection (f) of this section, or upon the direction of the alien property custodian.

(e) Unless surrendered or terminated as provided in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], any license granted hereunder shall continue during the term fixed in the license or in the absence of any such limitation during the term of the patent, trade-mark, print, label, or copyright registration under which is it granted. Upon violation by the licensee of any of the provisions of this Act [said sections], or of the conditions of the license, the President may, after due notice and hearing, cancel any license granted by him.

(f) The owner of any patent, trade-mark, print, label, or copyright under which a license is granted hereunder may, after the end of the war and until the expiration of one year thereafter, file a bill in equity against the licensee in the district court of the United States for the district in which the said licensee resides, or, if a corporation, in which it has its principal place of business (to which suit the Treasurer of the United States shall be made a party), for recovery from the said licensee for all use and enjoyment of the said patented invention, trade-mark, print, label, or copyrighted matter: Provided, however, That whenever suit is brought, as above, notice shall be filed with the alien property custodian within thirty days after date of entry of suit: Provided further, That the licensee may make any and all defenses which would be available were no license granted. The court on due proceedings had may adjudge and decree to the said owner payment of a reasonable royalty. The amount of said judgment and decree, when final, shall be paid on order of the court to the owner of the patent from the fund deposited by the licensee, so far as such deposit will satisfy said judgment and decree; and the said payment shall be in full or partial satisfaction of said judgment and decree, as the facts may appear; and if, after payment of all such judgments and decrees, there shall remain any balance of said deposit, such balance shall be repaid to the licensee on order of the alien property custodian. If no suit is brought within one year after the end of the war, or no notice is filed as above required, then the licensee shall not be liable to make any further deposits, and all funds deposited by him shall be repaid to him on order of the alien property custodian. Upon entry of suit and notice filed as above required, or upon repayment of funds as above provided, the liability of the licensee to make further reports to the President shall cease.

If suit is brought as above provided, the court may, at any time, terminate the license, and may, in such event, issue an injunction to restrain the licensee from infringement thereafter, or the court, in case the licensee, prior to suit, shall have made investment of capital based on possession of the license, may continue the license for such period and upon such terms and with such royalties as it shall find to be just and reasonable.

In the case of any such patent, trade-mark, print, label, or copyright, conveyed, assigned, transferred, or delivered to the Alien Property Custodian or seized by him, any suit brought under this subsection, within the time limited therein, shall be considered as having been brought by the owner within the meaning of this subsection, in so far as such suit relates to royalties for the period prior to the sale by the Alien Property Custodian of such patent, trade-mark, print, label, or copyright, if brought either by the Alien Property Custodian or by the person who was the owner thereof immediately prior to the date such patent, trade-mark, print, label, or copyright was seized or otherwise acquired by the Alien Property Custodian.

(g) Any enemy, or ally of enemy, may institute and prosecute suits in equity against any person other than a licensee under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] to enjoin infringement of letters patent, trade-mark, print, label, and copyrights in the United States owned or controlled by said enemy or ally of enemy, in the same manner and to the extent that he would be entitled so to do if the United States was not at war: Provided, That no final judgment or decree shall be entered in favor of such enemy or ally of enemy by any court except after thirty days’ notice to the alien property custodian. Such notice shall be in writing and shall be served in the same manner as civil process of Federal courts.

(h) All powers of attorney heretofore or hereafter granted by an enemy or ally of enemy to any person within the United States, in so far as they may be requisite to the performance of acts authorized in subsections (a) and (g) of this section, shall be valid.

(i) Whenever the publication of an invention by the granting of a patent may, in the opinion of the President, be detrimental to the public safety or defense, or may assist the enemy or endanger the successful prosecution of the war, he may order that the invention be kept secret and withhold the grant of a patent until the end of the war: Provided, That the invention disclosed in the application for said patent may be held abandoned upon it being established before or by the Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office that, in violation of said order, said invention has been published or that an application for a patent therefor has been filed in any other country, by the inventor or his assigns or legal representatives, without the consent or approval of the commissioner or under a license of the President.

When an applicant whose patent is withheld as herein provided and who faithfully obeys the order of the President above referred to shall tender his invention to the Government of the United States for its use, he shall, if he ultimately receives a patent, have the right to sue for compensation in the United States Court of Federal Claims, such right to compensation to begin from the date of the use of the invention by the Government.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §10, 40 Stat. 420; Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §19, 45 Stat. 277; Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 910, §13, 60 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §160(a)(17), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 48; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4732(b)(26)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–585.)

Prior Provisions

The provisions of subsection (i) of this section are similar to the provisions of act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 95, 40 Stat. 394 (formerly classified to section 42 of Title 35, Patents), which was repealed and superseded by act Feb. 1, 1952, ch. 4, 66 Stat. 3. Act Feb. 1, 1952 was also repealed by act July 19, 1952, ch. 950, §5, 66 Stat. 815. See section 181 et seq. of Title 35.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–113 substituted “Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office” for “Commissioner of Patents”.

1992—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “United States Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

1946—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 8, 1946, repealed subsec. (a).

1928—Subsec. (f). Act Mar. 10, 1928, added par. at end.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–113 effective 4 months after Nov. 29, 1999, see section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4731] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 35, Patents.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

President's Proclamation

Proclamation of May 24, 1917, 40 Stat. 1669, authorized citizens owning letters patent issued by the German Empire to pay any tax, annuity or fee required by the laws of the German Empire for preservation of their rights in the letters patent.

§11. Importations prohibited

Whenever during the present war the President shall find that the public safety so requires and shall make proclamation thereof it shall be unlawful to import into the United States from any country named in such proclamation any article or articles mentioned in such proclamation except at such time or times, and under such regulations or orders, and subject to such limitations and exceptions as the President shall prescribe, until otherwise ordered by the President or by Congress: Provided, however, That no preference shall be given to the ports of one State over those of another.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §11, 40 Stat. 422.)

Extension of Import Limitations

Joint Res. Nov. 19, 1919, ch. 121, 41 Stat. 361, continued provisions of section 1 et seq. of this Appendix and proclamations limiting imports to Jan. 15, 1920.

President's Proclamations

Proclamation of Nov. 28, 1917, 40 Stat. 1722, forbade importation of various articles except under license granted by War Trade Board.

Proclamation of Feb. 14, 1918, 40 Stat. 1748, added other articles to list of articles upon which import limitations were placed.

§12. Property transferred to Alien Property Custodian

All moneys (including checks and drafts payable on demand) paid to or received by the alien property custodian pursuant to this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] shall be deposited forthwith in the Treasury of the United States, and may be invested and reinvested by the Secretary of the Treasury in United States bonds or United States certificates of indebtedness, under such rules and regulations as the President shall prescribe for such deposit, investment, and sale of securities; and as soon after the end of the war as the President shall deem practicable, such securities shall be sold and the proceeds deposited in the Treasury.

All other property of an enemy, or ally of enemy, conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the alien property custodian hereunder shall be safely held and administered by him except as hereinafter provided; and the President is authorized to designate as a depositary, or depositaries, of property of an enemy or ally of enemy, any bank, or banks, or trust company, or trust companies, or other suitable depositary or depositaries, located and doing business in the United States. The alien property custodian may deposit with such designated depositary or depositaries, or with the Secretary of the Treasury, any stocks, bonds, notes, time drafts, time bills of exchange, or other securities, or property (except money or checks or drafts payable on demand which are required to be deposited with the Secretary of the Treasury) and such depositary or depositaries shall be authorized and empowered to collect any dividends or interest or income that may become due and any maturing obligations held for the account of such custodian. Any moneys collected on said account shall be paid and deposited forthwith by said depositary or by the alien property custodian into the Treasury of the United States as hereinbefore provided.

The President shall require all such designated depositaries to execute and file bonds sufficient in his judgment to protect property on deposit, such bonds to be conditioned as he may direct.

The alien property custodian shall be vested with all of the powers of a common-law trustee in respect of all property, other than money, which has been or shall be, or which has been or shall be required to be, conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid over to him in pursuance of the provisions of this Act [said sections], and, in addition thereto, acting under the supervision and direction of the President, and under such rules and regulations as the President shall prescribe, shall have power to manage such property and do any act or things in respect thereof or make any disposition thereof or of any part thereof, by sale or otherwise, and exercise any rights or powers which may be or become appurtenant thereto or to the ownership thereof in like manner as though he were the absolute owner thereof: Provided, That any property sold under this Act [said sections] except when sold to the United States, shall be sold only to American citizens, at public sale to the highest bidder, after public advertisement of time and place of sale which shall be where the property or a major portion thereof is situated, unless the President stating the reasons therefor, in the public interest shall otherwise determine: Provided further, That when sold at public sale, the alien property custodian upon the order of the President stating the reasons therefor, shall have the right to reject all bids and resell such property at public sale or otherwise as the President may direct. Any person purchasing property from the alien property custodian for an undisclosed principal, or for re-sale to a person not a citizen of the United States, or for the benefit of a person not a citizen of the United States, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be subject to a fine of not more than $10,000, or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, and the property shall be forfeited to the United States. It shall be the duty of every corporation incorporated within the United States and every unincorporated association, or company, or trustee, or trustees within the United States issuing shares or certificates representing beneficial interests to transfer such shares or certificates upon its, his, or their books into the name of the alien property custodian upon demand, accompanied by the presentation of the certificates which represent such shares or beneficial interests. The alien property custodian shall forthwith deposit in the Treasury of the United States, as hereinbefore provided, the proceeds of any such property or rights so sold by him.

Any money or property required or authorized by the provisions of this Act [said sections] to be paid, conveyed, transferred, assigned, or delivered to the alien property custodian shall, if said custodian shall so direct by written order, be paid, conveyed, transferred, assigned, or delivered to the Treasurer of the United States with the same effect as if to the alien property custodian.

After the end of the war any claim of any enemy or of an ally of enemy to any money or other property received and held by the alien property custodian or deposited in the United States Treasury, shall be settled as Congress shall direct: Provided, however, That on order of the President as set forth in section nine hereof [section 9 of this Appendix], or of the court, as set forth in sections nine and ten hereof [sections 9 and 10 of this Appendix], the alien property custodian or the Treasurer of the United States, as the case may be, shall forthwith convey, transfer, assign, and pay to the person to whom the President shall so order, or in whose behalf the court shall enter final judgment or decree, any property of an enemy or ally of enemy held by said custodian or by said Treasurer, so far as may be necessary to comply with said order of the President or said final judgment or decree of the court: And provided further, That the Treasurer of the United States, on order of the alien property custodian shall, as provided in section ten hereof [section 10 of this Appendix], repay to the licensee any funds deposited by said licensee.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §12, 40 Stat. 423; Mar. 28, 1918, ch. 28, §1, 40 Stat. 460.)

Amendments

1918—Act Mar. 28, 1918, required that property sold be sold at public sale to American citizens, gave Custodian right to reject bids, and made violations of sale regulations subject to fine or imprisonment as misdemeanors.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Ex. Ord. No. 6237–A. Vesting Certain Power and Authority in the Alien Property Custodian

Ex. Ord. No. 6237–A, eff. July 30, 1933, provided:

I hereby vest in the Alien Property Custodian, and in the event of his death, resignation, absence, or disability, in the General Counsel, and in the event of his death, resignation, absence, or disability during his period of authority, then in the Director of Finance and Accounts of the Office of the Alien Property Custodian, all power and authority conferred upon me by the provisions of the act approved October 6, 1917, known as the “Trading With the Enemy Act,” as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] pertaining to the deposit, transfer, and payment of moneys, and interest which may have accrued thereon, which may be or have been deposited with the Treasurer of the United States, and to release and deliver property held under and by virtue of said acts: Provided, however, That all claims which are required to be submitted to the Attorney General and to the President, as provided in Executive Order No. 4862 of April 23, 1928, shall continue to be submitted to the Attorney General and to the President. Any order of payment of money, and interest, which may be executed by said officials shall constitute a ratification of all previous orders or acts, by virtue of which the funds in the possession of the Treasurer of the United States have been placed to the credit of the particular trusts on which such orders are drawn. I hereby revoke all former orders in conflict herewith.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.      

Executive Order No. 7894

Ex. Ord. No. 7894, eff. May 23, 1938, 3 F.R. 998, authorized and directed the Attorney General of the United States to exercise all power and authority conferred upon the President by section 12 of the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended.

§13. Statements by masters of vessels and owners of cargoes before granting clearances

During the present war, in addition to the facts required by section 60105 of title 46, and sections forty-one hundred and ninety-eight,1 and forty-two hundred 1 of the Revised Statutes, as amended by the Act of June fifteenth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, to be set out in the master's and shipper's manifests before clearance will be issued to vessels bound to foreign ports, the master or person in charge of any vessel, before departure of such vessel from port, shall deliver to the collector of customs of the district wherein such vessel is located a statement duly verified by oath that the cargo is not shipped or to be delivered in violation of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], and the owners, shippers, or consignors of the cargo of such vessels shall in like manner deliver to the collector like statement under oath as to the cargo or the parts thereof laden or shipped by them, respectively, which statement shall contain also the names and addresses of the actual consignees of the cargo, or if the shipment is made to a bank or other broker, factor, or agent, the names and addresses of the persons who are the actual consignees on whose account the shipment is made. The master or person in control of the vessel shall, on reaching port of destination of any of the cargo, deliver a copy of the manifest and of the said master's, owner's shipper's, or consignor's statement to the American consular officer of the district in which the cargo is unladen.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §13, 40 Stat. 424.)

References in Text

The amendment by act June 15, 1917, referred to in text, probably means the amendment made by section 4 of title V of act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 222.

Section 4198 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, which was classified to section 94 of former Title 46, Shipping, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–182, title VI, §690(a)(8), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2223.

Section 4200 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, which was classified to section 92 of former Title 46, was repealed by Pub. L. 87–826, §3, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 953.

Codification

In text, “section 60105 of title 46, and sections” substituted for “sections forty-one hundred and ninety-seven,” on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted section 60105 of Title 46, Shipping.

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

1 See References in Text note below.

§14. False manifest; refusal of clearance; reports of gold or silver coin in cargoes for export

During the present war, whenever there is reasonable cause to believe that the manifest or the additional statements under oath required by the preceding section [section 13 of this Appendix] are false or that any vessel, domestic or foreign, is about to carry out of the United States any property to or for the account or benefit of an enemy, or ally of enemy, or any property or person whose export, taking out, or transport will be in violation of law, the collector of customs for the district in which such vessel is located is authorized and empowered subject to review by the President to refuse clearance to any such vessel, domestic or foreign, for which clearance is required by law, and by formal notice served upon the owners, master, or person or persons in command or charge of any domestic vessel for which clearance is not required by law, to forbid the departure of such vessel from the port, and it shall thereupon be unlawful for such vessel to depart.

The collector of customs shall, during the present war, in each case report to the President the amount of gold or silver coin or bullion or other moneys of the United States contained in any cargo intended for export. Such report shall include the names and addresses of the consignors and consignees, together with any facts known to the collector with reference to such shipment and particularly those which may indicate that such gold or silver coin or bullion or moneys of the United States may be intended for delivery or may be delivered, directly or indirectly, to an enemy or an ally of enemy.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §14, 40 Stat. 424.)

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

§15. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §15, 40 Stat. 425, made an appropriation of $450,000 for purpose of carrying out the Act during fiscal year ending June 30, 1918.

§16. Offenses; punishment; forfeitures of property

(a) Whoever shall willfully violate any of the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] or of any license, rule, or regulation issued thereunder, and whoever shall willfully violate, neglect, or refuse to comply with any order of the President issued in compliance with the provisions of the Act [said sections] shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $1,000,000, or if a natural person, be imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both.

(b)(1) A civil penalty of not to exceed $50,000 may be imposed by the Secretary of the Treasury on any person who violates any license, order, rule, or regulation issued in compliance with the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix].

(2) Any property, funds, securities, papers, or other articles or documents, or any vessel, together with its tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, that is the subject of a violation under paragraph (1) shall, at the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, be forfeited to the United States Government.

(3) The penalties provided under this subsection may be imposed only on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing in accordance with sections 554 through 557 of title 5, United States Code, with the right to prehearing discovery.

(4) Judicial review of any penalty imposed under this subsection may be had to the extent provided in section 702 of title 5, United States Code.

(c) Upon conviction, any property, funds, securities, papers, or other articles or documents, or any vessel, together with tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, concerned in any violation of subsection (a) may be forfeited to the United States.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §16, 40 Stat. 425; Pub. L. 95–223, title I, §103(a), Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626; Pub. L. 102–393, title VI, §628, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1772; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XVII, §1710(c), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2580; Pub. L. 104–114, title I, §102(d), Mar. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 792; Pub. L. 111–195, title I, §107(a)(4), July 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 1337.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–195 substituted “if a natural person, be imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both.” for “if a natural person, be fined not more than $100,000, or imprisoned for not more than ten years or both; and the officer, director, or agent of any corporation who knowingly participates in such violation shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $100,000 or imprisoned for not more than ten years or both.”

1996—Pub. L. 104–114, §102(d)(3)(A), made technical amendment inserting section designation in original.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–114, §102(d)(3)(B), substituted “participates” for “participants”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–114, §102(d)(1), amended subsec. (b), as added by Pub. L. 102–484, generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows:

“(b)(1) The Secretary of the Treasury may impose a civil penalty of not more than $50,000 on any person who violates any license, order, rule, or regulation issued under this Act.

“(2) Any property, funds, securities, papers, or other articles or documents, or any vessel, together with its tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, that is the subject of a violation under paragraph (1) shall, at the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury, be forfeited to the United States Government.

“(3) The penalties provided under this subsection may not be imposed for—

“(A) news gathering, research, or the export or import of, or transmission of, information or informational materials; or

“(B) clearly defined educational or religious activities, or activities of recognized human rights organizations, that are reasonably limited in frequency, duration, and number of participants.

“(4) The penalties provided under this subsection may be imposed only on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing in accordance with sections 554 through 557 of title 5, United States Code, with the right to prehearing discovery.

“(5) Judicial review of any penalty imposed under this subsection may be had to the extent provided in section 702 of title 5, United States Code.”

Pub. L. 104–114, §102(d)(2), struck out subsec. (b), as added by Pub. L. 102–393, which read as follows:

“(b)(1) A civil penalty of not to exceed $50,000 may be imposed by the Secretary of the Treasury on any person who violates any license, order, rule, or regulation issued in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

“(2) The penalties provided under this subsection may not be imposed for—

“(A) news gathering, research, or the export or import of, or transmission of, information or informational materials; or

“(B) clearly defined educational or religious activities, or activities of recognized human rights organizations, that are reasonably limited in frequency, duration, and number of participants.”

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, which directed substitution of “(a) Whoever” for “That whoever” and addition of subsec. (b) at end, was executed to reflect the probable intent of Congress in light of the intervening general amendment by Pub. L. 102–393 (see below), by adding subsec. (b) after subsec. (a).

Pub. L. 102–393 amended section generally, substituting subsecs. (a) to (c) for former undesignated provisions which read as follows: “Whoever shall willfully violate any of the provisions of this Act or of any license, rule, or regulation issued thereunder, and whoever shall willfully violate, neglect, or refuse to comply with any order of the President issued in compliance with the provisions of this Act shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $50,000, or, if a natural person, imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both; and the officer, director, or agent of any corporation who knowingly participates in such violation shall be punished by a like fine, imprisonment, or both, and any property, funds, securities, papers, or other articles or documents, or any vessel, together with her tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, concerned in such violation shall be forfeited to the United States.”

1977—Pub. L. 95–223 substituted “$50,000” for “$10,000”.

§17. Rules by district courts; appeals

The district courts of the United States are given jurisdiction to make and enter all such rules as to notice and otherwise, and all such orders and decrees, and to issue such process as may be necessary and proper in the premises to enforce the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], with a right of appeal from the final order or decree of such court as provided in sections one hundred and twenty-eight and two hundred and thirty-eight of the Act of March third, nineteen hundred and eleven, entitled “An Act to codify, revise, and amend the laws relating to the judiciary.”

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §17, 40 Stat. 425.)

References in Text

Sections one hundred and twenty-eight and two hundred and thirty-eight of the Act of March third, nineteen hundred and eleven, entitled “An Act to codify, revise, and amend the laws relating to the judiciary”, referred to in text, enacted sections 225 and 345 of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary, respectively. Section 225 of former Title 28 was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §39, 62 Stat. 992, and reenacted as sections 1291, 1292, 1293, and 1294 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Section 345 of former Title 28 was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §39, 62 Stat. 992.

§18. Jurisdiction of courts of Philippines and Canal Zone of offenses

The several courts of first instance in the Philippine Islands and the district court of the Canal Zone shall have jurisdiction of offenses under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] committed within their respective districts, and concurrent jurisdiction with the district courts of the United States of offenses under this Act [said sections] committed upon the high seas and of conspiracies to commit such offenses as defined by section thirty-seven of the Act entitled “An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States,” approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, and the provisions of such section for the purpose of this Act [said sections] are extended to the Philippine Islands and to the Canal Zone.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §18, 40 Stat. 425.)

References in Text

Section thirty-seven of the Act entitled “An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States,” approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, referred to in text, enacted section 88 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure, and was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as section 371 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Termination of United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone

For termination of the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone at end of the “transition period”, being the 30-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1979, and ending midnight Mar. 31, 1982, see Paragraph 5 of Article XI of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and sections 2101 and 2201 to 2203 of Pub. L. 96–70, title II, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 493, formerly classified to sections 3831 and 3841 to 3843, respectively, of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Philippine Independence

Proc. No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352, issued pursuant to section 1394 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, recognized the independence of the Philippine Islands as of July 4, 1946, and is set out under that section.

§19. Print, newspaper or publication in foreign languages

Ten days after the approval of this act [Oct. 6, 1917] and until the end of the war, it shall be unlawful for any person, firm, corporation, or association, to print, publish, or circulate, or cause to be printed, published, or circulated in any foreign language, any news item, editorial or other printed matter, respecting the Government of the United States, or of any nation engaged in the present war, its policies, international relations, the state or conduct of the war, or any matter relating thereto: Provided, That this section shall not apply to any print, newspaper, or publication where the publisher or distributor thereof, on or before offering the same for mailing, or in any manner distributing it to the public, has filed with the postmaster at the place of publication, in the form of an affidavit, a true and complete translation of the entire article containing such matter proposed to be published in such print, newspaper, or publication, and has caused to be printed, in plain type in the English language, at the head of each such item, editorial, or other matter, on each copy of such print, newspaper, or publication, the words “True translation filed with the postmaster at ________ on ________ (naming the post office where the translation was filed, and the date of filing thereof), as required by the Act of ________ (here giving the date of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917]).”

Any print, newspaper, or publication in any foreign language which does not conform to the provisions of this section is declared to be nonmailable, and it shall be unlawful for any person, firm, corporation, or association, to transport, carry, or otherwise publish or distribute the same, or to transport, carry or otherwise publish or distribute any matter which is made nonmailable by the provisions of the Act relating to espionage, approved June fifteenth, nineteen hundred and seventeen: Provided, further, That upon evidence satisfactory to him that any print, newspaper, or publication, printed in a foreign language may be printed, published, and distributed free from the foregoing restrictions and conditions without detriment to the United States in the conduct of the present war, the President may cause to be issued to the printers or publishers of such print, newspaper, or publication, a permit to print, publish, and circulate the issue or issues of their print, newspaper, or publication, free from such restrictions and requirements, such permits to be subject to revocation at his discretion. And the Postmaster General 1 shall cause copies of all such permits and revocations of permits to be furnished to the postmaster of the post office serving the place from which the print, newspaper, or publication, granted the permit is to emanate. All matter printed, published and distributed under permits shall bear at the head thereof in plain type in the English language, the words, “Published and distributed under permit authorized by the Act of ________ (here giving date of this Act [Oct. 6, 1917]), on file at the post office of ________ (giving name of office).”

Any person who shall make an affidavit containing any false statement in connection with the translation provided for in this section shall be guilty of the crime of perjury and subject to the punishment provided therefor by section one hundred and twenty-five of the Act of March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, entitled “An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States,” and any person, firm, corporation, or association, violating any other requirement of this section shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $500, or by imprisonment of not more than one year, or, in the discretion of the court, may be both fined and imprisoned.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §19, 40 Stat. 425.)

References in Text

Provision of the Act relating to espionage approved June fifteenth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, referred to in text, means act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §§1–8, 40 Stat. 217, as amended, which enacted sections 31 to 38 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and which was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as sections 792 to 794 and 2388 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section one hundred and twenty-five of the Act of March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, entitled “An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States”, referred to in text, enacted section 231 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure, was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as section 1621 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Transfer of Functions

Office of Postmaster General of Post Office Department abolished and functions, powers, and duties of Postmaster General transferred to United States Postal Service by Pub. L. 91–375, §4(a), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 773, set out as a note under section 201 of Title 39, Postal Service.

1 See Transfer of Functions note below.

§20. Fees of agents, attorneys, or representatives

No property or interest or proceeds shall be returned under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], nor shall any payment be made or judgment awarded in respect of any property or interest vested in or transferred to any officer or agency of the United States under this Act [said sections] unless satisfactory evidence is furnished to the President or such officer or agency as he may designate, or the court, as the case may be, that the aggregate of the fees to be paid to all agents, attorneys at law or in fact, or representatives, for services rendered in connection with such return or payment or judgment does not exceed 10 per centum of the value of such property or interest or proceeds or of such payment. Any agent, attorney at law or in fact, or representative, believing that the aggregate of the fees should be in excess of such 10 per centum may in the case of any return of, or the making of any payment in respect of, such property or interest or proceeds by the President or such officer or agency as he may designate, petition the district court of the United States for the district in which he resides for an order authorizing fees in excess of 10 per centum and shall name such officer or agency as respondent. The court hearing such petition, or a court awarding any judgment in respect of any such property or interest or proceeds, as the case may be, shall approve an aggregate of fees in excess of 10 per centum of the value of such property or interest or proceeds only upon a finding that there exist special circumstances of unusual hardship which require the payment of such excess. Any person accepting any fee in excess of an amount approved hereunder, or retaining for more than thirty days any portion of a fee, accepted prior to approval hereunder, in excess of the fee as approved, shall be guilty of a violation of this Act [said sections].

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §20, as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 285, §2, 42 Stat. 1515; amended Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §9(c), 45 Stat. 267; Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 83, §2, 60 Stat. 54; June 25, 1956, ch. 436, 70 Stat. 331.)

Amendments

1956—Act June 25, 1956, struck out provisions which required a schedule of fees to be furnished to, and approved by, the President or such officer or agency as he designated, and which permitted approval of such schedule of fees only upon a determination that the individual fees did not exceed fair compensation for services rendered.

1946—Act Mar. 8, 1946, raised limitation of fees from 3 per centum of amount involved to 10 per centum.

1928—Act Mar. 10, 1928, inserted “at law or in fact” after “attorney” wherever appearing.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Ex. Ord. No. 9725. Administration of Powers and Authority of President by Alien Property Custodian

Ex. Ord. No. 9725, May 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 5381, provided:

The Alien Property Custodian is designated as the officer to administer the powers and authority conferred upon the President by section 20 of the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended by Public Law 322, 79th Congress, approved March 8, 1946 [this section], and by section 32 of the said act, as added by the said Public Law 322 [section 32 of this Appendix].

The Alien Property Custodian may delegate to officers and employees of the Office of Alien Property Custodian such functions as he may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this order.

This order shall not be construed as revoking or limiting any power or authority heretofore delegated to the Alien Property Custodian.

Harry S. Truman.      

§21. Claims of naturalized citizens as affected by expatriation

The claim of any naturalized American citizen under the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] shall not be denied on the ground of any presumption of expatriation which has arisen against him, under the second sentence of section 2 of the Act entitled “An Act in reference to the expatriation of citizens and their protection abroad,” approved March 2, 1907, if he shall give satisfactory evidence to the President, or the court, as the case may be, of his uninterrupted loyalty to the United States during his absence, and that he has returned to the United States, or that he, although desiring to return, has been prevented from so returning by circumstances beyond his control.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §21, as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 285, §2, 42 Stat. 1516.)

References in Text

The second sentence of section 2 of the Act entitled “An Act in reference to the expatriation of citizens and their protection abroad,” approved March 2, 1907, referred to in text, is the second sentence of section 2 of act Mar. 2, 1907, ch. 2534, 34 Stat. 1228, which was classified to section 17 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and which was repealed by act Oct. 14, 1940, ch. 876, title I, subch. V, §504, 54 Stat. 1172.

§22. Fugitives from justice barred from recovery

No person shall be entitled to the return of any property or money under any provision of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], or any amendment of this Act [said sections], who is a fugitive from justice of the United States or any State or Territory thereof, or the District of Columbia.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §22, as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 285, §2, 42 Stat. 1516; amended Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §16, 45 Stat. 275.)

Amendments

1928—Act Mar. 10, 1928, inserted “or any amendment of this Act” after “any provision of this Act”.

§23. Payment of income, etc., by Alien Property Custodian

The Alien Property Custodian is directed to pay to the person entitled thereto, from and after March 4, 1923, the net income (including dividends, interest, annuities, and other earnings), accruing and collected thereafter, in respect of any money or property held in trust for such person by the Alien Property Custodian or by the Treasurer of the United States for the account of the Alien Property Custodian, under such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §23, as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 285, §2, 42 Stat. 1516; amended Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §17, 45 Stat. 275.)

Amendments

1928—Act Mar. 10, 1928, struck out restriction that no person be paid any amount over $10,000 per annum.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§24. Payment of taxes and expenses by Alien Property Custodian

(a) The Alien Property Custodian is authorized to pay all taxes (including special assessments), heretofore or hereafter lawfully assessed by any body politic against any money or other property held by him or by the Treasurer of the United States under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], and to pay the necessary expenses incurred by him or by any depositary for him in securing the possession, collection, or control of any such money or other property, or in protecting or administering the same. Such taxes and expenses shall be paid out of the money or other property against which such taxes are assessed or in respect of which such expenses are incurred, or (if such money or other property is insufficient) out of any other money or property held for the same person, notwithstanding the fact that a claim may have been filed or suit instituted under this Act [said sections]. No claim shall be filed with the Alien Property Custodian or allowed by him or by the President of the United States, nor shall any suit be instituted or maintained against the Alien Property Custodian or the Treasurer of the United States, or the United States, under any provisions of law, by any person who was an enemy or ally of enemy as defined in the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended [said sections], and no allowance of any such claim now pending shall be made, nor judgment entered in any such suit heretofore or hereafter instituted, for the recovery of any deduction or deductions, heretofore or hereafter made by the Alien Property Custodian from money or properties, or income therefrom, held by him or by the Treasurer of the United States hereunder, for the general or administrative expenses of the office of the Alien Property Custodian, which deduction or deductions on the collection of any income do not exceed the sum of two per centum of such income or which on the return of any moneys or properties or income therefrom, do not exceed the sum of two per centum of the aggregate value thereof at the time or times as nearly as may be, of such deduction or deductions, or, for the recovery of any deduction or deductions heretofore or hereafter made by the Alien Property Custodian from money or properties or income therefrom held by him or by the Treasurer of the United States hereunder, for any and all necessary expenses incurred and actually disbursed by the Alien Property Custodian or by any depositary for him in securing the possession, collection or control of any such money or properties or income therefrom, or in protecting or administering the same, as said general or administrative and other expenses and said aggregate value of returned money or properties or income therefrom have been heretofore or shall be hereafter determined by said Alien Property Custodian.

(b) In the case of income, war-profits, excess-profits, or estate taxes imposed by any Act of Congress, the amount thereof shall, under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, be computed in the same manner (except as hereinafter in this section provided) as though the money or other property had not been seized by or paid to the Alien Property Custodian, and shall be paid as far as practicable, in accordance with subsection (a) of this section. Pending final determination of the tax liability the Alien Property Custodian is authorized to return, in accordance with the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], money or other property in any trust in such amounts as may be determined, under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, to be consistent with the prompt payment of the full amount of the internal-revenue taxes. Notwithstanding the expiration of any period of limitation provided by law, credit or refund of any income, war-profits, or excess-profits tax erroneously or illegally assessed or collected may be made or allowed if claim therefor was filed with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue by the Alien Property Custodian on or before February 15, 1933.

(c) So much of the net income of a taxpayer for the taxable year 1917, or any succeeding taxable year, as represents the gain derived from the sale or exchange by the Alien Property Custodian of any property conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to him, or seized by him, may at the option of the taxpayer be segregated from the net income and separately taxed at the rate of 30 per centum. This subsection shall be applied and the amount of net income to be so segregated shall be determined, under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, as nearly as may be in the same manner as provided in section 208 of the Revenue Act of 1926 (relating to capital net gains), but without regard to the period for which the property was held by the Alien Property Custodian before its sale or exchange, and whether or not the taxpayer is an individual.

(d) Any property sold or exchanged by the Alien Property Custodian (whether before or after the date of the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Mar. 10, 1928]) shall be considered as having been compulsorily or involuntarily converted, within the meaning of the income, excess-profits, and war-profits tax laws and regulations; and the provisions of such laws and regulations relating to such a conversion shall (under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury) apply in the case of the proceeds of such sale or exchange. For the purpose of determining whether the proceeds of such conversion have been expended within such time as will entitle the taxpayer to the benefits of such laws and regulations relating to such a conversion, the date of the return of the proceeds to the person entitled thereto shall be considered as the date of the conversion.

(e) In case of any internal-revenue tax imposed in respect of property conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to the Alien Property Custodian, or seized by him, and imposed in respect of any period (in the taxable year 1917 or any succeeding taxable year) during which such property was held by him or by the Treasurer of the United States, no interest or civil penalty shall be assessed upon, collected from, or paid by or on behalf of, the taxpayer; nor shall any interest be credited or paid to the taxpayer in respect of any credit or refund allowed or made in respect of such tax.

(f) The benefits of subsections (c), (d), and (e) shall be extended to the taxpayer if claim therefor is filed before the expiration of the period of limitations properly applicable thereto, or before the expiration of six months after the date of the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Mar. 10, 1928], whichever date is the later. The benefits of subsection (d) shall also be extended to the taxpayer if claim therefor is filed before the expiration of six months after the return of the proceeds.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §24, as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 285, §2, 42 Stat. 1516; amended Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §18, 45 Stat. 276, 277; Mar. 28, 1934, ch. 102, title I, §1, 48 Stat. 510; June 18, 1934, ch. 567, 48 Stat. 978.)

References in Text

Section 208 of the Revenue Act of 1926 (relating to capital net gains), referred to in subsec. (c), is act Feb. 26, 1926, ch. 27, §208, 44 Stat. 19, which enacted section 939 of former Title 26, Internal Revenue, prior to its repeal by act May 29, 1928, ch. 852, §63, 45 Stat. 810. See section 1201 et seq. of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to subdivision (a) of this section was contained in the sundry civil appropriation act for the fiscal year 1919, act July 1, 1918, ch. 113, 40 Stat. 646.

Amendments

1934—Subsec. (a). Act Mar. 28, 1934, inserted provisions relating to recovery by enemies of deductions made by Alien Property Custodian for administrative expenses.

Subsec. (b). Act June 18, 1934, provided that credit or refund of income or war profits erroneously collected might be allowed if claim was filed on or before Feb. 15, 1933.

1928—Subsecs. (b) to (f). Act Mar. 10, 1928, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) to (f).

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§25. Investments by Custodian in participating certificates issued by Secretary of the Treasury; transfers to and payments from German, Austrian or Hungarian special deposit accounts; allocation of payments

(a)(1) The Alien Property Custodian is authorized and directed to invest, from time to time upon the request of the Secretary of the Treasury, out of the funds held by the Alien Property Custodian or by the Treasurer of the United States for the Alien Property Custodian, an amount not to exceed $40,000,000 in the aggregate, in one or more participating certificates issued by the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(2) When in the case of any trust written consent under subsection (m) of section 9 [section 9(m) of this Appendix] has been filed, an amount equal to the portion of such trust the return of which is temporarily postponed under such subsection shall be credited against the investment made under paragraph (1) of this subsection. If the total amount so credited is in excess of the amount invested under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the excess shall be invested by the Alien Property Custodian in accordance with the provisions of this subsection, without regard to the $40,000,000 limitation in paragraph (1). If the amount invested under paragraph (1) of this subsection is in excess of the total amount so credited, such excess shall, from time to time on request of the Alien Property Custodian, be paid to him out of the funds in the German special deposit account created by section 4 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, and such payments shall have priority over any payments therefrom other than the payments under paragraph (1) of subsection (c) of such section (relating to expenses of administration).

(b) The Alien Property Custodian is authorized and directed to invest, in one or more participating certificates issued by the Secretary of the Treasury, out of the unallocated interest fund, as defined in section 28 [section 28 of this Appendix]—

(1) The sum of $25,000,000. If, after the allocation under section 26 [section 26 of this Appendix] has been made, the amount of the unallocated interest fund allocated to the trust described in subsection (c) of such section is found to be in excess of $25,000,000, such excess shall be invested by the Alien Property Custodian in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. If the amount so allocated is found to be less than $25,000,000 any participating certificate or certificates that have been issued shall be corrected accordingly; and

(2) The balance of such unallocated interest fund remaining after the investment provided for in paragraph (1) and the payment of allocated earnings in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of section 26 [section 26(b) of this Appendix] have been made.

(c) If the amount of such unallocated interest fund, remaining after the investment required by paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of this section has been made, is insufficient to pay the allocated earnings in accordance with subsection (b) of section 26 [section 26(b) of this Appendix], then the amount necessary to make up the deficiency shall be paid out of the funds in the German special deposit account created by section 4 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, and such payment shall have priority over any payments therefrom other than the payments under paragraph (1) of subsection (c) of such section (relating to expenses of administration) and the payments under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section.

(d) The Alien Property Custodian is authorized and directed (after the payment of debts under section 9 [section 9 of this Appendix]) to transfer to the Secretary of the Treasury, for deposit in such special deposit account, all money and the proceeds of all property, including all income, dividends, interest, annuities, and earnings accumulated in respect thereof, owned by the German Government or any member of the former ruling family. All money and other property shall be held to be owned by the German Government (1) if no claim thereto has been filed with the Alien Property Custodian prior to the expiration of three years from the date of the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Mar. 10, 1928], or (2) if any claim has been filed before the expiration of such period (whether before or after the enactment of such Act), then if the ownership thereof under any such claim is not established by a decision of the Alien Property Custodian or by suit in court instituted, under section 9 [section 9 of this Appendix], within one year after the decision of the Alien Property Custodian, or after the date of the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, whichever date is later. The amounts so transferred under this subsection shall be credited upon the final payment due the United States from the German Government on account of the awards of the Mixed Claims Commission.

(e) The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to issue to the Alien Property Custodian, upon such terms and conditions and under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe, one or more participating certificates, bearing interest payable annually (as nearly as may be) at the rate of 5 per centum per annum, as evidence of the investment by the Alien Property Custodian under subsection (a), and one or more non-interest bearing participating certificates, as evidence of the investment by the Alien Property Custodian under subsection (b). All such certificates shall evidence a participating interest, in accordance with, and subject to the priorities of, the provisions of section 4 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, in the funds in the German special deposit account created by such section, except that—

(1) The United States shall assume no liability, directly or indirectly, for the payment of any such certificates, or of the interest thereon, except out of funds in such special deposit account available therefor, and all such certificates shall so state on their face; and

(2) Such certificates shall not be transferable, except that the Alien Property Custodian may transfer any such participating certificate evidencing the interest of a substantial number of the owners of the money invested, to a trustee duly appointed by such owners.

(f) Any amount of principal or interest paid to the Alien Property Custodian in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) of section 4 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 shall be allocated pro rata among the persons filing written consents under subsection (m) of section 9 of this Act [section 9(m) of this Appendix], and the amounts so allocated shall be paid to such persons. If any person to whom any amount is payable under this subsection has died (or if, in the case of a partnership, association, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or a corporation, its existence has terminated), payment shall be made to the persons determined by the Alien Property Custodian to be entitled thereto.

(g) The Alien Property Custodian is authorized and directed (after the payment of debts under section 9 [section 9 of this Appendix]) to transfer to the Secretary of the Treasury, for deposit in the special deposit account (Austrian or Hungarian, as the case may be), created by section 7 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, all money and the proceeds of all property, including all income, dividends, interest, annuities, and earnings accumulated in respect thereof, owned by the Austrian Government or any corporation all the stock of which was owned by or on behalf of the Austrian Government (including the property of the Imperial Royal Tobacco Monopoly, also known under the name of K. K. Oesterreichische Tabak Regie), or owned by the Hungarian Government or by any corporation all the stock of which was owned by or on behalf of the Hungarian Government.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §25, as added Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §10, 45 Stat. 268; amended Feb. 21, 1929, ch. 291, 45 Stat. 1255; Mar. 10, 1930, ch. 75, §2, 46 Stat. 84.)

References in Text

Section 4 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2), (c), (e), and (f), is section 4 of act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, 45 Stat. 254, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 7 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, referred to in subsec. (g), is section 7 of act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, 45 Stat. 254, which is not classified to the Code.

Amendments

1930—Subsec. (d)(1). Act Mar. 10, 1930, substituted “three years” for “two years”.

1929—Subsec. (d)(1). Act Feb. 21, 1929, substituted “two years” for “one year”.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§26. Allocation of “unallocated interest fund”

(a) The Alien Property Custodian shall allocate among the various trusts the funds in the “unallocated interest fund” (as defined in section 28 [section 28 of this Appendix]). Such allocation shall be based upon the earnings (determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) on the total amounts deposited under section 12 [section 12 of this Appendix].

(b) The Alien Property Custodian, when the allocation has been made, is authorized and directed to pay to each person entitled, in accordance with a final decision of a court of the United States or of the District of Columbia, or of an opinion of the Attorney General, to the distribution of any portion of such unallocated interest fund, the amount allocated to his trust, except as provided in subsection (c) of this section.

(c) In the case of persons entitled, under paragraph (12), (13), (14), or (16) of subsection (b) of section 9 [section 9(b)(12), (13), (14), or (16) of this Appendix], to such return, and in the case of persons who would be entitled to such return thereunder if all such money or property had not been returned under paragraph (9) or (10) of such subsection [section 9(b)(9) or (10) of this Appendix], and in the case of persons entitled to such return under subsection (n) of section 9 [section 9(n) of this Appendix], an amount equal to the aggregate amount allocated to their trusts shall be credited against the sum of $25,000,000 invested in participating certificates under paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of section 25 [section 25(b)(1) of this Appendix]. If the aggregate amount so allocated is in excess of $25,000,000, an amount equal to the excess shall be invested in the same manner. Upon the repayment of any of the amounts so invested, under the provisions of section 4 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, the amount so repaid shall be distributed pro rata among such persons, notwithstanding any receipts or releases given by them.

(d) The unallocated interest fund shall be available for carrying out the provisions of this section, including the expenses of making the allocation.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §26, as added Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §15, 45 Stat. 273; amended June 11, 1929, ch. 14, 46 Stat. 6.)

References in Text

Section 4 of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928, referred to in subsec. (c), is section 4 of act Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, 45 Stat. 254, which is not classified to the Code.

Amendments

1929—Subsec. (a). Act June 11, 1929, struck out “average rate of” before “earnings” in second sentence.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§27. Return by Custodian, to United States, of payments under licenses, assignments or sales of patents

The Alien Property Custodian is authorized and directed to return to the United States any consideration paid to him by the United States under any license, assignment, or sale by the Alien Property Custodian to the United States of any patent (or any right therein or claim thereto, and including an application therefor and any patent issued pursuant to any such application).

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §27, as added Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §15, 45 Stat. 274.)

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§28. “Unallocated interest fund” defined

As used in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], the term “unallocated interest fund” means the sum of (1) the earnings and profits accumulated prior to March 4, 1923, and attributable to investments and reinvestments under section 12 [section 12 of this Appendix] by the Secretary of the Treasury, plus (2) the earnings and profits accumulated on or after March 4, 1923, in respect of the earnings and profits referred to in clause (1) of this section.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §28, as added Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §15, 45 Stat. 274.)

§29. Waiver by Custodian of demand for property; acceptance of less amount; approval of Attorney General

(a) Where the Alien Property Custodian has made demand or requirement for the conveyance, transfer, assignment, delivery, or payment to him of any money or other property of any enemy or ally of enemy (whether or not suit or proceeding for the enforcement thereof has been begun and whether or not any judgment or decree in respect thereof has been made or entered) and where the whole or any part of such money or other property would, if conveyed, transferred, assigned, delivered, or paid to him, be returnable under any provision of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], the Alien Property Custodian may, in his discretion, and on such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, waive such demand or requirement, or accept in full satisfaction of such demand, requirement, judgment, or decree, a less amount than that demanded or required by him.

(b) The Alien Property Custodian shall not make any such waiver or compromise except with the approval of the Attorney General; nor (if any part of such money or property would be returnable only upon the filing of the written consent required by subsection (m) of section 9 [section 9(m) of this Appendix]) unless, after compliance with the terms and conditions of such waiver or compromise, the Alien Property Custodian or the Treasurer of the United States will hold (in respect of such enemy or ally of enemy) for investment as provided in section 25 [section 25 of this Appendix], an amount equal to 20 per centum of the sum of (1) the value of the money or other property held by the Alien Property Custodian or the Treasurer of the United States at the time of such waiver or compromise, plus (2) the value of the money or other property to which the Alien Property Custodian would be entitled under such demand or requirement if the waiver or compromise had not been made.

(c) Where the Alien Property Custodian has made demand or requirement for the conveyance, transfer, assignment, delivery, or payment to him of any money or other property of any enemy or ally of enemy (whether or not suit or proceeding for the enforcement thereof has been begun and whether or not any judgment or decree in respect thereof has been made or entered) and where the interest or right of such enemy or ally of enemy in such money or property has not, prior to the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Mar. 10, 1928], vested in enjoyment, the Alien Property Custodian may, in his discretion, and on such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, waive such demand and requirement, without compliance with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section, but only with the approval of the Attorney General.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the Alien Property Custodian to make any waiver or compromise authorized by this section, and the Alien Property Custodian may proceed in respect of any demand or requirement referred to in subsection (a) or (c) as if this section had not been enacted.

(e) All money or other property received by the Alien Property Custodian as a result of any action or proceeding (whether begun before or after the enactment of the Settlement of War Claims Act of 1928 [Mar. 10, 1928], and whether or not for the enforcement of a demand or requirement as above specified) shall for the purposes of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] be considered as forming a part of the trust in respect of which such action or proceeding was brought, and shall be subject to return in the same manner and upon the same conditions as any other money or property in such trust, except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §29, as added Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §15, 45 Stat. 274.)

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§30. Attachment or garnishment of funds or property held by Custodian

Any money or other property returnable under subsection (b) or (n) of section 9 [section 9(b) or (n) of this Appendix] shall, at any time prior to such return, be subject to attachment in accordance with the provisions of the code of law for the District of Columbia, as amended, relating to attachments in suits at law and to attachments for the enforcement of judgments at law and decrees in equity, but any writ of attachment or garnishment issuing in any such suit, or for the enforcement of any judgment or decree, shall be served only upon the Alien Property Custodian, who shall for the purposes of this section be considered as holding credits in favor of the person entitled to such return to the extent of the value of the money or other property so returnable. Nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing the taking of actual possession, by any officer of any court, of any money or other property held by the Alien Property Custodian or by the Treasurer of the United States.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §30, as added Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §15, 45 Stat. 275.)

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§31. “Member of the former ruling family” defined

As used in this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], the term “member of the former ruling family” means (1) any person who was at any time between April 6, 1917, and July 2, 1921, the German Emperor or the ruler of any constituent kingdom of the German Empire, or (2) the wife or any child of such person.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §31, as added Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, §15, 45 Stat. 275.)

§32. Return of property

(a) Conditions precedent

The President, or such officer or agency as he may designate, may return any property or interest vested in or transferred to the Alien Property Custodian (other than any property or interest acquired by the United States prior to December 18, 1941), or the net proceeds thereof, whenever the President or such officer or agency shall determine—

(1) that the person who has filed a notice of claim for return, in such form as the President or such officer or agency may prescribe, was the owner of such property or interest immediately prior to its vesting in or transfer to the Alien Property Custodian, or is the legal representative (whether or not appointed by a court in the United States), or successor in interest by inheritance, devise, bequest, or operation of law, of such owner; and

(2) that such owner, and legal representative or successor in interest, if any, are not—

(A) the Government of Germany, Japan, Bulgaria, Hungary, or Rumania; or

(B) a corporation or association organized under the laws of such nation: Provided, That any property or interest or proceeds which, but for the provisions of this subdivision (B), might be returned under this section to any such corporation or association, may be returned to the owner or owners of all the stock of such corporation or of all the proprietary and beneficial interest in such association, if their ownership of such stock or proprietary and beneficial interest existed immediately prior to vesting in or transfer to the Alien Property Custodian and continuously thereafter to the date of such return (without regard to purported divestments or limitations of such ownership by any government referred to in subdivision (A) hereof) and if such ownership was by one or more citizens of the United States or by one or more corporations organized under the laws of the United States or any State, Territory, or possession thereof, or the District of Columbia: Provided further, That such owner or owners shall succeed to those obligations limited in aggregate amount to the value of such property or interest or proceeds, which are lawfully assertible against the corporation or association by persons not ineligible to receive a return under this section; or

(C) an individual voluntarily resident at any time since December 7, 1941, within the territory of such nation, other than a citizen of the United States or a diplomatic or consular officer of Italy or of any nation with which the United States has not at any time since December 7, 1941, been at war: Provided, That an individual who, while in the territory of a nation with which the United States has at any time since December 7, 1941, been at war, was deprived of life or substantially deprived of liberty pursuant to any law, decree, or regulation of such nation discriminating against political, racial, or religious groups, shall not be deemed to have voluntarily resided in such territory; or

(D) an individual who was at any time after December 7, 1941, a citizen or subject of Germany, Japan, Bulgaria, Hungary, or Rumania, and who on or after December 7, 1941, and prior to the date of the enactment of this section [Mar. 8, 1946], was present (other than in the service of the United States) in the territory of such nation or in any territory occupied by the military or naval forces thereof or engaged in any business in any such territory: Provided, That notwithstanding the provisions of this subdivision (D) return may be made to an individual who, as a consequence of any law, decree, or regulation of the nation of which he was then a citizen or subject, discriminating against political, racial, or religious groups, has at no time between December 7, 1941, and the time when such law, decree, or regulation was abrogated, enjoyed full rights of citizenship under the law of such nation: And provided further, That, notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (C) hereof and of this subdivision (D), return may be made to an individual who at all times since December 7, 1941, was a citizen of the United States, or to an individual who, having lost United States citizenship solely by reason of marriage to a citizen or subject of a foreign country, reacquired such citizenship prior to September 29, 1950, if such individual would have been a citizen of the United States at all times since December 7, 1941, but for such marriage: And provided further, That the aggregate book value of returns made pursuant to the foregoing proviso shall not exceed $9,000,000; and any return under such proviso may be made if the book value of any such return, taken together with the aggregate book value of returns already made under such proviso does not exceed $9,000,000; and for the purposes of this proviso the term “book value” means the value, as of the time of vesting, entered on the books of the Alien Property Custodian for the purpose of accounting for the property or interest involved; or

(E) a foreign corporation or association which at any time after December 7, 1941, was controlled or 50 per centum or more of the stock of which was owned by any person or persons ineligible to receive a return under subdivisions (A), (B), (C), or (D) hereof: Provided, That notwithstanding the provisions of this subdivision (E) return may be made to a corporation or association so controlled or owned, if such corporation or association was organized under the laws of a nation any of whose territory was occupied by the military or naval forces of any nation with which the United Stats has at any time since December 7, 1941, been at war, and if such control or ownership arose after March 1, 1938, as an incident to such occupation and was terminated prior to the enactment of this section [Mar. 8, 1946];


and

(3) that the property or interest claimed, or the net proceeds of which are claimed, was not at any time after September 1, 1939, held or used, by or with the assent of the person who was the owner thereof immediately prior to vesting in or transfer to the Alien Property Custodian, pursuant to any arrangement to conceal any property or interest within the United States of any person ineligible to receive a return under subsection (a)(2) hereof;

(4) that the Alien Property Custodian has no actual or potential liability under the Renegotiation Act [section 1191 of this Appendix] or the Act of October 31, 1942 (56 Stat. 1013; 35 U.S.C. §§89 to 96), in respect of the property or interest or proceeds to be returned and that the claimant and his predecessor in interest, if any, have no actual or potential liability of any kind under the Renegotiation Act or the said Act of October 31, 1942; or in the alternative that the claimant has provided security or undertakings adequate to assure satisfaction of all such liabilities or that property or interest or proceeds to be retained by the Alien Property Custodian are adequate therefor; and

(5) that such return is in the interest of the United States.

(b) Extension of filing time limitation for redetermination of excessive profits

Notwithstanding the limitation prescribed in the Renegotiation Act [section 1191 of this Appendix] upon the time within which petitions may be filed in The Tax Court of the United States,1 any person to whom any property or interest or proceeds are returned hereunder shall, for a period of ninety days (not counting Sunday or a legal holiday in the District of Columbia as the last day) following return, have the right to file such a petition for a redetermination in respect of any final order of the Renegotiation Board 2 determining excessive profits, made against the Alien Property Custodian, or of any determination, not embodied in an agreement, of excessive profits, so made by or on behalf of a Secretary.

(c) Inventions

Any person to whom any invention, whether patented or unpatented, or any right or interest therein is returned hereunder shall be bound by any notice or order issued or agreement made pursuant to the Act of October 31, 1942 (56 Stat. 1013; 35 U.S.C. §§89 to 96), in respect of such invention or right or interest, and such person to whom a licensor's interest is returned shall have all rights assertible by a licensor pursuant to section 2 of the said Act.

(d) Rights and duties

Except as otherwise provided herein, and except to the extent that the President or such officer or agency as he may designate may otherwise determine, any person to whom return is made hereunder shall have all rights, privileges, and obligations in respect to the property or interest returned or the proceeds of which are returned which would have existed if the property or interest had not vested in the Alien Property Custodian, but no cause of action shall accrue to such person in respect of any deduction or retention of any part of the property or interest or proceeds by the Alien Property Custodian for the purpose of paying taxes, costs, or expenses in connection with such property or interest or proceeds: Provided, That except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) hereof, no person to whom a return is made pursuant to this section, nor the successor in interest of such person, shall acquire or have any claim or right of action against the United States or any department, establishment or agency thereof, or corporation owned thereby, or against any person authorized or licensed by the United States, founded upon the retention, sale, or other disposition, or use, during the period it was vested in the Alien Property Custodian, of the returned property, interest, or proceeds. Any notice to the Alien Property Custodian in respect of any property or interest or proceeds shall constitute notice to the person to whom such property or interest or proceeds is returned and such person shall succeed to all burdens and obligations in respect of such property or interest or proceeds which accrued during the time of retention by the Alien Property Custodian, but the period during which the property or interest or proceeds returned were vested in the Alien Property Custodian shall not be included for the purpose of determining the application of any statute of limitations to the assertion of any rights by such person in respect of such property or interest or proceeds.

(e) Legal proceeding unaffected

No return hereunder shall bar the prosecution of any suit at law or in equity against a person to whom return has been made, to establish any right, title, or interest, which may exist or which may have existed at the time of vesting, in or to the property or interest returned, but no such suit may be prosecuted by any person ineligible to receive a return under subsection (a)(2) hereof. With respect to any such suit, the period during which the property or interest or proceeds returned were vested in the Alien Property Custodian shall not be included for the purpose of determining the application of any statute of limitations.

(f) Notice of intention

At least thirty days before making any return to any person other than a resident of the United States or a corporation organized under the laws of the United States, or any State, Territory, or possession thereof, or the District of Columbia, the President or such officer or agency as he may designate shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of intention to make such return, specifying therein the person to whom return is to be made and the place where the property or interest or proceeds to be returned are located. Publication of a notice of intention to return shall confer no right of action upon any person to compel the return of any such property or interest or proceeds, and such notice of intention to return may be revoked by appropriate notice in the Federal Register. After publication of such notice of intention and prior to revocation thereof, the property or interest or proceeds specified shall be subject to attachment at the suit of any citizen or resident of the United States or any corporation organized under the laws of the United States, or any State, Territory, or possession thereof, or the District of Columbia, in the same manner as property of the person to whom return is to be made: Provided, That notice of any writ of attachment which may issue prior to return shall be served upon the Alien Property Custodian. Any such attachment proceeding shall be subject to the provisions of law relating to limitation of actions applicable to actions at law in the jurisdiction in which such proceeding is brought, but the period during which the property or interest or proceeds were vested in the Alien Property Custodian shall not be included for the purpose of determining the period of limitation. No officer of any court shall take actual possession, without the consent of the Alien Property Custodian, of any property or interest or proceeds so attached, and publication of a notice of revocation of intention to return shall invalidate any attachment with respect to the specified property or interest or proceeds, but if there is no such revocation, the President or such officer or agency as he may designate shall accord full effect to any such attachment in returning any such property or interest or proceeds.

(g) Payment of expenses of Custodian

Without limitation by or upon any other existing provision of law with respect to the payment of expenses by the Alien Property Custodian, the Custodian may retain or recover from any property or interest or proceeds returned pursuant to this section or section 9(a) of this Act [section 9(a) of this Appendix] an amount not exceeding that expended or incurred by him for the conservation, preservation, or maintenance of such property or interest or proceeds, or other property or interest or proceeds returned to the same person.

(h) Designation of successor organizations to receive heirless property; time for application; payment of funds: time, allocation, claims barred by acceptance and conditions

The President may designate one or more organizations as successors in interest to deceased persons who, if alive, would be eligible to receive returns under the provisos of subdivision (C) or (D) of subsection (a)(2) thereof.3 In the case of any organization not so designated before the date of enactment of this amendment, such organization may be so designated only if it applies for such designation within three months after such date of enactment.

The President, or such officer as he may designate, shall, before the expiration of the one-year period which begins on the date of enactment of this amendment, pay out of the War Claims Fund to organizations designated before or after the date of enactment of this amendment pursuant to this subsection the sum of $500,000. If there is more than one such designated organization, such sum shall be allocated among such organizations in the proportions in which the proceeds of heirless property were distributed, pursuant to agreements to which the United States was a party, by the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees and successor organizations thereto. Acceptance of payment pursuant to this subsection by any such organization shall constitute a full and complete discharge of all claims filed by such organization pursuant to this section, as it existed before the date of enactment of this amendment.

No payment may be made to any organization designated under this section unless it has given firm and responsible assurances approved by the President that (1) the payment will be used on the basis of need in the rehabilitation and settlement of persons in the United States who suffered substantial deprivation of liberty or failed to enjoy the full rights of citizenship within the meaning of subdivisions (C) and (D) of subsection (a)(2) of this section; (2) it will make to the President, with a copy to be furnished to the Congress, such reports (including a detailed annual report on the use of the payment made to it) and permit such examination of its books as the President, or such officer or agency as he may designate, may from time to time require; and (3) it will not use any part of such payment for legal fees, salaries, or other administrative expenses connected with the filing of claims for such payment or for the recovery of any property or interest under this section.

As used in this subsection, “organization” means only a nonprofit charitable corporation incorporated on or before January 1, 1950, under the laws of any State of the United States or of the District of Columbia with the power to sue and be sued.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §32 as added Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, §304, as added Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 83, §1, 60 Stat. 50; amended Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 878, §2, 60 Stat. 930; Aug. 5, 1947, ch. 499, §2, 61 Stat. 784; Sept. 29, 1950, ch. 1108, §1, 64 Stat. 1080; Mar. 23, 1951, ch. 15, title II, §201(a), (b), 65 Stat. 23; June 6, 1952, ch. 372, 66 Stat. 129; Aug. 23, 1954, ch. 830, §1, 68 Stat. 767; Pub. L. 87–846, title II, §204(a), Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1114.)

References in Text

The Renegotiation Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(4) and (b), is act Apr. 28, 1942, ch. 247, title IV, §403, 56 Stat. 245, as amended, which enacted section 1191 of this Appendix, and which was omitted from the Code.

Act of October 31, 1942 (56 Stat. 1013; 35 U.S.C. §§89 to 96), referred to in subsecs. (a)(4) and (c), is act Oct. 31, 1942, ch. 634, 56 Stat. 1013, which enacted sections 89 to 96 of former Title 35, Patents, and which was omitted from the Code.

Section 2 of said Act, referred to in subsec. (c), means section 2 of act Oct. 31, 1942, ch. 634, 56 Stat. 1013, which enacted section 90 of former Title 35, Patents, and which was omitted from the Code.

Date of enactment of this amendment, referred to in subsec. (h), probably means date of enactment of Pub. L. 87–846, which was approved Oct. 22, 1962.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 619 of this Appendix.

Amendments

1962—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 87–846 permitted application for designation as successor organization to be made within three months after Oct. 22, 1962, required payments in sum of $500,000 to be made from the War Claims Fund before expiration of one year from Oct. 22, 1962, provided for allocation of funds to multiple successor organizations and acceptance of payments as discharge of all claims, and eliminated provisions deeming a successor organization as successor in interest by operation of law, respecting time for making return to such organizations, limiting the return to $3,000,000, requiring filing of notice of claim before expiration of one year from Aug. 23, 1954, for transfer of property to eligible persons, and declaring that filing of notice of claim would not bar payment of debt claims under section 34 of this Appendix.

1954—Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 23, 1954, added subsec. (h).

1952—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Act June 6, 1952, increased from $5,000,000 to $9,000,000 the limitation on amount of property which may be returned to nationals.

1950—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Act Sept. 29, 1950, clarified authority of Alien Property Custodian to return vested property to a person who possessed American citizenship at all times since Dec. 7, 1941, despite concurrent enemy citizenship and residence in enemy territory, and authorized return of vested property to American women who lost their citizenship solely because of marriage, and who have reacquired their citizenship prior to Sept. 29, 1950.

1947—Subsec. (a)(2). Act Aug. 5, 1947, provided that returns shall not be made to any owner, legal representative, or successor in interest, of the Governments of Germany, Japan, Rumania, Bulgaria, or Hungary; or to corporations or associations organized under the laws of such countries; or to an individual voluntarily resident in such countries at any time since Dec. 7, 1941; or to an individual who was at any time after Dec. 7, 1941, a citizen or subject of such country and present in the territory of such nation.

1946—Subsec. (a)(2)(C), (D). Act Aug. 8, 1946, inserted provisos in subdivs. (C) and (D).

Change of Name

Tax Court of the United States redesignated United States Tax Court pursuant to Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, §951, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 730. See section 7441 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Transfer of Functions

War Contracts Price Adjustment Board abolished and powers, functions, and duties conferred upon Board by the Renegotiation Act, section 1191 of this Appendix, except those transferred to Administrator of General Services, transferred to Renegotiation Board by section 201(a), (b) of act Mar. 23, 1951, which was classified to section 1231(a), (b) of this Appendix. Renegotiation Board terminated and all property, including records, of Board transferred to Administrator of General Services on Mar. 31, 1979, pursuant to Pub. L. 95–431, title V, §501, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1043, and sections 1191 and 1231 of this Appendix were omitted from the Code.

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

Purpose of Act August 5, 1947

Congress in enacting act Aug. 5, 1947, outlined the purpose of the act as follows:

“Whereas article 79 of the Treaty of Peace with Italy, signed at Paris on February 10, 1947, grants to the Allied and Associated Powers the right to seize and retain ‘all property rights and interests which on the coming into force of the present treaty are within its territory and belong to Italy or to Italian nationals, and to apply such property or the proceeds thereof to such purposes as it may desire, within the limits of its claims and those of its nationals against Italy or Italian nationals, including debts, other than claims fully satisfied under other articles of the present treaty’ and further provides that ‘All Italian property, or the proceeds thereof, in excess of the amount of such claims, shall be returned’; and

“Whereas, pursuant to article 79 of the treaty of peace, negotiations have been entered into between the Governments of the United States and of Italy looking toward an agreement under which, upon the return of property, formerly Italian, in the United States, Italy will place at the disposal of the United States funds to be used in meeting certain claims of nationals of the United States; and

“Whereas, for the purpose of carrying out such agreement, it is desirable to authorize, in accordance with the procedures provided for in section 32 of the Trading With the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 411), as amended [this section], return to Italy or citizens or subjects of Italy, or corporations or associations organized under the laws of Italy, of property vested in or transferred to the United States or its agencies; and

“Whereas, for the purpose of aiding the revival of the Italian economy and establishing it on a self-sustaining basis, it is desirable that there be returned or transferred to Italy those Italian vessels acquired by the United States after December 7, 1941, for use in the war effort and now owned by the United States and vessels of a total tonnage approximately equal to the tonnage of those Italian vessels seized by the United States after September 1, 1939, and lost while being employed in the United States war effort.”

Return of Italian Property

Act Aug. 5, 1947, ch. 499, §1, 61 Stat. 784, provided: “That the President, or such officer or agency as he may designate, is hereby authorized to return, in accordance with the procedures provided for in section 32 of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [this section], any property or interest, or the net proceeds thereof, which has been, since December 18, 1941, vested in or transferred to any officer or agency of the United States pursuant to the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], and which immediately prior to such vesting or transfer was the property or interest of Italy or a citizen or subject of Italy, or a corporation or association organized under the laws of Italy.”

Transfer of Vessels to Italian Government

Act Aug. 5, 1947, ch. 499, §4, 61 Stat. 786, provided: “The President is authorized upon such terms as he deems necessary (a) to transfer to the Government of Italy all vessels which were under Italian registry and flag on September 1, 1939, and were thereafter acquired by the United States and are now owned by the United States; and (b) with respect to any vessel under Italian registry and flag on September 1, 1939, and subsequently seized in United States ports and thereafter lost while being employed in the United States war effort, to transfer to the Government of Italy surplus merchant vessels of the United States of a total tonnage approximately equal to the total tonnage of the Italian vessels lost: Provided, That no monetary compensation shall be paid either for the use by the United States or its agencies of former Italian vessels so acquired or seized or for the return or transfer of such vessels or substitute vessels.”

Executive Order No. 10587

Ex. Ord. No. 10587, Jan. 13, 1955, 20 F.R. 361, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11086, Feb. 26, 1963, 28 F.R. 1833, which designated the Jewish Restitution Successor Organization as successor in interest to deceased persons under subsec. (h) of this section and delegated to the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission the functions provided for in subsec. (h) of this section, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.

1 See Change of Name note below.

2 See Transfer of Functions note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be “hereof.”

§33. Notice of claim; institution of suits; computation of time

No return may be made pursuant to section 9 or 32 [section 9 or 32 of this Appendix] unless notice of claim has been filed: (a) in the case of any property or interest acquired by the United States prior to December 18, 1941, by August 9, 1948; or (b) in the case of any property or interest acquired by the United States on or after December 18, 1941, not later than one year from February 9, 1954, or two years from the vesting of the property or interest in respect of which the claim is made, whichever is later. No suit pursuant to section 9 [section 9 of this Appendix] may be instituted after April 30, 1949, or after the expiration of two years from the date of the seizure by or vesting in the Alien Property Custodian, as the case may be, of the property or interest in respect of which relief is sought, whichever is later, but in computing such two years there shall be excluded any period during which there was pending a suit or claim for return pursuant to section 9 or 32(a) hereof [section 9 or 32(a) of this Appendix].

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §33, as added Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, §305, as added Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 878, §1, 60 Stat. 925; amended Aug. 5, 1947, ch. 499, §3, 61 Stat. 786; July 1, 1948, ch. 794, 62 Stat. 1218; Feb. 9, 1954, ch. 4, 68 Stat. 7; Aug. 23, 1954, ch. 830, §2, 68 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 87–846, title II, §204(b), Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1115.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 620 of this Appendix.

Amendments

1962—Pub. L. 87–846 struck out provision for return of property to successor organizations pursuant to section 32(h) of this Appendix if notice of claim was filed before expiration of one year from Aug. 23, 1954.

1954—Act Aug. 23, 1954, inserted before period at end of first sentence “except that return may be made to successor organizations designated pursuant to section 32(h) hereof if notice of claim is filed before the expiration of one year from the effective date of this Act”.

Act Feb. 9, 1954, substituted “not later than one year from February 9, 1954” for “by April 30, 1949” in first sentence.

1948—Act July 1, 1948, amended section generally, extending time for filing claims under section 9 or 32 of this Appendix.

1947—Act Aug. 5, 1947, provided that notice of certain claims could be filed by Aug. 8, 1948, or that Italian notice of claim could be filed by July 31, 1949.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§34. Payment of debts

(a) Claims allowable; defenses

Any property or interest vested in or transferred to the Alien Property Custodian (other than any property or interest acquired by the United States prior to December 18, 1941), or the net proceeds thereof, shall be equitably applied by the Custodian in accordance with the provisions of this section to the payment of debts owed by the person who owned such property or interest immediately prior to its vesting in or transfer to the Alien Property Custodian. No debt claim shall be allowed under this section if it was not due and owing at the time of such vesting or transfer, or if it arose from any action or transactions prohibited by or pursuant to this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] and not licensed or otherwise authorized pursuant thereto, or (except in the case of debt claims acquired by the Custodian) if it was at the time of such vesting or transfer due and owing to any person who has since the beginning of the war been convicted of violation of this Act, as amended [said sections], sections 1 to 6 of the Criminal Code, title I of the Act of June 15, 1917 (ch. 30, 40 Stat. 217), as amended; the Act of April 20, 1918 (ch. 59, 40 Stat. 534), as amended; the Act of June 8, 1934 1 (ch. 327, 52 Stat. 631), as amended; the Act of January 12, 1938 (ch. 2, 52 Stat. 3); title I, Alien Registration Act, 1940 (ch. 439, 54 Stat. 670); the Act of October 17, 1940 (ch. 897, 54 Stat. 1201); or the Act of June 25, 1942 (ch. 447, 56 Stat. 390). Any defense to the payment of such claims which would have been available to the debtor shall be available to the Custodian, except that the period from and after the beginning of the war shall not be included for the purpose of determining the application of any statute of limitations. Debt claims allowable hereunder shall include only those of citizens of the United States or of the Philippine Islands; those of corporations organized under the laws of the United States or any State, Territory, or possession thereof, or the District of Columbia or the Philippine Islands; those of other natural persons who are and have been since the beginning of the war residents of the United States and who have not during the war been interned or paroled pursuant to the Alien Enemy Act; and those acquired by the Custodian. Legal representatives (whether or not appointed by a court in the United States) or successors in interest by inheritance, devise, bequest, or operation of law or debt claimants, other than persons who would themselves be disqualified hereunder from allowance of a debt claim, shall be eligible for payment to the same extent as their principals or predecessors would have been.

(b) Time limit for filing claims; extension; notice

The Custodian shall fix a date or dates after which the filing of debt claims in respect of any or all debtors shall be barred, and may extend the time so fixed, and shall give at least sixty days’ notice thereof by publication in the Federal Register. In no event shall the time extend beyond the expiration of two years from the date of the last vesting in or transfer to the Custodian of any property or interest of a debtor in respect of whose debts the date is fixed, or from the date of enactment of this section [Aug. 8, 1946], whichever is later. No debt shall be paid prior to the expiration of one hundred and twenty days after publication of the first such notice in respect of the debtor, nor in any event shall any payment of a debt claim be made out of any property or interest or proceeds in respect of which a suit or proceeding pursuant to this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] for return is pending and was instituted prior to the expiration of such one hundred and twenty days.

(c) Examination of claims

The Custodian shall examine the claims, and such evidence in respect thereof as may be presented to him or as he may introduce into the record, and shall make a determination, with respect to each claim, of allowance or disallowance, in whole or in part.

(d) Funds for debt payments

Payment of debt claims shall be made only out of such money included in, or received as net proceeds from the sale, use, or other disposition of, any property or interest owned by the debtor immediately prior to its vesting in or transfer to the Alien Property Custodian, as shall remain after deduction of (1) the amount of the expenses of the Office of Alien Property Custodian (including both expenses in connection with such property or interest or proceeds thereof, and such portion as the Custodian shall fix of the other expenses of the Office of Alien Property Custodian), and of taxes, as defined in section 36 hereof [section 36 of this Appendix], paid by the Custodian in respect of such property or interest or proceeds, and (2) such amount, if any, as the Custodian may establish as a cash reserve for the future payment of such expenses and taxes. If the money available hereunder for the payment of debt claims against the debtor is insufficient for the satisfaction of all claims allowed by the Custodian, ratable payments shall be made in accordance with subsection (g) hereof to the extent permitted by the money available and additional payments shall be made whenever the Custodian shall determine that substantial further money has become available, through liquidation of any such property or interest or otherwise. The Custodian shall not be required through any judgment of any court, levy of execution, or otherwise to sell or liquidate any property or interest vested in or transferred to him, for the purpose of paying or satisfying any debt claim.

(e) Amount payable; disallowance; notice; review; additional evidence; judgment

If the aggregate of debt claims filed as prescribed does not exceed the money from which, in accordance with subsection (d) of this section, payment may be made, the Custodian shall pay each claim to the extent allowed, and shall serve by registered mail, on each claimant whose claim is disallowed in whole or in part, a notice of such disallowance. Within sixty days after the date of mailing of the Custodian's determination, any debt claimant whose claim has been disallowed in whole or in part may file in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia a complaint for review of such disallowance naming the Custodian as defendant. Such complaint shall be served on the Custodian. The Custodian, within forty-five days after service on him, shall certify and file in said court a transcript of the record of proceedings in the Office of Alien Property Custodian with respect to the claim in question. Upon good cause shown such time may be extended by the court. Such record shall include the claim as filed, such evidence with respect thereto as may have been presented to the Custodian or introduced into the record by him, and the determination of the Custodian with respect thereto, including any findings made by him. The court may, in its discretion, take additional evidence, upon a showing that such evidence was offered to and excluded by the Custodian, or could not reasonably have been adduced before him or was not available to him. The court shall enter judgment affirming, modifying, or reversing the Custodian's determination, and directing payment in the amount, if any, which it finds due.

(f) Pro rata payments; notice; review; additional evidence; intervention; judgment

If the aggregate of debt claims filed as prescribed exceeds the money from which, in accordance with subsection (d) hereof, payment may be made, the Custodian shall prepare and serve by registered mail on all claimants a schedule of all debt claims allowed and the proposed payment to each claimant. In preparing such schedule, the Custodian shall assign priorities in accordance with the provisions of subsection (g) hereof. Within sixty days after the date of mailing of such schedule, any claimant considering himself aggrieved may file in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia a complaint for review of such schedule, naming the Custodian as defendant. A copy of such complaint shall be served upon the Custodian and on each claimant named in the schedule. The Custodian, within forty-five days after service on him, shall certify and file in said court a transcript of the record of proceedings in the Office of Alien Property Custodian with respect to such schedule. Upon good cause shown such time may be extended by the court. Such record shall include the claims in question as filed, such evidence with respect thereto as may have been presented to the Custodian or introduced into the record by him, any findings or other determinations made by the Custodian with respect thereto, and the schedule prepared by the Custodian. The court may, in its discretion, take additional evidence, upon a showing that such evidence was offered to and excluded by the Custodian or could not reasonably have been adduced before him or was not available to him. Any interested debt claimant who has filed a claim with the Custodian pursuant to this section, upon timely application to the court, shall be permitted to intervene in such review proceedings. The court shall enter judgment affirming or modifying the schedule as prepared by the Custodian and directing payment, if any be found due, pursuant to the schedule as affirmed or modified and to the extent of the money from which, in accordance with subsection (d) hereof, payment may be made. Pending the decision of the court on such complaint for review, and pending final determination of any appeal from such decision, payment may be made only to an extent, if any, consistent with the contentions of all claimants for review.

(g) Priority of claims

Debt claims shall be paid in the following order of priority: (1) Wage and salary claims, not to exceed $600; (2) claims entitled to priority under sections 191 and 193 of title 31 2 of the United States Code [31 U.S.C. 3713(a) and 9309], except as provided in subsection (h) hereof, (3) all other claims for services rendered, for expenses incurred in connection with such services, for rent, for goods and materials delivered to the debtor, and for payments made to the debtor for goods or services not received by the claimant; (4) all other debt claims. No payment shall be made to claimants within a subordinate class unless the money from which, in accordance with subsection (d) hereof, payment may be made permits payment in full of all allowed claims in every prior class.

(h) Priority as debt due United States

No debt of any kind shall be entitled to priority under any law of the United States or any State, Territory, or possession thereof, or the District of Columbia, solely by reason of becoming a debt due or owing to the United States as a result of its acquisition by the Alien Property Custodian.

(i) Exclusiveness of relief

The sole relief and remedy available to any person seeking satisfaction of a debt claim out of any property or interest which shall have been vested in or transferred to the Alien Property Custodian (other than any property or interest acquired by the United States prior to December 18, 1941), or the proceeds thereof, shall be the relief and remedy provided in this section, and suits for the satisfaction of debt claims shall not be instituted, prosecuted, or further maintained except in conformity with this section: Provided, That no person asserting any interest, right, or title in any property or interest or proceeds acquired by the Alien Property Custodian, shall be barred from proceeding pursuant to this Act [sections 1 to 6, and 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] for the return thereof, by reason of any proceeding which he may have brought pursuant to this section; nor shall any security interest asserted by the creditor in any such property or interest or proceeds be deemed to have been waived solely by reason of such proceeding. The Alien Property Custodian shall treat all debt claims now filed with him as claims filed pursuant to this section. Nothing contained in this section shall bar any person from the prosecution of any suit at law or in equity against the original debtor or against any other person who may be liable for the payment of any debt for which a claim might have been filed hereunder. No purchaser, lessee, licensee, or other transferee of any property or interest from the Alien Property Custodian shall, solely by reason of such purchase, lease, license, or transfer, become liable for the payment of any debt owed by the person who owned such property or interest prior to its vesting in or transfer to the Alien Property Custodian. Payment by the Alien Property Custodian to any debt claimant shall constitute, to the extent of payment, a discharge of the indebtedness represented by the claim.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §34, as added Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, §305, as added Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 878, §1, 60 Stat. 925; amended June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107.)

References in Text

Sections 1 to 6 of the Criminal Code, referred to in subsec. (a), are sections 1 to 6 of act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, 35 Stat. 1088, which enacted sections 1 to 6 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure. Sections 1 to 6 of former Title 18 were repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as sections 953 and 2381 to 2384 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Title I of act of June 15, 1917 (ch. 30, 40 Stat. 217), as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, 40 Stat. 217, as amended, which enacted sections 31 to 38 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and which was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as sections 792 to 794 and 2388 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Act of April 20, 1918 (ch. 59, 40 Stat. 534), as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, 40 Stat. 534, as amended, which enacted sections 101 to 106 of Title 50, and which was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as sections 2151 and 2153 to 2156 of Title 18.

Act of June 8, 1934 (ch. 327, 52 Stat. 631), as amended, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means act June 8, 1938, ch. 327, 52 Stat. 631, as amended, known as the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§611 et seq.) of chapter 11 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 611 of Title 22 and Tables.

Act January 12, 1938 (ch. 2, 52 Stat. 3), referred to in subsec. (a), is act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, 52 Stat. 3, which enacted sections 45 to 45d of Title 50, War and National Defense, and which was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as sections 791 and 795 to 797 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Title I, Alien Registration Act, 1940 (ch. 439, 54 Stat. 670), referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 28, 1940, ch. 439, title I, 54 Stat. 670, which enacted sections 9 to 13 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure, and which was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as sections 2385 and 2387 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Act October 17, 1940 (ch. 897, 54 Stat. 1201), referred to in subsec. (a), is act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 897, 54 Stat. 1201, which enacted sections 14 to 17 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure, and which was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, and reenacted as section 2386 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Act of June 25, 1942 (ch. 447, 56 Stat. 390), referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 25, 1942, ch. 447, 56 Stat. 390, as amended, which was classified to sections 781 to 785 of this Appendix and was omitted from the Code as terminated.

The Alien Enemy Act, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means sections 4067 to 4070 of the Revised Statutes, which are classified to sections 21 to 24 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Sections 191 and 193 of title 31 of the United States Code, referred to in subsec. (g), were repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, and reenacted by the first section thereof as sections 3713(a) and 9309 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 620 of this Appendix.

Change of Name

In subsecs. (e) and (f), “United States District Court for the District of Columbia” substituted for “the district court of the United States for the District of Columbia” on authority of act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

1 So in original. Probably should be “1938”.

2 See References in Text note below.

§35. Hearings on claims; rules and regulations; delegation of powers

The officer or agency empowered to entertain claims under sections 9(a), 32, and 34 hereof [sections 9(a), 32, and 34 of this Appendix] shall have power to hold such hearings as may be deemed necessary; to prescribe rules and regulations governing the form and contents of claims, the proof thereof, and all other matters related to proceedings on such claims; and in connection with such proceedings to issue subpenas, administer oaths, and examine witnesses. Such powers, and any other powers conferred upon such officer or agency by sections 9(a), 32, and 34 hereof [said sections] may be exercised through subordinate officers designated by such officer or agency.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §35, as added Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, §305, as added Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 878, §1, 60 Stat. 928.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 620 of this Appendix.

§36. Taxes

(a) Liability; exemptions

The vesting in or transfer to the Alien Property Custodian of any property or interest (other than any property or interest acquired by the United States prior to December 18, 1941), or the receipt by him of any earnings, increment, or proceeds thereof shall not render inapplicable any Federal, State, Territorial, or local tax for any period prior or subsequent to the date of such vesting or transfer, nor render applicable the exemptions provided in title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] with respect to service performed in the employ of the United States Government or of any instrumentality of the United States.

(b) Payment by Custodian; liability of former owner; enforcement of tax liability; transfer of property

The Alien Property Custodian shall, notwithstanding the filing of any claim or the institution of any suit under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], pay any tax incident to any such property or interest, or the earnings, increment, or proceeds thereof, at the earliest time appearing to him to be not contrary to the interest of the United States. The former owner shall not be liable for any such tax accruing while such property, interest, earnings, increment, or proceeds are held by the Alien Property Custodian, unless they are returned pursuant to this Act [said sections] without payment of such tax by the Alien Property Custodian. Every such tax shall be paid by the Alien Property Custodian to the same extent, as nearly as may be deemed practicable, as though the property or interest had not been vested in or transferred to the Alien Property Custodian, and shall be paid only out of the property or interest, or earnings, increment, or proceeds thereof, to which they are incident or out of other property or interests acquired from the same former owner, or earnings, increment, or proceeds thereof. No tax liability may be enforced from any property or interest or the earnings, increment or proceeds thereof while held by the Alien Property Custodian except with his consent. Where any property or interest is transferred, otherwise than pursuant to section 9(a) or 32 hereof [section 9(a) or 32(a) of this Appendix], the Alien Property Custodian may transfer the property or interest free and clear of any tax, except to the extent of any lien for a tax existing and perfected at the date of vesting, and the proceeds of such transfer shall, for tax purposes, replace the property or interest in the hands of the Alien Property Custodian.

(c) Computation; suspension of limitations, etc.

Subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the manner of computing any Federal taxes, including without limitation by reason of this enumeration, the applicability in such computation of credits, deductions, and exemptions to which the former owner is or would be entitled, and the time and manner of any payment of such taxes and the extent of any compliance by the Custodian with provisions of Federal law and regulations applicable with respect to Federal taxes, shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury to effectuate this section. Statutes of limitations on assessment, collection, refund, or credit of Federal taxes shall be suspended, with respect to any vested property or interest, or the earnings, increment or proceeds thereof, while vested and for six months thereafter; but no interest shall be paid upon any refund with respect to any period during which the statute of limitations is so suspended.

(d) “Tax” defined

The word “tax” as used in this section shall include, without limitation by reason of this enumeration, any property, income, excess-profits, war-profits, excise, estate and employment tax, import duty, and special assessment; and also any interest, penalty, additional amount, or addition thereto not arising from any act, omission, neglect, failure, or delay on the part of the Custodian.

(e) Exemptions

Any tax exemption accorded to the Alien Property Custodian by specific provision of existing law shall not be affected by this section.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §36, as added Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, §305, as added Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 878, §1, 60 Stat. 929.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 620 of this Appendix.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§37. Insurance of property

The Alien Property Custodian may procure insurance in such amounts, and from such insurers, as he believes will adequately protect him against loss in connection with property or interest or proceeds held by him.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §37, as added Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, §305, as added Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 878, §1, 60 Stat. 930.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 620 of this Appendix.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of the Alien Property Custodian and the Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in the Philippines, vested in the Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§38. Shipment of relief supplies; definitions

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], it shall be lawful, at any time after the date of cessation of hostilities with any country with which the United States is at war, for any person in the United States to donate, or otherwise dispose of to, and to transport or deliver to, any person in such country any article or articles (including food, clothing, and medicine) intended to be used solely to relieve human suffering.

(b) As used in this section—

(1) the term “person” means any individual, partnership, association, company, or other unincorporated body of individuals, or corporation or body politic;

(2) with respect to any country with which the United States was at war on January 1, 1946, the term “date of cessation of hostilities” shall mean the date of enactment of this Act [May 16, 1946];

(3) with respect to any other war the term “date of cessation of hostilities” shall mean the date specified by proclamation of the President or by a concurrent resolution of the two Houses of Congress whichever is the earlier.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §38, formerly §—, as added May 16, 1946, ch. 260, 60 Stat. 182, numbered Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 878, §3, 60 Stat. 930.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), probably means May 16, 1946, the date of approval of act May 16, 1946, which added this section.

§39. Retention of properties or interests of Germany and Japan and their nationals; proceeds covered into Treasury; ex gratia payment to Switzerland

(a) No property or interest therein of Germany, Japan, or any national of either such country vested in or transferred to any officer or agency of the Government at any time after December 17, 1941, pursuant to the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], shall be returned to former owners thereof or their successors in interest, and the United States shall not pay compensation for any such property or interest therein. The net proceeds remaining upon the completion of administration, liquidation, and disposition pursuant to the provisions of this Act [said sections] of any such property or interest therein shall be covered into the Treasury at the earliest practicable date. Nothing in this section shall be construed to repeal or otherwise affect the operation of the provisions of section 32, 40, 41, 42 or 43 of this Act [section 32, 40, 41, 42 or 43 of this Appendix] or of the Philippine Property Act of 1946 [22 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.].

(b) The Attorney General shall cover into the Treasury, to the credit of miscellaneous receipts, all sums from property vested in or transferred to the Attorney General under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix]—

(1) which the Attorney General receives after the date of the enactment of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 [August 23, 1988], or

(2) which the Attorney General received before that date and which, as of that date, the Attorney General had not covered into the Treasury for deposit in the War Claims Fund, other than any such sums which the Attorney General determines in his or her discretion are the subject matter of any judicial action or proceeding.


(c) Notwithstanding any of the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the Attorney General is authorized to pay from property vested in or transferred to the Attorney General under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix], the sum of $20,000 as an ex gratia payment to the Government of Switzerland in accordance with the terms of the agreement entered into by that Government and the Government of the United States on March 12, 1980.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §39, as added July 3, 1948, ch. 826, §12, 62 Stat. 1246; amended Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 344, 67 Stat. 461; Pub. L. 85–884, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1708; Pub. L. 87–846, title II, §§202, 204(c), Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1113, 1115; Pub. L. 87–861, §1, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1139; Pub. L. 89–619, Oct. 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 871; Pub. L. 99–93, title VIII, §803, Aug. 16, 1985, 99 Stat. 449; Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2501(a), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1370.)

References in Text

The Philippine Property Act of 1946, referred to in subsec. (a), is act July 3, 1946, ch. 536, 60 Stat. 418, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter V (§1381 et seq.) of chapter 15 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1381 of Title 22 and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsecs. (b) to (f). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted subsec. (b) for former subsecs. (b) to (e), redesignated subsec. (f) as (c), and substituted “and (b)” for “through (d)”.

1985—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–93 added subsec. (f).

1966—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–619 added subsec. (e).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–861 provided that nothing in this section shall be construed to repeal or otherwise affect the operation of section 40, 41, 42, or 43 of this Appendix.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–846, §204(c), required Attorney General to cover $500,000 into Treasury for deposit into War Claims Fund for payments to successor organizations receiving heirless property.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–846, §202, added subsec. (d).

1958—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–884 added subsec. (c).

1953—Act Aug. 7, 1953, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

§40. Intercustodial conflicts involving enemy property; authority of President to conclude; delegation of authority

The President, or such officer or agency as he may designate, is authorized to conclude and give effect to agreements to further the amicable and expeditious settlement of intercustodial conflicts involving enemy property, subject to the following:

(1) The authority granted in this section shall extend only to agreements with governments with which the United States was not at war in World War II.

(2) Such agreements shall be in accordance with the policy of protecting and making available for utilization the American and nonenemy interests in such property and further the elimination of enemy interests in such property and the efficient administration and liquidation of enemy property in the United States.

(3) For the purposes of this section, the United States as to any intergovernmental agreements hereafter negotiated shall seek treatment equal to that accorded United States nationals for persons who, although citizens or residents of any enemy country before or during World War II, were deprived of full rights of citizenship or substantially deprived of liberty by laws, decrees, or regulations of such enemy country discriminating against racial, religious, or political groups: Provided, That on September 28, 1950, such persons were (1) permanent residents of the United States and (2) had declared their intention to become citizens of the United States in conformity with the provisions of the Nationality Act of 1940, as amended; and that such persons shall have acquired citizenship of the United States prior to the effective date of any intergovernmental agreement hereafter negotiated.

(4) Reimbursement to the United States by other governments pursuant to such agreements shall be administered as vested property: Provided, That nothing contained in this section shall hinder, restrict or limit the payment of claims from the War Claims Fund established by section 13 of the War Claims Act of 1948 (Public Law 896, 80th Congress, July 3, 1948; 62 Stat. 1240; 50 U.S.C. app. 2001–2013), as amended [section 2012 of this Appendix].

(Sept. 28, 1950, ch. 1094, 64 Stat. 1079.)

References in Text

The Nationality Act of 1940, as amended, referred to in par. (3), is act Oct. 14, 1940, ch. 876, 54 Stat. 1137, as amended, which was classified principally to chapter 11 (§501 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, prior to its repeal by act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, §403(a)(42), 66 Stat. 280. See section 1101 et seq. of Title 8.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Trading with the Enemy Act which comprises sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix.

Ex. Ord. No. 10244. Authorization of Secretary of State and Attorney General To Perform Certain Functions

Ex. Ord. No. 10244, May 17, 1951, 16 F.R. 4639, provided:

1. The Secretary of State and the Attorney General are hereby jointly designated as the officers authorized to conclude and give effect to agreements relating to the settlement of intercustodial conflicts involving enemy property made pursuant to the said act of September 28, 1950 [this section], and to exercise all powers incident thereto which are conferred by such act, including, without limitation, the powers to receive, transfer, release or return property, interests therein, or proceeds thereof.

2. It is the policy of this order that the Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Attorney General, shall perform all functions necessary or appropriate to give effect to any agreement made pursuant to the said act of September 28, 1950 [this section], with relation to the protection of American interests in property outside the United States, and that the Attorney General, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, shall perform all functions necessary or appropriate to give effect to any such agreement with relation to property subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, and that all other functions relating to the effectuation of any such agreement shall be performed as may be agreed by the Secretary of State and the Attorney General. However, no action taken hereunder by either the Secretary of State or the Attorney General shall be considered to be invalid on the ground that under the provisions of this order such action was within the jurisdiction of the Secretary of State rather than the Attorney General, or vice versa, or that concurrence was not obtained, or that such action was not joint.

3. The Secretary of State and the Attorney General may each delegate to the other or to any other officer, person, or agency within his respective department such of his functions under this order as he may deem necessary.

4. Any money, property, or interest received as reimbursement by the United States by virtue of any agreement made pursuant to the said act of September 28, 1950 [this section], shall be administered and disposed of by the Attorney General as vested property pursuant to the said Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix]. Any other money, property, or interest received by the Secretary of State or the Attorney General pursuant to any such agreement shall be administered and disposed of pursuant to the provisions of such agreement.

Harry S. Truman.      

§41. Divestment of estates, trusts, insurance policies, annuities, remainders, pensions, workmen's compensation and veterans’ benefits; exceptions; notice of divestment

(a) Subject to the provisions of subsection (b) hereof [of this section], all rights and interests of individuals in estates, trusts, insurance policies, annuities, remainders, pensions, workmen's compensation and veterans’ benefits vested under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] after December 17, 1941, which have not become payable or deliverable to or have not vested in possession in the Attorney General prior to December 31, 1961, are divested: Provided, That the provisions of this section shall not affect the right of the Attorney General to retain all such property rights and interests and to collect all income which is payable to or vested in possession in him prior to December 31, 1961.

(b) Nothing contained in this section shall divest or require the divestment of any portion of any such interest the beneficial owner of which is a natural person who has been convicted personally and by name by a court of competent jurisdiction of murder, ill treatment, or deportation for slave labor of prisoners of war, political opponents, hostages, or civilian population in occupied territories, or of murder or ill treatment of military or naval persons, or of plunder or wanton destruction without justified military necessity.

(c) At the earliest practicable time after the effective date of this Act, the Attorney General shall transmit to the lawful owner or custodian of any interest divested by this section written notice of such divestment.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §40, as added Pub. L. 87–846, title II, §205, Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1115.)

References in Text

Effective date of this Act, referred to in subsec. (c), probably means the effective date of Pub. L. 87–846, which was approved Oct. 22, 1962, which added this section.

§42. Claims for proceeds from sale of certain certificates: jurisdiction, limitations; divestment of copyrights: “copyrights” defined, rights of licensees and assignees, reproduction rights of United States, transfer of interests, payment of royalties to Attorney General, suits for infringement

(a) Notwithstanding any statute of limitation, lapse of time, any prior decision by any court of the United States, or any compromise, release or assignment to the Alien Property Custodian, jurisdiction is hereby conferred upon the United States Court of Federal Claims to hear, determine, and render judgment upon the claims against the United States for the proceeds received by the United States from the sale of the property vested under the provisions of the Trading With the Enemy Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] by vesting order numbered 33 relating to certificate numbers 104 to 121, inclusive, 125, 126, 128 to 134, inclusive, and 137 to 139, inclusive. Proceedings with respect to such claims may be instituted hereunder not later than two years after the date of the enactment of this section [Oct. 22, 1962].

(b) As used in this section the word “copyrights” includes copyrights, claims of copyrights, rights to copyrights, and rights to copyright renewals.

(c) All copyrights vested in the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General under the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] subsequent to December 17, 1941, which have not been returned or otherwise disposed of under this Act [said sections], except copyrights vested by vesting orders 128 (7 F.R. 7578), 13111 (14 F.R. 1730), 14349 (15 F.R. 1575), 17366 (16 F.R. 2483), and 17952 (16 F.R. 6162) and copyrights vested with respect to the motion picture listed last in exhibit A of vesting order 11803, as amended (13 F.R. 5167, 15 F.R. 1626), are hereby divested as a matter of grace, effective the ninety-first day after the date of enactment of this section [Oct. 22, 1962], and the persons entitled thereto shall on that day succeed to the rights, privileges, and obligations arising out of such copyrights, subject, however, to—

(1) the rights of licensees under licenses issued by the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General in respect of such copyrights;

(2) the rights of assignees under assignments by the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General of interests in such licenses; and

(3) the right retained by the United States to reproduce, for its own use, or exhibit any divested copyrighted motion picture films.


The rights and interests remaining in the Attorney General under licenses issued by him or by the Alien Property Custodian in respect to copyrights divested hereunder are hereby transferred, effective the day of divestment, to the persons entitled to such copyrights: Provided, That all unpaid royalties or other income accrued in favor of the Attorney General under such licenses prior to the day of divestment shall be paid by the licensees to the Attorney General.

(d) All rights or interests vested in the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General under the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] subsequent to December 17, 1941, arising out of prevesting contracts entered into with respect to copyrights, except—

(1) royalties or other income received by or accrued in favor of the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General under such contracts;

(2) rights or interests which have been returned or otherwise disposed of under this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix]; and

(3) rights or interests vested by vesting orders 128 (7 F.R. 7578), 13111 (14 F.R. 1730), 14349 (15 F.R. 1575), and 17366 (16 F.R. 2483),


are hereby divested as a matter of grace, effective the ninety-first day after the date of enactment of this section [Oct. 22, 1962], and the persons entitled to such rights or interests shall succeed thereto, subject to the right of the Attorney General to collect and receive all unpaid royalties or other income accrued in his favor under such prevesting contracts prior to the day of divestment.

(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to transfer to a person entitled to a copyright divested hereunder the right of the Attorney General to sue for the infringement of such copyright during the period between (1) the vesting thereof or the vesting of rights and interests in a contract entered into with respect thereto, and (2) the day of divestment. The right to sue for infringement shall remain in the Attorney General.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §41, as added Pub. L. 87–846, title II, §206, Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 88–490, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 607; Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §161(9), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–164 substituted “Claims Court” for “Court of Claims”.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–490 substituted “render judgment upon” for “report to the Congress concerning” and “two years after the date of enactment of this section [October 22, 1962]” for “one year after the date of the enactment of this Act”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, are vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§43. Divestment of trademarks

(a) “Trademarks” defined

As used in this section, the word “trademarks” includes trademarks, trade names, and the goodwill of the business to which a trademark or trade name is appurtenant.

(b) Effective date of divestment; rights of licensees; transfer of interests; payment of royalties to Attorney General

Trademarks vested in the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General under the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] subsequent to December 17, 1941, which have not been returned or otherwise disposed of under this Act [said sections], except trademarks vested by vesting orders 284, as amended (7 Fed. Reg. 9754, 9 Fed. Reg. 1038), 2354 (8 Fed. Reg. 14635), 5592 (11 Fed. Reg. 1675), and 18805 (17 Fed. Reg. 4364), are hereby divested as a matter of grace, effective the ninety-first day after the day of enactment of this section [Oct. 23, 1962], and the persons entitled to such trademarks shall on that day succeed to the rights, privileges, and obligations arising therefrom, subject, however, to the rights of licensees under licenses issued by the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General in respect to such trademarks. The rights and interests remaining in the Attorney General under licenses issued by him or by the Alien Property Custodian in respect to trademarks divested hereunder are transferred, effective the day of divestment, to the persons entitled to such trademarks: Provided, That all unpaid royalties or other income accrued in favor of the Attorney General under such licenses prior to the day of divestment shall be paid by the licensees to the Attorney General.

(c) Prevesting contracts; exceptions; payment of royalties to Attorney General

All rights or interests vested in the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General under the provisions of this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] subsequent to December 17, 1941, arising out of prevesting contracts entered into with respect to trademarks, except—

(1) royalties or other income received by or accrued in favor of the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General under such contracts;

(2) rights or interests which have been returned or otherwise disposed of under this Act [said sections];

(3) rights or interests vested by vesting orders 284, as amended (7 Fed. Reg. 9754; 9 Fed. Reg. 1038), 2354 (8 Fed. Reg. 14635), 5592 (11 Fed. Reg. 1675), and 18805 (17 Fed. Reg. 4364),


are hereby divested as a matter of grace, effective the ninety-first day after the date of enactment of this section [Oct. 23, 1962], and the persons entitled to such rights or interests shall succeed thereto, subject to the right of the Attorney General to collect and receive all unpaid royalties or other income accrued in his favor under such prevesting contracts prior to the day of divestment.

(d) Publication of ownership list in Federal Register; effective date of divestment; succession to ownership of equivalent trademarks

The Attorney General shall within forty-five days after the date of enactment of this section [Oct. 23, 1962] publish in the Federal Register a list of trademarks which at the date of vesting in the Alien Property Custodian or Attorney General were owned by persons who were resident in or had their sole or primary seat in the area of Germany now in the Soviet Zone of Occupation or in the Soviet sector of Berlin or in German territory under provisional Soviet or Polish administration. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the effective date of divestment of the trademarks so listed and published in the Federal Register shall be the date of publication in the Federal Register by the Secretary of State of a certification identifying the cases in which an equivalent trademark has been registered in the Federal Republic of Germany for a person residing or having its sole or primary seat in the Federal Republic of Germany or in the western sectors of Berlin. In those cases of an equivalent trademark certified by the Secretary of State, the person registered by the Federal Republic of Germany as owner of such equivalent trademark shall succeed to the ownership of the divested trademark in the United States.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §42, as added Pub. L. 87–861, §2, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1139.)

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, are vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

§44. Motion picture prints, transfer of title

(a) Prints in custody of Library of Congress; exception

The Attorney General is authorized and directed to transfer to the Library of Congress the title to all prints of motion pictures now in the custody of the Library, which prints were vested in or transferred to the Alien Property Custodian or the Attorney General pursuant to this Act [sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of this Appendix] after December 17, 1941, except prints of motion pictures which are the subject of suits or claims under section 9(a) or section 32 of this Act [section 9(a) or section 32 of this Appendix].

(b) Prints in custody of Attorney General; exception; right of selection by Library of Congress; disposal of unselected prints by Attorney General

Subject to the right of selection by the Library of Congress, the authorization, direction, and exception contained in subsection (a) hereof shall apply with respect to such prints now in the custody of the Attorney General. Prints not selected by the Library of Congress may be disposed of by the Attorney General in any manner he deems appropriate.

(c) Retention, reproduction, and disposal of prints by Library of Congress

With respect to all prints concerning which title is transferred to the Library of Congress pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) hereof, the Library shall have complete discretion to retain such prints and to reproduce copies thereof, or to dispose of them in any manner it deems appropriate.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §43, as added Pub. L. 87–861, §2, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1140.)

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Office of Alien Property Custodian, except those relating to property or interest in Philippines, are vested in Attorney General. See notes set out under section 6 of this Appendix.

SOLDIERS’ AND SAILORS’ CIVIL RELIEF ACT OF 1918

ACT MAR. 8, 1918, CH. 20, 40 STAT. 440

§§101 to 104. Omitted

Codification

Sections 101 to 104 were omitted as expired. See Termination note set out under sections 161 to 165 of this Appendix.

Section 101, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §100, 40 Stat. 440, related to declaration of purpose of this act.

Section 102, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §101, 40 Stat. 440, related to definitions.

Section 103, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §102, 40 Stat. 441, related to territorial application of this act, jurisdiction of courts, and form of procedure.

Section 104, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §103, 40 Stat. 441, related to protection of persons secondarily liable.

§§111 to 116. Omitted

Codification

Sections 111 to 116 were omitted as expired. See Termination note set out under sections 161 to 165 of this Appendix.

Section 111, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §200, 40 Stat. 441, related to default judgments, affidavits and bonds, and attorneys for persons in service. See Default Judgment note set out under sections 161 to 165 of this Appendix.

Section 112, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §201, 40 Stat. 442, related to stay of proceedings where military service affected conduct.

Section 113, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §202, 40 Stat. 442, related to relief against fines and penalties on contracts, etc., while in service.

Section 114, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §203, 40 Stat. 442, related to stay of execution of judgments, attachments, etc., against persons in service.

Section 115, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §204, 40 Stat. 442, related to duration and terms of stay and to codefendants not in service.

Section 116, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §205, 40 Stat. 443, related to exclusion of period of military service from time of statutes of limitation.

§§121 to 124. Omitted

Codification

Sections 121 to 124 were omitted as expired. See Termination note set out under sections 161 to 165 of this Appendix.

Section 121, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §300, 40 Stat. 443, related to rents, evictions, stay of proceedings, and allotment of pay to discharge.

Section 122, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §301, 40 Stat. 443, related to contracts for the purchase of real or personal property and to actions on such contracts.

Section 123, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §302, 40 Stat. 444, related to mortgages or trust deeds, actions thereon, stays, and sales under powers. See Limitation of Actions note set out under sections 161 to 165 of this Appendix.

Section 124, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §303, as added Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §13(c), 54 Stat. 896, related to installments contracts and agreements to terminate, repossess, or retain property transferred.

§§131 to 146. Omitted

Codification

Sections 131 to 146 were omitted as expired. See Termination note set out under sections 161 to 165 of this Appendix.

Section 131, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §400, 40 Stat. 444, related to definitions concerning insurance.

Section 132, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §401, 40 Stat. 444, related to application for insurance benefits and forms.

Section 133, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §402, 40 Stat. 444, related to persons entitled to insurance benefits.

Section 134, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §403, 40 Stat. 445, related to lists of persons entitled to insurance benefits.

Section 135, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §404, 40 Stat. 445, related to applications on policies totaling more than $5,000.

Section 136, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §405, 40 Stat. 445, related to lapse of policies for nonpayment of premiums.

Section 137, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §406, 40 Stat. 445, related to reports to the Bureau of War Risk Insurance.

Section 138, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §407, 40 Stat. 446, related to verification of differences between premiums defaulted and paid.

Section 139, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §408, 40 Stat. 446, related to bonds of the United States for the difference between premiums defaulted and paid.

Section 140, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §409, 40 Stat. 446, related to holding of United States bonds as security for payment of premiums.

Section 141, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §410, 40 Stat. 446, related to deduction of unpaid premiums from proceeds of policies.

Section 142, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §411, 40 Stat. 446, related to payment of past due premiums on termination of service.

Section 143, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §412, 40 Stat. 446, related to accounts stated between insurers and the United States.

Section 144, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §413, 40 Stat. 447, related to payments of balances due insurers.

Section 145, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §414, 40 Stat. 447, related to policies to which these provisions did not apply.

Section 146, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §415, 40 Stat. 447, related to companies or associations to which these provisions applied.

§§151, 152. Omitted

Codification

Sections 151 and 152 were omitted as expired. See Termination note set out under sections 161 to 165 of this Appendix.

Section 151, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §500, 40 Stat. 447, related to application of this section to taxes or assessments and to sale of property for failure to pay taxes or assessments.

Section 152, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §501, 40 Stat. 448, related to rights to public lands as not forfeited.

§§161 to 165. Omitted

Codification

Sections 161 to 165 were omitted as expired. See Termination note set out below.

Section 161, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §600, 40 Stat. 448, related to transfers to take advantage of this act.

Section 162, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §601, 40 Stat. 448, related to certificates of military service, persons reported missing, and presumptions.

Section 163, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §602, 40 Stat. 449, related to revocation of interlocutory orders.

Section 164, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §603, 40 Stat. 449, provided that the act of Mar. 8, 1918, remain in force until the termination of the war and for six months thereafter and that the provisions of the Act remain in effect as long as necessary for the exercise or enjoyment of any proceeding, remedy, privilege, stay, limitation, accounting, or other transaction authorized by the Act.

Section 165, act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, §604, 40 Stat. 449, provided that this Act be cited as the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act.

Termination After October 17, 1940

Sections 101 to 104, 111 to 116, 121 to 124, 131 to 146, 151, 152, and 161 to 165 of this Appendix were rendered inapplicable to military service performed after Oct. 17, 1940, under Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 and Army Reserve and Retired Personnel Law of 1940 by section 585 of this Appendix. Some of the sections had previously been made applicable to those 1940 acts by sections 313 and 404 of this Appendix. Present provisions on soldier's and sailor's civil relief are contained in section 501 et seq. of this Appendix.

Default Judgments

Act Sept. 3, 1919, ch. 55, 41 Stat. 282, provided that where default judgments were entered and no affidavits required by section 111 of this Appendix had been filed, the plaintiff, on notice, could file an affidavit stating that persons in default were not in military service at time of entry of default judgment and authorized court to enter an order making the judgment effective as of date of entry.

Limitation of Actions on Claims Under Section 123(3)

Act Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 284, 42 Stat. 1510, provided that claims under section 123(3) of this Appendix must have been asserted prior to Mar. 4, 1923 or within one year thereafter.

SELECTIVE DRAFT ACT OF 1917

ACT MAY 18, 1917, CH. 15, 40 STAT. 76

§§201 to 211. Omitted

Codification

Sections 201 to 211 were omitted pursuant to section 4 of act June 15, 1917, set out as an Effect of Termination of World War I note under sections 213, 214 of this Appendix.

Section 201, act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §1, 40 Stat. 76, related to emergency increase in the Army, draft of National Guard and additional forces, volunteer divisions, and to the organization of the Army.

Section 202, acts May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §2, 40 Stat. 77; July 9, 1918, ch. 143, subch. XII, 40 Stat. 885; Aug. 31, 1918, ch. 166, §1, 40 Stat. 955; Oct. 14, 1940, ch. 876, §504, 54 Stat. 1172, related to manner of attaining increased forces, eligibility for the draft, quotas, period of service, and the government of the forces raised.

Section 203, act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §3, 40 Stat. 78, related to bounties to induce enlistments, substitutes, and payments to escape service.

Section 204, acts May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §4, 40 Stat. 78; Aug. 31, 1918, ch. 166, §2, 40 Stat. 955, related to exemptions from the draft and to draft and appeal boards, and was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 643.

Section 205, acts May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §5, 40 Stat. 80; Aug. 31, 1918, ch. 166, §3, 40 Stat. 955, related to registration, the persons required to register, and to penalties for failure to register.

Section 206, act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §6, 40 Stat. 80, related to utilization of departments and officers, etc., use of franks, and offenses and punishments, and was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 643.

Section 207, acts May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §7, 40 Stat. 81; July 9, 1918, ch. 143, subch. XIII, 40 Stat. 885, related to voluntary enlistments and to geographical groupings of enlisted or drafted men.

Section 208, acts May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §8, 40 Stat. 81; Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 61, 40 Stat. 534, related to temporary appointment of general officers and to vacancies in the Regular Army.

Section 209, act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §9, 40 Stat. 82, related to periods of appointments and discharges for cause.

Section 210, act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §10, 40 Stat. 82, related to pay, allowances, and pensions.

Section 211, act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §11, 40 Stat. 82, related to suspension of restrictions on detail, detachment and employment of personnel.

§212. Repealed. Aug. 27, 1935, ch. 740, title II, §203, 49 Stat. 878

Section, act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §12, 40 Stat. 82, related to regulation and prohibition of alcoholic liquors by the President.

§§213, 214. Omitted

Codification

Sections 213 and 214 were omitted pursuant to section 4 of act June 15, 1917, set out as an Effect of Termination of World War I note below.

Section 213, acts May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §13, 40 Stat. 83; July 9, 1918, ch. 143, subch. XIV, 40 Stat. 885, related to prohibition of prostitution. See section 1384 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 214, act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, §14, 40 Stat. 83, related to suspension of conflicting laws.

Effect of Termination of World War I

Act June 15, 1917, ch. 29, §4, 40 Stat. 217, provided in part that compulsory military service under sections 201 to 214 of this Appendix should cease four months after proclamation of peace by the President.

Duration of Service

Act June 15, 1917, ch. 29, §4, 40 Stat. 217, provided in part that draftees and enlistees should serve for the duration of the war.

Supplemental Provisions Relating to General Officers

Act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 105, §3, 40 Stat. 410, provided that section 208 of this Appendix should be construed to authorize the President to appoint the Chief of Staff and the commander of United States forces in France as generals, the commander of an army corps as lieutenant general, and their rate of pay and allowances.

Extension of Sections 212 and 213 of This Appendix to the Navy

Act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 92, 40 Stat. 393, extended the provisions of sections 212 and 213 of this Appendix to include the Navy.

Calling of Certain Deferred Classes for Service

Act May 16, 1918, ch. 76, 40 Stat. 554, authorized the President to call for immediate military service persons who were placed in deferred classes.

Registration of Persons Attaining Age of 21 Since June 5, 1917

Act May 20, 1918, ch. 79, 40 Stat. 557, authorized the President to proclaim a registration date for persons who attained the age of 21 since June 5, 1917, and authorized further proclamations from time to time as necessary.

Power of President To Increase Drafted Army

Act July 9, 1918, ch. 143, subch. XXI, 40 Stat. 894, authorized the President to draft the maximum number of men necessary for prosecution of the war.

Services for Which Draftee Liable

Act Aug. 31, 1918, ch. 166, §4, 40 Stat. 955, provided for allotment of draftees to Army, Navy, and Marine Corps.

Repeal of Restrictions on Enlistments; Period of Enlistments; Service With Reserves; Pay of Enlisted Men

Act Feb. 28, 1919, ch. 79, 40 Stat. 1211, provided for repeal of so much of sections 207 and 214 of this Appendix as imposed restrictions on enlistments in Regular Army, the period of such enlistments, did not require service with the reserves, rate of pay, and discharge after one year's service to those who enlisted for three years, in discretion of Secretary of the Army.

Status of Deserters; Prosecution of Draft Violators

Act Mar. 8, 1922, ch. 101, 42 Stat. 421, provided for extension of time within which deserters and draft violators could be prosecuted.

Proc. No. 2068. Pardon of Persons Convicted of Violating Section 205

Proc. No. 2068, Dec. 23, 1933, 48 Stat. 1725, granted full pardon to all persons who had theretofore been convicted of a violation of or of a conspiracy to violate section 205 of this Appendix, and who had complied with their sentences.

SELECTIVE TRAINING AND SERVICE ACT OF 1940

ACT SEPT. 16, 1940, CH. 720, 54 STAT. 885

§§301 to 309a. Omitted

Codification

Section 301, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §1, 54 Stat. 885; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to declaration of emergency and policy, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 451 of this Appendix.

Section 302, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §2, 54 Stat. 885; Dec. 20, 1941, ch. 602, §1, 55 Stat. 844; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to registration and age limits, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 453 of this Appendix.

Section 303, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §3, 54 Stat. 885; Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §5, 55 Stat. 627; Dec. 20, 1941, ch. 602, §§2, 9, 55 Stat. 845, 846; Nov. 13, 1942, ch. 638, §§1, 5, 56 Stat. 1018, 1019; May 9, 1945, ch. 112, §2, 59 Stat. 166; May 14, 1946, ch. 253, §3, 60 Stat. 181; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §§2–4, 60 Stat. 341, which related to liability for service, number of armed forces and term of service, expired in part on Mar. 31, 1947 and after July 1, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 454 of this Appendix.

Section 303a, acts June 28, 1944, ch. 301, title I, 58 Stat. 544; July 17, 1945, ch. 319, 59 Stat. 485; July 23, 1946, ch. 591, title I, 60 Stat. 613, related to medical and burial expenses of registrants. See section 461 of this Appendix.

Section 303a was enacted as part of act July 23, 1946, known as the Third Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1946, and not as part of act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, 54 Stat. 885, known as the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.

Section 304, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §4, 54 Stat. 887; Dec. 20, 1941, ch. 602, §3, 55 Stat. 815; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to manner of selecting men, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 455 of this Appendix.

Section 304a, act Dec. 5, 1943, ch. 342, §5, 57 Stat. 599, related to pre-induction physical examinations.

Section 304a was not enacted as part of act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, 54 Stat. 885, known as the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.

Section 305, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §5, 54 Stat. 887; May 29, 1941, ch. 155, 55 Stat. 211; Aug. 16, 1941, ch. 355, §§1, 2, 55 Stat. 621; Dec. 20, 1941, ch. 602, §§4–6, 55 Stat. 845; June 23, 1942, ch. 443, title II, §201(a), 56 Stat. 386; Nov. 13, 1942, ch. 638, §§2, 4, 56 Stat. 1019; July 9, 1943, ch. 211, 57 Stat. 391; Dec. 5, 1943, ch. 342, §1, 57 Stat. 596; May 14, 1946, ch. 253, §2, 60 Stat. 181; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §§5, 6, 60 Stat. 342; Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, title V, §531(d), 63 Stat. 841, which related to exceptions, exemptions and deferments, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 456 of this Appendix.

Section 305a, act Apr. 8, 1943, ch. 33, 57 Stat. 57, related to deferments of Federal Government employees.

Section 305a was not enacted as part of act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, 54 Stat. 885, known as the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.

Section 305b, act Dec. 5, 1943, ch. 342, §6, 57 Stat. 599, related to monthly reports by Director of Selective Service.

Section 305b was not enacted as part of act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, 54 Stat. 885, known as the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.

Section 306, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §6, 54 Stat. 889; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to number inducted as limited by appropriations, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix.

Section 307, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §7, 54 Stat. 890; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to bounties for enlistment and substitutes, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 458 of this Appendix.

Section 308, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §8, 54 Stat. 890; July 28, 1942, ch. 529, §2, 56 Stat. 724; Dec. 8, 1944, ch. 548, §1, 58 Stat. 798; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to service certificates and reemployment rights, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 459 of this Appendix.

Section 309, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §9, 54 Stat. 892; June 25, 1943, ch. 144, §3, 57 Stat. 164; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to conscription of industry, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 468 of this Appendix.

Section 309a, acts July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title VII, 57 Stat. 518; June 28, 1944, ch. 301, title I, 58 Stat. 544; July 17, 1945, ch. 319, 59 Stat. 485; July 23, 1946, ch. 591, title I, 60 Stat. 614, related to a work program for conscientious objectors. See section 456 of this Appendix.

Section 309a was enacted as part of act July 23, 1946, known as the Third Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1946, and not as part of act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, 54 Stat. 885, known as the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.

§310. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 16, 1966, 80 Stat. 651, 652

Section, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §10, 54 Stat. 893; Dec. 5, 1943, ch. 342, §§2–4, 57 Stat. 597, 598; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341; 1950 Reorg. Plan No. 26, §§1, 2, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, 1281, related to administrative provisions. See section 460 of this Appendix.

§§310a to 318. Omitted

Section 310a, acts Oct. 8, 1940, ch. 756, title I, 54 Stat. 971; Apr. 5, 1941, ch. 40, 55 Stat. 117; Apr. 28, 1942, ch. 247, title III, 56 Stat. 237; July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title VII, 57 Stat. 519; June 28, 1944, ch. 301, title I, 58 Stat. 544; July 17, 1945, ch. 319, 59 Stat. 485; July 23, 1946, ch. 591, title I, 60 Stat. 614, related to travel expenses. See section 460(f) of this Appendix.

Section 310a was enacted as part of act July 23, 1946, known as the Third Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1946, and not as part of act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, 54 Stat. 885, known as the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.

Section 310b, act July 2, 1945, ch. 219, §§1–4, 59 Stat. 312, related to Selective Service Medal.

Section 310b was not enacted as part of act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, 54 Stat. 885, known as the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.

Section 311, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §11, 54 Stat. 894; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, related to offenses and punishment, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 462 of this Appendix.

Section 312, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §12, 54 Stat. 895; Mar. 28, 1942, ch. 206, 56 Stat. 190; June 16, 1942, ch. 413, §19, 56 Stat. 369, eff. June 1, 1942; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, related to pay and allowances. Subsections (a) to (c) were repealed on June 1, 1942, and the other subsections expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix.

Section 313, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §13, 54 Stat. 895; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to applicability of Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act, section 501 et seq. of this Appendix, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix.

Section 314, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §14, 54 Stat. 896; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to notice of requirements of the act, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 465 of this Appendix.

Section 315, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §15, 54 Stat. 896; Dec. 20, 1941, ch. 602, §7, 55 Stat. 845; June 23, 1942, ch. 443, title II, §201(b), 56 Stat. 387; Nov. 13, 1942, ch. 638, §3, 56 Stat. 1019; July 1, 1944, ch. 376, 58 Stat. 720; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to definitions, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix. See section 466 of this Appendix.

Section 316, act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §16, 54 Stat. 897; May 9, 1945, ch. 112, §1, 59 Stat. 166; May 14, 1946, ch. 253, §1, 60 Stat. 181; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §7, 60 Stat. 342, related to suspension of conflicting laws and expiration of the act. See section 467 of this Appendix.

Section 317, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §17, 54 Stat. 897; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, related to the effective date of the act.

Section 318, acts Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §18, 54 Stat. 897; June 29, 1946, ch. 522, §1, 60 Stat. 341, which related to short title of act, expired on Mar. 31, 1947, pursuant to section 316 of this Appendix.

Status and Term of Service of Persons Inducted Into Navy, Marine Corps or Coast Guard

Act Dec. 20, 1941, ch. 602, §8, 55 Stat. 846, related to the status and term of service of persons inducted into Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard under Selective Training and Service Act of 1940.

Recognition of Uncompensated Service of Members of Local Boards, etc.

Act June 30, 1947, ch. 167, 61 Stat. 210, directed the Director of Selective Service to issue to uncompensated personnel of the Selective Service System, upon the expiration of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended, suitable certificates of separation.

OFFICE OF SELECTIVE SERVICE RECORDS

ACT MAR. 31, 1947, CH. 26, 61 STAT. 31

Sec.
321.
Establishment of Office of Selective Service Records; appointment of Director.
322.
Functions, duties, and responsibilities of Office.
323.
Transfer of funds; appropriations.
324.
Transfer of property, records, and personnel to Office; transfer of surplus property to National Guard.
325.
Transfer of functions and responsibilities of Personnel Division, National Headquarters, Selective Service System to Office; effective date.
326.
Powers and duties of Director; acceptance of voluntary services; fiscal, disbursing, and accounting agent; status of officers of military and naval Services and Reserves and departments or agencies detailed to Office.
327.
Rules and regulations; penalties.
328.
Suspension of conflicting laws.
329.
Effective date.
330.
Destruction of records; use of appropriations; procedures; transfers to other agencies.

        

Termination and Reestablishment of Office of Selective Service Records; Transfer of Functions, Personnel, Property, etc.

Act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §10(a)(4), 62 Stat. 618, provided that: “The functions of the Office of Selective Service Records (established by the Act of March 31, 1947) [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix] and of the Director of the Office of Selective Service Records are hereby transferred to the Selective Service System and the Director of Selective Service, respectively. The personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances (available or to be made available) of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Office of Selective Service Records are hereby transferred to the Selective Service System. The Office of Selective Service Records shall cease to exist upon the taking of effect of the provisions of this title [sections 451, 453, 454 and 455 to 471 of this Appendix]: Provided, That, effective upon the termination of this title [said sections] and notwithstanding such termination in other respects, (A) the said Office of Selective Service Records is hereby reestablished on the same basis and with the same functions as obtained prior to the effective date of this title [June 24, 1948], (B) said reestablished Office shall be responsible for liquidating any other outstanding affairs of the Selective Service System, and (C) the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances (available or to be made available) of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Selective Service System shall be transferred to such reestablished Office of Selective Service Records.”

§321. Establishment of Office of Selective Service Records; appointment of Director

There is hereby established an Office of Selective Service Records, to be headed by a Director who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §1, 61 Stat. 31.)

Codification

Provisions that fixed the compensation of the Director at $10,000 per year were omitted as obsolete and superseded. Sections 1202 and 1204 of the Classification Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 972, 973, repealed the Classification Act of 1923 and all other laws or parts of laws inconsistent with the 1949 Act. The Classification Act of 1949 was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8(a), 80 Stat. 632, and reenacted as chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Section 5102 of Title 5 contains the applicability provisions of the 1949 Act, and section 5103 of Title 5 authorizes the Office of Personnel Management to determine the applicability to specific positions and employees.

§322. Functions, duties, and responsibilities of Office

The functions, duties, and responsibilties 1 of the Office of Selective Service Records shall be (a) to liquidate the Selective Service System, which liquidation shall be completed as rapidly as possible after March 31, 1947, but in any event not later than March 31, 1948, except as herein provided; (b) to preserve and service the records of Selective Service; and (c) to perform such other duties relating to the preservation of records, knowledge, and methods of Selective Service, not inconsistent with law.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §2, 61 Stat. 31.)

Reestablishment of Office

For termination and reestablishment dates, see note set out preceding section 321 of this Appendix.

1 So in original. Should be “responsibilities”.

§323. Transfer of funds; appropriations

The unexpended balances of funds available to the Selective Service System are made available to the Office of Selective Service Records for the purposes of this Act [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix] and such additional appropriations as are necessary therefor are authorized.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §3, 61 Stat. 31.)

Reestablishment of Office

For termination and reestablishment dates, see note set out preceding section 321 of this Appendix.

§324. Transfer of property, records, and personnel to Office; transfer of surplus property to National Guard

All property, records, and personnel of the Selective Service System are hereby transferred to the Office of Selective Service Records and authority is hereby granted to the Director of the Office of Selective Service Records to transfer, without reimbursement, and with the approval of the War Assets Administration,1 to the National Guard in the several States, the District of Columbia, and Territories and possessions of the United States, or to the Organized Reserves of the armed forces, surplus property of the Selective Service System.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §4, 61 Stat. 31; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §105, 63 Stat. 381.)

Transfer of Functions

War Assets Administration abolished and functions, records, etc., transferred to General Services Administration by act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §105, 63 Stat. 381, effective July 1, 1949, see section 605, formerly section 505, of act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, 63 Stat. 403; renumbered by act Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(a), (b), 64 Stat. 583.

Reestablishment of Office

For termination and reestablishment dates, see note set out preceding section 321 of this Appendix.

1 See Transfer of Functions note below.

§325. Transfer of functions and responsibilities of Personnel Division, National Headquarters, Selective Service System to Office; effective date

Pursuant to the third sentence of section 7 of Public Law 473, approved June 29, 1946 [section 316(b) of this Appendix], all functions and responsibilities of the Personnel Division, National Headquarters, Selective Service System, established under authority of section 8(g) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended [section 308(g) of this Appendix], together with so much of the records of the Selective Service System, and so much of the unexpended balances of appropriations of the Selective Service System, as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget 1 may determine to relate primarily to such functions, are transferred, effective March 29, 1947, from the Selective Service System to the Secretary of Labor.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §5(a), 61 Stat. 32.)

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by law (including reorganization plan) in Bureau of the Budget or Director of Bureau of the Budget transferred to President by section 101 of Reorg. Plan No. 2, of 1970, eff. July 1, 1970, 35 F.R. 7959, 84 Stat. 2085, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Section 102 of Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1970, redesignated Bureau of the Budget as Office of Management and Budget.

1 See Transfer of Functions note below.

§326. Powers and duties of Director; acceptance of voluntary services; fiscal, disbursing, and accounting agent; status of officers of military and naval Services and Reserves and departments or agencies detailed to Office

(a) The Director is authorized—

(1) to prescribe the necessary rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this Act [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix];

(2) to create and establish, on the date hereinafter specified, Federal record depots in the several States, the District of Columbia, Territories, and possessions of the United States, and to maintain such other offices as may be necessary for the purposes of this Act [said sections];

(3) to utilize the agencies of the Federal Government with the consent of the heads thereof, and to accept the services of all officers and agents of the several States, the District of Columbia, Territories, and possessions of the United States, and subdivisions thereof, in the execution of this Act [said sections];

(4) to appoint and fix the compensation of such officers and employees (not to exceed 1,200 in number by November 1, 1947), as may be necessary for the purposes of this Act [said sections];

(5) to delegate and provide for the delegation of any authority vested in him under this Act [said sections] to such officers, agents, or persons as he may designate or appoint for such purpose or as may be designated or appointed for such purpose pursuant to such rules and regulations as he may prescribe.


(b) In the administration of this Act [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix] voluntary services may be accepted.

(c) The Chief of Finance, United States Army,1 is designated, empowered, and directed to act as the fiscal, disbursing, and accounting agent of the Director of the Office of Selective Service Records in carrying out the provisions of this Act [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix].

(d) Any officer of the Armed Forces or any officer or employee of any department or agency of the United States who may be assigned or detailed to any office or position to carry out the provisions of this Act [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix] may serve in and perform the functions of such office or position without loss of or prejudice to his status as such officer of the Armed Forces or as such officer or employee in any department or agency of the United States.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §6, 61 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §507(c), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2919.)

Codification

Provisions of subsec. (a)(4) that authorized the Director to fix the compensation of officers and employees “with or without regard to the Classification Act of 1923, as amended: Provided, That the compensation of such persons shall not be in excess of that provided in said Act” were omitted as obsolete and superseded. Sections 1202 and 1204 of the Classification Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 972, 973, repealed the Classification Act of 1923 and all other laws or parts of laws inconsistent with the 1949 Act. The Classification Act of 1949 was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8(a), 80 Stat. 632, and reenacted as chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Section 5102 of Title 5 contains the applicability provisions of the 1949 Act, and section 5103 of Title 5 authorizes the Office of Personnel Management to determine the applicability to specific positions and employees.

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted “Any officer of the Armed Forces” for “Any officer on the active or retired list of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, or of any Reserve component thereof,” and “as such officer of the Armed Forces” for “as such officer in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard or Reserve component thereof,”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Transfer of Functions

Pursuant to Department of Defense Reorganization Order, Jan. 10, 1962, set out as a note under section 3036 of Title 10, Armed Forces, Office of Chief of Finance, United States Army, abolished and functions transferred to Secretary of the Army, with power in Secretary to delegate.

Reestablishment of Offices

For termination and reestablishment dates, see note set out preceding section 321 of this Appendix.

1 See Transfer of Functions note below.

§327. Rules and regulations; penalties

The Director is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary to preserve the confidential nature of the individual confidential records previously obtained under the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended [sections 301 to 318 of this Appendix]. Any person charged with the duty of carrying out any of the provisions of this Act [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix], and who fails to carry out such provisions or who shall knowingly violate the regulations promulgated under this section, or any person or persons who shall unlawfully obtain, gain access to, or use such records, shall, upon conviction in the district court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for not more than five years, or a fine of not more than $10,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment, or if subject to military or naval law, may be tried by court martial, and, on conviction, shall suffer such punishment as the court martial may direct.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §7, 61 Stat. 32.)

Reestablishment of Office

For termination and reestablishment dates, see note set out preceding section 321 of this Appendix.

§328. Suspension of conflicting laws

Except as provided in this Act [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix], all laws and parts of laws in conflict with the provisions of this Act [said sections] are suspended to the extent of such conflict for the period in which this Act [said sections] shall be in force.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §8, 61 Stat. 33.)

Reestablishment of Office

For termination and reestablishment dates, see note set out preceding section 321 of this Appendix.

§329. Effective date

Except as otherwise provided by the terms of this Act [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix], the provisions hereof shall take effect at 12 o'clock post meridian, March 31, 1947.

(Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, §9, 61 Stat. 33.)

§330. Destruction of records; use of appropriations; procedures; transfers to other agencies

Appropriations for the Selective Service System may on and after August 28, 1958, be used for the destruction of records accumulated under the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended [sections 301 to 318 of this Appendix], by the Director of Selective Service after compliance with the procedures for the destruction of records prescribed pursuant to the Records Disposal Act of 1943, as amended (44 U.S.C. 366–380): Provided, That no records may be transferred to any other agency without the approval of the Director of Selective Service.

(Pub. L. 85–844, title I, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1073.)

References in Text

The Records Disposal Act of 1943, as amended (44 U.S.C. 366–380), is act July 7, 1943, ch. 192, 57 Stat. 380, which enacted sections 366 to 380 of former Title 44, Public Printing and Documents. Sections 366 to 376, and 378 to 380 of former Title 44 were repealed by Pub. L. 90–620, §3, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1306, and reenacted as sections 3301 to 3303 and 3304 to 3314, respectively, of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents. Sections 3304 to 3307 of Title 44 were repealed by Pub. L. 91–287, §2(c), June 23, 1970, 84 Stat. 321. Section 377 of former Title 44 was also repealed by Pub. L. 90–620, §3, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1306.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of Pub. L. 85–844, known as the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1959, and not as part of act Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, 61 Stat. 31, which comprises sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix.

Prior Provisions

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 85–69, title I, June 29, 1957, 71 Stat. 235.

June 27, 1956, ch. 452, title I, 70 Stat. 348.

June 30, 1955, ch. 244, title I, 69 Stat. 209.

June 24, 1954, ch. 359, title I, 68 Stat. 287.

July 27, 1953, ch. 241, title I, 67 Stat. 189.

July 5, 1952, ch. 578, title I, 66 Stat. 406.

SERVICE EXTENSION ACT OF 1941

ACT AUG. 18, 1941, CH. 362, 55 STAT. 626–628

§§351 to 357. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 351, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §1, 55 Stat. 626, related to the declaration of national peril for purposes of extending service under section 303(b) of this Appendix.

Section 352, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §2, 55 Stat. 626, authorized an eighteen-month extension of periods of service for persons inducted under the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, sections 301 to 318 of this Appendix.

Section 353, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §3, 55 Stat. 626, extended time for application for National Service Life Insurance.

Section 354, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §4, 55 Stat. 627, related to release from service in hardship cases.

Section 355, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, amended section 303(c) of this Appendix.

Section 356, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §6, 55 Stat. 627, authorized President to order Regular Army retired personnel to active duty. See section 471 of this Appendix.

Section 357, acts Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §7, 55 Stat. 627; Dec. 8, 1944, ch. 548, §3, 58 Stat. 799; Aug. 9, 1946, ch. 936, 60 Stat. 971, related to reemployment rights. See section 459 of this Appendix.

§358. Repealed. June 16, 1942, ch. 413, §19, 56 Stat. 369, eff. June 1, 1942

Section, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §8, 55 Stat. 627, related to additional compensation for active service in excess of twelve months.

Additional Repeal

Section was also repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.

§§359 to 362. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 359, acts Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §9, 55 Stat. 628; Aug. 7, 1946, ch. 770, §1(58), 60 Stat. 871, suspended limitations on number of inductees.

Section 360, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §10, 55 Stat. 628, related to enlistments in Army without regard to component. See section 3252 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 361, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §11, 55 Stat. 628, amended section 401 of this Appendix.

Section 362, act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §12, 55 Stat. 628, gave short title of act.

ARMY RESERVE AND RETIRED PERSONNEL SERVICE LAW OF 1940

ACT AUG. 27, 1940, CH. 689, 54 STAT. 858

§§401 to 405. Omitted

Codification

Section 401, acts Aug. 27, 1940, ch. 689, §1, 54 Stat. 858; Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, §11, 55 Stat. 628, authorized for the period ending the later of June 30, 1942, or 6 months after the termination of the authority under section 352 of this Appendix the President to order reserve and retired personnel to active service. See section 471 of this Appendix.

Section 402, act Aug. 27, 1940, ch. 689, §2, 54 Stat. 859, related to laws and regulations governing personnel called to active service.

Section 403, acts Aug. 27, 1940, ch. 689, §3, 54 Stat. 859; Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, §8(d), (f), 54 Stat. 891; July 28, 1942, ch. 529, §1, 56 Stat. 723; Dec. 8, 1944, ch. 548, §2, 58 Stat. 799, related to service and health certificates and reemployment rights. See section 459 of this Appendix.

Section 404, act Aug. 27, 1940, ch. 689, §4, 54 Stat. 860, made applicable the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act and section 101 et seq. of this Appendix. See section 501 et seq. of this Appendix.

Section 405, act Aug. 27, 1940, ch. 689, §5, 54 Stat. 860, suspended all laws in conflict with sections 401 to 405 of this Appendix.

Pay of Persons Inducted in Erroneous Rank or Grade

Act Feb. 6, 1942, ch. 42, 56 Stat. 50, related to pay of persons inducted in erroneous rank or grade under sections 401 to 405 of this Appendix.

MILITARY SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT

ACT JUNE 24, 1948, CH. 625, 62 STAT. 604

Sec.
451.
Short title; Congressional declaration of policy.
452.
Repealed.
453.
Registration.
454.
Persons liable for training and service.
454a to 454d. Omitted.
454e.
Volunteer service of physicians and dentists; minimum period.
455.
Manner of selection of men for training and service; quotas.
456.
Deferments and exemptions from training and service.
457.
Repealed.
458.
Bounties for induction; substitutes; purchase of release.
459.
Separation from service.
460.
Selective Service System.
461.
Emergency medical care.
462.
Offenses and penalties.
463.
Nonapplicability of certain laws.
464.
Repealed.
465.
Notice of requirements of Act; voluntary enlistments unaffected.
466.
Definitions.
467.
Repeals; appropriations; termination date.
468.
Utilization of industry.
469.
Savings provisions.
470.
Effective date.
471.
Authority of President to order Reserve components to active service; release from active duty; retention of unit organizations and equipment.
471a.
Procedural rights.
472.
Period of increased service applicable to all personnel.
473.
Regulations governing liquor sales; penalties.

        

§451. Short title; Congressional declaration of policy

(a) This Act may be cited as the “Military Selective Service Act”.

(b) The Congress declares that an adequate armed strength must be achieved and maintained to insure the security of this Nation.

(c) The Congress further declares that in a free society the obligations and privileges of serving in the armed forces and the reserve components thereof should be shared generally, in accordance with a system of selection which is fair and just, and which is consistent with the maintenance of an effective national economy.

(d) The Congress further declares, in accordance with our traditional military policy as expressed in the National Defense Act of 1916, as amended, that it is essential that the strength and organization of the National Guard, both Ground and Air, as an integral part of the first line defenses of this Nation, be at all times maintained and assured.

To this end, it is the intent of the Congress that whenever Congress shall determine that units and organizations are needed for the national security in excess of those of the Regular components of the Ground Forces and the Air Forces, and those in active service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], the National Guard of the United States, both Ground and Air, or such part thereof as may be necessary, together with such units of the Reserve components as are necessary for a balanced force, shall be ordered to active Federal service and continued therein so long as such necessity exists.

(e) The Congress further declares that adequate provision for national security requires maximum effort in the fields of scientific research and development, and the fullest possible utilization of the Nation's technological, scientific, and other critical manpower resources.

(f) The Congress further declares that the Selective Service System should remain administratively independent of any other agency, including the Department of Defense.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §1, 62 Stat. 604; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(a), 65 Stat. 75; Pub. L. 90–40, §1(1), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 100; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(1), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §812, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 816.)

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, originally called the “Selective Service Act of 1948”, renamed the “Universal Military Training and Service Act” by act June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(a), 65 Stat. 75, then renamed the “Military Selective Service Act of 1967” by Pub. L. 90–40, §1(1), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 100, and now designated the Military Selective Service Act by Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(1), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 348. Act June 24, 1948 consisted of titles I and II. Title I of such act enacted sections 451 to 454 and 455 to 471a of this Appendix. Title II of such act was classified to the Articles of War set out in former Title 10, Army and Air Force, to sections 61, 61a, 62a, 65, and 652a of former Title 10, and to section 180 of former Title 14, Coast Guard. Title II of act June 24, 1948 was repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.

The National Defense Act of 1916, as amended, referred to in subsec. (d), is act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, 39 Stat. 166, as amended, which was classified generally throughout former Title 10, Army and Air Force. The Act was repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641, and the provisions thereof were reenacted as parts of Title 10, Armed Forces, and Title 32, National Guard.

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–107 added subsec. (f).

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–129 substituted “Military Selective Service Act” for “Military Selective Service Act of 1967”.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–40 substituted “Military Selective Service Act of 1967” for “Universal Military Training and Service Act”.

1951—Subsec. (a). Act June 19, 1951, substituted “Universal Military Training and Service Act” for “Selective Service Act of 1948”.

Short Title of 1969 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–124, §1, Nov. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 220, provided: “That this Act [amending section 455 of this Appendix] may be cited as the ‘Selective Service Amendment Act of 1969’.”

Short Title of 1955 Amendment

Act June 30, 1955, ch. 250, §1, 69 Stat. 223, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 454, 454a, 456, 467, and 2216 of this Appendix, and section 234 of former Title 37, Pay and Allowances] may be cited as the ‘1955 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act’.”

Short Title of 1951 Amendment

Act June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §7, 65 Stat. 89, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 472 and 473 of this Appendix, amending this section and sections 452 to 454, 455, 456, 459, 460, 463, 466, 467, and 471 of this Appendix, repealing section 457 of this Appendix, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 454 of this Appendix and section 351 of Title 14, Coast Guard] may be cited as the ‘1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act’.”

Short Title of 1950 Amendments

Act Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, 64 Stat. 826, which amended section 454 of this Appendix, is popularly known as the “Doctors Draft Act”.

Act June 30, 1950, ch. 445, §4, 64 Stat. 319, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 471 and amending sections 460 and 467 of this Appendix] may be cited as the ‘Selective Service Extension Act of 1950’.”

Separability

Act June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §5, 65 Stat. 88, provided that: “If any provisions of this Act [enacting sections 472 and 473 of this Appendix, amending this section, sections 452 to 454, 455, 456, 459, 460, 463, 466, 467, and 471 of this Appendix, and section 621c of former Title 10, Army and Air Force, repealing section 457 of this Appendix, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 454 of this Appendix and section 351 of Title 14, Coast Guard] or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and of the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”

Selective Service Reform; Presidential Plan, Legislative Proposals, etc.

Section 811 of Pub. L. 96–107 directed President to prepare and transmit to Congress a plan for reform of law providing for registration and induction of persons in the Armed Forces, along with proposals for implementing legislation, on the later of Jan. 15, 1980, or the end of the three-month period beginning on Nov. 9, 1979.

§452. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section, acts June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §2, 62 Stat. 605; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(b), 65 Stat. 75, related to authorized personnel strength of various services.

§453. Registration

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] it shall be the duty of every male citizen of the United States, and every other male person residing in the United States, who, on the day or days fixed for the first or any subsequent registration, is between the ages of eighteen and twenty-six, to present himself for and submit to registration at such time or times and place or places, and in such manner, as shall be determined by proclamation of the President and by rules and regulations prescribed hereunder. The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to any alien lawfully admitted to the United States as a nonimmigrant under section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (66 Stat. 163; 8 U.S.C. 1101), for so long as he continues to maintain a lawful nonimmigrant status in the United States.

(b) Regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) may require that persons presenting themselves for and submitting to registration under this section provide, as part of such registration, such identifying information (including date of birth, address, and social security account number) as such regulations may prescribe.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §3, 62 Stat. 605; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(c), 65 Stat. 76; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(2), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §916(a), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1129.)

Amendments

1981—Pub. L. 97–86 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1971—Pub. L. 92–129 substituted “male person residing in the United States” for “male person now or hereafter in the United States” and inserted provision making section inapplicable to aliens lawfully admitted to the United States as nonimmigrants under section 1101(a)(15) of Title 8 for so long as they maintain lawful nonimmigrant status in the United States.

1951—Act June 19, 1951, made all male persons now or hereafter in the United States subject to registration.

Proclamation No. 2799

Proc. No. 2799, July 20, 1948, 13 F.R. 4173, 62 Stat. 1531, which related to registration, was revoked by Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255, set out below.

Proclamation No. 2937

Proc. No. 2937, Aug. 16, 1951, 16 F.R. 8263, 65 Stat. c.27, which related to registration in the Canal Zone, was revoked by Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255, set out below.

Proclamation No. 2938

Proc. No. 2938, Aug. 16, 1951, 16 F.R. 8265, 65 Stat. c.30, which related to registration in Guam, was revoked by Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255, set out below.

Proclamation No. 2942

Proc. No. 2942, Aug. 30, 1951, 16 F.R. 8969, 65 Stat. c.35, which concerned the supplementing of prior Proclamations relating to registration, was revoked by Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255, set out below.

Proclamation No. 2972

Proc. No. 2972, Apr. 17, 1952, 17 F.R. 3473, 66 Stat. c.28, which related to extra registration, was revoked by Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255, set out below.

Proclamation No. 3314

Proc. No. 3314, Sept. 14, 1959, 24 F.R. 7517, 73 Stat. c.78, which concerned the supplementing of prior Proclamations relating to registration, was revoked by Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255, set out below.

Proclamation No. 4101

Proc. No. 4101, Jan. 13, 1972, 37 F.R. 659, which concerned the supplementing of prior Proclamations relating to registration, was revoked by Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255, set out below.

Proc. No. 4360. Termination of Registration Procedures

Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255, provided:

Under authority vested in the President by the Military Selective Service Act (62 Stat. 604), as amended [see References In Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix], procedures have been established for the registration of male citizens of the United States and of other male persons who are subject to registration under section 3 of said act, as amended (85 Stat. 348) [this section].

In order to evaluate an annual registration system, existing procedures are being terminated and will be replaced by new procedures which will provide for periodic registration.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GERALD R. FORD, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes of the United States, including the Military Selective Service Act, as amended, do hereby revoke Proclamations No. 2799 of July 20, 1948, No. 2937 of August 16, 1951, No. 2938 of August 16, 1951, No. 2942 of August 30, 1951, No. 2972 of April 17, 1952, No. 3314 of September 14, 1959, and No. 4101 of January 13, 1972; thereby terminating the present procedures for registration under the Military Selective Service Act, as amended.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of March in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred seventy-five, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred ninety-ninth.

Gerald R. Ford.      

Proc. No. 4771. Registration Under the Selective Service Act

Proc. No. 4771, July 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 45247, 94 Stat. 3775, as amended by Proc. No. 7275, Feb. 22, 2000, 65 F.R. 9199, provided:

Section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 453), provides that male citizens of the United States and other male persons residing in the United States who are between the ages of 18 and 26, except those exempted by Sections 3 and 6(a) of the Military Selective Service Act [50 U.S.C. App. 453 and 456(a)], must present themselves for registration at such time or times and place or places, and in such manner as determined by the President. Section 6(k) [50 U.S.C. App. 456(k)] provides that such exceptions shall not continue after the cause for the exemption ceases to exist.

The Congress of the United States has made available the funds (H.J. Res. 521, approved by me on June 27, 1980 [Pub. L. 96–282, June 27, 1980, 93 Stat. 552]), which are needed to initiate this registration, beginning with those born on or after January 1, 1960.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, JIMMY CARTER, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Military Selective Service Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.), do hereby proclaim as follows:

1–1. Persons To Be Registered and Days of Registration

1–101. Male citizens of the United States and other males residing in the United States, unless exempted by the Military Selective Service Act, as amended, who were born on or after January 1, 1960, and who have attained their eighteenth birthday, shall present themselves for registration in the manner and at the time and places as hereinafter provided.

1–102. Persons born in calendar year 1960 shall present themselves for registration on any of the six days beginning Monday, July 21, 1980.

1–103. Persons born in calendar year 1961 shall present themselves for registration on any of the six days beginning Monday, July 28, 1980.

1–104. Persons born in calendar year 1962 shall present themselves for registration on any of the six days beginning Monday, January 5, 1981.

1–105. Persons born on or after January 1, 1963, shall present themselves for registration on the day they attain the 18th anniversary of their birth or on any day within the period of 60 days beginning 30 days before such date; however, in no event shall such persons present themselves for registration prior to January 5, 1981.

1–106. Aliens who would be required to present themselves for registration pursuant to Sections 1–101 to 1–105, but who are in processing centers on the dates fixed for registration, shall present themselves for registration within 30 days after their release from such centers.

1–107. Aliens and noncitizen nationals of the United States who reside in the United States, but who are absent from the United States on the days fixed for their registration, shall present themselves for registration within 30 days after their return to the United States.

1–108. Aliens and noncitizen nationals of the United States who, on or after July 1, 1980, come into and reside in the United States shall present themselves for registration in accordance with Sections 1–101 to 1–105 or within 30 days after coming into the United States, whichever is later.

1–109. Persons who would have been required to present themselves for registration pursuant to Sections 1–101 to 1–108 but for an exemption pursuant to Section 3 or 6(a) of the Military Selective Service Act, as amended [50 U.S.C. App. 453 or 456(a)], or but for some condition beyond their control such as hospitalization or incarceration, shall present themselves for registration within 30 days after the cause for their exempt status ceases to exist or within 30 days after the termination of the condition which was beyond their control.

1–2. Places and Times for Registration

1–201. Persons who are required to be registered and who are in the United States shall register at the places and by the means designated by the Director of Selective Service. These places and means may include but are not limited to any classified United States Post Office, the Selective Service Internet web site, telephonic registration, registration on approved Government forms, registration through high school and college registrars, and the Selective Service reminder mailback card.

1–202. Citizens of the United States who are required to be registered and who are not in the United States, shall register via any of the places and methods authorized by the Director of Selective Service pursuant to paragraph 1–201 or present themselves at a United States Embassy or Consulate for registration before a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States or before a registrar duly appointed by a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States.

1–203. The hours for registration in United States Post Offices shall be the business hours during the days of operation of the particular United States Post Office. The hours for registration in United States Embassies and Consulates shall be those prescribed by the United States Embassies and Consulates.

1–3. Manner of Registration

1–301. Persons who are required to be registered shall comply with the registration procedures and other rules and regulations prescribed by the Director of Selective Service.

1–302. When reporting for registration each person shall present for inspection reasonable evidence of his identity. After registration, each person shall keep the Selective Service System informed of his current address.

Having proclaimed these requirements for registration, I urge everyone, including employers in the private and public sectors, to cooperate with and assist those persons who are required to be registered in order to ensure a timely and complete registration. Also, I direct the heads of Executive agencies, when requested by the Director of Selective Service and to the extent permitted by law, to cooperate and assist in carrying out the purposes of this Proclamation.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this second day of July, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and fourth.

Jimmy Carter.      

§454. Persons liable for training and service

(a) Age limits; training in National Security Training Corps; physical and mental fitness; adequate training facilities; assignment to stations and units; training period; medical specialist categories

Except as otherwise provided in this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], every person required to register pursuant to section 3 of this title [section 453 of this Appendix] who is between the ages of eighteen years and six months and twenty-six years, at the time fixed for his registration, or who attains the age of eighteen years and six months after having been required to register pursuant to section 3 of this title [section 453 of this Appendix], or who is otherwise liable as provided in section 6(h) of this title [section 456(h) of this Appendix], shall be liable for training and service in the Armed Forces of the United States: Provided, That each registrant shall be immediately liable for classification and examination, and shall, as soon as practicable following his registration, be so classified and examined, both physically and mentally, in order to determine his availability for induction for training and service in the Armed Forces: Provided further, That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, any registrant who has failed or refused to report for induction shall continue to remain liable for induction and when available shall be immediately inducted. The President is authorized, from time to time, whether or not a state of war exists, to select and induct into the Armed Forces of the United States for training and service in the manner provided in this title [said sections] (including but not limited to selection and induction by age group or age groups) such number of persons as may be required to provide and maintain the strength of the Armed Forces.

At such time as the period of active service in the Armed Forces required under this title [said sections] of persons who have not attained the nineteenth anniversary of the day of their birth has been reduced or eliminated pursuant to the provisions of section 4(k) of this title [subsection (k) of this section], and except as otherwise provided in this title [said sections], every person who is required to register under this title [said sections] and who has not attained the nineteenth anniversary of the day of his birth on the date such period of active service is reduced or eliminated or who is otherwise liable as provided in section 6(h) of this title [section 456(h) of this Appendix], shall be liable for training in the National Security Training Corps: Provided, That persons deferred under the provisions of section 6 of this title [section 456 of this Appendix] shall not be relieved from liability for induction into the National Security Training Corps solely by reason of having exceeded the age of nineteen years during the period of such deferment. The President is authorized, from time to time, whether or not a state of war exists, to select and induct for training in the National Security Training Corps as hereinafter provided such number of persons as may be required to further the purposes of this title [said sections].

No person shall be inducted into the Armed Forces for training and service or shall be inducted for training in the National Security Training Corps under this title [said sections] until his acceptability in all respects, including his physical and mental fitness, has been satisfactorily determined under standards prescribed by the Secretary of Defense: Provided, That the minimum standards for physical acceptability established pursuant to this subsection shall not be higher than those applied to persons inducted between the ages of 18 and 26 in January 1945: Provided further, That the passing requirement for the Armed Forces Qualification Test shall be fixed at a percentile score of 10 points: And provided further, That except in time of war or national emergency declared by the Congress the standards and requirements fixed by the preceding two provisos may be modified by the President under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe.

No persons shall be inducted for such training and service until adequate provision shall have been made for such shelter, sanitary facilities, water supplies, heating and lighting arrangements, medical care, and hospital accommodations for such persons as may be determined by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Homeland Security to be essential to the public and personal health.

The persons inducted into the Armed Forces for training and service under this title [said sections] shall be assigned to stations or units of such forces. Persons inducted into the land forces of the United States pursuant to this title [said sections] shall be deemed to be members of the Army of the United States; persons inducted into the naval forces of the United States pursuant to this title [said sections] shall be deemed to be members of the United States Navy or the United States Marine Corps or the United States Coast Guard, as appropriate; and persons inducted into the air forces of the United States pursuant to this title [said sections] shall be deemed to be members of the Air Force of the United States.

Every person inducted into the Armed Forces pursuant to the authority of this subsection after the date of enactment of the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act [June 19, 1951] shall, following his induction, be given full and adequate military training for service in the armed force into which he is inducted for a period of not less than twelve weeks, and no such person shall, during this twelve weeks period, be assigned for duty at any installation located on land outside the United States, its Territories and possessions (including the Canal Zone): Provided, That no funds appropriated by the Congress shall be used for the purpose of transporting or maintaining in violation of the provisions of this paragraph any person inducted into, or enlisted, appointed, or ordered to active duty in, the Armed Forces under the provisions of this title [said sections].

No person, without his consent, shall be inducted for training and service in the Armed Forces or for training in the National Security Training Corps under this title [said sections], except as otherwise provided herein, after he has attained the twenty-sixth anniversary of the day of his birth.

(b) Length of service; release of individuals accepted into Army National Guard, Air National Guard, and other Reserve components

Each person inducted into the Armed Forces under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall serve on active training and service for a period of twenty-four consecutive months, unless sooner released, transferred, or discharged in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Secretary of Defense (or the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the United States Coast Guard) or as otherwise prescribed by subsection (d) of section 4 of this title [subsection (d) of this section]. The Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, with the approval of the Secretary of Defense (and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the United States Coast Guard), may provide, by regulations which shall be as nearly uniform as practicable, for the release from training and service in the armed forces prior to serving the periods required by this subsection of individuals who volunteered for and are accepted into organized units of the Army National Guard and Air National Guard and other reserve components.

(c) Opportunity to enlist in Regular Army; voluntary induction; volunteers under 18 years old

(1) Under the provisions of applicable laws and regulations any person between the ages of eighteen years and six months and twenty-six years shall be offered an opportunity to enlist in the regular army for a period of service equal to that prescribed in subsection (b) of this section: Provided, That, notwithstanding the provisions of this or any other Act, any person so enlisting shall not have his enlistment extended without his consent until after a declaration of war or national emergency by the Congress after the date of enactment of the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act [June 19, 1951].

(2) Any enlisted member of any reserve component of the Armed Forces may, during the effective period of this Act, apply for a period of service equal to that prescribed in subsection (b) of this section and his application shall be accepted: Provided, That his services can be effectively utilized and that his physical and mental fitness for such service meet the standards prescribed by the head of the department concerned: Provided further, That active service performed pursuant to this section shall not prejudice his status as such member of such reserve component: And provided further, That any person who was a member of a reserve component on June 25, 1950, and who thereafter continued to serve satisfactorily in such reserve component, shall, if his application for active duty made pursuant to this paragraph is denied, be deferred from induction under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] until such time as he is ordered to active duty or ceases to serve satisfactorily in such reserve component.

(3) Within the limits of the quota determined under sections 5(b) [section 455(b) of this Appendix] for the subdivision in which he resides, any person, between the ages of eighteen and twenty-six, shall be afforded an opportunity to volunteer for induction into the Armed Forces of the United States for the training and service prescribed in subsection (b), but no person who so volunteers shall be inducted for such training and service so long as he is deferred after classification.

(4) Within the limits of the quota determined under section 5(b) [section 455(b) of this Appendix] for the subdivision in which he resides, any person after attaining the age of seventeen shall with the written consent of his parents or guardian be afforded an opportunity to volunteer for induction into the Armed Forces of the United States for the training and service prescribed in subsection (b).

(5) Within the limits of the quota determined under section 5(b) [section 455(b) of this Appendix] for the subdivision in which he resides, at such time as induction into the National Security Training Corps is authorized pursuant to the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], any person after attaining the age of seventeen shall with the written consent of his parents or guardian be afforded an opportunity to volunteer for induction into the National Security Training Corps for the training prescribed in subsection (k) of section 4 of this title [subsection (k) of this section].

(d) Transfer to Reserve component; period of service

(1) Each person who hereafter and prior to the enactment of the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act [June 19, 1951] is inducted, enlisted, or appointed and serves for a period of less than three years in one of the armed forces and meets the qualifications for enlistment or appointment in a reserve component of the armed force in which he serves, shall be transferred to a reserve component of such armed force, and until the expiration of a period of five years after such transfer, or until he is discharged from such reserve component, whichever occurs first, shall be deemed to be a member of such reserve component and shall be subject to such additional training and service as may now or hereafter be prescribed by law for such reserve component: Provided, That any such person who completes at least twenty-one months of service in the armed forces and who thereafter serves satisfactorily (1) on active duty in the armed forces under a voluntary extension for a period of at least one year, which extension is authorized, or (2) in an organized unit of any reserve component of any of the armed forces for a period of at least thirty-six consecutive months, shall, except in time of war or national emergency declared by the Congress, be relieved from any further liability under this subsection to serve in any reserve component of the armed forces of the United States, but nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent any such person, while in a reserve component of such forces, from being ordered or called to active duty in such forces.

(2) Each person who hereafter and prior to the enactment of the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act [June 19, 1951] is enlisted under the provisions of subsection (g) of this section and who meets the qualifications for enlistment or appointment in a reserve component of the armed forces shall, upon discharge from such enlistment under honorable conditions, be transferred to a reserve component of the armed forces of the United States and shall serve therein for a period of six years or until sooner discharged. Each such person shall, so long as he is a member of such reserve component, be liable to be ordered to active duty, but except in time of war or national emergency declared by the Congress no such person shall be ordered to active duty, without his consent and except as hereinafter provided, for more than one month in any year. In case the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, or the Secretary of the Air Force determines that enlistment, enrollment, or appointment in, or assignment to, an organized unit of a reserve component or an officers’ training program of the armed force in which he served is available to, and can without undue hardship be filled by, any such person, it shall be the duty of such person to enlist, enroll, or accept appointment in, or accept assignment to, such organized unit or officers’ training program and to serve satisfactorily therein for a period of four years. Any such person who fails or refuses to perform such duty may be ordered to active duty, without his consent, for an additional period of not more than twelve consecutive months. Any such person who enlists or accepts appointment in any such organized unit and serves satisfactorily therein for a period of four years shall, except in time of war or national emergency declared by the Congress, be relieved from any further liability under this subsection to serve in any reserve component of the armed forces of the United States, but nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent any such person, while in a reserve component of such forces, from being ordered or called to active duty in such forces. The Secretary of Defense is authorized to prescribe regulations governing the transfer of such persons within and between reserve components of the armed forces and determining, for the purpose of the requirements of the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, the credit to be allowed any person so transferring for his previous service in one or more reserve components.

(3) Each person who, subsequent to June 19, 1951, and on or before August 9, 1955, is inducted, enlisted, or appointed, under any provision of law, in the Armed Forces, including the reserve components thereof, or in the National Security Training Corps prior to attaining the twenty-sixth anniversary of his birth, shall be required to serve on active training and service in the Armed Forces or in training in the National Security Training Corps, and in a reserve component, for a total period of eight years, unless sooner discharged on grounds of personal hardship, in accordance with regulations and standards prescribed by the Secretary of Defense (or the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the United States Coast Guard). Each such person, on release from active training and service in the Armed Forces or from training in the National Security Training Corps, shall, if physically and mentally qualified, be transferred to a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and shall serve therein for the remainder of the period which he is required to serve under this paragraph and shall be deemed to be a member of the reserve component during that period. If the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, or the Secretary of the Air Force, or the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the United States Coast Guard, determines that enlistment, enrollment, or appointment in, or assignment to, an organized unit of a reserve component or an officers’ training program of the armed force in which he served is available to, and can, without undue personal hardship, be filled by such a person, that person shall enlist, enroll, or accept appointment in, or accept assignment to, the organized unit or officers’ training program, and serve satisfactorily therein.

(e) Pay and allowances

With respect to the persons inducted for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] there shall be paid, allowed, and extended the same pay, allowances, pensions, disability and death compensation, and other benefits as are provided by law in the case of other enlisted men of like grades and length of service of that component of the armed forces to which they are assigned. Section 3 of the Act of July 25, 1947 (Public Law 239, Eightieth Congress), is amended by deleting therefrom the following: “Act of March 7, 1942 (56 Stat. 143 to 148, ch. 166), as amended”. The Act of March 7, 1942 (56 Stat. 143 to 148), as amended, is made applicable to persons inducted into the armed forces pursuant to this title [said sections].

(f) Additional compensation from civilian sources

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who is inducted into the armed forces under this Act and who, before being inducted, was receiving compensation from any person may, while serving under that induction, receive compensation from that person.

(g) Occupational deferment recommendations by National Security Council

The National Security Council shall periodically advise the Director of the Selective Service System and coordinate with him the work of such State and local volunteer advisory committees which the Director of Selective Service may establish, with respect to the identification, selection, and deferment of needed professional and scientific personnel and those engaged in, and preparing for, critical skills and other essential occupations. In the performance of its duties under this subsection the National Security Council shall consider the needs of both the Armed Forces and the civilian segment of the population.

(h) Repealed. June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(h), 65 Stat. 80

(i), (j) Omitted

(k) Reduction of periods of service; establishment of National Security Training Corps; composition; service; pay

(1) Upon a finding by him that such action is justified by the strength of the Armed Forces in the light of international conditions, the President, upon recommendation of the Secretary of Defense, is authorized, by Executive order, which shall be uniform in its application to all persons inducted under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] but which may vary as to age groups, to provide for (A) decreasing periods of service under this title [said sections] but in no case to a lesser period of time than can be economically utilized, or (B) eliminating periods of service required under this title [said sections].

(2) Whenever the Congress shall by concurrent resolution declare—

(A) that the period of active service required of any age group or groups of persons inducted under this title [said sections] should be decreased to any period less than twenty-four months which may be designated in such resolution; or

(B) that the period of active service required of any age group or groups of persons inducted under this title [said sections] should be eliminated,


the period of active service in the Armed Forces of the age group or groups designated in any such resolution shall be so decreased or eliminated, as the case may be. Whenever the period of active service required under this title [said sections] of persons who have not attained the nineteenth anniversary of the day of their birth has been reduced or eliminated by the President or as a result of the adoption of a concurrent resolution of the Congress in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this section, all individuals then or thereafter liable for registration under this title [said sections] who on that date have not attained the nineteenth anniversary of the day of their birth and have not been inducted into the Armed Forces shall be liable, effective on such date, for induction into the National Security Training Corps as hereinafter established for initial military training for a period of six months.

(3), (4) Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 656.

(5) The Commission shall, subject to the direction of the President, exercise general supervision over the training of the National Security Training Corps, which training shall be basic military training. The Commission shall establish such policies and standards with respect to the conduct of the training of members of the National Security Training Corps as are necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. The Commission shall make adequate provisions for the moral and spiritual welfare of members of the National Security Training Corps. The Secretary of Defense shall designate the military departments to carry out such training. Each military department so designated shall carry out such military training in accordance with the policies and standards of the Commission. The military department or departments so designated to carry out such military training shall, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense, and subject to the policies and standards established by the Commission, determine the type or types of basic military training to be given to members of the National Security Training Corps.

(6) Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 656.

(7) Not later than four months following confirmation of the members of the Commission, the Commission shall submit to the Congress legislative recommendations which shall include, but not be limited to—

(A) a broad outline for a program deemed by the Commission and approved by the Secretary of Defense to be appropriate to assure that the training carried out under the provisions of this Act shall be of a military nature, but nothing contained in this paragraph shall be construed to grant to the Commission the authority to prescribe the basic type or types of military training to be given members of the National Security Training Corps;

(B) measures for the personal safety, health, welfare and morals of members of the National Security Training Corps;

(C) a code of conduct, together with penalties for violation thereof;

(D) measures deemed necessary to implement the policies and standards established under the provisions of paragraph (5) of this subsection; and

(E) disability and death benefits and other benefits, and the obligations, duties, liabilities and responsibilities, to be granted to or imposed upon members of the National Security Training Corps.


All legislative recommendations submitted under this paragraph shall be referred to the Committees on Armed Services of the two Houses, and each of such committees shall, not later than the expiration of the first period of 45 calendar days of continuous sessions of the Congress, following the date on which the recommendations provided for in this paragraph are transmitted to the Congress, report thereon to its House: Provided, That any bill or resolution reported with respect to such recommendations shall be privileged and may be called up by any member of either House but shall be subject to amendment as if it were not so privileged.

(8) No person shall be inducted into the National Security Training Corps until after—

(A) a code of conduct, together with penalties for violation thereof, and measures providing for disability and death benefits have been enacted into law; and

(B) such other legislative recommendations as are provided for in paragraph (7) shall have been considered and such recommendations or any portion thereof shall have been enacted with or without amendments into law; and

(C) the period of service required under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] of persons who have not attained the nineteenth anniversary of the day of their birth has been reduced or eliminated by the President or as a result of the adoption of a concurrent resolution of the Congress in accordance with paragraph (2) of this subsection.


(9) Six months following the commencement of induction of persons into the National Security Training Corps, and semiannually thereafter, the Commission shall submit to the Congress a comprehensive report describing in detail the operation of the National Security Training Corps, including the number of persons inducted therein, a list of camps and stations at which training is being conducted, a report on the number of deaths and injuries occurring during such training and the causes thereof, an estimate of the performance of the persons inducted therein, including an analysis of the disciplinary problems encountered during the preceding six months, the number of civilian employees of the Commission and the administrative costs of the Commission. Simultaneously, there shall be submitted to the Congress by the Secretary of Defense a report setting forth an estimate of the value of the training conducted during the preceding six months, the cost of the training program chargeable to the appropriations made to the Department of Defense, and the number of personnel of the Armed Forces directly engaged in the conduct of such training.

(10) Each person inducted into the National Security Training Corps shall be compensated at the monthly rate of $30: Provided, however, That each such person, having a dependent or dependents shall be entitled to receive a dependency allowance equal to the basic allowance for housing provided for persons in pay grade E–1 under section 403 of title 37 plus $40 so long as such person has in effect an allotment equal to the amount of such dependency allowance for the support of the dependent or dependents on whose account the allowance is claimed.

(11) No person inducted into the National Security Training Corps shall be assigned for training at an installation located on land outside the continental United States, except that residents of Territories and possessions of the United States may be trained in the Territory or possession from which they were inducted.

(l) Terminated

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §4, 62 Stat. 605; Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, §1, 64 Stat. 826; Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1059, §§1(1)–(5), 3(a), 64 Stat. 1073; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(d)–(j), 65 Stat. 76; July 9, 1952, ch. 608, pt. VIII, §813, 66 Stat. 509; June 29, 1953, ch. 158, §§1, 2, 6, 67 Stat. 86, 89; June 30, 1955, ch. 250, title II, §202, 69 Stat. 224; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 665, §3(a), 69 Stat. 602; Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §§22(a)–(c), 53, 70A Stat. 630, 641; Pub. L. 85–62, §§1–3, June 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 206, 207; Pub. L. 85–564, July 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 424; Pub. L. 85–861, §§9, 36A, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1556, 1569; Pub. L. 87–651, title III, §301, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 524; Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 90–40, §1(2), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 100; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(3)–(7), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 348, 349; Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §802(c), Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 537; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VI, §603(d)(5), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(e)(11)(A), (B), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2315.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(1), (2), (f), and (k)(5), (7)(A), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

The effective period of this Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is set out in section 467 of this Appendix.

Section 3 of the Act of July 25, 1947 (Public Law 239, Eightieth Congress), referred to in subsec. (e), is section of act July 25, 1947, ch. 327, 61 Stat. 451, which is not classified to the Code.

Act of March 7, 1942 (56 Stat. 143 to 148), as amended, referred to in subsec. (e), popularly known as the Missing Persons Act, was classified to sections 1001 to 1018 of this Appendix. The Act was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8(a), 80 Stat. 632, and reenacted as subchapter VII of chapter 55 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and chapter 10 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services.

Subsection (g) of this section, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), refers to the subsection (g) that was repealed by act June 19, 1951, §1(h).

The Commission, referred to in subsec. (k)(5), means the National Security Training Commission, which expired June 30, 1957, pursuant to letter of the President on Mar. 25, 1957, following the Commission's own recommendation for its termination.

Amendments

2002—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation” wherever appearing.

1997—Subsec. (k)(10). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted “shall be entitled to receive a dependency allowance equal to the basic allowance for housing provided for persons in pay grade E–1 under section 403 of title 37” for “as such terms are defined in the Career Compensation Act of 1949, shall be entitled to receive a dependency allowance equal to the sum of the basic allowance for quarters provided for persons in pay grade E–1 by section 302(f) of the Career Compensation Act of 1949 as amended by section 3 of the Dependents’ Assistance Act of 1950 as may be extended or amended”.

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–106 in paragraph relating to military training for persons inducted after June 19, 1951, for service in the armed force into which they were inducted, substituted twelve weeks for four months in two places.

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(3), (4), struck out provisions which had given special coverage for male aliens and substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(5), substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(6), struck out “(except a person enlisted under subsection (g) of this section)” after “inducted, enlisted, or appointed”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(7), substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(2)(a), inserted proviso that registrants failing or refusing to report for induction continue to remain liable for induction and to be immediately inducted when available.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(2)(b), added subsec. (g). A former subsec. (g), authorizing one year enlistments in the armed services by male persons between 18 and 19, was repealed by act June 19, 1951, ch. 144, §1(h), 65 Stat. 80.

1966—Subsec. (k)(3), (4), (6). Pub. L. 89–554 repealed pars. (3), (4) and (6) which established the National Security Training Commission, provided for its composition, tenure, pay and duties, and authorized appointment and pay of employees.

1962—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 87–651 amended par. (3) generally, striking out provisions which required each person inducted into the National Security Training Corps to serve in the Armed Forces or the National Security Training Corps for a total of eight years, unless sooner discharged because of personal hardship, and requiring each person covered by this subsection who is not a reserve, and who is qualified, upon his release from training, to be transferred to a reserve component to complete the service required by this subsection.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–564 inserted, at end of third par., proviso authorizing President to modify standards fixed by preceding two provisos, except in war or national emergency.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 85–861 repealed provisions that required persons inducted, enlisted, or appointed, in the Armed Forces to serve on active training and service in the Armed Forces and in a reserve component for a total of six years, and inserted provisions requiring transfer to reserve components of persons released from active training and service in the Armed Forces or from training in the National Security Training Corps and authorizing enlistment, enrollment, or appointment in, or assignment to, an organized unit of a reserve component or an officers’ training program of the armed force in which a person served. See section 651 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

1957—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–62, §§1, 9, temporarily inserted next to last paragraph providing that no medical, dental, or allied specialist shall be inducted if he applies or applied for appointment as a Reserve officer in one of such categories and is rejected on the sole ground of physical disqualification. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 85–62, §§3, 9, temporarily struck out “as referred to in subsection (i)” after “categories of persons” at end of first sentence, and substituted “thirty-fifth” for “fifty-first” in last sentence of second par. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 85–62, §§2, 9, temporarily added subsec. (l). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment note below.

1956—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 10, 1956, §53, repealed provisions prohibiting assignment to duty outside the United States until the member of the Armed Forces has had the equivalent of four months of basic training, and relating to communications with Members of Congress. See sections 671 and 1034 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 10, 1956, §22(a), authorized Secretaries of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Treasury, to provide by regulations for release from training and service in the Armed Forces of those individuals who are accepted into organized units of the Army National Guard and Air National Guard and other reserve components.

Subsec. (d)(3). Act Aug. 10, 1956, §22(b), purportedly repealed par. (3) and amended it to provide that “Each person who is inducted into the National Security Training Corps shall serve in the armed forces or the National Security Training Corps for a total of eight years, unless he is sooner discharged because of personal hardship under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. Each person covered by this subsection who is not a Reserve, and who is qualified, shall, upon his release from training, be transferred to a reserve component of an armed force to complete the service required by this subsection.” See 1958 and 1962 Amendment notes above.

Subsec. (f). Act Aug. 10, 1956, §53, purportedly repealed subsec. (f). However, section 22(c) of the act amended subsection to clarify authority to receive compensation. See also section 103 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

1955—Subsec. (d)(3). Act Aug. 9, 1955, provided for a six-year term of duty for persons who are inducted, enlisted, or appointed after Aug. 9, 1955.

Subsec. (i)(1). Act June 30, 1955, exempted from service persons who attained their thirty-fifth anniversary of their date of birth and who were rejected for service on the ground of physical disqualification, and to reduce maximum age of liability of induction from 51 to 46 years of age.

1953—Subsec. (i)(2). Act June 29, 1953, §6, in cl. “First” struck out “subsequent to the completion of or release from the program or course of instruction” after “Public Health Service”; and, in cl. “Second”, substituted “seventeen months” for “twenty-one months”, and struck out “subsequent to the completion of or release from the program or course of instruction” after “Public Health Service”.

Subsec. (i)(4) to (7). Act June 29, 1953, §1, added pars. (4) to (7).

Subsec. (j). Act June 29, 1953, §2, added third par.

1952—Subsec. (d)(3). Act July 9, 1952, substituted “appointed under any provision of law, in the Armed Forces, including the reserve components thereof,” for “appointed in the Armed Forces”.

1951—Subsec. (a). Act June 19, 1951, §1(d), lowered age limit from 19 years to 18½, provided for training in National Security Training Corps, lowered physical and mental standards, provided for a basic training period, and allowed communication with Members of Congress.

Subsec. (b). Act June 19, 1951, §1(e), increased length of service from 21 to 24 months.

Subsec. (c). Act June 19, 1951, §1(f), struck out short-term Army enlistment period and the General Classification Test, and established age for voluntary induction.

Subsec. (d). Act June 19, 1951, §1(g), inserted “and prior to the enactment of the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act” after “hereafter” in pars. (1) and (2), and added par. (3).

Subsec. (e). Act June 19, 1951, §1(i), inserted “6g” after “sections” in par. (1), and extended period of service from 21 to 24 months.

Subsec. (g). Act June 19, 1951, §1(h), repealed subsec. (g) which related to enlistments in armed service for one year by male persons between 18 and 19 years.

Subsec. (h). Act June 19, 1951, §1(h), repealed subsec. (h) which related to permanent assignment outside continental United States.

Subsec. (k). Act June 19, 1951, §1(j), added subsec. (k).

1950—Subsec. (a). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §1(1)–(4), inserted before period in third sentence of first par. “and such number of persons as in his judgment may be required for the United States Coast Guard”, inserted before period in second par. “or the Secretary of the Treasury”, inserted after “the Secretary of Defense” in third par. “or the Secretary of the Treasury”, inserted after “United States Marine Corps” in fourth par. “or the United States Coast Guard”.

Subsec. (b). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §1(5), inserted before period “or the Secretary of the Treasury”.

Subsec. (c). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §3(a), added par. (4).

Subsecs. (i), (j). Act Sept. 9, 1950, §§1, 9, temporarily added subsecs. (i) and (j). See Termination Date of Subsection (i) and Former Subsection (j) note below.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–85 effective Jan. 1, 1998, see section 603(e) of Pub. L. 105–85, set out as a note under section 5561 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–62, §9, June 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 208, as amended by Pub. L. 86–4, §4, Mar. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 13; Pub. L. 88–2, §4, Mar. 28, 1963, 77 Stat. 4; Pub. L. 90–40, §4, June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 105; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §103, Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 355, provided that: “This Act [amending this section, sections 454a to 456 of this Appendix, and provisions set out as a note under this section] takes effect July 1, 1957, and shall terminate July 1, 1973.”

Effective Date of 1952 Amendment

Section 813 of act July 9, 1952, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of June 19, 1951.

Repeal of Prior Acts Continuing Section

Section 6 of act July 3, 1952, repealed act Apr. 14, 1952, ch. 204, 66 Stat. 54 as amended by acts May 28, 1952, ch. 339, 66 Stat. 96; June 14, 1952, ch. 437, 66 Stat. 137; June 30, 1952, ch. 526, 66 Stat. 296, which continued provisions until July 3, 1952. This repeal shall take effect as of June 16, 1952, by section 7 of act July 3, 1952.

Termination Date of Subsection (i) and Former Subsection (j)

Section 7 of act Sept. 9, 1950, as amended by acts June 19, 1951, §2(b); June 29, 1953, §9; and June 30, 1955, §201, and by Pub. L. 85–62, §8, provided that subsecs. (i) and (j) of this section, which were added by act Sept. 9, 1950, shall terminate as of June 30, 1957. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment note set out above with respect to subsec. (j) as reenacted and amended by Pub. L. 85–62.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Executive Order No. 10164

Ex. Ord. No. 10164, Sept. 27, 1950, 15 F.R. 6570, provided for extension for a period of twelve months of all enlistments in the United States Coast Guard, including the Coast Guard Reserve, which would have expired at any time after Sept. 27, 1950, and prior to July 9, 1951.

Executive Order No. 10166

Ex. Ord. No. 10166, Oct. 4, 1950, 15 F.R. 6777, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10185, Dec. 1, 1950, 15 F.R. 8557, which established the National Advisory Committee on the Selection of Physicians, Dentists, and Allied Specialists, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11415, June 24, 1968, 33 F.R. 9329, formerly set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 10762. Delegation of Authority to Secretary of Defense

Ex. Ord. No. 10762, Mar. 28, 1958, 23 F.R. 2119, provided:

1. There is hereby delegated to the Secretary of Defense:

(a) The authority vested in the President by section 4(l)(1) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act, as added by section 2 of the Act of June 27, 1957 (P.L. 85–62; 71 Stat. 206) [subsection (l)(1) of this section], to order to active duty (other than for training) for a period of not more than 24 consecutive months, with or without his consent, any member of a reserve component of the armed forces of the United States who is in a medical, dental, or allied specialist category, who has not attained the thirty-fifth anniversary of the date of his birth, and who has not performed at least one year of active duty (other than for training).

(b) The authority vested in the President by section 5(c) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act, as added by section 5 of the Act of June 27, 1957 (P.L. 85–62; 71 Stat. 207) [section 455(c) of this Appendix], to prescribe regulations with respect to the appointment, reappointment, or promotion of any qualified person who (1) is liable for induction or (2) as a member of a reserve component is ordered to active duty as a physician or dentist or in an allied specialist category in the armed forces of the United States.

2. Executive Order No. 10478 of August 5, 1953, as amended by Executive Order No. 10658 of February 15, 1956, is hereby revoked.

Dwight D. Eisenhower.      

Ex. Ord. No. 10776. Delegation of President's Authority

Ex. Ord. No. 10776, July 28, 1958, 23 F.R. 5683, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, there is hereby delegated to the Secretary of Defense the authority (relating to the prescribing of rules and regulations modifying the standards and requirements with respect to induction of persons into the armed forces) vested in the President by the last proviso of section 4(a) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act [subsec. (a) of this section], added by the act of July 28, 1958 [Pub. L. 85–564]. The Secretary of Defense is hereby authorized to re-delegate that authority to any official of the Department of Defense who is required to be appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. No person shall be inducted into the armed forces for training and service who does not meet the standards and requirements specified in the rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary or his designee pursuant to this order.

Dwight D. Eisenhower.      

Executive Order No. 11415

Ex. Ord. No. 11415, June 24, 1968, 33 F.R. 9329, which established the National Advisory Committee on the Selection of Physicians, Dentists, and Allied Specialists and the National Health Resources Advisory Committee, was revoked by section 5–110 of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43243, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Proc. No. 2906. Registration of Doctors, Dentists and Allied Specialists

Proc. No. 2906, Oct. 6, 1950, 15 F.R. 6845, 64 Stat. Pt. 2, p. A437, as amended Proc. No. 2915, Dec. 28, 1950, 15 F.R. 9419, 64 Stat. Pt. 2, p. A455, provided:

1. Every male person who participated as a student in the Army specialized training program or any similar program administered by the Navy, or was deferred from service during World War II for the purpose of pursuing a course of instruction leading to education in a medical, dental, or allied specialist category, and has had less than twenty-one months of active duty in the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, or the Public Health Service subsequent to the completion of, or release from, such program or course of instruction (exclusive of time spent in post-graduate training), and who, on the day or any of the days hereinafter fixed for his registration (a) shall have received from any school, college, university, or similar institution of learning, one or more of the degrees of bachelor of medicine, doctor of medicine, doctor of dental surgery, doctor of dental medicine, doctor of veterinary surgery, and doctor of veterinary medicine, (b) is within any of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Territory of Alaska, the Territory of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands, (c) is not a member of any reserve component of the armed forces of the United States, and (d) shall not have attained the fiftieth anniversary of the day of his birth is required to and shall on that day or any of those days present himself for and submit to registration before a duly designated registration official or selective service local board having jurisdiction in the area in which he has his permanent home or in which he may happen to be on that day or any of those days.

2. The special registration of the male persons required to submit to registration by paragraph numbered 1 hereof shall take place in the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. on the day or days hereinafter designated for their registration, as follows:

(a) Persons who shall have received any of the degrees above referred to on or before October 16, 1950, shall be registered on Monday, the 16th day of October, 1950.

(b) Persons who receive any of the degrees above referred to after October 16, 1950, shall be registered on the day they receive any such degree, or within five days thereafter.

(c) Persons who shall have received any of the degrees above referred to and who enter any of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Territory of Alaska, the Territory of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands after October 16, 1950, shall be registered on the day of such entrance, or within five days thereafter.

3. Every male person who has not had active service in the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, or the Public Health Service subsequent to September 16, 1940, and every male person not included in the first or the second of the priorities defined in section 4(i)(2) of the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended [now the Military Selective Service Act, formerly subsec. (i)(2) of this section], who has had active service in the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, or the Public Health Service subsequent to September 16, 1940, who on the day or any of the days hereafter fixed by the Director of Selective Service for his registration (a) shall have received from a school, college, university, or similar institution of learning one or more of the degrees of bachelor of medicine, doctor of medicine, doctor of dental surgery, doctor of dental medicine, doctor of veterinary surgery, and doctor of veterinary medicine, (b) is within any of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Territory of Alaska, the Territory of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands, (c) is not a member of any reserve component of the armed forces of the United States, and (d) shall not have attained the fiftieth anniversary of the day of his birth is required to and shall on that day or any of those days present himself for and submit to registration before a duly designated registration official or selective service local board having jurisdiction in the area in which he has his permanent home or in which he may happen to be on that day or any of those days.

4. The Director of Selective Service is hereby authorized and directed to fix the date or dates for the special registration required under paragraph numbered 3 hereof: Provided, that the date or dates so fixed shall be not later than January 16, 1951.

5. The Director of Selective Service is hereby authorized to require special registration of, and fix the date or dates of registration for, all other persons who are subject to registration under section 4(i) of the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended [subsection (i) of this section], and who are not required to register under or pursuant to this proclamation.

6. All orders and directives of the Director of Selective Service issued pursuant to paragraph numbered 4 or paragraph numbered 5 hereof shall be published in the Federal Register.

7. (a) A person subject to registration under or pursuant to this proclamation who, because of circumstances beyond his control, is unable to present himself for and submit to registration during the hours of the day or any of the days fixed for registration shall do so as soon as possible after the cause for such inability ceases to exist.

(b) Every person subject to registration under or pursuant to this proclamation who has registered in accordance with Proclamation No. 2799 of July 20, 1948 [formerly set out under section 453 of this Appendix], issued under the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended, [now the Military Selective Service Act] and the regulations prescribed thereunder, shall, notwithstanding such registration, present himself for and submit to registration as required by or pursuant to this proclamation.

(c) The duty of any person to present himself for and submit to registration in accordance with Proclamation No. 2799 of July 20, 1948, issued under the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended [now the Military Selective Service Act] and the regulations prescribed thereunder, shall not be affected by this proclamation.

8. Every person subject to registration under or pursuant to this proclamation is required to familiarize himself with the rules and regulations governing such registration and to comply therewith.

9. I call upon the Governors of each of the several States, the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands and the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia, and all officers and agents of the United States and all officers and agents of the several States, the Territories of Alaska and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia, and political subdivisions thereof, and all local boards and agents thereof appointed under the provisions of title I of the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended [now the Military Selective Service Act, sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], or the regulations prescribed thereunder, to do and perform all acts and services necessary to accomplish effective and complete registration.

10. In order that there may be full cooperation in carrying into effect the purposes of section 4(i) of title I of the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended [now the Military Selective Service Act, formerly subsec. (i) of this section], I urge all employers and Government agencies of all kinds—Federal, State, territorial, and local—to give those under their charge sufficient time in which to fulfill the obligations of registration incumbent upon them under the said Act and under or pursuant to this proclamation.

Proc. No. 2915. Exemptions From Registration

Proc. No. 2915, Dec. 28, 1950, 15 F.R. 9419, 64 Stat. 494, provided:

Proclamation No. 2906 of October 6, 1950 [set out above], be, and it is hereby, amended, effective as of October 6, 1950, so as to exempt from the force and effect thereof, until otherwise directed by the President by proclamation, (1) commissioned officers, warrant officers, pay clerks, enlisted men, and aviation cadets of the Regular Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the Public Health Service, and (2) aliens who are residing in the United States and have not declared their intention of becoming citizens of the United States and who are also in one of the following categories: (a) alien students admitted under subdivision (e) of section 4 of the Immigration Act approved May 26, 1924, as amended [former section 204 of Title 8 Aliens and Nationality], (b) aliens recognized as diplomatic, consular, military or civilian officials or employees of a foreign government and members of their families, (c) aliens who are officials or employees of a public international organization recognized under the International Organizations Immunities Act, approved December 29, 1945 (59 Stat. 669) [22 U.S.C. 288 et seq.], and members of their families, (d) aliens who have entered the United States and remain therein pursuant to the provisions of section 11 of the Agreement between the United Nations and the United States of America regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations, as approved in Public Law 357, 80th Congress (61 Stat. 756) [set out as a note under section 287 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse], (e) aliens who are nationals of a country with which there is in effect a treaty or international agreement exempting its nationals from military service while they are within the United States, or (f) other aliens whose admission to the United States is for a temporary stay only: Provided, That such exemption shall not continue after the cause thereof shall cease to exist.

§§454a, 454b. Omitted

Codification

Section 454a, acts Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, §4, 64 Stat. 828; June 29, 1953, ch. 158, §3, 67 Stat. 88; June 18, 1954, ch. 307, 68 Stat. 254; June 30, 1955, ch. 250, title II, §201, 69 Stat. 224, which provided for promotion of physicians, dentists, and allied specialist categories, period of service, and discharge and resignation of such personnel, expired on June 30, 1957. See sections 451 and 455 of this Appendix.

Section 454b, act Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, §6, 64 Stat. 828, which defined “allied specialist categories” as used in sections 454(i) and 454a of this Appendix, expired on June 30, 1957.

Termination Date

Section 7 of act Sept. 9, 1950, as amended by acts June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §2(b), 65 Stat. 88; June 29, 1953, §9; June 30, 1955, §201 and by Pub. L. 85–62, §8, June 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 208, provided that sections 454a and 454b of this Appendix shall terminate as of June 30, 1957.

§§454c, 454d. Omitted

Section 454c, act June 29, 1953, ch. 158, §4, 67 Stat. 88, provided for release, discharge, or resignation of special registrants who made application therefor on or before 90th day after June 29, 1953.

Section 454d, act June 29, 1953, ch. 158, §5, 67 Stat. 89, provided for extension of reserve commissions of certain doctors, dentists, and other special registrants.

§454e. Volunteer service of physicians and dentists; minimum period

Any physician or dentist who meets the qualifications for a reserve commission in the respective military departments shall, so long as there is a need for the services of such a physician or dentist, be afforded an opportunity to volunteer for a period of active duty of not less than twenty-four months. Any physician or dentist who so volunteers his service, and meets the qualifications for a reserve commission shall be ordered to active duty for not less than twenty-four months, notwithstanding the grade or rank to which such physician or dentist is entitled under the provisions of the Act of September 9, 1950, as amended.

(June 29, 1953, ch. 158, §7, 67 Stat. 89.)

References in Text

Act of September 9, 1950, as amended, referred to in text, is act Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, 64 Stat. 826, as amended. Section 7 of the Act, as amended (71 Stat. 208), provided that the Act, except for sections 3 and 5, shall terminate as of June 30, 1957. Section 3 of the Act amended section 202 of the National Security Act of 1947, by adding subsections (g) to (i) which were classified to section 171a(g) to (i) of former Title 5 and which were later omitted from the Code following the codification of section 202(a) to (f) and (j) of the National Security Act of 1947 in Title 10, Armed Forces, by Pub. L. 87–651, Sept. 7, 1972, 76 Stat. 506. Section 5 of the Act was classified to section 234b of former Title 37, and was later omitted from the Code following the enactment of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services, by Pub. L. 87–649, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 451.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Military Selective Service Act, title I of which comprises sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix.

§455. Manner of selection of men for training and service; quotas

(a)(1) The selection of persons for training and service under section 4 [section 454 of this Appendix] shall be made in an impartial manner, under such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe, from the persons who are liable for such training and service and who at the time of selection are registered and classified, but not deferred or exempted: Provided, That in the selection of persons for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], and in the interpretation and execution of the provisions of this title [said sections], there shall be no discrimination against any person on account of race or color: Provided further, That in the classification of registrants within the jurisdiction of any local board, the registrants of any particular registration may be classified, in the manner prescribed by and in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the President, before, together with, or after the registrants of any prior registration or registrations; and in the selection for induction of persons within the jurisdiction of any local board and within any particular classification, persons who were registered at any particular registration may be selected, in the manner prescribed by and in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the President, before, together with, or after persons who were registered at any prior registration or registrations: And provided further, That nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit the selection or induction of persons by age group or groups under rules and regulations prescribed by the President: And provided further, That—

(1) no local board shall order for induction for training and service in the Armed Forces of the United States any person who has not attained the age of nineteen unless there is not within the jurisdiction of such local board a sufficient number of persons who are deemed by such local board to be available for induction and who have attained the age of nineteen to enable such local board to meet a call for men which it has been ordered to furnish for induction;

(2) no local board shall order for induction for training and service in the Armed Forces of the United States any person who has not attained the age of nineteen, if there is any person within the jurisdiction of such local board who (i) is as much as ninety days older, (ii) has not attained the age of nineteen, and (iii) is deemed by the local board to be available for induction; and

(3) no local board shall order for induction for training and service in the Armed Forces of the United States an alien unless such alien shall have resided in the United States for one year.


(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 91–124, §2, Nov. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 220.

(b) Quotas of men to be inducted for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall be determined for each State, Territory, possession, and the District of Columbia, and for subdivisions thereof, on the basis of the actual number of men in the several States, Territories, possessions, and the District of Columbia, and the subdivisions thereof, who are liable for such training and service but who are not deferred after classification, except that credits shall be given in fixing such quotas for residents of such subdivisions who are in the armed forces of the United States on the date fixed for determining such quotas. After such quotas are fixed, credits shall be given in filling such quotas for residents of such subdivisions who subsequently become members of such forces. Until the actual numbers necessary for determining the quotas are known, the quotas may be based on estimates, and subsequent adjustments therein shall be made when such actual numbers are known. All computations under this subsection shall be made in accordance with such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe.

(c) Terminated

(d) Whenever the President has provided for the selection of persons for training and service in accordance with random selection under subsection (a) of this section, calls for induction may be placed under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, not more than 130,000 persons may be inducted into the Armed Forces under this Act in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, and not more than 140,000 in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, unless a number greater than that authorized in this subsection for such fiscal year or years is authorized by a law enacted after the date of enactment of this subsection [Sept. 28, 1971].

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §5, 62 Stat. 608; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(k), 65 Stat. 83; Pub. L. 85–62, §§4, 5, June 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 207; Pub. L. 90–40, §1(3), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 100; Pub. L. 91–124, §2, Nov. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 220; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(8), (9), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 349.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (e), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

Amendments

1971—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(8), added cl. (3) covering induction orders for aliens residing in the United States for one year, to last proviso.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(9), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–124 repealed cl. (2) which prohibited President from effecting any change in method of determining relative order of induction.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–40 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1957—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–62, §§4, 9, temporarily, substituted third and fourth provisos for former third proviso “that nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit the selection or induction of persons by age group or groups under rules and regulations prescribed by the President:”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–62, §§5, 9, temporarily added subsec. (c). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment note below.

1951—Subsec. (a). Act June 19, 1951, inserted last two provisos.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–62 to take effect on July 1, 1957, and terminate on July 1, 1973, see section 9 of Pub. L. 85–62, set out as a note under section 454 of this Appendix.

Proc. No. 3945. Random Selection for Military Service

Proc. No. 3945, Nov. 26, 1969, 34 F.R. 19017, 83 Stat. 972, provided:

WHEREAS section 5(a)(1) of the Military Selective Service Act of 1967, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 455(a)(1)) [now the Military Selective Service Act], provides that selection of persons for training and service under that Act shall be made in an impartial manner without discrimination on account of race or color, under such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe; and

WHEREAS section 5(a)(2) of that Act (50 U.S.C. App. 455(a)(2)) limited the President's authority to prescribe rules and regulations by requiring, in effect, the selection of registrants through a method known as “oldest first”; and

WHEREAS such section 5(a)(2) has been repealed by Public Law 91–124 of November 26, 1969:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, RICHARD NIXON, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 5(a) of the Military Selective Service Act of 1967, as amended, and having determined that a method of random selection will provide the most equitable basis for selection of registrants for military training and service, do hereby proclaim the following:

That a random selection sequence will be established by a drawing to be conducted in Washington, D.C., on December 1, 1969, and will be applied nationwide. The random selection method will use 366 days to represent the birthdays (month and day only) of all registrants who, prior to January 1, 1970, shall have attained their nineteenth year of age but not their twenty-sixth. The drawing, commencing with the first day selected and continuing until all 366 days are drawn, shall be accomplished impartially.

On the day designated above, a supplemental drawing or drawings will be conducted to determine alphabetically the random selection sequence by name among registrants who have the same birthday.

The random selection sequence obtained as described above shall determine the order of selection of registrants who prior to January 1, 1970, shall have attained their nineteenth year of age but not their twenty-sixth and who are not volunteers and not delinquents. New random selection sequences shall be established, in a similar manner, for registrants who attain their nineteenth year of age on or after January 1, 1970.

The random sequence number determined for any registrant shall apply to him so long as he remains subject to induction for military training and service by random selection.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth day of November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and ninety-fourth.

Richard Nixon.      

§456. Deferments and exemptions from training and service

(a)(1) Commissioned officers, warrant officers, pay clerks, enlisted men, and aviation cadets of the Regular Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, and the Environmental Science Services Administration; 1 cadets, United States Military Academy; midshipmen, United States Naval Academy; cadets, United States Air Force Academy; cadets, United States Coast Guard Academy; midshipmen, Merchant Marine Reserve, members of the United States Navy Reserve; students enrolled in an officer procurement program at military colleges the curriculum of which is approved by the Secretary of Defense; members of the reserve components of the Armed Forces and the Coast Guard, while on active duty; and foreign diplomatic representatives, technical attachés of foreign embassies and legations, consuls general, consuls, vice consuls and other consular agents of foreign countries who are not citizens of the United States, and members of their families, and persons in other categories to be specified by the President who are not citizens of the United States, shall not be required to be registered under section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix] and shall be relieved from liability for training and service under section 4 [section 454 of this Appendix], except that aliens admitted for permanent residence in the United States shall not be so exempted: Provided, That any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence as defined in paragraph (20) of section 101(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (66 Stat. 163, 8 U.S.C. 1101), and who by reason of occupational status is subject to adjustment to nonimmigrant status under paragraph (15)(A), (15)(E), or (15)(G) of such section 101(a) [8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(A), (E), or (G)] but who executes a waiver in accordance with section 247(b) of that Act [8 U.S.C. 1257(b)] of all rights, privileges, exemptions, and immunities which would otherwise accrue to him as a result of that occupational status, shall be subject to registration under section 3 of this Act [section 453 of this Appendix], but shall be deferred from induction for training and service for so long as such occupational status continues. Any person who subsequent to June 24, 1948, serves on active duty for a period of not less than twelve months in the armed forces of a nation with which the United States is associated in mutual defense activities as defined by the President, may be exempted from training and service, but not from registration, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the President, except that no such exemption shall be granted to any person who is a national of a country which does not grant reciprocal privileges to citizens of the United States: Provided, That any active duty performed prior to June 24, 1948, by a person in the armed forces of a country allied with the United States during World War II and with which the United States is associated in such mutual defense activities, shall be credited in the computation of such twelve-month period: Provided further, That any person who is in a medical, dental, or allied specialist category not otherwise deferred or exempted under this subsection shall be liable for registration and training and service until the thirty-fifth anniversary of the date of his birth.

(2) Commissioned officers of the Public Health Service and members of the Reserve of the Public Health Service while on active duty and assigned to staff the various offices and bureaus of the Public Health Service, including the National Institutes of Health, or assigned to the Coast Guard, the Bureau of Prisons, Department of Justice, the Environmental Protection Agency, or the Environmental Science Services Administration 1 or who are assigned to assist Indian tribes, groups, bands, or communities pursuant to the Act of August 5, 1954 (68 Stat. 674), as amended [42 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.], shall not be required to be registered under section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix] and shall be relieved from liability for training and service under section 4 [section 454 of this Appendix]. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, commissioned officers of the Public Health Service and members of the Reserve of the Public Health Service who, prior to the enactment of this paragraph [June 30, 1967], had been detailed or assigned to duty other than that specified in the preceding sentence shall not be required to be registered under section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix] and shall be relieved from liability for training and service under section 4 [section 454 of this Appendix].

(b)(1) No person who served honorably on active duty between September 16, 1940, and the date of enactment of this title [June 24, 1948] for a period of twelve months or more, or between December 7, 1941, and September 2, 1945, for a period in excess of ninety days, in the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the Public Health Service, or the armed forces of any country allied with the United States in World War II prior to September 2, 1945, shall be liable for induction for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], except after a declaration of war or national emergency made by the Congress subsequent to the date of enactment of this title [June 24, 1948].

(2) No person who served honorably on active duty between September 16, 1940, and the date of enactment of this title [June 24, 1948] for a period of ninety days or more but less than twelve months in the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the Public Health Service, or the armed forces of any country allied with the United States in World War II prior to September 2, 1945, shall be liable for induction for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], except after a declaration of war or national emergency made by the Congress subsequent to the date of enactment of this title [June 24, 1948], if—

(A) the local board determines that he is regularly enlisted or commissioned in any organized unit of a reserve component of the armed force in which he served, provided such unit is reasonably accessible to such person without unduly interrupting his normal pursuits and activities (including attendance at a college or university in which he is regularly enrolled), or in a reserve component (other than in an organized unit) of such armed force in any case in which enlistment or commission in an organized unit of a reserve component of such armed force is not available to him; or

(B) the local board determines that enlistment or commission in a reserve component of such armed force is not available to him or that he has voluntarily enlisted or accepted appointment in an organized unit of a reserve component of an armed force other than the armed force in which he served.


Nothing in this paragraph shall be deemed to be applicable to any person to whom paragraph (1) of this subsection is applicable.

(3) Except as provided in section 5(a) of this Act [section 455(a) of this Appendix], and notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, no person who (A) has served honorably on active duty after September 16, 1940, for a period of not less than one year in the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, or the Coast Guard, or (B) subsequent to September 16, 1940, was discharged for the convenience of the Government after having served honorably on active duty for a period of not less than six months in the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, or the Coast Guard, or (C) has served for a period of not less than twenty-four months (i) as a commissioned officer in the Public Health Service or (ii) as a commissioned officer in the Coast and Geodetic Survey,2 shall be liable for induction for training and service under this Act, except after a declaration of war or national emergency made by the Congress subsequent to the date of enactment of this title [June 24, 1948].

(4) No person who is honorably discharged upon the completion of an enlistment pursuant to section 4(c) [section 454(c) of this Appendix] shall be liable for induction for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], except after a declaration of war or national emergency made by the Congress subsequent to the date of enactment of this title [June 24, 1948].

(5) For the purposes of computation of the periods of active duty referred to in paragraphs (1), (2), or (3) of this subsection, no credit shall be allowed for—

(A) periods of active duty training performed as a member of a reserve component pursuant to an order or call to active duty solely for training purposes;

(B) periods of active duty in which the service consisted solely of training under the Army specialized training program, the Army Air Force college training program, or any similar program under the jurisdiction of the Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard;

(C) periods of active duty as a cadet at the United States Military Academy or United States Coast Guard Academy, or as a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, or in a preparatory school after nomination as a principal, alternate, or candidate for admission to any of such academies; or

(D) periods of active duty in any of the armed forces while being processed for entry into or separation from any educational program or institution referred to in paragraphs (B) or (C);


(c)(1) Persons who, on February 1, 1951, were members of organized units of the federally recognized National Guard, the federally recognized Air National Guard, the Officers’ Reserve Corps, the Regular Army Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, the Enlisted Reserve Corps, the Naval Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Coast Guard Reserve, or the Public Health Service Reserve, shall, so long as they continue to be such members and satisfactorily participate in scheduled drills and training periods as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, be exempt from training and service by induction under the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], but shall not be exempt from registration unless on active duty.

(2)(A) Any person, other than a person referred to in subsection (d) of this section, who—

(i) prior to the issuance of orders for him to report for induction; or

(ii) prior to the date scheduled for his induction and pursuant to a proclamation by the Governor of a State to the effect that the authorized strength of any organized unit of the National Guard of that State cannot be maintained by the enlistment or appointment of persons who have not been issued orders to report for induction under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix]; or

(iii) prior to the date scheduled for his induction and pursuant to a determination by the President that the strength of the Ready Reserve of the Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve cannot be maintained by the enlistment or appointment of persons who have not been issued orders to report for induction under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix];


enlists or accepts appointment, before attaining the age of 26 years, in the Ready Reserve of any Reserve component of the Armed Forces, the Army National Guard, or the Air National Guard, shall be deferred from training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] so long as he serves satisfactorily as a member of an organized unit of such Reserve or National Guard in accordance with section 10147 of title 10 or section 502 of title 32, United States Code, as the case may be, or satisfactorily performs such other Ready Reserve service as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. Enlistments or appointments under subparagraphs (ii) and (iii) of this clause may be accepted notwithstanding the provisions of section 15(d) of this title [section 465(d) of this Appendix]. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (h) of this section, no person deferred under this clause who has completed six years of such satisfactory service as a member of the Ready Reserve or National Guard, and who during such service has performed active duty for training with an armed force for not less than twelve consecutive weeks, shall be liable for induction for training and service under this Act, except after a declaration of war or national emergency made by the Congress after August 9, 1955. In no event shall the number of enlistments or appointments made under authority of this paragraph in any fiscal year in any Reserve component of the Armed Forces or in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard cause the personnel strength of such Reserve component or the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard, as the case may be, to exceed the personnel strength for which funds have been made available by the Congress for such fiscal year.

(B) A person who, under any provision of law, is exempt or deferred from training and service under this Act by reason of membership in a reserve component, the Army National Guard, or the Air National Guard, as the case may be, shall, if he becomes a member of another reserve component, the Army National Guard, or the Air National Guard, as the case may be, continue to be exempt or deferred to the same extent as if he had not become a member of another reserve component, the Army National Guard, or the Air National Guard, as the case may be, so long as he continues to serve satisfactorily.

(C) Except as provided in subsection (b) and the provisions of this subsection, no person who becomes a member of a reserve component after February 1, 1951, shall thereby be exempt from registration or training and service by induction under the provisions of this Act.

(D) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the President, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, may provide that any person enlisted or appointed after October 4, 1961, in the Ready Reserve of any reserve component of the Armed Forces (other than under section 12103 of title 10, United States Code), the Army National Guard, or the Air National Guard, prior to attaining age of twenty-six years, or any person enlisted or appointed in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard or enlisted in the Ready Reserve of any reserve component prior to attaining the age of eighteen years and six months and deferred under the prior provisions of this paragraph as amended by the Act of October 4, 1961, Public Law 87–378 (75 Stat. 807), or under section 262 of the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952, as amended [50 U.S.C. 1013], who fails to serve satisfactorily during his obligated period of service as a member of such Ready Reserve or National Guard or the Ready Reserve of another reserve component or the National Guard of which he becomes a member, may be selected for training and service and inducted into the armed force of which such reserve component is a part, prior to the selection and induction of other persons liable therefor.

(d)(1) Within such numbers as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, any person who (A) has been or may hereafter be selected for enrollment or continuance in the senior division, Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, or the Air Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, or the Naval Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, or the naval and Marine Corps officer candidate training program established by the Act of August 13, 1946 (60 Stat. 1057), as amended, or the Reserve officers’ candidate program of the Navy, or the platoon leaders’ class of the Marine Corps, or the officer procurement programs of the Coast Guard and the Coast Guard Reserve, or appointed an ensign, United States Navy Reserve, while undergoing professional training; (B) agrees, in writing, to accept a commission, if tendered, and to serve, subject to order of the Secretary of the military department having jurisdiction over him (or the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the United States Coast Guard), not less than two years on active duty after receipt of a commission; and (C) agrees to remain a member of a regular or reserve component until the eighth anniversary of the receipt of a commission in accordance with his obligation under the first sentence of section 651 of title 10, United States Code, or until the sixth anniversary of the receipt of a commission in accordance with his obligation under the second sentence of section 651 of title 10, United States Code, shall be deferred from induction under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] until after completion or termination of the course of instruction and so long as he continues in a regular or reserve status upon being commissioned, but shall not be exempt from registration. Such persons, except those persons who have previously completed an initial period of military training or an equivalent period of active military training and service, shall be required while enrolled in such programs to complete a period of training equal (as determined under regulations approved by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the United States Coast Guard) in duration and type of training to an initial period of military training. There shall be added to the obligated active commissioned service of any person who has agreed to perform such obligatory service in return for financial assistance while attending a civilian college under any such training program a period of not to exceed one year. Except as provided in paragraph (5), upon the successful completion by any person of the required course of instruction under any program listed in clause (A) of the first sentence of this paragraph, such person shall be tendered a commission in the appropriate reserve component of the Armed Forces if he is otherwise qualified for such appointment. If, at the time of, or subsequent to, such appointment, the armed force in which such person is commissioned does not require his service on active duty in fulfillment of the obligation undertaken by him in compliance with clause (B) of the first sentence of this paragraph, such person shall be ordered to active duty for training with such armed force in the grade in which he was commissioned for a period of active duty for training of not more than six months (not including duty performed under section 10147 of title 10, United States Code), as determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned to be necessary to qualify such person for a mobilization assignment. Upon being commissioned and assigned to a reserve component, such person shall be required to serve therein, or in a reserve component of any other armed force in which he is later appointed, until the eighth anniversary of the receipt of such commission pursuant to the provisions of this section. So long as such person performs satisfactory service, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, he shall be deferred from training and service under the provisions of this Act. If such person fails to perform satisfactory service, and such failure is not excused under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, his commission may be revoked by the Secretary of the military department concerned.

(2) In addition to the training programs enumerated in paragraph (1) of this subsection, and under such regulations as the Secretary of Defense (or the Secretary of the Treasury 3 with respect to the United States Coast Guard) may approve, the Secretaries of the military departments and the Secretary of the Treasury 3 are authorized to establish officer candidate programs leading to the commissioning of persons on active duty. Any person heretofore or hereafter enlisted in the Army Reserve, the Navy Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, or the Coast Guard Reserve who thereafter has been or may be commissioned therein upon graduation from an Officers’ Candidate School of such Armed Force shall, if not ordered to active duty as a commissioned officer, be deferred from training and service under the provisions of this Act so long as he performs satisfactory service as a commissioned officer in an appropriate unit of the Ready Reserve, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the department concerned. If such person fails to perform satisfactory service in such unit, and such failure is not excused under such regulations, his commission may be revoked by such Secretary.

(3) Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to preclude the President from providing, by regulations prescribed under subsection (h) of this section, for the deferment from training and service of any category or categories of students for such periods of time as he may deem appropriate.

(4) Omitted.

(5) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), upon the successful completion by any person of the required course of instruction under any Reserve Officers’ Training Corps program listed in clause (A) of the first sentence of paragraph (1) and subject to the approval of the Secretary of the military department having jurisdiction over him, such person may, without being relieved of his obligation under that sentence, be tendered, and accept, a commission in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration instead of a commission in the appropriate reserve component of the Armed Forces. If he does not serve on active duty as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for at least six years, he shall, upon discharge therefrom, be tendered a commission in the appropriate reserve component of the Armed Forces, if he is otherwise qualified for such appointment, and, in fulfillment of his obligation under the first sentence of paragraph (1), remain a member of a reserve component until the sixth anniversary of the receipt of his commission in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. While a member of a reserve component he may, in addition to as otherwise provided by law, be ordered to active duty for such period that, when added to the period he served on active duty as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, equals two years.

(e) Fully qualified and accepted aviation cadet applicants of the Army, Navy, or Air Force who have signed an agreement of service shall, in such numbers as may be designated by the Secretary of Defense, be deferred, during the period covered by the agreement but not to exceed four months, from induction for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] but shall not be exempt from registration.

(f) The Vice President of the United States; the governors of the several States, Territories, and possessions, and all other officials chosen by the voters of the entire State, Territory, or possession; members of the legislative bodies of the United States and of the several States, Territories, and possessions; judges of the courts of record of the United States and of the several States, Territories, possessions, and the District of Columbia shall, while holding such offices, be deferred from training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] in the armed forces of the United States.

(g)(1) Regular or duly ordained ministers of religion, as defined in this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], shall be exempt from training and service, but not from registration, under this title [said sections].

(2) Students preparing for the ministry under the direction of recognized churches or religious organizations, who are satisfactorily pursuing full-time courses of instruction in recognized theological or divinity schools, or who are satisfactorily pursuing full-time courses of instruction leading to their entrance into recognized theological or divinity schools in which they have been preenrolled, shall be deferred from training and service, but not from registration, under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix]. Persons who are or may be deferred under the provisions of this subsection shall remain liable for training and service in the Armed Forces under the provisions of section 4(a) of this Act [section 454(a) of this Appendix] until the thirty-fifth anniversary of the date of their birth. The foregoing sentence shall not be construed to prevent the exemption or continued deferment of such persons if otherwise exempted or deferrable under any other provision of this Act.

(h) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection the President is authorized, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, to provide for the deferment from training and service in the Armed Forces of any or all categories of persons whose employment in industry, agriculture, or other occupations or employment, or whose continued service in an Office (other than an Office described in subsection (f)) under the United States or any State, territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, or whose activity in study, research, or medical, dental, veterinary, optometric, osteopathic, scientific, pharmaceutical, chiropractic, chiropodial, or other endeavors is found to be necessary to the maintenance of the national health, safety, or interest: Provided, That no person within any such category shall be deferred except upon the basis of his individual status: Provided further, That persons who are or may be deferred under the provisions of this section shall remain liable for training and service in the Armed Forces under the provisions of section 4(a) of this Act [section 454(a) of this Appendix] until the thirty-fifth anniversary of the date of their birth. This proviso shall not be construed to prevent the continued deferment of such persons if otherwise deferrable under any other provisions of this Act. The President is also authorized, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, to provide for the deferment from training and service in the Armed Forces (1) of any or all categories of persons in a status with respect to persons (other than wives alone, except in cases of extreme hardship) dependent upon them for support which renders their deferment advisable, and (2) of any or all categories of those persons found to be physically, mentally, or morally deficient or defective. For the purpose of determining whether or not the deferment of any person is advisable, because of his status with respect to persons dependent upon him for support, any payments of allowances which are payable by the United States to the dependents of persons serving in the Armed Forces of the United States shall be taken into consideration, but the fact that such payments of allowances are payable shall not be deemed conclusively to remove the grounds for deferment when the dependency is based upon financial considerations and shall not be deemed to remove the ground for deferment when the dependency is based upon other than financial considerations and cannot be eliminated by financial assistance to the dependents. Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the President is also authorized, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, to provide for the deferment from training and service in the Armed Forces of any or all categories of persons who have children, or wives and children, with whom they maintain a bona fide family relationship in their homes. No deferment from such training and service in the Armed Forces shall be made in the case of any individual except upon the basis of the status of such individual. There shall be posted in a conspicuous place at the office of each local board a list setting forth the names and classifications of those persons who have been classified by such local board. The President may, in carrying out the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], recommend criteria for the classification of persons subject to induction under this title [said sections], and to the extent that such action is determined by the President to be consistent with the national interest, recommend that such criteria be administered uniformly throughout the United States whenever practicable; except that no local board, appeal board, or other agency of appeal of the Selective Service System shall be required to postpone or defer any person by reason of his activity in study, research, or medical, dental, veterinary, optometric, osteopathic, scientific, pharmaceutical, chiropractic, chiropodial, or other endeavors found to be necessary to the maintenance of the national health, safety, or interest solely on the basis of any test, examination, selection system, class standing, or any other means conducted, sponsored, administered, or prepared by any agency or department of the Federal Government, or any private institution, corporation, association, partnership, or individual employed by an agency or department of the Federal Government.

(i)(1) Any person who is satisfactorily pursuing a full-time course of instruction at a high school or similar institution of learning and is issued an order for induction shall, upon the facts being presented to the local board, have his induction postponed (A) until the time of his graduation therefrom, or (B) until he attains the twentieth anniversary of his birth, or (C) until he ceases satisfactorily to pursue such course of instruction, whichever is the earliest. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any person who attains the twentieth anniversary of his birth after beginning his last academic year of high school shall have his induction postponed until the end of that academic year if and so long as he continues to pursue satisfactorily a full-time course of instruction.

(2) Any person who while satisfactorily pursuing a full-time course of instruction at a college, university, or similar institution is ordered to report for induction under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], shall, upon the appropriate facts being presented to the local board, have his induction postponed (A) until the end of the semester or term, or academic year in the case of his last academic year, or (B) until he ceases satisfactorily to pursue such course of instruction, whichever is the earlier.

(j) Nothing contained in this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall be construed to require any person to be subject to combatant training and service in the armed forces of the United States who, by reason of religious training and belief, is conscientiously opposed to participation in war in any form. As used in this subsection, the term “religious training and belief” does not include essentially political, sociological, or philosophical views, or a merely personal moral code. Any person claiming exemption from combatant training and service because of such conscientious objections whose claim is sustained by the local board shall, if he is inducted into the armed forces under this title [said sections], be assigned to noncombatant service as defined by the President, or shall, if he is found to be conscientiously opposed to participation in such noncombatant service, in lieu of such induction, be ordered by his local board, subject to such regulations as the President may prescribe, to perform for a period equal to the period prescribed in section 4(b) [section 454(b) of this Appendix] such civilian work contributing to the maintenance of the national health, safety, or interest as the Director may deem appropriate and any such person who knowingly fails or neglects to obey any such order from his local board shall be deemed, for the purposes of section 12 of this title [section 462 of this Appendix], to have knowingly failed or neglected to perform a duty required of him under this title [said sections]. The Director shall be responsible for finding civilian work for persons exempted from training and service under this subsection and for the placement of such persons in appropriate civilian work contributing to the maintenance of the national health, safety, or interest.

(k) No exception from registration, or exemption or deferment from training and service, under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], shall continue after the cause therefor ceases to exist.

(l) Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, no person between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one shall be discharged from service in the armed forces of the United States while this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] is in effect because such person entered such service without the consent of his parent or guardian.

(m) No person shall be relieved from training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] by reason of conviction of a criminal offense, except where the offense of which he has been convicted may be punished by death, or by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year.

(n) In the case of any registrant whose principal place of employment is located outside the appeal board area in which the local board having jurisdiction over the registrant is located, any occupational deferment made under subsection (h) of this section may, within five days after such deferment is made, be submitted for review and decision to the appeal board having jurisdiction over the area in which is located the principal place of employment of the registrant. Such decision of the appeal board shall be final unless modified or changed by the President, and such decision shall be made public.

(o) Except during the period of a war or a national emergency declared by Congress, no person may be inducted for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] unless he volunteers for such induction—

(1) if the father or the mother or a brother or a sister of such person was killed in action or died in line of duty while serving in the Armed Forces after December 31, 1959, or died subsequent to such date as a result of injuries received or disease incurred in line of duty during such service, or

(2) during any period of time in which the father or the mother or a brother or a sister of such person is in a captured or missing status as a result of such service.


As used in this subsection, the term “brother” or “sister” means a brother of the whole blood or a sister of the whole blood, as the case may be.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §6, 62 Stat. 609; Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1059, §1(6), 64 Stat. 1074; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(l)–(q), 65 Stat. 83; June 30, 1955, ch. 250, title I, §101, 69 Stat. 223; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 665, §3(b)–(d), 69 Stat. 603, 604; Pub. L. 85–62, §§6, 7, June 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 85–722, Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 87–378, §1, Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 807; Pub. L. 87–536, July 18, 1962, 76 Stat. 167; Pub. L. 88–110, §2, Sept. 3, 1963, 77 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 88–360, July 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 296; Pub. L. 90–40, §1(4)–(7), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 100–102, 104; Pub. L. 91–604, §15(b)(8)(B), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1712; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(10)–(22), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 349–351; Pub. L. 93–638, title I, §104(c), formerly §105(c), Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2208, renumbered §104(c), Pub. L. 100–472, title II, §203(a), Oct. 5, 1988, 102 Stat. 2290; Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §802(d), Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 537; Pub. L. 96–584, §3(a), Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3377; Pub. L. 98–525, title XV, §1531, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2631; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1677(f), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3020; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(e)(11)(C), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2315; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(3)(A), (h), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236, 3237.)

References in Text

Act of August 5, 1954 (68 Stat. 674), as amended, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act Aug. 5, 1954, ch. 658, 68 Stat. 674, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§2001 et seq.) of chapter 22 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3), (b)(3), (c)(2)(A) to (D), (d)(1), (2), (g)(2), and (h), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

Section 262 of the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952, as amended [50 U.S.C. 1013], referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(D), was repealed by Pub. L. 88–110, §1, Sept. 3, 1963, 77 Stat. 134.

Act of August 13, 1946 (60 Stat. 1057), as amended, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is act Aug. 13, 1946, ch. 962, 60 Stat. 1057, as amended. The Act was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641, section 1 of which enacted Title 10, Armed Forces. Provisions of the 1946 Act relating to the naval and Marine Corps officer candidate training program were reenacted in sections 6903 to 6908 of Title 10. Sections 6903 to 6908 of Title 10 were repealed by Pub. L. 88–647, §301(17), Oct. 13, 1964, 78 Stat. 1072, and replaced by chapters 102 and 103 of Title 10.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(3)(A), substituted “members of the United States Navy Reserve” for “United States Naval Reserves”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–163, §515(h), substituted “United States Navy Reserve” for “United States Naval Reserve”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–163, §515(h), substituted “Navy Reserve” for “Naval Reserve”.

2002—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation” in two places.

1994—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–337, §1677(f)(1), substituted “section 10147 of title 10” for “section 270 of title 10” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 103–337, §1677(f)(2), substituted “section 12103 of title 10” for “section 511(b) of title 10”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–337, §1677(f)(3), substituted “section 10147 of title 10” for “section 270(a) of title 10”.

1984—Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 98–525 inserted reference to mother in cls. (1) and (2), exempting from induction any person whose mother was killed in line of duty.

1980—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 96–584 struck out minimum active duty requirement of not less than three months.

1975—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 93–638 inserted provision relating to assignment of personnel to assist Indian tribes, groups, bands or communities.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 94–106, in provisions relating to deferment of certain persons from induction who completed six years of active service as members of the Ready Reserve or National Guard, substituted requirement of performance of active duty for training with an armed force for not less than twelve consecutive weeks during such service for requirement of performance of such active duty for not less than four consecutive months.

1971—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(10), (11), inserted proviso making subject to registration an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence who by reason of occupational status is subject to adjustment to non-immigrant status but who executes a waiver of all rights, privileges, exemptions, and immunities which would otherwise accrue to him as a result of that occupational status, and granting a deferment from induction to such alien for so long as such occupational status continues, and substituted “twelve months” for “eighteen months” as the period of requisite service in the armed forces of a nation with which the United States is associated in mutual defense activities in order to gain an exemption from training and service.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(12), substituted reference to “section 5(a) of this Act [section 455(a) of this Appendix]” for reference to “section 4(i) of this Act [section 454(i) of this Appendix]”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(13), struck out reference to section 4(g) [section 454(g) of this Appendix].

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(14), substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury” and “section 651 of Title 10” for “section 4(d)(3) of this Act”, respectively.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(15), reflected creation of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and transfer to such newly created Administration of former Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(16), changed from an exemption to a deferment the status to be accorded divinity students, with such students to remain liable for training and service until their 35th birthday.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(17), (18), struck out provisions formerly designated as par. (1) which had covered college student deferments, struck the designation “(2)” preceding the remaining provisions which had theretofore been designated par. (2), and, in such provisions, struck out reference to deferments for persons engaged in graduate study.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(19), substituted provisions allowing a postponement of induction for high school students for provisions creating a deferment for such students and inserted provisions allowing an additional postponement of induction until the end of the academic year for high school students who turn 20 during their last year of high school provided that they continue to pursue satisfactorily a full-time course of instruction.

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 91–129, §101(a)(20), substituted provisions allowing a postponement of induction for college students for provisions creating a deferment for such students and struck out references to previous deferments and postponements and to the President's former authority to allow for student deferments.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(21), substituted “Director” for “local board pursuant to Presidential regulations” and inserted sentence charging the Director with the responsibility for finding civilian work for persons exempted from training and service and for their placement in appropriate civilian work.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(22), inserted provisions for an exemption from training and service during a period of time in which the father or a brother or sister of a person is in a captured or missing status and struck out provisions limiting the exemption from service provided under this subsection to the sole surviving son of the family.

1970—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–604 inserted “the Environmental Protection Agency,” after “Department of Justice,”.

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(5), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Environmental Science Services Administration” for “Coast and Geodetic Survey”, removed commissioned officers, warrant officers, pay clerks, enlisted men, aviation cadets, and, while on active duty, members of the reserve component, of the Public Health Service from the list of enumerated personnel relieved from the registration requirement of section 453 and the training and service requirement of section 454, added cadets, United States Air Force Academy, to such lists, and inserted proviso that a person in a medical, dental, or allied specialist category not otherwise deferred or exempted under subsec. (a) be liable for registration, training, and service until the thirty-fifth anniversary of the date of his birth, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(4), gave standby authority to both the Governors of the individual States, in the case of the National Guard, and to the President, in the case of the other reserve components, to permit the voluntary enlistment of registrants into these components during the period following their receipt of an induction notice and the date required for their actual induction, provided that there had previously issued a proclamation that the Governor or the President is not otherwise able to maintain the personnel strengths of the respective components.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(6), established uniform criteria for all undergraduate deferments to continue only until a registrant receives a baccalaureate degree, fails to pursue a full-time course of instruction satisfactorily, or reaches the age of 24, whichever occurs first, at which point students are required to be exposed to the hazards of induction in the prime age group in the same manner as their contemporaries who had not been provided student deferments, continued the President's wide latitude in providing deferments for graduate students in medicine, dentistry, or other subjects deemed essential to the national health, safety, or interest, continued the President's authority to prescribe areas of deferment based upon occupations or professions essential to the national interest, and called for greater uniformity in the administration of classification criteria for persons subject to induction.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(7), struck out provision that religious training and belief stem from the individual's belief in a relation to a Supreme Being involving duties superior to those arising from any human relationship, and struck out requirement for a hearing by the Department of Justice when there is an appeal from a local board decision denying conscientious objector status.

1964—Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 88–360 exempted sole surviving sons from induction in cases where the father was killed in action or in line of duty, permitted the sole surviving son to volunteer for induction, and terminated the exemption during time of war or national emergency thereafter declared by Congress.

1963—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 88–110, among other changes, authorized deferment of persons who prior to attaining age 26 and to the issuance of induction orders enlisted or accepted appointment in the Ready Reserve of any reserve component, Army National Guard, or Air National Guard, and served satisfactorily, exempted such persons from induction after completing 6 years service and who during such service performed active duty for training for not less than 4 consecutive months, and struck out provisions which deferred persons who prior to attaining 18 years and 6 months of age, and prior to issuance of induction orders, enlisted or accepted appointment in any organized unit of the National Guard, exempted such persons from training and service by reason of subsec. (h) of this section after they attained age 28, or who completed 8 years of service in such unit and performed active duty for training for not less than 3 consecutive months, authorized the President to accept enlistments in the Ready Reserve, whenever he determined its strength could not be maintained at a necessary level for defense, of persons who had not attained age 18 years and 6 months, and who had not been ordered to report for induction, and exempted such persons from liability under subsec. (h) of this section after attaining age 28 years, permitted volunteers to perform a period of active duty pursuant to section 1013 of Title 50, and exempted such persons from induction after serving 8 years in the Ready Reserve.

1962—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–536 inserted “Except as provided in paragraph (5),” before “upon the successful completion by any person” and added par. (5).

1961—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 87–378, §1(1), included members of the National Guard deferred by clause (A) of this paragraph, or any person enlisted or appointed in the Ready Reserve of any reserve component other than under section 511(b) of this title, the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard after Oct. 4, 1961, but prior to attaining age 26, who fail to serve satisfactorily as a member of their components within clause (E) of this paragraph, and struck out “or appointed” after “may provide that any person enlisted”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 87–378, §1(2), substituted “If, at the time of, or subsequent to, such appointment” for “If, at the time of such appointment”, changed the period of active duty for training in grade, where the armed force in which such person is commissioned does not require his service on active duty, from 6 months to a period of not less than 3 months or more than 6 months, not including duty performed under section 270(a) of Title 10, Armed Forces, as is determined to qualify such person for a mobilization assignment, and substituted the requirement that upon being commissioned and assigned to a reserve component, such person must serve therein, or in a reserve component of any other armed force in which he is later appointed, for provisions which required such person to be returned to inactive duty and assigned to an appropriate reserve unit upon completion of the required period of active duty for training.

1958—Subsec. (c)(2)(F). Pub. L. 85–722 added subpar. (F).

1957—Subsec. (b)(5)(E). Pub. L. 85–62, §§6, 9, temporarily, added subpar. (E). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 85–62, §§7, 9, added par. (4). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment note below.

1955—Subsec. (a). Act June 30, 1955, §101(a), exempted from training and service, but not from registration, those persons who served on active duty for not less than 18 months since June 24, 1948 in the armed forces of a nation with which the United States is associated in mutual defense activities.

Subsec. (b)(3). Act June 30, 1955, §101(b), exempted individuals who have served not less than one year after September 16, 1940, or who were discharged after such date for the convenience of the Government and had served not less than six months, or who served not less than twenty-four months in the Public Health Service or in the Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Subsec. (c)(2). Act Aug. 9, 1955, §3(b), exempted from induction persons who have completed eight years of satisfactory service as members of an organized unit of the National Guard, with a minimum of not less than three consecutive months of active duty for training, and added cls. (C), (D), and (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Act June 30, 1955, §101(c), inserted provisions to exempt persons from liability for induction after attaining age 28.

Subsec. (d)(1). Act Aug. 9, 1955, §3(c), deferred from induction any person who agrees to remain a member of a regular or reserve component until the sixth anniversary of the receipt of a commission, provided that all qualified graduates must be tendered a commission in the appropriate reserve component, and permitted active duty for training for a period of six months upon completion of which he must serve in the component in which appointed until the eighth anniversary of the receipt of the commission.

Subsec. (d)(2). Act Aug. 9, 1955, §3(d), permitted deferment of commissioned officers who perform satisfactory service in an appropriate unit of the Ready Reserve.

Subsec. (h). Act June 30, 1955, §101(d), provided that determination of deferment shall not be based on existence of a shortage or a surplus of any agricultural commodity.

1951—Subsec. (a). Act June 19, 1951, §1(l), exempted Naval reserve midshipmen attending merchant marine schools and students enrolled in military colleges which have approved ROTC courses from registration and induction.

Subsec. (c). Act June 19, 1951, §1(m), substituted “February 1, 1941” for “the effective date of this title” in par. (1), inserted “prior to the determination by the Secretary of Defense that adequate trained personnel are available to the National Guard to enable it to maintain its strength authorized by current appropriations, and prior to the issuance of orders for him to report for induction” after “six months” in par. (2)(A), and inserted “, paragraph (1) of this subsection” after “subsection (b)” in par. (2)(B).

Subsec. (d). Act June 19, 1951, §1(n), continued deferments to ROTC members but increased their period of service from 2 years to 6 years after receiving their commission (including 2 years active duty or 3 years active duty if financial assistance is received), authorized establishment of other training programs, and provided for the President's deferment power.

Subsec. (h). Act June 19, 1951, §1(o), removed the President's authority to defer married men who have no dependents other than a wife solely on a basis of such marriage unless extreme hardship is involved, permitted the induction of persons now deferred until the thirty-fifth anniversary of their birth should the basis for deferment terminate after their 26th birthday, and inserted “dental, optometric, osteopathic, and chiropractic” to list of endeavors which may be considered for deferment purposes.

Subsec. (i). Act June 19, 1951, §1(p), authorized deferment of high school and college students in lieu of postponement of induction in order to give them an opportunity to enlist in the branch of service of their choice during such deferment period.

Subsec. (j). Act June 19, 1951, §1(q), substituted “in lieu of such induction, be ordered by his local board, subject to such regulations as the President may prescribe, to perform for a period equal to the period prescribed in section 4(b) such civilian work contributing to the maintenance of the national health, safety, or interest as the local board may deem appropriate and any such person who knowingly fails or neglects to obey any such order from his local board shall be deemed, for the purposes of section 12 of this title, to have knowingly failed or neglected to perform a duty required of him under this title” for “be deferred” in third sentence, and “he shall in lieu of such induction be ordered by his local board, subject to such regulations as the President may prescribe, to perform for a period equal to the period prescribed in section 4(b) such civilian work contributing to the maintenance of the national health, safety, or interest as the local board may deem appropriate and any such person who knowingly fails or neglects to obey any such order from his local board shall be deemed, for the purposes of section 12 of this title, to have knowingly failed or neglected to perform a duty required of him under this title” for “he shall be deferred” in seventh sentence.

1950—Subsec. (b)(2). Act Sept. 27, 1950, struck out of subpars. (A) and (B) “or the Coast Guard”, “(or the Coast Guard)”, and “or in the Coast Guard” wherever appearing.

Change of Name

References to Naval Reserve, other than references to Naval Reserve regarding the United States Naval Reserve Retired List, deemed to refer to Navy Reserve, see section 515(h) of Pub. L. 109–163, set out as a note under section 10101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–584, §3(b), Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3377, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only to persons ordered to active duty for training after the effective date of this Act [Dec. 23, 1980].”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1957 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–62 to take effect on July 1, 1957, and terminate on July 1, 1973, see section 9 of Pub. L. 85–62, set out as a note under section 454 of this Appendix.

Savings Provision; Repeal of College Student Deferment

Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(b), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 354, provided that: “Notwithstanding the repeal of section 6(h)(1) of the Military Selective Service Act of 1967 [subsec. (h)(1) of this section] made by subsection (a)(17) of this section, any person (1) who is satisfactorily pursuing a full-time course of instruction at a college, university, or similar institution of higher learning, (2) who met the academic requirements of a student deferment prescribed in such section 6(h)(1), and (3) who was satisfactorily pursuing such a full-time course prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 1971] and during the 1970–1971 regular academic school year shall be deferred from induction for training and service in the Armed Forces under the same terms and conditions such person would have been deferred under the provisions of such section 6(h)(1) had such provision not been repealed.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation, and functions, powers, and duties relating to Coast Guard of Secretary of the Treasury and of all other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury transferred to Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, however, provided that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, Coast Guard shall operate as part of Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of the Treasury, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of the Treasury with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, 1281, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions of Coast Guard, and Commandant of Coast Guard, excepted from transfer when Coast Guard is operating as part of Navy under sections 1 and 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Environmental Science Services Administration in Department of Commerce, including offices of Administrator and Deputy Administrator thereof, abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1970, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which created National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Department of Commerce and transferred personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of funds of Environmental Science Services Administration to such newly created National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Components of Environmental Science Services Administration thus transferred included Weather Bureau [now National Weather Service], Coast and Geodetic Survey [now National Ocean Survey], Environmental Data Service, National Environmental Satellite Center, and ESSA Research Laboratories.

In order to implement the provisions of Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1970, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090, the following organizational names appearing in chapter IX of subtitle B of Title 15, Code of Federal Regulations, which covers administration of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, were changed by order of Acting Associate Administrator, 35 F.R. 19249, Dec. 19, 1970, as follows: Environmental Science Services Administration to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (ESSA to NOAA); Coast and Geodetic Survey to National Ocean Survey; and Weather Bureau to National Weather Service.

Coast and Geodetic Survey consolidated with National Weather Bureau in 1965 to form Environmental Science Services Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1965, eff. July 13, 1965, 30 F.R. 8819, 79 Stat. 1318. Environmental Science Services Administration abolished in 1970 and its personnel, property, records, etc., transferred to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1970, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090. By order of Acting Associate Administrator of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 35 F.R. 19249, Dec. 19, 1970, Coast and Geodetic Survey redesignated National Ocean Survey. See notes set out under section 311 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Functions of Public Health Service, Surgeon General of Public Health Service, and all other officers and employees of Public Health Service, and functions of all agencies of or in Public Health Service transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1966, eff. June 25, 1966, 31 F.R. 8855, 80 Stat. 1610, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary of Health and Human Services by section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President delegated to Director of Selective Service concerning establishment, implementation, and administration of program for return of Vietnam era draft evaders and military deserters, see Ex. Ord. No. 11804, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33299, set out under section 462 of this Appendix.

Discharge of Surviving Sons

Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(d), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 354, provided that:

“(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection any surviving son or sons of a family who (A) were inducted into the Armed Forces under the Military Selective Service Act of 1967 [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix], (B) have not reenlisted or otherwise voluntarily extended their period of active duty in the Armed Forces, and (C) are serving on active duty with the Armed Forces on or after the date of enactment of this subsection [Sept. 28, 1971], and such son or sons could not, if they were not in the Armed Forces, be involuntarily inducted into military service under the Military Selective Service Act as a result of the amendment made by paragraph (22) of subsection (a) of this section [amending subsec. (o) of this section], such surviving son or sons shall, upon application, be promptly discharged from the Armed Forces.

“(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply in the case of any member of the Armed Forces against whom court-martial charges are pending, or in the case of any member who has been tried and convicted by a court-martial for an offense and whose case is being reviewed or appealed, or in the case of any member who has been tried and convicted by a court-martial for an offense and who is serving a sentence (or otherwise satisfying punishment) imposed by such court-martial, until final action (including completion of any punishment imposed pursuant to such court-martial) has been completed with respect to such charges, review, or appeal, or until the sentence has been served (or until any other punishment imposed has been satisfied), as the case may be. The President shall have authority to implement the provisions of this subsection by regulations.

“(3) Notwithstanding the amendment made by paragraph (22) of subsection (a) of this section [amending subsec. (o) of this section], except during the period of a war or a national emergency declared by Congress, the sole surviving son of any family in which the father or one or more sons or daughters thereof were killed in action before January 1, 1960, or died in line of duty before January 1, 1960, while serving in the Armed Forces of the United States, or died subsequent to such date as a result of injuries received or disease incurred before such date during such service shall not be inducted under the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] unless he volunteers for induction.”

Prior Obligated Service

Pub. L. 88–110, §5, Sept. 3, 1963, 77 Stat. 136, provided that: “This Act [amending subsec. (c)(2) of this section, section 463(a) of this Appendix and sections 270(b) and 511 [now 12103] of Title 10, Armed Forces, and repealing section 1013 of Title 50, War and National Defense] shall not affect any term of obligated service incurred before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 3, 1963]. In addition, the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1963] shall not increase the minimum period of active duty or active duty for training that is required on the day before the effective date of this Act to earn an exemption from training and service under the Universal Military Training and Service Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.), in the case of persons who entered the Armed Forces before the effective date of this Act.”

Program for Return of Vietnam Era Draft Evaders and Military Deserters

Proc. No. 4313, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33293, 88 Stat. 2504, set out under section 462 of this Appendix, provided for a program for return of Vietnam era draft evaders and military deserters.

Executive Order No. 11803

Ex. Ord. No. 11803, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33297, set out under section 462 of this Appendix, provided for review by Clemency Board of convictions of violations under subsec. (j) of this section.

Ex. Ord. No. 10028. Definition of Noncombatant Service and Noncombatant Training

Ex. Ord. No. 10028, Jan. 13, 1949, 14 F.R. 211, provided:

1. The term “noncombatant service” shall mean (a) service in any unit of the armed forces which is unarmed at all times; (b) service in the medical department of any of the armed forces, wherever performed; or (c) any other assignment the primary function of which does not require the use of arms in combat; provided that such other assignment is acceptable to the individual concerned and does not require him to bear arms or to be trained in their use.

2. The term “noncombatant training” shall mean any training which is not concerned with the study, use, or handling of arms or weapons.

Harry S. Truman.      

1 See Transfer of Functions note below.

2 See Transfer of Functions note below.

3 See Transfer of Functions note below.

§457. Repealed. June 19, 1951, ch. 144, §1(r), 65 Stat. 86

Section, act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §7, 62 Stat. 614, related to active duty for certain members of reserve components.

§458. Bounties for induction; substitutes; purchase of release

No bounty may be paid to induce any person to be inducted into an armed force. A clothing allowance authorized by law is not a bounty for the purposes of this section. No person liable for training and service under this Act may furnish a substitute for that training or service. No person may be enlisted, inducted, or appointed in an armed force as a substitute for another. No person liable for training and service under section 4 [section 454 of this Appendix] may escape that training and service or be discharged before the end of his period of training and service by paying money or any other valuable thing as consideration for his release from that training and service or liability therefor.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §8, 62 Stat. 614; Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §22(d), 70A Stat. 630.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

Codification

Section 8 of act June 24, 1948, 62 Stat. 614, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641, 678, and provisions thereof (as applicable to induction) were restated in this section by section 22(d) of act Aug. 10, 1956. Provisions of such section 8 (less applicability to induction) were restated by first section of act Aug. 10, 1956, as section 514 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Amendments

1956—Act Aug. 10, 1956, struck out provisions which prohibited payment of any bounty to induce any person to enlist into Armed Forces. See section 514 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§459. Separation from service

(a) Certificate recording proficiency and merit; physical examination

Any person inducted into the armed forces under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] for training and service, who, in the judgment of those in authority over him, satisfactorily completes his period of training and service under section 4(b) [section 454(b) of this Appendix] shall be entitled to a certificate to that effect upon the completion of such period of training and service, which shall include a record of any special proficiency or merit attained. In addition, each such person who is inducted into the armed forces under this title [said sections] for training and service shall be given a physical examination at the beginning of such training and service, and upon the completion of his period of training and service under this title [said sections], each such person shall be given another physical examination and, upon his written request, shall be given a statement of physical condition by the Secretary concerned: Provided, That such statement shall not contain any reference to mental or other conditions which in the judgment of the Secretary concerned would prove injurious to the physical or mental health of the person to whom it pertains: Provided further, That, if upon completion of training and service under this title [said sections], such person continues on active duty without an interruption of more than seventy-two hours as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, a physical examination upon completion of such training and service shall not be required unless it is requested by such person, or the medical authorities of the Armed Force concerned determine that the physical examination is warranted.

(b) Right to vote; manner; poll tax

Any person inducted into the armed forces for training and service under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall, during the period of such service, be permitted to vote in person or by absentee ballot in any general, special, or primary election occurring in the State of which he is a resident, whether he is within or outside such State at the time of such election, if under the laws of such State he is otherwise entitled so to vote in such election; but nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require granting to any such person a leave of absence or furlough for longer than one day in order to permit him to vote in person in any such election. No person inducted into, or enlisted in, the armed forces for training and service under this title [said sections] shall, during the period of such service, as a condition of voting in any election for President, Vice President, electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Member of the House of Representatives, be required to pay any poll tax or other tax or make any other payment to any State or political subdivision thereof.

(c) Reports on separated personnel

The Secretary of a military department, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard, shall furnish to the Selective Service System hereafter established a report of separation for each person separated from active duty.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §9, 62 Stat. 614; Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1059, §1(7)–(10), 64 Stat. 1074; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(s), 65 Stat. 86; July 12, 1955, ch. 327, 69 Stat. 295; July 9, 1956, ch. 523, §1, 70 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 86–632, §1, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 87–391, Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 90–491, §1, Aug. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 790; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(23), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 93–508, title IV, §405, Dec. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1600; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(e)(11)(D), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2315.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “Secretary of a military department, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard,” for “Secretaries of Army, Navy, Air Force, or Transportation”.

1974—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 93–508, §405(1), (2), redesignated subsecs. (i) and (j) as (b) and (c), respectively. Former subsecs. (b) and (c), relating to reemployment rights and consideration of training and service in the armed forces as furlough or leave of absence, were struck out. See section 2021 et seq. of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits.

Subsecs. (d) to (h). Pub. L. 93–508, §405(1), repealed subsecs. (d) to (h) relating to jurisdiction of district courts to enforce compliance with the reemployment provisions, legal assistance by United States attorneys to claimants of reemployment benefits, reemployment by Federal Government, priority of rights to reemployment, and reemployment benefits to persons enlisting or called to active duty. See section 2021 et seq. of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 93–508, §405(2), redesignated subsecs. (i) and (j) as (b) and (c), respectively.

1971—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 92–129 substituted “or Transportation” for “or Treasury”.

1968—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 90–491, §1(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–491, §1(2), included cases where any private employer fails or refuses to comply with provisions of subsec. (c)(3) of this section.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 90–491, §1(3), substituted “does not exceed five years, provided that the service in excess of four years after August 1, 1961, is at the request and for the convenience of the Federal Government” for “does not exceed four years”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 90–491, §1(4), designated existing provisions as par. (A) and added par. (B).

1961—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 87–391 permitted four years service after Aug. 1, 1961, in addition to four years service between June 24, 1948, and Aug. 1, 1961, without loss of reemployment rights.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 87–391 permitted four years service after Aug. 1, 1961, in addition to four years service between June 24, 1948, and Aug. 1, 1961, without loss of reemployment rights.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 87–391 struck out requirement that persons who are rejected for military service must have requested a leave of absence from their employers for purpose of determining their physical fitness to enter Armed Forces in order to insure reemployment rights.

Subsec. (g)(5), (6). Pub. L. 87–391 added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

1960—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 86–632, §1(1), inserted “and other than for training” after “physical fitness” in parenthetical phrase.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 86–632, §1(2), substituted the existing reemployment provisions for provisions granting a leave of absence to perform training duty or to be examined to determine fitness to enter the armed forces and requiring application for reinstatement to be made within thirty days following release from training duty or rejection for service.

Subsec. (g)(4), (5). Pub. L. 86–632, §1(3), added pars. (4) and (5).

1956—Subsec. (d). Act July 9, 1956, inserted reference to subsection (g) of this section.

1955—Subsec. (a). Act July 12, 1955, inserted proviso removing requirement for a final physical examination for inductees who continue on active duty in another status in the Armed Forces.

1951—Subsec. (g). Act June 19, 1951, clarified reemployment rights with respect to restoration to a position of like seniority, status, and pay.

1950—Subsec. (g)(1). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §1(7), struck out “or the Coast Guard (other than a reserve component)” and “or the Coast Guard” after “(other than in a reserve component)”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §1(8), struck out “, the Coast Guard” after “United States”.

Subsec. (h). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §1(9), struck out “, the Coast Guard” after “United States”.

Subsec. (j). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §1(10), struck out “or” after “Navy” and inserted “, or Treasury” after “Air Force”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–508 effective Dec. 3, 1974, see section 503 of Pub. L. 93–508, set out as a note under section 3452 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–632, §3, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 468, provided that: “This Act [amending this section and section 1013 of Title 50, War and National Defense] shall take effect upon the expiration of sixty days from the date of its enactment [July 12, 1960].”

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Act July 9, 1956, ch. 523, §2, 70 Stat. 509, provided that: “The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall take effect as of June 19, 1951.”

§460. Selective Service System

(a) Establishment; construction; appointment of Director; termination and reestablishment of Office of Selective Service Records

(1) There is established in the executive branch of the Government an agency to be known as the Selective Service System, and a Director of Selective Service who shall be the head thereof.

(2) The Selective Service System shall include a national headquarters, at least one State headquarters in each State, Territory, and possession of the United States, and in the District of Columbia, and the local boards, appeal boards, and other agencies provided for in subsection (b)(3) of this section.

(3) The Director shall be appointed by the President.

(4) The functions of the Office of Selective Service Records (established by the Act of March 31, 1947 [sections 321 to 329 of this Appendix]) and of the Director of the Office of Selective Service Records are transferred to the Selective Service System and the Director of Selective Service, respectively. The personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances (available or to be made available) of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Office of Selective Service Records are transferred to the Selective Service System. The Office of Selective Service Records shall cease to exist upon the taking effect of the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix]: Provided, That, effective upon the termination of this title [said sections] and notwithstanding such termination in other respects, (A) the said Office of Selective Service Records is reestablished on the same basis and with the same functions as obtained prior to the effective date of this title [June 24, 1948], (B) said reestablished Office shall be responsible for liquidating any other outstanding affairs of the Selective Service System, and (C) the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances (available or to be made available) of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Selective Service System shall be transferred to such reestablished Office of Selective Service Records.

(b) Administrative provisions

The President is authorized to undertake the following:

(1) To prescribe the necessary rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix].

(2) To appoint, upon recommendation of the respective governor or comparable executive official, a State director of the Selective Service System for each headquarters in each State, Territory, and possession of the United States and for the District of Columbia, who shall represent the governor and be in immediate charge of the state headquarters of the Selective Service System: Provided, That no State director shall serve concurrently in an elected or appointed position of a State or local government; to employ such number of civilians, and, subject to subsection (e), to order to active duty with their consent and to assign to the Selective Service System such officers of the selective-service section of the State headquarters and headquarters detachments and such other officers of the federally recognized National Guard of the United States or other armed forces personnel (including personnel of the reserve components thereof), as may be necessary for the administration of the national and of the several State headquarters of the Selective Service System.

(3) To create and establish within the Selective Service System civilian local boards, civilian appeal boards, and such other civilian agencies, including agencies of appeal, as may be necessary to carry out its functions with respect to the registration, examination, classification, selection, assignment, delivery for induction, and maintenance of records of persons registered under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], together with such other duties as may be assigned under this title [said sections]: Provided, That no person shall be disqualified from serving as a counselor to registrants, including service as Government appeal agent, because of his membership in a Reserve component of the Armed Forces. He shall create and establish one or more local boards in each county or political subdivision corresponding thereto of each State, territory, and possession of the United States, and in the District of Columbia. The local board and/or its staff shall perform their official duties only within the county or political subdivision corresponding thereto for which the local board is established, or in the case of an intercounty board, within the area for which such board is established, except that the staffs of local boards in more than one county of a State or comparable jurisdiction may be collocated or one staff may serve local boards in more than one county of a State or comparable jurisdiction when such action is approved by the Governor or comparable executive official or officials. Each local board shall consist of three or more members to be appointed by the President from recommendations made by the respective Governors or comparable executive officials. In making such appointments after the date of the enactment of the Act enacting this sentence [Sept. 28, 1971], the President is requested to appoint the membership of each local board so that to the maximum extent practicable it is proportionately representative of the race and national origin of those registrants within its jurisdiction, but no action by any local board shall be declared invalid on the ground that any board failed to conform to any particular quota as to race or national origin. No citizen shall be denied membership on any local board or appeal board on account of sex. After December 31, 1971, no person shall serve on any local board or appeal board who has served on any local board or appeal board for a period of more than 20 years. Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, an intercounty local board consisting of at least one member from each component county or corresponding subdivision may, with the approval of the Governor or comparable executive official or officials, be established for an area not exceeding five counties or political subdivisions corresponding thereto within a State or comparable jurisdiction when the President determines, after considering the public interest involved, that the establishment of such local board area will result in a more efficient and economical operation. Any such intercounty local board shall have within its area the same power and jurisdiction as a local board has in its area. A local board may include among its members any citizen otherwise qualified under Presidential regulations, provided he is at least eighteen years of age. No member of any local board shall be a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, but each member of any local board shall be a civilian who is a citizen of the United States residing in the county or political subdivision corresponding thereto in which such local board has jurisdiction, and each intercounty local board shall have at least one member from each county or political subdivision corresponding thereto included within the intercounty local board area. Such local boards, or separate panels thereof each consisting of three or more members, shall, under rules and regulations prescribed by the President, have the power within the respective jurisdictions of such local boards to hear and determine, subject to the right of appeal to the appeal boards herein authorized, all questions or claims with respect to inclusion for, or exemption or deferment from, training and service under this title [said sections], of all individuals within the jurisdiction of such local boards. The decisions of such local board shall be final, except where an appeal is authorized and is taken in accordance with such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe. There shall be not less than one appeal board located within the area of each Federal judicial district in the United States and within each Territory and possession of the United States, and such additional separate panels thereof, as may be prescribed by the President. Appeal boards within the Selective Service System shall be composed of civilians who are citizens of the United States and who are not members of the armed forces. The decision of such appeal boards shall be final in cases before them on appeal unless modified or changed by the President. The President, upon appeal or upon his own motion, shall have power to determine all claims or questions with respect to inclusion for, or exemption or deferment from training and service under this title [said sections], and the determination of the President shall be final. No judicial review shall be made of the classification or processing of any registrant by local boards, appeal boards, or the President, except as a defense to a criminal prosecution instituted under section 12 of this title [section 462 of this Appendix], after the registrant has responded either affirmatively or negatively to an order to report for induction or for civilian work in the case of a registrant determined to be opposed to participation in war in any form: Provided, That such review shall go to the question of the jurisdiction herein reserved to local boards, appeal boards, and the President only when there is no basis in fact for the classification assigned to such registrant. No person who is a civilian officer, member, agent, or employee of the Office of Selective Service Records or the Selective Service System, or of any local board or appeal board or other agency of such Officer or system, shall be excepted from registration or deferred or exempted from training and service, as provided for in this title [said sections], by reason of his status as such civilian officer, member, agent, or employee.

(4) To appoint, and to fix, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, the basic pay of such officers, agents, and employees as he may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], however, any officer of the armed forces or any officer or employee of any department or agency of the United States who may be assigned or detailed to any office or position to carry out the provisions of this title [said sections] (except to offices or positions on local boards or appeal boards established or created pursuant to section 10(b)(3) [subsection (b)(3) of this section]) may serve in and perform the functions of such office or position without loss of or prejudice to his status as such officer in the armed forces or as such officer or employee in any department or agency of the United States.

(5) To utilize the services of any or all departments and any and all officers or agents of the United States, and to accept the services of all officers and agents of the several States, Territories, and possessions, and subdivisions thereof, and the District of Columbia, and of private welfare organizations, in the execution of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix].

(6) To purchase such printing, binding, and blank-book work from public, commercial, or private printing establishments or binderies upon orders placed by the Public Printer or upon waivers issued in accordance with section 12 of the Printing Act approved January 12, 1895, as amended [44 U.S.C. 504], and to obtain by purchase, loan, or gift such equipment and supplies for the Selective Service System, as he may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], with or without advertising or formal contract.

(7) To prescribe eligibility, rules, and regulations governing the release for service in the armed forces, or for any other special service established pursuant to this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], of any person convicted of a violation of any of the provisions of this title [said sections].

(8) Subject to the availability of funds appropriated for such purpose, to procure such space as he may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] and the Act of March 31, 1947 (50 U.S.C. App. 321 et seq.).

(9) Subject to the availability of funds appropriated for such purposes, to determine the location of such additional temporary installations as he may deem essential; to utilize and enlarge such existing installations; to construct, install, and equip, and to complete the construction, installation, and equipment of such buildings, structures, utilities, and appurtenances (including the necessary grading and removal, repair or remodeling of existing structures and installations), as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix]; and, in order to accomplish the purpose of this title [said sections], to acquire lands, and rights pertaining thereto, or other interests therein, for temporary use thereof, by donation or lease, and to prosecute construction thereon prior to the approval of the title [said sections] by the Attorney General as required by sections 3111 and 3112 of title 40.

(10) Subject to the availability of funds appropriated for such purposes, to utilize, in order to provide and furnish such services as may be deemed necessary or expedient to accomplish the purposes of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], such personnel of the armed forces and of Reserve components thereof with their consent, and such civilian personnel, as may be necessary. For the purposes of this title [said sections], the provisions of section 14 of the Federal Employees’ Pay Act of 1946 (Public Law 390, Seventy-ninth Congress) with respect to the maximum limitations as to the number of civilian employees shall not be applicable to the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, or the Department of the Air Force.

(c) Delegation of President's authority

The President is authorized to delegate any authority vested in him under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], and to provide for the subdelegation of any such authority.

(d) Acceptance of gifts and voluntary services

In the administration of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], gifts of supplies, equipment, and voluntary services may be accepted.

(e) Assignment of armed forces personnel

The total number of armed forces personnel assigned to the Selective Service System under subsection (b)(2) at any time may not be less than the number of such personnel determined by the Director of Selective Service to be necessary, but not to exceed 745 persons, except that the President may assign additional armed forces personnel to the Selective Service System during a time of war or a national emergency declared by Congress or the President.

(f) Settlement of travel claims, etc.

The Director is authorized to make final settlement of individual claims, for amounts not exceeding $500, for travel and other expenses of uncompensated personnel of the Office of Selective Service Records, or the Selective Service System, incurred while in the performance of official duties, without regard to other provisions of law governing the travel of civilian employees of the Federal Government.

(g) Reports to Congress

The Director of Selective Service shall submit to the Congress annually a written report covering the operation of the Selective Service System and such report shall include, by States, information as to the number of persons registered under this Act; the number of persons inducted in to the military service under this Act; and the number of deferments granted under this Act and the basis for such deferments; and such other specific kinds of information as the Congress may from time to time request.

(h) Maintenance of System after institution of all volunteer program for meeting manpower needs

The Selective Service system 1 shall be maintained as an active standby organization, with (1) a complete registration and classification structure capable of immediate operation in the event of a national emergency (including a structure for registration and classification of persons qualified for practice or employment in a health care occupation essential to the maintenance of the Armed Forces), and (2) personnel adequate to reinstitute immediately the full operation of the System, including military reservists who are trained to operate such System and who can be ordered to active duty for such purpose in the event of a national emergency.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §10, 62 Stat. 618; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972; June 30, 1950, ch. 445, §3, 64 Stat. 319; Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1059, §3(b), 64 Stat. 1074; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(u), 65 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 90–40, §1(8)–(10), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 104, 105; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(24)–(29), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 351, 352; Pub. L. 93–176, §3, Dec. 5, 1973, 87 Stat. 693; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §507(d), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2919; Pub. L. 97–60, title II, §208, Oct. 14, 1981, 95 Stat. 1008; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §234, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2031; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VII, §715, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1113; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1091, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1486; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §414, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2508; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title X, §1062(o)(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2652; Pub. L. 112–166, §2(c)(3), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1284; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(l), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1956.)

References in Text

Section 14 of the Federal Employees’ Pay Act of 1946 (Public Law 390, Seventy-ninth Congress), referred to in subsec. (b)(10), means section 14 of act May 24, 1946, ch. 270, 60 Stat. 219, which amended section 947 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and which was repealed by act Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, title III, §301(85), 64 Stat. 843.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (g), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (b)(9), “sections 3111 and 3112 of title 40” substituted for “section 355, Revised Statutes, as amended” on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(l), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 112–166, §2(c)(3). See 2012 Amendment note below.

2012—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–166, §2(c)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(l), struck out “, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate” before period at end.

2002—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 107–314 substituted “the Act of March 31, 1947 (50 U.S.C. App. 321 et seq.)” for “Public Law 26, Eightieth Congress, approved March 31, 1947, by lease pursuant to existing statutes, except that the provisions of the Act of June 30, 1932 (47 Stat. 412), as amended by section 15 of the Act of March 3, 1933 (47 Stat. 1517), shall not apply to any lease entered into under the authority of this title”.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–201, §414(b)(1), substituted “authorized to undertake the following:” for “authorized—” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–201, §414(b)(2), (4), substituted “To” for “to” at beginning and a period for a semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §414(a)(1), (b)(2), (4), substituted “To” for “to” at beginning, inserted “, subject to subsection (e),” after “to employ such number of civilians, and”, and substituted a period for a semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(3) to (7). Pub. L. 104–201, §414(b)(2), (4), substituted “To” for “to” at beginning and a period for a semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(8), (9). Pub. L. 104–201, §414(b)(3), (4), substituted “Subject” for “subject” at beginning and a period for a semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 104–201, §414(b)(3), substituted “Subject” for “subject” at beginning.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–201, §414(a)(2), added subsec. (e).

1991—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §1091(1), struck out “without the approval of the Director” after “local government”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–190, §1091(2), substituted “annually” for “semiannually”.

1987—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–180 substituted “The Selective Service system shall” for “If at any time calls under this section for the induction of persons for training and service in the Armed Forces are discontinued because the Armed Forces are placed on an all volunteer basis for meeting their active duty manpower needs, the Selective Service System, as it is constituted on the date of the enactment of this subsection [Sept. 28, 1971], shall, nevertheless,” and directed the insertion of “(including a structure for registration and classification of persons qualified for practice or employment in a health care occupation essential to the maintenance of the Armed Forces)” after “national emergency”, which was inserted in cl. (1) as the probable intent of Congress.

1984—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 98–473 substituted “release” for “parole”.

1981—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 97–60 struck out provision that had prohibited service on local boards or appeal boards by persons who had attained the age of 65.

1980—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted “however, any officer of the armed forces” for “however, any officer on the active or retired list of the armed forces, or any reserve component thereof with his consent,” and struck out “or reserve component thereof,” after “without loss of or prejudice to his status as such officer in the armed forces”.

1973—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 93–176 substituted “the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, the basic pay” for “the Classification Act of 1949, the compensation” and struck out provisos that compensation of employees of local boards and appeal boards may be fixed without regard to Classification Act of 1949, that employees of local boards having supervisory duties with respect to other employees of one or more local boards be designated as the executive secretary of the local board or boards, and that the term of employment of executive secretaries not exceed ten years except when reappointed.

1971—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(24), struck out provisions setting compensation of Director.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(25), inserted proviso that no State director shall serve concurrently in an elected or appointed position of a State or local government without the approval of the Director.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(26), inserted provisions requiring that local boards and their staffs perform their duties only within the counties or political subdivisions for which they are established with special provisions for intercounty boards and the collocation or multiple use of staffs with executive approval, provided for board membership proportionately representative of the area served, reduced the maximums applicable to board members from 75 years of age or 25 years of service on the board to 65 years of age or 20 years of service respectively, and authorized local boards to include among their members any citizens otherwise qualified under Presidential regulations provided they are at least 18 years of age.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(27), struck out subsec. (e) which authorized Chief of Finance of the United States Army to act as the fiscal, disbursing, and accounting agent of Director.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(28), substituted “$500” for “$50”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 92–129, §101(a)(29), added subsec. (h).

1967—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(8), prohibited disqualification of members of armed forces reserve components from serving as counselors to registrants, including services as government appeal agents, merely because of such membership in the reserve, set 25 years as maximum length of service on local and appeal boards and 75 years as age after attainment of which members may not serve, prohibited discrimination as to service on boards because of sex, with new limitations on age and sex to be implemented not later than January 1, 1968, and prohibited judicial review of classification or processing of registrants except as a defense to a criminal prosecution instituted under section 462 of this Appendix, and then only after registrant has responded either affirmatively or negatively to an order to report for induction or for civilian work and to question of jurisdiction reserved to local boards, appeal boards, and President only when there is no basis in fact for classification.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(9), provided for designation of a local board employee having supervisory duties with respect to other employees of one or more local boards as “executive secretary”, with such employee to serve in that position for a maximum of ten years except when reappointed.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(10), substituted “semiannually” for “on or before the 3rd day of January of each year,” as time for submission of Director's written report to Congress, and inserted “such other specific kinds of information as the Congress may from time to time request” to enumeration of subjects to be covered by the report.

1951—Subsec. (b)(3). Act June 19, 1951, §1(u)(1), provided for one appeal board in each Federal judicial district in the United States, its territories and possessions, and such necessary panels as the President deems necessary.

Subsec. (g). Act June 19, 1951, §1(u)(2), added subsec. (g).

1950—Subsec. (b)(3). Act Sept. 27, 1950, inserted “, or separate panels thereof each consisting of three or more members” after “Such local boards” in sixth sentence.

Subsec. (b)(4). Act June 30, 1950, struck out comma between “the compensation of” and “such officers”.

1949—Subsec. (b)(4). Act Oct. 28, 1949, substituted “Classification Act of 1949” for “Classification Act of 1923”.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(l), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1956, provided that the amendment by section 1076(l) is effective as of August 10, 2012, and as if included in Pub. L. 112–166 as enacted.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–166 effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 2012, and applicable to appointments made on and after that effective date, including any nomination pending in the Senate on that date, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 112–166, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1973 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–176, §4, Dec. 5, 1973, 87 Stat. 694, provided that: “This Act [amending this section and section 5102 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect not later than the beginning of the first pay period which begins on or after the ninetieth day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1973].”

Repeals

Act Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed (subject to a savings clause) by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8, 80 Stat. 632, 655.

Emergency Preparedness Functions

For assignment of certain emergency preparedness functions to the Director of Selective Service, see Parts 1, 2, and 23 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Compensation Increases for Employees of Local or Appeal Boards

Pub. L. 93–176, §2, Dec. 5, 1973, 87 Stat. 693, provided that: “The rate of basic pay of each employee in a position under a local board or appeal board of the Selective Service System on and immediately prior to the effective date of this Act [designated as a date not later than the beginning of the first pay period which begins on or after the 90th day following Dec. 5, 1973] shall be adjusted, as of such effective date, under the provisions of section 5334(d) of title 5, United States Code.”

Act June 5, 1952, ch. 369, Ch. VII, §701, 66 Stat. 109, authorized increases in the rate of compensation of any employees of local or appeal boards effective as of the first day of the first pay period which began after June 30, 1951 and within ninety days from June 5, 1952, pursuant to the authority contained in section 460 of this Appendix.

Compensation of Director of Selective Service

Compensation of Director, see section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Ex. Ord. No. 10271. Delegation of President's Authority

Ex. Ord. No. 10271, July 7, 1951, 16 F.R. 6659, set out as a note under section 471 of this Appendix, delegates to the Secretary of Defense the President's authority to order members and units of Reserve components into active Federal service.

Ex. Ord. No. 11623. Delegation of Authority To Issue Rules and Regulations to Director of Selective Service

Ex. Ord. No. 11623, Oct. 12, 1971, 36 F.R. 19963, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §60, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10629, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including the Military Selective Service Act, as amended (50 U.S. Code App., sections 451 et seq., hereinafter referred to as the Act), and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Director of Selective Service (hereinafter referred to as the Director) is authorized to prescribe the necessary rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of the Act. Regulations heretofore issued by the President to carry out such provisions shall continue in effect until amended or revoked by the Director pursuant to the authority conferred by this Order.

Sec. 2. (a) In carrying out the provisions of this Order, the Director shall cause any rule or regulation which he proposes to issue hereunder to be published in the Federal Register as required by section 13(b) of the Act [section 463(b) of this Appendix]. Prior to such publication, the Director shall request the views of the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Homeland Security (when the Coast Guard is serving under the Department of Homeland Security), the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, and the Chairman of the National Selective Service Appeal Board with regard to such proposed rule or regulation, and shall allow not less than 10 days for the submission of such views before publication of the proposed rule or regulation.

(b) Any proposed rule or regulation as published by the Director shall be furnished to the officials required to be consulted pursuant to subsection (a). The Director may (not less than 30 days after publication in the Federal Register) issue such rule or regulation as published unless, within 10 days after being furnished with the proposed rule or regulation as published, any such official shall notify the Director that he disagrees therewith and requests that the matter be referred to the President for decision.

(c) Any rule or regulation issued by the Director pursuant to this Order shall be published in the Federal Register with (1) a statement reciting compliance with the prepublication requirement of section 13(b) of the Act [section 463(b) of this Appendix], and (2) either (i) approval of such rule or regulation by the President, or (ii) a certification of the Director that he has requested the views of the officials required to be consulted pursuant to subsection (a) and that none of them has timely requested that the matter be referred to the President for decision. Such rule or regulation shall be effective upon such publication in the Federal Register or on such later date as may be specified therein.

Sec. 3. Nothing in this Order shall be deemed to (i) authorize the exercise by the Director of the President's authority to waive the requirements of section 13(b) of the Act [section 463(b) of this Appendix], or (ii) derogate from the authority of the President himself to waive the requirements of such section 13(b), or (iii) derogate from the authority of the President himself to issue such rules or regulations as he may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of the Act.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§461. Emergency medical care

Under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the President, funds available to carry out the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall also be available for the payment of actual and reasonable expenses of emergency medical care, including hospitalization, of registrants who suffer illness or injury, and the transportation and burial of the remains of registrants who suffer death, while acting under orders issued under the provisions of this title [said sections], but such burial expenses shall not exceed the maximum that the Secretary of Veterans Affairs may pay under the provisions of section 2302(a) of title 38, United States Code, in any one case.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §11, 62 Stat. 621; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(30), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(t), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 282; Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–83 substituted “section 2302(a) of title 38” for “section 902(a) of title 38”.

Pub. L. 102–54 substituted “Secretary of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs”.

1971—Pub. L. 92–129 substituted “the maximum that the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs may pay under the provisions of section 902(a) of title 38, United States Code” for “$150”.

§462. Offenses and penalties

(a) Any member of the Selective Service System or any other person charged as herein provided with the duty of carrying out any of the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], or the rules or regulations made or directions given thereunder, who shall knowingly fail or neglect to perform such duty, and any person charged with such duty, or having and exercising any authority under said title [said sections], rules, regulations, or directions who shall knowingly make, or be a party to the making, of any false, improper, or incorrect registration, classification, physical or mental examination, deferment, induction, enrollment, or muster, and any person who shall knowingly make, or be a party to the making, of any false statement or certificate regarding or bearing upon a classification or in support of any request for a particular classification, for service under the provisions of this title [said sections], or rules, regulations, or directions made pursuant thereto, or who otherwise evades or refuses registration or service in the armed forces or any of the requirements of this title [said sections], or who knowingly counsels, aids, or abets another to refuse or evade registration or service in the armed forces or any of the requirements of this title [said sections], or of said rules, regulations, or directions, or who in any manner shall knowingly fail or neglect or refuse to perform any duty required of him under or in the execution of this title [said sections], or rules, regulations, or directions made pursuant to this title [said sections], or any person or persons who shall knowingly hinder or interfere or attempt to do so in any way, by force or violence or otherwise, with the administration of this title [said sections] or the rules or regulations made pursuant thereto, or who conspires to commit any one or more of such offenses, shall, upon conviction in any district court of the United States of competent jurisdiction, be punished by imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine of not more than $10,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment, or if subject to military or naval law may be tried by court martial, and, on conviction, shall suffer such punishment as a court martial may direct. No person shall be tried by court martial in any case arising under this title [said sections] unless such person has been actually inducted for the training and service prescribed under this title [said sections] or unless he is subject to trial by court martial under laws in force prior to the enactment of this title [June 24, 1948].

(b) Any person (1) who knowingly transfers or delivers to another, for the purpose of aiding or abetting the making of any false identification or representation, any registration certificate, alien's certificate of nonresidence, or any other certificate issued pursuant to or prescribed by the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], or rules or regulations promulgated hereunder; or (2) who, with intent that it be used for any purpose of false identification or representation, has in his possession any such certificate not duly issued to him; or (3) who forges, alters, knowingly destroys, knowingly mutilates, or in any manner changes any such certificate or any notation duly and validly inscribed thereon; or (4) who, with intent that it be used for any purpose of false identification or representation, photographs, prints, or in any manner makes or executes any engraving, photograph, print, or impression in the likeness of any such certificate, or any colorable imitation thereof; or (5) who has in his possession any certificate purporting to be a certificate issued pursuant to this title [said sections], or rules and regulations promulgated hereunder, which he knows to be falsely made, reproduced, forged, counterfeited, or altered; or (6) who knowingly violates or evades any of the provisions of this title [said sections] or rules and regulations promulgated pursuant thereto relating to the issuance, transfer, or possession of such certificate, shall, upon conviction, be fined not to exceed $10,000 or be imprisoned for not more than five years, or both. Whenever on trial for a violation of this subsection the defendant is shown to have or to have had possession of any certificate not duly issued to him, such possession shall be deemed sufficient evidence to establish an intent to use such certificate for purposes of false identification or representation, unless the defendant explains such possession to the satisfaction of the jury.

(c) The Department of Justice shall proceed as expeditiously as possible with a prosecution under this section, or with an appeal, upon the request of the Director of Selective Service System or shall advise the House of Representatives and the Senate in writing the reasons for its failure to do so.

(d) No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for evading, neglecting, or refusing to perform the duty of registering imposed by section 3 of this title [section 453 of this Appendix] unless the indictment is found within five years next after the last day before such person attains the age of twenty-six, or within five years next after the last day before such person does perform his duty to register, whichever shall first occur.

(e) The President may require the Secretary of Health and Human Services to furnish to the Director, from records available to the Secretary, the following information with respect to individuals who are members of any group of individuals required by a proclamation of the President under section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix] to present themselves for and submit to registration under such section: name, date of birth, social security account number, and address. Information furnished to the Director by the Secretary under this subsection shall be used only for the purpose of the enforcement of this Act.

(f)(1) Except as provided in subsection (g), any person who is required under section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix] to present himself for and submit to registration under such section and fails to do so in accordance with any proclamation issued under such section, or in accordance with any rule or regulation issued under such section, shall be ineligible for any form of assistance or benefit provided under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.].

(2) In order to receive any grant, loan, or work assistance under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq. [and 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.]), a person who is required under section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix] to present himself for and submit to registration under such section shall file with the institution of higher education which the person intends to attend, or is attending, a statement of compliance with section 3 and regulations issued thereunder.

(3) The Secretary of Education, in agreement with the Director, shall prescribe methods for verifying such statements of compliance filed pursuant to paragraph (2). Such methods may include requiring institutions of higher education to provide a list to the Secretary of Education or to the Director of persons who have submitted such statements of compliance.

(4) The Secretary of Education, in consultation with the Director, shall issue regulations to implement the requirements of this subsection. Such regulations shall provide that any person to whom the Secretary of Education proposes to deny assistance or benefits under title IV [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] for failure to meet the registration requirements of section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix] and regulations issued thereunder shall be given notice of the proposed denial and shall have a suitable period (of not less than thirty days) after such notice to provide the Secretary with information and materials establishing that he has complied with the registration requirement under section 3. Such regulations shall also provide that the Secretary may afford such person an opportunity for a hearing to establish his compliance or for any other purpose.

(g) A person may not be denied a right, privilege, or benefit under Federal law by reason of failure to present himself for and submit to registration under section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix] if—

(1) the requirement for the person to so register has terminated or become inapplicable to the person; and

(2) the person shows by a preponderance of the evidence that the failure of the person to register was not a knowing and willful failure to register.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §12, 62 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 89–152, Aug. 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 90–40, §1(11), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 105; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(31), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §916(b), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1129; Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1113(a), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 748; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(54), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3361; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1366, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4002.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (e), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, as amended. Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is classified generally to subchapter IV (§1070 et seq.) of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education, and part C (§2751 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 34 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–661, §1366(1), substituted “Except as provided in subsection (g), any person” for “Any person”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–661, §1366(2), added subsec. (g).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out sentence at end requiring that precedence be given by courts to the trial of cases arising under sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix, and that such cases had to be advanced on the docket for immediate hearing, and that an appeal from the decision or decree of any United States district court or United States court of appeals would take precedence over all other cases pending before the court to which the case had been referred.

1982—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–252 added subsec. (f).

1981—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–86 added subsec. (e).

1971—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–129 added subsec. (d).

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(11)(a), struck out requirement that a request of the Attorney General precede the granting of precedence to the trial of cases arising under this title and inserted provision that appeals from a decision or decree of any United States District Court or United States Court of Appeals take precedence over all other cases pending before the court to which the case has been referred.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–40, §1(11)(b), added subsec. (c).

1965—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 89–152 prohibited a person from knowingly destroying or knowingly mutilating any registration certificate or other prescribed certificate.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as a note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1113(b), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 748, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to loans, grants, or work assistance under title IV of the Higher Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] for periods of instruction beginning after June 30, 1983.”

Study on Compliance of Health Professions Schools With Military Selective Service Act

Pub. L. 99–129, title II, §222, Oct. 22, 1985, 99 Stat. 544, directed Secretary of Health and Human Services, in cooperation with Director of Selective Service, to conduct a study to determine if health professions schools are engaged in a pattern or practice of failure to comply with section 12(f) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 462(f)) (or regulations issued under such section) or are engaged in a pattern or practice of providing loans or work assistance to persons who are required to register under section 3 of such Act [50 U.S.C. App. 453] (and any proclamation of the President and regulations prescribed under that section) and have not so registered with Secretary and to complete the study and report its results to Congress not later than one year after Oct. 22, 1985.

Advertising Prohibition on Special Discharge Review Program

Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §810, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 335, prohibited the use of funds authorized or appropriated under this or any other Act to purchase advertising of the special discharge review program.

Proc. No. 4313. Program for Return of Vietnam Era Draft Evaders and Military Deserters

Proc. No. 4313, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33293, 88 Stat. 2504, as amended by Proc. No. 4345, Jan. 30, 1975, 40 F.R. 4893, 89 Stat. 1236; Proc. No. 4353, Feb. 28, 1975, 40 F.R. 8931, 10433, 89 Stat. 1246, provided:

The United States withdrew the last of its forces from the Republic of Vietnam on March 28, 1973.

In the period of its involvement in armed hostilities in Southeast Asia, the United States suffered great losses. Millions served their country, thousands died in combat, thousands more were wounded, others are still listed as missing in action.

Over a year after the last American combatant had left Vietnam, the status of thousands of our countrymen—convicted, charged, investigated or still sought for violations of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] or of the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 801 et seq.]—remains unresolved.

In furtherance of our national commitment to justice and mercy these young Americans should have the chance to contribute a share to the rebuilding of peace among ourselves and with all nations. They should be allowed the opportunity to earn return to their country, their communities, and their families, upon their agreement to a period of alternate service in the national interest, together with an acknowledgment of their allegiance to the country and its Constitution.

Desertion in time of war is a major, serious offense; failure to respond to the country's call for duty is also a serious offense. Reconciliation among our people does not require that these acts be condoned. Yet, reconciliation calls for an act of mercy to bind the Nation's wounds and to heal the scars of divisiveness.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GERALD R. FORD, President of the United States, pursuant to my powers under Article II, Sections 1, 2 and 3 of the Constitution, do hereby proclaim a program to commence immediately to afford reconciliation to Vietnam era draft evaders and military deserters upon the following terms and conditions:

1. Draft Evaders—An individual who allegedly unlawfully failed under the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, to register or register on time, to keep the local board informed of his current address, to report for or submit to preinduction or induction examination, to report for or submit to induction itself, or to report for or submit to, or complete service under section 6(j) of such Act [section 456(j) of this Appendix] during the period from August 4, 1964 to March 28, 1973, inclusive, and who has not been adjudged guilty in a trial for such offense, will be relieved of prosecution and punishment for such offense if he:

(i) presents himself to a United States Attorney before March 31, 1975,

(ii) executes an agreement acknowledging his allegiance to the United States and pledging to fulfill a period of alternate service under the auspices of the Director of Selective Service, and

(iii) satisfactorily completes such service.

The alternate service shall promote the national health, safety, or interest. No draft evader will be given the privilege of completing a period of alternate service by service in the Armed Forces.

However, this program will not apply to an individual who is precluded from re-entering the United States under 8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(22) or other law. Additionally, if individuals eligible for this program have other criminal charges outstanding, their participation in the program may be conditioned upon, or postponed until after, final disposition of the other charges has been reached in accordance with law.

The period of service shall be twenty-four months, which may be reduced by the Attorney General because of mitigating circumstances.

2. Military Deserters—A member of the armed forces who has been administratively classified as a deserter by reason of unauthorized absence and whose absence commenced during the period from August 4, 1964 to March 28, 1973, inclusive, will be relieved of prosecution and punishment under Articles 85, 86 and 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 885, 886, 887] for such absence and for offenses directly related thereto if before March 31, 1975 he takes an oath of allegiance to the United States and executes an agreement with the Secretary of the Military Department from which he absented himself or for members of the Coast Guard, with the Secretary of Transportation, pledging to fulfill a period of alternate service under the auspices of the Director of Selective Service. The alternate service shall promote the national health, safety, or interest.

The period of service shall be twenty-four months, which may be reduced by the Secretary of the appropriate Military Department, or Secretary of Transportation for members of the Coast Guard, because of mitigating circumstances.

However, if a member of the armed forces has additional outstanding charges pending against him under the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 801 et seq.], his eligibility to participate in this program may be conditioned upon, or postponed until after, final disposition of the additional charges has been reached in accordance with law.

Each member of the armed forces who elects to seek relief through this program will receive an undesirable discharge. Thereafter, upon satisfactory completion of a period of alternate service prescribed by the Military Department or Department of Transportation, such individual will be entitled to receive, in lieu of his undesirable discharge, a clemency discharge in recognition of his fulfillment of the requirements of the program. Such clemency discharge shall not bestow entitlement to benefits administered by the Veterans Administration.

Procedures of the Military Departments implementing this Proclamation will be in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary of Defense, present Military Department regulations notwithstanding.

3. Presidential Clemency Board—By Executive Order I have this date established a Presidential Clemency Board which will review the records of individuals within the following categories: (i) those who have been convicted of draft evasion offenses as described above, (ii) those who have received a punitive or undesirable discharge from service in the armed forces for having violated Article 85, 86, or 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 885, 886, 887] between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973, or are serving sentences of confinement for such violations. Where appropriate, the Board may recommend that clemency be conditioned upon completion of a period of alternate service. However, if any clemency discharge is recommended, such discharge shall not bestow entitlement to benefits administered by the Veterans Administration.

4. Alternate Service—In prescribing the length of alternate service in individual cases, the Attorney General, the Secretary of the appropriate Department, or the Clemency Board shall take into account such honorable service as an individual may have rendered prior to his absence, penalties already paid under law, and such other mitigating factors as may be appropriate to seek equity among those who participate in this program.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixteenth day of September in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred seventy-four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and ninety-nineth.

Gerald R. Ford.      

Proc. No. 4483. Pardon for Violations of Act, August 4, 1964 to March 28, 1973

Proc. No. 4483, Jan. 21, 1977, 42 F.R. 4391, 91 Stat. 1719, provided:

Acting pursuant to the grant of authority in Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution of the United States, I, Jimmy Carter, President of the United States, do hereby grant a full, complete and unconditional pardon to: (1) all persons who may have committed any offense between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973 in violation of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder; and (2) all persons heretofore convicted, irrespective of the date of conviction, of any offense committed between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973 in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, restoring to them full political, civil and other rights.

This pardon does not apply to the following who are specifically excluded therefrom:

(1) All persons convicted of or who may have committed any offense in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, involving force or violence; and

(2) All persons convicted of or who may have committed any offense in violation of the Military Selective Service Act, or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, in connection with duties or responsibilities arising out of employment as agents, officers or employees of the Military Selective Service system.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 21st day of January, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and seventy-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and first.

Jimmy Carter.      

Ex. Ord. No. 11803. Clemency Board To Review Certain Convictions and Discharges

Ex. Ord. No. 11803, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33297, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11837, Jan. 30, 1975, 40 F.R. 4895; Ex. Ord. No. 11842, Feb. 28, 1975, 40 F.R. 8935; Ex. Ord. No. 11857, May 7, 1975, 40 F.R. 20261; Ex. Ord. No. 11878, Sept. 10, 1975, 40 F.R. 42731, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by Section 2 of Article II of the Constitution of the United States, and in the interest of the internal management of the Government, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. There is hereby established in the Executive Office of the President a board of 9 members, which shall be known as the Presidential Clemency Board. The members of the Board shall be appointed by the President, who shall also designate its Chairman. The President may appoint such additional members to the board as he shall from time to time determine to be necessary to carry out its functions.

Sec. 2. The Board, under such regulations as it may prescribe, shall examine the cases of persons who apply for Executive clemency prior to March 31, 1975, and who (i) have been convicted of violating Section 12 or 6(j) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. §462) [this section and section 456(j) of this Appendix], or of any rule or regulation promulgated pursuant to that section, for acts committed between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973, inclusive, or (ii) have received punitive or undesirable discharges as a consequence of violations of Articles 85, 86 or 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. §§885, 886, 887) that occurred between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973, inclusive, or are serving sentences of confinement for such violations. The Board will only consider the cases of Military Selective Service Act violators who were convicted of unlawfully failing (i) to register or register on time, (ii) to keep the local board informed of their current address, (iii) to report for or submit to preinduction or induction examination, (iv) to report for or submit to induction itself, or (v) to report for or submit to, or complete service under Section 6(j) of such Act [section 456(j) of this Appendix]. However, the Board will not consider the cases of individuals who are precluded from reentering the United States under [former] 8 U.S.C. 182(a)(22) or other law.

Sec. 3. The Board shall report to the President its findings and recommendations as to whether Executive clemency should be granted or denied in any case. If clemency is recommended, the Board shall also recommend the form that such clemency should take, including clemency conditioned upon a period of alternate service in the national interest. In the case of an individual discharged from the armed forces with a punitive or undesirable discharge, the Board may recommend to the President that a clemency discharge be substituted for a punitive or undesirable discharge. Determination of any period of alternate service shall be in accord with the Proclamation [Proc. No. 4313, set out above] announcing a program for the return of Vietnam era draft evaders and military deserters.

Sec. 4. The Board shall give priority consideration to those applicants who are presently confined and have been convicted only of an offense set forth in section 2 of this order, and who have no outstanding criminal charges.

Sec. 5. Each member of the Board, except any member who then receives other compensation from the United States, may receive compensation for each day he or she is engaged upon the work of the Board at not to exceed the daily rate now or hereafter prescribed by law for persons and positions in GS–18, as authorized by law (5 U.S.C. 3109), and may also receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law (5 U.S.C. 5703) for persons in the government service employed intermittently.

Sec. 6. Necessary expenses of the Board may be paid from the Unanticipated Personnel Needs Fund of the President or from such other funds as may be available.

Sec. 7. Necessary administrative services and support may be provided the Board by the General Services Administration on a reimbursable basis.

Sec. 8. All department and agencies in the Executive branch are authorized and directed to cooperate with the Board in its work, and to furnish the Board all appropriate information and assistance, to the extent permitted by law.

Sec. 9. The Board shall submit its final recommendations to the President not later than September 15, 1975, at which time it shall cease to exist.

Gerald R. Ford.      

Ex. Ord. No. 11804. Delegation of Certain Functions of President to Director of Selective Service

Ex. Ord. No. 11804, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33299, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, pursuant to my powers under Article II, Sections 1, 2 and 3 of the Constitution, and under Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Director of Selective Service is designated and empowered, without the approval, ratification or other action of the President, under such regulations as he may prescribe, to establish, implement, and administer the program of alternate service authorized in the Proclamation [set out above] announcing a program for the return of Vietnam era draft evaders and military deserters.

Sec. 2. Departments and agencies in the Executive branch shall, upon the request of the Director of Selective Service, cooperate and assist in the implementation or administration of the Director's duties under this Order, to the extent permitted by law.

Gerald R. Ford.      

Ex. Ord. No. 11878. Assigning Responsibilities Relating to Activities of Presidential Clemency Board

Ex. Ord. No. 11878, Sept. 10, 1975, 40 F.R. 42731, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution of the United States of America, and as President of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Section 9 of Executive Order No. 11803 of September 16, 1974, as amended [set out above] is amended to read:

“The Board shall submit its final recommendations to the President not later than September 15, 1975, at which time it shall cease to exist.”

Sec. 2. Any applications for Executive clemency, as to which the Presidential Clemency Board (established by Executive Order No. 11803) [set out above] has not taken final action shall be transferred, together with the files related thereto, to the Attorney General.

Sec. 3. The Attorney General, with respect to the applications and related files transferred to him by Section 2 of this Order, shall take all actions appropriate or necessary to complete the clemency process and shall expeditiously report to the President his findings and recommendations as to whether Executive clemency should be granted or denied in any case. In performing his responsibilities under this Order, the Attorney General shall apply the relevant criteria and comply with the appropriate and applicable instructions and procedures established by Executive Order No. 11803 of September 16, 1974, as amended [set out above], Proclamation No. 4313 of September 16, 1974, as amended [set out above], Executive Order No. 11804 of September 16, 1974 [set out above], and, to the extent that he deems appropriate, the regulations of the Presidential Clemency Board and the Selective Service System issued pursuant to the foregoing Executive orders.

Sec. 4. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget is hereby designated and empowered to take such action as he deems necessary to ensure the orderly and prompt termination of the activities of the Presidential Clemency Board and the assignment of responsibilities directed by this Order.

Sec. 5. Departments and agencies in the Executive branch shall, to the extent permitted by law, cooperate with and assist the Attorney General, the Director of the Selective Service and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget in the performance of their responsibilities under this Order.

Sec. 6. The responsibilities assigned under this Order are to be completed no later than March 31, 1976, at which time the Attorney General shall submit his final recommendations to the President.

Gerald R. Ford.      

Ex. Ord. No. 11967. Implementation of Pardon for Violations of Act, August 4, 1964 to March 28, 1973

Ex. Ord. No. 11967, Jan. 21, 1977, 42 F.R. 4393, provided:

The following actions shall be taken to facilitate Presidential Proclamation of Pardon of January 21, 1977 [set out above]:

1. The Attorney General shall cause to be dismissed with prejudice to the Government all pending indictments for violations of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] alleged to have occurred between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973 with the exception of the following:

(a) Those cases alleging acts of force or violence deemed to be so serious by the Attorney General as to warrant continued prosecution; and

(b) Those cases alleging acts in violation of the Military Selective Service Act by agents, employees or officers of the Selective Service System arising out of such employment.

2. The Attorney General shall terminate all investigations now pending and shall not initiate further investigations alleging violations of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] between August 4, 1964 and March 28, 1973, with the exception of the following:

(a) Those cases involving allegations of force or violence deemed to be so serious by the Attorney General as to warrant continued investigation, or possible prosecution; and

(b) Those cases alleging acts in violation of the Military Selective Service Act by agents, employees or officers of the Selective Service System arising out of such employment.

3. Any person who is or may be precluded from reentering the United States under [former] 8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(22) or under any other law, by reason of having committed or apparently committed any violation of the Military Selective Service Act [see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix] shall be permitted as any other alien to reenter the United States.

The Attorney General is directed to exercise his discretion under 8 U.S.C. 1182(d)(5) or other applicable law to permit the reentry of such persons under the same terms and conditions as any other alien.

This shall not include anyone who falls into the exceptions of paragraphs 1(a) and (b) and 2(a) and (b) above.

4. Any individual offered conditional clemency or granted a pardon or other clemency under Executive Order 11803 [set out above] or Presidential Proclamation 4313, dated September 16, 1974 [set out above], shall receive the full measure of relief afforded by this program if they are otherwise qualified under the terms of this Executive Order.

Jimmy Carter.      

§463. Nonapplicability of certain laws

(a) Nothing in sections 203, 205, or 207 of title 18 of the United States Code, or in the second sentence of subsection (a) of section 9 of the Act of August 2, 1939 (53 Stat. 1148), entitled “An Act to prevent pernicious political activities”, as amended, shall be deemed to apply to any person because of his appointment under authority of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] or the regulations made pursuant thereto as an uncompensated official of the Selective Service System, or as an individual to conduct hearings on appeals of persons claiming exemption from combatant or noncombatant training because of conscientious objections, or as a member of the National Selective Service Appeal Board.

(b) All functions performed under this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall be excluded from the operation of the Administrative Procedure Act (60 Stat. 237) [5 U.S.C. 551 et seq. and 701 et seq.] except as to the requirements of section 3 of such Act [5 U.S.C. 552]. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, no regulation issued under this Act shall become effective until the expiration of thirty days following the date on which such regulation has been published in the Federal Register. After the publication of any regulation and prior to the date on which such regulation becomes effective, any person shall be given an opportunity to submit his views to the Director on such regulation, but no formal hearing shall be required on any such regulation. The requirements of this subsection may be waived by the President in the case of any regulation if he (1) determines that compliance with such requirements would materially impair the national defense, and (2) gives public notice to that effect at the time such regulation is issued.

(c) In computing the lump-sum payments made to Air Force reserve officers under the provisions of section 2 of the Act of June 16, 1936, as amended and to reserve officers of the Navy or to their beneficiaries under section 12 of the Act of August 4, 1942, as amended, no credit shall be allowed for any period of active service performed from the effective date of this title [June 24, 1948] to the date on which this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall cease to be effective. Each such lumpsum payment shall be prorated for a fractional part of a year of active service in the case of any reserve officer subject to the provisions of either such section, if such reserve officer performs continuous active service for one or more years (inclusive of such service performed during the period in which this title [said sections] is effective) and such active service includes a fractional part of a year immediately prior to the effective date of this title [June 24, 1948], or immediately following the date on which this title [said sections] shall cease to be effective, or both.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §13, 62 Stat. 623; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(t), 65 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 88–110, §6, Sept. 3, 1963, 77 Stat. 136; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(32), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 353.)

References in Text

The second sentence of subsection (a) of section 9 of the Act of August 2, 1939, referred to in subsec. (a), was classified to section 118i(a) of former Title 5 and was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378, and reenacted as section 7324(a)(2) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Section 7324 of Title 5 was omitted and a new section 7324 enacted in the general amendment of subchapter III of chapter 73 of Title 5 by Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1001. See section 7323(b)(2)(A) of Title 5.

The Administrative Procedure Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 11, 1946, ch. 324, 60 Stat. 237, as amended, which was classified to sections 1001 to 1011 of former Title 5 and which was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378, and reenacted as subchapter II (§551 et seq.) of chapter 5, and chapter 7 (§701 et seq.), of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

Section 2 of the Act of June 16, 1936, as amended, referred to in subsec. (c), is section 2 of act June 16, 1936, ch. 587, 49 Stat. 1524, as amended Apr. 3, 1939, ch. 35, §11, 53 Stat. 559; June 3, 1941, ch. 165, §6, 55 Stat. 240; July 25, 1947, ch. 323, 61 Stat. 424; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 12 of the Act of August 4, 1942, as amended, referred to in subsec. (c), is section 12 of act Aug. 4, 1942, ch. 547, 56 Stat. 738, as amended Oct. 25, 1943, ch. 275, §1, 57 Stat. 574; July 25, 1947, ch. 323, 61 Stat. 424, which is not classified to the Code.

Date on which this title shall cease to be effective, referred to in subsec. (c), is defined in section 467 of this Appendix.

Amendments

1971—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–129 inserted provisions covering the publication of regulations in the Federal Register.

1963—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–110 substituted “sections 203, 205, or 207 of title 18 of the United States Code” for “sections 281, 283, or 284 of title 18 of the United States Code, in section 190 of the Revised Statutes (U.S.C., title 5, sec. 99)”.

1951—Subsec. (a). Act June 19, 1951, brought within its provisions members of the National Selective Service Appeal Board.

§464. Repealed. Pub. L. 108–189, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2865

Section, acts June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §14, 62 Stat. 623; Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1059, §1(11), 64 Stat. 1074, provided that the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act of 1940, as amended, was applicable to all persons in the United States armed forces.

§465. Notice of requirements of Act; voluntary enlistments unaffected

(a) Every person shall be deemed to have notice of the requirements of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] upon publication by the President of a proclamation or other public notice fixing a time for any registration under section 3 [section 453 of this Appendix].

(b) It shall be the duty of every registrant to keep his local board informed as to his current address and changes in status as required by such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the President.

(c) If any provision of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of the title [said sections], and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

(d) Except as provided in section 4(c) [section 454(c) of this Appendix], nothing contained in this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall be construed to repeal, amend, or suspend the laws now in force authorizing voluntary enlistment or reenlistment in the Armed Forces of the United States, including the reserve components thereof, except that no person shall be accepted for enlistment after he has been issued an order to report for induction unless authorized by the Director and the Secretary of Defense and except that, whenever the Congress or the President has declared that the national interest is imperiled, voluntary enlistment or reenlistment in such forces, and their reserve components, may be suspended by the President to such extent as he may deem necessary in the interest of national defense.

(e) In order to assist the Armed Forces in recruiting individuals for voluntary service in the Armed Forces, the Director shall, upon the request of the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Homeland Security, furnish to the Secretary the names and addresses of individuals registered under this Act. Names and addresses furnished pursuant to the preceding sentence may be used by the Secretary of Defense or Secretary of Homeland Security only for recruiting purposes.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §15, 62 Stat. 624; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(33), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 353; Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §916(c), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1129; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(e)(11)(E), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2316.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (e), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, known as the Military Selective Service Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation” in two places.

1981—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–86 added subsec. (e).

1971—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–129 inserted provision empowering the Director and the Secretary of Defense to authorize voluntary enlistments and reenlistments in the Armed Forces after a person has been issued an order to report for induction and struck out reference to section 454(g) of this Appendix.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§466. Definitions

When used in this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix]—

(a) The term “between the ages of eighteen and twenty-six” shall refer to men who have attained the eighteenth anniversary of the day of their birth and who have not attained the twenty-sixth anniversary of the day of their birth; and other terms designating different age groups shall be construed in a similar manner.

(b) The term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, shall be deemed to mean the several States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam.

(c) The term “armed forces” shall be deemed to include the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Air Force, and the Coast Guard.

(d) The term “district court of the United States” shall be deemed to include the courts of the United States for the Territories and possessions of the United States.

(e) The term “local board” shall be deemed to include an intercounty local board in the case of any registrant who is subject to the jurisdiction of an intercounty local board.

(f) The term “Director” shall be deemed to mean the Director of the Selective Service System.

(g)(1) The term “duly ordained minister of religion” means a person who has been ordained, in accordance with the ceremonial, ritual, or discipline of a church, religious sect, or organization established on the basis of a community of faith and belief, doctrines and practices of a religious character, to preach and to teach the doctrines of such church, sect, or organization and to administer the rites and ceremonies thereof in public worship, and who as his regular and customary vocation preaches and teaches the principles of religion and administers the ordinances of public worship as embodied in the creed or principles of such church, sect, or organization.

(2) The term “regular minister of religion” means one who as his customary vocation preaches and teaches the principles of religion of a church, a religious sect, or organization of which he is a member, without having been formally ordained as a minister of religion, and who is recognized by such church, sect, or organization as a regular minister.

(3) The term “regular or duly ordained minister of religion” does not include a person who irregularly or incidentally preaches and teaches the principles of religion of a church, religious sect, or organization and does not include any person who may have been duly ordained a minister in accordance with the ceremonial, rite, or discipline of a church, religious sect or organization, but who does not regularly, as a bona fide vocation, teach and preach the principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship as embodied in the creed or principles of his church, sect, or organization.

(h) The term “organized unit”, when used with respect to a reserve component, shall be deemed to mean a unit in which the members thereof are required satisfactorily to participate in scheduled drills and training periods as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(i) The term “reserve components of the armed forces” shall, unless the context otherwise requires, be deemed to include the federally recognized National Guard of the United States, the federally recognized Air National Guard of the United States, the Officers’ Reserve Corps, the Regular Army Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, the Enlisted Reserve Corps, the Navy Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, and the Coast Guard Reserve, and shall include, in addition to the foregoing, the Public Health Service Reserve when serving with the armed forces.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §16, 62 Stat. 624; Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1059, §1(12), (13), 64 Stat. 1074; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(v), 65 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 86–70, §36, June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 150; Pub. L. 86–624, §39, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(34), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 353; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(3)(B), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted “Navy Reserve” for “Naval Reserve”.

1971—Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 92–129 inserted “bona fide” before “vocation”.

1960—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–624 struck out “Hawaii,” before “Puerto Rico”.

1959—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–70 struck out “Alaska,” after “District of Columbia,”.

1951—Subsec. (b). Act June 19, 1951, brought “Guam” within definition of “United States”.

1950—Subsec. (c). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §1(12), struck out “and” after “Corps” and inserted “, and the Coast Guard” before the period.

Subsec. (i). Act Sept. 27, 1950, §1(13), struck out “and” after “Naval Reserve” and “, the Coast Guard Reserve” after “foregoing” and inserted “and the Coast Guard Reserve” after “Marine Corps Reserve”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation, and functions, powers, and duties relating to Coast Guard of Secretary of the Treasury and of all other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury transferred to Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, however, provided that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, Coast Guard shall operate as part of Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of the Treasury, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of the Treasury with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, 1281, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions of Coast Guard, and Commandant of Coast Guard, excepted from transfer when Coast Guard is operating as part of Navy under sections 1 and 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

Functions of Public Health Service, Surgeon General of Public Health Service, and all other officers and employees of Public Health Service, and functions of all agencies of or in Public Health Service transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1966, eff. June 25, 1966, 31 F.R. 8855, 80 Stat. 1610, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary of Health and Human Services by section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

§467. Repeals; appropriations; termination date

(a) Except as provided in this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] all laws or any parts of laws in conflict with the provisions of the title [said sections] are repealed to the extent of such conflict.

(b) There are authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix]. All funds appropriated for the administrative expenses of the National Security Training Commission shall be appropriated directly to the Commission and all funds appropriated to pay the expenses of training carried out by the military departments designated by the Commission shall be appropriated directly to the Department of Defense.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix], no person shall be inducted for training and service in the Armed Forces after July 1, 1973, except persons now or hereafter deferred under section 6 of this title [section 456 of this Appendix] after the basis for such deferment ceases to exist.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §17, 62 Stat. 625; June 23, 1950, ch. 351, 64 Stat. 254; June 30, 1950, ch. 445, §1, 64 Stat. 318; June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(w), 65 Stat. 87; June 30, 1955, ch. 250, title I, §102, 69 Stat. 224; Pub. L. 86–4, §1, Mar. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 13; Pub. L. 88–2, §1, Mar. 28, 1963, 77 Stat. 4; Pub. L. 90–40, §1(12), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 105; Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(35), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 353.)

Amendments

1971—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–129 extended termination date from July 1, 1971, to July 1, 1973.

1967—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–40 extended termination date from July 1, 1967, to July 1, 1971.

1963—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–2 extended termination date from July 1, 1963, to July 1, 1967.

1959—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–4 extended termination date from July 1, 1959, to July 1, 1963.

1955—Subsec. (c). Act June 30, 1955, extended termination date from July 1, 1955, to July 1, 1959.

1951—Act June 19, 1951, amended section generally to provide for repeal of all conflicting laws, to appropriate certain funds directly to the Commission, and to provide for the termination date of July 1, 1955.

1950—Subsec. (b). Acts June 23, 1950 and June 30, 1950, extended period of effectiveness for fifteen days until July 9, 1950, and again from July 9, 1950, to July 9, 1951.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(35), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 353, provided in part that: “The amendment made by the preceding sentence [amending this section] shall take effect July 2, 1971.”

Termination of National Security Training Commission

National Security Training Commission expired June 30, 1957, pursuant to a Presidential letter on Mar. 25, 1957, following its own recommendation for its termination.

§468. Utilization of industry

(a) Placement of orders; Congressional action: notification of committees of certain proposed payment orders, resolution of disapproval, continuity of session, computation of period; “small business” defined

Whenever the President after consultation with and receiving advice from the National Security Resources Board 1 determines that it is in the interest of the national security for the Government to obtain prompt delivery of any articles or materials the procurement of which has been authorized by the Congress exclusively for the use of the armed forces of the United States, or for the use of the Atomic Energy Commission,1 he is authorized, through the head of any Government agency, to place with any person operating a plant, mine, or other facility capable of producing such articles or materials an order for such quantity of such articles or materials as the President deems appropriate, except that no order which requires payments thereunder in excess of $25,000,000 shall be placed with any person unless the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives have been notified in writing of such proposed order and 60 days of continuous session of Congress have expired following the date on which such notice was transmitted to such Committees and neither House of Congress has adopted, within such 60-day period, a resolution disapproving such order. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the continuity of a session of Congress is broken only by an adjournment of the Congress sine die, and the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain are excluded in the computation of such 60-day period. Any person with whom an order is placed pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be advised that such order is placed pursuant to the provisions of this section. Under any such program of national procurement, the President shall recognize the valid claim of American small business to participate in such contracts, in such manufactures, and in such distribution of materials, and small business shall be granted a fair share of the orders placed, exclusively for the use of the armed forces or for other Federal agencies now or hereafter designated in this section. For the purposes of this section, a business enterprise shall be determined to be “small business” if (1) its position in the trade or industry of which it is a part is not dominant, (2) the number of its employees does not exceed 500, and (3) it is independently owned and operated.

(b) Precedence of Government placed orders

It shall be the duty of any person with whom an order is placed pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a), (1) to give such order such precedence with respect to all other orders (Government or private) theretofore or thereafter placed with such person as the President may prescribe, and (2) to fill such order within the period of time prescribed by the President or as soon thereafter as possible.

(c) Failure to give precedence; Government possession

In case any person with whom an order is placed pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section refuses or fails—

(1) to give such order such precedence with respect to all other orders (Government or private) theretofore or thereafter placed with such person as the President may have prescribed;

(2) to fill such order within the period of time prescribed by the President or as soon thereafter as possible as determined by the President;

(3) to produce the kind or quality of articles or materials ordered; or

(4) to furnish the quantity, kind, and quality of articles or materials ordered at such price as shall be negotiated between such person and the Government agency concerned; or in the event of failure to negotiate a price, to furnish the quantity, kind, and quality of articles or materials ordered at such price as he may subsequently be determined to be entitled to receive under subsection (d);


the President is authorized to take immediate possession of any plant, mine, or other facility of such person and to operate it, through any Government agency, for the production of such articles or materials as may be required by the Government.

(d) Payment of compensation by United States

Fair and just compensation shall be paid by the United States (1) for any articles or materials furnished pursuant to an order placed under subsection (a) of this section, or (2) as rental for any plant, mine, or other facility of which possession is taken under subsection (c).

(e) Application of Federal and State laws governing employees

Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to render inapplicable to any plant, mine, or facility of which possession is taken pursuant to subsection (c) any State or Federal laws concerning the health, safety, security, or employment standards of employees.

(f) Penalties

Any person, or any officer of any person as defined in this section, who willfully fails or refuses to carry out any duty imposed upon him by subsection (b) of this section shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than three years, or by a fine of not more than $50,000, or by both such imprisonment and fine.

(g) “Person” and “Government agency” defined

(1) As used in this section—

(A) The term “person” means any individual, firm, company, association, corporation, or other form of business organization.

(B) The term “Government agency” means any department, agency, independent establishment, or corporation in the Executive branch of the United States Government.


(2) For the purposes of this section, a plant, mine, or other facility shall be deemed capable of producing any articles or materials if it is then producing or furnishing such articles or materials or if the President after consultation with and receiving advice from the National Security Resources Board determines that it can be readily converted to the production or furnishing of such articles or materials.

(h) Rules and regulations governing steel industry; mandatory

The President is empowered, through the Secretary of Defense, to require all producers of steel in the United States to make available, to individuals, firms, associations, companies, corporations, or organized manufacturing industries having orders for steel products or steel materials required by the armed forces, such percentages of the steel production of such producers, in equal proportion deemed necessary for the expeditious execution of orders for such products or materials. Compliance with such requirement shall be obligatory on all such producers of steel and such requirement shall take precedence over all orders and contracts theretofore placed with such producers. If any such producer of steel or the responsible head or heads thereof refuses to comply with such requirement, the President, through the Secretary of Defense, is authorized to take immediate possession of the plant or plants of such producer and, through the appropriate branch, bureau, or department of the armed forces, to insure compliance with such requirement. Any such producer of steel or the responsible head or heads thereof refusing to comply with such requirement shall be deemed guilty of a felony and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than three years and a fine not exceeding $50,000.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §18, 62 Stat. 625; Pub. L. 93–155, title VIII, §807(d), Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 616; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1303(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1669.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–510 struck out “(1)” before “The President is empowered” and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “The President shall report to the Congress on the final day of each six-month period following the date of enactment of this Act the percentage figure, or if such information is not available, the approximate percentage figure, of the total steel production in the United States required to be made available during such period for the execution of orders for steel products and steel materials required by the armed forces, if such percentage figure is in excess of 10 per centum.”

1973—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–155 provided for notification of Congressional Committees with respect to certain proposed payment orders, Congressional resolution of disapproval, continuity of Congressional session, and computation of period.

Transfer of Functions

National Security Resources Board, together with Office of Chairman, abolished by section 6 of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1953, eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions of Chairman of National Security Resources Board under this section, with respect to being consulted by and furnishing advice to President as required by this section, abolished by section 5(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1953. Other functions of Chairman transferred to Office of Defense Mobilization by section 2(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1953. For subsequent transfers to Office of Emergency Planning, Office of Emergency Preparedness, President, Federal Preparedness Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Secretary of Homeland Security, see notes set out under section 404 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

Delegation of Authority

For delegation of President's authority under this section with respect to placing of orders for prompt delivery of articles or materials, see section 102 of Ex. Ord. No. 12742, Jan. 8, 1991, 56 F.R. 1079, set out as a note under section 82 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Obligations Entered Into Before November 16, 1973

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–155 not affecting the carrying out of any contract, loan, guarantee, commitment, or other obligation entered into prior to Nov. 16, 1973, see section 807(e) of Pub. L. 93–155, set out as a note under section 2307 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

1 See Transfer of Functions note below.

§469. Savings provision

Nothing in this title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall be deemed to amend any provision of the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 495).

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §19, 62 Stat. 627.)

References in Text

The National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 495), referred to in text, is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and Tables.

§470. Effective date

This title [sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix] shall become effective immediately; except that unless the President, or the Congress by concurrent resolution, declares a national emergency after the date of enactment of this Act [June 24, 1948], no person shall be inducted or ordered into active service without his consent under this title [said sections] within ninety days after the date of its enactment.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §20, 62 Stat. 627; Sept. 27, 1950, ch. 1059, §1(14), 64 Stat. 1074; Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.)

Amendments

1956—Act Aug. 10, 1956, repealed provisions requiring the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and the Treasury to initiate and carry forward intensified voluntary enlistment campaigns for the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard, which provisions are now covered by sections 3255 and 5531 of Title 10, Armed Forces, and section 350 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

1950—Act Sept. 27, 1950, struck out “and” after “Air Force” and inserted “and the Secretary of the Treasury, for the Coast Guard” after “Marine Corps”.

§471. Authority of President to order Reserve components to active service; release from active duty; retention of unit organizations and equipment

Until July 1, 1953, and subject to the limitations imposed by section 2 of the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended [section 452 of this Appendix], the President shall be authorized to order into the active military or naval service of the United States for a period of not to exceed twenty-four consecutive months, with or without their consent, any or all members and units of any or all Reserve components of the Armed Forces of the United States and retired personnel of the Regular Armed Forces. Unless he is sooner released under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned, any member of the inactive or volunteer reserve who served on active duty for a period of 12 months or more in any branch of the Armed Forces between the period December 7, 1941, and September 2, 1945, inclusive, who is now or may hereafter be ordered to active duty pursuant to this section, shall upon completion of 17 or more months of active duty since June 25, 1950, if he makes application therefor to the Secretary of the branch of service in which he is serving, be released from active duty and shall not thereafter be ordered to active duty for periods in excess of 30 days without his consent except in time of war or national emergency hereafter declared by the Congress: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply to any member of the inactive or volunteer reserve ordered to active duty whose rating or specialty is found by the Secretary of the military department concerned to be critical and whose release to inactive duty prior to the period for which he was ordered to active duty would impair the efficiency of the military department concerned.

The President may retain the unit organizations and the equipment thereof, exclusive of the individual members thereof, in the active Federal service for a total period of five consecutive years, and upon being relieved by the appropriate Secretary from active Federal service, National Guard, or Air National Guard units, shall, insofar as practicable, be returned to their National Guard or Air National Guard status in their respective States, Territories, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, with pertinent records, colors, histories, trophies, and other historical impedimenta.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §21, as added June 30, 1950, ch. 445, §2, 64 Stat. 318; amended June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §1(x), 65 Stat. 87; July 7, 1952, ch. 584, §1, 66 Stat. 440.)

Amendments

1952—Act July 7, 1952, authorized the President to retain unit organizations and their equipment, exclusive of individual members, for a period of five years.

1951—Act June 19, 1951, substituted “July 1, 1953” for “July 9, 1951”, “twenty-four months” for “twenty-one months”, and inserted last sentence.

Ex. Ord. No. 10271. Delegation of President's Authority

Ex. Ord. No. 10271, July 7, 1951, 16 F.R. 6661, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §80, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10631, provided:

There is hereby delegated to the Secretary of Defense the authority vested in the President by section 21 of the Universal Military Training and Service Act (64 Stat. 318), as amended by the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act (65 Stat. 87; Public Law 51, 82d Congress) [this section], to order into the active military or naval service of the United States for a period not to exceed twenty-four months, with or without their consent, any or all members and units of any or all Reserve components of the Armed Forces of the United States and retired personnel of the Regular Armed Forces: Provided, that so much of the authority of the President under the said section 21, as amended [this section], as relates to any Reserve component of the United States Coast Guard or to retired personnel of the Regular Coast Guard is hereby delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

The Secretary of Defense is hereby authorized to redelegate, subject to such conditions as the Secretary may deem appropriate, to the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force such functions under this order as affect their respective services.

§471a. Procedural rights

(a) It is hereby declared to be the purpose of this section to guarantee to each registrant asserting a claim before a local or appeal board, a fair hearing consistent with the informal and expeditious processing which is required by selective service cases.

(b) Pursuant to such rules and regulations as the President may prescribe—

(1) Each registrant shall be afforded the opportunity to appear in person before the local or any appeal board of the Selective Service System to testify and present evidence regarding his status.

(2) Subject to reasonable limitations on the number of witnesses and the total time allotted to each registrant, each registrant shall have the right to present witnesses on his behalf before the local board.

(3) A quorum of any local board or appeal board shall be present during the registrant's personal appearance.

(4) In the event of a decision adverse to the claim of a registrant, the local or appeal board making such decision shall, upon request, furnish to such registrant a brief written statement of the reasons for its decision.

(June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §22, as added Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(36), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 353.)

§472. Period of increased service applicable to all personnel

Wherever in this amendatory Act the period of active service for any category of persons is increased, such increased period of service shall be applicable to all persons in such category serving on active duty in the Armed Forces on the date of the enactment of this amendatory Act [June 19, 1951].

(June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §4, 65 Stat. 88.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act, and not as part of the Military Selective Service Act, title I of which comprises sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix.

§473. Regulations governing liquor sales; penalties

Subject to section 2683(c) of title 10, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense is authorized to make such regulations as he may deem to be appropriate governing the sale, consumption, possession of or traffic in beer, wine, or any other intoxicating liquors to or by members of the Armed Forces or the National Security Training Corps at or near any camp, station, post, or other place primarily occupied by members of the Armed Forces or the National Security Training Corps. Any person, corporation, partnership, or association who knowingly violates the regulations which may be made hereunder shall, unless otherwise punishable under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be punished by a fine of not more than $1,000 or imprisonment for not more than twelve months, or both.

(June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §6, 65 Stat. 88; Pub. L. 99–145, title XII, §1224(b)(2), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 729.)

References in Text

The Uniform Code of Military Justice, referred to in text, is classified generally to chapter 47 (§801 et seq.) of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Codification

Section was enacted as a part of the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act, and not as a part of the Military Selective Service Act, title I of which comprises sections 451 to 471a of this Appendix.

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “Subject to section 2683(c) of title 10, United States Code, the” for “The”.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–145 effective 90 days after Nov. 8, 1985, see section 1224(d) of Pub. L. 99–145, set out as a note under section 2683 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT

ACT OCT. 17, 1940, CH. 888, 54 STAT. 1178

Sec.
501.
Short title.
502.
Purpose.

        

TITLE I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

511.
Definitions.
512.
Jurisdiction and applicability of Act.
513.
Protection of persons secondarily liable.
514.
Extension of protections to citizens serving with allied forces.
515.
Notification of benefits.
515a.
Information for members of the Armed Forces and their dependents on rights and protections of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act.
516.
Extension of rights and protections to reserves ordered to report for military service and to persons ordered to report for induction.
517.
Waiver of rights pursuant to written agreement.
518.
Exercise of rights under Act not to affect certain future financial transactions.
519.
Legal representatives.

        

TITLE II—GENERAL RELIEF

521.
Protection of servicemembers against default judgments.
522.
Stay of proceedings when servicemember has notice.
523.
Fines and penalties under contracts.
524.
Stay or vacation of execution of judgments, attachments, and garnishments.
525.
Duration and term of stays; codefendants not in service.
526.
Statute of limitations.
527.
Maximum rate of interest on debts incurred before military service.

        

TITLE III—RENT, INSTALLMENT CONTRACTS, MORTGAGES, LIENS, ASSIGNMENT, LEASES

531.
Evictions and distress.
532.
Protection under installment contracts for purchase or lease.
533.
Mortgages and trust deeds.
534.
Settlement of stayed cases relating to personal property.
535.
Termination of residential or motor vehicle leases.
535a.
Termination of telephone service contracts.
536.
Protection of life insurance policy.
537.
Enforcement of storage liens.
538.
Extension of protections to dependents.

        

TITLE IV—LIFE INSURANCE

541.
Definitions.
542.
Insurance rights and protections.
543.
Application for insurance protection.
544.
Policies entitled to protection and lapse of policies.
545.
Policy restrictions.
546.
Deduction of unpaid premiums.
547.
Premiums and interest guaranteed by United States.
548.
Regulations.
549.
Review of findings of fact and conclusions of law.

        

TITLE V—TAXES AND PUBLIC LANDS

561.
Taxes respecting personal property, money, credits, and real property.
562.
Rights in public lands.
563.
Desert-land entries.
564.
Mining claims.
565.
Mineral permits and leases.
566.
Perfection or defense of rights.
567.
Distribution of information concerning benefits of title.
568.
Land rights of servicemembers.
569.
Regulations.
570.
Income taxes.
571.
Residence for tax purposes.

        

TITLE VI—ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES

581.
Inappropriate use of Act.
582.
Certificates of service; persons reported missing.
583.
Interlocutory orders.

        

TITLE VII—FURTHER RELIEF

591.
Anticipatory relief.
592.
Power of attorney.
593.
Professional liability protection.
594.
Health insurance reinstatement.
595.
Guarantee of residency for military personnel and spouses of military personnel.
596.
Business or trade obligations.
597.
Enforcement by the Attorney General.
597a.
Private right of action.
597b.
Preservation of remedies.

        

Codification

The Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, comprising sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix, was originally enacted as act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, 54 Stat. 1178, known as the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act of 1940, and amended by acts Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, 56 Stat. 769; July 3, 1944, ch. 397, 58 Stat. 722; Apr. 3, 1948, ch. 170, 62 Stat. 160; June 23, 1952, ch. 450, 66 Stat. 151; July 11, 1956, ch. 570, 70 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 86–721, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 87–771, Oct. 9, 1962, 76 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 89–358, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 12; Pub. L. 92–540, Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1074; Pub. L. 102–12, Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 34; Pub. L. 104–106, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 186; Pub. L. 107–107, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1012; Pub. L. 107–330, Dec. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 2820. Sections of the act Oct. 17, 1940, are shown herein, however, as having been added by Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2835, without reference to the intervening amendments listed above because of the extensive revision of act Oct. 17, 1940, by Pub. L. 108–189.

Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act of 1918

Former provisions on this subject were contained in act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, 40 Stat. 440, known as the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act of 1918, section 101 et seq. of this Appendix.

§501. Short title

This Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] may be cited as the “Servicemembers Civil Relief Act”.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, §1(a), as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2835.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 501, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, §1, 54 Stat. 1178, provided that this Act could be cited as the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Relief Act of 1940, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–189, §3, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2866, provided that: “The amendment made by section 1 [enacting sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 596 of this Appendix] shall apply to any case that is not final before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2003].”

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–346, §1, Dec. 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 3622, provided that: “This Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 533 of this Appendix] may be cited as the ‘Helping Heroes Keep Their Homes Act of 2010’.”

Short Title of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–97, §1, Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3007, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 568, 571, and 595 of this Appendix and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 568, 571, and 595 of this Appendix] may be cited as the ‘Military Spouses Residency Relief Act’.”

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–12, §1, Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 34, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 518, 592, and 593 of this Appendix, amending sections 511 to 513, 515, 516, 525, 526, 530 to 532, 534, 535, 540 to 545, 547, 564 to 567, 570, 574, 580, 581, 584, and 591 of this Appendix and sections 2021 and 2024 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits, repealing section 548 of this Appendix, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 521 and 530 of this Appendix and sections 2021 and 2024 of Title 38] may be cited as the ‘Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1991’.”

Short Title of 1942 Amendment

Act Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §1, 56 Stat. 769, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 514 to 517, 526, 533 to 536, 574, and 590 of this Appendix and amending sections 513, 525, 530 to 532, 540 to 548, 560, 569, and 572 of this Appendix] may be cited as the ‘Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942’.”

§502. Purpose

The purposes of this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] are—

(1) to provide for, strengthen, and expedite the national defense through protection extended by this Act to servicemembers of the United States to enable such persons to devote their entire energy to the defense needs of the Nation; and

(2) to provide for the temporary suspension of judicial and administrative proceedings and transactions that may adversely affect the civil rights of servicemembers during their military service.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, §2, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2836.)

TITLE I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Prior Provisions

A prior section 510, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §100, 54 Stat. 1179, stated purpose of this Act, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§511. Definitions

For the purposes of this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix]:

(1) Servicemember

The term “servicemember” means a member of the uniformed services, as that term is defined in section 101(a)(5) of title 10, United States Code.

(2) Military service

The term “military service” means—

(A) in the case of a servicemember who is a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard—

(i) active duty, as defined in section 101(d)(1) of title 10, United States Code, and

(ii) in the case of a member of the National Guard, includes service under a call to active service authorized by the President or the Secretary of Defense for a period of more than 30 consecutive days under section 502(f) of title 32, United States Code, for purposes of responding to a national emergency declared by the President and supported by Federal funds;


(B) in the case of a servicemember who is a commissioned officer of the Public Health Service or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, active service; and

(C) any period during which a servicemember is absent from duty on account of sickness, wounds, leave, or other lawful cause.

(3) Period of military service

The term “period of military service” means the period beginning on the date on which a servicemember enters military service and ending on the date on which the servicemember is released from military service or dies while in military service.

(4) Dependent

The term “dependent”, with respect to a servicemember, means—

(A) the servicemember's spouse;

(B) the servicemember's child (as defined in section 101(4) of title 38, United States Code); or

(C) an individual for whom the servicemember provided more than one-half of the individual's support for 180 days immediately preceding an application for relief under this Act.

(5) Court

The term “court” means a court or an administrative agency of the United States or of any State (including any political subdivision of a State), whether or not a court or administrative agency of record.

(6) State

The term “State” includes—

(A) a commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States; and

(B) the District of Columbia.

(7) Secretary concerned

The term “Secretary concerned”—

(A) with respect to a member of the armed forces, has the meaning given that term in section 101(a)(9) of title 10, United States Code;

(B) with respect to a commissioned officer of the Public Health Service, means the Secretary of Health and Human Services; and

(C) with respect to a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, means the Secretary of Commerce.

(8) Motor vehicle

The term “motor vehicle” has the meaning given that term in section 30102(a)(6) of title 49, United States Code.

(9) Judgment

The term “judgment” means any judgment, decree, order, or ruling, final or temporary.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §101, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2836; amended Pub. L. 108–454, title VII, §701, Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3624.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 511, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §101, 54 Stat. 1179; Pub. L. 92–540, title V, §504(1), Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1098; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(1), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 38; Pub. L. 107–330, title III, §305, Dec. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 2826, related to definitions, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

Amendments

2004—Par. (9). Pub. L. 108–454 added par. (9).

§512. Jurisdiction and applicability of Act

(a) Jurisdiction

This Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] applies to—

(1) the United States;

(2) each of the States, including the political subdivisions thereof; and

(3) all territory subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(b) Applicability to proceedings

This Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] applies to any judicial or administrative proceeding commenced in any court or agency in any jurisdiction subject to this Act. This Act does not apply to criminal proceedings.

(c) Court in which application may be made

When under this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] any application is required to be made to a court in which no proceeding has already been commenced with respect to the matter, such application may be made to any court which would otherwise have jurisdiction over the matter.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2837.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 512, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §102, 54 Stat. 1179; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(2), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 39, related to territorial application, jurisdiction of courts, and form of procedure, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§513. Protection of persons secondarily liable

(a) Extension of protection when actions stayed, postponed, or suspended

Whenever pursuant to this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] a court stays, postpones, or suspends (1) the enforcement of an obligation or liability, (2) the prosecution of a suit or proceeding, (3) the entry or enforcement of an order, writ, judgment, or decree, or (4) the performance of any other act, the court may likewise grant such a stay, postponement, or suspension to a surety, guarantor, endorser, accommodation maker, comaker, or other person who is or may be primarily or secondarily subject to the obligation or liability the performance or enforcement of which is stayed, postponed, or suspended.

(b) Vacation or set-aside of judgments

When a judgment or decree is vacated or set aside, in whole or in part, pursuant to this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix], the court may also set aside or vacate, as the case may be, the judgment or decree as to a surety, guarantor, endorser, accommodation maker, comaker, or other person who is or may be primarily or secondarily liable on the contract or liability for the enforcement of the judgment or decree.

(c) Bail bond not to be enforced during period of military service

A court may not enforce a bail bond during the period of military service of the principal on the bond when military service prevents the surety from obtaining the attendance of the principal. The court may discharge the surety and exonerate the bail, in accordance with principles of equity and justice, during or after the period of military service of the principal.

(d) Waiver of rights

(1) Waivers not precluded

This Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] does not prevent a waiver in writing by a surety, guarantor, endorser, accommodation maker, comaker, or other person (whether primarily or secondarily liable on an obligation or liability) of the protections provided under subsections (a) and (b). Any such waiver is effective only if it is executed as an instrument separate from the obligation or liability with respect to which it applies.

(2) Waiver invalidated upon entrance to military service

If a waiver under paragraph (1) is executed by an individual who after the execution of the waiver enters military service, or by a dependent of an individual who after the execution of the waiver enters military service, the waiver is not valid after the beginning of the period of such military service unless the waiver was executed by such individual or dependent during the period specified in section 106 [section 516 of this Appendix].

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2838.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 513, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §103, 54 Stat. 1179; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §§2, 3, 56 Stat. 769; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(3), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 39, related to protection of persons secondarily liable, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§514. Extension of protections to citizens serving with allied forces

A citizen of the United States who is serving with the forces of a nation with which the United States is allied in the prosecution of a war or military action is entitled to the relief and protections provided under this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] if that service with the allied force is similar to military service as defined in this Act. The relief and protections provided to such citizen shall terminate on the date of discharge or release from such service.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2839.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 514, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §104, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §4, 56 Stat. 770, related to extension of benefits to citizens serving with forces of war allies, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§515. Notification of benefits

The Secretary concerned shall ensure that notice of the benefits accorded by this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] is provided in writing to persons in military service and to persons entering military service.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §105, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2839.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 515, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §105, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §4, 56 Stat. 770; amended Pub. L. 102–12, §9(4), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 39, related to notice of benefits to persons in and persons entering military service, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§515a. Information for members of the Armed Forces and their dependents on rights and protections of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act

(a) Outreach to members

The Secretary concerned shall provide to each member of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary pertinent information on the rights and protections available to members and their dependents under the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (50 U.S.C. App. 501 et seq.).

(b) Time of provision

The information required to be provided under subsection (a) to a member shall be provided at the following times:

(1) During the initial orientation training of the member.

(2) In the case of a member of a reserve component, during the initial orientation training of the member and when the member is mobilized or otherwise individually called or ordered to active duty for a period of more than one year.

(3) At such other times as the Secretary concerned considers appropriate.

(c) Outreach to dependents

The Secretary concerned may provide to the adult dependents of members under the jurisdiction of the Secretary pertinent information on the rights and protections available to members and their dependents under the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act.

(d) Definitions

In this section, the terms “dependent” and “Secretary concerned” have the meanings given such terms in section 101 of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (50 U.S.C. App. 511).

(Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VI, §690, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3337.)

References in Text

The Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), is act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, 54 Stat. 1178, as amended, which is classified to section 501 et seq. of this Appendix. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 501 of this Appendix and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, and not as part of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act which comprises sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix.

§516. Extension of rights and protections to reserves ordered to report for military service and to persons ordered to report for induction

(a) Reserves ordered to report for military service

A member of a reserve component who is ordered to report for military service is entitled to the rights and protections of this title and titles II and III [sections 511 to 515, 516 to 519, 521 to 527, and 531 to 538 of this Appendix] during the period beginning on the date of the member's receipt of the order and ending on the date on which the member reports for military service (or, if the order is revoked before the member so reports, or the date on which the order is revoked).

(b) Persons ordered to report for induction

A person who has been ordered to report for induction under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) is entitled to the rights and protections provided a servicemember under this title and titles II and III [sections 511 to 515, 516 to 519, 521 to 527, and 531 to 538 of this Appendix] during the period beginning on the date of receipt of the order for induction and ending on the date on which the person reports for induction (or, if the order to report for induction is revoked before the date on which the person reports for induction, on the date on which the order is revoked).

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2839.)

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, which is classified principally to section 451 et seq. of this Appendix. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of this Appendix and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 516, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §106, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §4, 56 Stat. 770; amended Pub. L. 102–12, §9(5), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 39, related to extension of benefits to persons ordered to report for induction or military service, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§517. Waiver of rights pursuant to written agreement

(a) In general

A servicemember may waive any of the rights and protections provided by this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix]. Any such waiver that applies to an action listed in subsection (b) of this section is effective only if it is in writing and is executed as an instrument separate from the obligation or liability to which it applies. In the case of a waiver that permits an action described in subsection (b), the waiver is effective only if made pursuant to a written agreement of the parties that is executed during or after the servicemember's period of military service. The written agreement shall specify the legal instrument to which the waiver applies and, if the servicemember is not a party to that instrument, the servicemember concerned.

(b) Actions requiring waivers in writing

The requirement in subsection (a) for a written waiver applies to the following:

(1) The modification, termination, or cancellation of—

(A) a contract, lease, or bailment; or

(B) an obligation secured by a mortgage, trust, deed, lien, or other security in the nature of a mortgage.


(2) The repossession, retention, foreclosure, sale, forfeiture, or taking possession of property that—

(A) is security for any obligation; or

(B) was purchased or received under a contract, lease, or bailment.

(c) Prominent display of certain contract rights waivers

Any waiver in writing of a right or protection provided by this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] that applies to a contract, lease, or similar legal instrument must be in at least 12 point type.

(d) Coverage of periods after orders received

For the purposes of this section—

(1) a person to whom section 106 [section 516 of this Appendix] applies shall be considered to be a servicemember; and

(2) the period with respect to such a person specified in subsection (a) or (b), as the case may be, of section 106 [section 516 of this Appendix] shall be considered to be a period of military service.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §107, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2839; amended Pub. L. 108–454, title VII, §702, Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3624.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 517, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §107, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §4, 56 Stat. 770, related to effect on rights and remedies pursuant to written agreements entered after commencement of military service, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–454, §702(1), inserted after first sentence: “Any such waiver that applies to an action listed in subsection (b) of this section is effective only if it is in writing and is executed as an instrument separate from the obligation or liability to which it applies.”

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 108–454, §702(2), (3), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

§518. Exercise of rights under Act not to affect certain future financial transactions

Application by a servicemember for, or receipt by a servicemember of, a stay, postponement, or suspension pursuant to this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] in the payment of a tax, fine, penalty, insurance premium, or other civil obligation or liability of that servicemember shall not itself (without regard to other considerations) provide the basis for any of the following:

(1) A determination by a lender or other person that the servicemember is unable to pay the civil obligation or liability in accordance with its terms.

(2) With respect to a credit transaction between a creditor and the servicemember—

(A) a denial or revocation of credit by the creditor;

(B) a change by the creditor in the terms of an existing credit arrangement; or

(C) a refusal by the creditor to grant credit to the servicemember in substantially the amount or on substantially the terms requested.


(3) An adverse report relating to the creditworthiness of the servicemember by or to a person engaged in the practice of assembling or evaluating consumer credit information.

(4) A refusal by an insurer to insure the servicemember.

(5) An annotation in a servicemember's record by a creditor or a person engaged in the practice of assembling or evaluating consumer credit information, identifying the servicemember as a member of the National Guard or a reserve component.

(6) A change in the terms offered or conditions required for the issuance of insurance.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §108, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2840.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 518, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. I, §108, as added Pub. L. 102–12, §7, Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 38, related to the effect of certain future financial transactions on the exercise of rights, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§519. Legal representatives

(a) Representative

A legal representative of a servicemember for purposes of this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] is either of the following:

(1) An attorney acting on the behalf of a servicemember.

(2) An individual possessing a power of attorney.

(b) Application

Whenever the term “servicemember” is used in this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix], such term shall be treated as including a reference to a legal representative of the servicemember.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title I, §109, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2840.)

TITLE II—GENERAL RELIEF

Prior Provisions

A prior section 520, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. II, §200, 54 Stat. 1180; Pub. L. 86–721, §§1, 2, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 820, related to default judgments, affidavits, bonds, and attorneys for persons in service, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 521 of this Appendix.

§521. Protection of servicemembers against default judgments

(a) Applicability of section

This section applies to any civil action or proceeding, including any child custody proceeding, in which the defendant does not make an appearance.

(b) Affidavit requirement

(1) Plaintiff to file affidavit

In any action or proceeding covered by this section, the court, before entering judgment for the plaintiff, shall require the plaintiff to file with the court an affidavit—

(A) stating whether or not the defendant is in military service and showing necessary facts to support the affidavit; or

(B) if the plaintiff is unable to determine whether or not the defendant is in military service, stating that the plaintiff is unable to determine whether or not the defendant is in military service.

(2) Appointment of attorney to represent defendant in military service

If in an action covered by this section it appears that the defendant is in military service, the court may not enter a judgment until after the court appoints an attorney to represent the defendant. If an attorney appointed under this section to represent a servicemember cannot locate the servicemember, actions by the attorney in the case shall not waive any defense of the servicemember or otherwise bind the servicemember.

(3) Defendant's military status not ascertained by affidavit

If based upon the affidavits filed in such an action, the court is unable to determine whether the defendant is in military service, the court, before entering judgment, may require the plaintiff to file a bond in an amount approved by the court. If the defendant is later found to be in military service, the bond shall be available to indemnify the defendant against any loss or damage the defendant may suffer by reason of any judgment for the plaintiff against the defendant, should the judgment be set aside in whole or in part. The bond shall remain in effect until expiration of the time for appeal and setting aside of a judgment under applicable Federal or State law or regulation or under any applicable ordinance of a political subdivision of a State. The court may issue such orders or enter such judgments as the court determines necessary to protect the rights of the defendant under this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix].

(4) Satisfaction of requirement for affidavit

The requirement for an affidavit under paragraph (1) may be satisfied by a statement, declaration, verification, or certificate, in writing, subscribed and certified or declared to be true under penalty of perjury.

(c) Penalty for making or using false affidavit

A person who makes or uses an affidavit permitted under subsection (b) (or a statement, declaration, verification, or certificate as authorized under subsection (b)(4)) knowing it to be false, shall be fined as provided in title 18, United States Code, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(d) Stay of proceedings

In an action covered by this section in which the defendant is in military service, the court shall grant a stay of proceedings for a minimum period of 90 days under this subsection upon application of counsel, or on the court's own motion, if the court determines that—

(1) there may be a defense to the action and a defense cannot be presented without the presence of the defendant; or

(2) after due diligence, counsel has been unable to contact the defendant or otherwise determine if a meritorious defense exists.

(e) Inapplicability of section 202 procedures

A stay of proceedings under subsection (d) shall not be controlled by procedures or requirements under section 202 [section 522 of this Appendix].

(f) Section 202 protection

If a servicemember who is a defendant in an action covered by this section receives actual notice of the action, the servicemember may request a stay of proceeding under section 202 [section 522 of this Appendix].

(g) Vacation or setting aside of default judgments

(1) Authority for court to vacate or set aside judgment

If a default judgment is entered in an action covered by this section against a servicemember during the servicemember's period of military service (or within 60 days after termination of or release from such military service), the court entering the judgment shall, upon application by or on behalf of the servicemember, reopen the judgment for the purpose of allowing the servicemember to defend the action if it appears that—

(A) the servicemember was materially affected by reason of that military service in making a defense to the action; and

(B) the servicemember has a meritorious or legal defense to the action or some part of it.

(2) Time for filing application

An application under this subsection must be filed not later than 90 days after the date of the termination of or release from military service.

(h) Protection of bona fide purchaser

If a court vacates, sets aside, or reverses a default judgment against a servicemember and the vacating, setting aside, or reversing is because of a provision of this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix], that action shall not impair a right or title acquired by a bona fide purchaser for value under the default judgment.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title II, §201, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2840; amended Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §584(a), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 128.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 521, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. II, §201, 54 Stat. 1181, related to stay of proceedings where military service affects conduct thereof, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 522 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181 inserted “, including any child custody proceeding,” after “proceeding”.

§522. Stay of proceedings when servicemember has notice

(a) Applicability of section

This section applies to any civil action or proceeding, including any child custody proceeding, in which the plaintiff or defendant at the time of filing an application under this section—

(1) is in military service or is within 90 days after termination of or release from military service; and

(2) has received notice of the action or proceeding.

(b) Stay of proceedings

(1) Authority for stay

At any stage before final judgment in a civil action or proceeding in which a servicemember described in subsection (a) is a party, the court may on its own motion and shall, upon application by the servicemember, stay the action for a period of not less than 90 days, if the conditions in paragraph (2) are met.

(2) Conditions for stay

An application for a stay under paragraph (1) shall include the following:

(A) A letter or other communication setting forth facts stating the manner in which current military duty requirements materially affect the servicemember's ability to appear and stating a date when the servicemember will be available to appear.

(B) A letter or other communication from the servicemember's commanding officer stating that the servicemember's current military duty prevents appearance and that military leave is not authorized for the servicemember at the time of the letter.

(c) Application not a waiver of defenses

An application for a stay under this section does not constitute an appearance for jurisdictional purposes and does not constitute a waiver of any substantive or procedural defense (including a defense relating to lack of personal jurisdiction).

(d) Additional stay

(1) Application

A servicemember who is granted a stay of a civil action or proceeding under subsection (b) may apply for an additional stay based on continuing material affect of military duty on the servicemember's ability to appear. Such an application may be made by the servicemember at the time of the initial application under subsection (b) or when it appears that the servicemember is unavailable to prosecute or defend the action. The same information required under subsection (b)(2) shall be included in an application under this subsection.

(2) Appointment of counsel when additional stay refused

If the court refuses to grant an additional stay of proceedings under paragraph (1), the court shall appoint counsel to represent the servicemember in the action or proceeding.

(e) Coordination with section 201

A servicemember who applies for a stay under this section and is unsuccessful may not seek the protections afforded by section 201 [section 521 of this Appendix].

(f) Inapplicability to section 301

The protections of this section do not apply to section 301 [section 531 of this Appendix].

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title II, §202, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2842; amended Pub. L. 108–454, title VII, §703, Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3624; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §584(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 128.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 522, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. II, §202, 54 Stat. 1181, related to fines and penalties on contracts, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 523 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181 inserted “, including any child custody proceeding,” after “civil action or proceeding” in introductory provisions.

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–454 inserted “plaintiff or” before “defendant” in introductory provisions.

Stay of Judicial Proceedings

Pub. L. 102–12, §6, Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 37, provided that:

“(a) Stay of Action or Proceeding.—In any judicial action or proceeding (other than a criminal proceeding) in which a member of the Armed Forces described in subsection (b) is involved (either as plaintiff or defendant), the court shall, upon application by such member (or some other person on the member's behalf) at any stage before final judgment is entered, stay the action or proceeding until a date after June 30, 1991.

“(b) Members Covered.—A member of the Armed Forces is covered by subsection (a) if at the time of application for the stay of a judicial action or proceeding the member—

“(1) is on active duty; and

“(2) is serving outside the State in which the court having jurisdiction over the action or proceeding is located.

“(c) Definition.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘State’ includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam.”

§523. Fines and penalties under contracts

(a) Prohibition of penalties

When an action for compliance with the terms of a contract is stayed pursuant to this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix], a penalty shall not accrue for failure to comply with the terms of the contract during the period of the stay.

(b) Reduction or waiver of fines or penalties

If a servicemember fails to perform an obligation arising under a contract and a penalty is incurred arising from that nonperformance, a court may reduce or waive the fine or penalty if—

(1) the servicemember was in military service at the time the fine or penalty was incurred; and

(2) the ability of the servicemember to perform the obligation was materially affected by such military service.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2843.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 523, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. II, §203, 54 Stat. 1181, related to stay or vacation of execution of judgments and attachments, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 524 of this Appendix.

§524. Stay or vacation of execution of judgments, attachments, and garnishments

(a) Court action upon material affect determination

If a servicemember, in the opinion of the court, is materially affected by reason of military service in complying with a court judgment or order, the court may on its own motion and shall on application by the servicemember—

(1) stay the execution of any judgment or order entered against the servicemember; and

(2) vacate or stay an attachment or garnishment of property, money, or debts in the possession of the servicemember or a third party, whether before or after judgment.

(b) Applicability

This section applies to an action or proceeding commenced in a court against a servicemember before or during the period of the servicemember's military service or within 90 days after such service terminates.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title II, §204, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2843.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 524, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. II, §204, 54 Stat. 1181, related to duration and term of stays and codefendants not in service, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 525 of this Appendix.

§525. Duration and term of stays; codefendants not in service

(a) Period of stay

A stay of an action, proceeding, attachment, or execution made pursuant to the provisions of this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] by a court may be ordered for the period of military service and 90 days thereafter, or for any part of that period. The court may set the terms and amounts for such installment payments as is considered reasonable by the court.

(b) Codefendants

If the servicemember is a codefendant with others who are not in military service and who are not entitled to the relief and protections provided under this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix], the plaintiff may proceed against those other defendants with the approval of the court.

(c) Inapplicability of section

This section does not apply to sections 202 and 701 [sections 522 and 591 of this Appendix].

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title II, §205, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2844.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 525, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. II, §205, 54 Stat. 1181; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §5, 56 Stat. 770; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(6), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 39, related to statutes of limitations as affected by period of service, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 526 of this Appendix.

§526. Statute of limitations

(a) Tolling of statutes of limitation during military service

The period of a servicemember's military service may not be included in computing any period limited by law, regulation, or order for the bringing of any action or proceeding in a court, or in any board, bureau, commission, department, or other agency of a State (or political subdivision of a State) or the United States by or against the servicemember or the servicemember's heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns.

(b) Redemption of real property

A period of military service may not be included in computing any period provided by law for the redemption of real property sold or forfeited to enforce an obligation, tax, or assessment.

(c) Inapplicability to internal revenue laws

This section does not apply to any period of limitation prescribed by or under the internal revenue laws of the United States.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title II, §206, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2844.)

References in Text

The internal revenue laws of the United States, referred to in subsec. (c), are classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 526, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. II, §206, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §6, 56 Stat. 771; amended Pub. L. 102–12, §9(7), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 39, related to maximum rate of interest, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 527 of this Appendix.

§527. Maximum rate of interest on debts incurred before military service

(a) Interest rate limitation

(1) Limitation to 6 percent

An obligation or liability bearing interest at a rate in excess of 6 percent per year that is incurred by a servicemember, or the servicemember and the servicemember's spouse jointly, before the servicemember enters military service shall not bear interest at a rate in excess of 6 percent—

(A) during the period of military service and one year thereafter, in the case of an obligation or liability consisting of a mortgage, trust deed, or other security in the nature of a mortgage; or

(B) during the period of military service, in the case of any other obligation or liability.

(2) Forgiveness of interest in excess of 6 percent

Interest at a rate in excess of 6 percent per year that would otherwise be incurred but for the prohibition in paragraph (1) is forgiven.

(3) Prevention of acceleration of principal

The amount of any periodic payment due from a servicemember under the terms of the instrument that created an obligation or liability covered by this section shall be reduced by the amount of the interest forgiven under paragraph (2) that is allocable to the period for which such payment is made.

(b) Implementation of limitation

(1) Written notice to creditor

In order for an obligation or liability of a servicemember to be subject to the interest rate limitation in subsection (a), the servicemember shall provide to the creditor written notice and a copy of the military orders calling the servicemember to military service and any orders further extending military service, not later than 180 days after the date of the servicemember's termination or release from military service.

(2) Limitation effective as of date of order to active duty

Upon receipt of written notice and a copy of orders calling a servicemember to military service, the creditor shall treat the debt in accordance with subsection (a), effective as of the date on which the servicemember is called to military service.

(c) Creditor protection

A court may grant a creditor relief from the limitations of this section if, in the opinion of the court, the ability of the servicemember to pay interest upon the obligation or liability at a rate in excess of 6 percent per year is not materially affected by reason of the servicemember's military service.

(d) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Interest

The term “interest” includes service charges, renewal charges, fees, or any other charges (except bona fide insurance) with respect to an obligation or liability.

(2) Obligation or liability

The term “obligation or liability” includes an obligation or liability consisting of a mortgage, trust deed, or other security in the nature of a mortgage.

(e) Penalty

Whoever knowingly violates subsection (a) shall be fined as provided in title 18, United States Code, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title II, §207, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2844; amended Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title II, §2203(b), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2849; Pub. L. 110–389, title VIII, §807, Oct. 10, 2008, 122 Stat. 4189; Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §303(b)(1), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2877.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 527, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. II, §207, as added Oct. 21, 1942, ch. 619, title V, §507(b)(2)(B), 56 Stat. 964, related to limitations prescribed by internal revenue laws as affected by period of service, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 526 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–275 struck out subsec. (f). Text read as follows: “The penalties provided under subsection (e) are in addition to and do not preclude any other remedy available under law to a person claiming relief under this section, including any award for consequential or punitive damages.”

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–289, §2203(b)(1), substituted “in excess of 6 percent—” for “in excess of 6 percent per year during the period of military service.” and added subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–289, §2203(b)(2), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “As used in this section, the term ‘interest’ includes service charges, renewal charges, fees, or any other charges (except bona fide insurance) with respect to an obligation or liability.”

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 110–389 added subsecs. (e) and (f).

TITLE III—RENT, INSTALLMENT CONTRACTS, MORTGAGES, LIENS, ASSIGNMENT, LEASES, TELEPHONE SERVICE CONTRACTS

Prior Provisions

A prior section 530, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. III, §300, 54 Stat. 1181; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §8, 56 Stat. 771; Pub. L. 89–358, §10, Mar. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 102–12, §§2(a), (b), 9(8), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 34, 39, related to eviction or distress during military service, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 531 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §302(b), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2876, inserted “, TELEPHONE SERVICE CONTRACTS” after “LEASES” in heading.

§531. Evictions and distress

(a) Court-ordered eviction

(1) In general

Except by court order, a landlord (or another person with paramount title) may not—

(A) evict a servicemember, or the dependents of a servicemember, during a period of military service of the servicemember, from premises—

(i) that are occupied or intended to be occupied primarily as a residence; and

(ii) for which the monthly rent does not exceed $2,400, as adjusted under paragraph (2) for years after 2003; or


(B) subject such premises to a distress during the period of military service.

(2) Housing price inflation adjustment

(A) For calendar years beginning with 2004, the amount in effect under paragraph (1)(A)(ii) shall be increased by the housing price inflation adjustment for the calendar year involved.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) The housing price inflation adjustment for any calendar year is the percentage change (if any) by which—

(I) the CPI housing component for November of the preceding calendar year, exceeds

(II) the CPI housing component for November of 1984.


(ii) The term “CPI housing component” means the index published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor known as the Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers, Rent of Primary Residence, U.S. City Average.

(3) Publication of housing price inflation adjustment

The Secretary of Defense shall cause to be published in the Federal Register each year the amount in effect under paragraph (1)(A)(ii) for that year following the housing price inflation adjustment for that year pursuant to paragraph (2). Such publication shall be made for a year not later than 60 days after such adjustment is made for that year.

(b) Stay of execution

(1) Court authority

Upon an application for eviction or distress with respect to premises covered by this section, the court may on its own motion and shall, if a request is made by or on behalf of a servicemember whose ability to pay the agreed rent is materially affected by military service—

(A) stay the proceedings for a period of 90 days, unless in the opinion of the court, justice and equity require a longer or shorter period of time; or

(B) adjust the obligation under the lease to preserve the interests of all parties.

(2) Relief to landlord

If a stay is granted under paragraph (1), the court may grant to the landlord (or other person with paramount title) such relief as equity may require.

(c) Misdemeanor

Except as provided in subsection (a), a person who knowingly takes part in an eviction or distress described in subsection (a), or who knowingly attempts to do so, shall be fined as provided in title 18, United States Code, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(d) Rent allotment from pay of servicemember

To the extent required by a court order related to property which is the subject of a court action under this section, the Secretary concerned shall make an allotment from the pay of a servicemember to satisfy the terms of such order, except that any such allotment shall be subject to regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned establishing the maximum amount of pay of servicemembers that may be allotted under this subsection.

(e) Limitation of applicability

Section 202 [section 522 of this Appendix] is not applicable to this section.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §301, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2845; amended Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §303(b)(2), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2877.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 531, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. III, §301, 54 Stat. 1182; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §9(a), (c), (d), 56 Stat. 771; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(9), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to installment contracts for purchase of property, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 532 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–275 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) related to penalties.

§532. Protection under installment contracts for purchase or lease

(a) Protection upon breach of contract

(1) Protection after entering military service

After a servicemember enters military service, a contract by the servicemember for—

(A) the purchase of real or personal property (including a motor vehicle); or

(B) the lease or bailment of such property,


may not be rescinded or terminated for a breach of terms of the contract occurring before or during that person's military service, nor may the property be repossessed for such breach without a court order.

(2) Applicability

This section applies only to a contract for which a deposit or installment has been paid by the servicemember before the servicemember enters military service.

(b) Misdemeanor

A person who knowingly resumes possession of property in violation of subsection (a), or in violation of section 107 of this Act [section 517 of this Appendix], or who knowingly attempts to do so, shall be fined as provided in title 18, United States Code, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Authority of court

In a hearing based on this section, the court—

(1) may order repayment to the servicemember of all or part of the prior installments or deposits as a condition of terminating the contract and resuming possession of the property;

(2) may, on its own motion, and shall on application by a servicemember when the servicemember's ability to comply with the contract is materially affected by military service, stay the proceedings for a period of time as, in the opinion of the court, justice and equity require; or

(3) may make other disposition as is equitable to preserve the interests of all parties.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §302, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2846; amended Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §303(b)(3), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2878.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 532, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. III, §302, 54 Stat. 1182; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §§9(b), (c), 10, 56 Stat. 771, 772; June 23, 1952, ch. 450, 66 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(9), (10), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to mortgages and trust deeds, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 533 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–275 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to penalties.

§533. Mortgages and trust deeds

(a) Mortgage as security

This section applies only to an obligation on real or personal property owned by a servicemember that—

(1) originated before the period of the servicemember's military service and for which the servicemember is still obligated; and

(2) is secured by a mortgage, trust deed, or other security in the nature of a mortgage.

(b) Stay of proceedings and adjustment of obligation

In an action filed during, or within one year after, a servicemember's period of military service to enforce an obligation described in subsection (a), the court may after a hearing and on its own motion and shall upon application by a servicemember when the servicemember's ability to comply with the obligation is materially affected by military service—

(1) stay the proceedings for a period of time as justice and equity require, or

(2) adjust the obligation to preserve the interests of all parties.

(c) Sale or foreclosure

A sale, foreclosure, or seizure of property for a breach of an obligation described in subsection (a) shall not be valid if made during, or within one year after, the period of the servicemember's military service except—

(1) upon a court order granted before such sale, foreclosure, or seizure with a return made and approved by the court; or

(2) if made pursuant to an agreement as provided in section 107 [section 517 of this Appendix].

(d) Misdemeanor

A person who knowingly makes or causes to be made a sale, foreclosure, or seizure of property that is prohibited by subsection (c), or who knowingly attempts to do so, shall be fined as provided in title 18, United States Code, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §303, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2847; amended Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title II, §2203(a), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2849; Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §303(b)(4), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2878; Pub. L. 112–154, title VII, §710(a), (b), (d)(3), Aug. 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 1208.)

Amendment of Subsections (b) and (c)

For termination of amendment and revival of prior provisions by section 710(d)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 112–154, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment; Revival notes below.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 533, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. III, §303, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §12, 56 Stat. 772, related to settlement of cases involving stayed proceedings to foreclose mortgage on, resume possession of, or terminate contract for purchase of, personal property, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 534 of this Appendix.

Another prior section 533, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. III, §303, 54 Stat. 1183, related to stay of action to resume possession of motor vehicle, tractor, or their accessories, encumbered by purchase money mortgage, conditional sales contract, etc., prior to repeal by act Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §11, 56 Stat. 772.

Amendments

2012—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 112–154, §710(d)(3), revived the provisions of subsecs. (b) and (c) as in effect on July 29, 2008. Effective Jan. 1, 2015, “within 90 days” is substituted for “within one year” in introductory provisions. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment; Revival note below.

Pub. L. 112–154, §710(a), (b), (d)(1), temporarily substituted “within one year” for “within 9 months” in introductory provisions. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment; Revival note below.

2010—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–275 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) related to penalties.

2008—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 110–289 substituted “9 months” for “90 days” in introductory provisions.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment; Revival

Pub. L. 112–154, title VII, §710(c), Aug. 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 1208, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 6, 2012].”

Pub. L. 112–154, title VII, §710(d)(1), Aug. 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 1208, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall expire on December 31, 2014.”

Pub. L. 112–154, title VII, §710(d)(3), Aug. 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 1208, provided that: “Effective January 1, 2015, the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of section 303 of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (50 U.S.C. App. 533), as in effect on July 29, 2008, are hereby revived.”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title II, §2203(c), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2850, as amended by Pub. L. 111–346, §2, Dec. 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 3622; Pub. L. 112–154, title VII, §710(d)(2), Aug. 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 1208, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 30, 2008].”

§534. Settlement of stayed cases relating to personal property

(a) Appraisal of property

When a stay is granted pursuant to this Act [sections 501 to 515 and 516 to 597b of this Appendix] in a proceeding to foreclose a mortgage on or to repossess personal property, or to rescind or terminate a contract for the purchase of personal property, the court may appoint three disinterested parties to appraise the property.

(b) Equity payment

Based on the appraisal, and if undue hardship to the servicemember's dependents will not result, the court may order that the amount of the servicemember's equity in the property be paid to the servicemember, or the servicemember's dependents, as a condition of foreclosing the mortgage, repossessing the property, or rescinding or terminating the contract.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §304, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2848.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 534, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. III, §304, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §12, 56 Stat. 772; amended Pub. L. 102–12, §9(9), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to termination of leases by lessees, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 535 of this Appendix.

§535. Termination of residential or motor vehicle leases

(a) Termination by lessee

(1) In general

The lessee on a lease described in subsection (b) may, at the lessee's option, terminate the lease at any time after—

(A) the lessee's entry into military service; or

(B) the date of the lessee's military orders described in paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of subsection (b), as the case may be.

(2) Joint leases

A lessee's termination of a lease pursuant to this subsection shall terminate any obligation a dependent of the lessee may have under the lease.

(b) Covered leases

This section applies to the following leases:

(1) Leases of premises

A lease of premises occupied, or intended to be occupied, by a servicemember or a servicemember's dependents for a residential, professional, business, agricultural, or similar purpose if—

(A) the lease is executed by or on behalf of a person who thereafter and during the term of the lease enters military service; or

(B) the servicemember, while in military service, executes the lease and thereafter receives military orders for a permanent change of station or to deploy with a military unit, or as an individual in support of a military operation, for a period of not less than 90 days.

(2) Leases of motor vehicles

A lease of a motor vehicle used, or intended to be used, by a servicemember or a servicemember's dependents for personal or business transportation if—

(A) the lease is executed by or on behalf of a person who thereafter and during the term of the lease enters military service under a call or order specifying a period of not less than 180 days (or who enters military service under a call or order specifying a period of 180 days or less and who, without a break in service, receives orders extending the period of military service to a period of not less than 180 days); or

(B) the servicemember, while in military service, executes the lease and thereafter receives military orders—

(i) for a change of permanent station—

(I) from a location in the continental United States to a location outside the continental United States; or

(II) from a location in a State outside the continental United States to any location outside that State; or


(ii) to deploy with a military unit, or as an individual in support of a military operation, for a period of not less than 180 days.

(c) Manner of termination

(1) In general

Termination of a lease under subsection (a) is made—

(A) by delivery by the lessee of written notice of such termination, and a copy of the servicemember's military orders, to the lessor (or the lessor's grantee), or to the lessor's agent (or the agent's grantee); and

(B) in the case of a lease of a motor vehicle, by return of the motor vehicle by the lessee to the lessor (or the lessor's grantee), or to the lessor's agent (or the agent's grantee), not later than 15 days after the date of the delivery of written notice under subparagraph (A).

(2) Delivery of notice

Delivery of notice under paragraph (1)(A) may be accomplished—

(A) by hand delivery;

(B) by private business carrier; or

(C) by placing the written notice in an envelope with sufficient postage and with return receipt requested, and addressed as designated by the lessor (or the lessor's grantee) or to the lessor's agent (or the agent's grantee), and depositing the written notice in the United States mails.

(d) Effective date of lease termination

(1) Lease of premises

In the case of a lease described in subsection (b)(1) that provides for monthly payment of rent, termination of the lease under subsection (a) is effective 30 days after the first date on which the next rental payment is due and payable after the date on which the notice under subsection (c) is delivered. In the case of any other lease described in subsection (b)(1), termination of the lease under subsection (a) is effective on the last day of the month following the month in which the notice is delivered.

(2) Lease of motor vehicles

In the case of a lease described in subsection (b)(2), termination of the lease under subsection (a) is effective on the day on which the requirements of subsection (c) are met for such termination.

(e) Arrearages and other obligations and liabilities

(1) Leases of premises

Rent amounts for a lease described in subsection (b)(1) that are unpaid for the period preceding the effective date of the lease termination shall be paid on a prorated basis. The lessor may not impose an early termination charge, but any taxes, summonses, or other obligations and liabilities of the lessee in accordance with the terms of the lease, including reasonable charges to the lessee for excess wear, that are due and unpaid at the time of termination of the lease shall be paid by the lessee.

(2) Leases of motor vehicles

Lease amounts for a lease described in subsection (b)(2) that are unpaid for the period preceding the effective date of the lease termination shall be paid on a prorated basis. The lessor may not impose an early termination charge, but any taxes, summonses, title and registration fees, or other obligations and liabilities of the lessee in accordance with the terms of the lease, including reasonable charges to the lessee for excess wear or use and mileage, that are due and unpaid at the time of termination of the lease shall be paid by the lessee.

(f) Rent paid in advance

Rents or lease amounts paid in advance for a period after the effective date of the termination of the lease shall be refunded to the lessee by the lessor (or the lessor's assignee or the assignee's agent) within 30 days of the effective date of the termination of the lease.

(g) Relief to lessor

Upon application by the lessor to a court before the termination date provided in the written notice, relief granted by this section to a servicemember may be modified as justice and equity require.

(h) Misdemeanor

Any person who knowingly seizes, holds, or detains the personal effects, security deposit, or other property of a servicemember or a servicemember's dependent who lawfully terminates a lease covered by this section, or who knowingly interferes with the removal of such property from premises covered by such lease, for the purpose of subjecting or attempting to subject any of such property to a claim for rent accruing subsequent to the date of termination of such lease, or attempts to do so, shall be fined as provided in title 18, United States Code, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(i) Definitions

(1) Military orders

The term “military orders”, with respect to a servicemember, means official military orders, or any notification, certification, or verification from the servicemember's commanding officer, with respect to the servicemember's current or future military duty status.

(2) ConUS

The term “continental United States” means the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §305, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2848; amended Pub. L. 108–454, title VII, §704, Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3624; Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §§301, 303(b)(5), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2875, 2878.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 535, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. III, §305, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §12, 56 Stat. 773; amended Pub. L. 102–12, §9(9), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to protection of assignor of life insurance policy, enforcement of storage liens, and penalties, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See sections 536 and 537 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–275, §301, amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Rents or lease amounts unpaid for the period preceding the effective date of the lease termination shall be paid on a prorated basis. In the case of the lease of a motor vehicle, the lessor may not impose an early termination charge, but any taxes, summonses, and title and registration fees and any other obligation and liability of the lessee in accordance with the terms of the lease, including reasonable charges to the lessee for excess wear, use and mileage, that are due and unpaid at the time of termination of the lease shall be paid by the lessee.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 111–275, §303(b)(5), amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) related to penalties.

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–454, §704(a), amended subsec. (a) generally, designating existing provisions as par. (1), inserting par. heading, and adding par. (2).

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 108–454, §704(c), inserted “, or as an individual in support of a military operation,” after “deploy with a military unit”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–454, §704(b)(1), substituted “military orders—” for “military orders for a permanent change of station outside of the continental United States or to deploy”, added cl.(i), and inserted “(ii) to deploy” before “with a military unit”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 108–454, §704(c), inserted “, or as an individual in support of a military operation,” after “deploy with a military unit”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 108–454, §704(b)(2), added subsec. (i).

§535a. Termination of telephone service contracts

(a) Termination by servicemember

(1) Termination

A servicemember may terminate a contract described in subsection (b) at any time after the date the servicemember receives military orders to relocate for a period of not less than 90 days to a location that does not support the contract.

(2) Notice

In the case that a servicemember terminates a contract as described in paragraph (1), the service provider under the contract shall provide such servicemember with written or electronic notice of the servicemember's rights under such paragraph.

(3) Manner of termination

Termination of a contract under paragraph (1) shall be made by delivery of a written or electronic notice of such termination and a copy of the servicemember's military orders to the service provider, delivered in accordance with industry standards for notification of terminations, together with the date on which the service is to be terminated.

(b) Covered contracts

A contract described in this subsection is a contract for cellular telephone service or telephone exchange service entered into by the servicemember before receiving the military orders referred to in subsection (a)(1).

(c) Retention of telephone number

In the case of a contract terminated under subsection (a) by a servicemember whose period of relocation is for a period of three years or less, the service provider under the contract shall, notwithstanding any other provision of law, allow the servicemember to keep the telephone number the servicemember has under the contract if the servicemember re-subscribes to the service during the 90-day period beginning on the last day of such period of relocation.

(d) Family plans

In the case of a contract for cellular telephone service entered into by any individual in which a servicemember is a designated beneficiary of the contract, the individual who entered into the contract may terminate the contract—

(1) with respect to the servicemember if the servicemember is eligible to terminate contracts pursuant to subsection (a); and

(2) with respect to all of the designated beneficiaries of such contract if all such beneficiaries accompany the servicemember during the servicemember's period of relocation.

(e) Other obligations and liabilities

For any contract terminated under this section, the service provider under the contract may not impose an early termination charge, but any tax or any other obligation or liability of the servicemember that, in accordance with the terms of the contract, is due and unpaid or unperformed at the time of termination of the contract shall be paid or performed by the servicemember. If the servicemember re-subscribes to the service provided under a covered contract during the 90-day period beginning on the last day of the servicemember's period of relocation, the service provider may not impose a charge for reinstating service, other than the usual and customary charges for the installation or acquisition of customer equipment imposed on any other subscriber.

(f) Return of advance payments

Not later than 60 days after the effective date of the termination of a contract under this section, the service provider under the contract shall refund to the servicemember any fee or other amount to the extent paid for a period extending until after such date, except for the remainder of the monthly or similar billing period in which the termination occurs.

(g) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) The term “cellular telephone service” means commercial mobile service, as that term is defined in section 332(d) of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 332(d)).

(2) The term “telephone exchange service” has the meaning given that term under section 3 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 153).

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §305A, as added Pub. L. 110–389, title VIII, §805(a), Oct. 10, 2008, 122 Stat. 4188; amended Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §302(a), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2875.)

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–275 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to termination of telephone service contracts for provisions relating to termination or suspension of contracts for cellular telephone service.

§536. Protection of life insurance policy

(a) Assignment of policy protected

If a life insurance policy on the life of a servicemember is assigned before military service to secure the payment of an obligation, the assignee of the policy (except the insurer in connection with a policy loan) may not exercise, during a period of military service of the servicemember or within one year thereafter, any right or option obtained under the assignment without a court order.

(b) Exception

The prohibition in subsection (a) shall not apply—

(1) if the assignee has the written consent of the insured made during the period described in subsection (a);

(2) when the premiums on the policy are due and unpaid; or

(3) upon the death of the insured.

(c) Order refused because of material affect

A court which receives an application for an order required under subsection (a) may refuse to grant such order if the court determines the ability of the servicemember to comply with the terms of the obligation is materially affected by military service.

(d) Treatment of guaranteed premiums

For purposes of this subsection, premiums guaranteed under the provisions of title IV of this Act [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] shall not be considered due and unpaid.

(e) Misdemeanor

A person who knowingly takes an action contrary to this section, or attempts to do so, shall be fined as provided in title 18, United States Code, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §306, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2850; amended Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §303(b)(6), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2878.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 536, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. III, §306, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §12, 56 Stat. 773, related to extension of benefits to dependents, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 538 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–275 amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) related to penalties.

§537. Enforcement of storage liens

(a) Liens

(1) Limitation on foreclosure or enforcement

A person holding a lien on the property or effects of a servicemember may not, during any period of military service of the servicemember and for 90 days thereafter, foreclose or enforce any lien on such property or effects without a court order granted before foreclosure or enforcement.

(2) Lien defined

For the purposes of paragraph (1), the term “lien” includes a lien for storage, repair, or cleaning of the property or effects of a servicemember or a lien on such property or effects for any other reason.

(b) Stay of proceedings

In a proceeding to foreclose or enforce a lien subject to this section, the court may on its own motion, and shall if requested by a servicemember whose ability to comply with the obligation resulting in the proceeding is materially affected by military service—

(1) stay the proceeding for a period of time as justice and equity require; or

(2) adjust the obligation to preserve the interests of all parties.


The provisions of this subsection do not affect the scope of section 303 [section 533 of this Appendix].

(c) Misdemeanor

A person who knowingly takes an action contrary to this section, or attempts to do so, shall be fined as provided in title 18, United States Code, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §307, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2851; amended Pub. L. 111–275, title III, §303(b)(7), Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2878.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–275 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) related to penalties.

§538. Extension of protections to dependents

Upon application to a court, a dependent of a servicemember is entitled to the protections of this title [sections 531 to 538 of this Appendix] if the dependent's ability to comply with a lease, contract, bailment, or other obligation is materially affected by reason of the servicemember's military service.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title III, §308, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2851.)

TITLE IV—LIFE INSURANCE

Prior Provisions

A prior section 540, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §400, 54 Stat. 1183; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 773; July 11, 1956, ch. 570, §1, 70 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(11), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to definitions, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 541 of this Appendix.

§541. Definitions

For the purposes of this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix]:

(1) Policy

The term “policy” means any individual contract for whole, endowment, universal, or term life insurance (other than group term life insurance coverage), including any benefit in the nature of such insurance arising out of membership in any fraternal or beneficial association which—

(A) provides that the insurer may not—

(i) decrease the amount of coverage or require the payment of an additional amount as premiums if the insured engages in military service (except increases in premiums in individual term insurance based upon age); or

(ii) limit or restrict coverage for any activity required by military service; and


(B) is in force not less than 180 days before the date of the insured's entry into military service and at the time of application under this title.

(2) Premium

The term “premium” means the amount specified in an insurance policy to be paid to keep the policy in force.

(3) Insured

The term “insured” means a servicemember whose life is insured under a policy.

(4) Insurer

The term “insurer” includes any firm, corporation, partnership, association, or business that is chartered or authorized to provide insurance and issue contracts or policies by the laws of a State or the United States.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §401, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2851.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 541, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §401, 54 Stat. 1183; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(12), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to persons entitled to benefits of former article IV of this Act, applications, and amount of insurance protected, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 542 of this Appendix.

§542. Insurance rights and protections

(a) Rights and protections

The rights and protections under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] apply to the insured when—

(1) the insured,

(2) the insured's legal representative, or

(3) the insured's beneficiary in the case of an insured who is outside a State,


applies in writing for protection under this title, unless the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines that the insured's policy is not entitled to protection under this title.

(b) Notification and application

The Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall notify the Secretary concerned of the procedures to be used to apply for the protections provided under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix]. The applicant shall send the original application to the insurer and a copy to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

(c) Limitation on amount

The total amount of life insurance coverage protection provided by this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] for a servicemember may not exceed $250,000, or an amount equal to the Servicemember's Group Life Insurance maximum limit, whichever is greater, regardless of the number of policies submitted.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §402, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2852.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 542, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §402, 54 Stat. 1183; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(13), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to form of application, reports to Secretary of Veterans Affairs by insurer, and policy deemed modified upon application for protection, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 543 of this Appendix.

§543. Application for insurance protection

(a) Application procedure

An application for protection under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] shall—

(1) be in writing and signed by the insured, the insured's legal representative, or the insured's beneficiary, as the case may be;

(2) identify the policy and the insurer; and

(3) include an acknowledgement that the insured's rights under the policy are subject to and modified by the provisions of this title.

(b) Additional requirements

The Secretary of Veterans Affairs may require additional information from the applicant, the insured and the insurer to determine if the policy is entitled to protection under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix].

(c) Notice to the Secretary by the insurer

Upon receipt of the application of the insured, the insurer shall furnish a report concerning the policy to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs as required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Policy modification

Upon application for protection under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix], the insured and the insurer shall have constructively agreed to any policy modification necessary to give this title full force and effect.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §403, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2852.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 543, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §403, 54 Stat. 1184; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(14), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to determination of policies entitled to protection, notice to parties, and lapse of policies for nonpayment of premiums, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 544 of this Appendix.

§544. Policies entitled to protection and lapse of policies

(a) Determination

The Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall determine whether a policy is entitled to protection under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] and shall notify the insured and the insurer of that determination.

(b) Lapse protection

A policy that the Secretary determines is entitled to protection under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] shall not lapse or otherwise terminate or be forfeited for the nonpayment of a premium, or interest or indebtedness on a premium, after the date on which the application for protection is received by the Secretary.

(c) Time application

The protection provided by this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] applies during the insured's period of military service and for a period of two years thereafter.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §404, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2853.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 544, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §404, 54 Stat. 1184; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(15), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to rights and privileges of insured during period of protection, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 545 of this Appendix.

§545. Policy restrictions

(a) Dividends

While a policy is protected under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix], a dividend or other monetary benefit under a policy may not be paid to an insured or used to purchase dividend additions without the approval of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs. If such approval is not obtained, the dividends or benefits shall be added to the value of the policy to be used as a credit when final settlement is made with the insurer.

(b) Specific restrictions

While a policy is protected under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix], cash value, loan value, withdrawal of dividend accumulation, unearned premiums, or other value of similar character may not be available to the insured without the approval of the Secretary. The right of the insured to change a beneficiary designation or select an optional settlement for a beneficiary shall not be affected by the provisions of this title.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §405, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2853.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 545, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §405, 54 Stat. 1184; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(16), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to deduction of unpaid premiums upon settlement of policies maturing during protection, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 546 of this Appendix.

§546. Deduction of unpaid premiums

(a) Settlement of proceeds

If a policy matures as a result of a servicemember's death or otherwise during the period of protection of the policy under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix], the insurer in making settlement shall deduct from the insurance proceeds the amount of the unpaid premiums guaranteed under this title, together with interest due at the rate fixed in the policy for policy loans.

(b) Interest rate

If the interest rate is not specifically fixed in the policy, the rate shall be the same as for policy loans in other policies issued by the insurer at the time the insured's policy was issued.

(c) Reporting requirement

The amount deducted under this section, if any, shall be reported by the insurer to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §406, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2853.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 546, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §406, 54 Stat. 1184; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 775; Apr. 3, 1948, ch. 170, §6, 62 Stat. 160, related to guaranty of premiums and interest by United States, settlement of amounts due upon expiration of protection, subrogation of United States, and crediting debt repayments, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 547 of this Appendix.

§547. Premiums and interest guaranteed by United States

(a) Guarantee of premiums and interest by the United States

(1) Guarantee

Payment of premiums, and interest on premiums at the rate specified in section 406 [section 546 of this Appendix], which become due on a policy under the protection of this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] is guaranteed by the United States. If the amount guaranteed is not paid to the insurer before the period of insurance protection under this title expires, the amount due shall be treated by the insurer as a policy loan on the policy.

(2) Policy termination

If, at the expiration of insurance protection under this title, the cash surrender value of a policy is less than the amount due to pay premiums and interest on premiums on the policy, the policy shall terminate. Upon such termination, the United States shall pay the insurer the difference between the amount due and the cash surrender value.

(b) Recovery from insured of amounts paid by the United States

(1) Debt payable to the United States

The amount paid by the United States to an insurer under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] shall be a debt payable to the United States by the insured on whose policy payment was made.

(2) Collection

Such amount may be collected by the United States, either as an offset from any amount due the insured by the United States or as otherwise authorized by law.

(3) Debt not dischargeable in bankruptcy

Such debt payable to the United States is not dischargeable in bankruptcy proceedings.

(c) Crediting of amounts recovered

Any amounts received by the United States as repayment of debts incurred by an insured under this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] shall be credited to the appropriation for the payment of claims under this title.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §407, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2853.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 547, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §407, 54 Stat. 1185; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 85–857, §14(76), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1272; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(17), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to regulations and finality of determinations, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See sections 548 and 549 of this Appendix.

§548. Regulations

The Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall prescribe regulations for the implementation of this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix].

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §408, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2854.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 548, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §408, 54 Stat. 1185; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 776, related to law governing applications for protection prior to Oct. 6, 1942, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–12, §9(18), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40.

§549. Review of findings of fact and conclusions of law

The findings of fact and conclusions of law made by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs in administering this title [sections 541 to 549 of this Appendix] are subject to review on appeal to the Board of Veterans’ Appeals pursuant to chapter 71 of title 38, United States Code, and to judicial review only as provided in chapter 72 of such title.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title IV, §409, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2854.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 549 to 554 of this Appendix were omitted in the general amendment of article IV of this Act by act Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §13, 56 Stat. 773.

Section 549, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §409, 54 Stat. 1185, related to deduction of unpaid premiums from proceeds of policies.

Section 550, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §410, 54 Stat. 1185, related to lapsing of policy for failure to pay past due premiums upon termination of service.

Section 551, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §411, 54 Stat. 1185, related to accounts stated between insurers and United States.

Section 552, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §412, 54 Stat. 1185, related to payment of balances due insurers by Secretary of the Treasury.

Section 553, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §413, 54 Stat. 1186, related to policies excepted from application of article.

Section 554, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. IV, §414, 54 Stat. 1186, related to insurers within application of article.

TITLE V—TAXES AND PUBLIC LANDS

Prior Provisions

A prior section 560, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §500, 54 Stat. 1186; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §14, 56 Stat. 776, related to taxes respecting personalty, money, credits, or realty, sale of property to enforce collection, redemption of property sold, penalty for nonpayment, and notice of rights to beneficiaries of section, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 561 of this Appendix.

§561. Taxes respecting personal property, money, credits, and real property

(a) Application

This section applies in any case in which a tax or assessment, whether general or special (other than a tax on personal income), falls due and remains unpaid before or during a period of military service with respect to a servicemember's—

(1) personal property (including motor vehicles); or

(2) real property occupied for dwelling, professional, business, or agricultural purposes by a servicemember or the servicemember's dependents or employees—

(A) before the servicemember's entry into military service; and

(B) during the time the tax or assessment remains unpaid.

(b) Sale of property

(1) Limitation on sale of property to enforce tax assessment

Property described in subsection (a) may not be sold to enforce the collection of such tax or assessment except by court order and upon the determination by the court that military service does not materially affect the servicemember's ability to pay the unpaid tax or assessment.

(2) Stay of court proceedings

A court may stay a proceeding to enforce the collection of such tax or assessment, or sale of such property, during a period of military service of the servicemember and for a period not more than 180 days after the termination of, or release of the servicemember from, military service.

(c) Redemption

When property described in subsection (a) is sold or forfeited to enforce the collection of a tax or assessment, a servicemember shall have the right to redeem or commence an action to redeem the servicemember's property during the period of military service or within 180 days after termination of or release from military service. This subsection may not be construed to shorten any period provided by the law of a State (including any political subdivision of a State) for redemption.

(d) Interest on tax or assessment

Whenever a servicemember does not pay a tax or assessment on property described in subsection (a) when due, the amount of the tax or assessment due and unpaid shall bear interest until paid at the rate of 6 percent per year. An additional penalty or interest shall not be incurred by reason of nonpayment. A lien for such unpaid tax or assessment may include interest under this subsection.

(e) Joint ownership application

This section applies to all forms of property described in subsection (a) owned individually by a servicemember or jointly by a servicemember and a dependent or dependents.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §501, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2854.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 561, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §501, 54 Stat. 1187, related to rights in public lands and grazing lands, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 562 of this Appendix.

§562. Rights in public lands

(a) Rights not forfeited

The rights of a servicemember to lands owned or controlled by the United States, and initiated or acquired by the servicemember under the laws of the United States (including the mining and mineral leasing laws) before military service, shall not be forfeited or prejudiced as a result of being absent from the land, or by failing to begin or complete any work or improvements to the land, during the period of military service.

(b) Temporary suspension of permits or licenses

If a permittee or licensee under the Act of June 28, 1934 (43 U.S.C. 315 et seq.), enters military service, the permittee or licensee may suspend the permit or license for the period of military service and for 180 days after termination of or release from military service.

(c) Regulations

Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior shall provide for such suspension of permits and licenses and for the remission, reduction, or refund of grazing fees during the period of such suspension.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §502, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2855.)

References in Text

Act of June 28, 1934, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 28, 1934, ch. 865, 48 Stat. 1269, as amended, popularly known as the Taylor Grazing Act, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§315 et seq.) of chapter 8A of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 315 of Title 43 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 562, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §502, 54 Stat. 1187, related to homestead entries and settlement claims, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§563. Desert-land entries

(a) Desert-land rights not forfeited

A desert-land entry made or held under the desert-land laws before the entrance of the entryman or the entryman's successor in interest into military service shall not be subject to contest or cancellation—

(1) for failure to expend any required amount per acre per year in improvements upon the claim;

(2) for failure to effect the reclamation of the claim during the period the entryman or the entryman's successor in interest is in the military service, or for 180 days after termination of or release from military service; or

(3) during any period of hospitalization or rehabilitation due to an injury or disability incurred in the line of duty.


The time within which the entryman or claimant is required to make such expenditures and effect reclamation of the land shall be exclusive of the time periods described in paragraphs (2) and (3).

(b) Service-related disability

If an entryman or claimant is honorably discharged and is unable to accomplish reclamation of, and payment for, desert land due to a disability incurred in the line of duty, the entryman or claimant may make proof without further reclamation or payments, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior, and receive a patent for the land entered or claimed.

(c) Filing requirement

In order to obtain the protection of this section, the entryman or claimant shall, within 180 days after entry into military service, cause to be filed in the land office of the district where the claim is situated a notice communicating the fact of military service and the desire to hold the claim under this section.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §503, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2856.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 563, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §503, 54 Stat. 1187, related to death or incapacity during or resulting from service as affecting rights and perfection of rights, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 566 of this Appendix.

§564. Mining claims

(a) Requirements suspended

The provisions of section 2324 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (30 U.S.C. 28) specified in subsection (b) shall not apply to a servicemember's claims or interests in claims, regularly located and recorded, during a period of military service and 180 days thereafter, or during any period of hospitalization or rehabilitation due to injuries or disabilities incurred in the line of duty.

(b) Requirements

The provisions in section 2324 of the Revised Statutes that shall not apply under subsection (a) are those which require that on each mining claim located after May 10, 1872, and until a patent has been issued for such claim, not less than $100 worth of labor shall be performed or improvements made during each year.

(c) Period of protection from forfeiture

A mining claim or an interest in a claim owned by a servicemember that has been regularly located and recorded shall not be subject to forfeiture for nonperformance of annual assessments during the period of military service and for 180 days thereafter, or for any period of hospitalization or rehabilitation described in subsection (a).

(d) Filing requirement

In order to obtain the protections of this section, the claimant of a mining location shall, before the end of the assessment year in which military service is begun or within 60 days after the end of such assessment year, cause to be filed in the office where the location notice or certificate is recorded a notice communicating the fact of military service and the desire to hold the mining claim under this section.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §504, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2856.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 564, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §504, 54 Stat. 1187; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(19), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 40, related to desert-land entries and the suspension of requirements, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 563 of this Appendix.

§565. Mineral permits and leases

(a) Suspension during military service

A person holding a permit or lease on the public domain under the Federal mineral leasing laws who enters military service may suspend all operations under the permit or lease for the duration of military service and for 180 days thereafter. The term of the permit or lease shall not run during the period of suspension, nor shall any rental or royalties be charged against the permit or lease during the period of suspension.

(b) Notification

In order to obtain the protection of this section, the permittee or lessee shall, within 180 days after entry into military service, notify the Secretary of the Interior by registered mail of the fact that military service has begun and of the desire to hold the claim under this section.

(c) Contract modification

This section shall not be construed to supersede the terms of any contract for operation of a permit or lease.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §505, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2857.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 565, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §505, 54 Stat. 1188; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(20), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 41, related to mining claims and the suspension of requirements, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 564 of this Appendix.

§566. Perfection or defense of rights

(a) Right to take action not affected

This title [sections 561 to 571 of this Appendix] shall not affect the right of a servicemember to take action during a period of military service that is authorized by law or regulations of the Department of the Interior, for the perfection, defense, or further assertion of rights initiated or acquired before entering military service.

(b) Affidavits and proofs

(1) In general

A servicemember during a period of military service may make any affidavit or submit any proof required by law, practice, or regulation of the Department of the Interior in connection with the entry, perfection, defense, or further assertion of rights initiated or acquired before entering military service before an officer authorized to provide notary services under section 1044a of title 10, United States Code, or any superior commissioned officer.

(2) Legal status of affidavits

Such affidavits shall be binding in law and subject to the same penalties as prescribed by section 1001 of title 18, United State 1 Code.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §506, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2857.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 566, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §506, 54 Stat. 1188; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(21), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 41, related to mineral permits and leases and the suspension of operations and term of permits and leases, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 565 of this Appendix.

1 So in original. Probably should be “States”.

§567. Distribution of information concerning benefits of title

(a) Distribution of information by Secretary concerned

The Secretary concerned shall issue to servicemembers information explaining the provisions of this title [sections 561 to 571 of this Appendix].

(b) Application forms

The Secretary concerned shall provide application forms to servicemembers requesting relief under this title [sections 561 to 571 of this Appendix].

(c) Information from Secretary of the Interior

The Secretary of the Interior shall furnish to the Secretary concerned information explaining the provisions of this title [sections 561 to 571 of this Appendix] (other than sections 501, 510, and 511) [sections 561, 570, and 571 of this Appendix] and related application forms.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §507, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2857.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 567, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §507, 54 Stat. 1188; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(22), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 41, related to right to take action for perfection and defense of rights as unaffected, and affidavits and proofs, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 566 of this Appendix.

§568. Land rights of servicemembers

(a) No age limitations

Any servicemember under the age of 21 in military service shall be entitled to the same rights under the laws relating to lands owned or controlled by the United States, including mining and mineral leasing laws, as those servicemembers who are 21 years of age.

(b) Residency requirement

Any requirement related to the establishment of a residence within a limited time shall be suspended as to entry by a servicemember in military service or the spouse of such servicemember until 180 days after termination of or release from military service.

(c) Entry applications

Applications for entry may be verified before a person authorized to administer oaths under section 1044a of title 10, United States Code, or under the laws of the State where the land is situated.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §508, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2857; amended Pub. L. 111–97, §4(a), Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3008.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 568, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §508, 54 Stat. 1189, related to irrigation rights and suspension of residence requirements, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–97 inserted “or the spouse of such servicemember” after “a servicemember in military service”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–97, §4(b), Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3008, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to servicemembers in military service (as defined in section 101 of such Act (50 U.S.C. App. 511)) on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 11, 2009].”

§569. Regulations

The Secretary of the Interior may issue regulations necessary to carry out this title [sections 561 to 571 of this Appendix] (other than sections 501, 510, and 511) [sections 561, 570, and 571 of this Appendix].

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §509, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2858.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 569, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §509, 54 Stat. 1189; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §15, 56 Stat. 776, related to distribution of information concerning benefits of tax and public lands provisions and forms, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189. See section 567 of this Appendix.

§570. Income taxes

(a) Deferral of tax

Upon notice to the Internal Revenue Service or the tax authority of a State or a political subdivision of a State, the collection of income tax on the income of a servicemember falling due before or during military service shall be deferred for a period not more than 180 days after termination of or release from military service, if a servicemember's ability to pay such income tax is materially affected by military service.

(b) Accrual of interest or penalty

No interest or penalty shall accrue for the period of deferment by reason of nonpayment on any amount of tax deferred under this section.

(c) Statute of limitations

The running of a statute of limitations against the collection of tax deferred under this section, by seizure or otherwise, shall be suspended for the period of military service of the servicemember and for an additional period of 270 days thereafter.

(d) Application limitation

This section shall not apply to the tax imposed on employees by section 3101 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 3101].

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §510, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2858.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 570, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §510, 54 Stat. 1189; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(23), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 41, related to homestead entrymen permitted to leave entries to perform farm labor, prior to the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

§571. Residence for tax purposes

(a) Residence or domicile

(1) In general

A servicemember shall neither lose nor acquire a residence or domicile for purposes of taxation with respect to the person, personal property, or income of the servicemember by reason of being absent or present in any tax jurisdiction of the United States solely in compliance with military orders.

(2) Spouses

A spouse of a servicemember shall neither lose nor acquire a residence or domicile for purposes of taxation with respect to the person, personal property, or income of the spouse by reason of being absent or present in any tax jurisdiction of the United States solely to be with the servicemember in compliance with the servicemember's military orders if the residence or domicile, as the case may be, is the same for the servicemember and the spouse.

(b) Military service compensation

Compensation of a servicemember for military service shall not be deemed to be income for services performed or from sources within a tax jurisdiction of the United States if the servicemember is not a resident or domiciliary of the jurisdiction in which the servicemember is serving in compliance with military orders.

(c) Income of a military spouse

Income for services performed by the spouse of a servicemember shall not be deemed to be income for services performed or from sources within a tax jurisdiction of the United States if the spouse is not a resident or domiciliary of the jurisdiction in which the income is earned because the spouse is in the jurisdiction solely to be with the servicemember serving in compliance with military orders.

(d) Personal property

(1) Relief from personal property taxes

The personal property of a servicemember or the spouse of a servicemember shall not be deemed to be located or present in, or to have a situs for taxation in, the tax jurisdiction in which the servicemember is serving in compliance with military orders.

(2) Exception for property within member's domicile or residence

This subsection applies to personal property or its use within any tax jurisdiction other than the servicemember's or the spouse's domicile or residence.

(3) Exception for property used in trade or business

This section does not prevent taxation by a tax jurisdiction with respect to personal property used in or arising from a trade or business, if it has jurisdiction.

(4) Relationship to law of State of domicile

Eligibility for relief from personal property taxes under this subsection is not contingent on whether or not such taxes are paid to the State of domicile.

(e) Increase of tax liability

A tax jurisdiction may not use the military compensation of a nonresident servicemember to increase the tax liability imposed on other income earned by the nonresident servicemember or spouse subject to tax by the jurisdiction.

(f) Federal Indian reservations

An Indian servicemember whose legal residence or domicile is a Federal Indian reservation shall be taxed by the laws applicable to Federal Indian reservations and not the State where the reservation is located.

(g) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Personal property

The term “personal property” means intangible and tangible property (including motor vehicles).

(2) Taxation

The term “taxation” includes licenses, fees, or excises imposed with respect to motor vehicles and their use, if the license, fee, or excise is paid by the servicemember in the servicemember's State of domicile or residence.

(3) Tax jurisdiction

The term “tax jurisdiction” means a State or a political subdivision of a State.

(Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, title V, §511, as added Pub. L. 108–189, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2858; amended Pub. L. 111–97, §3(a), Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3008.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 571 to 574 were omitted in the general amendment of this Act by Pub. L. 108–189.

Section 571, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §511, 54 Stat. 1189, related to land rights of persons under 21. See section 568 of this Appendix.

Section 572, acts Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §512, 54 Stat. 1190; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §16, 56 Stat. 776, related to extension of benefits to persons serving with war allies of the United States. See section 514 of this Appendix.

Section 573, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §513, 54 Stat. 1190, related to deferral of income tax collection and the statute of limitations. See section 570 of this Appendix.

Section 574, act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, art. V, §514, as added Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §17, 56 Stat. 777; amended July 3, 1944, ch. 397, §1, 58 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 87–771, Oct. 9, 1962, 76 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 102–12, §9(24), Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 41, related to residence for tax purposes. See section 571 of this Appendix.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–97, §3(a)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–97, §3(a)(3), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–97, §3(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 111–97, §3(a)(4)(A), inserted “or the spouse of a servicemember” after “The personal property of a servicemember”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 111–97, §3(a)(4)(B), inserted “or the spouse's” after “servicemember's”.

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 111–97, §3(a)(2), redesignated subsecs. (d) to (f) as (e) to (g), respectively.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–97, §3(b), Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3008, provided that: “Subsections (a)(2) and (c) of section 511 of such Act [Servicemembers Civil Relief Act] (50 U.S.C. App. 571), as added by subsection (a) of this section, and the amendments made to such section 511 by subsection (a)(4) of this section [amending this section], shall apply with respect to any return of State or local income tax filed for any taxable year