[USC10] 42 USC CHAPTER 34, SUBCHAPTER VIII: NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS
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42 USC CHAPTER 34, SUBCHAPTER VIII: NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 34—ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM

SUBCHAPTER VIII—NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS

§2991. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the "Native American Programs Act of 1974".

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §801, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2323.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2991, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §801, as added Pub. L. 89–794, title VIII, §801. Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1472; amended Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 92–424, §26(a), Sept. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 703, related to Congressional statement of purpose, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417. See section 4951 of this title.

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–394, §1, Dec. 14, 2006, 120 Stat. 2705, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 2991b–3, 2992c, and 2992d of this title] may be cited as the 'Esther Martinez Native American Languages Preservation Act of 2006'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–361, §1, Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3278, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 2991b–1 and 2992d of this title] may be cited as the 'Native American Programs Act Amendments of 1998'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendments

Pub. L. 102–524, §1, Oct. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 3434, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 2991b–3 of this title and amending section 2992d of this title], other than section 4 [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2001 of Title 25, Indians], may be cited as the 'Native American Languages Act of 1992'."

Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §821, Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1295, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle C (§§821, 822) of title VIII of Pub. L. 102–375, enacting sections 2991b–2, 2991c, 2992–1, 2992a–1, and 2992b of this title, amending sections 2991a to 2991b–1, 2991d to 2992, 2992c, and 2992d of this title, and repealing former sections 2991c and 2992b of this title] may be cited as the 'Native American Programs Act Amendments of 1992'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–408, §1, Oct. 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 883, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 2991b and 2992d of this title] may be cited as the 'Indian Environmental Regulatory Enhancement Act of 1990'."

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §501, Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 2991b–1, 2991d–1 and 2992b–1 of this title and amending sections 2991a, 2991b, 2991d–1, 2991f, 2992c, and 2992d of this title] may be cited as the 'Native American Programs Act Amendments of 1987'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–558, title X, §1001, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2905, provided that: "This title [amending sections 2991b, 2992b to 2992d of this title] may be cited as the 'Native American Programs Act Amendments of 1984'."

§2991a. Congressional statement of purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to promote the goal of economic and social self-sufficiency for American Indians, Native Hawaiians, other Native American Pacific Islanders (including American Samoan Natives), and Alaska Natives.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §802, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2324; amended Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §§504(b)(1), 506(c)(1), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 975, 978; Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(21), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1300; Pub. L. 103–171, §5(1), Dec. 2, 1993, 107 Stat. 1991.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2991a, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §802, as added Pub. L. 89–794, title VIII, §801, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1473, covered recruitment, selection, training, referral, and assignment of volunteers and consent of Governors of States in which these activities were conducted, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722.

Amendments

1993Pub. L. 103–171 substituted "Alaska" for "Alaskan".

1992Pub. L. 102–375, which directed the substitution of "Alaska Native" for "Alaskan Native", could not be executed because the words "Alaskan Native" did not appear.

1987Pub. L. 100–175, §506(c)(1), substituted "Native Hawaiians" for "Hawaiian Natives".

Pub. L. 100–175, §504(b)(1), inserted ", other Native American Pacific Islanders (including American Samoan Natives)," after "Hawaiian Natives".

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by section 504(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–175 effective Oct. 1, 1987, and amendment by section 506(c)(1) of Pub. L. 100–175 effective upon expiration of 90-day period beginning Nov. 29, 1987, see section 701(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–175, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

Alaska Federation of Natives' Study and Report With Proposals To Implement Recommendations of Alaska Natives Commission

Pub. L. 104–270, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3301, provided that:

"SECTION 1. CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS AND DECLARATION OF POLICY.

"The Congress finds and declares the following:

"(1) The Joint Federal-State Commission on Policies and Programs Affecting Alaska Natives (hereafter in this Act referred to as the 'Alaska Natives Commission') was established by Public Law 101–379 (42 U.S.C. 2991a note) following the publication in 1989 of the 'Report on the Status of Alaska Natives: A Call for Action' by the Alaska Federation of Natives and after extensive congressional hearings which focused on the need for the first comprehensive assessment of the social, cultural, and economic condition of Alaska's 86,000 Natives since the enactment of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Public Law 92–203 [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.].

"(2) The 14-member Alaska Natives Commission held 15 regional hearings throughout Alaska between July 1992 and October 1993, and 2 statewide hearings in Anchorage coinciding with the Conventions of 1992 and 1993 of the Alaska Federation of Natives. In May 1994, the Alaska Natives Commission issued its 3 volume, 440 page report. As required by Public Law 101–379, the report was formally conveyed to the Congress, the President of the United States, and the Governor of Alaska.

"(3) The Alaska Natives Commission found that many Alaska Native individuals, families, and communities were experiencing a social, cultural, and economic crisis marked by rampant unemployment, lack of economic opportunity, alcohol abuse, depression, and morbidity and mortality rates that have been described by health care professionals as 'staggering'.

"(4) The Alaska Natives Commission found that due to the high rate of unemployment and lack of economic opportunities for Alaska Natives, government programs for the poor have become the foundation of many village economies. Displacing traditional Alaska Native social safety nets, these well-meaning programs have undermined the healthy interdependence and self-sufficiency of Native tribes and families and have put Native tribes and families at risk of becoming permanent dependencies of Government.

"(5) Despite these seemingly insurmountable problems, the Alaska Natives Commission found that Alaska Natives, building on the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, had begun a unique process of critical self-examination which, if supported by the United States Congress through innovative legislation, and effective public administration at all levels including traditional Native governance, could provide the basis for an Alaska Native social, cultural, economic, and spiritual renewal.

"(6) The Alaska Natives Commission recognized that the key to the future well-being of Alaska Natives lay in—

"(A) the systematic resumption of responsibility by Alaska Natives for the well-being of their members,

"(B) the strengthening of their economies,

"(C) the strengthening, operation, and control of their systems of governance, social services, education, health care, and law enforcement, and

"(D) exercising rights they have from their special relationship with the Federal Government and as citizens of the United States and Alaska.

"(7) The Alaska Natives Commission recognized that the following 3 basic principles must be respected in addressing the myriad of problems facing Alaska Natives:

"(A) Self-reliance.

"(B) Self-determination.

"(C) Integrity of Native cultures.

"(8) There is a need to address the problems confronting Alaska Natives. This should be done rapidly, with certainty, and in conformity with the real economic, social, and cultural needs of Alaska Natives.

"(9) Congress retains and has exercised its constitutional authority over Native affairs in Alaska subsequent to the Treaty of Cession and does so now through this Act.

"SEC. 2. ALASKA NATIVE IMPLEMENTATION STUDY.

"(a) Findings.—The Congress finds and declares that—

"(1) the Alaska Natives Commission adopted certain recommendations raising important policy questions which are unresolved in Alaska and which require further study and review before Congress considers legislation to implement solutions to address these recommendations; and

"(2) the Alaska Federation of Natives is the representative body of statewide Alaska Native interests best suited to further investigate and report to Congress with proposals to implement the recommendations of the Alaska Natives Commission.

"(b) Grant.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall make a grant to the Alaska Federation of Natives to conduct the study and submit the report required by this section. Such grant may only be made if the Alaska Federation of Natives agrees to abide by the requirements of this section.

"(c) Study.—Pursuant to subsection (b), the Alaska Federation of Natives shall—

"(1) examine the recommendations of the Alaska Natives Commission;

"(2) examine initiatives in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere for successful ways that issues similar to the issues addressed by the Alaska Natives Commission have been addressed;

"(3) conduct hearings within the Alaska Native community on further ways in which the Commission's recommendations might be implemented; and

"(4) recommend enactment of specific provisions of law and other actions the Congress should take to implement such recommendations.

"(d) Consideration of Local Control.—In developing its recommendations pursuant to subsection (c)(4), the Alaska Federation of Natives shall give specific attention to the ways in which the recommendations may be achieved at the local level with maximum local control of the implementation of the recommendations.

"(e) Report.—Not later than 12 months after the date on which the grant is made under subsection (b), the Alaska Federation of Natives shall submit a report on the study conducted under this section, together with the recommendations developed pursuant to subsection (c)(4), to the President and the Congress and to the Governor and legislature of the State of Alaska. In addition, the Alaska Federation of Natives shall make the report available to Alaska Native villages and organizations and to the general public.

"(f) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated $350,000 for the grant under subsection (b).

"(g) Additional State Funding.—The Congress encourages the State of Alaska to provide the additional funding necessary for the completion of the study under this section."

Alaska Natives Commission

Pub. L. 101–379, §12, Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 478, established a Joint Federal-State Commission on Policies and Programs Affecting Alaska Natives to conduct a comprehensive review of Federal and State policies and programs affecting Alaska Natives in order to identify specific actions that could be taken to help assure that public policy goals were more fully realized among Alaska Natives, further provided for membership, meetings, and other administrative affairs of the Commission, as well as specific powers and duties, further directed the Commission to submit, by no later than 18 months after its first meeting, a report with recommendations to the President, the Congress, the Governor of Alaska, and the legislature of the State of Alaska, and further provided for funding as well as termination of the Commission 180 days after the date of submission of its report.

Native Hawaiians Study Commission

Pub. L. 96–565, title III, §§301–307, Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3324–3326, known as the Native Hawaiians Study Commission Act, established the Native Hawaiians Study Commission to study the culture, needs, and concerns of Native Hawaiians, and to issue a report and make recommendations to Congress. The Commission was required to have its first meeting not less than 90-days after Dec. 22, 1980, produce a draft report no later than 1 year after its first meeting and a final report no later than 9 months later. The Commission ceased to exist upon the expiration of the 60-day period following the submission of its final report.

§2991b. Financial assistance for Native American projects

(a) Authorization for financial assistance to public and nonprofit agencies; consultation with other Federal agencies to avoid duplication

The Commissioner is authorized to provide financial assistance, on a single year or multiyear basis, to public and nonprofit private agencies, including but not limited to, governing bodies of Indian tribes on Federal and State reservations, Alaska Native villages and regional corporations established by the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.], and such public and nonprofit private agencies serving Native Hawaiians, and Indian and Alaska Native organizations in urban or rural areas that are not Indian reservations or Alaska Native villages, for projects pertaining to the purposes of this subchapter. The Commissioner is authorized to provide financial assistance to public and nonprofit private agencies serving other Native American Pacific Islanders (including American Samoan Natives) for projects pertaining to the purposes of this Act. In determining the projects to be assisted under this subchapter, the Commissioner shall consult with other Federal agencies for the purpose of eliminating duplication or conflict among similar activities or projects and for the purpose of determining whether the findings resulting from those projects may be incorporated into one or more programs for which those agencies are responsible. Every determination made with respect to a request for financial assistance under this section shall be made without regard to whether the agency making such request serves, or the project to be assisted is for the benefit of, Indians who are not members of a federally recognized tribe. To the greatest extent practicable, the Commissioner shall ensure that each project to be assisted under this subchapter is consistent with the priorities established by the agency which receives such assistance.

(b) Limitations of financial assistance; exceptions; non-Federal contributions

Financial assistance extended to an agency under this subchapter shall not exceed 80 per centum of the approved costs of the assisted project, except that the Commissioner may approve assistance in excess of such percentage if the Commissioner determines, in accordance with regulations establishing objective criteria, that such action is required in furtherance of the purposes of this subchapter. Non-Federal contributions may be in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including but not limited to plant, equipment, and services. The Commissioner shall not require non-Federal contributions in excess of 20 per centum of the approved costs of programs or activities assisted under this subchapter.

(c) Assistance as addition to, and not substitution for, activities previously carried out without Federal assistance; waiver; nonreservation areas

(1) No project shall be approved for assistance under this subchapter unless the Commissioner is satisfied that the activities to be carried out under such project will be in addition to, and not in substitution for, comparable activities previously carried out without Federal assistance, except that the Commissioner may waive this requirement in any case in which the Commissioner determines, in accordance with regulations establishing objective criteria, that application of the requirement would result in unnecessary hardship or otherwise be inconsistent with the purposes of this subchapter.

(2) No project may be disapproved for assistance under this subchapter solely because the agency requesting such assistance is an Indian organization in a nonreservation area or serves Indians in a nonreservation area.

(d) Grants to improve tribal regulation of environmental quality

(1) The Commissioner shall award grants to Indian tribes for the purpose of funding 80 percent of the costs of planning, developing, and implementing programs designed to improve the capability of the governing body of the Indian tribe to regulate environmental quality pursuant to Federal and tribal environmental laws.

(2) The purposes for which funds provided under any grant awarded under paragraph (1) may be used include, but are not limited to—

(A) the training and education of employees responsible for enforcing, or monitoring compliance with, environmental quality laws,

(B) the development of tribal laws on environmental quality, and

(C) the enforcement and monitoring of environmental quality laws.


(3) The 20 percent of the costs of planning, developing, and implementing a program for which a grant is awarded under paragraph (1) that are not to be paid from such grant may be paid by the grant recipient in cash or through the provision of property or services, but only to the extent that such cash or property is from any source (including any Federal agency) other than a program, contract, or grant authorized under this subchapter.

(4) Grants shall be awarded under paragraph (1) on the basis of applications that are submitted by Indian tribes to the Commissioner in such form as the Commissioner shall prescribe.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §803, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2324; amended Pub. L. 95–568, §17(a)(39), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2443; Pub. L. 98–558, title X, §1002, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2905; Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §§502(1), 504(a), 506(c)(2), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973, 975, 978; Pub. L. 101–408, §2, Oct. 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 883; Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(1), (21), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1295, 1300; Pub. L. 102–497, §9(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3257; Pub. L. 103–171, §5(2), Dec. 2, 1993, 107 Stat. 1991.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means the Native American Programs Act of 1974, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, as added by Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2324, which is classified generally to this subchapter, see section 2991 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2991b, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §803, as added Pub. L. 89–794, title VIII, §801, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1473, provided for stipend for volunteers, living, travel, and leave allowances, and subsistence, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–171 substituted "areas that are not Indian reservations or Alaska Native villages" for "nonreservation areas".

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–497 struck out ", subject to the availability of funds appropriated under the authority of section 2992d(c) of this title," after "Commissioner is authorized" in second sentence.

Pub. L. 102–375, §822(21), substituted "Alaska Native villages" for "Alaskan Native villages".

Pub. L. 102–375, §822(1)(A), (B)(i), substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary" wherever appearing and substituted "Indian and Alaska Native organizations" for "Indian organizations".

Pub. L. 102–375, §822(1)(B)(ii), which directed the substitution of "area that is not an Indian reservation or Alaska Native village" for "nonreservation area", could not be executed because the words "nonreservation area" did not appear.

Subsecs. (b), (c)(1), (d)(1), (4). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(1)(A), substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–408 added subsec. (d).

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–175, §506(c)(2), substituted "Native Hawaiians" for "Hawaiian Natives".

Pub. L. 100–175, §§502(1), 504(a), inserted ", on a single year or multiyear basis," after "assistance" in first sentence and inserted after first sentence "The Secretary is authorized, subject to the availability of funds appropriated under the authority of section 2992d(c) of this title, to provide financial assistance to public and nonprofit private agencies serving other Native American Pacific Islanders (including American Samoan Natives) for projects pertaining to the purposes of this Act."

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–558, §1002(a), inserted at end "Every determination made with respect to a request for financial assistance under this section shall be made without regard to whether the agency making such request serves, or the project to be assisted is for the benefit of, Indians who are not members of a federally recognized tribe. To the greatest extent practicable, the Secretary shall ensure that each project to be assisted under this subchapter is consistent with the priorities established by the agency which receives such assistance."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–558, §1002(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1978Pub. L. 95–568 substituted in subsecs. (b) and (c) "the Secretary determines" for "he determines".

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by sections 502(1) and 504(a) of Pub. L. 100–175 effective Oct. 1, 1987, and amendment by section 506(c)(2) of Pub. L. 100–175 effective upon expiration of 90-day period beginning Nov. 29, 1987, see section 701(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–175, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

§2991b–1. Loan fund; demonstration project

(a) Grant to Office of Hawaiian Affairs to establish revolving loan fund; purposes of fund; administrative costs; matching funds

(1) In order to provide funding that is not available from private sources, the Commissioner shall award a grant to the Office of Hawaiian Affairs of the State of Hawaii (referred to in this section as the "Office"), which shall use that grant to carry out, in the State of Hawaii, a demonstration project involving the establishment of a revolving loan fund—

(A) from which the Office shall make loans or loan guarantees to Native Hawaiian organizations and to individual Native Hawaiians for the purpose of promoting economic development in the State of Hawaii; and

(B) into which all payments, interest, charges, and other amounts collected from loans made under subparagraph (A) shall be deposited notwithstanding any other provision of law.


(2) The agreement under which a grant is awarded under paragraph (1) shall contain provisions which set forth the administrative costs of the grantee that are to be paid out of the funds provided under the grant and a requirement that the grantee contribute to the revolving loan fund an amount of non-Federal funds equal to the amount of such grant.

(b) Loans or loan guarantees to borrowers; determinations; term; interest rate; default and collection procedures; prohibition on self-lending

(1) The Office may make a loan or loan guarantee to a borrower under subsection (a)(1)(A) only if the Office determines that—

(A) the borrower is unable to obtain financing from other sources on reasonable terms and conditions; and

(B) there is a reasonable prospect that the borrower will repay the loan.


(2) Each loan or loan guarantee made under subsection (a)(1)(A) shall be—

(A) for a term that does not exceed 7 years; and

(B) at a rate of interest that does not exceed a rate equal to the sum of—

(I) the most recently published prime rate (as published in the newspapers of general circulation in the State of Hawaii before the date on which the loan is made); and

(II) 3 percentage points.


(3) The Office may require any borrower of a loan made under subsection (a)(1)(A) to provide such collateral as the Office determines to be necessary to secure the loan.

(4) Prior to making loans under subsection (a)(1)(A), the Office shall establish written procedures and definitions pertaining to defaults and collections of payments under the loans which shall be subject to the review and approval of the Commissioner. Such Office shall provide to each applicant for a loan under subsection (a)(1)(A), at the time application for the loan is made, a written copy of such procedures and definitions.

(5) The Office may not lend to itself any of the funds awarded under the grant.

(c) Notice to Commissioner of loans in default and uncollectability of such loans; instructions by Commissioner

(1) The Office shall provide the Commissioner at regular intervals written notice of each loan made under subsection (a)(1)(A) that is in default and the status of such loan.

(2)(A) After making reasonable efforts to collect all amounts payable under a loan made under subsection (a)(1)(A) that is in default, the Office shall notify the Commissioner that such loan is uncollectable or collectable only at an unreasonable cost. Such notice shall include recommendations for future action to be taken by the Office.

(B) Upon receiving such notice, the Commissioner shall instruct the Office—

(i) to continue with its collection activities;

(ii) to cancel, adjust, compromise, or reduce the amount of such loan; or

(iii) to modify any term or condition of such loan, including any term or condition relating to the rate of interest or the time of payment of any installment of principal or interest, or portion thereof, that is payable under such loan.


(C) The Office shall carry out all instructions received under subparagraph (B) from the Commissioner.

(d) Payment of administrative costs; management and technical assistance

(1) The Office shall, out of funds available in the revolving loan fund established under such subsection—

(A) pay expenses incurred by the Office in administering the revolving loan fund; and

(B) provide competent management and technical assistance to borrowers of loans made under subsection (a)(1)(A) to assist the borrowers to achieve the purposes of such loans.


(2) The Commissioner shall provide to the Office such management and technical assistance as the Office may request in order to carry out the provisions of this section.

(e) Regulations

Not later than 120 days after November 29, 1987, the Commissioner, in consultation with appropriate agencies of the State of Hawaii and community-based Native Hawaiian organizations, shall prescribe regulations which set forth the procedures and criteria to be used—

(1) in making loans under subsection (a)(1)(A); and

(2) in canceling, adjusting, compromising, and reducing under subsection (c) the outstanding amounts of such loans.


The Commissioner may prescribe such other regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations involving reporting and auditing.

(f) Authorization of appropriations; investment in obligations of United States

(1) There is authorized to be appropriated for each of the fiscal years 2000 and 2001, $1,000,000 for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section. Any amount appropriated under this paragraph shall remain available for expenditure without fiscal year limitation.

(2) The revolving loan fund that is required to be established under subsection (a)(1) shall be maintained as a separate account. Any portion of the revolving loan fund that is not required for expenditure shall be invested in obligations of the United States or in obligations guaranteed or insured by the United States.

(g) Reports to Congress; contents

(1) The Commissioner, in consultation with the Office, shall submit a report to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives not later than January 1 following each fiscal year, regarding the administration of this section in such fiscal year.

(2) Such report shall include the views and recommendations of the Commissioner with respect to the revolving loan fund established under subsection (a)(1) and with respect to loans made from such fund, and shall—

(A) describe the effectiveness of the operation of such fund in improving the economic and social self-sufficiency of Native Hawaiians;

(B) specify the number of loans made in such fiscal year;

(C) specify the number of loans outstanding as of the end of such fiscal year; and

(D) specify the number of borrowers who fail in such fiscal year to repay loans in accordance with the agreements under which such loans are required to be repaid.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §803A, as added Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §506(a), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 976; amended Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(2), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1296; Pub. L. 103–171, §5(3), Dec. 2, 1993, 107 Stat. 1991; Pub. L. 105–361, §3, Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3278.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–361, §3(a)(1)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted "award a grant" for "award grants" and "use that grant to carry out" for "use such grants to establish and carry out".

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–361, §3(a)(1)(B), inserted "or loan guarantees" after "make loans".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–361, §3(a)(2)(A), substituted "a loan or loan guarantee to a borrower" for "loans to a borrower" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–361, §3(a)(2)(B)(i), substituted "Each loan or loan guarantee made" for "Loans made" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–361, §3(a)(2)(B)(ii), substituted "7 years" for "5 years".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–361, §3(a)(2)(B)(iii), substituted "that does not exceed a rate equal to the sum of—" for "that is 2 percentage points below the average market yield on the most recent public offering of United States Treasury bills occurring before the date on which the loan is made." and added cls. (I) and (II).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 105–361, §3(a)(3), substituted "2000 and 2001," for "1992, 1993, and 1994,".

1993—Subsecs. (b) to (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(3)(A), struck out "to which a grant is awarded under subsection (a)(1) of this section" before "may make loans" in subsec. (b)(1), before "may require any borrower" in subsec. (b)(3), before "shall establish written" in subsec. (b)(4), before "may not lend" in subsec. (b)(5), before "shall provide the Commissioner" in subsec. (c)(1), before "shall notify the Commissioner" in subsec. (c)(2)(A), and before "shall, out of funds" in subsec. (d)(1).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(3)(B), struck out "to which a grant is made under subsection (a)(1) of this section" after "Commissioner shall provide to the Office".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(3)(C), substituted "each of the fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994, $1,000,000" for "fiscal years 1988, 1989, and 1990 the aggregate amount $3,000,000 for all such fiscal years".

1992Pub. L. 102–375, §822(2)(C), (D), substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary" wherever appearing in subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(4), (c), (d)(2), and (e) and "Office" for "agency or organization" wherever appearing in subsecs. (b)(1), (3) to (5), (c), and (d).

Pub. L. 102–375, §822(2)(B), which directed the amendment of this section by substituting "Office" for "agency or organization to which a grant is awarded under subsection (a)(1) of this section" wherever appearing, could not be executed because the words "agency or organization to which a grant is awarded under subsection (a)(1) of this section" did not appear in the original.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(2)(A), substituted "the Office of Hawaiian Affairs of the State of Hawaii (referred to in this section as the 'Office')" for "one agency of the State of Hawaii, or to one community-based Native Hawaiian organization whose purpose is the economic and social self-sufficiency of Native Hawaiians", struck out "5-year" before "demonstration", and in subpar. (A) substituted "the Office" for "such agency or Native Hawaiian organization".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(2)(E), inserted before period at end "and a requirement that the grantee contribute to the revolving loan fund an amount of non-Federal funds equal to the amount of such grant".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(2)(F) struck out par. (6) which prohibited making of loan from revolving fund after close of 5-year period beginning on Nov. 29, 1987.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(2)(G), which directed substitution of "each of the fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994, $1,000,000" for "fiscal years 1988, 1989, and 1990 the aggregate amount of $3,000,000 for all such fiscal years", could not be executed because the words "fiscal years 1988, 1989, and 1990 the aggregate amount of $3,000,000 for all such fiscal years" did not appear.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(2)(H), struck out par. (3) which read as follows:

"(A) All monies that are in the revolving loan fund at the close of the 5-year period beginning on November 29, 1987, and that are not otherwise needed (as determined by the Secretary) to carry out the provisions of this section shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.

"(B) All monies deposited in the revolving loan fund after the close of such period pursuant to subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section shall be deposited into the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(2)(I), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) read as follows:

"(1) The Secretary, in consultation with the agency or organization to which a grant is awarded under subsection (a)(1) of this section, shall submit to the Congress—

"(A) an interim report not later than 2 years after November 29, 1987; and

"(B) a final report not later than 4 years after November 29, 1987;

regarding the administration of this section.

"(2) Each such report shall include the views and recommendations of the Secretary regarding—

"(A) the effectiveness of the demonstration project;

"(B) whether the demonstration project should be expanded to other groups eligible for assistance under this subchapter; and

"(C) whether the duration of the demonstration project should be extended."

Effective Date

Section effective upon expiration of 90-day period beginning Nov. 29, 1987, see section 701(c) of Pub. L. 100–175, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 3001 of this title.

§2991b–2. Establishment of Administration for Native Americans

(a) Establishment

There is established in the Department of Health and Human Services (referred to in this subchapter as the "Department") the Administration for Native Americans (referred to in this subchapter as the "Administration"), which shall be headed by a Commissioner of the Administration for Native Americans (referred to in this subchapter as the "Commissioner"). The Administration shall be the agency responsible for carrying out the provisions of this subchapter.

(b) Commissioner

The Commissioner shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(c) Duties

The Commissioner shall—

(1) provide for financial assistance, loan funds, technical assistance, training, research and demonstration projects, and other activities, described in this subchapter;

(2) serve as the effective and visible advocate on behalf of Native Americans within the Department, and with other departments and agencies of the Federal Government regarding all Federal policies affecting Native Americans;

(3) with the assistance of the Intra-Departmental Council on Native American Affairs established by subsection (d)(1), coordinate activities within the Department leading to the development of policies, programs, and budgets, and their administration affecting Native Americans, and provide quarterly reports and recommendations to the Secretary;

(4) collect and disseminate information related to the social and economic conditions of Native Americans, and assist the Secretary in preparing an annual report to the Congress about such conditions;

(5) give preference to agencies described in section 2991b(a) of this title that are eligible for assistance under this subchapter, in entering into contracts for technical assistance, training, and evaluation under this subchapter; and

(6) encourage agencies that carry out projects under this subchapter, to give preference to Native Americans, in hiring and entering into contracts to carry out such projects.

(d) Intra-Departmental Council on Native American Affairs

(1) There is established in the Office of the Secretary the Intra-Departmental Council on Native American Affairs. The Commissioner shall be the chairperson of such Council and shall advise the Secretary on all matters affecting Native Americans that involve the Department. The Director of the Indian Health Service shall serve as vice chairperson of the Council.

(2) The membership of the Council shall be the heads of principal operating divisions within the Department, as determined by the Secretary, and such persons in the Office of the Secretary as the Secretary may designate.

(3) In addition to the duties described in subsection (c)(3), the Council shall, within 180 days following September 30, 1992, prepare a plan, including legislative recommendations, to allow tribal governments and other organizations described in section 2991b(a) of this title to consolidate grants administered by the Department and to designate a single office to oversee and audit the grants. Such plan shall be submitted to the committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives having jurisdiction over the Administration for Native Americans.

(e) Staffing levels

The Secretary shall assure that adequate staff and administrative support is provided to carry out the purpose of this subchapter. In determining the staffing levels of the Administration, the Secretary shall consider among other factors the unmet needs of the Native American population, the need to provide adequate oversight and technical assistance to grantees, the need to carry out the activities of the Council, the additional reporting requirements established, and the staffing levels previously maintained in support of the Administration.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §803B, as added Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(3), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1296; amended Pub. L. 103–171, §5(4), Dec. 2, 1993, 107 Stat. 1992.)

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(4)(A), substituted "agencies described in section 2991b(a) of this title that" for "individuals who".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(4)(B), substituted "Native Americans," for "such individuals".

§2991b–3. Grant program to ensure survival and continuing vitality of Native American languages

(a) Authority to award grants

The Secretary shall award a grant to any agency or organization that is—

(1) eligible for financial assistance under section 2991b(a) of this title; and

(2) selected under subsection (c);


to be used to assist Native Americans in ensuring the survival and continuing vitality of Native American languages.

(b) Purposes for which grants may be used

The purposes for which each grant awarded under subsection (a) may be used include, but are not limited to—

(1) the establishment and support of a community Native American language project to bring older and younger Native Americans together to facilitate and encourage the transfer of Native American language skills from one generation to another;

(2) the establishment of a project to train Native Americans to teach a Native American language to others or to enable them to serve as interpreters or translators of such language;

(3) the development, printing, and dissemination of materials to be used for the teaching and enhancement of a Native American language;

(4) the establishment or support of a project to train Native Americans to produce or participate in a television or radio program to be broadcast in a Native American language;

(5) the compilation, transcription, and analysis of oral testimony to record and preserve a Native American language;

(6) the purchase of equipment (including audio and video recording equipment, computers, and software) required to conduct a Native American language project; and

(7)(A) Native American language nests, which are site-based educational programs that—

(i) provide instruction and child care through the use of a Native American language for at least 10 children under the age of 7 for an average of at least 500 hours per year per student;

(ii) provide classes in a Native American language for parents (or legal guardians) of students enrolled in a Native American language nest (including Native American language-speaking parents); and

(iii) ensure that a Native American language is the dominant medium of instruction in the Native American language nest;


(B) Native American language survival schools, which are site-based educational programs for school-age students that—

(i) provide an average of at least 500 hours of instruction through the use of 1 or more Native American languages for at least 15 students for whom a Native American language survival school is their principal place of instruction;

(ii) develop instructional courses and materials for learning Native American languages and for instruction through the use of Native American languages;

(iii) provide for teacher training;

(iv) work toward a goal of all students achieving—

(I) fluency in a Native American language; and

(II) academic proficiency in mathematics, reading (or language arts), and science; and


(v) are located in areas that have high numbers or percentages of Native American students; and


(C) Native American language restoration programs, which are educational programs that—

(i) operate at least 1 Native American language program for the community in which it serves;

(ii) provide training programs for teachers of Native American languages;

(iii) develop instructional materials for the programs;

(iv) work toward a goal of increasing proficiency and fluency in at least 1 Native American language;

(v) provide instruction in at least 1 Native American language; and

(vi) may use funds received under this section for—

(I) Native American language programs, such as Native American language immersion programs, Native American language and culture camps, Native American language programs provided in coordination and cooperation with educational entities, Native American language programs provided in coordination and cooperation with local universities and colleges, Native American language programs that use a master-apprentice model of learning languages, and Native American language programs provided through a regional program to better serve geographically dispersed students;

(II) Native American language teacher training programs, such as training programs in Native American language translation for fluent speakers, training programs for Native American language teachers, training programs for teachers in schools to utilize Native American language materials, tools, and interactive media to teach Native American language; and

(III) the development of Native American language materials, such as books, audio and visual tools, and interactive media programs.

(c) Applications

For the purpose of making grants under subsection (a), the Secretary shall select applicants from among agencies and organizations described in such subsection on the basis of applications submitted to the Secretary at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the Secretary shall require, but each application shall include at a minimum—

(1) a detailed description of the current status of the Native American language to be addressed by the project for which a grant under subsection (a) is requested, including a description of existing programs and projects, if any, in support of such language;

(2) a detailed description of the project for which such grant is requested;

(3) a statement of objectives that are consonant with the purpose described in subsection (a);

(4) a detailed description of a plan to be carried out by the applicant to evaluate such project, consonant with the purpose for which such grant is made;

(5) if appropriate, an identification of opportunities for the replication of such project or the modification of such project for use by other Native Americans;

(6) a plan for the preservation of the products of the Native American language project for the benefit of future generations of Native Americans and other interested persons; and

(7) in the case of an application for a grant to carry out any purpose specified in subsection (b)(7)(B), a certification by the applicant that the applicant has not less than 3 years of experience in operating and administering a Native American language survival school, a Native American language nest, or any other educational program in which instruction is conducted in a Native American language.

(d) Participating organizations

If a tribal organization or other eligible applicant decides that the objectives of its proposed Native American language project would be accomplished more effectively through a partnership arrangement with a school, college, or university, the applicant shall identify such school, college, or university as a participating organization in the application submitted under subsection (c).

(e) Limitations on funding

(1) Share

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, a grant made under subsection (a) may not be expended to pay more than 80 percent of the cost of the project that is assisted by such grant. Not less than 20 percent of such cost—

(A) shall be in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including plant, equipment, or services; and

(B)(i) may be provided from any private or non-Federal source; and

(ii) may include funds (including interest) distributed to a tribe—

(I) by the Federal Government pursuant to the satisfaction of a claim made under Federal law;

(II) from funds collected and administered by the Federal Government on behalf of such tribe or its constituent members; or

(III) by the Federal Government for general tribal administration or tribal development under a formula or subject to a tribal budgeting priority system, such as, but not limited to, funds involved in the settlement of land or other judgment claims, severance or other royalty payments, or payments under the Indian Self-Determination Act (25 U.S.C. 450f et seq.1 or tribal budget priority system.

(2) Duration

The Secretary may make grants made under subsection (a) on a 1-year, 2-year, or 3-year basis, except that grants made under such subsection for any purpose specified in subsection (b)(7) may be made only on a 3-year basis.

(f) Administration

(1) The Secretary shall carry out this section through the Administration for Native Americans.

(2)(A) Not later than 180 days after October 26, 1992, the Secretary shall appoint a panel of experts for the purpose of assisting the Secretary to review—

(i) applications submitted under subsection (a);

(ii) evaluations carried out to comply with subsection (c)(4); and

(iii) the preservation of products required by subsection (c)(5).


(B) Such panel shall include, but not be limited to—

(i) a designee of the Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native Culture and Arts Development;

(ii) a designee of the regional centers funded under section 3215 1 of title 20;

(iii) representatives of national, tribal, and regional organizations that focus on Native American language, or Native American cultural,2 research, development, or training; and

(iv) other individuals who are recognized for their expertise in the area of Native American language.


Recommendations for appointment to such panel shall be solicited from Indian tribes and tribal organizations.

(C) The duties of such panel include—

(i) making recommendations regarding the development and implementation of regulations, policies, procedures, and rules of general applicability with respect to the administration of this section;

(ii) reviewing applications received under subsection (c);

(iii) providing to the Secretary a list of recommendations for the approval of such applications—

(I) in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary; and

(II) the relative need for the project; and


(iv) reviewing evaluations submitted to comply with subsection (c)(4).


(D)(i) Subject to clause (ii), a copy of the products of the Native American language project for which a grant is made under subsection (a)—

(I) shall be transmitted to the Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native Culture and Arts Development; and

(II) may be transmitted, in the discretion of the grantee, to national and regional repositories of similar material;


for preservation and use consonant with their respective responsibilities under other Federal law.

(ii) Based on the Federal recognition of the sovereign authority of Indian tribes over all aspects of their cultures and language and except as provided in clause (iii), an Indian tribe may make a determination—

(I) not to transmit copies of such products under clause (i) or not to permit the redistribution of such copies; or

(II) to restrict in any manner the use or redistribution of such copies after transmission under such clause.


(iii) Clause (ii) shall not be construed to authorize Indian tribes—

(I) to limit the access of the Secretary to such products for purposes of administering this section or evaluating such products; or

(II) to sell such products, or copies of such products, for profit to the entities referred to in clause (i).

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §803C, as added Pub. L. 102–524, §2, Oct. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 3434; amended Pub. L. 109–394, §2, Dec. 14, 2006, 120 Stat. 2705.)

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination Act (25 U.S.C. 450f et seq.), referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(B)(ii)(III), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which was classified principally to part A (§450f et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 14 of Title 25, Indians, prior to editorial reclassification as subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of Title 25. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of Title 25 and Tables.

Section 3215 of title 20, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B)(ii), was in the original a reference to section 5135 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, Pub. L. 89–10. Section 5135 of that Act was omitted in the general amendment of Pub. L. 89–10 by Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3519.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 109–394, §2(1), added par. (7).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 109–394, §2(2), added par. (7).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 109–394, §2(3), inserted " ,except that grants made under such subsection for any purpose specified in subsection (b)(7) may be made only on a 3-year basis" before period at end.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§2991c. Technical assistance and training

The Commissioner shall provide, directly or through other arrangements—

(1) technical assistance to the public and private agencies in planning, developing, conducting, and administering projects under this subchapter;

(2) short-term in-service training for specialized or other personnel that is needed in connection with projects receiving financial assistance under this subchapter; and

(3) upon denial of a grant application, technical assistance to a potential grantee in revising a grant proposal.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §804, as added Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(4), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1298.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2991c, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §804, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2324, authorized Secretary to provide technical assistance and training in developing, conducting, and administering projects under this subchapter and short-term in-service training for specialized personnel, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–375, §822(4).

Another prior section 2991c, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §804, as added Pub. L. 89–794, title VIII, §801, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1473; amended Pub. L. 90–83, §10(b), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 224, provided for applicability of specified Federal laws, oath or affirmation, and status of volunteers as Federal employees and as persons employed in executive branch of Federal Government, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722.

§2991d. Research, demonstration, and pilot projects

(a) The Commissioner may provide financial assistance through grants or contracts for research, demonstration, or pilot projects conducted by public or private agencies which are designed to test or assist in the development of new approaches or methods that will aid in overcoming special problems or otherwise furthering the purposes of this subchapter.

(b) The Commissioner shall establish an overall plan to govern the approval of research, demonstration, and pilot projects and the use of all research authority under this subchapter. The plan shall set forth specific objectives to be achieved and priorities among such objectives.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §805, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2324; amended Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(5), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1298.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2991d, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §805, as added Pub. L. 89–794, title VIII, §801, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1474, provided for special programs and projects and placing limitations on the use of appropriated funds, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722.

Amendments

1992—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 102–375 substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary".

§2991d–1. Panel review of applications for assistance

(a) Establishment of formal panel; members

(1) The Commissioner shall establish a formal panel review process for purposes of—

(A) evaluating applications for financial assistance under sections 2991b and 2991d of this title; and

(B) determining the relative merits of the projects for which such assistance is requested.


(2) To implement the process established under paragraph (1), the Commissioner shall appoint members of review panels from among individuals who are not officers or employees of the Administration for Native Americans. In making appointments to such panels, the Commissioner shall give preference to American Indians, Native Hawaiians, other Native American Pacific Islanders (including American Samoan Natives), and Alaska Natives.

(b) Duties of panel

Each review panel appointed under subsection (a)(2) that reviews any application for financial assistance shall—

(1) determine the merit of each project described in such application;

(2) rank such application with respect to all other applications it reviews for the fiscal year involved, according to the relative merit of all of the projects that are described in such application and for which financial assistance is requested; and

(3) submit to the Commissioner a list that identifies all applications reviewed by such panel and arranges such applications according to rank determined under paragraph (2).

(c) Notice to Congressional committee chairman; information required

Upon the request of the chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate or of the chairman of the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives made with respect to any application for financial assistance under section 2991b or 2991d of this title, the Commissioner shall transmit to the chairman written notice—

(1) identifying such application;

(2) containing a copy of the list submitted to the Commissioner under subsection (b)(3) in which such application is ranked;

(3) specifying which other applications ranked in such list have been approved by the Commissioner under sections 2991b and 2991d of this title; and

(4) if the Commissioner has not approved each application superior in merit, as indicated on such list, to the application with respect to which such notice is transmitted, containing a statement of the reasons relied upon by the Commissioner for—

(A) approving the application with respect to which such notice is transmitted; and

(B) failing to approve each pending application that is superior in merit, as indicated on such list, to the application described in subparagraph (A).

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §806, as added and amended Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §§502(4), 504(b)(2), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973, 975; Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(6), (21), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1298, 1300; Pub. L. 103–171, §5(5), Dec. 2, 1993, 107 Stat. 1992; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(k), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4593.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 806 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 807 and is classified to section 2991e of this title.

Another prior section 806 of Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, as added Pub. L. 89–794, title VIII, §801, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1474, provided for duration of VISTA program through June 30, 1970, and was classified to section 2991e of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Committee on Indian Affairs" for "Select Committee on Indian Affairs".

1993—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–171 substituted "Alaska" for "Alaskan".

1992Pub. L. 102–375, §822(6), substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(21), which directed the substitution of "Alaska Native" for "Alaskan Native", could not be executed because the words "Alaskan Native" did not appear.

1987—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–175, §504(b)(2), which directed that par. (2) be amended by inserting "other Native American Pacific Islanders (including American Samoan Natives)," after "Hawaiian Natives," was executed by making the insertion after "Native Hawaiians," to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Change of Name

Committee on Education and Labor of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Education and the Workforce of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Jan. 5, 2011.

Effective Date

Enactment and amendment by Pub. L. 100–175 effective Oct. 1, 1987, see section 701 of Pub. L. 100–175, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 3001 of this title.

§2991e. Announcement of research, demonstration, or pilot projects

(a) The Commissioner shall make a public announcement concerning—

(1) the title, purpose, intended completion date, identity of the grantee or contractor, and proposed cost of any grant or contract with a private or non-Federal public agency for a research, demonstration, or pilot project; and

(2) except in cases in which the Commissioner determines that it would not be consistent with the purposes of this subchapter, the results, findings, data, or recommendations made or reported as a result of such activities.


(b) The public announcements required by subsection (a) shall be made within thirty days of making such grants or contracts, and the public announcements required by subsection (b) of this section shall be made within thirty days of the receipt of such results.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §807, formerly §806, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2325; renumbered §807, Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §502(3), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973; amended Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(7), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1298.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 807 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 808 and is classified to section 2991f of this title.

A prior section 2991e, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §806, as added Pub. L. 89–794, title VIII, §801, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1474, provided for duration of the VISTA program through June 30, 1970, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–375 substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary" in two places.

§2991f. Submission of plans to State and local officials

(a) Submission to governing body of Indian reservation or Alaska Native village

No financial assistance may be provided to any project under section 2991b of this title or any research, demonstration, or pilot project under section 2991d of this title, which is to be carried out on or in an Indian reservation or Alaska Native village, unless a plan setting forth the project has been submitted to the governing body of that reservation or village and the plan has not been disapproved by the governing body within thirty days of its submission.

(b) Notification to chief executive officer of State or Territory

No financial assistance may be provided to any project under section 2991b of this title or any research, demonstration, or pilot project under section 2991d of this title, which is to be carried out in a State or Territory other than on or in an Indian reservation or Alaska Native village or Hawaiian Homestead, unless the Commissioner has notified the chief executive officer of the State or Territory of the decision of the Commissioner to provide that assistance.

(c) Notification to local governing officials of political subdivision

No financial assistance may be provided to any project under section 2991b of this title or any research, demonstration, or pilot project under section 2991d of this title, which is to be carried out in a city, county, or other major political subdivision of a State or Territory, other than on or in an Indian reservation or Alaska Native village, or Hawaiian Homestead, unless the Commissioner has notified the local governing officials of the political subdivision of the decision of the Commissioner to provide that assistance.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §808, formerly §807, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2325; amended Pub. L. 95–568, §17(a)(40), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2443; renumbered §808 and amended Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §§502(3), 504(b)(3), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973, 975; Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(8), (21), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1298, 1300.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 808 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 809 and is classified to section 2991g of this title.

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–375 substituted "Alaska Native village" for "Alaskan Native village" and "Commissioner" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

1987—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 100–175, §504(b)(3), inserted "or territory" after "State" wherever appearing.

1978—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 95–568 substituted "the decision of the Secretary" for "his decision".

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–175 effective Oct. 1, 1987, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 100–175, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

§2991g. Records and audits

(a) Each agency which receives financial assistance under this subchapter shall keep such records as the Commissioner may prescribe, including records which fully disclose the amount and disposition by that agency of such financial assistance, the total cost of the project in connection with which such financial assistance is given or used, the amount of that portion of the cost of the project supplied by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an effective audit.

(b) The Commissioner and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records of any agency which receives financial assistance under this subchapter that are pertinent to the financial assistance received under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §809, formerly §808, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2325; renumbered §809, Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §502(3), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973; amended Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(9), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1298.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 809 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 810 and is classified to section 2991h of this title.

Amendments

1992—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 102–375 substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary".

§2991h. Appeals, notice, and hearing

(a) The Commissioner shall prescribe procedures to assure that—

(1) financial assistance under this subchapter shall not be suspended, except in emergency situations, unless the assisted agency has been given reasonable notice and opportunity to show cause why such action should not be taken; and

(2) financial assistance under this subchapter shall not be terminated, and application for refunding shall not be denied, and a suspension of financial assistance shall not be continued for longer than thirty days, unless the assisted agency has been afforded reasonable notice and opportunity for a full and fair hearing.


(b) If an application is rejected on the grounds that the applicant is ineligible or that activities proposed by the applicant are ineligible for funding, the applicant may appeal to the Secretary, not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of notification of such rejection, for a review of the grounds for such rejection. On appeal, if the Secretary finds that an applicant is eligible or that its proposed activities are eligible, such eligibility shall not be effective until the next cycle of grant proposals are considered by the Administration.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §810, formerly §809, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2326; renumbered §810, Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §502(3), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973; amended Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(10), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1298.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 810 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 811 and is classified to section 2992 of this title.

Another prior section 810 of Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722, related to authority to establish full-time programs and was classified to section 2992 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417.

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–375 substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary", designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsec. (b).

§2992. Evaluation of projects

(a) Description and measurement of project impact, effectiveness, and structure and mechanisms for delivery of services; frequency of evaluations

(1) The Commissioner shall provide, directly or through grants or contracts, for the evaluation of projects assisted under this subchapter including evaluations that describe and measure the impact of such projects, their effectiveness in achieving stated goals, their impact on related programs, and their structure and mechanisms for delivery of services, including, where appropriate, comparisons with appropriate control groups composed of persons who have not participated in such projects. Evaluations shall be conducted by persons not directly involved in the administration of the program or project evaluated.

(2) The projects assisted under this subchapter shall be evaluated in accordance with this section not less frequently than at 3-year intervals.

(b) General standards for evaluation

Prior to obligating funds for the programs and projects covered by this subchapter with respect to fiscal year 1976, the Commissioner shall develop and publish general standards for evaluation of program and project effectiveness in achieving the objectives of this subchapter. The extent to which such standards have been met shall be considered in deciding whether to renew or supplement financial assistance authorized under this subchapter.

(c) Independent evaluations

In carrying out evaluations under this subchapter, the Commissioner may require agencies which receive assistance under this subchapter to provide for independent evaluations.

(d) Specificity of views

In carrying out evaluations under this subchapter, the Commissioner shall, whenever feasible, arrange to obtain the specific views of persons participating in and served by programs and projects assisted under this subchapter about such programs and projects.

(e) Publication of results; submission to Congress

The Commissioner shall publish the results of evaluative research and summaries of evaluations of program and project impact and effectiveness not later than ninety days after the completion thereof. The Commissioner shall submit to the appropriate committees of the Congress copies of all such research studies and evaluation summaries.

(f) Evaluation results as United States property

The Commissioner shall take the necessary action to assure that all studies, evaluations, proposals, and data produced or developed with assistance under this subchapter shall become the property of the United States.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §811, formerly §810, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2326; renumbered §811, Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §502(3), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973; amended Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(11), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1298.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2992, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §810, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 722, related to authority to establish full-time programs, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417.

A prior section 811 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 812 and is classified to section 2992a of this title.

Another prior section 811 of Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 723; amended Pub. L. 92–424, §26(b), Sept. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 703, related to terms of service and was classified to section 2992a of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–375 substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary", designated existing provisions as par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsecs. (b) to (f). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(11)(A), substituted "Commissioner" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

§2992–1. Annual report

The Secretary shall, not later than January 31 of each year, prepare and transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives an annual report on the social and economic conditions of American Indians, Native Hawaiians, other Native American Pacific Islanders (including American Samoan Natives), and Alaska Natives, together with such recommendations to Congress as the Secretary considers to be appropriate.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §811A, as added Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(12), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1299.)

§2992a. Labor standards

All laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors in the construction, alteration, or repair, including painting or decorating, of buildings or other facilities in connection with projects assisted under this subchapter, shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing on similar construction in the locality, as determined by the Secretary of Labor in accordance with sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40. The Secretary of Labor shall have, with respect to such labor standards, the authority and functions set forth in Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950, and section 3145 of title 40.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §812, formerly §811, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2327; renumbered §812, Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §502(3), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973.)

References in Text

Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950, referred to in text, is Reorg. Plan No. 14 of 1950, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3176, 64 Stat. 1267, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Codification

In text, "sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40" substituted for "the Davis-Bacon Act" and "section 3145 of title 40" substituted for "section 2 of the Act of June 1, 1934", meaning section 2 of the Act of June 13, 1934, on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2992a, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §811, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 723; amended Pub. L. 92–424, §26(b), Sept. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 703, related to terms of service, providing in: subsec. (a) for commitment to full-time service; subsec. (b) for one-year enrollment and shorter enrollment for volunteer associates; and subsec. (c) for oath or affirmation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417.

A prior section 812 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 813 and is classified to section 2992b of this title.

Another prior section 812 of Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 723, related to support of full-time volunteers and was classified to section 2992b of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417.

§2992a–1. Staff

In all personnel actions of the Administration, preference shall be given to individuals who are eligible for assistance under this subchapter. Such preference shall be implemented in the same fashion as the preference given to veterans referred to in section 2108(3)(C) of title 5. The Commissioner shall take such additional actions as may be necessary to promote recruitment of such individuals for employment in the Administration.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §812A, as added Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(13), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1299.)

§2992b. Administration

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to prohibit interagency funding agreements made between the Administration and other agencies of the Federal Government for the development and implementation of specific grants or projects.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §813, as added Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(14), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1299.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2992b, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §813, formerly §812, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2327; amended Pub. L. 95–568, §17(a)(41), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2443; Pub. L. 98–558, title X, §1003, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2905; renumbered §813, Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §502(3), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973, related to administration, delegation of authority, and interagency funding agreements, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(14), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1299.

Another prior section 2992b, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §812, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 723, related to support of full-time volunteers, providing in: subsec. (a) for stipend and allowances; subsec. (b) for payment upon completion of term and advancement of accrued stipend; and subsec. (c) for counseling, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417.

A prior section 813 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 815 and is classified to section 2992c of this title.

§2992b–1. Additional requirements applicable to rulemaking

(a) In general

Notwithstanding subsection (a) of section 553 of title 5, and except as otherwise provided in this section, such section 553 shall apply with respect to the establishment and general operation of any program that provides loans, grants, benefits, or contracts authorized by this subchapter.

(b) Interpretative rule or general statement of policy; waiver of notice and public procedure regarding any other rule

(1) Subparagraph (A) of the last sentence of section 553(b) of title 5 shall not apply with respect to any interpretative rule or general statement of policy—

(A) proposed under this subchapter; or

(B) applicable exclusively to any program, project, or activity authorized by, or carried out under, this subchapter.


(2) Subparagraph (B) of the last sentence of section 553(b) of title 5, shall not apply with respect to any rule (other than an interpretative rule or a general statement of policy)—

(A) proposed under this subchapter; or

(B) applicable exclusively to any program, project, or activity authorized by, or carried out under, this subchapter.


(3) The first 2 sentences of section 553(b) of title 5 shall apply with respect to any rule (other than an interpretative rule, a general statement of policy, or a rule of agency organization, procedure, or practice) that is—

(A) proposed under this subchapter; or

(B) applicable exclusively to any program, project, or activity authorized by, or carried out under, this subchapter;


unless the Secretary for good cause finds (and incorporates the finding and a brief statement of the reasons therefor in such rule) that notice and public procedure thereon are contrary to the public interest or would impair the effective administration of any program, project, or activity with respect to which such rule is issued.

(c) Effective date of rule or general statement of policy

Notwithstanding section 553(d) of title 5, no rule (including an interpretative rule) or general statement of policy that—

(1) is issued to carry out this subchapter; or

(2) applies exclusively to any program, project, or activity authorized by, or carried out under, this subchapter;


may take effect until 30 days after the publication required under the first 2 sentences of section 553(b) of title 5.

(d) Statutory citation required

Each rule (including an interpretative rule) and each general statement of policy to which this section applies shall contain after each of its sections, paragraphs, or similar textual units a citation to the particular provision of statutory or other law that is the legal authority for such section, paragraph, or unit.

(e) Rule or general statement of policy necessary as result of legislation; time for issuance

Except as provided in subsection (c), if as a result of the enactment of any law affecting the administration of this subchapter it is necessary or appropriate for the Secretary to issue any rule (including any interpretative rule) or a general statement of policy, the Secretary shall issue such rule or such general statement of policy not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of such law.

(f) Copy of rule or general statement of policy to Congressional leaders

Whenever an agency publishes in the Federal Register a rule (including an interpretative rule) or a general statement of policy to which subsection (c) applies, such agency shall transmit a copy of such rule or such general statement of policy to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §814, as added Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §503(a), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 974.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 814 of Pub. L. 88–452 was renumbered section 816 and is classified to section 2992d of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1987, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 100–175, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 3001 of this title.

§2992c. Definitions

As used in this subchapter, the term—

(1) "average" means the aggregate number of hours of instruction through the use of a Native American language to all students enrolled in a native language immersion program during a school year divided by the total number of students enrolled in the immersion program;

(2) "financial assistance" includes assistance advanced by grant, agreement, or contract, but does not include the procurement of plant or equipment, or goods or services;

(3) "Indian reservation or Alaska Native village" includes the reservation of any federally or State recognized Indian tribe, including any band, nation, pueblo, or rancheria, any former reservation in Oklahoma, and community under the jurisdiction of an Indian tribe, including a band, nation, pueblo, or rancheria, with allotted lands or lands subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States or a State, and any lands of or under the jurisdiction of an Alaska Native village or group, including any lands selected by Alaska Natives or Alaska Native organizations under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.];

(4) "Native Hawaiian" means any individual any of whose ancestors were natives of the area which consists of the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778;

(5) the term "rule" has the meaning given it in section 551(4) of title 5, as amended from time to time;

(6) "Secretary" means the Secretary of Health and Human Services; and

(7) the term "Native American Pacific Islander" means an individual who is indigenous to a United States territory or possession located in the Pacific Ocean, and includes such individual while residing in the United States.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §815, formerly §813, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2327; amended Pub. L. 98–558, title X, §1004, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2906; renumbered §815 and amended Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §§502(2), 503(b), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973, 975; Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(21), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1300; Pub. L. 102–497, §9(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3257; Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6), Dec. 2, 1993, 107 Stat. 1992; Pub. L. 109–394, §3, Dec. 14, 2006, 120 Stat. 2707.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in par. (3), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–394 added par. (1) and redesignated former pars. (1) to (6) as (2) to (7), respectively.

1993—Par. (2). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(A), substituted "selected by Alaska Natives" for "selected by Alaskan Natives".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(B), inserted semicolon at end.

1992—Par. (2). Pub. L. 102–375 substituted "Alaska Native village" for "Alaskan Native village" in two places and "Alaska Native organizations" for "Alaskan Native organizations".

Par. (6). Pub. L. 102–497 added par. (6).

1987—Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 100–175, §503(b), added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

1984—Par. (4). Pub. L. 98–558 added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–175 effective Oct. 1, 1987, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 100–175, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

§2992d. Authorization of appropriations

(a) There are authorized to be appropriated for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this subchapter (other than sections 2991b(d), 2991b–1, 2991b–3 of this title, subsection (e) 1 of this section, and any other provision of this subchapter for which there is an express authorization of appropriations), such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002.

(b) Not less than 90 per centum of the funds made available to carry out the provisions of this subchapter (other than sections 2991b(d), 2991b–1, 2991b–3, 2991c of this title, subsection (e) 1 of this section, and any other provision of this subchapter for which there is an express authorization of appropriations) for a fiscal year shall be expended to carry out section 2991b(a) of this title for such fiscal year.

(c) There is authorized to be appropriated $8,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of section 2991b(d) of this title.

(d)(1) For fiscal year 1994, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for the purpose of—

(A) establishing demonstration projects to conduct research related to Native American studies and Indian policy development; and

(B) continuing the development of a detailed plan, based in part on the results of the projects, for the establishment of a National Center for Native American Studies and Indian Policy Development.


(2) Such a plan shall be delivered to the Congress not later than 30 days after September 30, 1992.

(e) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 2991b–3 of this title such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012.

(Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §816, formerly §814, as added Pub. L. 93–644, §11, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2327; amended Pub. L. 95–568, §15, Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2439; Pub. L. 98–558, title X, §1005, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2906; renumbered §816 and amended Pub. L. 100–175, title V, §§502(2), 505, 506(b), Nov. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 973, 975, 978; Pub. L. 100–581, title II, §215, Nov. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2941; Pub. L. 101–408, §3, Oct. 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 883; Pub. L. 102–375, title VIII, §822(15)–(20), Sept. 30, 1992, 106 Stat. 1299; Pub. L. 102–497, §9(c), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3258; Pub. L. 102–524, §3, Oct. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 3437; Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6), Dec. 2, 1993, 107 Stat. 1992; Pub. L. 105–361, §2, Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3278; Pub. L. 109–394, §4, Dec. 14, 2006, 120 Stat. 2707.)

References in Text

Subsection (e) of this section, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was redesignated subsec. (d) of this section by Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(D), Dec. 2, 1993, 107 Stat. 1992.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–394 substituted "2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012" for "1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–361, §2(1), substituted "for each of fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002." for "for fiscal years 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–361, §2(2), substituted "for each of fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002," for "for each of the fiscal years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996,".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–361, §2(3), substituted "such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002." for ", $2,000,000 for fiscal year 1993 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997."

1993—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(A), substituted "2991b–1," for "2991b–1".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(B), substituted "is" for "are".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(D), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(D), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(C), substituted "fiscal year 1994" for "fiscal years 1992 and 1993".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–171, §5(6)(D), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e).

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–524, §3(1), inserted reference to section 2991b–3 of this title.

Pub. L. 102–375, §822(15), substituted ", 2991b–1 of this title, subsection (e) of this section, and any other provision of this subchapter for which there is an express authorization of appropriations" for "and 2991b–1 of this title" and "1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995" for "1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–524, §3(1), inserted reference to section 2991b–3 of this title.

Pub. L. 102–375, §822(16), substituted ", 2991b–1, 2991c of this title, subsection (e) of this section, and any other provision of this subchapter for which there is an express authorization of appropriations" for "and 2991b–1 of this title".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–497 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated $500,000 for each of the fiscal years 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 for the purpose of providing financial assistance to other Native American Pacific Islanders (including American Samoan Natives) under section 2991b(a) of this title."

Pub. L. 102–375, §822(17), (18), redesignated par. (1) as subsec. (c), substituted "There are" for "Except as provided in paragraph (2), there are", substituted "1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995" for "1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991", and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: "No funds may be appropriated under paragraph (1) for a fiscal year unless the amount appropriated under subsection (a) of this section for such fiscal year exceeds 105 percent of the amount appropriated under subsection (a) of this section for fiscal year 1987."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–497, §9(c)(2), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c).

Pub. L. 102–375, §822(19), struck out "1991," before "1992,".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–375, §822(20), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–524, §3(2), added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 101–408, §3(1), inserted reference to section 2991b(d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–408, §3(2), added subsec. (d).

1988—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–581 substituted "fiscal year 1987" for "the preceding fiscal year".

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–175, §506(b), inserted "(other than section 2991b–1 of this title)" after "this subchapter".

Pub. L. 100–175, §505(1), substituted "1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991" for "1979 through 1986".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–175, §506(b), inserted "(other than section 2991b–1 of this title)" after "this subchapter".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–175, §505(2), added subsec. (c).

1984Pub. L. 98–558 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted "1986" for "1981", and added subsec. (b).

1978Pub. L. 95–568 substituted appropriations authorization for fiscal years 1979 through 1981 for prior such authorization for fiscal years 1975 through 1977.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by section 505 of Pub. L. 100–175 effective Oct. 1, 1987, and amendment by section 506(b) of Pub. L. 100–175 effective upon expiration of 90-day period beginning Nov. 29, 1987, see section 701(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–175, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§§2993 to 2993b. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417

Section 2993, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §820, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 724; amended Pub. L. 92–424, §26(c), Sept. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 703, related to community service programs, providing in: subsec. (a) for term of service and range of activities; subsec. (b) for support and allowances; and subsec. (c) for allowance of service as non-Federal contribution.

Section 2993a, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §821, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 724; amended Pub. L. 92–424, §26(d), Sept. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 703, related to special volunteer programs.

Section 2993b, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §822, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 724, related to demonstration projects to help young adult criminal offenders.

Such former provisions are covered by various sections as follows:

 
Former SectionsPresent Sections
2993(a) See 4992(a)
2993(b) See 4974(c)
2993(c) Repealed
2993a 4973(a), 4992(a)
2993b Repealed

§§2994 to 2994d. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–113, title VI, §603, Oct. 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 417

Section 2994, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §831, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 725, related to coordination with other programs.

Section 2994a, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §832, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 725, related to participation of older persons.

Section 2994b, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §833, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 726; amended Pub. L. 90–623, §5(b), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1315; Pub. L. 91–177, title I, §112(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 832; Pub. L. 92–424, §3(d)(3), Sept. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 689, related to application of Federal law.

Section 2994c, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §834, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 726, related to special limitations.

Section 2994d, Pub. L. 88–452, title VIII, §835, as added Pub. L. 90–222, title I, §110, Dec. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 726; amended Pub. L. 91–177, title I, §101(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 827; Pub. L. 92–424, §2(a), Sept. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 688, related to duration of program.

Such former provisions are covered by various sections as follows:

 
Former SectionsPresent Sections
2994 5050
2994a 4957
2994b(a) 5055(a)
2994b(b)(1), (2) 5055(b)(1) to (3)
2994b(c)(1), (2) 5055(c)(1), (2)
2994c 5044
2994d 5053