[USC03] 29 USC Ch. 16: VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND OTHER REHABILITATION SERVICES
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29 USC Ch. 16: VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND OTHER REHABILITATION SERVICES
From Title 29—LABOR

CHAPTER 16—VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND OTHER REHABILITATION SERVICES

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
701.
Findings; purpose; policy.
702.
Rehabilitation Services Administration.
703.
Advance funding.
704.
Joint funding.
705.
Definitions.
706.
Allotment percentage.
707.
Nonduplication.
708.
Application of other laws.
709.
Administration.
710.
Reports.
711.
Evaluation.
712.
Information clearinghouse.
713.
Transfer of funds.
714.
State administration.
715.
Review of applications.
716.
Carryover.
717.
Client assistance information.
718.
Traditionally underserved populations.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES

Part A—General Provisions

720.
Declaration of policy; authorization of appropriations.
721.
State plans.
722.
Eligibility and individualized plan for employment.
723.
Vocational rehabilitation services.
724.
Non-Federal share for establishment of program or construction.
725.
State Rehabilitation Council.
726.
Evaluation standards and performance indicators.
727.
Monitoring and review.
728.
Expenditure of certain amounts.
728a.
Training and services for employers.

        

Part B—Basic Vocational Rehabilitation Services

730.
State allotments.
731.
Payments to States.
732.
Client assistance program.
733.
Provision of pre-employment transition services.

        

Part C—American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation Services

741.
Vocational rehabilitation services grants.

        

Part D—Vocational Rehabilitation Services Client Information

751.
Data sharing.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—RESEARCH AND TRAINING

760.
Declaration of purpose.
761.
Authorization of appropriations.
762.
National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research.
762a.
Research and demonstration projects.
763.
Interagency Committee.
764.
Research and other covered activities.
765.
Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research Advisory Council.
766.
Definition of covered school.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND SPECIAL PROJECTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS

771.
Declaration of purpose and competitive basis of grants and contracts.
772.
Training.
773.
Demonstration and training programs.
774, 775.
Repealed.
776.
Measuring of project outcomes and performance.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY

780.
Establishment of National Council on Disability.
780a.
Independent status of National Council on the Handicapped.
781.
Duties of National Council.
782.
Compensation of National Council members.
783.
Staff of National Council.
784.
Administrative powers of National Council.
785.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—RIGHTS AND ADVOCACY

790.
Repealed.
791.
Employment of individuals with disabilities.
792.
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.
793.
Employment under Federal contracts.
794.
Nondiscrimination under Federal grants and programs.
794a.
Remedies and attorney fees.
794b.
Removal of architectural, transportation, or communication barriers; technical and financial assistance; compensation of experts or consultants; authorization of appropriations.
794c.
Interagency Disability Coordinating Council.
794d.
Electronic and information technology.
794e.
Protection and advocacy of individual rights.
794f.
Establishment of standards for accessible medical diagnostic equipment.
794g.
Limitations on use of subminimum wage.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES

795, 795a.
Repealed.
795g.
Purpose.
795h.
Allotments.
795i.
Availability of services.
795j.
Eligibility.
795k.
State plan.
795l.
Restriction.
795m.
Savings provision.
795n.
Advisory Committee on Increasing Competitive Integrated Employment for Individuals with Disabilities.
795o.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—INDEPENDENT LIVING SERVICES AND CENTERS FOR INDEPENDENT LIVING

Part A—Individuals With Significant Disabilities

subpart 1—general provisions

796.
Purpose.
796–1.
Administration of the independent living program.
796a.
Definitions.
796b.
Eligibility for receipt of services.
796c.
State plan.
796d.
Statewide Independent Living Council.
796d–1.
Responsibilities of the Administrator.

        

subpart 2—independent living services

796e.
Allotments.
796e–0.
Training and technical assistance.
796e–1.
Payments to States from allotments.
796e–2.
Authorized uses of funds.
796e–3.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

subpart 3—centers for independent living

796f.
Program authorization.
796f–1.
Grants to centers for independent living in States in which Federal funding exceeds State funding.
796f–2.
Grants to centers for independent living in States in which State funding equals or exceeds Federal funding.
796f–3.
Centers operated by State agencies.
796f–4.
Standards and assurances for centers for independent living.
796f–5.
"Eligible agency" defined.
796f–6.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part B—Independent Living Services for Older Individuals Who Are Blind

796j.
"Older individual who is blind" defined.
796j–1.
Training and technical assistance.
796k.
Program of grants.
796l.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—SPECIAL DEMONSTRATIONS AND TRAINING PROJECTS

797 to 797b. Repealed.

        

GENERAL PROVISIONS

§701. Findings; purpose; policy

(a) Findings

Congress finds that—

(1) millions of Americans have one or more physical or mental disabilities and the number of Americans with such disabilities is increasing;

(2) individuals with disabilities constitute one of the most disadvantaged groups in society;

(3) disability is a natural part of the human experience and in no way diminishes the right of individuals to—

(A) live independently;

(B) enjoy self-determination;

(C) make choices;

(D) contribute to society;

(E) pursue meaningful careers; and

(F) enjoy full inclusion and integration in the economic, political, social, cultural, and educational mainstream of American society;


(4) increased employment of individuals with disabilities can be achieved through implementation of statewide workforce development systems defined in section 3102 of this title that provide meaningful and effective participation for individuals with disabilities in workforce investment activities and activities carried out under the vocational rehabilitation program established under subchapter I, and through the provision of independent living services, support services, and meaningful opportunities for employment in integrated work settings through the provision of reasonable accommodations;

(5) individuals with disabilities continually encounter various forms of discrimination in such critical areas as employment, housing, public accommodations, education, transportation, communication, recreation, institutionalization, health services, voting, and public services;

(6) the goals of the Nation properly include the goal of providing individuals with disabilities with the tools necessary to—

(A) make informed choices and decisions; and

(B) achieve equality of opportunity, full inclusion and integration in society, employment, independent living, and economic and social self-sufficiency, for such individuals; and


(7)(A) a high proportion of students with disabilities is leaving secondary education without being employed in competitive integrated employment, or being enrolled in postsecondary education; and

(B) there is a substantial need to support such students as they transition from school to postsecondary life.

(b) Purpose

The purposes of this chapter are—

(1) to empower individuals with disabilities to maximize employment, economic self-sufficiency, independence, and inclusion and integration into society, through—

(A) statewide workforce development systems defined in section 3102 of this title that include, as integral components, comprehensive and coordinated state-of-the-art programs of vocational rehabilitation;

(B) independent living centers and services;

(C) research;

(D) training;

(E) demonstration projects; and

(F) the guarantee of equal opportunity;


(2) to maximize opportunities for individuals with disabilities, including individuals with significant disabilities, for competitive integrated employment;

(3) to ensure that the Federal Government plays a leadership role in promoting the employment of individuals with disabilities, especially individuals with significant disabilities, and in assisting States and providers of services in fulfilling the aspirations of such individuals with disabilities for meaningful and gainful employment and independent living;

(4) to increase employment opportunities and employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities, including through encouraging meaningful input by employers and vocational rehabilitation service providers on successful and prospective employment and placement strategies; and

(5) to ensure, to the greatest extent possible, that youth with disabilities and students with disabilities who are transitioning from receipt of special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.) and receipt of services under section 794 of this title have opportunities for postsecondary success.

(c) Policy

It is the policy of the United States that all programs, projects, and activities receiving assistance under this chapter shall be carried out in a manner consistent with the principles of—

(1) respect for individual dignity, personal responsibility, self-determination, and pursuit of meaningful careers, based on informed choice, of individuals with disabilities;

(2) respect for the privacy, rights, and equal access (including the use of accessible formats), of the individuals;

(3) inclusion, integration, and full participation of the individuals;

(4) support for the involvement of an individual's representative if an individual with a disability requests, desires, or needs such support; and

(5) support for individual and systemic advocacy and community involvement.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §2, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1095; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-413; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §402, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1631.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 701, Pub. L. 93–112, §2, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 357; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2984; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §101, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1808; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §101, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4346, related to findings, purpose, and policy, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 113–128, §402(a)(1), substituted "workforce development systems defined in section 3102 of this title" for "workforce investment systems under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 113–128, §402(a)(2)–(4), added par. (7).

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §402(b)(1)(A), substituted "workforce development systems defined in section 3102 of this title" for "workforce investment systems implemented in accordance with title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998".

Subsec. (b)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 113–128, §402(b)(1)(B), (2)–(5), added par. (2), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and added pars. (4) and (5).

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment in original to section designation and catchline.

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–213, §1, July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2343, provided that: "This Act [enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 796f–1 and 796f–2 of this title] may be cited as the 'Independent Living Centers Technical Adjustment Act'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §401, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1092, provided that title IV of Pub. L. 105–220 could be cited as the "Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1705.

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–73, §1, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 718, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 753 and 753a of this title, amending sections 706, 718 to 718b, 721 to 723, 725, 730 to 732, 744, 761a, 762, 771a, 777, 777a, 777f, 783, 791, 792, 794e, 795l, 796, 796c, 796d to 796e–2, 796f to 796f–4, and 796k of this title, sections 1431, 4301 to 4305, 4331, 4332, 4351, 4353 to 4357, 4359, 4359a, and 4360 of Title 20, Education, and section 46 of Title 41, Public Contracts, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 725 of this title and section 4301 of Title 20, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1993'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–569, §1(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4344, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992'."

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–52, §1, June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 260, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 720, 732, 741, 761, 771, 772, 774, 775, 777, 777a, 777f, 785, 792, 795f, 795i, 795q, 796i, and 1904 of this title and section 1475 of Title 20, Education] may be cited as the 'Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1991'."

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–506, §1(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1807, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 716, 717, 752, 794d, 795j to 795q, and 796d–1 of this title and section 2000d–7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending this section and sections 702, 705, 706, 711 to 715, 720 to 724, 730 to 732, 740, 741, 750, 751, 760 to 761b, 762, 762a, 770 to 777b, 777f, 780, 781, 783, 785, 791 to 794, 794c, 795, 795d to 795i, 796a, 796b, 796d to 796i, and 1904 of this title, and section 155a of former Title 36, Patriotic Societies and Observances, repealing section 751 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 706, 730, 761a, and 795m of this title and section 1414 of Title 20, Education] may be cited as the 'Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–221, §1, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 17, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 780a and 1901 to 1906 of this title, amending sections 706, 712 to 714, 720 to 722, 730, 732, 741, 761 to 762a, 771, 772, 774, 775, 777, 777a, 777f, 780, 781, 783, 791, 792, 794c, 795a, 795c, 795f, 795g, 795i, 796e, and 796i of this title and sections 6001, 6012, 6033, 6061, and 6081 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing section 777c of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1901 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under section 713 of this title] may be cited as the 'Rehabilitation Amendments of 1984'."

Short Title of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–602, §1, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2955, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 710 to 715, 751, 761a, 761b, 762a, 775, 777 to 777f, 780 to 785, 794a to 794c, 795 to 795i, and 796 to 796i of this title and section 6000 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending this section, sections 702, 706, 709, 720 to 724, 730 to 732, 740, 741, 750, 760 to 762, 770 to 774, 776, and 792 to 794 of this title, section 1904 [now 3904] of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, and sections 6001, 6008 to 6012, 6031 to 6033, 6061 to 6065, 6067, 6081, and 6862 of Title 42, repealing sections 764, 786, and 787 of this title and section 6007 of Title 42, omitting sections 6041 to 6043 of Title 42, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 713 and 795 of this title and sections 6000 and 6001 of Title 42, and repealing a provision set out as a note under section 6001 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Developmental Disabilities Amendments of 1978'."

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–230, §1, Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 211, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 720, 732, 741, 761, 771, 772, 774, 775, 783, 785, and 792 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 720 of this title] may be cited as the 'Rehabilitation Act Extension of 1976'."

Short Title of 1974 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §100, Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1617, provided that: "This title [amending sections 702, 706, 720 to 722, 732, 741, 750, 761, 762, 771, 772, 774 to 776, 783, 785, and 792 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 702 of this title] shall be known as the 'Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1974'."

An identical provision is contained in Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §100, Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–3.

Short Title

Pub. L. 93–112, §1(a), as added by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093, and amended by Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Rehabilitation Act of 1973'."

Pub. L. 93–112, title VI, §601, as added by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §409, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1210, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter VI of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Employment Opportunities for Individuals With Disabilities Act'."

Pub. L. 93–112, §1, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, provided in part that Pub. L. 93–112, which enacted this chapter and repealed sections 31 to 41c and 42–1 to 42b of this title, could be cited as the "Rehabilitation Act of 1973", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093.

Pub. L. 93–112, title VI, §601, as added by Pub. L. 95–602, title II, §201, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2989, and amended by Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §102(p)(34), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4360, provided that title VI of Pub. L. 93–112, enacting former subchapter VI of this chapter, could be cited as the "Employment Opportunities for Handicapped Individuals Act", prior to the general amendment of title VI of Pub. L. 93–112 by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §409, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1210.

Ex. Ord. No. 11758. Delegation of Authority of the President

Ex. Ord. No. 11758, Jan. 15, 1974, 39 F.R. 2075, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11784, May 30, 1974, 39 F.R. 19443; Ex. Ord. No. 11867, June 19, 1975, 40 F.R. 26253; Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code and as President of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget is hereby designated and empowered to exercise, without approval, ratification, or other action of the President, the authority of the President under section 500(a) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (87 Stat. 390, 29 U.S.C. 790) with respect to the transfer of unexpended appropriations.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of Labor is hereby designated and empowered to exercise, without approval, ratification, or other action of the President, the authority of the President (1) under section 503(a) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 793(a)] to prescribe regulations, after consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Administrator of General Services, with respect to the employment of qualified handicapped individuals under Federal procurement contracts, and (2) under section 503(c) of that act [29 U.S.C. 793(c)] with respect to prescribing, by regulation, guidelines for waiving the requirements of section 503 of the act [29 U.S.C. 793]. Changes in any regulations prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be made only after consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Administrator of General Services.

Sec. 3. The head of a Federal agency may, in conformity with the provisions of section 503(c) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 793(c)], and regulations issued by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to section 2 of this order, exempt any contract and, following consultation with the Secretary of Labor, any class of contracts, from the requirements of section 503 of the act [29 U.S.C. 793].

Sec. 4. The Federal Acquisition Regulations and, to the extent necessary, any supplemental or comparable regulation issued by any agency of the executive branch shall, following consultation with the Secretary of Labor, be amended to require, as a condition of entering into, renewing or extending any contract subject to the provisions of section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 793], inclusion of a provision requiring compliance with that section and regulations issued by the Secretary pursuant to section 2 of this order.

Ex. Ord. No. 13078. Increasing Employment of Adults With Disabilities

Ex. Ord. No. 13078, Mar. 13, 1998, 63 F.R. 13111, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13172, Oct. 25, 2000, 65 F.R. 64577; Ex. Ord. No. 13187, §4(b), Jan. 10, 2001, 66 F.R. 3858, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to increase the employment of adults with disabilities to a rate that is as close as possible to the employment rate of the general adult population and to support the goals articulated in the findings and purpose section of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.], it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of National Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities.

(a) There is established the "National Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities" ("Task Force"). The Task Force shall comprise the Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Education, Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Commissioner of Social Security, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Transportation, Director of the Office of Personnel Management, Administrator of the Small Business Administration, the Chair of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Chairperson of the National Council on Disability, the Chairperson of the President's Disability Employment Partnership Board., [sic] and such other senior executive branch officials as may be determined by the Chair of the Task Force.

(b) The Secretary of Labor shall be the Chair of the Task Force; the Chairperson of the President's Disability Employment Partnership Board. [sic] shall be the Vice Chair of the Task Force.

(c) The purpose of the Task Force is to create a coordinated and aggressive national policy to bring adults with disabilities into gainful employment at a rate that is as close as possible to that of the general adult population. The Task Force shall develop and recommend to the President, through the Chair of the Task Force, a coordinated Federal policy to reduce employment barriers for persons with disabilities. Policy recommendations may cover such areas as discrimination, reasonable accommodations, inadequate access to health care, lack of consumer-driven, long-term supports and services, transportation, accessible and integrated housing, telecommunications, assistive technology, community services, child care, education, vocational rehabilitation, training services, job retention, on-the-job supports, and economic incentives to work. Specifically, the Task Force shall:

(1) analyze the existing programs and policies of Task Force member agencies to determine what changes, modifications, and innovations may be necessary to remove barriers to work faced by people with disabilities;

(2) develop and recommend options to address health insurance coverage as a barrier to employment for people with disabilities;

(3) subject to the availability of appropriations, analyze State and private disability systems (e.g., workers' compensation, unemployment insurance, private insurance, and State mental health and mental retardation systems) and their effect on Federal programs and employment of adults with disabilities;

(4) consider statistical and data analysis, cost data, research, and policy studies on public subsidies, employment, employment discrimination, and rates of return-to-work for individuals with disabilities;

(5) evaluate and, where appropriate, coordinate and collaborate on, research and demonstration priorities of Task Force member agencies related to employment of adults with disabilities;

(6) evaluate whether Federal studies related to employment and training can, and should, include a statistically significant sample of adults with disabilities;

(7) subject to the availability of appropriations, analyze youth programs related to employment (e.g., Employment and Training Administration programs, special education, vocational rehabilitation, school-to-work transition, vocational education, and Social Security Administration work incentives and other programs, as may be determined by the Chair and Vice Chair of the Task Force) and the outcomes of those programs for young people with disabilities;

(8) evaluate whether a single governmental entity or program should be established to provide computer and electronic accommodations for Federal employees with disabilities;

(9) consult with the President's Committee on Mental Retardation on policies to increase the employment of people with mental retardation and cognitive disabilities; and

(10) recommend to the President any additional steps that can be taken to advance the employment of adults with disabilities, including legislative proposals, regulatory changes, and program and budget initiatives.

(d)(1) The members of the Task Force shall make the activities and initiatives set forth in this order a high priority within their respective agencies within the levels provided in the President's budget.

(2) The Task Force shall issue its first report to the President by November 15, 1998. The Task Force shall issue a report to the President on November 15, 1999, November 15, 2000, and a final report on July 26, 2002, the 10th anniversary of the initial implementation of the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.]. The reports shall describe the actions taken by, and progress of, each member of the Task Force in carrying out this order. The Task Force shall terminate 30 days after submitting its final report.

(e) As used herein, an adult with a disability is a person with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits at least one major life activity.

Sec. 2. Specific activities by Task Force members and other agencies.

(a) To ensure that the Federal Government is a model employer of adults with disabilities, by November 15, 1998, the Office of Personnel Management, the Department of Labor, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall submit to the Task Force a review of Federal Government personnel laws, regulations, and policies and, as appropriate, shall recommend or implement changes necessary to improve Federal employment policy for adults with disabilities. This review shall include personnel practices and actions such as: hiring, promotion, benefits, retirement, workers' compensation, retention, accessible facilities, job accommodations, layoffs, and reductions in force.

(b) The Departments of Justice, Labor, Education, and Health and Human Services shall report to the Task Force by November 15, 1998, on their work with the States and others to ensure that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act [probably means the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, see Tables for classification] is carried out in accordance with section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 794], as amended, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.], so that individuals with disabilities and their families can realize the full promise of welfare reform by having an equal opportunity for employment.

(c) The Departments of Education, Labor, Commerce, and Health and Human Services, the Small Business Administration, and the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities shall work together and report to the Task Force by November 15, 1998, on their work to develop small business and entrepreneurial opportunities for adults with disabilities and strategies for assisting low-income adults, including those with disabilities[,] to create small businesses and micro-enterprises. These same agencies, in consultation with the Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, shall assess the impact of the Randolph-Sheppard Act [20 U.S.C. 107 et seq.] vending program and the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act [now 41 U.S.C. 8501 et seq.] on employment and small business opportunities for people with disabilities.

(d) The Departments of Transportation and Housing and Urban Development shall report to the Task Force by November 15, 1998, on their examination of their programs to see if they can be used to create new work incentives and to remove barriers to work for adults with disabilities.

(e) The Departments of Justice, Education, and Labor, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and the Social Security Administration shall work together and report to the Task Force by November 15, 1998, on their work to propose remedies to the prevention of people with disabilities from successfully exercising their employment rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.] because of the receipt of monetary benefits based on their disability and lack of gainful employment.

(f) The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor and the Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce, in cooperation with the Departments of Education and Health and Human Services, the National Council on Disability, and the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities shall design and implement a statistically reliable and accurate method to measure the employment rate of adults with disabilities as soon as possible, but no later than the date of termination of the Task Force. Data derived from this methodology shall be published on as frequent a basis as possible.

(g) All executive agencies that are not members of the Task Force shall: (1) coordinate and cooperate with the Task Force; and (2) review their programs and policies to ensure that they are being conducted and delivered in a manner that facilitates and promotes the employment of adults with disabilities. Each agency shall file a report with the Task Force on the results of its review on November 15, 1998.

(h) To improve employment outcomes for persons with disabilities by addressing, among other things, the education, transition, employment, health and rehabilitation, and independent living issues affecting young people with disabilities, executive departments and agencies shall coordinate and cooperate with the Task Force to: (1) strengthen interagency research, demonstration, and training activities relating to young people with disabilities; (2) create a public awareness campaign focused on access to equal opportunity for young people with disabilities; (3) promote the views of young people with disabilities through collaboration with the Youth Councils authorized under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [Pub. L. 105–220, repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015]; (4) increase access to and utilization of health insurance and health care for young people with disabilities through the formalization of the Federal Healthy and Ready to Work Interagency Council; (5) increase participation by young people with disabilities in postsecondary education and training programs; and (6) create a nationally representative Youth Advisory Council, to be funded and chaired by the Department of Labor, to advise the Task Force in conducting these and other appropriate activities.

Sec. 3. Cooperation. All efforts taken by executive departments and agencies under sections 1 and 2 of this order shall, as appropriate, further partnerships and cooperation with public and private sector employers, organizations that represent people with disabilities, organized labor, veteran service organizations, and State and local governments whenever such partnerships and cooperation are possible and would promote the employment and gainful economic activities of individuals with disabilities.

Sec. 4. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13187. The President's Disability Employment Partnership Board

Ex. Ord. No. 13187, Jan. 10, 2001, 66 F.R. 3857, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), and in order to promote the employment of people with disabilities, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment and Composition of the Board. (a) There is hereby established the President's Disability Employment Partnership Board (Board).

(b) The Board shall be composed of not more than 15 members who shall be appointed by the President for terms of 2 years. The membership shall include individuals who are representatives of business (including small business), labor organizations, State or local government, disabled veterans, people with disabilities, organizations serving people with disabilities, and researchers or academicians focusing on issues relating to the employment of people with disabilities, and may include other individuals representing entities involved in issues relating to the employment of people with disabilities as the President finds appropriate.

(c) The President shall designate a Chairperson from among the members of the Board to serve a term of two years.

(d) Members and the Chairperson may be reappointed for subsequent terms and may continue to serve until their successors have been appointed.

Sec. 2. Functions. (a) The Board shall provide advice and information to the President, the Vice President, the Secretary of Labor, and other appropriate Federal officials with respect to facilitating the employment of people with disabilities, and shall assist in other activities that promote the formation of public-private partnerships, the use of economic incentives, the provision of technical assistance regarding entrepreneurship, and other actions that may enhance employment opportunities for people with disabilities.

(b) In carrying out paragraph (a) of this section, the Board shall:

(i) develop and submit to the Office of Disability Employment Policy in the Department of Labor a comprehensive written plan for joint public-private efforts to promote employment opportunities for people with disabilities and improve their access to financial institutions and commercial and business enterprises;

(ii) identify strategies that may be used by employers, labor unions, national and international organizations, and Federal, State, and local officials to increase employment opportunities for people with disabilities; and

(iii) coordinate with the Office of Disability Employment Policy in the Department of Labor in promoting the collaborative use of public and private resources to assist people with disabilities in forming and expanding small business concerns and in enhancing their access to Federal procurement and other relevant business opportunities. Public resources include those of the Department of Labor, the Small Business Administration, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Education, the Department of Defense, the Department of Treasury, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Federal Communications Commission, and of executive departments and agency offices responsible for small, disadvantaged businesses utilization.

(c) The Board shall submit annual written reports to the President, who may apprise the Congress and other interested organizations and individuals on its activities, progress, and problems relating to maximizing employment opportunities for people with disabilities.

(d) The Chairperson of the Board shall serve as a member and Vice Chair of the National Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities established under Executive Order 13078 of March 13, 1998 [set out above].

Sec. 3. Administration. (a) The Board shall meet when called by the Chairperson, at a time and place designated by the Chairperson. The Chairperson shall call at least two meetings per calendar year. The Chairperson may form subcommittees or working groups within the Board to address particular matters.

(b) The Chairperson may from time to time prescribe such rules, procedures, and policies relating to the activities of the Board as are not inconsistent with law or with the provisions of this order.

(c) Members of the Board shall serve without compensation but shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law for persons serving intermittently in Federal service (5 U.S.C. 5701–5707).

(d) The Department of Labor shall provide funding and appropriate support to assist the Board in carrying out the activities described in section 2 of this order, including necessary office space, equipment, supplies, services, and staff. The functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended, except that of reporting to the Congress, that are applicable to the Commission, shall be performed by the Department of Labor in accordance with guidelines that have been issued by the Administrator of General Services.

(e) The heads of executive departments and agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the Board such information as it may need for purposes of carrying out the functions described in section 2 of this order.

Sec. 4. Prior Orders and Transition. (a) Executive Order 12640 of May 10, 1988, as amended, relating to the establishment of the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, is hereby revoked. The employees, records, property, and funds of the Committee shall become the employees, records, property, and funds of the Department of Labor.

(b) Executive Order 13078 of March 13, 1998 [set out above], is amended in sections 1(a) and (b) by striking "Chair of the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities" and inserting "Chairperson of the President's Disability Employment Partnership Board."

William J. Clinton.      

§702. Rehabilitation Services Administration

(a) There is established in the Office of the Secretary in the Department of Education a Rehabilitation Services Administration which shall be headed by a Commissioner (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the "Commissioner") appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Such Administration shall be the principal agency, and the Commissioner shall be the principal officer, of the Department for purposes of carrying out subchapters I, III, VI, and part B of subchapter VII. The Commissioner shall be an individual with substantial experience in rehabilitation and in rehabilitation program management. In the performance of the functions of the office, the Commissioner shall be directly responsible to the Secretary of Education or to the Under Secretary or an appropriate Assistant Secretary of such Department, as designated by the Secretary. The functions of the Commissioner shall not be delegated to any officer not directly responsible, both with respect to program operation and administration, to the Commissioner. Any reference in this chapter to duties to be carried out by the Commissioner shall be considered to be a reference to duties to be carried out by the Secretary of Education acting through the Commissioner. In carrying out any of the functions of the office under this chapter, the Commissioner shall be guided by general policies of the National Council on Disability established under subchapter IV of this chapter.

(b) The Secretary of Education shall take whatever action is necessary to ensure that funds appropriated pursuant to this chapter are expended only for the programs, personnel, and administration of programs carried out under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §3, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1096; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §403, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1632.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 702, Pub. L. 93–112, §3, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 357; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §101(a), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1617; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §101(a), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–3; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(2), (3), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2984; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §102, title X, §1001(a)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1808, 1841; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §201(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3303, related to the Rehabilitation Services Administration, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–128, §403(1), inserted "in the Department of Education" after "Secretary" in first sentence, substituted "Such Administration shall be the principal agency, and the Commissioner shall be the principal officer, of the Department for purposes of carrying out subchapters I, III, VI, and part B of subchapter VII." for "Except for subchapters IV and V and as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, such Administration shall be the principal agency, and the Commissioner shall be the principal officer, of such Department for carrying out this chapter." in second sentence, and inserted "of Education" after "to the Secretary" in fourth sentence and after "by the Secretary" in sixth sentence.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–128, §403(2), inserted "of Education" after "Secretary".

Additional Personnel for Office for the Blind and Visually Handicapped

Pub. L. 93–516, title II, §208(a), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1629, provided that: "The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Education] is directed to assign to the Office for the Blind and Visually Handicapped of the Rehabilitation Services Administration of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Department of Education] ten additional full-time personnel (or their equivalent), five of whom shall be supportive personnel, to carry out duties related to the administration of the Randolph-Sheppard Act [section 107 et seq. of Title 20, Education]."

An identical provision is contained in Pub. L. 93–651, title II, §208(a), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–14.

Preference to Blind in Selecting Personnel

Pub. L. 93–516, title II, §208(c), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1629, provided that: "In selecting personnel to fill any position under this section [authorizing assignment of 11 additional full-time personnel to the Office for the Blind and Visually Handicapped of the Rehabilitation Service Administration of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare under subsecs. (a) and (b) of Pub. L. 93–516], the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Education] shall give preference to blind individuals."

An identical provision is contained in Pub. L. 93–651, title II, §208(c), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–14.

§703. Advance funding

(a) For the purpose of affording adequate notice of funding available under this chapter, appropriations under this chapter are authorized to be included in the appropriation Act for the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year for which they are available for obligation.

(b) In order to effect a transition to the advance funding method of timing appropriation action, the authority provided by subsection (a) of this section shall apply notwithstanding that its initial application will result in the enactment in the same year (whether in the same appropriation Act or otherwise) of two separate appropriations, one for the then current fiscal year and one for the succeeding fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §4, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1097.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 703, Pub. L. 93–112, §4, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 358, related to advance funding, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093.

§704. Joint funding

Pursuant to regulations prescribed by the President, and to the extent consistent with the other provisions of this chapter, where funds are provided for a single project by more than one Federal agency to an agency or organization assisted under this chapter, the Federal agency principally involved may be designated to act for all in administering the funds provided, and, in such cases, a single non-Federal share requirement may be established according to the proportion of funds advanced by each agency. When the principal agency involved is the Rehabilitation Services Administration, it may waive any grant or contract requirement (as defined by such regulations) under or pursuant to any law other than this chapter, which requirement is inconsistent with the similar requirements of the administering agency under or pursuant to this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §5, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1097.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 704, Pub. L. 93–112, §5, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 359, related to joint funding, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093.

Delegation of Functions

Authority of the President under this section delegated to Director of Office of Management and Budget by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 11893, Dec. 31, 1975, 41 F.R. 1040, set out as a note under section 7103 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

§705. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter:

(1) Administrative costs

The term "administrative costs" means expenditures incurred in the performance of administrative functions under the vocational rehabilitation program carried out under subchapter I, including expenses related to program planning, development, monitoring, and evaluation, including expenses for—

(A) quality assurance;

(B) budgeting, accounting, financial management, information systems, and related data processing;

(C) providing information about the program to the public;

(D) technical assistance and support services to other State agencies, private nonprofit organizations, and businesses and industries, except for technical assistance and support services described in section 723(b)(5) of this title;

(E) the State Rehabilitation Council and other advisory committees;

(F) professional organization membership dues for designated State unit employees;

(G) the removal of architectural barriers in State vocational rehabilitation agency offices and State operated rehabilitation facilities;

(H) operating and maintaining designated State unit facilities, equipment, and grounds;

(I) supplies;

(J) administration of the comprehensive system of personnel development described in section 721(a)(7) of this title, including personnel administration, administration of affirmative action plans, and training and staff development;

(K) administrative salaries, including clerical and other support staff salaries, in support of these administrative functions;

(L) travel costs related to carrying out the program, other than travel costs related to the provision of services;

(M) costs incurred in conducting reviews of rehabilitation counselor or coordinator determinations under section 722(c) of this title; and

(N) legal expenses required in the administration of the program.

(2) Assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs

The term "assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs" means, as appropriate in each case—

(A)(i) a review of existing data—

(I) to determine whether an individual is eligible for vocational rehabilitation services; and

(II) to assign priority for an order of selection described in section 721(a)(5)(A) of this title in the States that use an order of selection pursuant to section 721(a)(5)(A) of this title; and


(ii) to the extent necessary, the provision of appropriate assessment activities to obtain necessary additional data to make such determination and assignment;

(B) to the extent additional data is necessary to make a determination of the employment outcomes, and the nature and scope of vocational rehabilitation services, to be included in the individualized plan for employment of an eligible individual, a comprehensive assessment to determine the unique strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice, including the need for supported employment, of the eligible individual, which comprehensive assessment—

(i) is limited to information that is necessary to identify the rehabilitation needs of the individual and to develop the individualized plan for employment of the eligible individual;

(ii) uses, as a primary source of such information, to the maximum extent possible and appropriate and in accordance with confidentiality requirements—

(I) existing information obtained for the purposes of determining the eligibility of the individual and assigning priority for an order of selection described in section 721(a)(5)(A) of this title for the individual; and

(II) such information as can be provided by the individual and, where appropriate, by the family of the individual;


(iii) may include, to the degree needed to make such a determination, an assessment of the personality, interests, interpersonal skills, intelligence and related functional capacities, educational achievements, work experience, vocational aptitudes, personal and social adjustments, and employment opportunities of the individual, and the medical, psychiatric, psychological, and other pertinent vocational, educational, cultural, social, recreational, and environmental factors, that affect the employment and rehabilitation needs of the individual;

(iv) may include, to the degree needed, an appraisal of the patterns of work behavior of the individual and services needed for the individual to acquire occupational skills, and to develop work attitudes, work habits, work tolerance, and social and behavior patterns necessary for successful job performance, including the utilization of work in real job situations to assess and develop the capacities of the individual to perform adequately in a work environment; and

(v) to the maximum extent possible, relies on information obtained from experiences in integrated employment settings in the community, and other integrated community settings;


(C) referral, for the provision of rehabilitation technology services to the individual, to assess and develop the capacities of the individual to perform in a work environment; and

(D) an exploration of the individual's abilities, capabilities, and capacity to perform in work situations, which shall be assessed periodically during trial work experiences, including experiences in which the individual is provided appropriate supports and training.

(3) Assistive technology terms

(A) Assistive technology

The term "assistive technology" has the meaning given such term in section 3002 of this title.

(B) Assistive technology device

The term "assistive technology device" has the meaning given such term in section 3002 of this title, except that the reference in such section to the term "individuals with disabilities" shall be deemed to mean more than 1 individual with a disability as defined in paragraph (20)(A)).1

(C) Assistive technology service

The term "assistive technology service" has the meaning given such term in section 3002 of this title, except that the reference in such section—

(i) to the term "individual with a disability" shall be deemed to mean an individual with a disability, as defined in paragraph (20)(A); and

(ii) to the term "individuals with disabilities" shall be deemed to mean more than 1 such individual.

(4) Community rehabilitation program

The term "community rehabilitation program" means a program that provides directly or facilitates the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to individuals with disabilities, and that provides, singly or in combination, for an individual with a disability to enable the individual to maximize opportunities for employment, including career advancement—

(A) medical, psychiatric, psychological, social, and vocational services that are provided under one management;

(B) testing, fitting, or training in the use of prosthetic and orthotic devices;

(C) recreational therapy;

(D) physical and occupational therapy;

(E) speech, language, and hearing therapy;

(F) psychiatric, psychological, and social services, including positive behavior management;

(G) assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs;

(H) rehabilitation technology;

(I) job development, placement, and retention services;

(J) evaluation or control of specific disabilities;

(K) orientation and mobility services for individuals who are blind;

(L) extended employment;

(M) psychosocial rehabilitation services;

(N) supported employment services and extended services;

(O) customized employment;

(P) services to family members when necessary to the vocational rehabilitation of the individual;

(Q) personal assistance services; or

(R) services similar to the services described in one of subparagraphs (A) through (Q).

(5) Competitive integrated employment

The term "competitive integrated employment" means work that is performed on a full-time or part-time basis (including self-employment)—

(A) for which an individual—

(i) is compensated at a rate that—

(I)(aa) shall be not less than the higher of the rate specified in section 206(a)(1) of this title or the rate specified in the applicable State or local minimum wage law; and

(bb) is not less than the customary rate paid by the employer for the same or similar work performed by other employees who are not individuals with disabilities, and who are similarly situated in similar occupations by the same employer and who have similar training, experience, and skills; or

(II) in the case of an individual who is self-employed, yields an income that is comparable to the income received by other individuals who are not individuals with disabilities, and who are self-employed in similar occupations or on similar tasks and who have similar training, experience, and skills; and


(ii) is eligible for the level of benefits provided to other employees;


(B) that is at a location where the employee interacts with other persons who are not individuals with disabilities (not including supervisory personnel or individuals who are providing services to such employee) to the same extent that individuals who are not individuals with disabilities and who are in comparable positions interact with other persons; and

(C) that, as appropriate, presents opportunities for advancement that are similar to those for other employees who are not individuals with disabilities and who have similar positions.

(6) Construction; cost of construction

(A) Construction

The term "construction" means—

(i) the construction of new buildings;

(ii) the acquisition, expansion, remodeling, alteration, and renovation of existing buildings; and

(iii) initial equipment of buildings described in clauses (i) and (ii).

(B) Cost of construction

The term "cost of construction" includes architects' fees and the cost of acquisition of land in connection with construction but does not include the cost of offsite improvements.

(7) Customized employment

The term "customized employment" means competitive integrated employment, for an individual with a significant disability, that is based on an individualized determination of the strengths, needs, and interests of the individual with a significant disability, is designed to meet the specific abilities of the individual with a significant disability and the business needs of the employer, and is carried out through flexible strategies, such as—

(A) job exploration by the individual;

(B) working with an employer to facilitate placement, including—

(i) customizing a job description based on current employer needs or on previously unidentified and unmet employer needs;

(ii) developing a set of job duties, a work schedule and job arrangement, and specifics of supervision (including performance evaluation and review), and determining a job location;

(iii) representation by a professional chosen by the individual, or self-representation of the individual, in working with an employer to facilitate placement; and

(iv) providing services and supports at the job location.

(8) Designated State agency; designated State unit

(A) Designated State agency

The term "designated State agency" means an agency designated under section 721(a)(2)(A) of this title.

(B) Designated State unit

The term "designated State unit" means—

(i) any State agency unit required under section 721(a)(2)(B)(ii) of this title; or

(ii) in cases in which no such unit is so required, the State agency described in section 721(a)(2)(B)(i) of this title.

(9) Disability

The term "disability" means—

(A) except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B), a physical or mental impairment that constitutes or results in a substantial impediment to employment; or

(B) for purposes of sections 701, 711, and 712 of this title, and subchapters II, IV, V, and VII, the meaning given it in section 12102 of title 42.

(10) Drug and illegal use of drugs

(A) Drug

The term "drug" means a controlled substance, as defined in schedules I through V of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812).

(B) Illegal use of drugs

The term "illegal use of drugs" means the use of drugs, the possession or distribution of which is unlawful under the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.]. Such term does not include the use of a drug taken under supervision by a licensed health care professional, or other uses authorized by the Controlled Substances Act or other provisions of Federal law.

(11) Employment outcome

The term "employment outcome" means, with respect to an individual—

(A) entering or retaining full-time or, if appropriate, part-time competitive employment in the integrated labor market;

(B) satisfying the vocational outcome of supported employment; or

(C) satisfying any other vocational outcome the Secretary of Education may determine to be appropriate (including satisfying the vocational outcome of customized employment, self-employment, telecommuting, or business ownership),


in a manner consistent with this chapter.

(12) Establishment of a community rehabilitation program

The term "establishment of a community rehabilitation program" includes the acquisition, expansion, remodeling, or alteration of existing buildings necessary to adapt them to community rehabilitation program purposes or to increase their effectiveness for such purposes (subject, however, to such limitations as the Secretary of Education may determine, in accordance with regulations the Secretary of Education shall prescribe, in order to prevent impairment of the objectives of, or duplication of, other Federal laws providing Federal assistance in the construction of facilities for community rehabilitation programs), and may include such additional equipment and staffing as the Commissioner considers appropriate.

(13) Extended services

The term "extended services" means ongoing support services and other appropriate services, needed to support and maintain an individual with a most significant disability in supported employment, that—

(A) are provided singly or in combination and are organized and made available in such a way as to assist an eligible individual in maintaining supported employment;

(B) are based on a determination of the needs of an eligible individual, as specified in an individualized plan for employment; and

(C) are provided by a State agency, a nonprofit private organization, employer, or any other appropriate resource, after an individual has made the transition from support provided by the designated State unit.

(14) Federal share

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the term "Federal share" means 78.7 percent.

(B) Exception

The term "Federal share" means the share specifically set forth in section 731(a)(3) of this title, except that with respect to payments pursuant to part B of subchapter I to any State that are used to meet the costs of construction of those rehabilitation facilities identified in section 723(b)(2) of this title in such State, the Federal share shall be the percentages determined in accordance with the provisions of section 731(a)(3) of this title applicable with respect to the State.

(C) Relationship to expenditures by a political subdivision

For the purpose of determining the non-Federal share with respect to a State, expenditures by a political subdivision thereof or by a local agency shall be regarded as expenditures by such State, subject to such limitations and conditions as the Secretary of Education shall by regulation prescribe.

(15) Governor

The term "Governor" means a chief executive officer of a State.

(16) Impartial hearing officer

(A) In general

The term "impartial hearing officer" means an individual—

(i) who is not an employee of a public agency (other than an administrative law judge, hearing examiner, or employee of an institution of higher education);

(ii) who is not a member of the State Rehabilitation Council described in section 725 of this title;

(iii) who has not been involved previously in the vocational rehabilitation of the applicant or eligible individual;

(iv) who has knowledge of the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services, the State plan under section 721 of this title, and the Federal and State rules governing the provision of such services and training with respect to the performance of official duties; and

(v) who has no personal or financial interest that would be in conflict with the objectivity of the individual.

(B) Construction

An individual shall not be considered to be an employee of a public agency for purposes of subparagraph (A)(i) solely because the individual is paid by the agency to serve as a hearing officer.

(17) Independent living core services

The term "independent living core services" means—

(A) information and referral services;

(B) independent living skills training;

(C) peer counseling (including cross-disability peer counseling);

(D) individual and systems advocacy; and

(E) services that—

(i) facilitate the transition of individuals with significant disabilities from nursing homes and other institutions to home and community-based residences, with the requisite supports and services;

(ii) provide assistance to individuals with significant disabilities who are at risk of entering institutions so that the individuals may remain in the community; and

(iii) facilitate the transition of youth who are individuals with significant disabilities, who were eligible for individualized education programs under section 614(d) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1414(d)), and who have completed their secondary education or otherwise left school, to postsecondary life.

(18) Independent living services

The term "independent living services" includes—

(A) independent living core services; and

(B)(i) counseling services, including psychological, psychotherapeutic, and related services;

(ii) services related to securing housing or shelter, including services related to community group living, and supportive of the purposes of this chapter and of the subchapters of this chapter, and adaptive housing services (including appropriate accommodations to and modifications of any space used to serve, or occupied by, individuals with disabilities);

(iii) rehabilitation technology;

(iv) mobility training;

(v) services and training for individuals with cognitive and sensory disabilities, including life skills training, and interpreter and reader services;

(vi) personal assistance services, including attendant care and the training of personnel providing such services;

(vii) surveys, directories, and other activities to identify appropriate housing, recreation opportunities, and accessible transportation, and other support services;

(viii) consumer information programs on rehabilitation and independent living services available under this chapter, especially for minorities and other individuals with disabilities who have traditionally been unserved or underserved by programs under this chapter;

(ix) education and training necessary for living in a community and participating in community activities;

(x) supported living;

(xi) transportation, including referral and assistance for such transportation and training in the use of public transportation vehicles and systems;

(xii) physical rehabilitation;

(xiii) therapeutic treatment;

(xiv) provision of needed prostheses and other appliances and devices;

(xv) individual and group social and recreational services;

(xvi) training to develop skills specifically designed for youths who are individuals with disabilities to promote self-awareness and esteem, develop advocacy and self-empowerment skills, and explore career options;

(xvii) services for children;

(xviii) services under other Federal, State, or local programs designed to provide resources, training, counseling, or other assistance, of substantial benefit in enhancing the independence, productivity, and quality of life of individuals with disabilities;

(xix) appropriate preventive services to decrease the need of individuals assisted under this chapter for similar services in the future;

(xx) community awareness programs to enhance the understanding and integration into society of individuals with disabilities; and

(xxi) such other services as may be necessary and not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter.

(19) Indian; American Indian; Indian American; Indian tribe

(A) In general

The terms "Indian", "American Indian", and "Indian American" mean an individual who is a member of an Indian tribe and includes a Native and a descendant of a Native, as such terms are defined in subsections (b) and (r) of section 3 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1602).

(B) Indian tribe

The term "Indian tribe" means any Federal or State Indian tribe, band, rancheria, pueblo, colony, or community, including any Alaskan native village or regional village corporation (as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.]) and a tribal organization (as defined in section 5304(l) of title 25).

(20) Individual with a disability

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B), the term "individual with a disability" means any individual who—

(i) has a physical or mental impairment which for such individual constitutes or results in a substantial impediment to employment; and

(ii) can benefit in terms of an employment outcome from vocational rehabilitation services provided pursuant to subchapter I, III, or VI.

(B) Certain programs; limitations on major life activities

Subject to subparagraphs (C), (D), (E), and (F), the term "individual with a disability" means, for purposes of sections 701, 711, and 712 of this title, and subchapters II, IV, V, and VII of this chapter, any person who has a disability as defined in section 12102 of title 42.

(C) Rights and advocacy provisions

(i) In general; exclusion of individuals engaging in drug use

For purposes of subchapter V, the term "individual with a disability" does not include an individual who is currently engaging in the illegal use of drugs, when a covered entity acts on the basis of such use.

(ii) Exception for individuals no longer engaging in drug use

Nothing in clause (i) shall be construed to exclude as an individual with a disability an individual who—

(I) has successfully completed a supervised drug rehabilitation program and is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs, or has otherwise been rehabilitated successfully and is no longer engaging in such use;

(II) is participating in a supervised rehabilitation program and is no longer engaging in such use; or

(III) is erroneously regarded as engaging in such use, but is not engaging in such use;


 except that it shall not be a violation of this chapter for a covered entity to adopt or administer reasonable policies or procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual described in subclause (I) or (II) is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs.

(iii) Exclusion for certain services

Notwithstanding clause (i), for purposes of programs and activities providing health services and services provided under subchapters I, II, and III, an individual shall not be excluded from the benefits of such programs or activities on the basis of his or her current illegal use of drugs if he or she is otherwise entitled to such services.

(iv) Disciplinary action

For purposes of programs and activities providing educational services, local educational agencies may take disciplinary action pertaining to the use or possession of illegal drugs or alcohol against any student who is an individual with a disability and who currently is engaging in the illegal use of drugs or in the use of alcohol to the same extent that such disciplinary action is taken against students who are not individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, the due process procedures at section 104.36 of title 34, Code of Federal Regulations (or any corresponding similar regulation or ruling) shall not apply to such disciplinary actions.

(v) Employment; exclusion of alcoholics

For purposes of sections 793 and 794 of this title as such sections relate to employment, the term "individual with a disability" does not include any individual who is an alcoholic whose current use of alcohol prevents such individual from performing the duties of the job in question or whose employment, by reason of such current alcohol abuse, would constitute a direct threat to property or the safety of others.

(D) Employment; exclusion of individuals with certain diseases or infections

For the purposes of sections 793 and 794 of this title, as such sections relate to employment, such term does not include an individual who has a currently contagious disease or infection and who, by reason of such disease or infection, would constitute a direct threat to the health or safety of other individuals or who, by reason of the currently contagious disease or infection, is unable to perform the duties of the job.

(E) Rights provisions; exclusion of individuals on basis of homosexuality or bisexuality

For the purposes of sections 791, 793, and 794 of this title

(i) for purposes of the application of subparagraph (B) to such sections, the term "impairment" does not include homosexuality or bisexuality; and

(ii) therefore the term "individual with a disability" does not include an individual on the basis of homosexuality or bisexuality.

(F) Rights provisions; exclusion of individuals on basis of certain disorders

For the purposes of sections 791, 793, and 794 of this title, the term "individual with a disability" does not include an individual on the basis of—

(i) transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments, or other sexual behavior disorders;

(ii) compulsive gambling, kleptomania, or pyromania; or

(iii) psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from current illegal use of drugs.

(G) Individuals with disabilities

The term "individuals with disabilities" means more than one individual with a disability.

(21) Individual with a significant disability

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B) or (C), the term "individual with a significant disability" means an individual with a disability—

(i) who has a severe physical or mental impairment which seriously limits one or more functional capacities (such as mobility, communication, self-care, self-direction, interpersonal skills, work tolerance, or work skills) in terms of an employment outcome;

(ii) whose vocational rehabilitation can be expected to require multiple vocational rehabilitation services over an extended period of time; and

(iii) who has one or more physical or mental disabilities resulting from amputation, arthritis, autism, blindness, burn injury, cancer, cerebral palsy, cystic fibrosis, deafness, head injury, heart disease, hemiplegia, hemophilia, respiratory or pulmonary dysfunction, intellectual disability, mental illness, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, musculo-skeletal disorders, neurological disorders (including stroke and epilepsy), paraplegia, quadriplegia, and other spinal cord conditions, sickle cell anemia, specific learning disability, end-stage renal disease, or another disability or combination of disabilities determined on the basis of an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2) to cause comparable substantial functional limitation.

(B) Independent living services and centers for independent living

For purposes of subchapter VII, the term "individual with a significant disability" means an individual with a severe physical or mental impairment whose ability to function independently in the family or community or whose ability to obtain, maintain, or advance in employment is substantially limited and for whom the delivery of independent living services will improve the ability to function, continue functioning, or move toward functioning independently in the family or community or to continue in employment, respectively.

(C) Research and training

For purposes of subchapter II, the term "individual with a significant disability" includes an individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(D) Individuals with significant disabilities

The term "individuals with significant disabilities" means more than one individual with a significant disability.

(E) Individual with a most significant disability

(i) In general

The term "individual with a most significant disability", used with respect to an individual in a State, means an individual with a significant disability who meets criteria established by the State under section 721(a)(5)(C) of this title.

(ii) Individuals with the most significant disabilities

The term "individuals with the most significant disabilities" means more than one individual with a most significant disability.

(22) Individual's representative; applicant's representative

The terms "individual's representative" and "applicant's representative" mean a parent, a family member, a guardian, an advocate, or an authorized representative of an individual or applicant, respectively.

(23) Institution of higher education

The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1002 of title 20.

(24) Local agency

The term "local agency" means an agency of a unit of general local government or of an Indian tribe (or combination of such units or tribes) which has an agreement with the designated State agency to conduct a vocational rehabilitation program under the supervision of such State agency in accordance with the State plan approved under section 721 of this title. Nothing in the preceding sentence of this paragraph or in section 721 of this title shall be construed to prevent the local agency from arranging to utilize another local public or nonprofit agency to provide vocational rehabilitation services if such an arrangement is made part of the agreement specified in this paragraph.

(25) Local workforce development board

The term "local workforce development board" means a local board, as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102].

(26) Nonprofit

The term "nonprofit", when used with respect to a community rehabilitation program, means a community rehabilitation program carried out by a corporation or association, no part of the net earnings of which inures, or may lawfully inure, to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual and the income of which is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of title 26.

(27) Ongoing support services

The term "ongoing support services" means services—

(A) provided to individuals with the most significant disabilities;

(B) provided, at a minimum, twice monthly—

(i) to make an assessment, regarding the employment situation, at the worksite of each such individual in supported employment, or, under special circumstances, especially at the request of the client, off site; and

(ii) based on the assessment, to provide for the coordination or provision of specific intensive services, at or away from the worksite, that are needed to maintain employment stability; and


(C) consisting of—

(i) a particularized assessment supplementary to the comprehensive assessment described in paragraph (2)(B);

(ii) the provision of skilled job trainers who accompany the individual for intensive job skill training at the worksite;

(iii) job development, job retention, and placement services;

(iv) social skills training;

(v) regular observation or supervision of the individual;

(vi) followup services such as regular contact with the employers, the individuals, the individuals' representatives, and other appropriate individuals, in order to reinforce and stabilize the job placement;

(vii) facilitation of natural supports at the worksite;

(viii) any other service identified in section 723 of this title; or

(ix) a service similar to another service described in this subparagraph.

(28) Personal assistance services

The term "personal assistance services" means a range of services, provided by one or more persons, designed to assist an individual with a disability to perform daily living activities on or off the job that the individual would typically perform if the individual did not have a disability. Such services shall be designed to increase the individual's control in life and ability to perform everyday activities on or off the job.

(30) 2 Pre-employment transition services

The term "pre-employment transition services" means services provided in accordance with section 733 of this title.

(31) Public or nonprofit

The term "public or nonprofit", used with respect to an agency or organization, includes an Indian tribe.

(32) Rehabilitation technology

The term "rehabilitation technology" means the systematic application of technologies, engineering methodologies, or scientific principles to meet the needs of and address the barriers confronted by individuals with disabilities in areas which include education, rehabilitation, employment, transportation, independent living, and recreation. The term includes rehabilitation engineering, assistive technology devices, and assistive technology services.

(33) Secretary

Unless where the context otherwise requires, the term "Secretary"—

(A) used in subchapter I, III, IV, V, VI, or part B of subchapter VII, means the Secretary of Education; and

(B) used in subchapter II or part A of subchapter VII, means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(34) State

The term "State" includes, in addition to each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(35) State workforce development board

The term "State workforce development board" means a State board, as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102].

(36) Statewide workforce development system

The term "statewide workforce development system" means a workforce development system, as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102].

(37) Student with a disability

(A) In general

The term "student with a disability" means an individual with a disability who—

(i)(I)(aa) is not younger than the earliest age for the provision of transition services under section 614(d)(1)(A)(i)(VIII) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1414(d)(1)(A)(i)(VIII)); or

(bb) if the State involved elects to use a lower minimum age for receipt of pre-employment transition services under this chapter, is not younger than that minimum age; and

(II)(aa) is not older than 21 years of age; or

(bb) if the State law for the State provides for a higher maximum age for receipt of services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.), is not older than that maximum age; and

(ii)(I) is eligible for, and receiving, special education or related services under part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1411 et seq.); or

(II) is an individual with a disability, for purposes of section 794 of this title.

(B) Students with disabilities

The term "students with disabilities" means more than 1 student with a disability.

(38) Supported employment

The term "supported employment" means competitive integrated employment, including customized employment, or employment in an integrated work setting in which individuals are working on a short-term basis toward competitive integrated employment, that is individualized and customized consistent with the strengths, abilities, interests, and informed choice of the individuals involved, for individuals with the most significant disabilities—

(A)(i) for whom competitive integrated employment has not historically occurred; or

(ii) for whom competitive integrated employment has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of a significant disability; and

(B) who, because of the nature and severity of their disability, need intensive supported employment services and extended services after the transition described in paragraph (13)(C), in order to perform the work involved.

(39) Supported employment services

The term "supported employment services" means ongoing support services, including customized employment, needed to support and maintain an individual with a most significant disability in supported employment, that—

(A) are provided singly or in combination and are organized and made available in such a way as to assist an eligible individual to achieve competitive integrated employment;

(B) are based on a determination of the needs of an eligible individual, as specified in an individualized plan for employment; and

(C) are provided by the designated State unit for a period of not more than 24 months, except that period may be extended, if necessary, in order to achieve the employment outcome identified in the individualized plan for employment.

(40) Vocational rehabilitation services

The term "vocational rehabilitation services" means those services identified in section 723 of this title which are provided to individuals with disabilities under this chapter.

(41) Workforce investment activities

The term "workforce investment activities" means workforce investment activities, as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102], that are carried out under that Act.

(42) Youth with a disability

(A) In general

The term "youth with a disability" means an individual with a disability who—

(i) is not younger than 14 years of age; and

(ii) is not older than 24 years of age.

(B) Youth with disabilities

The term "youth with disabilities" means more than 1 youth with a disability.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §7, formerly §6, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1097; amended Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(9)(A), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1619; renumbered §7 and amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1), (b)(3), (c)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412, 2681-413, 2681-415; Pub. L. 105–394, title IV, §402(a), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3661; Pub. L. 110–325, §7, Sept. 25, 2008, 122 Stat. 3558; Pub. L. 111–256, §2(d)(1), Oct. 5, 2010, 124 Stat. 2643; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §404, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1632.)

References in Text

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in par. (10)(B), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in par. (19)(B), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in par. (37)(A)(i)(II)(bb), (ii)(I), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. Part B of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§1411 et seq.) of chapter 33 of Title 20. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in par. (41), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, which enacted chapter 32 (§3101 et seq.) of this title, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 706 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 705, Pub. L. 93–112, §6, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 359; Pub. L. 99–506, title X, §1001(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1841; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §201(b), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3303; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §128(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4388, related to consolidated rehabilitation plan, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093.

A prior section 7 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 8 and is classified to section 706 of this title.

Another prior section 7 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 706 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Par. (2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(1), added cl. (v).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(2), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which defined "assistive technology device".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(3), redesignated par. (5) as (4).

Pub. L. 113–128, §404(2), struck out par. (4) which defined "assistive technology service".

Par. (4)(O). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(4)(B), added subpar. (O). Former subpar. (O) redesignated (P).

Par. (4)(P), (Q). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(4)(A), redesignated subpars. (O) and (P) as (P) and (Q), respectively. Former subpar. (Q) redesignated (R).

Par. (4)(R). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(4)(C), substituted "(Q)" for "(P)".

Pub. L. 113–128, §404(4)(A), redesignated subpar. (Q) as (R).

Par. (5). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(5), added par. (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Par. (6)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(6), substituted "includes architects' fees" for "includes architects' fees".

Par. (7). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(7), added par. (7).

Par. (11)(C). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(8), inserted "of Education" after "Secretary" and "customized employment," after "vocational outcome of".

Par. (12). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(9), inserted "of Education" after "Secretary" in two places.

Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(10), inserted "of Education" after "Secretary".

Par. (17)(E). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(11), added subpar. (E).

Par. (18). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(12), substituted "term 'independent living services' includes—" for "term 'independent living services' includes—" in introductory provisions.

Par. (19)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(13)(A), inserted "and includes a Native and a descendant of a Native, as such terms are defined in subsections (b) and (r) of section 3 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1602)" before period at end.

Par. (19)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(13)(B), inserted "and a tribal organization (as defined in section 5304(l) of title 25)" before period at end.

Par. (23). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(14), substituted "section 1002" for "section 1001".

Par. (25). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(15), added par. (25) and struck out former par. (25) which defined "local workforce investment board".

Par. (29). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(17), redesignated par. (29) as (31).

Par. (30). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(18), added par. (30). Former par. (30) redesignated (32).

Pars. (31), (32). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(17), redesignated pars. (29) and (30) as (31) and (32), respectively. Former pars. (31) and (32) redesignated (33) and (34), respectively.

Par. (33). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(19), added par. (33) and struck out former par. (33) which defined "Secretary".

Pub. L. 113–128, §404(17), redesignated par. (31) as (33). Former par. (33) redesignated (35).

Par. (34). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(17), redesignated par. (32) as (34). Former par. (34) redesignated (36).

Pars. (35), (36). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(20), added pars. (35) and (36) and struck out former pars. (35) and (36), which defined "State workforce investment board" and "statewide workforce investment system", respectively.

Pub. L. 113–128, §404(17), redesignated pars. (33) and (34) as (35) and (36), respectively. Former pars. (35) and (36) redesignated (38) and (39), respectively.

Par. (37). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(16), (21), added par. (37) and struck out former par. (37) which defined "transition services".

Pars. (38), (39). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(22), added pars. (38) and (39) and struck out former pars. (38) and (39) which defined "supported employment" and "supported employment services", respectively.

Pub. L. 113–128, §404(17), redesignated pars. (35) and (36) as (38) and (39), respectively. Former pars. (38) and (39) redesignated (40) and (41), respectively.

Par. (40). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(17), redesignated par. (38) as (40).

Par. (41). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(23), substituted "as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act" for "as defined in section 101 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998".

Pub. L. 113–128, §404(17), redesignated par. (39) as (41).

Par. (42). Pub. L. 113–128, §404(24), added par. (42).

2010—Par. (21)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 111–256 substituted "intellectual disability," for "mental retardation,".

2008—Par. (9)(B). Pub. L. 110–325, §7(1), substituted "the meaning given it in section 12102 of title 42" for "a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities".

Par. (20)(B). Pub. L. 110–325, §7(2), substituted "any person who has a disability as defined in section 12102 of title 42." for "any person who—

"(i) has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more of such person's major life activities;

"(ii) has a record of such an impairment; or

"(iii) is regarded as having such an impairment."

1998Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(3)], made technical amendment to section designation and catchline in the original and inserted par. (1) heading.

Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(1)(A)], substituted "nature" for "objectives, nature,".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 105–394, §402(a)(1), which directed the amendment of section 6 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 by substituting "3002" for "2202(2)", was executed to this section, which is section 7 of that act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the renumbering of section 6 as 7 by Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)].

Par. (4). Pub. L. 105–394, §402(a)(2), which directed the amendment of section 6 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 by substituting "3002" for "2202(3)", was executed to this section, which is section 7 of that act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the renumbering of section 6 as 7 by Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)].

Par. (7). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(1)(B)], struck out heading and text of par. (7). Text read as follows: "The term 'criminal act' means any crime, including an act, omission, or possession under the laws of the United States or a State or unit of general local government, which poses a substantial threat of personal injury, notwithstanding that by reason of age, insanity, or intoxication or otherwise the person engaging in the act, omission, or possession was legally incapable of committing a crime."

Par. (16)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(1)(C)], substituted "eligible individual" for "client".

Par. (23). Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "section 1001 of title 20" for "section 1141(a) of title 20".

Par. (36)(C). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(1)(D)], substituted "employment outcome" for "rehabilitation objectives".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–325, §8, Sept. 25, 2008, 122 Stat. 3559, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 12103 and 12205a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending this section, former section 706 of this title, and sections 12101, 12102, 12111 to 12114, 12201, and 12206 to 12213 of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 12101 of Title 42] and the amendments made by this Act shall become effective on January 1, 2009."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

Definitions

For meaning of references to an intellectual disability and to individuals with intellectual disabilities in provisions amended by section 2 of Pub. L. 111–256, see section 2(k) of Pub. L. 111–256, set out as a note under section 1400 of Title 20, Education.

1 So in original. The second closing parenthesis probably should not appear.

2 So in original. There is no par. (29).

§706. Allotment percentage

(a)(1) For purposes of section 730 of this title, the allotment percentage for any State shall be 100 per centum less that percentage which bears the same ratio to 50 per centum as the per capita income of such State bears to the per capita income of the United States, except that—

(A) the allotment percentage shall in no case be more than 75 per centum or less than 331/3 per centum; and

(B) the allotment percentage for the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall be 75 per centum.


(2) The allotment percentages shall be promulgated by the Secretary of Education between October 1 and December 31 of each even-numbered year, on the basis of the average of the per capita incomes of the States and of the United States for the three most recent consecutive years for which satisfactory data are available from the Department of Commerce. Such promulgation shall be conclusive for each of the 2 fiscal years in the period beginning on the October 1 next succeeding such promulgation.

(3) The term "United States" means (but only for purposes of this subsection) the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

(b) The population of the several States and of the United States shall be determined on the basis of the most recent data available, to be furnished by the Department of Commerce by October 1 of the year preceding the fiscal year for which funds are appropriated pursuant to statutory authorizations.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §8, formerly §7, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1110; renumbered §8, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §405(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1637.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 707 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 706, Pub. L. 93–112, §7, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 359; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §111(a), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1619; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §111(a), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–5; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(4)–(8), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2984, 2985; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §101, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(a), (b), (c)(1), (d)(1), (2)(A), (C), (e)–(h)(1), (i), (j), title X, §§1001(a)(3), 1002(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1809–1811, 1841, 1844; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–259, §9, Mar. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 31; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §201(c), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3303; Pub. L. 101–336, title V, §513, formerly §512, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 376, renumbered §513, Pub. L. 110–325, §6(a)(2), Sept. 25, 2008, 122 Stat. 3558; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §102(a)–(n), (p)(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4347–4350, 4356; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §§102(1), 103, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 718; Pub. L. 103–218, title IV, §404, Mar. 9, 1994, 108 Stat. 97, defined terms for purposes of this chapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 705 of this title.

A prior section 8 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 10 and is classified to section 707 of this title.

Another prior section 8 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 707 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–128 inserted "of Education" after "Secretary".

§707. Nonduplication

In determining the amount of any State's Federal share of expenditures for planning, administration, and services incurred by it under a State plan approved in accordance with section 721 of this title, there shall be disregarded—

(1) any portion of such expenditures which are financed by Federal funds provided under any other provision of law; and

(2) the amount of any non-Federal funds required to be expended as a condition of receipt of such Federal funds.


No payment may be made from funds provided under one provision of this chapter relating to any cost with respect to which any payment is made under any other provision of this chapter, except that this section shall not be construed to limit or reduce fees for services rendered by community rehabilitation programs.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §10, formerly §8, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1110; renumbered §10 and amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1), (c)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412, 2681-415.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 709 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 707, Pub. L. 93–112, §8, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 362; Pub. L. 94–273, §10, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 378; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §103, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4361, related to allotment percentage, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 706 of this title.

A prior section 10 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 12 and is classified to section 709 of this title.

Another prior section 10 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 709 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(2)], substituted a dash for a colon after "disregarded" and amended text to set out cls. (1) and (2) as indented pars. and last sentence as flush provision.

§708. Application of other laws

(a) The provisions of chapter 71 of title 31 and of title V of the Act of October 15, 1977 (Public Law 95–134) shall not apply to the administration of the provisions of this chapter or to the administration of any program or activity under this chapter.

(b) Section 501 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3341] shall apply, as specified in that section, to amendments to this chapter that were made by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §11, formerly §9, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1110; renumbered §11, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §405(b), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1637.)

References in Text

Act of October 15, 1977, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 95–134, Oct. 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 1159, popularly known as the Omnibus Territories Act of 1977. Title V of the Act enacted section 4368b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and section 1469a of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, which enacted chapter 32 (§3101 et seq.) of this title, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

"Chapter 71 of title 31" substituted in text for "the Act of December 5, 1974 (Public Law 93–510) on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 710 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 708, Pub. L. 93–112, §9, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 362, related to audit and examination of records, scope of disclosure, and access to representatives, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382, title II, §272, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3931.

A prior section 11 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 13 and is classified to section 710 of this title.

Another prior section 11 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 710 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–128 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

§709. Administration

(a) Technical assistance; short-term traineeships; special projects; dissemination of information; monitoring and evaluations

In carrying out the purposes of this chapter, the Commissioner may—

(1)(A) provide consultative services and technical assistance to public or nonprofit private agencies and organizations, including assistance to enable such agencies and organizations to facilitate meaningful and effective participation by individuals with disabilities in workforce investment activities;

(B) provide technical assistance to the designated State units on developing successful partnerships with local and multi-State businesses in an effort to increase the employment of individuals with disabilities;

(C) provide technical assistance to providers and organizations on developing self-employment opportunities and outcomes for individuals with disabilities; and

(D) provide technical assistance to entities carrying out community rehabilitation programs to build their internal capacity to provide individualized services and supports leading to competitive integrated employment, and to transition individuals with disabilities away from nonintegrated settings;

(2) provide short-term training and technical instruction, including training for the personnel of community rehabilitation programs and other providers of services (including job coaches);

(3) conduct special projects and demonstrations;

(4) collect, prepare, publish, and disseminate special educational or informational materials, including reports of the projects for which funds are provided under this chapter; and

(5) provide monitoring and conduct evaluations.

(b) Utilization of services and facilities; information task forces

(1) In carrying out the duties under this chapter, the Commissioner may utilize the services and facilities of any agency of the Federal Government and of any other public or nonprofit agency or organization, in accordance with agreements between the Commissioner and the head thereof, and may pay therefor, in advance or by way of reimbursement, as may be provided in the agreement.

(2) In carrying out the provisions of this chapter, the Commissioner shall appoint such task forces as may be necessary to collect and disseminate information in order to improve the ability of the Commissioner to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

(c) Regulations to carry out this chapter

(1) The Secretary of Education may promulgate such regulations as are considered appropriate to carry out the Commissioner's duties under this chapter.

(2) In promulgating regulations to carry out this chapter, the Secretary of Education shall promulgate only regulations that are necessary to administer and ensure compliance with the specific requirements of this chapter.

(d) Regulations for implementation

(1) The Secretary of Education shall promulgate regulations regarding the requirements for the implementation of an order of selection for vocational rehabilitation services under section 721(a)(5)(A) of this title if such services cannot be provided to all eligible individuals with disabilities who apply for such services.

(2) Not later than 180 days after July 22, 2014, the Secretary of Education shall receive public comment and promulgate regulations to implement the amendments made by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.

(e) Authorities and responsibilities of Commissioner and Secretary of Education

(1) The Administrator of the Administration for Community Living (referred to in this subsection as the "Administrator") may carry out the authorities and shall carry out the responsibilities of the Commissioner described in paragraphs (1)(A) and (2) through (4) of subsection (a), and subsection (b), except that, for purposes of applying subsections (a) and (b), a reference in those subsections—

(A) to facilitating meaningful and effective participation shall be considered to be a reference to facilitating meaningful and effective collaboration with independent living programs, and promoting a philosophy of independent living for individuals with disabilities in community activities; and

(B) to training for personnel shall be considered to be a reference to training for the personnel of centers for independent living and Statewide Independent Living Councils.


(2) The Secretary of Health and Human Services may carry out the authorities and shall carry out the responsibilities of the Secretary of Education described in subsections (c) and (d).

(f) References to "this chapter"

(1) In subsections (a) through (d), a reference to "this chapter" means a provision of this chapter that the Secretary of Education has authority to carry out; and

(2) In subsection (e), for purposes of applying subsections (a) through (d), a reference in those subsections to "this chapter" means a provision of this chapter that the Secretary of Health and Human Services has authority to carry out.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §12, formerly §10, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1111; renumbered §12, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §405(c), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1637.)

References in Text

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, which enacted chapter 32 (§3101 et seq.) of this title, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 711 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 709, Pub. L. 93–112, §10, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 363; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(9), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2985; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §201(d), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3304; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §104, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4361, related to nonduplication prohibition, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 707 of this title.

A prior section 12 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 14 and is classified to section 711 of this title.

Another prior section 12 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 711 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(1)(A), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpars. (B) to (D).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(1)(B), struck out ", centers for independent living," after "community rehabilitation programs".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(6)(A), (D), (E), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and redesignated subsec. (f) as par. (2).

Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(2), substituted "Secretary of Education" for "Commissioner".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(6)(B), (C), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and redesignated subsec. (e) as par. (2).

Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(3), inserted "of Education" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(7), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated par. (2) of subsec. (d).

Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(4), amended reference in original act which resulted in substitution of "July 22, 2014" for "August 7, 1998" in text, inserted "of Education" after "Secretary", and substituted "Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act" for "Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(7), added subsec. (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated par. (2) of subsec. (c).

Pub. L. 113–128, §405(c)(5), inserted "of Education" after "Secretary".

§710. Reports

(a) Annual reports required

Not later than one hundred and eighty days after the close of each fiscal year, the Commissioner shall prepare and submit to the President and to the Congress a full and complete report on the activities carried out under this chapter, including the activities and staffing of the information clearinghouse under section 712 of this title.

(b) Collection of information

The Commissioner shall collect information to determine whether the purposes of this chapter are being met and to assess the performance of programs carried out under this chapter. The Commissioner shall take whatever action is necessary to assure that the identity of each individual for which information is supplied under this section is kept confidential, except as otherwise required by law (including regulation).

(c) Information to be included in reports

(1) 1 In preparing the report, the Commissioner shall annually collect and include in the report information based on the information submitted by States in accordance with section 721(a)(10) of this title, including information on administrative costs as required by section 721(a)(10)(D) of this title. The Commissioner shall, to the maximum extent appropriate, include in the report all information that is required to be submitted in the reports described in section 3141(d)(2) of this title and that pertains to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

(d) Availability to public

The Commissioner shall ensure that the report described in this section is made publicly available in a timely manner, including through electronic means, in order to inform the public about the administration and performance of programs under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §13, formerly §11, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1111; renumbered §13, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §406, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1638.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 712 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 710, Pub. L. 93–112, §11, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §121, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2984, related to application of other laws, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 708 of this title.

A prior section 13 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 15 and is classified to section 712 of this title.

Another prior section 13 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 712 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §406(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and substituted "section 3141(d)(2) of this title" for "section 2871(d) of this title".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–128, §406(2), added subsec. (d).

Exchange of Data

Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §137, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4397, provided that: "The Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall enter into a memorandum of understanding for the purpose of exchanging data of mutual importance, regarding clients of State vocational rehabilitation agencies, that are contained in databases maintained by the Rehabilitation Services Administration, as required under section 13 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 ([former] 29 U.S.C. 712), and the Social Security Administration, from its Summary Earnings and Records and Master Beneficiary Records. For purposes of the exchange, the Social Security data shall not be considered tax information and, as appropriate, the confidentiality of all client information shall be maintained by both agencies."

1 So in original. There is no par. (2).

§711. Evaluation

(a) Statement of purpose; standards; persons eligible to conduct evaluations

For the purpose of improving program management and effectiveness, the Secretary of Education, in consultation with the Commissioner, shall evaluate all the programs authorized by this chapter, their general effectiveness in relation to their cost, their impact on related programs, and their structure and mechanisms for delivery of services, using appropriate methodology and evaluative research designs. The Secretary of Education shall establish and use standards for the evaluations required by this subsection. Such an evaluation shall be conducted by a person not immediately involved in the administration of the program evaluated.

(b) Opinions of participants; data as property of United States; availability of information

(1) In carrying out evaluations under this section, the Secretary of Education shall obtain the opinions of program and project participants about the strengths and weaknesses of the programs and projects.

(2) The Secretary of Education shall take the necessary action to assure that all studies, evaluations, proposals, and data produced or developed with Federal funds under this chapter shall become the property of the United States.

(3) Such information as the Secretary of Education may determine to be necessary for purposes of the evaluations conducted under this section shall be made available upon request of the Secretary of Education, by the departments and agencies of the executive branch.

(c) Longitudinal study

(1) To assess the linkages between vocational rehabilitation services and economic and noneconomic outcomes, the Secretary of Education shall continue to conduct a longitudinal study of a national sample of applicants for the services.

(2) The study shall address factors related to attrition and completion of the program through which the services are provided and factors within and outside the program affecting results. Appropriate comparisons shall be used to contrast the experiences of similar persons who do not obtain the services.

(3) The study shall be planned to cover the period beginning on the application of individuals with disabilities for the services, through the eligibility determination and provision of services for the individuals, and a further period of not less than 2 years after the termination of services.

(d) Information on exemplary practices

(1) The Commissioner shall identify and disseminate information on exemplary practices concerning vocational rehabilitation.

(2) To facilitate compliance with paragraph (1), the Commissioner shall conduct studies and analyses that identify exemplary practices concerning vocational rehabilitation, including studies in areas relating to providing informed choice in the rehabilitation process, promoting consumer satisfaction, promoting job placement and retention, providing supported employment, providing services to particular disability populations, financing personal assistance services, providing assistive technology devices and assistive technology services, entering into cooperative agreements, establishing standards and certification for community rehabilitation programs, converting from nonintegrated to competitive integrated employment, and providing caseload management.

(e) Authorities and responsibilities of Secretary of Education and Commissioner

(1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services may carry out the authorities and shall carry out the responsibilities of the Secretary of Education described in subsections (a) and (b).

(2) The Administrator of the Administration for Community Living may carry out the authorities and shall carry out the responsibilities of the Commissioner described in subsections (a) and (d)(1), except that, for purposes of applying those subsections, a reference in those subsections to exemplary practices shall be considered to be a reference to exemplary practices concerning independent living services and centers for independent living.

(f) References to "this chapter"

(1) In subsections (a) through (d), a reference to "this chapter" means a provision of this chapter that the Secretary of Education has authority to carry out; and

(2) In subsection (e), for purposes of applying subsections (a), (b), and (d), a reference in those subsections to "this chapter" means a provision of this chapter that the Secretary of Health and Human Services has authority to carry out.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §14, formerly §12, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1110; renumbered §14, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §407(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1638.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 713 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 711, Pub. L. 93–112, §12, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(10), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2985; amended Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §104, title X, §1001(a)(4), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1811, 1841; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §201(e), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3304; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §105, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4361, related to administration of this chapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 709 of this title.

A prior section 14 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 16 and is classified to section 713 of this title.

Another prior section 14 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 713 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–128, §407(a)(1), inserted "of Education" after "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–128, §407(a)(3)(A)–(C), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated subsec. (c) as par. (2), and redesignated subsec. (d) as par. (3).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 113–128, §407(a)(3)(D), redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (c) and (d), respectively. Former subsecs. (c) and (d) redesignated pars. (2) and (3), respectively, of subsec. (b).

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 113–128, §407(a)(4), added subsecs. (e) and (f). Former subsecs. (e) and (f) redesignated (c) and (d), respectively.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §407(a)(2), inserted "competitive" after "nonintegrated to".

§712. Information clearinghouse

(a) Establishment; information and resources for individuals with disabilities

The Secretary of Education shall establish a central clearinghouse for information and resource availability for individuals with disabilities which shall provide information and data regarding—

(1) the location, provision, and availability of services and programs for individuals with disabilities, including such information and data provided by State workforce development boards regarding such services and programs authorized under title I of such Act; 1

(2) research and recent medical and scientific developments bearing on disabilities (and their prevention, amelioration, causes, and cures); and

(3) the current numbers of individuals with disabilities and their needs.


The clearinghouse shall also provide any other relevant information and data which the Secretary of Education considers appropriate.

(b) Information and data retrieval system

The Commissioner may assist the Secretary of Education to develop within the Department of Education a coordinated system of information and data retrieval, which will have the capacity and responsibility to provide information regarding the information and data referred to in subsection (a) of this section to the Congress, public and private agencies and organizations, individuals with disabilities and their families, professionals in fields serving such individuals, and the general public.

(c) Office of Information and Resources for Individuals with Disabilities

The office established to carry out the provisions of this section shall be known as the "Office of Information and Resources for Individuals with Disabilities".

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §15, formerly §13, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1113; renumbered §15, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §407(b), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1639.)

References in Text

Such Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), probably means the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, which is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Title I of the Act was classified principally to former chapter 30 (former §2801 et seq.) of this title. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 714 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 712, Pub. L. 93–112, §13, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(10), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2985; amended Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §102, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §105, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1812; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §§102(p)(4), 106, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4356, 4362; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1042(c), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 715, related to reports to President and Congress, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 710 of this title.

A prior section 15 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 17 and is classified to section 714 of this title.

Another prior section 15 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 714 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–128, §407(b)(1)(A), inserted "of Education" after "Secretary" in introductory and concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §407(b)(1)(B), substituted "State workforce development boards" for "State workforce investment boards".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–128, §407(b)(2), substituted "Secretary of Education" for "Secretary".

1 See References in Text note below.

§713. Transfer of funds

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no funds appropriated under this chapter for any program or activity may be used for any purpose other than that for which the funds were specifically authorized.

(b) No more than 1 percent of funds appropriated for discretionary grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements authorized by this chapter may be used for the purpose of providing non-Federal panels of experts to review applications for such grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §16, formerly §14, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1113; renumbered §16, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 715 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 713, Pub. L. 93–112, §14, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(10), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2986; amended Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §103, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §§103(d)(2)(C), 106, title X, §1001(a)(5), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1812, 1841; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §201(f), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3304; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §§102(p)(5), 107, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4356, 4362, related to program and project evaluation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 711 of this title.

A prior section 16 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 18 and is classified to section 715 of this title.

Another prior section 16 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 715 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

§714. State administration

The application of any State rule or policy relating to the administration or operation of programs funded by this chapter (including any rule or policy based on State interpretation of any Federal law, regulation, or guideline) shall be identified as a State imposed requirement.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §17, formerly §15, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1114; renumbered §17, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 716 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 714, Pub. L. 93–112, §15, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(10), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2986; amended Pub. L. 96–374, title XIII, §1322, Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1499; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §104(a)(1), Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 18; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §102(p)(6), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4356, related to information clearinghouse, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 712 of this title.

A prior section 17 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 19 and is classified to section 716 of this title.

Another prior section 17 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 716 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

§715. Review of applications

Applications for grants in excess of $100,000 in the aggregate authorized to be funded under this chapter, other than grants primarily for the purpose of conducting dissemination or conferences, shall be reviewed by panels of experts which shall include a majority of non-Federal members. Non-Federal members may be provided travel, per diem, and consultant fees not to exceed the daily equivalent of the rate of pay for level 4 of the Senior Executive Service Schedule under section 5382 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §18, formerly §16, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1114; renumbered §18, Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 717 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 715, Pub. L. 93–112, §16, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(a)(10), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2987; amended Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §107, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1812; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §108(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4363, related to transfer of funds, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 713 of this title.

A prior section 18 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 20 and is classified to section 717 of this title.

Another prior section 18 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 717 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

§716. Carryover

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b), and notwithstanding any other provision of law—

(1) any funds appropriated for a fiscal year to carry out any grant program under part B of subchapter I, section 794e of this title (except as provided in section 794e(b) of this title), subchapter VI, subpart 2 or 3 of part A of subchapter VII, or part B of subchapter VII (except as provided in section 796k(b) of this title), including any funds reallotted under any such grant program, that are not obligated and expended by recipients prior to the beginning of the succeeding fiscal year; or

(2) any amounts of program income, including reimbursement payments under the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), received by recipients under any grant program specified in paragraph (1) that are not obligated and expended by recipients prior to the beginning of the fiscal year succeeding the fiscal year in which such amounts were received,


shall remain available for obligation and expenditure by such recipients during such succeeding fiscal year.

(b) Non-Federal share

Such funds shall remain available for obligation and expenditure by a recipient as provided in subsection (a) only to the extent that the recipient complied with any Federal share requirements applicable to the program for the fiscal year for which the funds were appropriated.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §19, formerly §17, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1114; renumbered §19 and amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1), (b)(4)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412, 2681-413; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §408, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1639.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 718 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 716, Pub. L. 93–112, §17, as added Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §108(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1812, related to State administration, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 714 of this title.

A prior section 19 of Pub. L. 93–112 was renumbered section 21 and is classified to section 718 of this title.

Another prior section 19 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 718 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted "subchapter VI" for "part B of subchapter VI".

1998Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(4)], made technical amendment in the original to section designation and catchline.

§717. Client assistance information

All programs, including community rehabilitation programs, and projects, that provide services to individuals with disabilities under this chapter shall advise such individuals who are applicants for or recipients of the services, or the applicants' representatives or individuals' representatives, of the availability and purposes of the client assistance program under section 732 of this title, including information on means of seeking assistance under such program.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §20, formerly §18, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1114; renumbered §20 and amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1), (b)(5)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412, 2681-413.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 718a of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 717, Pub. L. 93–112, §18, as added Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §109(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1813; amended Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §201(g), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3304; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §108(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4363, related to review of applications, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093. See section 715 of this title.

A prior section 20 of Pub. L. 93–112 was classified to section 718a of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(5)], made technical amendment to section designation and catchline in the original.

§718. Traditionally underserved populations

(a) Findings

With respect to the programs authorized in subchapters II through VII, the Congress finds as follows:

(1) Racial profile

The demographic profile of America is rapidly changing. While the percentage increase from 2000 to 2010 for white Americans was 9.7 percent, the percentage increase for racial and ethnic minorities was much higher: 43.0 percent for Latinos, 12.3 percent for African-Americans, and 43.2 percent for Asian-Americans.

(2) Rate of disability

Ethnic and racial minorities tend to have disabling conditions at a disproportionately high rate. In 2011—

(A) among Americans ages 16 through 64, the rate of disability was 12.1 percent;

(B) among African-Americans in that age range, the disability rate was more than twice as high, at 27.1 percent; and

(C) for American Indians and Alaska Natives in the same age range, the disability rate was also more than twice as high, at 27.0 percent.

(3) Inequitable treatment

Patterns of inequitable treatment of minorities have been documented in all major junctures of the vocational rehabilitation process. As compared to white Americans, a larger percentage of African-American applicants to the vocational rehabilitation system is denied acceptance. Of applicants accepted for service, a larger percentage of African-American cases is closed without being rehabilitated. Minorities are provided less training than their white counterparts. Consistently, less money is spent on minorities than on their white counterparts.

(4) Recruitment

Recruitment efforts within vocational rehabilitation at the level of preservice training, continuing education, and in-service training must focus on bringing larger numbers of minorities into the profession in order to provide appropriate practitioner knowledge, role models, and sufficient manpower to address the clearly changing demography of vocational rehabilitation.

(b) Outreach to minorities

(1) In general

For each fiscal year, the Commissioner and the Director of the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (referred to in this subsection as the "Director") shall reserve 1 percent of the funds appropriated for the fiscal year for programs authorized under subchapters II, III, VI, and VII to carry out this subsection. The Commissioner and the Director shall use the reserved funds to carry out one or more of the activities described in paragraph (2) through a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

(2) Activities

The activities carried out by the Commissioner and the Director shall include one or more of the following:

(A) Making awards to minority entities and Indian tribes to carry out activities under the programs authorized under subchapters II, III, VI, and VII.

(B) Making awards to minority entities and Indian tribes to conduct research, training, technical assistance, or a related activity, to improve services provided under this chapter, especially services provided to individuals from minority backgrounds.

(C) Making awards to entities described in paragraph (3) to provide outreach and technical assistance to minority entities and Indian tribes to promote their participation in activities funded under this chapter, including assistance to enhance their capacity to carry out such activities.

(3) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive an award under paragraph (2)(C), an entity shall be a State or a public or private nonprofit agency or organization, such as an institution of higher education or an Indian tribe.

(4) Report

In each fiscal year, the Commissioner and the Director shall prepare and submit to Congress a report that describes the activities funded under this subsection for the preceding fiscal year.

(5) Definitions

In this subsection:

(A) Historically Black college or university

The term "historically Black college or university" means a part B institution, as defined in section 1061(2) of title 20.

(B) Minority entity

The term "minority entity" means an entity that is a historically Black college or university, a Hispanic-serving institution of higher education, an American Indian tribal college or university, or another institution of higher education whose minority student enrollment is at least 50 percent.

(c) Demonstration

In awarding grants, or entering into contracts or cooperative agreements under subchapters I, II, III, VI, and VII of this chapter, and section 794e of this title, the Commissioner and the Director of the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research, in appropriate cases, shall require applicants to demonstrate how the applicants will address, in whole or in part, the needs of individuals with disabilities from minority backgrounds.

(Pub. L. 93–112, §21, formerly §19, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1115; renumbered §21 and amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(a)(1), (b)(6), (c)(3)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412, 2681-413, 2681-415; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §409, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1639.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 718b of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–220.

Prior sections 718 to 718b were repealed by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §403, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1093.

Section 718, Pub. L. 93–112, §19, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §109(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4363; amended Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §104, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 719, related to carryover of funds. See section 716 of this title.

Section 718a, Pub. L. 93–112, §20, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §110(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4363; amended Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §105, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 719, related to client assistance information. See section 717 of this title.

Section 718b, Pub. L. 93–112, §21, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §111(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4363; amended Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §106, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 719, related to traditionally underserved populations.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §409(1)(A), in first sentence, substituted "demographic" for "racial"; in second sentence, substituted "While the percentage increase from 2000 to 2010" for "While the rate of increase", "was 9.7" for "is 3.2", "percentage increase for racial" for "rate of increase for racial", "was much" for "is much", "43.0" for "38.6", "12.3" for "14.6", and "43.2" for "40.1" and struck out "and other ethnic groups" before period at end; and struck out last sentence which read as follows: "By the year 2000, the Nation will have 260,000,000 people, one of every three of whom will be either African-American, Latino, or Asian-American."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §409(1)(B), substituted "In 2011—" and subpars. (A) to (C) for second and third sentences which read as follows: "The rate of work-related disability for American Indians is about one and one-half times that of the general population. African-Americans are also one and one-half times more likely to be disabled than whites and twice as likely to be significantly disabled."

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §409(2), substituted "National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research" for "National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–128, §409(3), substituted "Director of the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research" for "Director".

1998Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(6)], made technical amendment in original to section designation and catchline.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(3)], substituted "is denied" for "are denied" and "is closed" for "are closed".

SUBCHAPTER I—VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES

Codification

Title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, comprising this subchapter, was originally enacted by Pub. L. 93–112, title I, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 363, and amended by Pub. L. 93–516, Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1617; Pub. L. 93–651, Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–3; Pub. L. 94–230, Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 95–602, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2955; Pub. L. 97–375, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1819; Pub. L. 98–221, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 98–524, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2435; Pub. L. 99–506, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1807; Pub. L. 100–630, Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3289; Pub. L. 102–52, June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 102–54, June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 267; Pub. L. 102–119, Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 102–569, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4344; Pub. L. 103–73, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 718; Pub. L. 104–66, Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 104–106, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 186. Title I is shown herein, however, as having been added by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1116, without reference to those intervening amendments because of the extensive revision of title I by Pub. L. 105–220.

Part A—General Provisions

§720. Declaration of policy; authorization of appropriations

(a) Findings; purpose; policy

(1) Findings

Congress finds that—

(A) work—

(i) is a valued activity, both for individuals and society; and

(ii) fulfills the need of an individual to be productive, promotes independence, enhances self-esteem, and allows for participation in the mainstream of life in the United States;


(B) as a group, individuals with disabilities experience staggering levels of unemployment and poverty;

(C) individuals with disabilities, including individuals with the most significant disabilities, have demonstrated their ability to achieve gainful employment in competitive integrated employment settings if appropriate services and supports are provided;

(D) reasons for significant numbers of individuals with disabilities not working, or working at levels not commensurate with their abilities and capabilities, include—

(i) discrimination;

(ii) lack of accessible and available transportation;

(iii) fear of losing health coverage under the Medicare and Medicaid programs carried out under titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq. and 1396 et seq.) or fear of losing private health insurance; and

(iv) lack of education, training, and supports to meet job qualification standards necessary to secure, retain, regain, or advance in employment;


(E) enforcement of subchapter V and of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.) holds the promise of ending discrimination for individuals with disabilities;

(F) the provision of workforce development activities and vocational rehabilitation services can enable individuals with disabilities, including individuals with the most significant disabilities, to pursue meaningful careers by securing gainful employment commensurate with their abilities and capabilities; and

(G) linkages between the vocational rehabilitation programs established under this subchapter and other components of the statewide workforce development systems are critical to ensure effective and meaningful participation by individuals with disabilities in workforce development activities.

(2) Purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to assist States in operating statewide comprehensive, coordinated, effective, efficient, and accountable programs of vocational rehabilitation, each of which is—

(A) an integral part of a statewide workforce development system; and

(B) designed to assess, plan, develop, and provide vocational rehabilitation services for individuals with disabilities, consistent with their strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, informed choice, and economic self-sufficiency, so that such individuals may prepare for and engage in gainful employment.

(3) Policy

It is the policy of the United States that such a program shall be carried out in a manner consistent with the following principles:

(A) Individuals with disabilities, including individuals with the most significant disabilities, are generally presumed to be capable of engaging in gainful employment and the provision of individualized vocational rehabilitation services can improve their ability to become gainfully employed.

(B) Individuals with disabilities must be provided the opportunities to obtain competitive integrated employment.

(C) Individuals who are applicants for such programs or eligible to participate in such programs must be active and full partners in the vocational rehabilitation process, making meaningful and informed choices—

(i) during assessments for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs; and

(ii) in the selection of employment outcomes for the individuals, services needed to achieve the outcomes, entities providing such services, and the methods used to secure such services.


(D) Families and other natural supports can play important roles in the success of a vocational rehabilitation program, if the individual with a disability involved requests, desires, or needs such supports.

(E) Vocational rehabilitation counselors that are trained and prepared in accordance with State policies and procedures as described in section 721(a)(7)(B) of this title (referred to individually in this subchapter as a "qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor"), other qualified rehabilitation personnel, and other qualified personnel should facilitate the accomplishment of the employment outcomes and objectives of an individual.

(F) Individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives are full partners in a vocational rehabilitation program and must be involved on a regular basis and in a meaningful manner with respect to policy development and implementation.

(G) Accountability measures must facilitate the accomplishment of the goals and objectives of the program, including providing vocational rehabilitation services to, among others, individuals with the most significant disabilities.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

For the purpose of making grants to States under part B to assist States in meeting the costs of vocational rehabilitation services provided in accordance with State plans under section 721 of this title, there are authorized to be appropriated $3,302,053,000 for each of the fiscal years 2015 through 2020, except that the amount to be appropriated for a fiscal year shall not be less than the amount of the appropriation under this paragraph for the immediately preceding fiscal year, increased by the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index determined under subsection (c) for the immediately preceding fiscal year.

(2) Reference

The reference in paragraph (1) to grants to States under part B shall not be considered to refer to grants under section 732 of this title.

(c) Consumer Price Index

(1) Percentage change

No later than November 15 of each fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1979), the Secretary of Labor shall publish in the Federal Register the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index published for October of the preceding fiscal year and October of the fiscal year in which such publication is made.

(2) Application

(A) Increase

If in any fiscal year the percentage change published under paragraph (1) indicates an increase in the Consumer Price Index, then the amount to be appropriated under subsection (b)(1) for the subsequent fiscal year shall be at least the amount appropriated under subsection (b)(1) for the fiscal year in which the publication is made under paragraph (1) increased by such percentage change.

(B) No increase or decrease

If in any fiscal year the percentage change published under paragraph (1) does not indicate an increase in the Consumer Price Index, then the amount to be appropriated under subsection (b)(1) for the subsequent fiscal year shall be at least the amount appropriated under subsection (b)(1) for the fiscal year in which the publication is made under paragraph (1).

(3) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "Consumer Price Index" means the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers, published monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

(d) Extension

(1) In general

(A) Authorization or duration of program

Unless the Congress in the regular session which ends prior to the beginning of the terminal fiscal year—

(i) of the authorization of appropriations for the program authorized by the State grant program under part B of this subchapter; or

(ii) of the duration of the program authorized by the State grant program under part B of this subchapter;


has passed legislation which would have the effect of extending the authorization or duration (as the case may be) of such program, such authorization or duration is automatically extended for 1 additional year for the program authorized by this subchapter.

(B) Calculation

The amount authorized to be appropriated for the additional fiscal year described in subparagraph (A) shall be an amount equal to the amount appropriated for such program for fiscal year 2003, increased by the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index determined under subsection (c) for the immediately preceding fiscal year, if the percentage change indicates an increase.

(2) Construction

(A) Passage of legislation

For the purposes of paragraph (1)(A), Congress shall not be deemed to have passed legislation unless such legislation becomes law.

(B) Acts or determinations of Commissioner

In any case where the Commissioner is required under an applicable statute to carry out certain acts or make certain determinations which are necessary for the continuation of the program authorized by this subchapter, if such acts or determinations are required during the terminal year of such program, such acts and determinations shall be required during any fiscal year in which the extension described in that part of paragraph (1) that follows clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(A) is in effect.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §100, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1116; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §411, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1640.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(D)(iii), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles XVIII and XIX of the Act are classified generally to subchapters XVIII (§1395 et seq.) and XIX (§1396 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(E), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 720, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §100, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 363; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §102(a), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1618; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §102(a), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–3; Pub. L. 94–230, §§2(a), 11(b)(2), (3), Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 211, 213; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §101(a), (b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2955; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §111(a)–(d), Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 19; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), title II, §201, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1813; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3304; Pub. L. 102–52, §2(a), (b)(1), June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §121(a), (b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4365, 4367, related to congressional findings, purpose, policy, authorization of appropriations, change in Consumer Price Index, and extension of program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(a)(1)(A), substituted "competitive integrated employment" for "integrated".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(a)(1)(B), substituted "Medicare and Medicaid" for "medicare and medicaid".

Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(a)(1)(C), substituted "development" for "investment".

Subsec. (a)(1)(G). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(a)(1)(D), substituted "workforce development systems" for "workforce investment systems" and "workforce development activities" for "workforce investment activities".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(a)(2)(A), substituted "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(a)(2)(B), substituted "informed choice, and economic self-sufficiency," for "and informed choice,".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(a)(3)(A), substituted "competitive integrated employment" for "gainful employment in integrated settings".

Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(a)(3)(B), inserted "should" before "facilitate the accomplishment".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §411(b), substituted "$3,302,053,000 for each of the fiscal years 2015 through 2020" for "such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 1999 through 2003".

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

§721. State plans

(a) Plan requirements

(1) In general

(A) Submission

To be eligible to receive funds under this subchapter for a fiscal year, a State shall submit, and have approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Labor, a unified State plan in accordance with section 102, or a combined State plan in accordance with section 103, of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3112, 3113]. The unified or combined State plan shall include, in the portion of the plan described in section 102(b)(2)(D) of such Act [29 U.S.C. 3112(b)(2)(D)] (referred to in this subsection as the "vocational rehabilitation services portion"), the provisions of a State plan for vocational rehabilitation services, described in this subsection.

(B) Nonduplication

The State shall not be required to submit, as part of the vocational rehabilitation services portion of the unified or combined State plan submitted in accordance with subparagraph (A), policies, procedures, or descriptions required under this subchapter that have been previously submitted to the Commissioner and that demonstrate that such State meets the requirements of this subchapter, including any policies, procedures, or descriptions submitted under this subchapter as in effect on the day before the effective date of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.

(C) Duration

The vocational rehabilitation services portion of the unified or combined State plan submitted in accordance with subparagraph (A) shall remain in effect until the State submits and receives approval of a new State plan in accordance with subparagraph (A), or until the submission of such modifications as the State determines to be necessary or as the Commissioner may require based on a change in State policy, a change in Federal law (including regulations), an interpretation of this chapter by a Federal court or the highest court of the State, or a finding by the Commissioner of State noncompliance with the requirements of this chapter.

(2) Designated State agency; designated State unit

(A) Designated State agency

The State plan for vocational rehabilitation services shall designate a State agency as the sole State agency to administer the plan, or to supervise the administration of the plan by a local agency, except that—

(i) where, under State law, the State agency for individuals who are blind or another agency that provides assistance or services to adults who are blind is authorized to provide vocational rehabilitation services to individuals who are blind, that agency may be designated as the sole State agency to administer the part of the plan under which vocational rehabilitation services are provided for individuals who are blind (or to supervise the administration of such part by a local agency) and a separate State agency may be designated as the sole State agency to administer or supervise the administration of the rest of the State plan;

(ii) the Commissioner, on the request of a State, may authorize the designated State agency to share funding and administrative responsibility with another agency of the State or with a local agency in order to permit the agencies to carry out a joint program to provide services to individuals with disabilities, and may waive compliance, with respect to vocational rehabilitation services furnished under the joint program, with the requirement of paragraph (4) that the plan be in effect in all political subdivisions of the State; and

(iii) in the case of American Samoa, the appropriate State agency shall be the Governor of American Samoa.

(B) Designated State unit

The State agency designated under subparagraph (A) shall be—

(i) a State agency primarily concerned with vocational rehabilitation, or vocational and other rehabilitation, of individuals with disabilities; or

(ii) if not such an agency, the State agency (or each State agency if 2 are so designated) shall include a vocational rehabilitation bureau, division, or other organizational unit that—

(I) is primarily concerned with vocational rehabilitation, or vocational and other rehabilitation, of individuals with disabilities, and is responsible for the vocational rehabilitation program of the designated State agency;

(II) has a full-time director who is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the vocational rehabilitation program;

(III) has a staff employed on the rehabilitation work of the organizational unit all or substantially all of whom are employed full time on such work;

(IV) is located at an organizational level and has an organizational status within the designated State agency comparable to that of other major organizational units of the designated State agency; and

(V) has the sole authority and responsibility within the designated State agency described in subparagraph (A) to expend funds made available under this subchapter in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of this subchapter.

(C) Responsibility for services for the blind

If the State has designated only 1 State agency pursuant to subparagraph (A), the State may assign responsibility for the part of the plan under which vocational rehabilitation services are provided for individuals who are blind to an organizational unit of the designated State agency and assign responsibility for the rest of the plan to another organizational unit of the designated State agency, with the provisions of subparagraph (B) applying separately to each of the designated State units.

(3) Non-Federal share

The State plan shall provide for financial participation by the State, or if the State so elects, by the State and local agencies, to provide the amount of the non-Federal share of the cost of carrying out part B.

(4) Statewideness

The State plan shall provide that the plan shall be in effect in all political subdivisions of the State, except that—

(A) in the case of any activity that, in the judgment of the Commissioner, is likely to assist in promoting the vocational rehabilitation of substantially larger numbers of individuals with disabilities or groups of individuals with disabilities, the Commissioner may waive compliance with the requirement that the plan be in effect in all political subdivisions of the State to the extent and for such period as may be provided in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner, but only if the non-Federal share of the cost of the vocational rehabilitation services involved is met from funds made available by a local agency (including funds contributed to such agency by a private agency, organization, or individual); and

(B) in a case in which earmarked funds are used toward the non-Federal share and such funds are earmarked for particular geographic areas within the State, the earmarked funds may be used in such areas if the State notifies the Commissioner that the State cannot provide the full non-Federal share without such funds.

(5) Order of selection for vocational rehabilitation services

In the event that vocational rehabilitation services cannot be provided to all eligible individuals with disabilities in the State who apply for the services, the State plan shall—

(A) show the order to be followed in selecting eligible individuals to be provided vocational rehabilitation services;

(B) provide the justification for the order of selection;

(C) include an assurance that, in accordance with criteria established by the State for the order of selection, individuals with the most significant disabilities will be selected first for the provision of vocational rehabilitation services;

(D) notwithstanding subparagraph (C), permit the State, in its discretion, to elect to serve eligible individuals (whether or not receiving vocational rehabilitation services) who require specific services or equipment to maintain employment; and

(E) provide that eligible individuals, who do not meet the order of selection criteria, shall have access to services provided through the information and referral system implemented under paragraph (20).

(6) Methods for administration

(A) In general

The State plan shall provide for such methods of administration as are found by the Commissioner to be necessary for the proper and efficient administration of the plan.

(B) Employment of individuals with disabilities

The State plan shall provide that the designated State agency, and entities carrying out community rehabilitation programs in the State, who are in receipt of assistance under this subchapter shall take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals with disabilities covered under, and on the same terms and conditions as set forth in, section 793 of this title.

(C) Facilities

The State plan shall provide that facilities used in connection with the delivery of services assisted under the State plan shall comply with the Act entitled "An Act to insure that certain buildings financed with Federal funds are so designed and constructed as to be accessible to the physically handicapped", approved on August 12, 1968 (commonly known as the "Architectural Barriers Act of 1968") [42 U.S.C. 4151 et seq.], with section 794 of this title, and with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.].

(7) Comprehensive system of personnel development

The State plan shall—

(A) include a description (consistent with the purposes of this chapter) of a comprehensive system of personnel development, which shall include—

(i) a description of the procedures and activities the designated State agency will undertake to ensure an adequate supply of qualified State rehabilitation professionals and paraprofessionals for the designated State unit, including the development and maintenance of a system for determining, on an annual basis—

(I) the number and type of personnel that are employed by the designated State unit in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services, including ratios of qualified vocational rehabilitation counselors to clients; and

(II) the number and type of personnel needed by the State, and a projection of the numbers of such personnel that will be needed in 5 years, based on projections of the number of individuals to be served, the number of such personnel who are expected to retire or leave the vocational rehabilitation field, and other relevant factors;


(ii) where appropriate, a description of the manner in which activities will be undertaken under this section to coordinate the system of personnel development with personnel development activities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.);

(iii) a description of the development and maintenance of a system of determining, on an annual basis, information on the programs of institutions of higher education within the State that are preparing rehabilitation professionals, including—

(I) the numbers of students enrolled in such programs; and

(II) the number of such students who graduated with certification or licensure, or with credentials to qualify for certification or licensure, as a rehabilitation professional during the past year;


(iv) a description of the development, updating, and implementation of a plan that—

(I) will address the current and projected vocational rehabilitation services personnel training needs for the designated State unit; and

(II) provides for the coordination and facilitation of efforts between the designated State unit, institutions of higher education, and professional associations to recruit, prepare, and retain qualified personnel, including personnel from minority backgrounds, and personnel who are individuals with disabilities; and


(v) a description of the procedures and activities the designated State agency will undertake to ensure that all personnel employed by the designated State unit are appropriately and adequately trained and prepared, including—

(I) a system for the continuing education of rehabilitation professionals and paraprofessionals within the designated State unit, particularly with respect to rehabilitation technology, including training implemented in coordination with entities carrying out State programs under section 3003 of this title; and

(II) procedures for acquiring and disseminating to rehabilitation professionals and paraprofessionals within the designated State unit significant knowledge from research and other sources, including procedures for providing training regarding the amendments to this chapter made by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act;


(B) set forth policies and procedures relating to the establishment and maintenance of standards to ensure that personnel, including rehabilitation professionals and paraprofessionals, needed within the designated State unit to carry out this part are appropriately and adequately prepared and trained, including—

(i) the establishment and maintenance of standards that are consistent with any national or State approved or recognized certification, licensing, registration, or other comparable requirements that apply to the area in which such personnel are providing vocational rehabilitation services; and

(ii) the establishment and maintenance of education and experience requirements, to ensure that the personnel have a 21st century understanding of the evolving labor force and the needs of individuals with disabilities, including requirements for—

(I)(aa) attainment of a baccalaureate degree in a field of study reasonably related to vocational rehabilitation, to indicate a level of competency and skill demonstrating basic preparation in a field of study such as vocational rehabilitation counseling, social work, psychology, disability studies, business administration, human resources, special education, supported employment, customized employment, economics, or another field that reasonably prepares individuals to work with consumers and employers; and

(bb) demonstrated paid or unpaid experience, for not less than 1 year, consisting of—

(AA) direct work with individuals with disabilities in a setting such as an independent living center;

(BB) direct service or advocacy activities that provide such individual with experience and skills in working with individuals with disabilities; or

(CC) direct experience as an employer, as a small business owner or operator, or in self-employment, or other experience in human resources, recruitment, or experience in supervising employees, training, or other activities that provide experience in competitive integrated employment environments; or


(II) attainment of a master's or doctoral degree in a field of study such as vocational rehabilitation counseling, law, social work, psychology, disability studies, business administration, human resources, special education, management, public administration, or another field that reasonably provides competence in the employment sector, in a disability field, or in both business-related and rehabilitation-related fields; and


(C) contain provisions relating to the establishment and maintenance of minimum standards to ensure the availability of personnel within the designated State unit, to the maximum extent feasible, trained to communicate in the native language or mode of communication of an applicant or eligible individual.

(8) Comparable services and benefits

(A) Determination of availability

(i) In general

The State plan shall include an assurance that, prior to providing an accommodation or auxiliary aid or service or any vocational rehabilitation service to an eligible individual, except those services specified in paragraph (5)(E) and in paragraphs (1) through (4) and (14) of section 723(a) of this title, the designated State unit will determine whether comparable services and benefits are available under any other program (other than a program carried out under this subchapter) unless such a determination would interrupt or delay—

(I) the progress of the individual toward achieving the employment outcome identified in the individualized plan for employment of the individual in accordance with section 722(b) of this title;

(II) an immediate job placement; or

(III) the provision of such service to any individual at extreme medical risk.

(ii) Awards and scholarships

For purposes of clause (i), comparable benefits do not include awards and scholarships based on merit.

(B) Interagency agreement

The State plan shall include an assurance that the Governor of the State, in consultation with the entity in the State responsible for the vocational rehabilitation program and other appropriate agencies, will ensure that an interagency agreement or other mechanism for interagency coordination takes effect between any appropriate public entity, including the State entity responsible for administering the State Medicaid program, a public institution of higher education, and a component of the statewide workforce development system, and the designated State unit, in order to ensure the provision of vocational rehabilitation services described in subparagraph (A) (other than those services specified in paragraph (5)(E), and in paragraphs (1) through (4) and (14) of section 723(a) of this title), and, if appropriate, accommodations or auxiliary aids and services, that are included in the individualized plan for employment of an eligible individual, including the provision of such vocational rehabilitation services (including, if appropriate, accommodations or auxiliary aids and services) during the pendency of any dispute described in clause (iii). Such agreement or mechanism shall include the following:

(i) Agency financial responsibility

An identification of, or a description of a method for defining, the financial responsibility of such public entity for providing such services, and a provision stating the financial responsibility of such public entity for providing such services.

(ii) Conditions, terms, and procedures of reimbursement

Information specifying the conditions, terms, and procedures under which a designated State unit shall be reimbursed by other public entities for providing such services, based on the provisions of such agreement or mechanism.

(iii) Interagency disputes

Information specifying procedures for resolving interagency disputes under the agreement or other mechanism (including procedures under which the designated State unit may initiate proceedings to secure reimbursement from other public entities or otherwise implement the provisions of the agreement or mechanism).

(iv) Coordination of services procedures

Information specifying policies and procedures for public entities to determine and identify the interagency coordination responsibilities of each public entity to promote the coordination and timely delivery of vocational rehabilitation services (except those services specified in paragraph (5)(E) and in paragraphs (1) through (4) and (14) of section 723(a) of this title), and accommodations or auxiliary aids and services.

(C) Responsibilities of other public entities

(i) Responsibilities under other law

Notwithstanding subparagraph (B), if any public entity other than a designated State unit is obligated under Federal or State law, or assigned responsibility under State policy or under this paragraph, to provide or pay for any services that are also considered to be vocational rehabilitation services (other than those specified in paragraph (5)(E) and in paragraphs (1) through (4) and (14) of section 723(a) of this title), such public entity shall fulfill that obligation or responsibility, either directly or by contract or other arrangement.

(ii) Reimbursement

If a public entity other than the designated State unit fails to provide or pay for the services described in clause (i) for an eligible individual, the designated State unit shall provide or pay for such services to the individual. Such designated State unit may claim reimbursement for the services from the public entity that failed to provide or pay for such services. Such public entity shall reimburse the designated State unit pursuant to the terms of the interagency agreement or other mechanism described in this paragraph according to the procedures established in such agreement or mechanism pursuant to subparagraph (B)(ii).

(D) Methods

The Governor of a State may meet the requirements of subparagraph (B) through—

(i) a State statute or regulation;

(ii) a signed agreement between the respective officials of the public entities that clearly identifies the responsibilities of each public entity relating to the provision of services; or

(iii) another appropriate method, as determined by the designated State unit.

(9) Individualized plan for employment

(A) Development and implementation

The State plan shall include an assurance that an individualized plan for employment meeting the requirements of section 722(b) of this title will be developed and implemented in a timely manner for an individual subsequent to the determination of the eligibility of the individual for services under this subchapter, except that in a State operating under an order of selection described in paragraph (5), the plan will be developed and implemented only for individuals meeting the order of selection criteria of the State.

(B) Provision of services

The State plan shall include an assurance that such services will be provided in accordance with the provisions of the individualized plan for employment.

(10) Reporting requirements

(A) In general

The State plan shall include an assurance that the designated State agency will submit reports in the form and level of detail and at the time required by the Commissioner regarding applicants for, and eligible individuals receiving, services under this subchapter.

(B) Annual reporting

In specifying the information to be submitted in the reports, the Commissioner shall require annual reporting of information, on eligible individuals receiving the services, that is necessary to assess the State's performance on the standards and indicators described in section 726(a) of this title that are determined by the Secretary to be relevant in assessing the performance of designated State units in carrying out the vocational rehabilitation program established under this subchapter.

(C) Additional data

In specifying the information required to be submitted in the reports, the Commissioner shall require additional data, from each State, with regard to applicants and eligible individuals related to—

(i) the number of applicants and the number of individuals determined to be eligible or ineligible for the program carried out under this subchapter, including the number of individuals determined to be ineligible (disaggregated by type of disability and age);

(ii) the number of individuals who received vocational rehabilitation services through the program, including—

(I) the number who received services under paragraph (5)(E), but not assistance under an individualized plan for employment;

(II) of those recipients who are individuals with significant disabilities, the number who received assistance under an individualized plan for employment consistent with section 722(b) of this title;

(III) of those recipients who are not individuals with significant disabilities, the number who received assistance under an individualized plan for employment consistent with section 722(b) of this title;

(IV) the number of individuals with open cases (disaggregated by those who are receiving training and those who are in postsecondary education), and the type of services the individuals are receiving (including supported employment);

(V) the number of students with disabilities who are receiving pre-employment transition services under this subchapter: 1 and

(VI) the number of individuals referred to State vocational rehabilitation programs by one-stop operators (as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102]), and the number of individuals referred to such one-stop operators by State vocational rehabilitation programs;


(iii) of those applicants and eligible recipients who are individuals with significant disabilities—

(I) the number who ended their participation in the program carried out under this subchapter and the number who achieved employment outcomes after receiving vocational rehabilitation services; and

(II) the number who ended their participation in the program and who were employed 6 months and 12 months after securing or regaining employment, or, in the case of individuals whose employment outcome was to retain or advance in employment, who were employed 6 months and 12 months after achieving their employment outcome, including—

(aa) the number who earned the minimum wage rate specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206(a)(1)) or another wage level set by the Commissioner, during such employment; and

(bb) the number who received employment benefits from an employer during such employment; and


(iv) of those applicants and eligible recipients who are not individuals with significant disabilities—

(I) the number who ended their participation in the program carried out under this subchapter and the number who achieved employment outcomes after receiving vocational rehabilitation services and, for those who achieved employment outcomes, the average length of time to obtain employment; and

(II) the number who ended their participation in the program and who were employed 6 months and 12 months after securing or regaining employment, or, in the case of individuals whose employment outcome was to retain or advance in employment, who were employed 6 months and 12 months after achieving their employment outcome, including—

(aa) the number who earned the minimum wage rate specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206(a)(1)) or another wage level set by the Commissioner, during such employment; and

(bb) the number who received employment benefits from an employer during such employment.

(D) Costs and results

The Commissioner shall also require that the designated State agency include in the reports information on—

(i) the costs under this subchapter of conducting administration, providing assessment services, counseling and guidance, and other direct services provided by designated State agency staff, providing services purchased under individualized plans for employment, supporting small business enterprises, establishing, developing, and improving community rehabilitation programs, providing other services to groups, and facilitating use of other programs under this chapter and title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3111 et seq.] by eligible individuals; and

(ii) the results of annual evaluation by the State of program effectiveness under paragraph (15)(E).

(E) Additional information

The Commissioner shall require that each designated State unit include in the reports additional information related to the applicants and eligible individuals, obtained either through a complete count or sampling, including—

(i) information on—

(I) age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, category of impairment, severity of disability, and whether the individuals are students with disabilities;

(II) dates of application, determination of eligibility or ineligibility, initiation of the individualized plan for employment, and termination of participation in the program;

(III) earnings at the time of application for the program and termination of participation in the program;

(IV) work status and occupation;

(V) types of services, including assistive technology services and assistive technology devices, provided under the program;

(VI) types of public or private programs or agencies that furnished services under the program; and

(VII) the reasons for individuals terminating participation in the program without achieving an employment outcome; and


(ii) information necessary to determine the success of the State in meeting the standards and indicators established pursuant to section 726 of this title.

(F) Completeness and confidentiality

The State plan shall include an assurance that the information submitted in the reports will include a complete count, except as provided in subparagraph (E), of the applicants and eligible individuals, in a manner permitting the greatest possible cross-classification of data and that the identity of each individual for which information is supplied under this paragraph will be kept confidential.

(G) Rules for reporting of data

The disaggregation of data under this chapter shall not be required within a category if the number of individuals in a category is insufficient to yield statistically reliable information, or if the results would reveal personally identifiable information about an individual.

(H) Comprehensive report

The State plan shall specify that the Commissioner will provide an annual comprehensive report that includes the reports and data required under this section, as well as a summary of the reports and data, for each fiscal year. The Commissioner shall submit the report to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate, not later than 90 days after the end of the fiscal year involved.

(11) Cooperation, collaboration, and coordination

(A) Cooperative agreements with other components of statewide workforce development systems

The State plan shall provide that the designated State unit or designated State agency shall enter into a cooperative agreement with other entities that are components of the statewide workforce development system of the State, regarding the system, which agreement may provide for—

(i) provision of intercomponent staff training and technical assistance with regard to—

(I) the availability and benefits of, and information on eligibility standards for, vocational rehabilitation services; and

(II) the promotion of equal, effective, and meaningful participation by individuals with disabilities in workforce development activities in the State through the promotion of program accessibility (including programmatic accessibility and physical accessibility), the use of nondiscriminatory policies and procedures, and the provision of reasonable accommodations, auxiliary aids and services, and rehabilitation technology, for individuals with disabilities;


(ii) use of information and financial management systems that link all components of the statewide workforce development system, that link the components to other electronic networks, including nonvisual electronic networks, and that relate to such subjects as employment statistics, and information on job vacancies, career planning, and workforce investment activities;

(iii) use of customer service features such as common intake and referral procedures, customer databases, resource information, and human services hotlines;

(iv) establishment of cooperative efforts with employers to—

(I) facilitate job placement; and

(II) carry out any other activities that the designated State unit and the employers determine to be appropriate;


(v) identification of staff roles, responsibilities, and available resources, and specification of the financial responsibility of each component of the statewide workforce development system with regard to paying for necessary services (consistent with State law and Federal requirements); and

(vi) specification of procedures for resolving disputes among such components.

(B) Replication of cooperative agreements

The State plan shall provide for the replication of such cooperative agreements at the local level between individual offices of the designated State unit and local entities carrying out activities through the statewide workforce development system.

(C) Interagency cooperation with other agencies

The State plan shall include descriptions of interagency cooperation with, and utilization of the services and facilities of, Federal, State, and local agencies and programs, including the State programs carried out under section 3003 of this title, programs carried out by the Under Secretary for Rural Development of the Department of Agriculture, noneducational agencies serving out-of-school youth, and State use contracting programs, to the extent that such Federal, State, and local agencies and programs are not carrying out activities through the statewide workforce development system.

(D) Coordination with education officials

The State plan shall contain plans, policies, and procedures for coordination between the designated State agency and education officials responsible for the public education of students with disabilities, that are designed to facilitate the transition of the students with disabilities from the receipt of educational services in school to the receipt of vocational rehabilitation services, including pre-employment transition services, under this subchapter, including information on a formal interagency agreement with the State educational agency that, at a minimum, provides for—

(i) consultation and technical assistance, which may be provided using alternative means for meeting participation (such as video conferences and conference calls), to assist educational agencies in planning for the transition of students with disabilities from school to post-school activities, including vocational rehabilitation services;

(ii) transition planning by personnel of the designated State agency and educational agency personnel for students with disabilities that facilitates the development and implementation of their individualized education programs under section 614(d) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1414(d)];

(iii) the roles and responsibilities, including financial responsibilities, of each agency, including provisions for determining State lead agencies and qualified personnel responsible for transition services; and

(iv) procedures for outreach to and identification of students with disabilities who need the transition services.

(E) Coordination with employers

The State plan shall describe how the designated State unit will work with employers to identify competitive integrated employment opportunities and career exploration opportunities, in order to facilitate the provision of—

(i) vocational rehabilitation services; and

(ii) transition services for youth with disabilities and students with disabilities, such as pre-employment transition services.

(F) Coordination with Statewide Independent Living Councils and independent living centers

The State plan shall include an assurance that the designated State unit, the Statewide Independent Living Council established under section 796d of this title, and the independent living centers described in subpart 3 of part A of subchapter VII within the State have developed working relationships and coordinate their activities, as appropriate.

(G) Cooperative agreement regarding individuals eligible for home and community-based waiver programs

The State plan shall include an assurance that the designated State unit has entered into a formal cooperative agreement with the State agency responsible for administering the State Medicaid plan under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.) and the State agency with primary responsibility for providing services and supports for individuals with intellectual disabilities and individuals with developmental disabilities, with respect to the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services, including extended services, for individuals with the most significant disabilities who have been determined to be eligible for home and community-based services under a Medicaid waiver, Medicaid State plan amendment, or other authority related to a State Medicaid program.

(H) Cooperative agreement with recipients of grants for services to American Indians

In applicable cases, the State plan shall include an assurance that the State has entered into a formal cooperative agreement with each grant recipient in the State that receives funds under part C. The agreement shall describe strategies for collaboration and coordination in providing vocational rehabilitation services to American Indians who are individuals with disabilities, including—

(i) strategies for interagency referral and information sharing that will assist in eligibility determinations and the development of individualized plans for employment;

(ii) procedures for ensuring that American Indians who are individuals with disabilities and are living on or near a reservation or tribal service area are provided vocational rehabilitation services;

(iii) strategies for the provision of transition planning, by personnel of the designated State unit, the State educational agency, and the recipient of funds under part C, that will facilitate the development and approval of the individualized plans for employment under section 722 of this title; and

(iv) provisions for sharing resources in cooperative studies and assessments, joint training activities, and other collaborative activities designed to improve the provision of services to American Indians who are individuals with disabilities.

(I) Coordination with assistive technology programs

The State plan shall include an assurance that the designated State unit, and the lead agency and implementing entity (if any) designated by the Governor of the State under section 3003 of this title, have developed working relationships and will enter into agreements for the coordination of their activities, including the referral of individuals with disabilities to programs and activities described in that section.

(J) Coordination with ticket to work and self-sufficiency program

The State plan shall include an assurance that the designated State unit will coordinate activities with any other State agency that is functioning as an employment network under the Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program established under section 1148 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1320b–19).

(K) Interagency cooperation

The State plan shall describe how the designated State agency or agencies (if more than 1 agency is designated under paragraph (2)(A)) will collaborate with the State agency responsible for administering the State Medicaid plan under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.), the State agency responsible for providing services for individuals with developmental disabilities, and the State agency responsible for providing mental health services, to develop opportunities for community-based employment in integrated settings, to the greatest extent practicable.

(12) Residency

The State plan shall include an assurance that the State will not impose a residence requirement that excludes from services provided under the plan any individual who is present in the State.

(13) Services to American Indians

The State plan shall include an assurance that, except as otherwise provided in part C, the designated State agency will provide vocational rehabilitation services to American Indians who are individuals with disabilities residing in the State to the same extent as the designated State agency provides such services to other significant populations of individuals with disabilities residing in the State.

(14) Semiannual review of individuals in extended employment or other employment under special certificate provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

The State plan shall provide for—

(A) a semiannual review and reevaluation of the status of each individual with a disability served under this subchapter who is employed either in an extended employment setting in a community rehabilitation program or any other employment under section 14(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (29 U.S.C. 214(c)) for 2 years after the beginning of such employment, and annually thereafter, to determine the interests, priorities, and needs of the individual with respect to competitive integrated employment or training for competitive integrated employment;

(B) input into the review and reevaluation, and a signed acknowledgment that such review and reevaluation have been conducted, by the individual with a disability, or, if appropriate, the individual's representative;

(C) maximum efforts, including the identification and provision of vocational rehabilitation services, reasonable accommodations, and other necessary support services, to assist individuals described in subparagraph (A) in attaining competitive integrated employment; and

(D) an assurance that the State will report the information generated under subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), for each of the individuals, to the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor for each fiscal year, not later than 60 days after the end of the fiscal year.

(15) Annual State goals and reports of progress

(A) Assessments and estimates

The State plan shall—

(i) include the results of a comprehensive, statewide assessment, jointly conducted by the designated State unit and the State Rehabilitation Council (if the State has such a Council) every 3 years, describing the rehabilitation needs of individuals with disabilities residing within the State, particularly the vocational rehabilitation services needs of—

(I) individuals with the most significant disabilities, including their need for supported employment services;

(II) individuals with disabilities who are minorities and individuals with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation program carried out under this subchapter;

(III) individuals with disabilities served through other components of the statewide workforce development system (other than the vocational rehabilitation program), as identified by such individuals and personnel assisting such individuals through the components; and

(IV) youth with disabilities, and students with disabilities, including their need for pre-employment transition services or other transition services;


(ii) include an assessment of the needs of individuals with disabilities for transition services and pre-employment transition services, and the extent to which such services provided under this chapter are coordinated with transition services provided under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.) in order to meet the needs of individuals with disabilities.

(iii) include an assessment of the need to establish, develop, or improve community rehabilitation programs within the State; and

(iv) provide that the State shall submit to the Commissioner a report containing information regarding updates to the assessments, for any year in which the State updates the assessments.

(B) Annual estimates

The State plan shall include, and shall provide that the State shall annually submit a report to the Commissioner that includes, State estimates of—

(i) the number of individuals in the State who are eligible for services under this subchapter;

(ii) the number of such individuals who will receive services provided with funds provided under part B and under subchapter VI, including, if the designated State agency uses an order of selection in accordance with paragraph (5), estimates of the number of individuals to be served under each priority category within the order;

(iii) the number of individuals who are eligible for services under this subchapter, but are not receiving such services due to an order of selection; and

(iv) the costs of the services described in clause (i), including, if the designated State agency uses an order of selection in accordance with paragraph (5), the service costs for each priority category within the order.

(C) Goals and priorities

(i) In general

The State plan shall identify the goals and priorities of the State in carrying out the program. The goals and priorities shall be jointly developed, agreed to, and reviewed annually by the designated State unit and the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council. Any revisions to the goals and priorities shall be jointly agreed to by the designated State unit and the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council. The State plan shall provide that the State shall submit to the Commissioner a report containing information regarding revisions in the goals and priorities, for any year in which the State revises the goals and priorities.

(ii) Basis

The State goals and priorities shall be based on an analysis of—

(I) the comprehensive assessment described in subparagraph (A), including any updates to the assessment;

(II) the performance of the State on the standards and indicators established under section 726 of this title; and

(III) other available information on the operation and the effectiveness of the vocational rehabilitation program carried out in the State, including any reports received from the State Rehabilitation Council, under section 725(c) of this title and the findings and recommendations from monitoring activities conducted under section 727 of this title.

(iii) Service and outcome goals for categories in order of selection

If the designated State agency uses an order of selection in accordance with paragraph (5), the State shall also identify in the State plan service and outcome goals and the time within which these goals may be achieved for individuals in each priority category within the order.

(D) Strategies

The State plan shall contain a description of the strategies the State will use to address the needs identified in the assessment conducted under subparagraph (A) and achieve the goals and priorities identified in subparagraph (C), including—

(i) the methods to be used to expand and improve services to individuals with disabilities, including how a broad range of assistive technology services and assistive technology devices will be provided to such individuals at each stage of the rehabilitation process and how such services and devices will be provided to such individuals on a statewide basis;

(ii) outreach procedures to identify and serve individuals with disabilities who are minorities and individuals with disabilities who have been unserved or underserved by the vocational rehabilitation program;

(iii) the methods to be used to improve and expand vocational rehabilitation services for students with disabilities, including the coordination of services designed to facilitate the transition of such students from the receipt of educational services in school to postsecondary life (including the receipt of vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter, postsecondary education, employment, and pre-employment transition services);

(iv) where necessary, the plan of the State for establishing, developing, or improving community rehabilitation programs;

(v) strategies to improve the performance of the State with respect to the evaluation standards and performance indicators established pursuant to section 726 of this title; and

(vi) strategies for assisting entities carrying out other components of the statewide workforce development system (other than the vocational rehabilitation program) in assisting individuals with disabilities.

(E) Evaluation and reports of progress

The State plan shall—

(i) include the results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of the vocational rehabilitation program, and a joint report by the designated State unit and the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council, to the Commissioner on the progress made in improving the effectiveness from the previous year, which evaluation and report shall include—

(I) an evaluation of the extent to which the goals identified in subparagraph (C) were achieved;

(II) a description of strategies that contributed to achieving the goals;

(III) to the extent to which the goals were not achieved, a description of the factors that impeded that achievement; and

(IV) an assessment of the performance of the State on the standards and indicators established pursuant to section 726 of this title; and


(ii) provide that the designated State unit and the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council, shall jointly submit to the Commissioner an annual report that contains the information described in clause (i).

(16) Public comment

The State plan shall—

(A) provide that the designated State agency, prior to the adoption of any policies or procedures governing the provision of vocational rehabilitation services under the State plan (including making any amendment to such policies and procedures), shall conduct public meetings throughout the State, after providing adequate notice of the meetings, to provide the public, including individuals with disabilities, an opportunity to comment on the policies or procedures, and actively consult with the Director of the client assistance program carried out under section 732 of this title, and, as appropriate, Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and Native Hawaiian organizations on the policies or procedures; and

(B) provide that the designated State agency (or each designated State agency if two agencies are designated) and any sole agency administering the plan in a political subdivision of the State, shall take into account, in connection with matters of general policy arising in the administration of the plan, the views of—

(i) individuals and groups of individuals who are recipients of vocational rehabilitation services, or in appropriate cases, the individuals' representatives;

(ii) personnel working in programs that provide vocational rehabilitation services to individuals with disabilities;

(iii) providers of vocational rehabilitation services to individuals with disabilities;

(iv) the director of the client assistance program; and

(v) the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council.

(17) Use of funds for construction of facilities

The State plan shall provide that if, under special circumstances, the State plan includes provisions for the construction of facilities for community rehabilitation programs—

(A) the Federal share of the cost of construction for the facilities for a fiscal year will not exceed an amount equal to 10 percent of the State's allotment under section 730 of this title for such year;

(B) the provisions of section 776 2 of this title (as in effect on the day before August 7, 1998) shall be applicable to such construction and such provisions shall be deemed to apply to such construction; and

(C) there shall be compliance with regulations the Commissioner shall prescribe designed to assure that no State will reduce its efforts in providing other vocational rehabilitation services (other than for the establishment of facilities for community rehabilitation programs) because the plan includes such provisions for construction.

(18) Innovation and expansion activities

The State plan shall—

(A) include an assurance that the State will reserve and use a portion of the funds allotted to the State under section 730 of this title

(i) for the development and implementation of innovative approaches to expand and improve the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to individuals with disabilities under this subchapter, particularly individuals with the most significant disabilities, consistent with the findings of the statewide assessment and goals and priorities of the State as described in paragraph (15); and

(ii) to support the funding of—

(I) the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council, consistent with the plan prepared under section 725(d)(1) of this title; and

(II) the Statewide Independent Living Council, consistent with the plan prepared under section 796d(e)(1) of this title;


(B) include a description of how the reserved funds will be utilized; and

(C) provide that the State shall submit to the Commissioner an annual report containing a description of how the reserved funds were utilized during the preceding year.

(19) Choice

The State plan shall include an assurance that applicants and eligible individuals or, as appropriate, the applicants' representatives or individuals' representatives, will be provided information and support services to assist the applicants and individuals in exercising informed choice throughout the rehabilitation process, consistent with the provisions of section 722(d) of this title.

(20) Information and referral services

(A) In general

The State plan shall include an assurance that the designated State agency will implement an information and referral system adequate to ensure that individuals with disabilities will be provided accurate vocational rehabilitation information and guidance, using appropriate modes of communication, to assist such individuals in preparing for, securing, retaining, or regaining employment, and will be appropriately referred to Federal and State programs (other than the vocational rehabilitation program carried out under this subchapter), including other components of the statewide workforce development system in the State.

(B) Referrals

An appropriate referral made through the system shall—

(i) be to the Federal or State programs, including programs carried out by other components of the statewide workforce development system in the State, best suited to address the specific employment needs of an individual with a disability; and

(ii) include, for each of these programs, provision to the individual of—

(I) a notice of the referral by the designated State agency to the agency carrying out the program;

(II) information identifying a specific point of contact within the agency carrying out the program; and

(III) information and advice regarding the most suitable services to assist the individual to prepare for, secure, retain, or regain employment.

(21) State independent consumer-controlled commission; State Rehabilitation Council

(A) Commission or Council

The State plan shall provide that either—

(i) the designated State agency is an independent commission that—

(I) is responsible under State law for operating, or overseeing the operation of, the vocational rehabilitation program in the State;

(II) is consumer-controlled by persons who—

(aa) are individuals with physical or mental impairments that substantially limit major life activities; and

(bb) represent individuals with a broad range of disabilities, unless the designated State unit under the direction of the commission is the State agency for individuals who are blind;


(III) includes family members, advocates, or other representatives, of individuals with mental impairments; and

(IV) undertakes the functions set forth in section 725(c)(4) of this title; or


(ii) the State has established a State Rehabilitation Council that meets the criteria set forth in section 725 of this title and the designated State unit—

(I) in accordance with paragraph (15), jointly develops, agrees to, and reviews annually State goals and priorities, and jointly submits annual reports of progress with the Council;

(II) regularly consults with the Council regarding the development, implementation, and revision of State policies and procedures of general applicability pertaining to the provision of vocational rehabilitation services;

(III) includes in the State plan and in any revision to the State plan, a summary of input provided by the Council, including recommendations from the annual report of the Council described in section 725(c)(5) of this title, the review and analysis of consumer satisfaction described in section 725(c)(4) of this title, and other reports prepared by the Council, and the response of the designated State unit to such input and recommendations, including explanations for rejecting any input or recommendation; and

(IV) transmits to the Council—

(aa) all plans, reports, and other information required under this subchapter to be submitted to the Secretary;

(bb) all policies, and information on all practices and procedures, of general applicability provided to or used by rehabilitation personnel in carrying out this subchapter; and

(cc) copies of due process hearing decisions issued under this subchapter, which shall be transmitted in such a manner as to ensure that the identity of the participants in the hearings is kept confidential.

(B) More than one designated State agency

In the case of a State that, under subsection (a)(2), designates a State agency to administer the part of the State plan under which vocational rehabilitation services are provided for individuals who are blind (or to supervise the administration of such part by a local agency) and designates a separate State agency to administer the rest of the State plan, the State shall either establish a State Rehabilitation Council for each of the two agencies that does not meet the requirements in subparagraph (A)(i), or establish one State Rehabilitation Council for both agencies if neither agency meets the requirements of subparagraph (A)(i).

(22) Supported employment State plan supplement

The State plan shall include an assurance that the State has an acceptable plan for carrying out subchapter VI, including the use of funds under that part to supplement funds made available under part B of this subchapter to pay for the cost of services leading to supported employment.

(23) Annual updates

The plan shall include an assurance that the State will submit to the Commissioner reports containing annual updates of the information required under paragraph (7) (relating to a comprehensive system of personnel development) and any other updates of the information required under this section that are requested by the Commissioner, and annual reports as provided in paragraphs (15) (relating to assessments, estimates, goals and priorities, and reports of progress) and (18) (relating to innovation and expansion), at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may determine to be appropriate.

(24) Certain contracts and cooperative agreements

(A) Contracts with for-profit organizations

The State plan shall provide that the designated State agency has the authority to enter into contracts with for-profit organizations for the purpose of providing, as vocational rehabilitation services, on-the-job training and related programs for individuals with disabilities under part A of subchapter VI, upon a determination by such agency that such for-profit organizations are better qualified to provide such rehabilitation services than nonprofit agencies and organizations.

(B) Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations

The State plan shall describe the manner in which cooperative agreements with private nonprofit vocational rehabilitation service providers will be established.

(25) Services for students with disabilities

The State plan shall provide an assurance that, with respect to students with disabilities, the State—

(A) has developed and will implement—

(i) strategies to address the needs identified in the assessments described in paragraph (15); and

(ii) strategies to achieve the goals and priorities identified by the State, in accordance with paragraph (15), to improve and expand vocational rehabilitation services for students with disabilities on a statewide basis; and


(B) has developed and will implement strategies to provide pre-employment transition services.

(26) Job growth and development

The State plan shall provide an assurance describing how the State will utilize initiatives involving in-demand industry sectors or occupations under sections 106(c) and 108 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3121(c), 3123] to increase competitive integrated employment opportunities for individuals with disabilities.

(b) Submission; approval; modification

The State plan for vocational rehabilitation services shall be subject to—

(1) subsection (c) of section 102 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3112], in a case in which that plan is a portion of the unified State plan described in that section 102; and

(2) subsection (b), and paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (c), of section 103 of such Act [29 U.S.C. 3113] in a case in which that State plan for vocational rehabilitation services is a portion of the combined State plan described in that section 103.

(c) Construction

Nothing in this part shall be construed to reduce the obligation under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.) of a local educational agency or any other agency to provide or pay for any transition services that are also considered special education or related services and that are necessary for ensuring a free appropriate public education to children with disabilities within the State involved.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §101, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1119; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(4)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-415; Pub. L. 108–446, title III, §305(h)(1), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2805; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §412, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1641.)

References in Text

For the effective date of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

The Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(C), is Pub. L. 90–480, Aug. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 718, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§4151 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4151 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(C), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(7)(A)(ii), (15)(A)(ii) and (c), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(7)(A)(v)(II), (10)(D)(i), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, which enacted chapter 32 (§3101 et seq.) of this title, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§3111 et seq.) of chapter 32 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(11)(G), (K), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title XIX of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 776 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(17)(B), was in the original a reference to section 306 which was renumbered section 304 of Pub. L. 93–112 by Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §443(2), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1674.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 721, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §101, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 363; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §111(b)–(d), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1619, 1620; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §111(b)–(d), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–5; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §§102, 122(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2957, 2987; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §104(a)(2), Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 18; Pub. L. 98–524, §4(f), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2489; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2), title II, §202, title X, §1001(b)(1)–(4), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1814, 1841, 1842; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(b), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3304; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(k)(1)(A), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 276; Pub. L. 102–119, §26(e), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 607; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §§102(o), (p)(7), 122, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4355, 4356, 4367; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §§102(2), 107(a), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 718, 719; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4321(i)(7), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 676, related to State plans, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(1)(A), substituted "to receive funds under this subchapter for a fiscal year, a State shall submit, and have approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Labor, a unified State plan in accordance with section 102, or a combined State plan in accordance with section 103, of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act. The unified or combined State plan shall include, in the portion of the plan described in section 102(b)(2)(D) of such Act (referred to in this subsection as the 'vocational rehabilitation services portion'), the provisions of a State plan for vocational rehabilitation services, described in this subsection." for "to participate in programs under this subchapter, a State shall submit to the Commissioner a State plan for vocational rehabilitation services that meets the requirements of this section, on the same date that the State submits a State plan under section 112 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998."

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(1)(B), substituted "as part of the vocational rehabilitation services portion of the unified or combined State plan submitted in accordance with subparagraph (A)," for "in the State plan for vocational rehabilitation services," and "the effective date of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act" for "the effective date of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998", which had been translated as "August 7, 1998".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(1)(C), substituted "The vocational rehabilitation services portion of the unified or combined State plan submitted in accordance with subparagraph (A) shall remain in effect until the State submits and receives approval of a new State plan in accordance with subparagraph (A), or until the submission of such modifications" for "The State plan shall remain in effect subject to the submission of such modifications" and struck out ", until the State submits and receives approval of a new State plan" before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(2)(A), substituted "The State plan for vocational rehabilitation services" for "The State plan" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(2)(B)(i), inserted "who is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the vocational rehabilitation program" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii)(V). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(2)(B)(ii)–(iv), added subcl. (V).

Subsec. (a)(5)(D), (E). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(3), added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpar. (D) as (E).

Subsec. (a)(7)(A)(v)(I). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(4)(A)(i), inserted ", including training implemented in coordination with entities carrying out State programs under section 3003 of this title" after "rehabilitation technology".

Subsec. (a)(7)(A)(v)(II). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(4)(A)(ii), substituted "Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act" for "Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998".

Subsec. (a)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(4)(B), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "to the extent that such standards are not based on the highest requirements in the State applicable to a specific profession or discipline, the steps the State is taking to require the retraining or hiring of personnel within the designated State unit that meet appropriate professional requirements in the State; and".

Subsec. (a)(8)(A)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(5)(A), in introductory provisions, inserted "an accommodation or auxiliary aid or service or" after "prior to providing" and substituted "(5)(E)" for "(5)(D)".

Subsec. (a)(8)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(5)(B)(i), in introductory provisions, substituted "Medicaid" for "medicaid", "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system", and "(5)(E)" for "(5)(D)", inserted "and, if appropriate, accommodations or auxiliary aids and services," before "that are included", and substituted "provision of such vocational rehabilitation services (including, if appropriate, accommodations or auxiliary aids and services)" for "provision of such vocational rehabilitation services".

Subsec. (a)(8)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(5)(B)(ii), substituted "(5)(E)" for "(5)(D)" and inserted ", and accommodations or auxiliary aids and services" before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(8)(C)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(5)(C), substituted "(5)(E)" for "(5)(D)".

Subsec. (a)(10)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(A), substituted "annual reporting of information, on eligible individuals receiving the services, that is necessary to assess the State's performance on the standards and indicators described in section 726(a) of this title" for "annual reporting on the eligible individuals receiving the services, on those specific data elements described in section 136(d)(2) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998".

Subsec. (a)(10)(C). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(B)(i), inserted ", from each State," after "additional data" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(10)(C)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(B)(ii), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "the number of applicants and the number of individuals determined to be eligible or ineligible for the program carried out under this subchapter, including—

"(I) the number of individuals determined to be ineligible because they did not require vocational rehabilitation services, as provided in section 722(a) of this title; and

"(II) the number of individuals determined, on the basis of clear and convincing evidence, to be too severely disabled to benefit in terms of an employment outcome from vocational rehabilitation services;".

Subsec. (a)(10)(C)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(B)(iii)(I), substituted "(5)(E)" for "(5)(D)".

Subsec. (a)(10)(C)(ii)(IV) to (VI). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(B)(iii)(II), (III), added subcls. (IV) to (VI).

Subsec. (a)(10)(C)(iv)(I). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(B)(iv), inserted "and, for those who achieved employment outcomes, the average length of time to obtain employment" before semicolon.

Subsec. (a)(10)(D)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(C), substituted "title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act" for "title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998".

Subsec. (a)(10)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(D), substituted "of the State in meeting the standards and indicators established pursuant to section 726 of this title." for "of the State in meeting—

"(I) the State performance measures established under section 136(b) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, to the extent the measures are applicable to individuals with disabilities; and

"(II) the standards and indicators established pursuant to section 726 of this title."

Subsec. (a)(10)(G), (H). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(6)(E), added subpars. (G) and (H).

Subsec. (a)(11)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(A)(i), (ii), substituted "workforce development systems" for "workforce investment systems" in heading and "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(11)(A)(i)(II). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(A)(iii), substituted "development" for "investment" and inserted "(including programmatic accessibility and physical accessibility)" after "program accessibility".

Subsec. (a)(11)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(A)(iv), substituted "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(11)(A)(v). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(A)(v), substituted "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(11)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(B), substituted "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(11)(C). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(C), inserted "the State programs carried out under section 3003 of this title," after "including" and ", noneducational agencies serving out-of-school youth," after "Agriculture" and substituted "such Federal, State, and local agencies and programs" for "such agencies and programs" and "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(11)(D). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(D), inserted ", including pre-employment transition services," after "vocational rehabilitation services" in introductory provisions and ", which may be provided using alternative means for meeting participation (such as video conferences and conference calls)," after "consultation and technical assistance" in cl. (i) and substituted "implementation" for "completion" in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (a)(11)(E). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(F), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (a)(11)(F). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(G), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to subpart 3 of part A of subchapter VII and inserted ", as appropriate" before period at end.

Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(E), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (H).

Subsec. (a)(11)(G). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(H), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(11)(H). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(E), redesignated subpar. (F) as (H).

Subsec. (a)(11)(H)(ii) to (iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(I), inserted "on or" before "near" and struck out "and" after semicolon in cl. (ii), added cl. (iii), and redesignated former cl. (iii) as (iv).

Subsec. (a)(11)(I) to (K). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(7)(J), added subpars. (I) to (K).

Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(8)(A), substituted "Semiannual" for "Annual" in heading.

Subsec. (a)(14)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(8)(B), substituted "a semiannual" for "an annual", "is employed" for "has achieved an employment outcome", "beginning of such employment, and annually thereafter" for "achievement of the outcome (and thereafter if requested by the individual or, if appropriate, the individual's representative)", and "to competitive integrated employment or training for competitive integrated employment;" for "to competitive employment or training for competitive employment;".

Subsec. (a)(14)(C), (D). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(8)(C)–(E), substituted "individuals described in subparagraph (A) in attaining competitive integrated employment; and" for "the individuals described in subparagraph (A) in engaging in competitive employment." in subpar. (C) and added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(15)(A)(i)(III). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(9)(A)(i)(II)(aa), substituted "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(15)(A)(i)(IV). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(9)(A)(i)(I), (II)(bb), (III), added subcl. (IV).

Subsec. (a)(15)(A)(ii) to (iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(9)(A)(ii), (iii), added cl. (ii) and redesignated former cls. (ii) and (iii) as (iii) and (iv), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(15)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(9)(B)(i), substituted "subchapter VI" for "part B of subchapter VI".

Subsec. (a)(15)(B)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(9)(B)(ii), (iii), added cl. (iii) and redesignated former cl. (iii) as (iv).

Subsec. (a)(15)(D)(iii) to (vi). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(9)(C), added cl. (iii), redesignated former cls. (iii) to (v) as (iv) to (vi), respectively, and, in cl. (vi), substituted "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(20)(A), (B)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(10), substituted "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(22). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(11), substituted "subchapter VI" for "part B of subchapter VI".

Subsec. (a)(25), (26). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(a)(12), added pars. (25) and (26).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to approval and disapproval of State plans.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–128, §412(c), added subsec. (c).

2004—Subsec. (a)(11)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 108–446 struck out "(as added by section 101 of Public Law 105–17)" before semicolon at end.

1998—Subsec. (a)(18)(C). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(4)(A)], substituted "were utilized during the preceding year" for "will be utilized".

Subsec. (a)(21)(A)(i)(II)(bb). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(4)(B)], substituted "commission" for "Commission".

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

1 So in original. The colon probably should be a semicolon.

2 See References in Text note below.

§722. Eligibility and individualized plan for employment

(a) Eligibility

(1) Criterion for eligibility

An individual is eligible for assistance under this subchapter if the individual—

(A) has undergone an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs and as a result has been determined to be an individual with a disability under section 705(20)(A) of this title; and

(B) requires vocational rehabilitation services to prepare for, secure, retain, advance in, or regain employment that is consistent with the individual's strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice.


For purposes of an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs under this chapter, an individual shall be presumed to have a goal of an employment outcome.

(2) Presumption of benefit

(A) Applicants

For purposes of this section, an individual shall be presumed to be an individual that can benefit in terms of an employment outcome from vocational rehabilitation services under section 705(20)(A) of this title.

(B) Responsibilities

Prior to determining under this subsection that an applicant described in subparagraph (A) is unable to benefit due to the severity of the individual's disability or that the individual is ineligible for vocational rehabilitation services, the designated State unit shall explore the individual's abilities, capabilities, and capacity to perform in work situations, through the use of trial work experiences, as described in section 705(2)(D) of this title, with appropriate supports provided through the designated State unit. Such experiences shall be of sufficient variety and over a sufficient period of time to determine the eligibility of the individual. In providing the trial experiences, the designated State unit shall provide the individual with the opportunity to try different employment experiences, including supported employment, and the opportunity to become employed in competitive integrated employment.

(3) Presumption of eligibility

(A) In general

For purposes of this section, an individual who has a disability or is blind as determined pursuant to title II or title XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq. and 1381 et seq.) shall be—

(i) considered to be an individual with a significant disability under section 705(21)(A) of this title; and

(ii) presumed to be eligible for vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter (provided that the individual intends to achieve an employment outcome consistent with the unique strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice of the individual) unless the designated State unit involved can demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that such individual is incapable of benefiting in terms of an employment outcome due to the severity of the individual's disability (as of the date of the determination).

(B) Construction

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to create an entitlement to any vocational rehabilitation service.

(4) Use of existing information

(A) In general

To the maximum extent appropriate and consistent with the requirements of this part, for purposes of determining the eligibility of an individual for vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter and developing the individualized plan for employment described in subsection (b) for the individual, the designated State unit shall use information that is existing and current (as of the date of the determination of eligibility or of the development of the individualized plan for employment), including information available from other programs and providers, particularly information used by education officials and the Social Security Administration, information provided by the individual and the family of the individual, and information obtained under the assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs.

(B) Determinations by officials of other agencies

Determinations made by officials of other agencies, particularly education officials described in section 721(a)(11)(D) of this title, regarding whether an individual satisfies one or more factors relating to whether an individual is an individual with a disability under section 705(20)(A) of this title or an individual with a significant disability under section 705(21)(A) of this title shall be used, to the extent appropriate and consistent with the requirements of this part, in assisting the designated State unit in making such determinations.

(C) Basis

The determination of eligibility for vocational rehabilitation services shall be based on—

(i) the review of existing data described in section 705(2)(A)(i) of this title; and

(ii) to the extent that such data is unavailable or insufficient for determining eligibility, the provision of assessment activities described in section 705(2)(A)(ii) of this title.

(5) Determination of ineligibility

If, after the designated State unit carries out the activities described in paragraph (2)(B), a review of existing data, and, to the extent necessary, the assessment activities described in section 705(2)(A)(ii) of this title, an individual who applies for services under this subchapter is determined not to be eligible for the services, or if an eligible individual receiving services under an individualized plan for employment is determined to be no longer eligible for the services—

(A) the ineligibility determination shall be an individualized one, based on the available data, and shall not be based on assumptions about broad categories of disabilities;

(B) the ineligibility determination involved shall be made only after providing an opportunity for full consultation with the individual or, as appropriate, the individual's representative;

(C) the individual or, as appropriate, the individual's representative, shall be informed in writing (supplemented as necessary by other appropriate modes of communication consistent with the informed choice of the individual) of the ineligibility determination, including—

(i) the reasons for the determination, including the clear and convincing evidence that forms the basis for the determination of ineligibility; and

(ii) a description of the means by which the individual may express, and seek a remedy for, any dissatisfaction with the determination, including the procedures for review by an impartial hearing officer under subsection (c);


(D) the individual shall be provided with a description of services available from the client assistance program under section 732 of this title and information on how to contact that program; and

(E) any ineligibility determination that is based on a finding that the individual is incapable of benefiting in terms of an employment outcome shall be reviewed—

(i) within 12 months; and

(ii) thereafter, if such a review is requested by the individual or, if appropriate, by the individual's representative.

(6) Timeframe for making an eligibility determination

The designated State unit shall determine whether an individual is eligible for vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter within a reasonable period of time, not to exceed 60 days, after the individual has submitted an application for the services unless—

(A) exceptional and unforeseen circumstances beyond the control of the designated State unit preclude making an eligibility determination within 60 days and the designated State unit and the individual agree to a specific extension of time; or

(B) the designated State unit is exploring an individual's abilities, capabilities, and capacity to perform in work situations under paragraph (2)(B).

(b) Development of an individualized plan for employment

(1) Options for developing an individualized plan for employment

If an individual is determined to be eligible for vocational rehabilitation services as described in subsection (a), the designated State unit shall complete the assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs, as appropriate, and shall provide the eligible individual or the individual's representative, in writing and in an appropriate mode of communication, with information on the individual's options for developing an individualized plan for employment, including—

(A) information on the availability of assistance from a qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor or, as appropriate, a disability advocacy organization in developing all or part of the individualized plan for employment for the individual, and the availability of technical assistance in developing all or part of the individualized plan for employment for the individual;

(B) a description of the full range of components that shall be included in an individualized plan for employment;

(C) as appropriate—

(i) an explanation of agency guidelines and criteria associated with financial commitments concerning an individualized plan for employment;

(ii) additional information the eligible individual requests or the designated State unit determines to be necessary; and

(iii) information on the availability of assistance in completing designated State agency forms required in developing an individualized plan for employment; and


(D)(i) a description of the rights and remedies available to such an individual including, if appropriate, recourse to the processes set forth in subsection (c); and

(ii) a description of the availability of a client assistance program established pursuant to section 732 of this title and information about how to contact the client assistance program.

(2) Individuals desiring to enter the workforce

For an individual entitled to benefits under title II or XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1381 et seq.) on the basis of a disability or blindness, the designated State unit shall provide to the individual general information on additional supports and assistance for individuals with disabilities desiring to enter the workforce, including assistance with benefits planning.

(3) Mandatory procedures

(A) Written document

An individualized plan for employment shall be a written document prepared on forms provided by the designated State unit.

(B) Informed choice

An individualized plan for employment shall be developed and implemented in a manner that affords eligible individuals the opportunity to exercise informed choice in selecting an employment outcome, the specific vocational rehabilitation services to be provided under the plan, the entity that will provide the vocational rehabilitation services, and the methods used to procure the services, consistent with subsection (d).

(C) Signatories

An individualized plan for employment shall be—

(i) agreed to, and signed by, such eligible individual or, as appropriate, the individual's representative; and

(ii) approved and signed by a qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor employed by the designated State unit.

(D) Copy

A copy of the individualized plan for employment for an eligible individual shall be provided to the individual or, as appropriate, to the individual's representative, in writing and, if appropriate, in the native language or mode of communication of the individual or, as appropriate, of the individual's representative.

(E) Review and amendment

The individualized plan for employment shall be—

(i) reviewed at least annually by—

(I) a qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor; and

(II) the eligible individual or, as appropriate, the individual's representative;


(ii) amended, as necessary, by the individual or, as appropriate, the individual's representative, in collaboration with a representative of the designated State agency or a qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor (to the extent determined to be appropriate by the individual), if there are substantive changes in the employment outcome, the vocational rehabilitation services to be provided, or the service providers of the services (which amendments shall not take effect until agreed to and signed by the eligible individual or, as appropriate, the individual's representative, and by a qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor employed by the designated State unit); and

(iii) amended, as necessary, to include the postemployment services and service providers that are necessary for the individual to maintain or regain employment, consistent with the individual's strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice.

(F) Timeframe for completing the individualized plan for employment

The individualized plan for employment shall be developed as soon as possible, but not later than a deadline of 90 days after the date of the determination of eligibility described in paragraph (1), unless the designated State unit and the eligible individual agree to an extension of that deadline to a specific date by which the individualized plan for employment shall be completed.

(4) Mandatory components of an individualized plan for employment

Regardless of the approach selected by an eligible individual to develop an individualized plan for employment, an individualized plan for employment shall, at a minimum, contain mandatory components consisting of—

(A) a description of the specific employment outcome that is chosen by the eligible individual, consistent with the unique strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice of the eligible individual, consistent with the general goal of competitive integrated employment (except that in the case of an eligible individual who is a student, the description may be a description of the student's projected postschool employment outcome);

(B)(i) a description of the specific vocational rehabilitation services that are—

(I) needed to achieve the employment outcome, including, as appropriate—

(aa) the provision of assistive technology devices and assistive technology services (including referrals described in section 723(a)(3) of this title to the device reutilization programs and demonstrations described in subparagraphs (B) and (D) of section 3003(e)(2) of this title through agreements developed under section 721(a)(11)(I) of this title; and

(bb) personal assistance services (including training in the management of such services);


(II) in the case of a plan for an eligible individual that is a student, the specific transition services and supports needed to achieve the student's employment outcome or projected postschool employment outcome; and

(III) provided in the most integrated setting that is appropriate for the service involved and is consistent with the informed choice of the eligible individual; and


(ii) timelines for the achievement of the employment outcome and for the initiation of the services;

(C) a description of the entity chosen by the eligible individual or, as appropriate, the individual's representative, that will provide the vocational rehabilitation services, and the methods used to procure such services;

(D) a description of criteria to evaluate progress toward achievement of the employment outcome;

(E) the terms and conditions of the individualized plan for employment, including, as appropriate, information describing—

(i) the responsibilities of the designated State unit;

(ii) the responsibilities of the eligible individual, including—

(I) the responsibilities the eligible individual will assume in relation to the employment outcome of the individual;

(II) if applicable, the participation of the eligible individual in paying for the costs of the plan; and

(III) the responsibility of the eligible individual with regard to applying for and securing comparable benefits as described in section 721(a)(8) of this title; and


(iii) the responsibilities of other entities as the result of arrangements made pursuant to comparable services or benefits requirements as described in section 721(a)(8) of this title;


(F) for an eligible individual with the most significant disabilities for whom an employment outcome in a supported employment setting has been determined to be appropriate, information identifying—

(i) the extended services needed by the eligible individual; and

(ii) the source of extended services or, to the extent that the source of the extended services cannot be identified at the time of the development of the individualized plan for employment, a description of the basis for concluding that there is a reasonable expectation that such source will become available;


(G) as determined to be necessary, a statement of projected need for post-employment services; and

(H) for an individual who also is receiving assistance from an employment network under the Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program established under section 1148 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1320b–19), a description of how responsibility for service delivery will be divided between the employment network and the designated State unit.

(c) Procedures

(1) In general

Each State shall establish procedures for mediation of, and procedures for review through an impartial due process hearing of, determinations made by personnel of the designated State unit that affect the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to applicants or eligible individuals. The procedures shall allow an applicant or an eligible individual the opportunity to request mediation, an impartial due process hearing, or both procedures.

(2) Notification

(A) Rights and assistance

The procedures shall provide that an applicant or an eligible individual or, as appropriate, the applicant's representative or individual's representative shall be notified of—

(i) the right to obtain review of determinations described in paragraph (1) in an impartial due process hearing under paragraph (5);

(ii) the right to pursue mediation with respect to the determinations under paragraph (4);

(iii) the availability of assistance from the client assistance program under section 732 of this title; and

(iv) any applicable State limit on the time by which a request for mediation under paragraph (4) or a hearing under paragraph (5) shall be made, and any required procedure by which the request shall be made.

(B) Timing

Such notification shall be provided in writing—

(i) at the time an individual applies for vocational rehabilitation services provided under this subchapter;

(ii) at the time the individualized plan for employment for the individual is developed; and

(iii) upon reduction, suspension, or cessation of vocational rehabilitation services for the individual.

(3) Evidence and representation

The procedures required under this subsection shall, at a minimum—

(A) provide an opportunity for an applicant or an eligible individual, or, as appropriate, the applicant's representative or individual's representative, to submit at the mediation session or hearing evidence and information to support the position of the applicant or eligible individual; and

(B) include provisions to allow an applicant or an eligible individual to be represented in the mediation session or hearing by a person selected by the applicant or eligible individual.

(4) Mediation

(A) Procedures

Each State shall ensure that procedures are established and implemented under this subsection to allow parties described in paragraph (1) to disputes involving any determination described in paragraph (1) to resolve such disputes through a mediation process that, at a minimum, shall be available whenever a hearing is requested under this subsection.

(B) Requirements

Such procedures shall ensure that the mediation process—

(i) is voluntary on the part of the parties;

(ii) is not used to deny or delay the right of an individual to a hearing under this subsection, or to deny any other right afforded under this subchapter; and

(iii) is conducted by a qualified and impartial mediator who is trained in effective mediation techniques.

(C) List of mediators

The State shall maintain a list of individuals who are qualified mediators and knowledgeable in laws (including regulations) relating to the provision of vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter, from which the mediators described in subparagraph (B) shall be selected.

(D) Cost

The State shall bear the cost of the mediation process.

(E) Scheduling

Each session in the mediation process shall be scheduled in a timely manner and shall be held in a location that is convenient to the parties to the dispute.

(F) Agreement

An agreement reached by the parties to the dispute in the mediation process shall be set forth in a written mediation agreement.

(G) Confidentiality

Discussions that occur during the mediation process shall be confidential and may not be used as evidence in any subsequent due process hearing or civil proceeding. The parties to the mediation process may be required to sign a confidentiality pledge prior to the commencement of such process.

(H) Construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to preclude the parties to such a dispute from informally resolving the dispute prior to proceedings under this paragraph or paragraph (5), if the informal process used is not used to deny or delay the right of the applicant or eligible individual to a hearing under this subsection or to deny any other right afforded under this subchapter.

(5) Hearings

(A) Officer

A due process hearing described in paragraph (2) shall be conducted by an impartial hearing officer who, on reviewing the evidence presented, shall issue a written decision based on the provisions of the approved State plan, requirements specified in this chapter (including regulations implementing this chapter), and State regulations and policies that are consistent with the Federal requirements specified in this subchapter. The officer shall provide the written decision to the applicant or eligible individual, or, as appropriate, the applicant's representative or individual's representative, and to the designated State unit. The impartial hearing officer shall have the authority to render a decision and require actions regarding the applicant's or eligible individual's vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter.

(B) List

The designated State unit shall maintain a list of qualified impartial hearing officers who are knowledgeable about Federal laws (including regulations) relating to the provision of vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter from which the officer described in subparagraph (A) shall be selected. For the purposes of maintaining such list, impartial hearing officers shall be identified jointly by—

(i) the designated State unit; and

(ii) members of the Council or commission, as appropriate, described in section 721(a)(21) of this title.

(C) Selection

Such an impartial hearing officer shall be selected to hear a particular case relating to a determination—

(i) on a random basis; or

(ii) by agreement between—

(I) the Director of the designated State unit and the individual with a disability; or

(II) in appropriate cases, the Director and the individual's representative.

(D) Procedures for seeking review

A State may establish procedures to enable a party involved in a hearing under this paragraph to seek an impartial review of the decision of the hearing officer under subparagraph (A) by—

(i) the chief official of the designated State agency if the State has established both a designated State agency and a designated State unit under section 721(a)(2) of this title; or

(ii) an official from the office of the Governor.

(E) Review request

If the State establishes impartial review procedures under subparagraph (D), either party may request the review of the decision of the hearing officer within 20 days after the decision.

(F) Reviewing official

The reviewing official described in subparagraph (D) shall—

(i) in conducting the review, provide an opportunity for the submission of additional evidence and information relevant to a final decision concerning the matter under review;

(ii) not overturn or modify the decision of the hearing officer, or part of the decision, that supports the position of the applicant or eligible individual unless the reviewing official concludes, based on clear and convincing evidence, that the decision of the impartial hearing officer is clearly erroneous on the basis of being contrary to the approved State plan, this chapter (including regulations implementing this chapter) or any State regulation or policy that is consistent with the Federal requirements specified in this subchapter;

(iii) make a final decision with respect to the matter in a timely manner and provide such decision in writing to the applicant or eligible individual, or, as appropriate, the applicant's representative or individual's representative, and to the designated State unit, including a full report of the findings and the grounds for such decision; and

(iv) not delegate the responsibility for making the final decision to any officer or employee of the designated State unit.

(G) Finality of hearing decision

A decision made after a hearing under subparagraph (A) shall be final, except that a party may request an impartial review if the State has established procedures for such review under subparagraph (D) and a party involved in a hearing may bring a civil action under subparagraph (J).

(H) Finality of review

A decision made under subparagraph (F) shall be final unless such a party brings a civil action under subparagraph (J).

(I) Implementation

If a party brings a civil action under subparagraph (J) to challenge a final decision of a hearing officer under subparagraph (A) or to challenge a final decision of a State reviewing official under subparagraph (F), the final decision involved shall be implemented pending review by the court.

(J) Civil action

(i) In general

Any party aggrieved by a final decision described in subparagraph (I), may bring a civil action for review of such decision. The action may be brought in any State court of competent jurisdiction or in a district court of the United States of competent jurisdiction without regard to the amount in controversy.

(ii) Procedure

In any action brought under this subparagraph, the court—

(I) shall receive the records relating to the hearing under subparagraph (A) and the records relating to the State review under subparagraphs (D) through (F), if applicable;

(II) shall hear additional evidence at the request of a party to the action; and

(III) basing the decision of the court on the preponderance of the evidence, shall grant such relief as the court determines to be appropriate.

(6) Hearing board

(A) In general

A fair hearing board, established by a State before January 1, 1985, and authorized under State law to review determinations or decisions under this chapter, is authorized to carry out the responsibilities of the impartial hearing officer under this subsection.

(B) Application

The provisions of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) that relate to due process hearings do not apply, and paragraph (5) (other than subparagraph (J)) does not apply, to any State to which subparagraph (A) applies.

(7) Impact on provision of services

Unless the individual with a disability so requests, or, in an appropriate case, the individual's representative, so requests, pending a decision by a mediator, hearing officer, or reviewing officer under this subsection, the designated State unit shall not institute a suspension, reduction, or termination of services being provided for the individual, including evaluation and assessment services and plan development, unless such services have been obtained through misrepresentation, fraud, collusion, or criminal conduct on the part of the individual, or the individual's representative.

(8) Information collection and report

(A) In general

The Director of the designated State unit shall collect information described in subparagraph (B) and prepare and submit to the Commissioner a report containing such information. The Commissioner shall prepare a summary of the information furnished under this paragraph and include the summary in the annual report submitted under section 710 of this title. The Commissioner shall also collect copies of the final decisions of impartial hearing officers conducting hearings under this subsection and State officials conducting reviews under this subsection.

(B) Information

The information required to be collected under this subsection includes—

(i) a copy of the standards used by State reviewing officials for reviewing decisions made by impartial hearing officers under this subsection;

(ii) information on the number of hearings and reviews sought from the impartial hearing officers and the State reviewing officials, including the type of complaints and the issues involved;

(iii) information on the number of hearing decisions made under this subsection that were not reviewed by the State reviewing officials; and

(iv) information on the number of the hearing decisions that were reviewed by the State reviewing officials, and, based on such reviews, the number of hearing decisions that were—

(I) sustained in favor of an applicant or eligible individual;

(II) sustained in favor of the designated State unit;

(III) reversed in whole or in part in favor of the applicant or eligible individual; and

(IV) reversed in whole or in part in favor of the designated State unit.

(C) Confidentiality

The confidentiality of records of applicants and eligible individuals maintained by the designated State unit shall not preclude the access of the Commissioner to those records for the purposes described in subparagraph (A).

(d) Policies and procedures

Each designated State agency, in consultation with the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a council, shall, consistent with section 720(a)(3)(C) of this title, develop and implement written policies and procedures that enable each individual who is an applicant for or eligible to receive vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter to exercise informed choice throughout the vocational rehabilitation process carried out under this subchapter, including policies and procedures that require the designated State agency—

(1) to inform each such applicant and eligible individual (including students with disabilities who are making the transition from programs under the responsibility of an educational agency to programs under the responsibility of the designated State unit), through appropriate modes of communication, about the availability of, and opportunities to exercise, informed choice, including the availability of support services for individuals with cognitive or other disabilities who require assistance in exercising informed choice, throughout the vocational rehabilitation process;

(2) to assist applicants and eligible individuals in exercising informed choice in decisions related to the provision of assessment services under this subchapter;

(3) to develop and implement flexible procurement policies and methods that facilitate the provision of services, and that afford eligible individuals meaningful choices among the methods used to procure services, under this subchapter;

(4) to provide or assist eligible individuals in acquiring information that enables those individuals to exercise informed choice under this subchapter in the selection of—

(A) the employment outcome;

(B) the specific vocational rehabilitation services needed to achieve the employment outcome;

(C) the entity that will provide the services;

(D) the employment setting and the settings in which the services will be provided; and

(E) the methods available for procuring the services; and


(5) to ensure that the availability and scope of informed choice provided under this section is consistent with the obligations of the designated State agency under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1138; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(5)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-415; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §413, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1649.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(A) and (b)(2), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Titles II and XVI of the Act are classified generally to subchapters II (§401 et seq.) and XVI (§1381 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 722, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §102, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 368; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §111(e), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1620; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §111(e), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–5; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §§103, 122(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2959, 2987; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §§104(a)(3), 112, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 18, 20; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(A), (B), title II, §203, title X, §1001(b)(5), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1815, 1842; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(c), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3305; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §§102(p)(8), 123, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4357, 4375; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §107(b), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 720, related to individualized written rehabilitation program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(1)(C), which directed the insertion "at the end" of "For purposes of an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs under this chapter, an individual shall be presumed to have a goal of an employment outcome.", was executed by inserting text as concluding provisions of par. (1) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(1)(A), substituted "has undergone an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs and as a result has been determined to be an" for "is an".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(1)(B), substituted "advance in, or regain employment that is consistent with the individual's strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice." for "or regain employment."

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(2)(A), substituted "Applicants" for "Demonstration" in heading and struck out ", unless the designated State unit involved can demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that such individual is incapable of benefiting in terms of an employment outcome from vocational rehabilitation services due to the severity of the disability of the individual" before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(2)(B), in heading, substituted "Responsibilities" for "Methods" and, in text, substituted "Prior to determining under this subsection that an applicant described in subparagraph (A) is unable to benefit due to the severity of the individual's disability or that the individual is ineligible for vocational rehabilitation services," for "In making the demonstration required under subparagraph (A),", "through the designated State unit." for "through the designated State unit, except under limited circumstances when an individual cannot take advantage of such experiences.", and "individual. In providing the trial experiences, the designated State unit shall provide the individual with the opportunity to try different employment experiences, including supported employment, and the opportunity to become employed in competitive integrated employment." for "individual or to determine the existence of clear and convincing evidence that the individual is incapable of benefiting in terms of an employment outcome from vocational rehabilitation services due to the severity of the disability of the individual."

Subsec. (a)(3)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(3), substituted "outcome due to the severity of the individual's disability (as of the date of the determination)." for "outcome from vocational rehabilitation services due to the severity of the disability of the individual in accordance with paragraph (2)."

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(4)(B), (C), added subpar. (A) and redesignated former subpars. (A) to (D) as (B) to (E), respectively.

Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(4)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted "If, after the designated State unit carries out the activities described in paragraph (2)(B), a review of existing data, and, to the extent necessary, the assessment activities described in section 705(2)(A)(ii) of this title, an individual" for "If an individual" and "subchapter is determined not to be" for "subchapter is determined, based on the review of existing data and, to the extent necessary, the assessment activities described in section 705(2)(A)(ii) of this title, not to be".

Subsec. (a)(5)(C)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(a)(4)(D), inserted ", including the clear and convincing evidence that forms the basis for the determination of ineligibility" after "determination".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(1), struck out ", to the extent determined to be appropriate by the eligible individual," after "availability of assistance" and inserted "or, as appropriate, a disability advocacy organization" after "counselor".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(3), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(2), redesignated par. (2) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (b)(3)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(4)(A), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(3)(F). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(4)(B), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(2), redesignated par. (3) as (4).

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(5)(A), substituted "choice of the eligible individual, consistent with the general goal of competitive integrated employment (except that in the case of an eligible individual who is a student, the description may be a description of the student's projected postschool employment outcome);" for "choice of the eligible individual, and, to the maximum extent appropriate, results in employment in an integrated setting;".

Subsec. (b)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(5)(B), added subcls. (I) and (II), redesignated former subcl. (II) as (III), and struck out former subcl. (I) which read as follows: "needed to achieve the employment outcome, including, as appropriate, the provision of assistive technology devices and assistive technology services, and personal assistance services, including training in the management of such services; and".

Subsec. (b)(4)(H). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(b)(5)(C)–(E), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(c)(1), inserted at end "The procedures shall allow an applicant or an eligible individual the opportunity to request mediation, an impartial due process hearing, or both procedures."

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(c)(2), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(c)(3)(A), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "A due process hearing described in paragraph (2) shall be conducted by an impartial hearing officer who shall issue a decision based on the provisions of the approved State plan, this chapter (including regulations implementing this chapter), and State regulations and policies that are consistent with the Federal requirements specified in this subchapter. The officer shall provide the decision in writing to the applicant or eligible individual, or, as appropriate, the applicant's representative or individual's representative, and to the designated State unit."

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §413(c)(3)(B), substituted "about Federal laws" for "in laws" in introductory provisions.

1998—Subsec. (c)(5)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 105–277 added cl. (iv).

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

§723. Vocational rehabilitation services

(a) Vocational rehabilitation services for individuals

Vocational rehabilitation services provided under this subchapter are any services described in an individualized plan for employment necessary to assist an individual with a disability in preparing for, securing, retaining, or regaining an employment outcome that is consistent with the strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice of the individual, including—

(1) an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs by qualified personnel, including, if appropriate, an assessment by personnel skilled in rehabilitation technology;

(2) counseling and guidance, including information and support services to assist an individual in exercising informed choice consistent with the provisions of section 722(d) of this title;

(3) referral and other services to secure needed services from other agencies through agreements developed under section 721(a)(11) of this title, if such services are not available under this subchapter;

(4) job-related services, including job search and placement assistance, job retention services, followup services, and follow-along services;

(5) vocational and other training services, including the provision of personal and vocational adjustment services, books, tools, and other training materials, except that no training services provided at an institution of higher education shall be paid for with funds under this subchapter unless maximum efforts have been made by the designated State unit and the individual to secure grant assistance, in whole or in part, from other sources to pay for such training;

(6) to the extent that financial support is not readily available from a source (such as through health insurance of the individual or through comparable services and benefits consistent with section 721(a)(8)(A) of this title), other than the designated State unit, diagnosis and treatment of physical and mental impairments, including—

(A) corrective surgery or therapeutic treatment necessary to correct or substantially modify a physical or mental condition that constitutes a substantial impediment to employment, but is of such a nature that such correction or modification may reasonably be expected to eliminate or reduce such impediment to employment within a reasonable length of time;

(B) necessary hospitalization in connection with surgery or treatment;

(C) prosthetic and orthotic devices;

(D) eyeglasses and visual services as prescribed by qualified personnel who meet State licensure laws and who are selected by the individual;

(E) special services (including transplantation and dialysis), artificial kidneys, and supplies necessary for the treatment of individuals with end-stage renal disease; and

(F) diagnosis and treatment for mental and emotional disorders by qualified personnel who meet State licensure laws;


(7) maintenance for additional costs incurred while participating in an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs or while receiving services under an individualized plan for employment;

(8) transportation, including adequate training in the use of public transportation vehicles and systems, that is provided in connection with the provision of any other service described in this section and needed by the individual to achieve an employment outcome;

(9) on-the-job or other related personal assistance services provided while an individual is receiving other services described in this section;

(10) interpreter services provided by qualified personnel for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, and reader services for individuals who are determined to be blind, after an examination by qualified personnel who meet State licensure laws;

(11) rehabilitation teaching services, and orientation and mobility services, for individuals who are blind;

(12) occupational licenses, tools, equipment, and initial stocks and supplies;

(13) technical assistance and other consultation services to conduct market analyses, develop business plans, and otherwise provide resources, to the extent such resources are authorized to be provided through the statewide workforce development system, to eligible individuals who are pursuing self-employment or telecommuting or establishing a small business operation as an employment outcome;

(14) rehabilitation technology, including telecommunications, sensory, and other technological aids and devices;

(15) transition services for students with disabilities, that facilitate the transition from school to postsecondary life, such as achievement of an employment outcome in competitive integrated employment, or pre-employment transition services;

(16) supported employment services;

(17) customized employment;

(18) encouraging qualified individuals who are eligible to receive services under this subchapter to pursue advanced training in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (including computer science) field, medicine, law, or business;

(19) services to the family of an individual with a disability necessary to assist the individual to achieve an employment outcome; and

(20) specific post-employment services necessary to assist an individual with a disability to, retain, regain, or advance in employment.

(b) Vocational rehabilitation services for groups of individuals

Vocational rehabilitation services provided for the benefit of groups of individuals with disabilities may also include the following:

(1) In the case of any type of small business operated by individuals with significant disabilities the operation of which can be improved by management services and supervision provided by the designated State agency, the provision of such services and supervision, along or together with the acquisition by the designated State agency of vending facilities or other equipment and initial stocks and supplies.

(2) The establishment, development, or improvement of community rehabilitation programs, including, under special circumstances, the construction of a facility. Such programs shall be used to provide services described in this section that promote integration into the community and that prepare individuals with disabilities for competitive integrated employment, including supported employment and customized employment.

(3) The use of telecommunications systems (including telephone, television, satellite, radio, and other similar systems) that have the potential for substantially improving delivery methods of activities described in this section and developing appropriate programming to meet the particular needs of individuals with disabilities.

(4)(A) Special services to provide nonvisual access to information for individuals who are blind, including the use of telecommunications, Braille, sound recordings, or other appropriate media.

(B) Captioned television, films, or video cassettes for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing.

(C) Tactile materials for individuals who are deaf-blind.

(D) Other special services that provide information through tactile, vibratory, auditory, and visual media.

(5) Technical assistance to businesses that are seeking to employ individuals with disabilities.

(6) Consultation and technical assistance services to assist State educational agencies and local educational agencies in planning for the transition of students with disabilities from school to postsecondary life, including employment.

(7) Transition services to youth with disabilities and students with disabilities, for which a vocational rehabilitation counselor works in concert with educational agencies, providers of job training programs, providers of services under the Medicaid program under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.), entities designated by the State to provide services for individuals with developmental disabilities, centers for independent living (as defined in section 796a of this title), housing and transportation authorities, workforce development systems, and businesses and employers.

(8) The establishment, development, or improvement of assistive technology demonstration, loan, reutilization, or financing programs in coordination with activities authorized under the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.) to promote access to assistive technology for individuals with disabilities and employers.

(9) Support (including, as appropriate, tuition) for advanced training in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (including computer science) field, medicine, law, or business, provided after an individual eligible to receive services under this subchapter, demonstrates—

(A) such eligibility;

(B) previous completion of a bachelor's degree program at an institution of higher education or scheduled completion of such degree program prior to matriculating in the program for which the individual proposes to use the support; and

(C) acceptance by a program at an institution of higher education in the United States that confers a master's degree in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (including computer science) field, a juris doctor degree, a master of business administration degree, or a doctor of medicine degree,


except that the limitations of subsection (a)(5) that apply to training services shall apply to support described in this paragraph, and nothing in this paragraph shall prevent any designated State unit from providing similar support to individuals with disabilities within the State who are eligible to receive support under this subchapter and who are not served under this paragraph.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1148; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §414, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1652.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(7), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title XIX of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Assistive Technology Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (b)(8), is Pub. L. 105–394, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3627, which is classified principally to chapter 31 (§3001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3001 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 723, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §103, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 368; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §104, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2960; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2), title II, §204, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1817; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(d), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3305; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §§102(p)(9), 124, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4357, 4379; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §107(c), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 721, related to scope of vocational rehabilitation services, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 113–128, §414(1)(A), substituted "workforce development system" for "workforce investment system".

Subsec. (a)(15). Pub. L. 113–128, §414(1)(B), added par. (15) and struck out former par. (15) which read as follows: "transition services for students with disabilities, that facilitate the achievement of the employment outcome identified in the individualized plan for employment;".

Subsec. (a)(17) to (20). Pub. L. 113–128, §414(1)(C), (D), added pars. (17) and (18) and redesignated former pars. (17) and (18) as (19) and (20), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §414(2)(A), struck out subpar. (A) designation, substituted "Such programs shall be used to provide services described in this section that promote integration into the community and that prepare individuals with disabilities for competitive integrated employment, including supported employment and customized employment." for "Such programs shall be used to provide services that promote integration and competitive employment.", and struck out subpar. (B) which read as follows: "The provision of other services, that promise to contribute substantially to the rehabilitation of a group of individuals but that are not related directly to the individualized plan for employment of any 1 individual with a disability."

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 113–128, §414(2)(B), added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "Technical assistance and support services to businesses that are not subject to title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12111 et seq.) and that are seeking to employ individuals with disabilities."

Subsec. (b)(6) to (9). Pub. L. 113–128, §414(2)(C), added pars. (6) to (9) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "Consultative and technical assistance services to assist educational agencies in planning for the transition of students with disabilities from school to post-school activities, including employment."

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

§724. Non-Federal share for establishment of program or construction

For the purpose of determining the amount of payments to States for carrying out part B (or to an Indian tribe under part C), the non-Federal share, subject to such limitations and conditions as may be prescribed in regulations by the Commissioner, shall include contributions of funds made by any private agency, organization, or individual to a State or local agency to assist in meeting the costs of establishment of a community rehabilitation program or construction, under special circumstances, of a facility for such a program, which would be regarded as State or local funds except for the condition, imposed by the contributor, limiting use of such funds to establishment of such a program or construction of such a facility.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1151.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 724, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §104, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 370; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2987; Pub. L. 99–506, title II, §205, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1817; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §125, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4381, related to non-Federal share for construction, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

§725. State Rehabilitation Council

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

Except as provided in section 721(a)(21)(A)(i) of this title, to be eligible to receive financial assistance under this subchapter a State shall establish a State Rehabilitation Council (referred to in this section as the "Council") in accordance with this section.

(2) Separate agency for individuals who are blind

A State that designates a State agency to administer the part of the State plan under which vocational rehabilitation services are provided for individuals who are blind under section 721(a)(2)(A)(i) of this title may establish a separate Council in accordance with this section to perform the duties of such a Council with respect to such State agency.

(b) Composition and appointment

(1) Composition

(A) In general

Except in the case of a separate Council established under subsection (a)(2), the Council shall be composed of—

(i) at least one representative of the Statewide Independent Living Council established under section 796d of this title, which representative may be the chairperson or other designee of the Council;

(ii) at least one representative of a parent training and information center established pursuant to section 671 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1471];

(iii) at least one representative of the client assistance program established under section 732 of this title;

(iv) at least one qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor, with knowledge of and experience with vocational rehabilitation programs, who shall serve as an ex officio, nonvoting member of the Council if the counselor is an employee of the designated State agency;

(v) at least one representative of community rehabilitation program service providers;

(vi) four representatives of business, industry, and labor;

(vii) representatives of disability advocacy groups representing a cross section of—

(I) individuals with physical, cognitive, sensory, and mental disabilities; and

(II) individuals' representatives of individuals with disabilities who have difficulty in representing themselves or are unable due to their disabilities to represent themselves;


(viii) current or former applicants for, or recipients of, vocational rehabilitation services;

(ix) in a State in which one or more projects are funded under section 741 of this title, at least one representative of the directors of the projects located in such State;

(x) at least one representative of the State educational agency responsible for the public education of students with disabilities who are eligible to receive services under this subchapter and part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1411 et seq.]; and

(xi) at least one representative of the State workforce development board.

(B) Separate Council

In the case of a separate Council established under subsection (a)(2), the Council shall be composed of—

(i) at least one representative described in subparagraph (A)(i);

(ii) at least one representative described in subparagraph (A)(ii);

(iii) at least one representative described in subparagraph (A)(iii);

(iv) at least one vocational rehabilitation counselor described in subparagraph (A)(iv), who shall serve as described in such subparagraph;

(v) at least one representative described in subparagraph (A)(v);

(vi) four representatives described in subparagraph (A)(vi);

(vii) at least one representative of a disability advocacy group representing individuals who are blind;

(viii) at least one individual's representative, of an individual who—

(I) is an individual who is blind and has multiple disabilities; and

(II) has difficulty in representing himself or herself or is unable due to disabilities to represent himself or herself;


(ix) applicants or recipients described in subparagraph (A)(viii);

(x) in a State described in subparagraph (A)(ix), at least one representative described in such subparagraph;

(xi) at least one representative described in subparagraph (A)(x); and

(xii) at least one representative described in subparagraph (A)(xi).

(C) Exception

In the case of a separate Council established under subsection (a)(2), any Council that is required by State law, as in effect on October 29, 1992, to have fewer than 15 members shall be deemed to be in compliance with subparagraph (B) if the Council—

(i) meets the requirements of subparagraph (B), other than the requirements of clauses (vi) and (ix) of such subparagraph; and

(ii) includes at least—

(I) one representative described in subparagraph (B)(vi); and

(II) one applicant or recipient described in subparagraph (B)(ix).

(2) Ex officio member

The Director of the designated State unit shall be an ex officio, nonvoting member of the Council.

(3) Appointment

Members of the Council shall be appointed by the Governor or, in the case of a State that, under State law, vests authority for the administration of the activities carried out under this chapter in an entity other than the Governor (such as one or more houses of the State legislature or an independent board), the chief officer of that entity. The appointing authority shall select members after soliciting recommendations from representatives of organizations representing a broad range of individuals with disabilities and organizations interested in individuals with disabilities. In selecting members, the appointing authority shall consider, to the greatest extent practicable, the extent to which minority populations are represented on the Council.

(4) Qualifications

(A) In general

A majority of Council members shall be persons who are—

(i) individuals with disabilities described in section 705(20)(B) of this title; and

(ii) not employed by the designated State unit.

(B) Separate Council

In the case of a separate Council established under subsection (a)(2), a majority of Council members shall be persons who are—

(i) blind; and

(ii) not employed by the designated State unit.

(5) Chairperson

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the Council shall select a chairperson from among the membership of the Council.

(B) Designation by chief executive officer

In States in which the chief executive officer does not have veto power pursuant to State law, the appointing authority described in paragraph (3) shall designate a member of the Council to serve as the chairperson of the Council or shall require the Council to so designate such a member.

(6) Terms of appointment

(A) Length of term

Each member of the Council shall serve for a term of not more than 3 years, except that—

(i) a member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which a predecessor was appointed, shall be appointed for the remainder of such term; and

(ii) the terms of service of the members initially appointed shall be (as specified by the appointing authority described in paragraph (3)) for such fewer number of years as will provide for the expiration of terms on a staggered basis.

(B) Number of terms

No member of the Council, other than a representative described in clause (iii) or (ix) of paragraph (1)(A), or clause (iii) or (x) of paragraph (1)(B), may serve more than two consecutive full terms.

(7) Vacancies

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), any vacancy occurring in the membership of the Council shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment. The vacancy shall not affect the power of the remaining members to execute the duties of the Council.

(B) Delegation

The appointing authority described in paragraph (3) may delegate the authority to fill such a vacancy to the remaining members of the Council after making the original appointment.

(c) Functions of Council

The Council shall, after consulting with the State workforce development board—

(1) review, analyze, and advise the designated State unit regarding the performance of the responsibilities of the unit under this subchapter, particularly responsibilities relating to—

(A) eligibility (including order of selection);

(B) the extent, scope, and effectiveness of services provided; and

(C) functions performed by State agencies that affect or that potentially affect the ability of individuals with disabilities in achieving employment outcomes under this subchapter;


(2) in partnership with the designated State unit—

(A) develop, agree to, and review State goals and priorities in accordance with section 721(a)(15)(C) of this title; and

(B) evaluate the effectiveness of the vocational rehabilitation program and submit reports of progress to the Commissioner in accordance with section 721(a)(15)(E) of this title;


(3) advise the designated State agency and the designated State unit regarding activities authorized to be carried out under this subchapter, and assist in the preparation of the State plan and amendments to the plan, applications, reports, needs assessments, and evaluations required by this subchapter;

(4) to the extent feasible, conduct a review and analysis of the effectiveness of, and consumer satisfaction with—

(A) the functions performed by the designated State agency;

(B) vocational rehabilitation services provided by State agencies and other public and private entities responsible for providing vocational rehabilitation services to individuals with disabilities under this chapter; and

(C) employment outcomes achieved by eligible individuals receiving services under this subchapter, including the availability of health and other employment benefits in connection with such employment outcomes;


(5) prepare and submit an annual report to the Governor and the Commissioner on the status of vocational rehabilitation programs operated within the State, and make the report available to the public;

(6) to avoid duplication of efforts and enhance the number of individuals served, coordinate activities with the activities of other councils within the State, including the Statewide Independent Living Council established under section 796d of this title, the advisory panel established under section 612(a)(20) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(20)], the State Council on Developmental Disabilities established under section 15025 of title 42, the State mental health planning council established under section 300x–3(a) of title 42 and the State workforce development board, and with the activities of entities carrying out programs under the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.);

(7) provide for coordination and the establishment of working relationships between the designated State agency and the Statewide Independent Living Council and centers for independent living within the State; and

(8) perform such other functions, consistent with the purpose of this subchapter, as the State Rehabilitation Council determines to be appropriate, that are comparable to the other functions performed by the Council.

(d) Resources

(1) Plan

The Council shall prepare, in conjunction with the designated State unit, a plan for the provision of such resources, including such staff and other personnel, as may be necessary and sufficient to carry out the functions of the Council under this section. The resource plan shall, to the maximum extent possible, rely on the use of resources in existence during the period of implementation of the plan.

(2) Resolution of disagreements

To the extent that there is a disagreement between the Council and the designated State unit in regard to the resources necessary to carry out the functions of the Council as set forth in this section, the disagreement shall be resolved by the Governor consistent with paragraph (1).

(3) Supervision and evaluation

Each Council shall, consistent with State law, supervise and evaluate such staff and other personnel as may be necessary to carry out its functions under this section.

(4) Personnel conflict of interest

While assisting the Council in carrying out its duties, staff and other personnel shall not be assigned duties by the designated State unit or any other agency or office of the State, that would create a conflict of interest.

(e) Conflict of interest

No member of the Council shall cast a vote on any matter that would provide direct financial benefit to the member or otherwise give the appearance of a conflict of interest under State law.

(f) Meetings

The Council shall convene at least four meetings a year in such places as it determines to be necessary to conduct Council business and conduct such forums or hearings as the Council considers appropriate. The meetings, hearings, and forums shall be publicly announced. The meetings shall be open and accessible to the general public unless there is a valid reason for an executive session.

(g) Compensation and expenses

The Council may use funds allocated to the Council by the designated State unit under this subchapter (except for funds appropriated to carry out the client assistance program under section 732 of this title and funds reserved pursuant to section 730(c) of this title to carry out part C) to reimburse members of the Council for reasonable and necessary expenses of attending Council meetings and performing Council duties (including child care and personal assistance services), and to pay compensation to a member of the Council, if such member is not employed or must forfeit wages from other employment, for each day the member is engaged in performing the duties of the Council.

(h) Hearings and forums

The Council is authorized to hold such hearings and forums as the Council may determine to be necessary to carry out the duties of the Council.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §105, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1151; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(6)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-415; Pub. L. 106–402, title IV, §401(b)(3)(A), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1737; Pub. L. 108–446, title III, §305(h)(2), (3), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2805; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §415, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1654.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A)(x), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, as amended. Part B of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§1411 et seq.) of chapter 33 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Assistive Technology Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (c)(6), is Pub. L. 105–394, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3627, which is classified principally to chapter 31 (§3001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3001 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 725, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §105, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §126(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4381; amended Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §107(d)(1), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 721, related to State Rehabilitation Advisory Council, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ix). Pub. L. 113–128, §415(1)(A), added cl. (ix) and struck out former cl. (ix) which read as follows: "in a State in which one or more projects are carried out under section 741 of this title, at least one representative of the directors of the projects;".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(xi). Pub. L. 113–128, §415(1)(B), substituted "State workforce development board" for "State workforce investment board".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–128, §415(2)(A), substituted "State workforce development board" for "State workforce investment board" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 113–128, §415(2)(B), substituted "section 300x–3(a) of title 42 and the State workforce development board, and with the activities of entities carrying out programs under the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.);" for "section 300x–3(a) of title 42, and the State workforce investment board;".

2004—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 108–446, §305(h)(2), substituted "671 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" for "682(a) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (as added by section 101 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997; Public Law 105–17)".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 108–446, §305(h)(3), substituted "section 612(a)(20)" for "section 612(a)(21)" and "Individuals with" for "Individual with" and struck out "(as amended by section 101 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997; Public Law 105–17)" before ", the State Council".

2000—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 106–402 substituted "the State Council on Developmental Disabilities established under section 15025 of title 42" for "the State Developmental Disabilities Council described in section 6024 of title 42".

1998—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(6)(A)], substituted "Governor or, in the case of a State that, under State law, vests authority for the administration of the activities carried out under this chapter in an entity other than the Governor (such as one or more houses of the State legislature or an independent board), the chief officer of that entity" for "Governor" in first sentence and "appointing authority" for "Governor" in second and third sentences.

Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(6)(B)], substituted "section 705(20)(B)" for "section 705(20)(A)".

Subsec. (b)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(6)(C)], substituted "chief executive officer" for "Governor" in heading and "appointing authority described in paragraph (3) shall" for "Governor shall" in text.

Subsec. (b)(6)(A)(ii), (7)(B). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(c)(6)(D)], substituted "appointing authority described in paragraph (3)" for "Governor".

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

§726. Evaluation standards and performance indicators

(a) In general

(1) Standards and indicators

The evaluation standards and performance indicators for the vocational rehabilitation program carried out under this subchapter shall be subject to the performance accountability provisions described in section 3141(b) of this title.

(2) Additional performance accountability indicators

A State may establish and provide information on additional performance accountability indicators, which shall be identified in the State plan submitted under section 721 of this title.

(b) Compliance

(1) State reports

In accordance with regulations established by the Secretary, each State shall report to the Commissioner after the end of each fiscal year the extent to which the State is in compliance with the standards and indicators.

(2) Program improvement

(A) Plan

If the Commissioner determines that the performance of any State is below established standards, the Commissioner shall provide technical assistance to the State, and the State and the Commissioner shall jointly develop a program improvement plan outlining the specific actions to be taken by the State to improve program performance.

(B) Review

The Commissioner shall—

(i) on a biannual basis, review the program improvement efforts of the State and, if the State has not improved its performance to acceptable levels, as determined by the Commissioner, direct the State to make further revisions to the plan to improve performance; and

(ii) continue to conduct such reviews and request such revisions until the State sustains satisfactory performance over a period of more than 1 year.

(c) Withholding

If the Commissioner determines that a State whose performance falls below the established standards has failed to enter into a program improvement plan, or is not complying substantially with the terms and conditions of such a program improvement plan, the Commissioner shall, consistent with subsections (c) and (d) of section 727 of this title, reduce or make no further payments to the State under this program, until the State has entered into an approved program improvement plan, or satisfies the Commissioner that the State is complying substantially with the terms and conditions of such a program improvement plan, as appropriate.

(d) Report to Congress

Beginning in fiscal year 1999, the Commissioner shall include in each annual report to the Congress under section 710 of this title an analysis of program performance, including relative State performance, based on the standards and indicators.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1156; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §416, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1654.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 726, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §127(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4385, related to evaluation standards and performance indicators, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–128, §416(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which provided for the establishment, review, and revision of evaluation standards and performance indicators.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §416(2), substituted "on a biannual basis, review the program improvement efforts of the State and, if the State has not improved its performance to acceptable levels, as determined by the Commissioner, direct the State" for "review the program improvement efforts of the State on a biannual basis and, if necessary, request the State".

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

§727. Monitoring and review

(a) In general

(1) Duties

In carrying out the duties of the Commissioner under this subchapter, the Commissioner shall—

(A) provide for the annual review and periodic onsite monitoring of programs under this subchapter; and

(B) determine whether, in the administration of the State plan, a State is complying substantially with the provisions of such plan and with evaluation standards and performance indicators established under section 726 of this title.

(2) Procedures for reviews

In conducting reviews under this section the Commissioner shall consider, at a minimum—

(A) State policies and procedures;

(B) guidance materials;

(C) decisions resulting from hearings conducted in accordance with due process;

(D) State goals established under section 721(a)(15) of this title and the extent to which the State has achieved such goals;

(E) plans and reports prepared under section 726(b) of this title;

(F) consumer satisfaction reviews and analyses described in section 725(c)(4) of this title;

(G) information provided by the State Rehabilitation Council established under section 725 of this title, if the State has such a Council, or by the commission described in section 721(a)(21)(A)(i) of this title, if the State has such a commission;

(H) reports; and

(I) budget and financial management data.

(3) Procedures for monitoring

In conducting monitoring under this section the Commissioner shall conduct—

(A) onsite visits, including onsite reviews of records to verify that the State is following requirements regarding the order of selection set forth in section 721(a)(5)(A) of this title;

(B) public hearings and other strategies for collecting information from the public;

(C) meetings with the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council or with the commission described in section 721(a)(21)(A)(i) of this title, if the State has such a commission;

(D) reviews of individual case files, including individualized plans for employment and ineligibility determinations; and

(E) meetings with qualified vocational rehabilitation counselors and other personnel, including personnel of a client assistance program under section 732 of this title, and past or current recipients of vocational rehabilitation services.

(4) Areas of inquiry

In conducting the review and monitoring, the Commissioner shall examine—

(A) the eligibility process, including the process related to the determination of ineligibility under section 722(a)(5) of this title;

(B) the provision of services, including supported employment services and pre-employment transition services, and, if applicable, the order of selection;

(C) such other areas as may be identified by the public or through meetings with the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council or with the commission described in section 721(a)(21)(A)(i) of this title, if the State has such a commission;

(D) data reported under section 721(a)(10)(C)(i) of this title; and

(E) such other areas of inquiry as the Commissioner may consider appropriate.

(5) Reports

If the Commissioner issues a report detailing the findings of an annual review or onsite monitoring conducted under this section, the report shall be made available to the State Rehabilitation Council, if the State has such a Council, for use in the development and modification of the State plan described in section 721 of this title.

(b) Technical assistance

The Commissioner shall—

(1) provide technical assistance to programs under this subchapter regarding improving the quality of vocational rehabilitation services provided;

(2) provide technical assistance and establish a corrective action plan for a program under this subchapter if the Commissioner finds that the program fails to comply substantially with the provisions of the State plan, or with evaluation standards or performance indicators established under section 726 of this title, in order to ensure that such failure is corrected as soon as practicable; and

(3) provide technical assistance to programs under this subchapter to—

(A) promote high-quality employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities;

(B) integrate veterans who are individuals with disabilities into their communities and to support the veterans to obtain and retain competitive integrated employment;

(C) develop, improve, and disseminate information on procedures, practices, and strategies, including for the preparation of personnel, to better enable individuals with intellectual disabilities and other individuals with disabilities to participate in postsecondary educational experiences and to obtain and retain competitive integrated employment; and

(D) apply evidence-based findings to facilitate systemic improvements in the transition of youth with disabilities to postsecondary life.

(c) Failure to comply with plan

(1) Withholding payments

Whenever the Commissioner, after providing reasonable notice and an opportunity for a hearing to the State agency administering or supervising the administration of the State plan approved under section 721 of this title, finds that—

(A) the plan has been so changed that it no longer complies with the requirements of section 721(a) of this title; or

(B) in the administration of the plan there is a failure to comply substantially with any provision of such plan or with an evaluation standard or performance indicator established under section 726 of this title,


the Commissioner shall notify such State agency that no further payments will be made to the State under this subchapter (or, in the discretion of the Commissioner, that such further payments will be reduced, in accordance with regulations the Commissioner shall prescribe, or that further payments will not be made to the State only for the projects under the parts of the State plan affected by such failure), until the Commissioner is satisfied there is no longer any such failure.

(2) Period

Until the Commissioner is so satisfied, the Commissioner shall make no further payments to such State under this subchapter (or shall reduce payments or limit payments to projects under those parts of the State plan in which there is no such failure).

(3) Disbursal of withheld funds

The Commissioner may, in accordance with regulations the Secretary shall prescribe, disburse any funds withheld from a State under paragraph (1) to any public or nonprofit private organization or agency within such State or to any political subdivision of such State submitting a plan meeting the requirements of section 721(a) of this title. The Commissioner may not make any payment under this paragraph unless the entity to which such payment is made has provided assurances to the Commissioner that such entity will contribute, for purposes of carrying out such plan, the same amount as the State would have been obligated to contribute if the State received such payment.

(d) Review

(1) Petition

Any State that is dissatisfied with a final determination of the Commissioner under section 721(b) of this title or subsection (c) may file a petition for judicial review of such determination in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which the State is located. Such a petition may be filed only within the 30-day period beginning on the date that notice of such final determination was received by the State. The clerk of the court shall transmit a copy of the petition to the Commissioner or to any officer designated by the Commissioner for that purpose. In accordance with section 2112 of title 28, the Commissioner shall file with the court a record of the proceeding on which the Commissioner based the determination being appealed by the State. Until a record is so filed, the Commissioner may modify or set aside any determination made under such proceedings.

(2) Submissions and determinations

If, in an action under this subsection to review a final determination of the Commissioner under section 721(b) of this title or subsection (c), the petitioner or the Commissioner applies to the court for leave to have additional oral submissions or written presentations made respecting such determination, the court may, for good cause shown, order the Commissioner to provide within 30 days an additional opportunity to make such submissions and presentations. Within such period, the Commissioner may revise any findings of fact, modify or set aside the determination being reviewed, or make a new determination by reason of the additional submissions and presentations, and shall file such modified or new determination, and any revised findings of fact, with the return of such submissions and presentations. The court shall thereafter review such new or modified determination.

(3) Standards of review

(A) In general

Upon the filing of a petition under paragraph (1) for judicial review of a determination, the court shall have jurisdiction—

(i) to grant appropriate relief as provided in chapter 7 of title 5, except for interim relief with respect to a determination under subsection (c); and

(ii) except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B), to review such determination in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5.

(B) Substantial evidence

Section 706 of title 5 shall apply to the review of any determination under this subsection, except that the standard for review prescribed by paragraph (2)(E) of such section 706 shall not apply and the court shall hold unlawful and set aside such determination if the court finds that the determination is not supported by substantial evidence in the record of the proceeding submitted pursuant to paragraph (1), as supplemented by any additional submissions and presentations filed under paragraph (2).

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §107, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1157; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §417(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1654.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 727, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §107, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §128(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4386, related to monitoring and review, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 113–128, §417(a)(1)(A), inserted ", including personnel of a client assistance program under section 732 of this title, and past or current recipients of vocational rehabilitation services" before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(4)(A), (B). Pub. L. 113–128, §417(a)(1)(B)(i), added subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) the eligibility process;

"(B) the provision of services, including, if applicable, the order of selection;".

Subsec. (a)(4)(D), (E). Pub. L. 113–128, §417(a)(1)(B)(ii)–(iv), added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpar. (D) as (E).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–128, §417(a)(2), added par. (3).

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

§728. Expenditure of certain amounts

(a) Expenditure

Amounts described in subsection (b) may not be expended by a State for any purpose other than carrying out programs for which the State receives financial assistance under this subchapter, under subchapter VI, or under subchapter VII.

(b) Amounts

The amounts referred to in subsection (a) are amounts provided to a State under the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) as reimbursement for the expenditure of payments received by the State from allotments under section 730 of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §108, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1160; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §417(b), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1655.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 728, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §108, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §129(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4389, related to expenditure of certain amounts, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted "under subchapter VI" for "under part B of subchapter VI".

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

§728a. Training and services for employers

A State may expend payments received under section 731 of this title to educate and provide services to employers who have hired or are interested in hiring individuals with disabilities under programs carried out under this subchapter, including—

(1) providing training and technical assistance to employers regarding the employment of individuals with disabilities, including disability awareness, and the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.) and other employment-related laws;

(2) working with employers to—

(A) provide opportunities for work-based learning experiences (including internships, short-term employment, apprenticeships, and fellowships), and opportunities for pre-employment transition services;

(B) recruit qualified applicants who are individuals with disabilities;

(C) train employees who are individuals with disabilities; and

(D) promote awareness of disability-related obstacles to continued employment;


(3) providing consultation, technical assistance, and support to employers on workplace accommodations, assistive technology, and facilities and workplace access through collaboration with community partners and employers, across States and nationally, to enable the employers to recruit, job match, hire, and retain qualified individuals with disabilities who are recipients of vocational rehabilitation services under this subchapter, or who are applicants for such services; and

(4) assisting employers with utilizing available financial support for hiring or accommodating individuals with disabilities.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §109, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1160; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §418, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1655.)

References in Text

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in par. (1), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 728a, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §109, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §130(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4389, related to training of employers with respect to Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–128 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "A State may expend payments received under section 731 of this title

"(1) to carry out a program to train employers with respect to compliance with the requirements of title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12111 et seq.); and

"(2) to inform employers of the existence of the program and the availability of the services of the program."

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

Part B—Basic Vocational Rehabilitation Services

§730. State allotments

(a) Computation; additional amount; minimum amount; adjustments

(1) Subject to the provisions of subsections (c) and (d),,1 for each fiscal year beginning before October 1, 1978, each State shall be entitled to an allotment of an amount bearing the same ratio to the amount authorized to be appropriated under section 720(b)(1) of this title for allotment under this section as the product of—

(A) the population of the State; and

(B) the square of its allotment percentage,


bears to the sum of the corresponding products for all the States.

(2)(A) For each fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1978, each State shall be entitled to an allotment in an amount equal to the amount such State received under paragraph (1) for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978, and an additional amount determined pursuant to subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.

(B) For each fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1978, each State shall be entitled to an allotment, from any amount authorized to be appropriated for such fiscal year under section 720(b)(1) of this title for allotment under this section in excess of the amount appropriated under section 720(b)(1)(A) 2 of this title for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978, in an amount equal to the sum of—

(i) an amount bearing the same ratio to 50 percent of such excess amount as the product of the population of the State and the square of its allotment percentage bears to the sum of the corresponding products for all the States; and

(ii) an amount bearing the same ratio to 50 percent of such excess amount as the product of the population of the State and its allotment percentage bears to the sum of the corresponding products for all the States.


(3) The sum of the payment to any State (other than Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) under this subsection for any fiscal year which is less than 1/3 of 1 percent of the amount appropriated under section 720(b)(1) of this title, or $3,000,000, whichever is greater, shall be increased to that amount, the total of the increases thereby required being derived by proportionately reducing the allotment to each of the remaining such States under this subsection, but with such adjustments as may be necessary to prevent the sum of the allotments made under this subsection to any such remaining State from being thereby reduced to less than that amount.

(b) Unused funds; redistribution; increase in amount

(1) Not later than 45 days prior to the end of the fiscal year, the Commissioner shall determine, after reasonable opportunity for the submission to the Commissioner of comments by the State agency administering or supervising the program established under this subchapter, that any payment of an allotment to a State under section 731(a) of this title for any fiscal year will not be utilized by such State in carrying out the purposes of this subchapter.

(2) As soon as practicable but not later than the end of the fiscal year, the Commissioner shall make such amount available for carrying out the purposes of this subchapter to one or more other States to the extent the Commissioner determines such other State will be able to use such additional amount during that fiscal year or the subsequent fiscal year for carrying out such purposes. The Commissioner shall make such amount available only if such other State will be able to make sufficient payments from non-Federal sources to pay for the non-Federal share of the cost of vocational rehabilitation services under the State plan for the fiscal year for which the amount was appropriated.

(3) For the purposes of this part, any amount made available to a State for any fiscal year pursuant to this subsection shall be regarded as an increase of such State's allotment (as determined under the preceding provisions of this section) for such year.

(c) Funds for American Indian vocational rehabilitation services

(1) For fiscal year 2015 and for each subsequent fiscal year, the Commissioner shall reserve from the amount appropriated under section 720(b)(1) of this title for allotment under this section a sum, determined under paragraph (2), to carry out the purposes of part C.

(2) The sum referred to in paragraph (1) shall be, as determined by the Secretary, not less than 1 percent and not more than 1.5 percent of the amount referred to in paragraph (1), for each of fiscal years 2015 through 2020.

(d) Funds for pre-employment transition services

(1) From any State allotment under subsection (a) for a fiscal year, the State shall reserve not less than 15 percent of the allotted funds for the provision of pre-employment transition services.

(2) Such reserved funds shall not be used to pay for the administrative costs of providing pre-employment transition services.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §110, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1160; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(7)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-413; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §419, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1656.)

References in Text

Section 720(b)(1)(A) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B), means section 720(b)(1)(A) prior to the general amendment of section 720(b) by Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §121(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4367, which restated subsec. (b)(1) without a subpar. (A). Section 720 was subsequently omitted, and a new section 720 added, in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1116.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 730, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §110, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 370; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §§101(c), (d), 122(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2956, 2957, 2987; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §111(e), Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 20; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(c)(2), title II, §§206, 207, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1817, 1818; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §131, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4389; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §107(e), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 723, related to State allotments, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §419(1), substituted "Subject to the provisions of subsections (c) and (d)," for "Subject to the provisions of subsection (c)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §419(2)(A), substituted "2015" for "1987".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §419(2)(B), substituted "Secretary," for "Secretary—" and "2015 through 2020" for "2000 through 2003", struck out subpar. (B) designation before "not less than 1 percent", and struck out subpar. (A) which read as follows: "not less than three-quarters of 1 percent and not more than 1.5 percent of the amount referred to in paragraph (1), for fiscal year 1999; and".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–128, §419(3), added subsec. (d).

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to section designation and catchline in original.

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

1 So in original.

2 See References in Text note below.

§731. Payments to States

(a) Amount

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), from each State's allotment under this part for any fiscal year, the Commissioner shall pay to a State an amount equal to the Federal share of the cost of vocational rehabilitation services under the plan for that State approved under section 721 of this title, including expenditures for the administration of the State plan.

(2)(A) The total of payments under paragraph (1) to a State for a fiscal year may not exceed its allotment under subsection (a) of section 730 of this title for such year.

(B) The amount otherwise payable to a State for a fiscal year under this section shall be reduced by the amount by which expenditures from non-Federal sources under the State plan under this subchapter for any previous fiscal year are less than the total of such expenditures for the second fiscal year preceding that previous fiscal year.

(C) The Commissioner may waive or modify any requirement or limitation under subparagraph (B) or section 721(a)(17) of this title if the Commissioner determines that a waiver or modification is an equitable response to exceptional or uncontrollable circumstances affecting the State.

(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amount of a payment under this section with respect to any construction project in any State shall be equal to the same percentage of the cost of such project as the Federal share that is applicable in the case of rehabilitation facilities (as defined in section 291o(g) of title 42), in such State.

(B) If the Federal share with respect to rehabilitation facilities in such State is determined pursuant to section 291o(b)(2) of title 42, the percentage of the cost for purposes of this section shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner designed to achieve as nearly as practicable results comparable to the results obtained under such section.

(b) Method of computation and payment

The method of computing and paying amounts pursuant to subsection (a) shall be as follows:

(1) The Commissioner shall, prior to the beginning of each calendar quarter or other period prescribed by the Commissioner, estimate the amount to be paid to each State under the provisions of such subsection for such period, such estimate to be based on such records of the State and information furnished by it, and such other investigation as the Commissioner may find necessary.

(2) The Commissioner shall pay, from the allotment available therefor, the amount so estimated by the Commissioner for such period, reduced or increased, as the case may be, by any sum (not previously adjusted under this paragraph) by which the Commissioner finds that the estimate of the amount to be paid the State for any prior period under such subsection was greater or less than the amount which should have been paid to the State for such prior period under such subsection. Such payment shall be made prior to audit or settlement by the Government Accountability Office, shall be made through the disbursing facilities of the Treasury Department, and shall be made in such installments as the Commissioner may determine.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §111, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1162; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(8)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-413; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §420, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1656.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 731, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §111, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 371; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §122(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2987; Pub. L. 99–506, title II, §208, title X, §1001(b)(6), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1818, 1842; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(e)(1), (2)(A), (3), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3306; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §132, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4390; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §107(f), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 723, related to payments to States, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted "The" for "For fiscal year 1994 and each fiscal year thereafter, the", "this subchapter for any previous" for "this subchapter for the previous", and "year preceding that previous" for "year preceding the previous".

2004—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted "Government Accountability Office" for "General Accounting Office".

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to section designation and catchline in original.

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

§732. Client assistance program

(a) Establishment of grant program

From funds appropriated under subsection (h), the Secretary shall, in accordance with this section, make grants to States to establish and carry out client assistance programs to provide assistance in informing and advising all clients and client applicants of all available benefits under this chapter, including under sections 733 and 794g of this title, and, upon request of such clients or client applicants, to assist and advocate for such clients or applicants in their relationships with projects, programs, and services provided under this chapter, including assistance and advocacy in pursuing legal, administrative, or other appropriate remedies to ensure the protection of the rights of such individuals under this chapter and to facilitate access to the services funded under this chapter through individual and systemic advocacy. The client assistance program shall provide information on the available services and benefits under this chapter and title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12111 et seq.) to individuals with disabilities in the State, especially with regard to individuals with disabilities who have traditionally been unserved or underserved by vocational rehabilitation programs. In providing assistance and advocacy under this subsection with respect to services under this subchapter, a client assistance program may provide the assistance and advocacy with respect to services that are directly related to facilitating the employment of the individual.

(b) Existence of State program as requisite to receiving payments

No State may receive payments from its allotment under this chapter in any fiscal year unless the State has in effect a client assistance program which—

(1) has the authority to pursue legal, administrative, and other appropriate remedies to ensure the protection of rights of individuals with disabilities who are receiving treatments, services, or rehabilitation under this chapter within the State; and

(2) meets the requirements of designation under subsection (c).

(c) Designation of agency to conduct program

(1)(A) The Governor shall designate a public or private agency to conduct the client assistance program under this section. Except as provided in the last sentence of this subparagraph, the Governor shall designate an agency which is independent of any agency which provides treatment, services, or rehabilitation to individuals under this chapter. If there is an agency in the State which has, or had, prior to February 22, 1984, served as a client assistance agency under this section and which received Federal financial assistance under this chapter, the Governor may, in the initial designation, designate an agency which provides treatment, services, or rehabilitation to individuals with disabilities under this chapter.

(B)(i) The Governor may not redesignate the agency designated under subparagraph (A) without good cause and unless—

(I) the Governor has given the agency 30 days notice of the intention to make such redesignation, including specification of the good cause for such redesignation and an opportunity to respond to the assertion that good cause has been shown;

(II) individuals with disabilities or the individuals' representatives have timely notice of the redesignation and opportunity for public comment; and

(III) the agency has the opportunity to appeal to the Commissioner on the basis that the redesignation was not for good cause.


(ii) If, after August 7, 1998—

(I) a designated State agency undergoes any change in the organizational structure of the agency that results in the creation of one or more new State agencies or departments or results in the merger of the designated State agency with one or more other State agencies or departments; and

(II) an agency (including an office or other unit) within the designated State agency was conducting a client assistance program before the change under the last sentence of subparagraph (A),


the Governor shall redesignate the agency conducting the program. In conducting the redesignation, the Governor shall designate to conduct the program an agency that is independent of any agency that provides treatment, services, or rehabilitation to individuals with disabilities under this chapter.

(2) In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Governor shall consult with the director of the State vocational rehabilitation agency, the head of the developmental disability protection and advocacy agency, and with representatives of professional and consumer organizations serving individuals with disabilities in the State.

(3) The agency designated under this subsection shall be accountable for the proper use of funds made available to the agency.

(d) Class action by designated agency prohibited

The agency designated under subsection (c) of this section may not bring any class action in carrying out its responsibilities under this section.

(e) Allotment and reallotment of funds

(1)(A) After reserving funds under subparagraphs (E) and (F), the Secretary shall allot the remainder of the sums appropriated for each fiscal year under this section among the States on the basis of relative population of each State, except that no State shall receive less than $50,000.

(B) The Secretary shall allot $30,000 each to American Samoa, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(C) For the purpose of this paragraph, the term "State" does not include American Samoa, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(D)(i) In any fiscal year that the funds appropriated for such fiscal year exceed $7,500,000, the minimum allotment shall be $100,000 for States and $45,000 for territories.

(ii) For any fiscal year in which the total amount appropriated under subsection (h) exceeds the total amount appropriated under such subsection for the preceding fiscal year, the Secretary shall increase each of the minimum allotments under clause (i) by a percentage that shall not exceed the percentage increase in the total amount appropriated under such subsection between the preceding fiscal year and the fiscal year involved.

(E)(i) The Secretary shall reserve funds appropriated under subsection (h) to make a grant to the protection and advocacy system serving the American Indian Consortium to provide services in accordance with this section. The amount of such a grant shall be the same amount as is provided to a territory under this subsection.

(ii) In this subparagraph:

(I) The term "American Indian Consortium" has the meaning given the term in section 102 of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 15002).

(II) The term "protection and advocacy system" means a protection and advocacy system established under subtitle C of title I of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 15041 et seq.).


(F) For any fiscal year for which the amount appropriated under subsection (h) equals or exceeds $14,000,000, the Secretary may reserve not less than 1.8 percent and not more than 2.2 percent of such amount to provide a grant for training and technical assistance for the programs established under this section. Such training and technical assistance shall be coordinated with activities provided under section 794e(c)(1)(A) of this title.

(2) The amount of an allotment to a State for a fiscal year which the Secretary determines will not be required by the State during the period for which it is available for the purpose for which allotted shall be available for reallotment by the Secretary at appropriate times to other States with respect to which such a determination has not been made, in proportion to the original allotments of such States for such fiscal year, but with such proportionate amount for any of such other States being reduced to the extent it exceeds the sum the Secretary estimates such State needs and will be able to use during such period, and the total of such reduction shall be similarly reallotted among the States whose proportionate amounts were not so reduced. Any such amount so reallotted to a State for a fiscal year shall be deemed to be a part of its allotment for such fiscal year.

(3) Except as specifically prohibited by or as otherwise provided in State law, the Secretary shall pay to the agency designated under subsection (c) the amount specified in the application approved under subsection (f).

(f) Application by State for grant funds

No grant may be made under this section unless the State submits an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing or accompanied by such information as the Secretary deems necessary to meet the requirements of this section.

(g) Regulations; minimum requirements

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations applicable to the client assistance program which shall include the following requirements:

(1) No employees of such programs shall, while so employed, serve as staff or consultants of any rehabilitation project, program, or facility receiving assistance under this chapter in the State.

(2) Each program shall be afforded reasonable access to policymaking and administrative personnel in the State and local rehabilitation programs, projects, or facilities.

(3)(A) Each program shall contain provisions designed to assure that to the maximum extent possible alternative means of dispute resolution are available for use at the discretion of an applicant or client of the program prior to resorting to litigation or formal adjudication to resolve a dispute arising under this section.

(B) In subparagraph (A), the term "alternative means of dispute resolution" means any procedure, including good faith negotiation, conciliation, facilitation, mediation, factfinding, and arbitration, and any combination of procedures, that is used in lieu of litigation in a court or formal adjudication in an administrative forum, to resolve a dispute arising under this section.

(4) For purposes of any periodic audit, report, or evaluation of the performance of a client assistance program under this section, the Secretary shall not require such a program to disclose the identity of, or any other personally identifiable information related to, any individual requesting assistance under such program.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the provisions of this section—

(1) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2015;

(2) $12,927,000 for fiscal year 2016;

(3) $13,195,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(4) $13,488,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(5) $13,805,000 for fiscal year 2019; and

(6) $14,098,000 for fiscal year 2020.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §112, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1163; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(9)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-413; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §421, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1656.)

References in Text

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, as amended. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§12111 et seq.) of chapter 126 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(E)(ii)(II), is Pub. L. 106–402, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1677. Subtitle C of title I of the Act is classified generally to part C (§15041 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 144 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15001 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 732 and 740 were omitted in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Section 732, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 371; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §§102(b), 111(f), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1618, 1620; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §§102(b), 111(f), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–3, 2-5; Pub. L. 94–230, §§2(b), 11(b)(4), Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 211, 213; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §§105, 122(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2960, 2987; Pub. L. 97–375, title I, §105, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1820; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §113(a), Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 20; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), title II, §209, title X, §1001(b)(7), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1818, 1842; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(f), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3306; Pub. L. 102–52, §2(c), June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §§102(p)(10), 133, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4357, 4391; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §107(g), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 723; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1041(c), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 714, related to client assistance program.

Section 740, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §120, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §134(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4392, related to State eligibility for grants.

Another prior section 740, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §120, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 372; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §§101(e)(1), 122(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2957, 2987; Pub. L. 99–506, title X, §1001(b)(8), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1842; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(g), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3306, provided for State allotments to assist in meeting the cost of vocational rehabilitation services, prior to the general amendment of part C of former subchapter I of this chapter by Pub. L. 102–569.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–128, §421(1), inserted "including under sections 733 and 794g of this title," after "all available benefits under this chapter,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–128, §421(2), struck out "not later than October 1, 1984," after "has in effect" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §421(3)(A), substituted "After reserving funds under subparagraphs (E) and (F), the Secretary shall allot the remainder of" for "The Secretary shall allot".

Subsec. (e)(1)(E), (F). Pub. L. 113–128, §421(3)(B), added subpars. (E) and (F).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 113–128, §421(4), added subsec. (h) and struck out former subsec. (h) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1999 through 2003.

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to section designation and catchline in original.

§733. Provision of pre-employment transition services

(a) In general

From the funds reserved under section 730(d) of this title, and any funds made available from State, local, or private funding sources, each State shall ensure that the designated State unit, in collaboration with the local educational agencies involved, shall provide, or arrange for the provision of, pre-employment transition services for all students with disabilities in need of such services who are eligible or potentially eligible for services under this subchapter.

(b) Required activities

Funds available under subsection (a) shall be used to make available to students with disabilities described in subsection (a)—

(1) job exploration counseling;

(2) work-based learning experiences, which may include in-school or after school opportunities, or experience outside the traditional school setting (including internships), that is provided in an integrated environment to the maximum extent possible;

(3) counseling on opportunities for enrollment in comprehensive transition or postsecondary educational programs at institutions of higher education;

(4) workplace readiness training to develop social skills and independent living; and

(5) instruction in self-advocacy, which may include peer mentoring.

(c) Authorized activities

Funds available under subsection (a) and remaining after the provision of the required activities described in subsection (b) may be used to improve the transition of students with disabilities described in subsection (a) from school to postsecondary education or an employment outcome by—

(1) implementing effective strategies to increase the likelihood of independent living and inclusion in communities and competitive integrated workplaces;

(2) developing and improving strategies for individuals with intellectual disabilities and individuals with significant disabilities to live independently, participate in postsecondary education experiences, and obtain and retain competitive integrated employment;

(3) providing instruction to vocational rehabilitation counselors, school transition personnel, and other persons supporting students with disabilities;

(4) disseminating information about innovative, effective, and efficient approaches to achieve the goals of this section;

(5) coordinating activities with transition services provided by local educational agencies under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.);

(6) applying evidence-based findings to improve policy, procedure, practice, and the preparation of personnel, in order to better achieve the goals of this section;

(7) developing model transition demonstration projects;

(8) establishing or supporting multistate or regional partnerships involving States, local educational agencies, designated State units, developmental disability agencies, private businesses, or other participants to achieve the goals of this section; and

(9) disseminating information and strategies to improve the transition to postsecondary activities of individuals who are members of traditionally unserved populations.

(d) Pre-employment transition coordination

Each local office of a designated State unit shall carry out responsibilities consisting of—

(1) attending individualized education program meetings for students with disabilities, when invited;

(2) working with the local workforce development boards, one-stop centers, and employers to develop work opportunities for students with disabilities, including internships, summer employment and other employment opportunities available throughout the school year, and apprenticeships;

(3) work with schools, including those carrying out activities under section 614(d)(1)(A)(i)(VIII) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1414(d)(1)(A)(i)(VIII)), to coordinate and ensure the provision of pre-employment transition services under this section; and

(4) when invited, attend person-centered planning meetings for individuals receiving services under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.).

(e) National pre-employment transition coordination

The Secretary shall support designated State agencies providing services under this section, highlight best State practices, and consult with other Federal agencies to advance the goals of this section.

(f) Support

In carrying out this section, States shall address the transition needs of all students with disabilities, including such students with physical, sensory, intellectual, and mental health disabilities.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §113, as added Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §422, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1657.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(5), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title XIX of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

Part C—American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation Services

§741. Vocational rehabilitation services grants

(a) Governing bodies of Indian tribes; amount; non-Federal share

The Commissioner, in accordance with the provisions of this part, may make grants to the governing bodies of Indian tribes located on Federal and State reservations (and consortia of such governing bodies) to pay 90 percent of the costs of vocational rehabilitation services for American Indians who are individuals with disabilities residing on or near such reservations (referred to in this section as "eligible individuals"), consistent with such eligible individuals' strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice, so that such individuals may prepare for, and engage in, high-quality employment that will increase opportunities for economic self-sufficiency. The non-Federal share of such costs may be in cash or in kind, fairly valued, and the Commissioner may waive such non-Federal share requirement in order to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(b) Application; effective period; continuation of programs and services; separate service delivery systems

(1) No grant may be made under this part for any fiscal year unless an application therefor has been submitted to and approved by the Commissioner. The Commissioner may not approve an application unless the application—

(A) is made at such time, in such manner, and contains such information as the Commissioner may require;

(B) contains assurances that the rehabilitation services provided under this part to American Indians who are individuals with disabilities residing on or near a reservation in a State shall be, to the maximum extent feasible, comparable to rehabilitation services provided under this subchapter to other individuals with disabilities residing in the State and that, where appropriate, may include services traditionally used by Indian tribes;

(C) contains assurances that the application was developed in consultation with the designated State unit of the State; and

(D) contains assurances that—

(i) all decisions affecting eligibility for vocational rehabilitation services, the nature and scope of available vocational rehabilitation services and the provision of such services will, consistent with this subchapter, be made by a representative of the tribal vocational rehabilitation program funded through the grant; and

(ii) such decisions will not be delegated to another agency or individual.


(2) The provisions of sections 5305, 5306, 5307, and 5321(a) of title 25 shall be applicable to any application submitted under this part. For purposes of this paragraph, any reference in any such provision to the Secretary of Education or to the Secretary of the Interior shall be considered to be a reference to the Commissioner.

(3) Any application approved under this part shall be effective for not more than 60 months, except as determined otherwise by the Commissioner pursuant to prescribed regulations. The State shall continue to provide vocational rehabilitation services under its State plan to American Indians residing on or near a reservation whenever such State includes any such American Indians in its State population under section 730(a)(1) of this title.

(4) In making grants under this part, the Secretary shall give priority consideration to applications for the continuation of programs which have been funded under this part.

(5) Nothing in this section may be construed to authorize a separate service delivery system for Indian residents of a State who reside in non-reservation areas.

(c) Funds reserved for training and technical assistance

(1) From the funds appropriated and made available to carry out this part for any fiscal year, beginning with fiscal year 2015, the Commissioner shall first reserve not less than 1.8 percent and not more than 2 percent of the funds to provide training and technical assistance to governing bodies described in subsection (a) for such fiscal year.

(2) From the funds reserved under paragraph (1), the Commissioner shall make grants to, or enter into contracts or other cooperative agreements with, entities that have experience in the operation of vocational rehabilitation services programs under this section to provide such training and technical assistance with respect to developing, conducting, administering, and evaluating such programs.

(3) The Commissioner shall conduct a survey of the governing bodies regarding training and technical assistance needs in order to determine funding priorities for such grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements.

(4) To be eligible to receive a grant or enter into a contract or cooperative agreement under this section, such an entity shall submit an application to the Commissioner at such time, in such manner, and containing a proposal to provide such training and technical assistance, and containing such additional information as the Commissioner may require. The Commissioner shall provide for peer review of applications by panels that include persons who are not government employees and who have experience in the operation of vocational rehabilitation services programs under this section.

(d) "Reservation" defined

The term "reservation" includes Indian reservations, public domain Indian allotments, former Indian reservations in Oklahoma, and land held by incorporated Native groups, regional corporations, and village corporations under the provisions of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.].

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §121, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1166; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §402(b)(10)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-413; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §423, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1659.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 741 to 744 and 750 were omitted in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Section 741, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §121, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §134(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4392, related to contents of strategic plans.

Another prior section 741, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §121, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 373; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §102(c), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1618; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §102(c), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–3; Pub. L. 94–230, §2(c), Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §§101(e)(2), 122(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2957, 2987; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §114, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 23; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), title II, §210, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1819; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(h), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3306; Pub. L. 102–52, §2(b)(2), June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 260, related to payments to States for planning, preparing, and initiating special programs under approved State plans and payments for the costs of constructing facilities to be used in providing services under such State plans, prior to the general amendment of part C of former subchapter I of this chapter by Pub. L. 102–569.

Section 742, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §122, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §134(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4393, related to process for developing strategic plans.

Section 743, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §123, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §134(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4393, related to use of funds.

Section 744, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §124, as added Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §134(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4395; amended Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §107(h), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 723, related to allotments among States.

Section 750, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §130, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §111(g), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1621; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §111(g), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–6; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §106, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2960; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), title II, §211, title X, §1002(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1819, 1844; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(i), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3306; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §102(p)(11), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4357, related to American Indian vocational rehabilitation services grants.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–128, §423(1), inserted "(referred to in this section as 'eligible individuals'), consistent with such eligible individuals' strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice, so that such individuals may prepare for, and engage in, high-quality employment that will increase opportunities for economic self-sufficiency" after "on or near such reservations".

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 113–128, §423(2), added subpar. (D).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 113–128, §423(3), (4), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to section designation and catchline in original.

Part D—Vocational Rehabilitation Services Client Information

§751. Data sharing

(a) In general

(1) Memorandum of understanding

The Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall enter into a memorandum of understanding for the purposes of exchanging data of mutual importance—

(A) that concern clients of designated State agencies; and

(B) that are data maintained either by—

(i) the Rehabilitation Services Administration, as required by section 710 of this title; or

(ii) the Social Security Administration, from its Summary Earnings and Records and Master Beneficiary Records.

(2) Employment statistics

The Secretary of Labor shall provide the Commissioner with employment statistics specified in section 49l–2 of this title, that facilitate evaluation by the Commissioner of the program carried out under part B, and allow the Commissioner to compare the progress of individuals with disabilities who are assisted under the program in securing, retaining, regaining, and advancing in employment with the progress made by individuals who are assisted under title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3111 et seq.].

(b) Treatment of information

For purposes of the exchange described in subsection (a)(1), the data described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) shall not be considered return information (as defined in section 6103(b)(2) of title 26) and, as appropriate, the confidentiality of all client information shall be maintained by the Rehabilitation Services Administration and the Social Security Administration.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §131, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1167; amended Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §424, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1660.)

References in Text

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§3111 et seq.) of chapter 32 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 751, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §131, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §106, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2961, and amended Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, directed Secretary to submit to Congress, not less than thirty months after Nov. 6, 1978, an evaluation of programs conducted under part D of former subchapter I of this chapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–506, title X, §1002(b)(2)(A), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1844.

A prior section 752, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §131, formerly §132, as added Pub. L. 99–506, title II, §212(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1820; renumbered §132, Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §202(j), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3307, provided for study on special problems and needs of Indians with handicaps both on and off the reservation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §135(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4396.

Prior sections 753 and 753a were omitted in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Section 753, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §140, as added Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §108, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 724, related to review of data collection and reporting system.

Section 753a, Pub. L. 93–112, title I, §141, as added Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §108, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 725, related to exchange of data.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted "title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act" for "title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998".

Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 113–128

Except as otherwise provided, definitions in section 3 of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3102 of this title, apply to this section.

SUBCHAPTER II—RESEARCH AND TRAINING

Codification

Title II of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, comprising this subchapter, was originally enacted by Pub. L. 93–112, title II, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 374, and amended by Pub. L. 93–516, Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1617; Pub. L. 93–651, Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–3; Pub. L. 94–230, Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 95–602, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2955; Pub. L. 96–88, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 668; Pub. L. 98–221, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 99–506, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1807; Pub. L. 100–630, Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3289; Pub. L. 102–52, June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 102–54, June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 267; Pub. L. 102–569, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4344; Pub. L. 103–73, Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 718; Pub. L. 103–218, Mar. 9, 1994, 108 Stat. 50; Pub. L. 103–382, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3518. Title II is shown herein, however, as having been added by Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §405, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1167, without reference to those intervening amendments because of the extensive revision of title II by Pub. L. 105–220.

§760. Declaration of purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to—

(1) provide for research, demonstration projects, training, technical assistance, and related activities to maximize the full inclusion and integration into society, employment, independent living, family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities of all ages, with particular emphasis on improving the effectiveness of services authorized under this chapter;

(2) provide for a comprehensive and coordinated approach to the support and conduct of such research, demonstration projects, training, technical assistance, and related activities and to ensure that the approach is in accordance with the 5-year plan developed under section 762(h) of this title;

(3) promote the transfer and use of rehabilitation technology to individuals with disabilities, in a timely and efficient manner, through research and demonstration projects relating to—

(A) the procurement process for the purchase of rehabilitation technology;

(B) the utilization of rehabilitation technology on a national basis;

(C) specific adaptations or customizations of products to enable individuals with disabilities to live more independently; and

(D) the development or transfer of assistive technology;


(4) ensure the widespread dissemination, in usable formats, of practical scientific and technological information—

(A) generated by research, demonstration projects, training, and related activities; and

(B) regarding state-of-the-art practices, improvements in the services authorized under this chapter, rehabilitation technology, and new knowledge regarding disabilities,


to rehabilitation professionals, individuals with disabilities, and other interested parties, including the general public;

(5) identify effective strategies that enhance the opportunities of individuals with disabilities, including individuals with intellectual and psychiatric disabilities, to engage in employment, including employment involving telecommuting and self-employment;

(6) identify strategies for effective coordination of services to job seekers with disabilities available through programs of one-stop partners, as defined in section 3102 of this title;

(7) increase opportunities for researchers who are members of traditionally underserved populations, including researchers who are members of minority groups and researchers who are individuals with disabilities; and

(8) identify effective strategies for supporting the employment of individuals with disabilities in competitive integrated employment.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §200, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §405, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1167; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §401(16)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §431, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1660.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 760, Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §200, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §107, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2962; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810; Pub. L. 102–569, title II, §201, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4398, contained congressional declaration of purpose, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Amendments

2014—Pars. (1), (2). Pub. L. 113–128, §431(1), (2), inserted "technical assistance," after "training,".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 113–128, §431(3), in introductory provisions, inserted "and use" after "transfer" and ", in a timely and efficient manner," after "disabilities".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 113–128, §431(4), substituted "dissemination" for "distribution" in introductory provisions.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 113–128, §431(5), inserted ", including individuals with intellectual and psychiatric disabilities," after "disabilities" and struck out "and" after semicolon at end.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 113–128, §431(7), added par. (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Par. (7). Pub. L. 113–128, §431(6), redesignated par. (6) as (7).

Par. (8). Pub. L. 113–128, §431(8), (9), added par. (8).

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 105–220, §405, which enacted this section.

§761. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter $103,970,000 for fiscal year 2015, $112,001,000 for fiscal year 2016, $114,325,000 for fiscal year 2017, $116,860,000 for fiscal year 2018, $119,608,000 for fiscal year 2019, and $122,143,000 for fiscal year 2020.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §201, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §405, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1168; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §401(16)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §432, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1660.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 761 to 761b were omitted in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

Section 761, Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §201, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §103, Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1618; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §103, Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–3; Pub. L. 94–230, §§3, 11(b)(5), (6), Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 211, 213; Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §108, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2962; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §121, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 23; Pub. L. 99–506, title III, §301, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1820; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §203(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3307; Pub. L. 102–52, §3, June 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 102–569, title II, §202, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4398, authorized appropriations.

Section 761a, Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §202, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §109(4), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2963; amended Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §§104(a)(4), (b)(1), 122, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 18, 23; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), title III, §§302, 303, title X, §§1001(c), 1002(c), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1820, 1821, 1842, 1844; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §203(b), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3307; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(k)(1)(A), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 276; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §102(p)(12), title II, §203, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4357, 4399; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §§102(4), 109(a), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 718, 725; Pub. L. 103–218, title IV, §402(a), Mar. 9, 1994, 108 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §394(i)(1), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4028, related to National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research. See section 762 of this title.

Section 761b, Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §109(4), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2965; amended Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §508(m)(1), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 694; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §104(b)(2), Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 18; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), title III, §304, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1822; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §203(c), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3307; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(k)(1)(B), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 276; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §102(p)(13), title II, §204, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4358, 4403, related to Interagency Committee on Disability Research. See section 763 of this title.

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–128 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section authorized appropriations to carry out sections 762 and 764 of this title for fiscal years 1999 through 2003.

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 105–220, §405, which enacted this section.

§762. National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research

(a) Establishment; Director as principal officer

(1) There is established within the Administration for Community Living of the Department of Health and Human Services a National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (referred to in this subchapter as the "Institute"), which shall be headed by a Director (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the "Director"), in order to—

(A) promote, coordinate, and provide for—

(i) research;

(ii) demonstration projects, training, and technical assistance;

(iii) outreach and information that clarifies research implications for policy and practice; and

(iv) related activities,


with respect to individuals with disabilities;

(B) more effectively carry out activities through the programs under section 764 of this title and activities under this section;

(C) widely disseminate information from the activities described in subparagraphs (A) and (B); and

(D) provide leadership in advancing the quality of life of individuals with disabilities.


(2) In the performance of the functions of the office, the Director shall be directly responsible to the Administrator for the Administration for Community Living of the Department of Health and Human Services.

(b) Duties of Director

The Director, through the Institute, shall be responsible for—

(1) administering the programs described in section 764 of this title and activities under this section;

(2) widely disseminating findings, conclusions, and recommendations, resulting from research, demonstration projects, training, and related activities (referred to in this subchapter as "covered activities") funded by the Institute, to—

(A) other Federal, State, tribal, and local public agencies;

(B) private organizations engaged in research relating to—

(i) independent living;

(ii) rehabilitation; or

(iii) providing rehabilitation or independent living services;


(C) rehabilitation practitioners; and

(D) individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives;


(3) coordinating, through the Interagency Committee established by section 763 of this title, all Federal programs and policies relating to research on disability, independent living, and rehabilitation;

(4) widely disseminating educational materials and research results, concerning ways to maximize the full inclusion and integration into society, employment, independent living, education, health and wellness, family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities, to—

(A) public and private entities, including—

(i) elementary schools and secondary schools (as defined in section 7801 of title 20); and

(ii) institutions of higher education;


(B) rehabilitation practitioners;

(C) employers and organizations representing employers with respect to employment-based educational materials or research;

(D) individuals with disabilities (especially such individuals who are members of minority groups or of populations that are unserved or underserved by programs under this chapter);

(E) the individuals' representatives for the individuals described in subparagraph (D); and

(F) the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;


(5)(A) conducting an education program to inform the public about ways of providing for the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities, including information relating to—

(i) family care;

(ii) self-care; and

(iii) assistive technology devices and assistive technology services; and


(B) as part of the program, disseminating engineering information about assistive technology devices;

(6) conducting conferences, seminars, and workshops (including in-service training programs and programs for individuals with disabilities) concerning advances in disability, independent living, and rehabilitation research and rehabilitation technology (including advances concerning the selection and use of assistive technology devices and assistive technology services), pertinent to the full inclusion and integration into society, employment, independent living, education, health and wellness, family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities;

(7) producing, in conjunction with the Department of Labor, the National Center for Health Statistics, the Bureau of the Census, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Social Security Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Indian Health Service, and other Federal departments and agencies, as may be appropriate, statistical reports and studies on the employment, self-employment, telecommuting, health and wellness, income, education, and other demographic characteristics of individuals with disabilities, including information on individuals with disabilities who live in rural or inner-city settings, with particular attention given to underserved populations, and widely disseminating such reports and studies to rehabilitation professionals, individuals with disabilities, the individuals' representatives, and others to assist in the planning, assessment, and evaluation of independent living, vocational, and rehabilitation services for individuals with disabilities;

(8) conducting research on consumer satisfaction with independent living and vocational rehabilitation services for the purpose of identifying effective independent living and rehabilitation programs and policies that promote the independence of individuals with disabilities and achievement of long-term independent living and employment goals;

(9) conducting research to examine the relationship between the provision of specific services and successful, sustained employment outcomes, including employment outcomes involving self-employment, supported employment (including customized employment), and telecommuting; and

(10) coordinating activities with the Attorney General regarding the provision of information, training, or technical assistance regarding the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.) to ensure consistency with the plan for technical assistance required under section 506 2 of such Act (42 U.S.C. 12206).

(c) Development and dissemination of models

(1) The Director, acting through the Institute or one or more entities funded by the Institute, shall provide for the development and dissemination of models to address consumer-driven information needs related to assistive technology devices and assistive technology services.

(2) The development and dissemination of models may include—

(A) convening groups of individuals with disabilities, family members and advocates of such individuals, commercial producers of assistive technology, and entities funded by the Institute to develop, assess, and disseminate knowledge about information needs related to assistive technology;

(B) identifying the types of information regarding assistive technology devices and assistive technology services that individuals with disabilities find especially useful;

(C) evaluating current models, and developing new models, for transmitting the information described in subparagraph (B) to consumers and to commercial producers of assistive technology; and

(D) disseminating through one or more entities funded by the Institute, the models described in subparagraph (C) and findings regarding the information described in subparagraph (B) to consumers and commercial producers of assistive technology.

(d) Appointment of Director; employment of technical and professional personnel; consultants

(1) The Director of the Institute shall be appointed by the Secretary. The Director shall be an individual with substantial knowledge of and experience in independent living, rehabilitation, and research administration.

(2) The Director, subject to the approval of the President, may appoint, for terms not to exceed three years, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointment in the competitive service, and may compensate, without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, such technical and professional employees of the Institute as the Director determines to be necessary to accomplish the functions of the Institute and also appoint and compensate without regard to such provisions, in a number not to exceed one-fifth of the number of full-time, regular technical and professional employees of the Institute.

(3) The Director may obtain the services of consultants, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service.

(e) Fellowships

The Director, pursuant to regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, may establish and maintain fellowships with such stipends and allowances, including travel and subsistence expenses provided for under title 5, as the Director considers necessary to procure the assistance of highly qualified research fellows, including individuals with disabilities, from the United States and foreign countries.

(f) Scientific peer review of research, training, and demonstration projects

(1) The Director shall provide for scientific peer review of all applications for financial assistance for research, training, and demonstration projects over which the Director has authority. The scientific peer review shall be conducted by individuals who are not Department of Health and Human Services employees. The Secretary shall consider for peer review individuals who are scientists or other experts in disability, independent living, and rehabilitation, including individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives, and who have sufficient expertise to review the projects.

(2) In providing for such scientific peer review, the Secretary shall provide for training, as necessary and appropriate, to facilitate the effective participation of those individuals selected to participate in such review.

(g) Use of funds

Not less than 90 percent of the funds appropriated under this subchapter for any fiscal year shall be expended by the Director to carry out activities under this subchapter through grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements. Up to 10 percent of the funds appropriated under this subchapter for any fiscal year may be expended directly for the purpose of carrying out the functions of the Director under this section.

(h) 5-year plan

(1) The Director shall—

(A) by October 1, 1998, and every fifth October 1 thereafter, prepare and publish in the Federal Register for public comment a draft of a 5-year plan that outlines priorities for disability, independent living, and rehabilitation research, demonstration projects, training, dissemination, and related activities and explains the basis for such priorities;

(B) by June 1, 1999, and every fifth June 1 thereafter, after considering public comments, submit the plan in final form to the appropriate committees of Congress;

(C) at appropriate intervals, prepare and submit revisions in the plan to the appropriate committees of Congress; and

(D) annually prepare and submit progress reports on the plan to the appropriate committees of Congress.


(2) Such plan shall—

(A) identify any covered activity that should be conducted under this section and section 764 of this title respecting the full inclusion and integration into society of individuals with disabilities, especially in the areas of employment and independent living;

(B) determine the funding priorities for covered activities to be conducted under this section and section 764 of this title;

(C) specify appropriate goals and timetables for covered activities to be conducted under this section and section 764 of this title;

(D) be coordinated with the strategic plan required under section 763(c) of this title

(i) after consultation with the Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research Advisory Council established under section 765 of this title;

(ii) in coordination with the Administrator;

(iii) after consultation with the National Council on Disability established under subchapter IV, the Secretary of Education, officials responsible for the administration of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 [42 U.S.C. 15001 et seq.], and the Interagency Committee on Disability Research established under section 763 of this title; and

(iv) after full consideration of the input of individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives, organizations representing individuals with disabilities, providers of services furnished under this chapter, researchers in the independent living and rehabilitation fields, and any other persons or entities the Director considers to be appropriate;


(E) be developed by the Director;

(F) specify plans for widespread dissemination of the results of covered activities, and information that clarifies implications of the results for practice, in accessible formats, to rehabilitation practitioners, individuals with disabilities, and the individuals' representatives; and

(G) specify plans for widespread dissemination of the results of covered activities and information that clarifies implications of the results for practice that concern individuals with disabilities who are members of minority groups or of populations that are unserved or underserved by programs carried out under this chapter.

(i) Cooperation and consultation with other agencies and departments on design of research programs

In order to promote cooperation among Federal departments and agencies conducting research programs, the Director shall consult with the administrators of such programs, and with the Interagency Committee established by section 763 of this title, regarding the design of research projects conducted by such entities and the results and applications of such research.

(j) Comprehensive and coordinated research program; interagency cooperation; research and training center

(1) The Director shall take appropriate actions to provide for a comprehensive and coordinated research program under this subchapter. In providing such a program, the Director may undertake joint activities with other Federal entities engaged in research and with appropriate private entities. Any Federal entity proposing to establish any research project related to the purposes of this chapter shall consult, through the Interagency Committee established by section 763 of this title, with the Director as Chairperson of such Committee and provide the Director with sufficient prior opportunity to comment on such project.

(2) Any person responsible for administering any program of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, or of any other Federal entity, shall, through the Interagency Committee established by section 763 of this title, consult and cooperate with the Director in carrying out such program if the program is related to the purposes of this subchapter.

(k) Grants for training

The Director shall make grants to institutions of higher education for the training of independent living and rehabilitation researchers, including individuals with disabilities and traditionally underserved populations of individuals with disabilities, as described in section 718 of this title, with particular attention to research areas that—

(1) support the implementation and objectives of this chapter; and

(2) improve the effectiveness of services authorized under this chapter.

(l) Annual report

(1) Not later than December 31 of each year, the Director shall prepare, and submit to the Secretary, the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, and the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives, a report on the activities funded under this subchapter.

(2) The report under paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) a compilation and summary of the information provided by recipients of funding for such activities under this subchapter;

(B) a summary describing the funding received under this subchapter and the progress of the recipients of the funding in achieving the measurable goals described in section 764(d)(2) of this title; and

(C) a summary of implications of research outcomes on practice.

(m) Action taken for failure to comply

(1) If the Director determines that an entity that receives funding under this subchapter fails to comply with the applicable requirements of this chapter, or to make progress toward achieving the measurable goals described in section 764(d)(2) of this title, with respect to the covered activities involved, the Director shall utilize available monitoring and enforcement measures.

(2) As part of the annual report required under subsection (l), the Secretary shall describe each action taken by the Secretary under paragraph (1) and the outcomes of such action.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §202, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §405, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1168; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §401(16)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; Pub. L. 106–402, title IV, §401(b)(3)(B), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1737; Pub. L. 107–110, title X, §1076(u)(1), Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 108–173, title IX, §900(e)(6)(A), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2373; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §433, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1661; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(mmm)(1), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2188.)

References in Text

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(10), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Section 506 of the Act was renumbered section 507 by Pub. L. 110–325, §6(a)(2), Sept. 25, 2008, 122 Stat. 3558. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (h)(2)(D)(iii), is Pub. L. 106–402, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1677, which is classified principally to chapter 144 (§15001 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15001 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 761a of this title prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 762, Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §204, formerly §202, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 375, amended Pub. L. 93–516, title I, §111(h), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1621; Pub. L. 93–651, title I, §111(h), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–6; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §§109(3), 110, 111, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2963, 2966; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §§104(a)(5), 123, Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 18, 24; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), (h)(2), title III, §§302(b), 305, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810, 1811, 1821, 1822; Pub. L. 100–630, title II, §203(d), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3308; Pub. L. 102–569, title I, §102(p)(14), title II, §205, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4358, 4403; Pub. L. 103–73, title I, §109(b), Aug. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 726, related to research, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220. See section 764 of this title.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 114–95 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 7801 of title 20.

2014Pub. L. 113–128, §433(1), inserted ", Independent Living," after "Disability" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(2)(A)(i), in introductory provisions, substituted "Administration for Community Living of the Department of Health and Human Services a National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (referred to in this subchapter as the 'Institute'), which" for "Department of Education a National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the 'Institute'), which".

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(2)(A)(ii)(I), substituted ", training, and technical assistance;" for "and training; and".

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(2)(A)(ii)(II), (III), added cl. (iii) and redesignated former cl. (iii) as (iv).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(2)(B), substituted "directly responsible to the Administrator for the Administration for Community Living of the Department of Health and Human Services." for "directly responsible to the Secretary or to the same Under Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Department of Education to whom the Commissioner is responsible under section 702(a) of this title."

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(A), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "private organizations engaged in research relating to rehabilitation or providing rehabilitation services;".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(B), substituted "on disability, independent living, and rehabilitation" for "in rehabilitation".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(C), inserted "education, health and wellness," after "independent living," in introductory provisions, added subpars. (A) to (F), and struck out former subpars. (A) to (D) which were substantially similar to subpars. (A), (B), (D), and (E), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(D), substituted "advances in disability, independent living, and rehabilitation" for "advances in rehabilitation" and inserted "education, health and wellness," after "employment, independent living,".

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(G), substituted "health and wellness, income, education," for "health, income," and "and evaluation of independent living, vocational, and" for "and evaluation of vocational and other".

Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(E), (F), redesignated par. (8) as (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "taking whatever action is necessary to keep the Congress fully and currently informed with respect to the implementation and conduct of programs and activities carried out under this subchapter, including dissemination activities;".

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(F), (H), redesignated par. (9) as (8) and substituted "with independent living and vocational rehabilitation services for the purpose of identifying effective independent living and rehabilitation programs and policies that promote the independence of individuals with disabilities and achievement of long-term independent living and employment goals" for "with vocational rehabilitation services for the purpose of identifying effective rehabilitation programs and policies that promote the independence of individuals with disabilities and achievement of long-term vocational goals". Former par. (8) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(F), (I), redesignated par. (10) as (9) and substituted ", supported employment (including customized employment), and telecommuting; and" for "and telecommuting; and". Former par. (9) redesignated (8).

Subsec. (b)(10), (11). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(3)(F), redesignated pars. (10) and (11) as (9) and (10), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(4), substituted "The Director shall be an individual with substantial knowledge of and experience in independent living, rehabilitation, and research administration." for "The Director shall be an individual with substantial experience in rehabilitation and in research administration."

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(5), substituted "The scientific peer review shall be conducted by individuals who are not Department of Health and Human Services employees. The Secretary shall consider for peer review individuals who are scientists or other experts in disability, independent living, and rehabilitation, including individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives, and who have sufficient expertise to review the projects." for "The scientific peer review shall be conducted by individuals who are not Federal employees, who are scientists or other experts in the rehabilitation field (including the independent living field), including knowledgeable individuals with disabilities, and the individuals' representatives, and who are competent to review applications for the financial assistance."

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(A), substituted "priorities for disability, independent living, and rehabilitation research," for "priorities for rehabilitation research," and inserted "dissemination," after "training,".

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(B)(i), substituted "especially in the areas of employment and independent living" for "especially in the area of employment".

Subsec. (h)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(B)(ii)(I), substituted "coordinated with the strategic plan required under section 763(c) of this title" for "developed by the Director" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(2)(D)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(B)(ii)(II), substituted "Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation" for "Rehabilitation".

Subsec. (h)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(B)(ii)(III), substituted "Administrator" for "Commissioner".

Subsec. (h)(2)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(B)(ii)(IV), substituted "researchers in the independent living and rehabilitation fields" for "researchers in the rehabilitation field".

Subsec. (h)(2)(E). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(B)(iv), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (h)(2)(F). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(B)(iii), (v), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F) and inserted "and information that clarifies implications of the results for practice," after "covered activities,". Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).

Subsec. (h)(2)(G). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(6)(B)(iii), (vi), redesignated subpar. (F) as (G) and inserted "and information that clarifies implications of the results for practice" after "covered activities".

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(7), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: "The Director shall support, directly or by grant or contract, a center associated with an institution of higher education, for research and training concerning the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services to rural areas."

Subsecs. (k) to (m). Pub. L. 113–128, §433(8), added subsecs. (k) to (m) and struck out former subsec. (k). Prior to amendment, text of subsec. (k) read as follows: "The Director shall make grants to institutions of higher education for the training of rehabilitation researchers, including individuals with disabilities, with particular attention to research areas that support the implementation and objectives of this chapter and that improve the effectiveness of services authorized under this chapter."

2003—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 108–173 substituted "Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services" for "Health Care Financing Administration".

2002—Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–110 substituted "7801" for "8801".

2000—Subsec. (h)(2)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 106–402 substituted "Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000" for "Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act (42 U.S.C. 6000 et seq.)".

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 105–220, §405, which enacted this section.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–110 effective Jan. 8, 2002, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 107–110, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

References to National Institute of Handicapped Research Amended or Deemed To Be References to National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research

Pub. L. 99–506, title III, §302(b), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1821, provided that: "The Act [this chapter] is amended by striking out 'National Institute of Handicapped Research' each place it appears in the Act (including the table of contents) and inserting in lieu thereof 'National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research'. Any reference in any other provision of law to the 'National Institute of Handicapped Research' shall be considered to be a reference to the 'National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research'."

[Functions which the Director of the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research exercised before July 22, 2014 (including all related functions of any officer or employee of the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research), transferred to the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research, see subsection (n) of section 3515e of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

2 See References in Text note below.

§762a. Research and demonstration projects

(a) Multiple and interrelated service needs of individuals with handicaps; report to Congress

The Secretary of Education is authorized to make grants to, and to enter into contract with, public and nonprofit agencies and organizations for the purpose of research and demonstration projects specifically designed to address the multiple and interrelated service needs of individuals with handicaps, the elderly, and children, youths, adults, and families. A report evaluating each project funded under this section shall be submitted to appropriate committees of the Congress within four months after the date each such project is completed.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary.

No funds other than those appropriated pursuant to this subsection can be used for the conduct of research specifically authorized by this section.

(c) Study on impact of vocational rehabilitation services; transmittal to Congress

Within one year after the date appropriations are made under subsection (b) for purposes of research and demonstration projects under subsection (a), the Secretary shall prepare and transmit to the Congress a study concerning the impact of vocational rehabilitation services provided under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.] on recipients of disability payments under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1381 et seq.]. The study shall examine the relationship between the vocational rehabilitation services provided under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the programs under sections 222 and 1615 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 422, 1382d], and shall include—

(1) an analysis of the savings in disability benefit payments under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act as a result of the provision of vocational rehabilitation services under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973;

(2) a specification of the rate of return to the active labor force by recipients of services under sections 222 and 1615 of the Social Security Act;

(3) a specification of the total amount of expenditures, in the five fiscal years preceding the date of submission of the report, for vocational rehabilitation services under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and under sections 222 and 1615 of the Social Security Act, and recommendations for the coordinated presentation of such expenditures in the Budget submitted by the President pursuant to section 1105 of title 31; and

(4) recommendations to improve the coordination of services under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 with programs under sections 222 and 1615 of the Social Security Act, including recommendations for increasing savings in disability benefits payments and the rate of return to the active labor force by recipients of services under sections 222 and 1615 of the Social Security Act.

(Pub. L. 95–602, title IV, §401, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 3002; Pub. L. 98–221, title I, §104(c)(1), Feb. 22, 1984, 98 Stat. 18; Pub. L. 99–506, title I, §103(d)(2)(C), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1810.)

References in Text

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, as amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§701 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act are classified generally to subchapters II (§401 et seq.) and XVI (§1381 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (c)(3), "section 1105 of title 31" was substituted for "section 201 of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 [31 U.S.C. 11]" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Section was enacted as part of the Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Developmental Disabilities Amendments of 1978, and not as part of Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–506 substituted "individuals with handicaps" for "handicapped individuals".

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–221 substituted "Secretary of Education" for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare".

§763. Interagency Committee

(a) Establishment; membership; meetings

(1) In order to promote coordination and cooperation among Federal departments and agencies conducting disability, independent living, and rehabilitation research programs, including programs relating to assistive technology research and research that incorporates the principles of universal design, there is established within the Federal Government an Interagency Committee on Disability Research (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Committee"), chaired by the Secretary, or the Secretary's designee, and comprised of such members as the President may designate, including the following (or their designees): the Director, the Commissioner of the Rehabilitation Services Administration, the Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Disability Employment Policy, the Secretary of Defense, the Administrator of the Administration for Community Living, the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, the Director of the National Institutes of Health, the Director of the National Institute of Mental Health, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Secretary of Transportation, the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs, the Director of the Indian Health Service, the Director of the National Science Foundation and the Administrator of the Small Business Administration.

(2) The Committee shall meet not less than four times each year, and for not less than 1 of such meetings at least every 2 years, the Committee shall invite policymakers, representatives from other Federal agencies conducting relevant research, individuals with disabilities, organizations representing individuals with disabilities, researchers, and providers, to offer input on the Committee's work, including the development and implementation of the strategic plan required under subsection (c).

(b) Duties

(1) After receiving input individuals 1 with disabilities, the Committee shall identify, assess, and seek to coordinate all Federal programs, activities, and projects, and plans for such programs, activities, and projects with respect to the conduct of research (including assistive technology research and research that incorporates the principles of universal design) related to independent living and rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities.

(2) In carrying out its duties with respect to the conduct of Federal research (including assistive technology research and research that incorporates the principles of universal design) related to rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities, the Committee shall—

(A) share information regarding the range of assistive technology research, independent living research, and research that incorporates the principles of universal design, that is being carried out by members of the Committee and other Federal departments and organizations;

(B) identify, and make efforts to address, gaps in assistive technology research, independent living research, and research that incorporates the principles of universal design that are not being adequately addressed;

(C) identify, and establish, clear research priorities related to assistive technology research and research that incorporates the principles of universal design for the Federal Government;

(D) promote interagency collaboration and joint research activities relating to assistive technology research, independent living research, and research that incorporates the principles of universal design at the Federal level, and reduce unnecessary duplication of effort regarding these types of research within the Federal Government; and

(E) optimize the productivity of Committee members through resource sharing and other cost-saving activities, related to assistive technology research, independent living research, and research that incorporates the principles of universal design.

(c) Strategic plan

(1) The Committee shall develop a comprehensive government wide strategic plan for disability, independent living, and rehabilitation research.

(2) The strategic plan shall include, at a minimum—

(A) a description of the—

(i) measurable goals and objectives;

(ii) existing resources each agency will devote to carrying out the plan;

(iii) timetables for completing the projects outlined in the plan; and

(iv) assignment of responsible individuals and agencies for carrying out the research activities;


(B) research priorities and recommendations;

(C) a description of how funds from each agency will be combined, as appropriate, for projects administered among Federal agencies, and how such funds will be administered;

(D) the development and ongoing maintenance of a searchable government wide inventory of disability, independent living, and rehabilitation research for trend and data analysis across Federal agencies;

(E) guiding principles, policies, and procedures, consistent with the best research practices available, for conducting and administering disability, independent living, and rehabilitation research across Federal agencies; and

(F) a summary of underemphasized and duplicative areas of research.


(3) The strategic plan described in this subsection shall be submitted to the President and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives.

(d) Annual report

Not later than December 31 of each year, the Committee shall prepare and submit, to the President and to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, a report that—

(1) describes the progress of the Committee in fulfilling the duties described in subsections (b) and (c), and including specifically for subsection (c)—

(A) a report of the progress made in implementing the strategic plan, including progress toward implementing the elements described in subsection (c)(2)(A); and

(B) detailed budget information.2


(2) makes such recommendations as the Committee determines to be appropriate with respect to coordination of policy and development of objectives and priorities for all Federal programs relating to the conduct of research (including assistive technology research and research that incorporates the principles of universal design) related to rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities; and

(3) describes the activities that the Committee recommended to be funded through grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, and other mechanisms, for assistive technology research and development and research and development that incorporates the principles of universal design.

(e) Definitions

In this section—

(1) the terms "assistive technology" and "universal design" have the meanings given the terms in section 3002 of this title; and

(2) the term "independent living", used in connection with research, means research on issues and topics related to attaining maximum self-sufficiency and function by individuals with disabilities, including research on assistive technology and universal design, employment, education, health and wellness, and community integration and participation.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §405, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1173; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §401(16)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; Pub. L. 105–394, title II, §201, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3651; Pub. L. 108–364, §3(b)(1), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1737; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §434, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1664.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 761b of this title prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 763, Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §203, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 376, relating to making of grants and contracts for training of personnel involved in vocational services to handicapped individuals, was renumbered section 304 of Pub. L. 93–112 and transferred to section 774 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–128.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(1)(A), substituted "conducting disability, independent living, and rehabilitation research" for "conducting rehabilitation research", "chaired by the Secretary, or the Secretary's designee," for "chaired by the Director", and "the Director of the National Science Foundation and the Administrator of the Small Business Administration." for "and the Director of the National Science Foundation." and inserted "the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Disability Employment Policy, the Secretary of Defense, the Administrator of the Administration for Community Living," after "Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services,".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(1)(B), inserted ", and for not less than 1 of such meetings at least every 2 years, the Committee shall invite policymakers, representatives from other Federal agencies conducting relevant research, individuals with disabilities, organizations representing individuals with disabilities, researchers, and providers, to offer input on the Committee's work, including the development and implementation of the strategic plan required under subsection (c)" after "each year".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(2)(A), substituted "individuals with disabilities" for "from targeted individuals" and inserted "independent living and" before "rehabilitation".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(2)(B)(i), inserted "independent living research," after "assistive technology research,".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(2)(B)(ii), inserted ", independent living research," after "assistive technology research".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(2)(B)(iii), (iv), substituted ", independent living research, and research that incorporates the principles of universal design" for "and research that incorporates the principles of universal design".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(5), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(6)(A), substituted "Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate" for "Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 113–128, §434(3), (4), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which related to recommendations for coordinating research among Federal departments.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(6)(B), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "describes the progress of the Committee in fulfilling the duties described in subsection (b) of this section;".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 113–128, §434(7), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "the term 'targeted individuals' has the meaning given the term 'targeted individuals and entities' in section 3002 of this title."

2004—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–364 added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows: "In this section, the terms 'assistive technology', 'targeted individuals', and 'universal design' have the meanings given the terms in section 3002 of this title."

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 105–220, §405, which enacted this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–394, §201(1), inserted "including programs relating to assistive technology research and research that incorporates the principles of universal design," after "programs,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–394, §201(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "targeted individuals" for "individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives", inserted "(including assistive technology research and research that incorporates the principles of universal design)" after "research", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–394, §201(3), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "The Committee shall annually submit to the President and to the appropriate committees of the Congress a report making such recommendations as the Committee deems appropriate with respect to coordination of policy and development of objectives and priorities for all Federal programs relating to the conduct of research related to rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities."

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 105–394, §201(4), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "from".

2 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

§764. Research and other covered activities

(a) Federal grants and contracts for certain research projects and related activities

(1) To the extent consistent with priorities established in the 5-year plan described in section 762(h) of this title, the Director may make grants to and contracts with States and public or private agencies and organizations, including institutions of higher education, Indian tribes, and tribal organizations, to fund part of the cost of projects for the purpose of planning and conducting research, demonstration projects, training, and related activities, the purposes of which are to develop methods, procedures, and rehabilitation technology, that have practical applications and maximize the full inclusion and integration into society, employment, education, independent living, health and wellness, family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities, especially individuals with the most significant disabilities, and improve the effectiveness of services authorized under this chapter.

(2)(A) In carrying out this section, the Director shall emphasize projects that support the implementation of subchapters I, III, V, VI, and VII, including projects addressing the needs described in the State plans submitted under section 721 or 796c of this title by State agencies and from which the research findings, conclusions, or recommendations can be transferred to practice.

(B) Such projects, as described in the State plans submitted by State agencies, may include—

(i) medical and other scientific, technical, methodological, and other investigations into the nature of disability, methods of analyzing it, and restorative techniques, including basic research where related to rehabilitation techniques or services;

(ii) studies and analyses of factors related to industrial, vocational, educational, employment, social, recreational, psychiatric, psychological, economic, and health and wellness variables affecting individuals with disabilities, including traditionally underserved populations as described in section 718 of this title, and how those variables affect such individuals' ability to live independently and their participation in the work force;

(iii) studies and analysis of special problems of individuals who have significant challenges engaging in community life outside their homes and individuals who are in institutional settings;

(iv) studies, analyses, and demonstrations of architectural and engineering design adapted to meet the special needs of individuals with disabilities, including the principles of universal design and the interoperability of products and services;

(v) studies, analyses, and other activities related to supported employment, and to promoting employment opportunities in competitive integrated employment;

(vi) related activities which hold promise of increasing knowledge and improving methods in the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities and individuals with the most significant disabilities, particularly individuals with disabilities, and individuals with the most significant disabilities, who are members of populations that are unserved or underserved by programs under this chapter;

(vii) studies, analyses, and other activities related to job accommodations, including the use of rehabilitation engineering, assistive technology, and communications technology; and

(viii) studies, analyses, and other activities affecting employment outcomes as defined in section 705(11) of this title, including self-employment and telecommuting, of individuals with disabilities.


(3) In carrying out this section, the Director shall emphasize covered activities that include plans for—

(A) dissemination of high-quality materials, of scientifically valid research results, or of findings, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from covered activities, including through electronic means (such as the website of the Department of Health and Human Services), so that such information is available in a timely manner to the general public; or

(B) the commercialization of marketable products, research results, or findings, resulting from the covered activities.

(b) Research grants

(1) In addition to carrying out projects under subsection (a), the Director may make grants under this subsection (referred to in this subsection as "research grants") to pay part or all of the cost of the research or other specialized covered activities described in paragraphs (2) through (17).1 A research grant made under any of paragraphs (2) through (17) 1 may only be used in a manner consistent with priorities established in the 5-year plan described in section 762(h) of this title.

(2)(A) Research grants may be used for the establishment and support of Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers, for the purpose of providing an integrated program of research, which Centers shall—

(i) be operated in collaboration with institutions of higher education, providers of rehabilitation services, developers or providers of assistive technology devices, assistive technology services, or information technology devices or services, as appropriate, or providers of other appropriate services; and

(ii) serve as centers of national excellence and national or regional resources for individuals with disabilities, as well as providers, educators, and researchers.


(B) The Centers shall conduct research and training activities by—

(i) conducting coordinated and advanced programs of research in independent living and rehabilitation targeted toward the production of new knowledge that will improve independent living and rehabilitation methodology and service delivery systems, maximize health and function (including alleviating or stabilizing conditions, or preventing secondary conditions), and promote maximum social and economic independence of individuals with disabilities, including promoting the ability of the individuals to prepare for, secure, retain, regain, or advance in employment;

(ii) conducting research in, and dissemination of, employer-based practices to facilitate the identification, recruitment, accommodation, advancement, and retention of qualified individuals with disabilities;

(iii) providing training (including graduate, pre-service, and in-service training) to assist individuals to more effectively provide independent living and rehabilitation services;

(iv) providing training (including graduate, pre-service, and in-service training) for independent living and rehabilitation research personnel and other independent living and rehabilitation personnel;

(v) serving as an informational and technical assistance resource to individuals with disabilities, as well as to providers, educators, and researchers, by providing outreach and information that clarifies research implications for practice and identifies potential new areas of research; and

(vi) developing practical applications for the research findings of the Centers.


(C) The research to be carried out at each such Center may include—

(i) basic or applied medical rehabilitation research, including research on assistive technology devices, assistive technology services, and accessible electronic and information technology devices;

(ii) research regarding the psychological, social, and economic aspects of independent living and rehabilitation, including disability policy;

(iii) continuation of research that promotes the emotional, social, educational, and functional growth of children who are individuals with disabilities, as well as their integration in school, employment, and community activities;

(iv) continuation of research to develop and evaluate interventions, policies, and services that support families of those children and adults who are individuals with disabilities;

(v) continuation of research that will improve services and policies that foster the independence and social integration of individuals with disabilities, and enable individuals with disabilities, including individuals with intellectual disabilities and other developmental disabilities, to live in their communities; and

(vi) research, dissemination, and technical assistance, on best practices in vocational rehabilitation, including supported employment and other strategies to promote competitive integrated employment for persons with the most significant disabilities.


(D) Training of students preparing to be independent living or rehabilitation personnel or to provide independent living, rehabilitative, assistive, or supportive services (such as rehabilitation counseling, personal care services, direct care, job coaching, aides in school based settings, or advice or assistance in utilizing assistive technology devices, assistive technology services, and accessible electronic and information technology devices and services) shall be an important priority for each such Center.

(E) The Director shall make grants under this paragraph to establish and support both centers dealing with multiple disabilities and centers primarily focused on particular disabilities.

(F) Grants made under this paragraph may be used to provide funds for services rendered by such a Center to individuals with disabilities in connection with the research and training activities.

(G) Grants made under this paragraph may be used to provide faculty support for teaching—

(i) independent living and rehabilitation-related courses of study for credit; and

(ii) other courses offered by the Centers, either directly or through another entity.


(H) The research and training activities conducted by such a Center shall be conducted in a manner that is accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.

(I) In awarding grants under this paragraph, the Director shall take into consideration the location of any proposed Center and the appropriate geographic and regional allocation of such Centers.

(J) To be eligible to receive a grant under this paragraph, each such institution or provider described in subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) be of sufficient size, scope, and quality to effectively carry out the activities in an efficient manner consistent with appropriate Federal and State law; and

(ii) demonstrate the ability to carry out the training activities either directly or through another entity that can provide such training.


(K) The Director shall make grants under this paragraph for periods of 5 years, except that the Director may make a grant for a period of less than 5 years if—

(i) the grant is made to a new recipient; or

(ii) the grant supports new or innovative research.


(L) Grants made under this paragraph shall be made on a competitive basis. To be eligible to receive a grant under this paragraph, a prospective grant recipient shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require.

(M) In conducting scientific peer review under section 762(f) of this title of an application for the renewal of a grant made under this paragraph, the peer review panel shall take into account the past performance of the applicant in carrying out the grant and input from individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives.

(N) An institution or provider that receives a grant under this paragraph to establish such a Center may not collect more than 15 percent of the amount of the grant received by the Center in indirect cost charges.

(3)(A) Research grants may be used for the establishment and support of Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers, operated by or in collaboration with institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations, to conduct research or demonstration activities, and training activities, regarding independent living strategies and rehabilitation technology, including rehabilitation engineering, assistive technology devices, and assistive technology services, for the purposes of enhancing opportunities for better meeting the needs of, and addressing the barriers confronted by, individuals with disabilities in all aspects of their lives.

(B) In order to carry out the purposes set forth in subparagraph (A), such a Center shall carry out the research or demonstration activities by—

(i) developing and disseminating innovative methods of applying advanced technology, scientific achievement, and psychological and social knowledge to—

(I) solve independent living and rehabilitation problems and remove environmental barriers through planning and conducting research, including cooperative research with public or private agencies and organizations, designed to produce new scientific knowledge, and new or improved methods, equipment, and devices; and

(II) study new or emerging technologies, products, or environments, and the effectiveness and benefits of such technologies, products, or environments;


(ii) demonstrating and disseminating—

(I) innovative models for the delivery, to rural and urban areas, of cost-effective rehabilitation technology services that promote utilization of assistive technology devices; and

(II) other scientific research to assist in meeting the educational, employment, and independent living needs of individuals with significant disabilities; or


(iii) conducting research or demonstration activities that facilitate service delivery systems change by demonstrating, evaluating, documenting, and disseminating—

(I) consumer responsive and individual and family-centered innovative models for the delivery to both rural and urban areas, of innovative cost-effective rehabilitation technology services that promote utilization of rehabilitation technology; and

(II) other scientific research to assist in meeting the educational, employment, and independent living needs of, and addressing the barriers confronted by, individuals with disabilities, including individuals with significant disabilities.


(C) To the extent consistent with the nature and type of research or demonstration activities described in subparagraph (B), each Center established or supported through a grant made available under this paragraph shall—

(i) cooperate with programs established under the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.] and other regional and local programs to provide information to individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives to—

(I) increase awareness and understanding of how rehabilitation technology can address their needs; and

(II) increase awareness and understanding of the range of options, programs, services, and resources available, including financing options for the technology and services covered by the area of focus of the Center;


(ii) provide training opportunities to individuals, including individuals with disabilities, to become researchers of rehabilitation technology and practitioners of rehabilitation technology in conjunction with institutions of higher education and nonprofit organizations; and

(iii) respond, through research or demonstration activities, to the needs of individuals with all types of disabilities who may benefit from the application of technology within the area of focus of the Center.


(D)(i) In establishing Centers to conduct the research or demonstration activities described in subparagraph (B)(iii), the Director may establish one Center in each of the following areas of focus:

(I) Early childhood services, including early intervention and family support.

(II) Education at the elementary and secondary levels, including transition from school to postsecondary education, competitive integrated employment, and other age-appropriate activities.

(III) Employment, including supported employment, and reasonable accommodations and the reduction of environmental barriers as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.) and subchapter V.

(IV) Independent living, including transition from institutional to community living, maintenance of community living on leaving the workforce, self-help skills, and activities of daily living.


(ii) Each Center conducting the research or demonstration activities described in subparagraph (B)(iii) shall have an advisory committee, of which the majority of members are individuals with disabilities who are users of rehabilitation technology, and the individuals' representatives.

(E) Grants made under this paragraph shall be made on a competitive basis and shall be for a period of 5 years, except that the Director may make a grant for a period of less than 5 years if—

(i) the grant is made to a new recipient; or

(ii) the grant supports new or innovative research.


(F) To be eligible to receive a grant under this paragraph, a prospective grant recipient shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require.

(G) Each Center established or supported through a grant made available under this paragraph shall—

(i) cooperate with State agencies and other local, State, regional, and national programs and organizations developing or delivering rehabilitation technology, including State programs funded under the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.]; and

(ii) prepare and submit to the Director as part of an application for continuation of a grant, or as a final report, a report that documents the outcomes of the program of the Center in terms of both short- and long-term impact on the lives of individuals with disabilities, the impact of any commercialized product researched or developed through the Center, and such other information as may be requested by the Director.


(4)(A) Research grants may be used to conduct a program for spinal cord injury research, including conducting such a program by making grants to public or private agencies and organizations to pay part or all of the costs of special projects and demonstration projects for spinal cord injuries, that will—

(i) ensure widespread dissemination of research findings among all Spinal Cord Injury Centers, to rehabilitation practitioners, individuals with spinal cord injury, the individuals' representatives, and organizations receiving financial assistance under this paragraph;

(ii) provide encouragement and support for initiatives and new approaches by individual and institutional investigators; and

(iii) establish and maintain close working relationships with other governmental and voluntary institutions and organizations engaged in similar efforts in order to unify and coordinate scientific efforts, encourage joint planning, and promote the interchange of data and reports among spinal cord injury investigations.


(B) Any agency or organization carrying out a project or demonstration project assisted by a grant under this paragraph that provides services to individuals with spinal cord injuries shall—

(i) establish, on an appropriate regional basis, a multidisciplinary system of providing independent living, employment, and other rehabilitation services, specifically designed to meet the unique needs of individuals with spinal cord injuries, including social and functional needs, and acute care as well as periodic inpatient or outpatient followup and services;

(ii) demonstrate and evaluate the benefits to individuals with spinal cord injuries served in, and the degree of cost-effectiveness of, such a regional system;

(iii) demonstrate and evaluate existing, new, and improved methods and rehabilitation technology essential to the care, management, and rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injuries; and

(iv) demonstrate and evaluate methods of community outreach for individuals with spinal cord injuries and community education in connection with the problems of such individuals in areas such as housing, transportation, recreation, employment, education, health and wellness, and community activities.


(C) In awarding grants under this paragraph, the Director shall take into account the location of any proposed Spinal Cord Injury Center and the appropriate geographic and regional allocation of such Centers.

(5) Research grants may be used to conduct a program for end-stage renal disease research, to include support of projects and demonstrations for providing special services (including transplantation and dialysis), artificial kidneys, and supplies necessary for the rehabilitation of individuals with such disease and which will—

(A) ensure dissemination of research findings;

(B) provide encouragement and support for initiatives and new approaches by individuals and institutional investigators; and

(C) establish and maintain close working relationships with other governmental and voluntary institutions and organizations engaged in similar efforts,


in order to unify and coordinate scientific efforts, encourage joint planning, and promote the interchange of data and reports among investigators in the field of end-stage renal disease. No person shall be selected to participate in such program who is eligible for services for such disease under any other provision of law.

(6) Research grants may be used to conduct a program for international rehabilitation research, demonstration, and training for the purpose of developing new knowledge and methods in the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities in the United States, cooperating with and assisting in developing and sharing information found useful in other nations in the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities, and initiating a program to exchange experts and technical assistance in the field of rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities with other nations as a means of increasing the levels of skill of rehabilitation personnel.

(7) Research grants may be used to conduct a research program concerning the use of existing telecommunications systems (including telephone, television, satellite, radio, and other similar systems) which have the potential for substantially improving service delivery methods, and the development of appropriate programming to meet the particular needs of individuals with disabilities.

(8) Grants may be used to conduct a program of joint projects with other administrations and offices of the Department of Health and Human Services, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, the Federal Communications Commission, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Small Business Administration, the Department of Labor, other Federal agencies, and private industry in areas of joint interest involving rehabilitation.

(9) Research grants may be used to conduct a research program to develop and demonstrate innovative methods to attract and retain professionals to serve in rural areas in the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities, including individuals with significant disabilities.

(10) Research grants may be used to conduct a model research and demonstration program to develop innovative methods of providing services for preschool age children who are individuals with disabilities, including—

(A) early intervention, assessment, parent counseling, infant stimulation, early identification, diagnosis, and evaluation of children who are individuals with significant disabilities up to the age of five, with a special emphasis on children who are individuals with significant disabilities up to the age of three;

(B) such physical therapy, language development, pediatric, nursing, psychological, and psychiatric services as are necessary for such children; and

(C) appropriate services for the parents of such children, including psychological and psychiatric services, parent counseling, and training.


(11) Research grants may be used to conduct a model research and training program under which model training centers shall be established to develop and use more advanced and effective methods of evaluating and addressing the employment needs, opportunities, and outcomes (including those relating to self-employment, supported employment, and telecommuting) of individuals with disabilities, including programs that—

(A) provide training and continuing education for personnel involved with the employment of individuals with disabilities;

(B) develop model procedures for testing and evaluating the employment and employment related needs of individuals with disabilities;

(C) develop model training programs to teach individuals with disabilities skills which will lead to appropriate employment;

(D) develop new approaches for job placement of individuals with disabilities, including new followup procedures relating to such placement;

(E) provide information services regarding education, training, employment, and job placement for individuals with disabilities;

(F) develop new approaches and provide information regarding job accommodations, including the use of rehabilitation engineering and assistive technology;

(G) develop models to facilitate the successful transition of individuals with disabilities from nonintegrated employment and employment that is compensated at a wage less than the Federal minimum wage to competitive integrated employment;

(H) develop models to maximize opportunities for integrated community living, including employment and independent living, for individuals with disabilities;

(I) provide training and continuing education for personnel involved with community living for individuals with disabilities;

(J) develop model procedures for testing and evaluating the community living related needs of individuals with disabilities;

(K) develop model training programs to teach individuals with disabilities skills which will lead to integrated community living and full participation in the community; and

(L) develop new approaches for long-term services and supports for individuals with disabilities, including supports necessary for competitive integrated employment.


(12) Research grants may be used to conduct an independent living or a rehabilitation research program under which financial assistance is provided in order to—

(A) test new concepts and innovative ideas;

(B) demonstrate research results of high potential benefits;

(C) purchase prototype aids and devices for evaluation;

(D) develop unique independent living or rehabilitation training curricula; and

(E) be responsive to special initiatives of the Director.


No single grant under this paragraph may exceed $50,000 in any fiscal year and all payments made under this paragraph in any fiscal year may not exceed 5 percent of the amount available for this section to the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research in any fiscal year. Regulations and administrative procedures with respect to financial assistance under this paragraph shall, to the maximum extent possible, be expedited.

(13) Research grants may be used to conduct studies of the independent living and rehabilitation needs of American Indian populations and of effective mechanisms for the delivery of rehabilitation services to Indians residing on and off reservations.

(14) Research grants may be used to conduct a demonstration program under which one or more projects national in scope shall be established to develop procedures to provide incentives for the development, manufacturing, and marketing of orphan technological devices, including technology transfer concerning such devices, designed to enable individuals with disabilities to achieve independence, full participation, and economic self-sufficiency.

(15)(A) Research grants may be used to conduct a research program related to quality assurance in the area of rehabilitation technology.

(B) Activities carried out under the research program may include—

(i) the development of methodologies to evaluate rehabilitation technology products and services and the dissemination of the methodologies to consumers and other interested parties;

(ii) identification of models for service provider training and evaluation and certification of the effectiveness of the models;

(iii) identification and dissemination of outcome measurement models for the assessment of rehabilitation technology products and services; and

(iv) development and testing of research-based tools to enhance consumer decisionmaking about rehabilitation technology products and services.


(16) Research grants may be used to provide for research and demonstration projects and related activities that explore the use and effectiveness of specific alternative or complementary medical practices for individuals with disabilities. Such projects and activities may include projects and activities designed to—

(A) determine the use of specific alternative or complementary medical practices among individuals with disabilities and the perceived effectiveness of the practices;

(B) determine the specific information sources, decisionmaking methods, and methods of payment used by individuals with disabilities who access alternative or complementary medical services;

(C) develop criteria to screen and assess the validity of research studies of such practices for individuals with disabilities; and

(D) determine the effectiveness of specific alternative or complementary medical practices that show promise for promoting increased functioning, prevention of secondary disabilities, or other positive outcomes for individuals with certain types of disabilities, by conducting controlled research studies.

(c) Site visits; grant limitations

(1) In carrying out evaluations of covered activities under this section, the Director is authorized to make arrangements for site visits to obtain information on the accomplishments of the projects.

(2) The Director shall not make a grant under this section that exceeds $500,000 unless the peer review of the grant application has included a site visit.

(d) Application for grants

(1) In awarding grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under this subchapter, the Director shall award the funding on a competitive basis.

(2)(A) To be eligible to receive funds under this section for a covered activity, an entity described in subsection (a)(1) shall submit an application to the Director at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require.

(B) The application shall include information describing—

(i) measurable goals, as established through section 1115 of title 31, and a timeline and specific plan for meeting the goals, that the applicant has established;

(ii) how the project will address 1 or more of the following: commercialization of a marketable product, technology transfer (if applicable), dissemination of any research results, and other priorities as established by the Director; and

(iii) how the applicant will quantifiably measure the goals to determine whether such goals have been accomplished.


(3)(A) In the case of an application for funding under this section to carry out a covered activity that results in the development of a marketable product, the application shall also include a commercialization and dissemination plan, as appropriate, containing commercialization and marketing strategies for the product involved, and strategies for disseminating information about the product. The funding received under this section shall not be used to carry out the commercialization and marketing strategies.

(B) In the case of any other application for funding to carry out a covered activity under this section, the application shall also include a dissemination plan, containing strategies for disseminating educational materials, research results, or findings, conclusions, and recommendations, resulting from the covered activity.

(Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §204, as added Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, §405, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1173; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §401(16)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-412; Pub. L. 105–394, title IV, §402(b), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3661; Pub. L. 111–256, §2(d)(2), Oct. 5, 2010, 124 Stat. 2643; Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, §435, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1666.)

References in Text

The Assistive Technology Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(C)(i), (G)(i), is Pub. L. 105–394, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3627, which is classified principally to chapter 31 (§3001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3001 of this title and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(D)(i)(III), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 762 of this title prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–220.

A prior section 764, Pub. L. 93–112, title II, §204, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 376, provided that a full report on research and training activities be included in annual report to Congress, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 95–602, title I, §109(3), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2963.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(A), substituted "fund" for "pay" and "employment, education, independent living, health and wellness," for "employment, independent living," and inserted "have practical applications and" before "maximize".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(B)(i), inserted "and from which the research findings, conclusions, or recommendations can be transferred to practice" after "State agencies".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(B)(ii)(I), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "studies and analysis of industrial, vocational, social, recreational, psychiatric, psychological, economic, and other factors affecting rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities;".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(B)(ii)(II), substituted "have significant challenges engaging in community life outside their homes and individuals who are in institutional settings;" for "are homebound and individuals who are institutionalized;".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(B)(ii)(III), inserted ", including the principles of universal design and the interoperability of products and services" after "disabilities".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(B)(ii)(IV), inserted ", and to promoting employment opportunities in competitive integrated employment" after "employment".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(vii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(B)(ii)(VI), substituted ", assistive technology, and communications technology; and" for "and assistive technology."

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(viii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(B)(ii)(V), (VII), added cl. (viii).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(1)(C), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(A), substituted "(17)" for "(18)" in two places.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(i), added cls. (i) and (ii) and struck out former cls. (i) and (ii) which read as follows:

"(i) be operated in collaboration with institutions of higher education or providers of rehabilitation services or other appropriate services; and

"(ii) serve as centers of national excellence and national or regional resources for providers and individuals with disabilities and the individuals' representatives."

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(I), inserted "independent living and" after "research in" and after "will improve" and substituted "maximize health and function (including alleviating or stabilizing conditions, or preventing secondary conditions), and promote maximum social and economic independence of individuals with disabilities, including promoting the ability of the individuals to prepare for, secure, retain, regain, or advance in employment;" for "alleviate or stabilize disabling conditions, and promote maximum social and economic independence of individuals with disabilities, especially promoting the ability of the individuals to prepare for, secure, retain, regain, or advance in employment;".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(III), added cl. (ii). Former cl. (ii) redesignated (iii).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(IV), inserted "independent living and" before "rehabilitation services".

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(II), redesignated cl. (ii) as (iii). Former cl. (iii) redesignated (iv).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(V), inserted "independent living and" before "rehabilitation" in two places and struck out "and" at end.

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(II), redesignated cl. (iii) as (iv). Former cl. (iv) redesignated (v).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(VI), added cl. (v) and struck out former cl. (v) which read as follows: "serving as an informational and technical assistance resource to providers, individuals with disabilities, and the individuals' representatives, through conferences, workshops, public education programs, in-service training programs, and similar activities."

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(II), redesignated cl. (iv) as (v).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(ii)(VI), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(iii)(I), inserted ", including research on assistive technology devices, assistive technology services, and accessible electronic and information technology devices" after "rehabilitation research".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(iii)(II), substituted ", social, and economic" for "and social" and inserted "independent living and" before "rehabilitation".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(iii)(V), substituted "that promotes the emotional, social, educational, and functional growth of children who are individuals with disabilities, as well as their integration in school, employment, and community activities;" for "to develop and evaluate interventions, policies, and services that support families of those children and adults who are individuals with disabilities; and".

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(iii)(III), (IV), redesignated cl. (v) as (iii) and struck out former cl. (iii) which read as follows: "research related to vocational rehabilitation;".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(iii)(VI), substituted "to develop and evaluate interventions, policies, and services that support families of those children and adults who are individuals with disabilities;" for "that will improve services and policies that foster the productivity, independence, and social integration of individuals with disabilities, and enable individuals with disabilities, including individuals with intellectual disabilities and other developmental disabilities, to live in their communities."

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(iii)(III), (IV), redesignated cl. (vi) as (iv) and struck out former cl. (iv) which read as follows: "continuation of research that promotes the emotional, social, educational, and functional growth of children who are individuals with disabilities;".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(v), (vi). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(iii)(VII), added cls. (v) and (vi). Former cls. (v) and (vi) redesignated (iii) and (iv), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(iv), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "Training of students preparing to be rehabilitation personnel shall be an important priority for such a Center."

Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(v), struck out "comprehensive" after "both".

Subsec. (b)(2)(G)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(vi), inserted "independent living and" before "rehabilitation-related".

Subsec. (b)(2)(I). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(vii), (viii), redesignated subpar. (J) as (I) and struck out former subpar. (I) which read as follows: "The Director shall encourage the Centers to develop practical applications for the findings of the research of the Centers."

Subsec. (b)(2)(J) to (N). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(B)(viii), redesignated subpars. (K) to (O) as (J) to (N), respectively. Former subpar. (J) redesignated (I).

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(C)(i), inserted "independent living strategies and" before "rehabilitation technology".

Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(C)(ii)(I), inserted "independent living and" before "rehabilitation problems".

Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(C)(ii)(II), substituted "educational, employment," for "employment".

Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(C)(ii)(III), substituted "educational, employment," for "employment".

Subsec. (b)(3)(D)(i)(II). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(C)(iii), substituted "postsecondary education, competitive integrated employment, and other age-appropriate" for "postschool".

Subsec. (b)(3)(G)(ii). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(C)(iv), inserted "the impact of any commercialized product researched or developed through the Center," after "individuals with disabilities,".

Subsec. (b)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(D)(i), substituted "independent living, employment," for "vocational" and "unique" for "special" and inserted "social and functional needs, and" before "acute care".

Subsec. (b)(4)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(D)(ii), inserted "education, health and wellness," after "employment,".

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(E), added par. (8) and struck out former par. (8) which read as follows: "Research grants may be used to conduct a program of joint projects with the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Health Services Administration, the Administration on Aging, the National Science Foundation, the Veterans' Administration, the Department of Health and Human Services, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, other Federal agencies, and private industry in areas of joint interest involving rehabilitation."

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(F), (G), redesignated par. (10) as (9) and struck out former par. (9) which read as follows: "Research grants may be used to conduct a program of research related to the rehabilitation of children, or older individuals, who are individuals with disabilities, including older American Indians who are individuals with disabilities. Such research program may include projects designed to assist the adjustment of, or maintain as residents in the community, older workers who are individuals with disabilities on leaving the workforce."

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(G), redesignated par. (12) as (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (9).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(H)(i), substituted "employment needs, opportunities, and outcomes (including those relating to self-employment, supported employment, and telecommuting) of individuals with disabilities, including" for "employment needs of individuals with disabilities, including" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(F), (G), redesignated par. (13) as (11) and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: "Research grants may be used to conduct a model research and demonstration project designed to assess the feasibility of establishing a center for producing and distributing to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing captioned video cassettes providing a broad range of educational, cultural, scientific, and vocational programming."

Subsec. (b)(11)(B). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(H)(ii), inserted "and employment related" after "the employment".

Subsec. (b)(11)(G) to (L). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(H)(iii)–(v), added subpars. (G) to (L).

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(I)(i), (iii), in introductory provisions, inserted "an independent living or" after "conduct" and, in concluding provisions, substituted "National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research" for "National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research".

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(G), redesignated par. (14) as (12). Former par. (12) redesignated (10).

Subsec. (b)(12)(D). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(I)(ii), inserted "independent living or" before "rehabilitation".

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(J), inserted "independent living and" before "rehabilitation needs".

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(G), redesignated par. (15) as (13). Former par. (13) redesignated (11).

Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(K), substituted ", full participation, and economic self-sufficiency." for "and access to gainful employment."

Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(G), redesignated par. (16) as (14). Former par. (14) redesignated (12).

Subsec. (b)(15) to (18). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(2)(G), redesignated pars. (17) and (18) as (15) and (16), respectively. Former pars. (15) and (16) redesignated (13) and (14), respectively.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–128, §435(3), added subsec. (d).

2010—Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 111–256 substituted "intellectual disabilities and other developmental disabilities" for "mental retardation and other developmental disabilities".

1998Pub. L. 105–277 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 105–220, §405, which enacted this section.

Subsec. (b)(3)(C)(i), (G)(i). Pub. L. 105–394 substituted "the Assistive Technology Act of 1998" for "the Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals With Disabilities Act of 1988 (29 U.S.C. 2201 et seq.)".

Definitions

For meaning of references to an intellectual disability and to individuals with intellectual disabilities in provisions amended by section 2 of Pub. L. 111–256, see section 2(k) of Pub. L. 111–256, set out as a note under section 1400 of Title 20, Education.

1 So in original. Probably should be "paragraphs (2) through (16)".

§765. Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research Advisory Council

(a) Establishment