[USC07] 34 USC Ch. 121: VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT
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34 USC Ch. 121: VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT
From Title 34—CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENTSubtitle I—Comprehensive Acts

CHAPTER 121—VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

SUBCHAPTER I—PRISONS

Part A—Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive Grants

Sec.
12101.
Definitions.
12102.
Authorization of grants.
12103.
Violent offender incarceration grants.
12104.
Truth-in-sentencing incentive grants.
12105.
Special rules.
12106.
Formula for grants.
12107.
Accountability.
12108.
Authorization of appropriations.
12109.
Payments for incarceration on tribal lands.
12110.
Payments to eligible States for incarceration of criminal aliens.
12111.
Support of Federal prisoners in non-Federal institutions.
12112.
Report by Attorney General.
12113.
Aimee's Law.

        

Part B—Miscellaneous Provisions

12121.
Task force on prison construction standardization and techniques.
12122.
Efficiency in law enforcement and corrections.
12123.
Conversion of closed military installations into Federal prison facilities.
12124.
Correctional job training and placement.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—CRIME PREVENTION

Part A—Ounce of Prevention Council

12131.
Ounce of Prevention Council.
12132.
Ounce of prevention grant program.
12133.
"Indian tribe" defined.

        

Part B—Model Intensive Grant Programs

12141.
Grant authorization.
12142.
Uses of funds.
12143.
Program requirements.
12144.
Applications.
12145.
Reports.
12146.
Definitions.

        

Part C—Family and Community Endeavor Schools Grant Program

12161.
Community schools youth services and supervision grant program.

        

Part D—Police Recruitment

12171.
Grant authority.

        

Part E—National Community Economic Partnership

subpart 1—community economic partnership investment funds

12181.
Purpose.
12182.
Provision of assistance.
12183.
Approval of applications.
12184.
Availability of lines of credit and use.
12185.
Limitations on use of funds.
12186.
Program priority for special emphasis programs.

        

subpart 2—emerging community development corporations

12201.
Community development corporation improvement grants.
12202.
Emerging community development corporation revolving loan funds.

        

subpart 3—miscellaneous provisions

12211.
Definitions.
12212.
Prohibition.

        

Part F—Community-Based Justice Grants for Prosecutors

12221.
Grant authorization.
12222.
Use of funds.
12223.
Applications.
12224.
Allocation of funds; limitations on grants.
12225.
Award of grants.
12226.
Reports.
12227.
Definitions.

        

Part G—Family Unity Demonstration Project

12241.
Purpose.
12242.
Definitions.

        

subpart 1—grants to states

12251.
Authority to make grants.
12252.
Eligibility to receive grants.
12253.
Report.

        

subpart 2—family unity demonstration project for federal prisoners

12261.
Authority of the Attorney General.
12262.
Requirements.

        

Part H—Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Correctional Institutions

12271.
Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis in correctional institutions.

        

Part I—Gang Resistance Education and Training

12281.
Gang Resistance Education and Training projects.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

12291.
Definitions and grant provisions.

        

Part A—Safe Streets for Women

subpart 1—safety for women in public transit

12301.
Grants for capital improvements to prevent crime in public transportation.

        

subpart 2—assistance to victims of sexual assault

12311.
Training programs.
12312.
Confidentiality of communications between sexual assault or domestic violence victims and their counselors.
12313.
Information programs.

        

Part B—Safe Homes for Women

subpart 1—confidentiality for abused persons

12321.
Confidentiality of abused person's address.

        

subpart 2—data and research

12331.
Research agenda.
12332.
State databases.
12333.
Number and cost of injuries.

        

subpart 3—rural domestic violence and child abuse enforcement

12341.
Rural domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and child abuse enforcement assistance.

        

subpart 4—transitional housing assistance grants for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking

12351.
Transitional housing assistance grants for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

        

Part C—Civil Rights for Women

12361.
Civil rights.

        

Part D—Equal Justice for Women in Courts

subpart 1—education and training for judges and court personnel in state courts

12371.
Grants authorized.
12372.
Training provided by grants.
12373.
Cooperation in developing programs in making grants under this subchapter.

        

subpart 2—education and training for judges and court personnel in federal courts

12381.
Authorization of circuit studies; education and training grants.

        

Part E—Violence Against Women Act Improvements

12391.
Payment of cost of testing for sexually transmitted diseases.
12392.
Enforcement of statutory rape laws.

        

Part F—National Stalker and Domestic Violence Reduction

12401.
Grant program.
12402.
Authorization of appropriations.
12403.
Application requirements.
12404.
Disbursement.
12405.
Technical assistance, training, and evaluations.
12406.
Training programs for judges.
12407.
Recommendations on intrastate communication.
12408.
Inclusion in National Incident-Based Reporting System.
12409.
Report to Congress.
12410.
Definitions.

        

Part G—Enhanced Training and Services To End Abuse Later in Life

12421.
Enhanced training and services to end abuse in later life.

        

Part H—Domestic Violence Task Force

12431.
Task force.

        

Part I—Privacy Protections for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking

12441.
Grants to protect the privacy and confidentiality of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.
12442.
Purpose areas.
12443.
Eligible entities.
12444.
Grant conditions.

        

Part J—Services, Education, Protection and Justice for Young Victims of Violence

12451.
Creating hope through outreach, options, services, and education for children and youth ("CHOOSE Children & Youth").

        

Part K—Strengthening America's Families by Preventing Violence Against Women and Children

12461.
Findings.
12462.
Purpose.
12463.
Saving money and reducing tragedies through prevention (SMART Prevention).
12464.
Grants to support families in the justice system.

        

Part L—Addressing the Housing Needs of Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, and Stalking

subpart 1—grant programs

12471.
Findings.
12472.
Purpose.
12473.
Definitions.
12474.
Collaborative grants to increase the long-term stability of victims.
12475.
Grants to combat violence against women in public and assisted housing.

        

subpart 2—housing rights

12491.
Housing protections for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

        

Part M—National Resource Center

12501.
Grant for national resource center on workplace responses to assist victims of domestic and sexual violence.

        

Part N—Sexual Assault Services

12511.
Sexual assault services program.
12512.
Working Group.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—DRUG CONTROL

12521.
Increased penalties for drug-dealing in "drug-free" zones.
12522.
Enhanced penalties for illegal drug use in Federal prisons and for smuggling drugs into Federal prisons.
12523.
Violent crime and drug emergency areas.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—CRIMINAL STREET GANGS

12531.
Juvenile anti-drug and anti-gang grants in federally assisted low-income housing.
12532.
Gang investigation coordination and information collection.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—RURAL CRIME

12541.
Rural Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Forces.
12542.
Rural drug enforcement training.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—POLICE CORPS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

Part A—Police Corps

12551.
Purposes.
12552.
Definitions.
12553.
Establishment of Office of the Police Corps and Law Enforcement Education.
12554.
Designation of lead agency and submission of State plan.
12555.
Scholarship assistance.
12556.
Selection of participants.
12557.
Police Corps training.
12558.
Service obligation.
12559.
State plan requirements.

        

Part B—Law Enforcement Scholarship Program

12571.
Definitions.
12572.
Allotment.
12573.
Establishment of program.
12574.
Scholarships.
12575.
Eligibility.
12576.
State application.
12577.
Local application.
12578.
Scholarship agreement.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—STATE AND LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT

Part A—DNA Identification

12591.
Quality assurance and proficiency testing standards.
12592.
Index to facilitate law enforcement exchange of DNA identification information.
12593.
Federal Bureau of Investigation.

        

Part B—Police Pattern or Practice

12601.
Cause of action.
12602.
Data on use of excessive force.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PROTECTION

12611.
Motor vehicle theft prevention program.

        

SUBCHAPTER X—PROTECTIONS FOR THE ELDERLY

12621.
Missing Americans Alert Program.
12622.
Annual report.
12623.
Standards and best practices for use of non-invasive and non-permanent tracking devices.

        

SUBCHAPTER XI—VIOLENT CRIME REDUCTION TRUST FUND

12631.
Creation of Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund.
12632.
Extension of authorizations of appropriations for fiscal years for which full amount authorized is not appropriated.
12633.
Flexibility in making of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER XII—MISCELLANEOUS

12641.
Task force relating to introduction of nonindigenous species.
12642.
Coordination of substance abuse treatment and prevention programs.
12643.
Edward Byrne Memorial Formula Grant Program.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—PRISONS

Part A—Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive Grants

§12101. Definitions

Unless otherwise provided, for purposes of this part—

(1) the term "indeterminate sentencing" means a system by which—

(A) the court may impose a sentence of a range defined by statute; and

(B) an administrative agency, generally the parole board, or the court, controls release within the statutory range;


(2) the term "part 1 violent crime" means murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault as reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for purposes of the Uniform Crime Reports; and

(3) the term "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20101, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-15; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13701 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20101 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1815, related to grants for correctional facilities prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

§12102. Authorization of grants

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall provide Violent Offender Incarceration grants under section 12103 of this title and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive grants under section 12104 of this title to eligible States—

(1) to build or expand correctional facilities to increase the bed capacity for the confinement of persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime or adjudicated delinquent for an act which if committed by an adult, would be a part 1 violent crime;

(2) to build or expand temporary or permanent correctional facilities, including facilities on military bases, prison barges, and boot camps, for the confinement of convicted nonviolent offenders and criminal aliens, for the purpose of freeing suitable existing prison space for the confinement of persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime;

(3) to build or expand jails; and

(4) to carry out any activity referred to in section 10631(b) of this title.

(b) Regional compacts

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), States may enter into regional compacts to carry out this part. Such compacts shall be treated as States under this part.

(2) Requirement

To be recognized as a regional compact for eligibility for a grant under section 12103 or 12104 of this title, each member State must be eligible individually.

(3) Limitation on receipt of funds

No State may receive a grant under this part both individually and as part of a compact.

(c) Applicability

Notwithstanding the eligibility requirements of section 12104 of this title, a State that certifies to the Attorney General that, as of April 26, 1996, such State has enacted legislation in reliance on this part, as enacted on September 13, 1994, and would in fact qualify under those provisions, shall be eligible to receive a grant for fiscal year 1996 as though such State qualifies under section 12104 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20102, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-15; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; amended Pub. L. 110–199, title I, §104(a), Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 669.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13702 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20102 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1816, related to Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 110–199 added par. (4).

Construction of 2008 Amendment

For construction of amendments by Pub. L. 110–199 and requirements for grants made under such amendments, see section 60504 of this title.

§12103. Violent offender incarceration grants

(a) Eligibility for minimum grant

To be eligible to receive a minimum grant under this section, a State shall submit an application to the Attorney General that provides assurances that the State has implemented, or will implement, correctional policies and programs, including truth-in-sentencing laws that ensure that violent offenders serve a substantial portion of the sentences imposed, that are designed to provide sufficiently severe punishment for violent offenders, including violent juvenile offenders, and that the prison time served is appropriately related to the determination that the inmate is a violent offender and for a period of time deemed necessary to protect the public.

(b) Additional amount for increased percentage of persons sentenced and time served

A State that received a grant under subsection (a) is eligible to receive additional grant amounts if such State demonstrates that the State has, since 1993—

(1) increased the percentage of persons arrested for a part 1 violent crime sentenced to prison; or

(2) increased the average prison time actually served or the average percent of sentence served by persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime.


Receipt of grant amounts under this subsection does not preclude eligibility for a grant under subsection (c).

(c) Additional amount for increased rate of incarceration and percentage of sentence served

A State that received a grant under subsection (a) is eligible to receive additional grant amounts if such State demonstrates that the State has—

(1) since 1993, increased the percentage of persons arrested for a part 1 violent crime sentenced to prison, and has increased the average percent of sentence served by persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime; or

(2) has increased by 10 percent or more over the most recent 3-year period the number of new court commitments to prison of persons convicted of part 1 violent crimes.


Receipt of grant amounts under this subsection does not preclude eligibility for a grant under subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20103, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-16; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13703 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20103 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1817, related to Violent Offender Incarceration Grants prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

Controlled Substance Testing and Intervention; Availability of Funds

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(a) [title I], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009-14, provided in part: "That beginning in fiscal year 1999, and thereafter, no funds shall be available to make grants to a State pursuant to section 20103 or section 20104 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 [34 U.S.C. 12103, 12104] unless no later than September 1, 1998, such State has implemented a program of controlled substance testing and intervention for appropriate categories of convicted offenders during periods of incarceration and criminal justice supervision, with sanctions including denial or revocation of release for positive controlled substance tests, consistent with guidelines issued by the Attorney General".

§12104. Truth-in-sentencing incentive grants

(a) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive a grant award under this section, a State shall submit an application to the Attorney General that demonstrates that—

(1)(A) such State has implemented truth-in-sentencing laws that—

(i) require persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime to serve not less than 85 percent of the sentence imposed (without counting time not actually served, such as administrative or statutory incentives for good behavior); or

(ii) result in persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime serving on average not less than 85 percent of the sentence imposed (without counting time not actually served, such as administrative or statutory incentives for good behavior);


(B) such State has truth-in-sentencing laws that have been enacted, but not yet implemented, that require such State, not later than 3 years after such State submits an application to the Attorney General, to provide that persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime serve not less than 85 percent of the sentence imposed (without counting time not actually served, such as administrative or statutory incentives for good behavior); or

(C) in the case of a State that on April 26, 1996, practices indeterminate sentencing with regard to any part 1 violent crime—

(i) persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime on average serve not less than 85 percent of the prison term established under the State's sentencing and release guidelines; or

(ii) persons convicted of a part 1 violent crime on average serve not less than 85 percent of the maximum prison term allowed under the sentence imposed by the court (not counting time not actually served such as administrative or statutory incentives for good behavior); and


(2) such State has provided assurances that it will follow guidelines established by the Attorney General in reporting, on a quarterly basis, information regarding the death of any person who is in the process of arrest, is en route to be incarcerated, or is incarcerated at a municipal or county jail, State prison, or other local or State correctional facility (including any juvenile facility) that, at a minimum, includes—

(A) the name, gender, race, ethnicity, and age of the deceased;

(B) the date, time, and location of death; and

(C) a brief description of the circumstances surrounding the death.

(b) Exception

Notwithstanding subsection (a), a State may provide that the Governor of the State may allow for the earlier release of—

(1) a geriatric prisoner; or

(2) a prisoner whose medical condition precludes the prisoner from posing a threat to the public, but only after a public hearing in which representatives of the public and the prisoner's victims have had an opportunity to be heard regarding a proposed release.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20104, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-16; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; amended Pub. L. 106–297, §2, Oct. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 1045.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13704 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20104 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1818, related to Federal share matching requirement prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–297 redesignated par. (1) as subpar. (A) and former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, redesignated par. (2) as subpar. (B), redesignated par. (3) as subpar. (C) and former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and added par. (2).

§12105. Special rules

(a) Sharing of funds with counties and other units of local government

(1) Reservation

Each State shall reserve not more than 15 percent of the amount of funds allocated in a fiscal year pursuant to section 12106 of this title for counties and units of local government to construct, develop, expand, modify, or improve jails and other correctional facilities.

(2) Factors for determination of amount

To determine the amount of funds to be reserved under this subsection, a State shall consider the burden placed on a county or unit of local government that results from the implementation of policies adopted by the State to carry out section 12103 or 12104 of this title.

(b) Use of truth-in-sentencing and violent offender incarceration grants

Funds provided under section 12103 or 12104 of this title may be applied to the cost of—

(1) altering existing correctional facilities to provide separate facilities for juveniles under the jurisdiction of an adult criminal court who are detained or are serving sentences in adult prisons or jails;

(2) providing correctional staff who are responsible for supervising juveniles who are detained or serving sentences under the jurisdiction of an adult criminal court with orientation and ongoing training regarding the unique needs of such offenders; and

(3) providing ombudsmen to monitor the treatment of juveniles who are detained or serving sentences under the jurisdiction of an adult criminal court in adult facilities, consistent with guidelines issued by the Assistant Attorney General.

(c) Funds for juvenile offenders

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, if a State, or unit of local government located in a State that otherwise meets the requirements of section 12103 or 12104 of this title, certifies to the Attorney General that exigent circumstances exist that require the State to expend funds to build or expand facilities to confine juvenile offenders other than juvenile offenders adjudicated delinquent for an act which, if committed by an adult, would be a part 1 violent crime, the State may use funds received under this part to build or expand juvenile correctional facilities or pretrial detention facilities for juvenile offenders.

(d) Private facilities

A State may use funds received under this part for the privatization of facilities to carry out the purposes of section 12102 of this title.

(e) "Part 1 violent crime" defined

For purposes of this part, "part 1 violent crime" means a part 1 violent crime as defined in section 12101(3) 1 of this title, or a crime in a reasonably comparable class of serious violent crimes as approved by the Attorney General.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20105, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-17; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. E, §3, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–760; Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §307, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1783.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13705 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20105 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1818, related to rules and regulations prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "Use of truth-in-sentencing and violent offender incarceration grants" for "Additional requirements" in heading and amended text generally, substituting provisions relating to use of funds for juveniles in adult prisons or under the jurisdiction of an adult criminal court for provisions relating to additional requirements for grant eligibility.

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–277 amended heading and text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "To be eligible to receive a grant under section 13703 or 13704 of this title, a State shall provide assurances to the Attorney General that the State has implemented or will implement not later than 18 months after April 26, 1996, policies that provide for the recognition of the rights and needs of crime victims."

1 So in original. Probably should be section "12101(2)".

§12106. Formula for grants

(a) Allocation of violent offender incarceration grants under section 12103

(1) Formula allocation

85 percent of the amount available for grants under section 12103 of this title for any fiscal year shall be allocated as follows (except that a State may not receive more than 9 percent of the total amount of funds made available under this paragraph):

(A) 0.75 percent shall be allocated to each State that meets the requirements of section 12103(a) of this title, except that the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, if eligible under section 12103(a) of this title, shall each be allocated 0.05 percent.

(B) The amount remaining after application of subparagraph (A) shall be allocated to each State that meets the requirements of section 12103(b) of this title, in the ratio that the number of part 1 violent crimes reported by such State to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the 3 years preceding the year in which the determination is made, bears to the average annual number of part 1 violent crimes reported by all States that meet the requirements of section 12103(b) of this title to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the 3 years preceding the year in which the determination is made.

(2) Additional allocation

15 percent of the amount available for grants under section 12103 of this title for any fiscal year shall be allocated to each State that meets the requirements of section 12103(c) of this title as follows:

(A) 3.0 percent shall be allocated to each State that meets the requirements of section 12103(c) of this title, except that the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, if eligible under such subsection, shall each be allocated 0.03 percent.

(B) The amount remaining after application of subparagraph (A) shall be allocated to each State that meets the requirements of section 12103(c) of this title, in the ratio that the number of part 1 violent crimes reported by such State to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the 3 years preceding the year in which the determination is made, bears to the average annual number of part 1 violent crimes reported by all States that meet the requirements of section 12102(c) of this title to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the 3 years preceding the year in which the determination is made.

(b) Allocation of truth-in-sentencing grants under section 12104

The amounts available for grants for section 12104 of this title shall be allocated to each State that meets the requirements of section 12104 of this title in the ratio that the average annual number of part 1 violent crimes reported by such State to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the 3 years preceding the year in which the determination is made bears to the average annual number of part 1 violent crimes reported by States that meet the requirements of section 12104 of this title to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the 3 years preceding the year in which the determination is made, except that a State may not receive more than 25 percent of the total amount available for such grants.

(c) Unavailable data

If data regarding part 1 violent crimes in any State is substantially inaccurate or is unavailable for the 3 years preceding the year in which the determination is made, the Attorney General shall utilize the best available comparable data regarding the number of violent crimes for the previous year for the State for the purposes of allocation of funds under this part.

(d) Regional compacts

In determining the amount of funds that States organized as a regional compact may receive, the Attorney General shall first apply the formula in either subsection (a) or (b) and (c) of this section to each member State of the compact. The States organized as a regional compact may receive the sum of the amounts so determined.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20106, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-18; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13706 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20106 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1818, related to technical assistance and training prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

§12107. Accountability

(a) Fiscal requirements

A State that receives funds under this part shall use accounting, audit, and fiscal procedures that conform to guidelines prescribed by the Attorney General, and shall ensure that any funds used to carry out the programs under section 12102(a) of this title shall represent the best value for the State governments at the lowest possible cost and employ the best available technology.

(b) Administrative provisions

The administrative provisions of sections 10221 and 10222 of this title shall apply to the Attorney General under this part in the same manner that such provisions apply to the officials listed in such sections.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20107, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-19; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13707 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20107 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1818, related to evaluation of programs prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

§12108. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general

(1) Authorizations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part—

(A) $997,500,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(B) $1,330,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

(C) $2,527,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

(D) $2,660,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

(E) $2,753,100,000 for fiscal year 2000.

(2) Distribution

(A) In general

Of the amounts remaining after the allocation of funds for the purposes set forth under sections 12110, 12111, and 12109 of this title, the Attorney General shall, from amounts authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (1) for each fiscal year, distribute 50 percent for incarceration grants under section 12103 of this title, and 50 percent for incentive grants under section 12104 of this title.

(B) Distribution of minimum amounts

The Attorney General shall distribute minimum amounts allocated for section 12103(a) of this title to an eligible State not later than 30 days after receiving an application that demonstrates that such State qualifies for a Violent Offender Incarceration grant under section 12103 of this title or a Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive grant under section 12104 of this title.

(b) Limitations on funds

(1) Uses of funds

Except as provided in section 1 12110 and 12111 of this title, funds made available pursuant to this section shall be used only to carry out the purposes described in section 12102(a) of this title.

(2) Nonsupplanting requirement

Funds made available pursuant to this section shall not be used to supplant State funds, but shall be used to increase the amount of funds that would, in the absence of Federal funds, be made available from State sources.

(3) Administrative costs

Not more than 3 percent of the funds that remain available after carrying out sections 12109, 12110, and 12111 of this title shall be available to the Attorney General for purposes of—

(A) administration;

(B) research and evaluation, including assessment of the effect on public safety and other effects of the expansion of correctional capacity and sentencing reforms implemented pursuant to this part;

(C) technical assistance relating to the use of grant funds, and development and implementation of sentencing reforms implemented pursuant to this part; and

(D) data collection and improvement of information systems relating to the confinement of violent offenders and other sentencing and correctional matters.

(4) Carryover of appropriations

Funds appropriated pursuant to this section during any fiscal year shall remain available until expended. Funds obligated, but subsequently unspent and deobligated, may remain available, to the extent as may 2 provided in appropriations Acts, for the purpose described in section 12102(a)(4) of this title for any subsequent fiscal year. The further obligation of such funds by an official for such purpose shall not be delayed, directly or indirectly, in any manner by any officer or employee in the executive branch.

(5) Matching funds

The Federal share of a grant received under this part may not exceed 90 percent of the costs of a proposal as described in an application approved under this part.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20108, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-19; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; amended Pub. L. 110–199, title I, §104(b), Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 669.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13708 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20108 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1818, defined terms prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–199 inserted at end "Funds obligated, but subsequently unspent and deobligated, may remain available, to the extent as may provided in appropriations Acts, for the purpose described in section 13702(a)(4) of this title for any subsequent fiscal year. The further obligation of such funds by an official for such purpose shall not be delayed, directly or indirectly, in any manner by any officer or employee in the executive branch."

Construction of 2008 Amendment

For construction of amendments by Pub. L. 110–199 and requirements for grants made under such amendments, see section 60504 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "sections".

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by "be".

§12109. Payments for incarceration on tribal lands

(a) Reservation of funds

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, of amounts made available to the Attorney General to carry out programs relating to offender incarceration, the Attorney General shall reserve $35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015 to carry out this section.

(b) Grants to Indian tribes

(1) In general

From the amounts reserved under subsection (a), the Attorney General shall provide grants—

(A) to Indian tribes for purposes of—

(i) construction and maintenance of jails on Indian land for the incarceration of offenders subject to tribal jurisdiction;

(ii) entering into contracts with private entities to increase the efficiency of the construction of tribal jails; and

(iii) developing and implementing alternatives to incarceration in tribal jails;


(B) to Indian tribes for the construction of tribal justice centers that combine tribal police, courts, and corrections services to address violations of tribal civil and criminal laws;

(C) to consortia of Indian tribes for purposes of constructing and operating regional detention centers on Indian land for long-term incarceration of offenders subject to tribal jurisdiction, as the applicable consortium determines to be appropriate.

(2) Priority of funding

in 1 providing grants under this subsection, the Attorney General shall take into consideration applicable—

(A) reservation crime rates;

(B) annual tribal court convictions; and

(C) bed space needs.

(3) Federal share

Because of the Federal nature and responsibility for providing public safety on Indian land, the Federal share of the cost of any activity carried out using a grant under this subsection shall be 100 percent.

(c) Applications

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an Indian tribe or consortium of Indian tribes, as applicable, shall submit to the Attorney General an application in such form and containing such information as the Attorney General may by regulation require.

(d) Long-term plan

Not later than 1 year after July 29, 2010, the Attorney General, in coordination with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and in consultation with tribal leaders, tribal law enforcement officers, and tribal corrections officials, shall submit to Congress a long-term plan to address incarceration in Indian country, including—

(1) a description of proposed activities for—

(A) construction, operation, and maintenance of juvenile (in accordance with section 2453(a)(3) of title 25) and adult detention facilities (including regional facilities) in Indian country;

(B) contracting with State and local detention centers, on approval of the affected tribal governments; and

(C) alternatives to incarceration, developed in cooperation with tribal court systems;


(2) an assessment and consideration of the construction of Federal detention facilities in Indian country; and

(3) any other alternatives as the Attorney General, in coordination with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and in consultation with Indian tribes, determines to be necessary.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20109, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-20; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; amended Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §244, July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2294.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13709 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20109 of Pub. L. 103–322, title II, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1818, authorized appropriations prior to the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 103–322 by Pub. L. 104–134.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–211, §244(a), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of this part other than section 13708(a)(2) of this title, from amounts appropriated to carry out sections 13703 and 13704 of this title, the Attorney General shall reserve, to carry out this section—

"(1) 0.3 percent in each of fiscal years 1996 and 1997; and

"(2) 0.2 percent in each of fiscal years 1998, 1999, and 2000."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–211, §244(b)(1), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "From the amounts reserved under subsection (a) of this section, the Attorney General may make grants to Indian tribes for the purposes of constructing jails on tribal lands for the incarceration of offenders subject to tribal jurisdiction."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–211, §244(b)(2), inserted "or consortium of Indian tribes, as applicable," after "Indian tribe".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–211, §244(b)(3), added subsec. (d).

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§12110. Payments to eligible States for incarceration of criminal aliens

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall make a payment to each State which is eligible under section 1252(j) 1 of title 8 in such amount as is determined under section 1252(j) 1 of title 8, and for which payment is not made to such State for such fiscal year under such section.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, there are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section from amounts authorized under section 12108 of this title, an amount which when added to amounts appropriated to carry out section 1252(j) 1 of title 8 for fiscal year 1996 equals $500,000,000 and for each of the fiscal years 1997 through 2000 does not exceed $650,000,000.

(c) Administration

The amounts appropriated to carry out this section shall be reserved from the total amount appropriated for each fiscal year and shall be added to the other funds appropriated to carry out section 1252(j) 1 of title 8 and administered under such section.

(d) Report to Congress

Not later than May 15, 1999, the Attorney General shall submit a report to the Congress which contains the recommendation of the Attorney General concerning the extension of the program under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20110, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-21; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

References in Text

Section 1252(j) of title 8, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (c), was redesignated section 1231(i) of title 8 by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §306(a)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–607.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13710 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12111. Support of Federal prisoners in non-Federal institutions

(a) In general

The Attorney General may make payments to States and units of local government for the purposes authorized in section 4013 of title 18.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part other than section 12108(a)(2) of this title, there are authorized to be appropriated from amounts authorized under section 12108 of this title for each of fiscal years 1996 through 2000 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20111, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-21; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13711 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12112. Report by Attorney General

Beginning on October 1, 1996, and each subsequent July 1 thereafter, the Attorney General shall report to the Congress on the implementation of this part, including a report on the eligibility of the States under sections 12103 and 12104 of this title, and the distribution and use of funds under this part.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20112, as added Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-21; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13712 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12113. Aimee's Law

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as "Aimee's Law".

(b) Definitions

Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, in this section:

(1) Dangerous sexual offense

The term "dangerous sexual offense" means any offense under State law for conduct that would constitute an offense under chapter 109A of title 18 had the conduct occurred in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States or in a Federal prison.

(2) Murder

The term "murder" has the meaning given the term in part I of the Uniform Crime Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(3) Rape

The term "rape" has the meaning given the term in part I of the Uniform Crime Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(c) Penalty

(1) Single State

Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, in any case in which a criminal-records-reporting State convicts an individual of murder, rape, or a dangerous sexual offense, who has a prior conviction for any one of those offenses in a State described in paragraph (3), it may, under subsection (d), apply to the Attorney General for $10,000, for its related apprehension and prosecution costs, and $22,500 per year (up to a maximum of 5 years), for its related incarceration costs with both amounts for costs adjusted annually for the rate of inflation.

(2) Multiple States

Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, in any case in which a criminal-records-reporting State convicts an individual of murder, rape, or a dangerous sexual offense, who has a prior conviction for any one or more of those offenses in more than one other State described in paragraph (3), it may, under subsection (d), apply to the Attorney General for $10,000, for its related apprehension and prosecution costs, and $22,500 per year (up to a maximum of 5 years), for its related incarceration costs with both amounts for costs adjusted annually for the rate of inflation.

(3) State described

Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, a State is described in this paragraph unless—

(A) the term of imprisonment imposed by the State on the individual described in paragraph (1) or (2), as applicable, was not less than the average term of imprisonment imposed for that offense in all States; or

(B) with respect to the individual described in paragraph (1) or (2), as applicable, the individual had served not less than 85 percent of the term of imprisonment to which that individual was sentenced for the prior offense.


For purposes of subparagraph (B), in a State that has indeterminate sentencing, the term of imprisonment to which that individual was sentenced for the prior offense shall be based on the lower of the range of sentences.

(d) State applications

In order to receive an amount under subsection (c), the chief executive of a State shall submit to the Attorney General an application, in such form and containing such information as the Attorney General may reasonably require, which shall include a certification that the State has convicted an individual of murder, rape, or a dangerous sexual offense, who has a prior conviction for one of those offenses in another State.

(e) Source of funds

(1) In general

Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, any amount under subsection (c) shall be derived by reducing the amount of Federal law enforcement assistance funds received by the State pursuant to section 10156 of this title that convicted such individual of the prior offense before the distribution of the funds to the State. No amount described under this section shall be subject to section 3335(b) or 6503(d) of title 31 1

(2) Payment schedule

The Attorney General, in consultation with the chief executive of the State that convicted such individual of the prior offense, shall establish a payment schedule.

(f) Construction

Nothing in this section may be construed to diminish or otherwise affect any court ordered restitution.

(g) Exception

Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, this section does not apply if the individual convicted of murder, rape, or a dangerous sexual offense has been released from prison upon the reversal of a conviction for an offense described in subsection (c) and subsequently been convicted for an offense described in subsection (c).

(h) Report

The Attorney General shall—

(1) conduct a study evaluating the implementation of this section; and

(2) not later than October 1, 2006, submit to Congress a report on the results of that study.

(i) Collection of recidivism data

(1) In general

Beginning with calendar year 2002, and each calendar year thereafter, the Attorney General shall collect and maintain information relating to, with respect to each State (where practicable)—

(A) the number of convictions during that calendar year for—

(i) any dangerous sexual offense;

(ii) rape; and

(iii) murder; and


(B) the number of convictions described in subparagraph (A) that constitute second or subsequent convictions of the defendant of an offense described in that subparagraph.

(2) Report

The Attorney General shall submit to Congress—

(A) a report, by not later than 6 months after January 5, 2006, that provides national estimates of the nature and extent of recidivism (with an emphasis on interstate recidivism) by State inmates convicted of murder, rape, and dangerous sexual offenses;

(B) a report, by not later than October 1, 2007, and October 1 of each year thereafter, that provides statistical analysis and criminal history profiles of interstate recidivists identified in any State applications under this section; and

(C) reports, at regular intervals not to exceed every five years, that include the information described in paragraph (1).

(j) Effective date

This section shall take effect on January 1, 2002.

(Pub. L. 106–386, div. C, §2001, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1539; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1170, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3122; Pub. L. 109–271, §8(m), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 767.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13713 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

January 5, 2006, referred to in subsec. (i)(2)(A), was in the original "the date of enactment of this Act", which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–162, which enacted subsec. (i)(2) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Section was enacted as Aimee's Law and also as part of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(1), substituted "Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, in this section" for "In this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(1), (2), substituted "Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, in any case" for "In any case", "a criminal-records-reporting State" for "a State" the first place appearing, and "(3), it may, under subsection (d), apply to the Attorney General for $10,000, for its related apprehension and prosecution costs, and $22,500 per year (up to a maximum of 5 years), for its related incarceration costs with both amounts for costs adjusted annually for the rate of inflation" for "(3), the Attorney General shall transfer an amount equal to the costs of incarceration, prosecution, and apprehension of that individual, from Federal law enforcement assistance funds that have been allocated to but not distributed to the State that convicted the individual of the prior offense, to the State account that collects Federal law enforcement assistance funds of the State that convicted that individual of the subsequent offense".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(1), (2), substituted "Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, in any case" for "In any case", "a criminal-records-reporting State" for "a State", and "(3), it may, under subsection (d), apply to the Attorney General for $10,000, for its related apprehension and prosecution costs, and $22,500 per year (up to a maximum of 5 years), for its related incarceration costs with both amounts for costs adjusted annually for the rate of inflation" for "(3), the Attorney General shall transfer an amount equal to the costs of incarceration, prosecution, and apprehension of that individual, from Federal law enforcement assistance funds that have been allocated to but not distributed to each State that convicted such individual of the prior offense, to the State account that collects Federal law enforcement assistance funds of the State that convicted that individual of the subsequent offense".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(1), (3)(A), substituted "Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, a State" for "A State" and "unless" for "if" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(3)(B)(iii), (C), inserted "not" before "less" and struck out "convicted by the State is" after "as applicable, was".

Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(3)(B)(ii), which directed amendment of par. (3) by striking "individuals convicted of the offense for which," was executed by striking "individuals convicted of the offense for which" after "imposed by the State on" to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because there was no comma after "which".

Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(3)(B)(i), which directed that "average" be struck out, was executed by striking out "average" the first place appearing, after "(A) the", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(3)(C), inserted "not" before "less".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(4), struck out "transferred" after "receive an amount".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 109–271 substituted "section 3755" for "section 3756".

Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(1), (4), (5), substituted "Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, any amount" for "Any amount transferred", inserted "pursuant to section 3756 of this title" before "that convicted", inserted "No amount described under this section shall be subject to section 3335(b) or 6503(d) of title 31" at end, and struck out former last sentence which read as follows: "The Attorney General shall provide the State with an opportunity to select the specific Federal law enforcement assistance funds to be so reduced (other than Federal crime victim assistance funds)."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(1), substituted "Pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Attorney General hereunder, this section does not apply" for "This section does not apply".

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(6), substituted "State (where practicable)" for "State" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §1170(7), added par. (2) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows: "Not later than March 1, 2003, and on March 1 of each year thereafter, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress a report, which shall include—

"(A) the information collected under paragraph (1) with respect to each State during the preceding calendar year; and

"(B) the percentage of cases in each State in which an individual convicted of an offense described in paragraph (1)(A) was previously convicted of another such offense in another State during the preceding calendar year."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

Part B—Miscellaneous Provisions

§12121. Task force on prison construction standardization and techniques

(a) Task force

The Director of the National Institute of Corrections shall, subject to availability of appropriations, establish a task force composed of Federal, State, and local officials expert in prison construction, and of at least an equal number of engineers, architects, and construction experts from the private sector with expertise in prison design and construction, including the use of cost-cutting construction standardization techniques and cost-cutting new building materials and technologies.

(b) Cooperation

The task force shall work in close cooperation and communication with other State and local officials responsible for prison construction in their localities.

(c) Performance requirements

The task force shall work to—

(1) establish and recommend standardized construction plans and techniques for prison and prison component construction; and

(2) evaluate and recommend new construction technologies, techniques, and materials,


to reduce prison construction costs at the Federal, State, and local levels and make such construction more efficient.

(d) Dissemination

The task force shall disseminate information described in subsection (c) to State and local officials involved in prison construction, through written reports and meetings.

(e) Promotion and evaluation

The task force shall—

(1) work to promote the implementation of cost-saving efforts at the Federal, State, and local levels;

(2) evaluate and advise on the results and effectiveness of such cost-saving efforts as adopted, broadly disseminating information on the results; and

(3) to the extent feasible, certify the effectiveness of the cost-savings efforts.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20406, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1826.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13721 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12122. Efficiency in law enforcement and corrections

(a) In general

In the administration of each grant program funded by appropriations authorized by this Act or by an amendment made by this Act, the Attorney General shall encourage—

(1) innovative methods for the low-cost construction of facilities to be constructed, converted, or expanded and the low-cost operation of such facilities and the reduction of administrative costs and overhead expenses; and

(2) the use of surplus Federal property.

(b) Assessment of construction components and designs

The Attorney General may make an assessment of the cost efficiency and utility of using modular, prefabricated, precast, and pre-engineered construction components and designs for housing nonviolent criminals.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20407, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1826.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13722 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12123. Conversion of closed military installations into Federal prison facilities

(a) Study of suitable bases

The Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General shall jointly conduct a study of all military installations selected before September 13, 1994, to be closed pursuant to a base closure law for the purpose of evaluating the suitability of any of these installations, or portions of these installations, for conversion into Federal prison facilities. As part of the study, the Secretary and the Attorney General shall identify the military installations so evaluated that are most suitable for conversion into Federal prison facilities.

(b) Suitability for conversion

In evaluating the suitability of a military installation for conversion into a Federal prison facility, the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General shall consider the estimated cost to convert the installation into a prison facility and such other factors as the Secretary and the Attorney General consider to be appropriate.

(c) Time for study

The study required by subsection (a) shall be completed not later than the date that is 180 days after September 13, 1994.

(d) Construction of Federal prisons

(1) In general

In determining where to locate any new Federal prison facility, and in accordance with the Department of Justice's duty to review and identify a use for any portion of an installation closed pursuant to title II of the Defense Authorization Amendments and Base Closure and Realignment Act (Public Law 100–526) and the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (part A of title XXIX of Public Law 101–510), the Attorney General shall—

(A) consider whether using any portion of a military installation closed or scheduled to be closed in the region pursuant to a base closure law provides a cost-effective alternative to the purchase of real property or construction of new prison facilities;

(B) consider whether such use is consistent with a reutilization and redevelopment plan; and

(C) give consideration to any installation located in a rural area the closure of which will have a substantial adverse impact on the economy of the local communities and on the ability of the communities to sustain an economic recovery from such closure.

(2) Consent

With regard to paragraph (1)(B), consent must be obtained from the local re-use authority for the military installation, recognized and funded by the Secretary of Defense, before the Attorney General may proceed with plans for the design or construction of a prison at the installation.

(3) Report on basis of decision

Before proceeding with plans for the design or construction of a Federal prison, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress a report explaining the basis of the decision on where to locate the new prison facility.

(4) Report on cost-effectiveness

If the Attorney General decides not to utilize any portion of a closed military installation or an installation scheduled to be closed for locating a prison, the report shall include an analysis of why installations in the region, the use of which as a prison would be consistent with a reutilization and redevelopment plan, does not provide a cost-effective alternative to the purchase of real property or construction of new prison facilities.

(e) "Base closure law" defined

In this section, "base closure law" means—

(1) the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (part A of title XXIX of Public Law 101–510; 10 U.S.C. 2687 note); and

(2) title II of the Defense Authorization Amendments and Base Closure and Realignment Act (Public Law 100–526; 10 U.S.C. 2687 note).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20413, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1829.)

References in Text

The Defense Authorization Amendments and Base Closure and Realignment Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(1) and (e)(2), is Pub. L. 100–526, Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2623. Title II of the Act is set out as a note under section 2687 of Title 10, Armed Forces. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note set out under section 2687 of Title 10 and Tables.

The Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990, referred to in subsecs. (d)(1) and (e)(1), is part A of title XXIX of div. B of Pub. L. 101–510, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1808, which is set out as a note under section 2687 of Title 10. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13724 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12124. Correctional job training and placement

(a) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section to encourage and support job training programs, and job placement programs, that provide services to incarcerated persons or ex-offenders.

(b) Definitions

As used in this section:

(1) Correctional institution

The term "correctional institution" means any prison, jail, reformatory, work farm, detention center, or halfway house, or any other similar institution designed for the confinement or rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

(2) Correctional job training or placement program

The term "correctional job training or placement program" means an activity that provides job training or job placement services to incarcerated persons or ex-offenders, or that assists incarcerated persons or ex-offenders in obtaining such services.

(3) Ex-offender

The term "ex-offender" means any individual who has been sentenced to a term of probation by a Federal or State court, or who has been released from a Federal, State, or local correctional institution.

(4) Incarcerated person

The term "incarcerated person" means any individual incarcerated in a Federal or State correctional institution who is charged with or convicted of any criminal offense.

(c) Establishment of Office

(1) In general

The Attorney General shall establish within the Department of Justice an Office of Correctional Job Training and Placement. The Office shall be headed by a Director, who shall be appointed by the Attorney General.

(2) Timing

The Attorney General shall carry out this subsection not later than 6 months after September 13, 1994.

(d) Functions of Office

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office of Correctional Job Training and Placement, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor, shall—

(1) assist in coordinating the activities of the Federal Bonding Program of the Department of Labor, the activities of the Department of Labor related to the certification of eligibility for targeted jobs credits under section 51 of title 26 with respect to ex-offenders, and any other correctional job training or placement program of the Department of Justice or Department of Labor;

(2) provide technical assistance to State and local employment and training agencies that—

(A) receive financial assistance under this Act; or

(B) receive financial assistance through other programs carried out by the Department of Justice or Department of Labor, for activities related to the development of employability;


(3) prepare and implement the use of special staff training materials, and methods, for developing the staff competencies needed by State and local agencies to assist incarcerated persons and ex-offenders in gaining marketable occupational skills and job placement;

(4) prepare and submit to Congress an annual report on the activities of the Office of Correctional Job Training and Placement, and the status of correctional job training or placement programs in the United States;

(5) cooperate with other Federal agencies carrying out correctional job training or placement programs to ensure coordination of such programs throughout the United States;

(6) consult with, and provide outreach to—

(A) State job training coordinating councils, administrative entities, and private industry councils, with respect to programs carried out under this Act; and

(B) other State and local officials, with respect to other employment or training programs carried out by the Department of Justice or Department of Labor;


(7) collect from States information on the training accomplishments and employment outcomes of a sample of incarcerated persons and ex-offenders who were served by employment or training programs carried out, or that receive financial assistance through programs carried out, by the Department of Justice or Department of Labor; and

(8)(A) collect from States and local governments information on the development and implementation of correctional job training or placement programs; and

(B) disseminate such information, as appropriate.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20418, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1835.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(A), (6)(A), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13725 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

SUBCHAPTER II—CRIME PREVENTION

Part A—Ounce of Prevention Council

§12131. Ounce of Prevention Council

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

There is established an Ounce of Prevention Council (referred to in this subchapter as the "Council"), the members of which—

(A) shall include the Attorney General, the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy; and

(B) may include other officials of the executive branch as directed by the President.

(2) Chair

The President shall designate the Chair of the Council from among its members (referred to in this subchapter as the "Chair").

(3) Staff

The Council may employ any necessary staff to carry out its functions, and may delegate any of its functions or powers to a member or members of the Council.

(b) Program coordination

For any program authorized under the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Ounce of Prevention Council Chair, only at the request of the Council member with jurisdiction over that program, may coordinate that program, in whole or in part, through the Council.

(c) Administrative responsibilities and powers

In addition to the program coordination provided in subsection (b), the Council shall be responsible for such functions as coordinated planning, development of a comprehensive crime prevention program catalogue, provision of assistance to communities and community-based organizations seeking information regarding crime prevention programs and integrated program service delivery, and development of strategies for program integration and grant simplification. The Council shall have the authority to audit the expenditure of funds received by grantees under programs administered by or coordinated through the Council. In consultation with the Council, the Chair may issue regulations and guidelines to carry out this part and programs administered by or coordinated through the Council.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30101, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1836.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (2), was in the original "this title", meaning title III of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1836. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13741 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12132. Ounce of prevention grant program

(a) In general

The Council may make grants for—

(1) summer and after-school (including weekend and holiday) education and recreation programs;

(2) mentoring, tutoring, and other programs involving participation by adult role models (such as D.A.R.E. America);

(3) programs assisting and promoting employability and job placement; and

(4) prevention and treatment programs to reduce substance abuse, child abuse, and adolescent pregnancy, including outreach programs for at-risk families.

(b) Applicants

Applicants may be Indian tribal governments, cities, counties, or other municipalities, school boards, colleges and universities, private nonprofit entities, or consortia of eligible applicants. Applicants must show that a planning process has occurred that has involved organizations, institutions, and residents of target areas, including young people, and that there has been cooperation between neighborhood-based entities, municipality-wide bodies, and local private-sector representatives. Applicants must demonstrate the substantial involvement of neighborhood-based entities in the carrying out of the proposed activities. Proposals must demonstrate that a broad base of collaboration and coordination will occur in the implementation of the proposed activities, involving cooperation among youth-serving organizations, schools, health and social service providers, employers, law enforcement professionals, local government, and residents of target areas, including young people. Applications shall be geographically based in particular neighborhoods or sections of municipalities or particular segments of rural areas, and applications shall demonstrate how programs will serve substantial proportions of children and youth resident in the target area with activities designed to have substantial impact on their lives.

(c) Priority

In making such grants, the Council shall give preference to coalitions consisting of a broad spectrum of community-based and social service organizations that have a coordinated team approach to reducing gang membership and the effects of substance abuse, and providing alternatives to at-risk youth.

(d) Federal share

(1) In general

The Federal share of a grant made under this part 1 may not exceed 75 percent of the total costs of the projects described in the applications submitted under subsection (b) for the fiscal year for which the projects receive assistance under this subchapter.

(2) Waiver

The Council may waive the 25 percent matching requirement under paragraph (1) upon making a determination that a waiver is equitable in view of the financial circumstances affecting the ability of the applicant to meet that requirement.

(3) Non-Federal share

The non-Federal share of such costs may be in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including plant, equipment, and services.

(4) Nonsupplanting requirement

Funds made available under this subchapter to a governmental entity shall not be used to supplant State or local funds, or in the case of Indian tribal governments, funds supplied by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, but shall be used to increase the amount of funds that would, in the absence of Federal funds received under this subchapter, be made available from State or local sources, or in the case of Indian tribal governments, from funds supplied by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

(5) Evaluation

The Council shall conduct a thorough evaluation of the programs assisted under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30102, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1837.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), appearing in the original, is unidentifiable because subtitle A of title III of Pub. L. 103–322 does not contain parts.

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), (4), (5), was in the original "this title", meaning title III of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1836. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13742 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12133. "Indian tribe" defined

In this part, "Indian tribe" means a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including an Alaska Native village (as defined in or established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.),1 that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30103, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1838.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 92–203, §2, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13743 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should precede the comma.

Part B—Model Intensive Grant Programs

§12141. Grant authorization

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

The Attorney General may award grants to not more than 15 chronic high intensive crime areas to develop comprehensive model crime prevention programs that—

(A) involve and utilize a broad spectrum of community resources, including nonprofit community organizations, law enforcement organizations, and appropriate State and Federal agencies, including the State educational agencies;

(B) attempt to relieve conditions that encourage crime; and

(C) provide meaningful and lasting alternatives to involvement in crime.

(2) Consultation with the Ounce of Prevention Council

The Attorney General may consult with the Ounce of Prevention Council in awarding grants under paragraph (1).

(b) Priority

In awarding grants under subsection (a), the Attorney General shall give priority to proposals that—

(1) are innovative in approach to the prevention of crime in a specific area;

(2) vary in approach to ensure that comparisons of different models may be made; and

(3) coordinate crime prevention programs funded under this program with other existing Federal programs to address the overall needs of communities that benefit from grants received under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30301, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1844.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), was in the original "this title", meaning title III of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1836. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13771 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12142. Uses of funds

(a) In general

Funds awarded under this part may be used only for purposes described in an approved application. The intent of grants under this part is to fund intensively comprehensive crime prevention programs in chronic high intensive crime areas.

(b) Guidelines

The Attorney General shall issue and publish in the Federal Register guidelines that describe suggested purposes for which funds under approved programs may be used.

(c) Equitable distribution of funds

In disbursing funds under this part, the Attorney General shall ensure the distribution of awards equitably on a geographic basis, including urban and rural areas of varying population and geographic size.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30302, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1845.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13772 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12143. Program requirements

(a) Description

An applicant shall include a description of the distinctive factors that contribute to chronic violent crime within the area proposed to be served by the grant. Such factors may include lack of alternative activities and programs for youth, deterioration or lack of public facilities, inadequate public services such as public transportation, street lighting, community-based substance abuse treatment facilities, or employment services offices, and inadequate police or public safety services, equipment, or facilities.

(b) Comprehensive plan

An applicant shall include a comprehensive, community-based plan to attack intensively the principal factors identified in subsection (a). Such plans shall describe the specific purposes for which funds are proposed to be used and how each purpose will address specific factors. The plan also shall specify how local nonprofit organizations, government agencies, private businesses, citizens groups, volunteer organizations, and interested citizens will cooperate in carrying out the purposes of the grant.

(c) Evaluation

An applicant shall include an evaluation plan by which the success of the plan will be measured, including the articulation of specific, objective indicia of performance, how the indicia will be evaluated, and a projected timetable for carrying out the evaluation.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30303, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1845.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13773 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12144. Applications

To request a grant under this part the chief local elected official of an area shall—

(1) prepare and submit to the Attorney General an application in such form, at such time, and in accordance with such procedures, as the Attorney General shall establish; and

(2) provide an assurance that funds received under this part shall be used to supplement, not supplant, non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for programs funded under this part.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30304, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1845.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13774 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12145. Reports

Not later than December 31, 1998, the Attorney General shall prepare and submit to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House and Senate an evaluation of the model programs developed under this part and make recommendations regarding the implementation of a national crime prevention program.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30305, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1846.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13775 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12146. Definitions

In this part—

"chief local elected official" means an official designated under regulations issued by the Attorney General. The criteria used by the Attorney General in promulgating such regulations shall ensure administrative efficiency and accountability in the expenditure of funds and execution of funded projects under this part.

"chronic high intensity crime area" means an area meeting criteria adopted by the Attorney General by regulation that, at a minimum, define areas with—

(A) consistently high rates of violent crime as reported in the Federal Bureau of Investigation's "Uniform Crime Reports", and

(B) chronically high rates of poverty as determined by the Bureau of the Census.


"State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30306, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1846.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13776 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part C—Family and Community Endeavor Schools Grant Program

§12161. Community schools youth services and supervision grant program

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the "Community Schools Youth Services and Supervision Grant Program Act of 1994".

(b) Definitions

In this section—

"child" means a person who is not younger than 5 and not older than 18 years old.

"community-based organization" means a private, locally initiated, community-based organization that—

(A) is a nonprofit organization, as defined in section 11103(23) of this title; and

(B) is operated by a consortium of service providers, consisting of representatives of 5 or more of the following categories of persons:

(i) Residents of the community.

(ii) Business and civic leaders actively involved in providing employment and business development opportunities in the community.

(iii) Educators.

(iv) Religious organizations (which shall not provide any sectarian instruction or sectarian worship in connection with an activity funded under this subchapter).

(v) Law enforcement agencies.

(vi) Public housing agencies.

(vii) Other public agencies.

(viii) Other interested parties.


"eligible community" means an area identified pursuant to subsection (e).

"Indian tribe" means a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including an Alaska Native village (as defined in or established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

"poverty line" means the income official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of title 42 1 applicable to a family of the size involved.

"public school" means a public elementary school, as defined in section 1001(i) 2 of title 20, and a public secondary school, as defined in section 1001(d) 2 of title 20.

"Secretary" means the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation and coordination with the Attorney General.

"State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands.

(c) Program authority

(1) In general

(A) Allocations for States and Indian country

For any fiscal year in which the sums appropriated to carry out this section equal or exceed $20,000,000, from the sums appropriated to carry out this subsection, the Secretary shall allocate, for grants under subparagraph (B) to community-based organizations in each State, an amount bearing the same ratio to such sums as the number of children in the State who are from families with incomes below the poverty line bears to the number of children in all States who are from families with incomes below the poverty line. In view of the extraordinary need for assistance in Indian country, an appropriate amount of funds available under this part shall be made available for such grants in Indian country.

(B) Grants to community-based organizations from allocations

For such a fiscal year, the Secretary may award grants from the appropriate State or Indian country allocation determined under subparagraph (A) on a competitive basis to eligible community-based organizations to pay for the Federal share of assisting eligible communities to develop and carry out programs in accordance with this section.

(C) Reallocation

If, at the end of such a fiscal year, the Secretary determines that funds allocated for community-based organizations in a State or Indian country under subparagraph (B) remain unobligated, the Secretary may use such funds to award grants to eligible community-based organizations in another State or Indian country to pay for such Federal share. In awarding such grants, the Secretary shall consider the need to maintain geographic diversity among the recipients of such grants. Amounts made available through such grants shall remain available until expended.

(2) Other fiscal years

For any fiscal year in which the sums appropriated to carry out this section are less than $20,000,000, the Secretary may award grants on a competitive basis to eligible community-based organizations to pay for the Federal share of assisting eligible communities to develop and carry out programs in accordance with this section.

(3) Administrative costs

The Secretary may use not more than 3 percent of the funds appropriated to carry out this section in any fiscal year for administrative costs.

(d) Program requirements

(1) Location

A community-based organization that receives a grant under this section to assist in carrying out such a program shall ensure that the program is carried out—

(A) when appropriate, in the facilities of a public school during nonschool hours; or

(B) in another appropriate local facility in a State or Indian country, such as a college or university, a local or State park or recreation center, church, or military base, that is—

(i) in a location that is easily accessible to children in the community; and

(ii) in compliance with all applicable local ordinances.

(2) Use of funds

Such community-based organization—

(A) shall use funds made available through the grant to provide, to children in the eligible community, services and activities that—

(i) 3 shall include supervised sports programs, and extracurricular and academic programs, that are offered—

(I) after school and on weekends and holidays, during the school year; and

(II) as daily full-day programs (to the extent available resources permit) or as part-day programs, during the summer months;


(B) in providing such extracurricular and academic programs, shall provide programs such as curriculum-based supervised educational, work force preparation, entrepreneurship, cultural, health programs, social activities, arts and crafts programs, dance programs, tutorial and mentoring programs, and other related activities;

(C) may use—

(i) such funds for minor renovation of facilities that are in existence prior to the operation of the program and that are necessary for the operation of the program for which the organization receives the grant, purchase of sporting and recreational equipment and supplies, reasonable costs for the transportation of participants in the program, hiring of staff, provision of meals for such participants, provision of health services consisting of an initial basic physical examination, provision of first aid and nutrition guidance, family counselling, parental training, and substance abuse treatment where appropriate; and

(ii) not more than 5 percent of such funds to pay for the administrative costs of the program; and


(D) may not use such funds to provide sectarian worship or sectarian instruction.

(e) Eligible community identification

(1) Identification

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, a community-based organization shall identify an eligible community to be assisted under this section.

(2) Criteria

Such eligible community shall be an area that meets such criteria with respect to significant poverty and significant juvenile delinquency, and such additional criteria, as the Secretary may by regulation require.

(f) Applications

(1) Application required

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, a community-based organization shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information, as the Secretary may reasonably require, and obtain approval of such application.

(2) Contents of application

Each application submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall—

(A) describe the activities and services to be provided through the program for which the grant is sought;

(B) contain an assurance that the community-based organization will spend grant funds received under this section in a manner that the community-based organization determines will best accomplish the objectives of this section;

(C) contain a comprehensive plan for the program that is designed to achieve identifiable goals for children in the eligible community;

(D) set forth measurable goals and outcomes for the program that—

(i) will—

(I) where appropriate, make a public school the focal point of the eligible community; or

(II) make a local facility described in subsection (d)(1)(B) such a focal point; and


(ii) may include reducing the percentage of children in the eligible community that enter the juvenile justice system, increasing the graduation rates, school attendance, and academic success of children in the eligible community, and improving the skills of program participants;


(E) provide evidence of support for accomplishing such goals and outcomes from—

(i) community leaders;

(ii) businesses;

(iii) local educational agencies;

(iv) local officials;

(v) State officials;

(vi) Indian tribal government officials; and

(vii) other organizations that the community-based organization determines to be appropriate;


(F) contain an assurance that the community-based organization will use grant funds received under this section to provide children in the eligible community with activities and services that shall include supervised sports programs, and extracurricular and academic programs, in accordance with subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (d)(2);

(G) contain a list of the activities and services that will be offered through the program for which the grant is sought and sponsored by private nonprofit organizations, individuals, and groups serving the eligible community, including—

(i) extracurricular and academic programs, such as programs described in subsection (d)(2)(B); and

(ii) activities that address specific needs in the community;


(H) demonstrate the manner in which the community-based organization will make use of the resources, expertise, and commitment of private entities in carrying out the program for which the grant is sought;

(I) include an estimate of the number of children in the eligible community expected to be served pursuant to the program;

(J) include a description of charitable private resources, and all other resources, that will be made available to achieve the goals of the program;

(K) contain an assurance that the community-based organization will use competitive procedures when purchasing, contracting, or otherwise providing for goods, activities, or services to carry out programs under this section;

(L) contain an assurance that the program will maintain a staff-to-participant ratio (including volunteers) that is appropriate to the activity or services provided by the program;

(M) contain an assurance that the program will maintain an average attendance rate of not less than 75 percent of the participants enrolled in the program, or will enroll additional participants in the program;

(N) contain an assurance that the community-based organization will comply with any evaluation under subsection (m),4 any research effort authorized under Federal law, and any investigation by the Secretary;

(O) contain an assurance that the community-based organization shall prepare and submit to the Secretary an annual report regarding any program conducted under this section;

(P) contain an assurance that the program for which the grant is sought will, to the maximum extent possible, incorporate services that are provided solely through non-Federal private or nonprofit sources; and

(Q) contain an assurance that the community-based organization will maintain separate accounting records for the program.

(3) Priority

In awarding grants to carry out programs under this section, the Secretary shall give priority to community-based organizations who submit applications that demonstrate the greatest effort in generating local support for the programs.

(g) Eligibility of participants

(1) In general

To the extent possible, each child who resides in an eligible community shall be eligible to participate in a program carried out in such community that receives assistance under this section.

(2) Eligibility

To be eligible to participate in a program that receives assistance under this section, a child shall provide the express written approval of a parent or guardian, and shall submit an official application and agree to the terms and conditions of participation in the program.

(3) Nondiscrimination

In selecting children to participate in a program that receives assistance under this section, a community-based organization shall not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or disability.

(h) Peer review panel

(1) Establishment

The Secretary may establish a peer review panel that shall be comprised of individuals with demonstrated experience in designing and implementing community-based programs.

(2) Composition

A peer review panel shall include at least 1 representative from each of the following:

(A) A community-based organization.

(B) A local government.

(C) A school district.

(D) The private sector.

(E) A charitable organization.

(F) A representative of the United States Olympic Committee, at the option of the Secretary.

(3) Functions

A peer review panel shall conduct the initial review of all grant applications received by the Secretary under subsection (f), make recommendations to the Secretary regarding—

(A) grant funding under this section; and

(B) a design for the evaluation of programs assisted under this section.

(i) Investigations and inspections

The Secretary may conduct such investigations and inspections as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the provisions of this section.

(j) Payments; Federal share; non-Federal share

(1) Payments

The Secretary shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, pay to each community-based organization having an application approved under subsection (f) the Federal share of the costs of developing and carrying out programs described in subsection (c).

(2) Federal share

The Federal share of such costs shall be no more than—

(A) 75 percent for each of fiscal years 1995 and 1996;

(B) 70 percent for fiscal year 1997; and

(C) 60 percent for fiscal year 1998 and thereafter.

(3) Non-Federal share

(A) In general

The non-Federal share of such costs may be in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including plant, equipment, and services (including the services described in subsection (f)(2)(P)), and funds appropriated by the Congress for the activity of any agency of an Indian tribal government or the Bureau of Indian Affairs on any Indian lands may be used to provide the non-Federal share of the costs of programs or projects funded under this part.

(B) Special rule

At least 15 percent of the non-Federal share of such costs shall be provided from private or nonprofit sources.

(k) Evaluation

The Secretary shall conduct a thorough evaluation of the programs assisted under this section, which shall include an assessment of—

(1) the number of children participating in each program assisted under this section;

(2) the academic achievement of such children;

(3) school attendance and graduation rates of such children; and

(4) the number of such children being processed by the juvenile justice system.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30401, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1846; Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(13)(N), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1621.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this title", meaning title III of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1836. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

Section 1001 of title 20, referred to in subsec. (b), does not have a subsec. (d) or (i) and does not define "elementary school" or "secondary school". However, such terms are defined in section 1003 of Title 20, Education.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13791 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–244 substituted "section 1001(i)" for "section 1141(i)" and "section 1001(d)" for "section 1141(d)" in definition for "public school".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. No cl. (ii) has been enacted.

4 So in original. Probably should be subsection "(k)".

Part D—Police Recruitment

§12171. Grant authority

(a) Grants

(1) In general

The Attorney General may make grants to qualified community organizations to assist in meeting the costs of qualified programs which are designed to recruit and retain applicants to police departments.

(2) Consultation with the Ounce of Prevention Council

The Attorney General may consult with the Ounce of Prevention Council in making grants under paragraph (1).

(b) Qualified community organizations

An organization is a qualified community organization which is eligible to receive a grant under subsection (a) if the organization—

(1) is a nonprofit organization; and

(2) has training and experience in—

(A) working with a police department and with teachers, counselors, and similar personnel,

(B) providing services to the community in which the organization is located,

(C) developing and managing services and techniques to recruit individuals to become members of a police department and to assist such individuals in meeting the membership requirements of police departments,

(D) developing and managing services and techniques to assist in the retention of applicants to police departments, and

(E) developing other programs that contribute to the community.

(c) Qualified programs

A program is a qualified program for which a grant may be made under subsection (a) if the program is designed to recruit and train individuals from underrepresented neighborhoods and localities and if—

(1) the overall design of the program is to recruit and retain applicants to a police department;

(2) the program provides recruiting services which include tutorial programs to enable individuals to meet police force academic requirements and to pass entrance examinations;

(3) the program provides counseling to applicants to police departments who may encounter problems throughout the application process; and

(4) the program provides retention services to assist in retaining individuals to stay in the application process of a police department.

(d) Applications

To qualify for a grant under subsection (a), a qualified organization shall submit an application to the Attorney General in such form as the Attorney General may prescribe. Such application shall—

(1) include documentation from the applicant showing—

(A) the need for the grant;

(B) the intended use of grant funds;

(C) expected results from the use of grant funds; and

(D) demographic characteristics of the population to be served, including age, disability, race, ethnicity, and languages used; and


(2) contain assurances satisfactory to the Attorney General that the program for which a grant is made will meet the applicable requirements of the program guidelines prescribed by the Attorney General under subsection (i).

(e) Action by Attorney General

Not later than 60 days after the date that an application for a grant under subsection (a) is received, the Attorney General shall consult with the police department which will be involved with the applicant and shall—

(1) approve the application and disburse the grant funds applied for; or

(2) disapprove the application and inform the applicant that the application is not approved and provide the applicant with the reasons for the disapproval.

(f) Grant disbursement

The Attorney General shall disburse funds under a grant under subsection (a) in accordance with regulations of the Attorney General which shall ensure—

(1) priority is given to applications for areas and organizations with the greatest showing of need;

(2) that grant funds are equitably distributed on a geographic basis; and

(3) the needs of underserved populations are recognized and addressed.

(g) Grant period

A grant under subsection (a) shall be made for a period not longer than 3 years.

(h) Grantee reporting

(1) For each year of a grant period for a grant under subsection (a), the recipient of the grant shall file a performance report with the Attorney General explaining the activities carried out with the funds received and assessing the effectiveness of such activities in meeting the purpose of the recipient's qualified program.

(2) If there was more than one recipient of a grant, each recipient shall file such report.

(3) The Attorney General shall suspend the funding of a grant, pending compliance, if the recipient of the grant does not file the report required by this subsection or uses the grant for a purpose not authorized by this section.

(i) Guidelines

The Attorney General shall, by regulation, prescribe guidelines on content and results for programs receiving a grant under subsection (a). Such guidelines shall be designed to establish programs which will be effective in training individuals to enter instructional programs for police departments and shall include requirements for—

(1) individuals providing recruiting services;

(2) individuals providing tutorials and other academic assistance programs;

(3) individuals providing retention services; and

(4) the content and duration of recruitment, retention, and counseling programs and the means and devices used to publicize such programs.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §30801, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1857.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13811 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part E—National Community Economic Partnership

subpart 1—community economic partnership investment funds

§12181. Purpose

It is the purpose of this subpart to increase private investment in distressed local communities and to build and expand the capacity of local institutions to better serve the economic needs of local residents through the provision of financial and technical assistance to community development corporations.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31111, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1882.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13821 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12182. Provision of assistance

(a) Authority

The Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this part as the "Secretary") may, in accordance with this subpart, provide nonrefundable lines of credit to community development corporations for the establishment, maintenance or expansion of revolving loan funds to be utilized to finance projects intended to provide business and employment opportunities for low-income, unemployed, or underemployed individuals and to improve the quality of life in urban and rural areas.

(b) Revolving loan funds

(1) Competitive assessment of applications

In providing assistance under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall establish and implement a competitive process for the solicitation and consideration of applications from eligible entities for lines of credit for the capitalization of revolving funds.

(2) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive a line of credit under this subpart an applicant shall—

(A) be a community development corporation;

(B) prepare and submit an application to the Secretary that shall include a strategic investment plan that identifies and describes the economic characteristics of the target area to be served, the types of business to be assisted and the impact of such assistance on low-income, underemployed, and unemployed individuals in the target area;

(C) demonstrate previous experience in the development of low-income housing or community or business development projects in a low-income community and provide a record of achievement with respect to such projects; and

(D) have secured one or more commitments from local sources for contributions (either in cash or in kind, letters of credit or letters of commitment) in an amount that is at least equal to the amount requested in the application submitted under subparagraph (B).

(3) Exception

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (2)(D), the Secretary may reduce local contributions to not less than 25 percent of the amount of the line of credit requested by the community development corporation if the Secretary determines such to be appropriate in accordance with section 12186 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31112, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1882.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13822 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12183. Approval of applications

(a) In general

In evaluating applications submitted under section 12182(b)(2)(B) of this title, the Secretary shall ensure that—

(1) the residents of the target area to be served (as identified under the strategic development plan) would have an income that is less than the median income for the area (as determined by the Secretary);

(2) the applicant community development corporation possesses the technical and managerial capability necessary to administer a revolving loan fund and has past experience in the development and management of housing, community and economic development programs;

(3) the applicant community development corporation has provided sufficient evidence of the existence of good working relationships with—

(A) local businesses and financial institutions, as well as with the community the corporation proposes to serve; and

(B) local and regional job training programs;


(4) the applicant community development corporation will target job opportunities that arise from revolving loan fund investments under this subpart so that 75 percent of the jobs retained or created under such investments are provided to—

(A) individuals with—

(i) incomes that do not exceed the Federal poverty line; or

(ii) incomes that do not exceed 80 percent of the median income of the area;


(B) individuals who are unemployed or underemployed;

(C) individuals who are participating or have participated in job training programs authorized under title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3111 et seq.] or the Family Support Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–485);

(D) individuals whose jobs may be retained as a result of the provision of financing available under this subpart; or

(E) individuals who have historically been underrepresented in the local economy; and


(5) a representative cross section of applicants are approved, including large and small community development corporations, urban and rural community development corporations and community development corporations representing diverse populations.

(b) Priority

In determining which application to approve under this subpart the Secretary shall give priority to those applicants proposing to serve a target area—

(1) with a median income that does not exceed 80 percent of the median for the area (as determined by the Secretary); and

(2) with a high rate of unemployment, as determined by the Secretary or in which the population loss is at least 7 percent from April 1, 1980, to April 1, 1990, as reported by the Bureau of the Census.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31113, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1883; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(44), (f)(35)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-428, 2681-434; Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §512(jj), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1722.)

References in Text

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(4)(C), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§3111 et seq.) of chapter 32 of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Family Support Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (a)(4)(C), is Pub. L. 100–485, Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2343. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1988 Amendments note set out under section 1305 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13823 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 113–128 substituted "job training programs authorized under title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act or the Family Support Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–485)" for "job training programs authorized under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 or the Family Support Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–485)".

1998—Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(f)(35)], struck out "the Job Training Partnership Act or" after "authorized under".

Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(44)], substituted "authorized under the Job Training Partnership Act or title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998" for "authorized under the Job Training Partnership Act (29 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.)".

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–128 effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3101 of Title 29, Labor.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(44)] of Pub. L. 105–277 effective Oct. 21, 1998, and amendment by section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(f)(35)] of Pub. L. 105–277 effective July 1, 2000, see section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(g)(1), (2)(B)] of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 3502 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§12184. Availability of lines of credit and use

(a) Approval of application

The Secretary shall provide a community development corporation that has an application approved under section 12183 of this title with a line of credit in an amount determined appropriate by the Secretary, subject to the limitations contained in subsection (b).

(b) Limitations on availability of amounts

(1) Maximum amount

The Secretary shall not provide in excess of $2,000,000 in lines of credit under this subpart to a single applicant.

(2) Period of availability

A line of credit provided under this subpart shall remain available over a period of time established by the Secretary, but in no event shall any such period of time be in excess of 3 years from the date on which such line of credit is made available.

(3) Exception

Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), if a recipient of a line of credit under this subpart has made full and productive use of such line of credit, can demonstrate the need and demand for additional assistance, and can meet the requirements of section 12182(b)(2) of this title, the amount of such line of credit may be increased by not more than $1,500,000.

(c) Amounts drawn from line of credit

Amounts drawn from each line of credit under this subpart shall be used solely for the purposes described in section 12181 of this title and shall only be drawn down as needed to provide loans, investments, or to defray administrative costs related to the establishment of a revolving loan fund.

(d) Use of revolving loan funds

Revolving loan funds established with lines of credit provided under this subpart may be used to provide technical assistance to private business enterprises and to provide financial assistance in the form of loans, loan guarantees, interest reduction assistance, equity shares, and other such forms of assistance to business enterprises in target areas and who are in compliance with section 12183(a)(4) of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31114, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1884.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13824 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12185. Limitations on use of funds

(a) Matching requirement

Not to exceed 50 percent of the total amount to be invested by an entity under this subpart may be derived from funds made available from a line of credit under this subpart.

(b) Technical assistance and administration

Not to exceed 10 percent of the amounts available from a line of credit under this subpart shall be used for the provision of training or technical assistance and for the planning, development, and management of economic development projects. Community development corporations shall be encouraged by the Secretary to seek technical assistance from other community development corporations, with expertise in the planning, development and management of economic development projects. The Secretary shall assist in the identification and facilitation of such technical assistance.

(c) Local and private sector contributions

To receive funds available under a line of credit provided under this subpart, an entity, using procedures established by the Secretary, shall demonstrate to the community development corporation that such entity agrees to provide local and private sector contributions in accordance with section 12182(b)(2)(D) of this title, will participate with such community development corporation in a loan, guarantee or investment program for a designated business enterprise, and that the total financial commitment to be provided by such entity is at least equal to the amount to be drawn from the line of credit.

(d) Use of proceeds from investments

Proceeds derived from investments made using funds made available under this subpart may be used only for the purposes described in section 12181 of this title and shall be reinvested in the community in which they were generated.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31115, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1884.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13825 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12186. Program priority for special emphasis programs

(a) In general

The Secretary shall give priority in providing lines of credit under this subpart to community development corporations that propose to undertake economic development activities in distressed communities that target women, Native Americans, at risk youth, farmworkers, population-losing communities, very low-income communities, single mothers, veterans, and refugees; or that expand employee ownership of private enterprises and small businesses, and to programs providing loans of not more than $35,000 to very small business enterprises.

(b) Reservation of funds

Not less than 5 percent of the amounts made available under section 31112(a)(2)(A) 1 may be reserved to carry out the activities described in subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31116, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1885.)

References in Text

Section 31112(a)(2)(A), referred to in subsec. (b), probably should be a reference to section 31132(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–322, title III, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1888, which authorized appropriations under this part and was formerly classified to section 13852 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to being omitted from the Code as obsolete.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13826 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

subpart 2—emerging community development corporations

§12201. Community development corporation improvement grants

(a) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section to provide assistance to community development corporations to upgrade the management and operating capacity of such corporations and to enhance the resources available to enable such corporations to increase their community economic development activities.

(b) Skill enhancement grants

(1) In general

The Secretary shall award grants to community development corporations to enable such corporations to attain or enhance the business management and development skills of the individuals that manage such corporations to enable such corporations to seek the public and private resources necessary to develop community economic development projects.

(2) Use of funds

A recipient of a grant under paragraph (1) may use amounts received under such grant—

(A) to acquire training and technical assistance from agencies or institutions that have extensive experience in the development and management of low-income community economic development projects; or

(B) to acquire such assistance from other highly successful community development corporations.

(c) Operating grants

(1) In general

The Secretary shall award grants to community development corporations to enable such corporations to support an administrative capacity for the planning, development, and management of low-income community economic development projects.

(2) Use of funds

A recipient of a grant under paragraph (1) may use amounts received under such grant—

(A) to conduct evaluations of the feasibility of potential low-income community economic development projects that address identified needs in the low-income community and that conform to those projects and activities permitted under subpart 1; 1

(B) to develop a business plan related to such a potential project; or

(C) to mobilize resources to be contributed to a planned low-income community economic development project or strategy.

(d) Applications

A community development corporation that desires to receive a grant under this section shall prepare and submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

(e) Amount available for community development corporation

Amounts provided under this section to a community development corporation shall not exceed $75,000 per year. Such corporations may apply for grants under this section for up to 3 consecutive years, except that such corporations shall be required to submit a new application for each grant for which such corporation desires to receive and compete on the basis of such applications in the selection process.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31121, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1885.)

References in Text

Subpart 1, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), was in the original "subtitle A", and was translated as reading "chapter 1", meaning chapter 1 of subtitle K of title III of Pub. L. 103–322, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12202. Emerging community development corporation revolving loan funds

(a) Authority

The Secretary may award grants to emerging community development corporations to enable such corporations to establish, maintain or expand revolving loan funds, to make or guarantee loans, or to make capital investments in new or expanding local businesses.

(b) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive a grant under subsection (a), an entity shall—

(1) be a community development corporation;

(2) have completed not less than one nor more than two community economic development projects or related projects that improve or provide job and employment opportunities to low-income individuals;

(3) prepare and submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require, including a strategic investment plan that identifies and describes the economic characteristics of the target area to be served, the types of business to be assisted using amounts received under the grant and the impact of such assistance on low-income individuals; and

(4) have secured one or more commitments from local sources for contributions (either in cash or in kind, letters of credit, or letters of commitment) in an amount that is equal to at least 10 percent of the amounts requested in the application submitted under paragraph (2).1

(c) Use of revolving loan fund

(1) In general

A revolving loan fund established or maintained with amounts received under this section may be utilized to provide financial and technical assistance, loans, loan guarantees or investments to private business enterprises to—

(A) finance projects intended to provide business and employment opportunities for low-income individuals and to improve the quality of life in urban and rural areas; and

(B) build and expand the capacity of emerging community development corporations and serve the economic needs of local residents.

(2) Technical assistance

The Secretary shall encourage emerging community development corporations that receive grants under this section to seek technical assistance from established community development corporations, with expertise in the planning, development and management of economic development projects and shall facilitate the receipt of such assistance.

(3) Limitation

Not to exceed 10 percent of the amounts received under this section by a grantee shall be used for training, technical assistance and administrative purposes.

(d) Use of proceeds from investments

Proceeds derived from investments made with amounts provided under this section may be utilized only for the purposes described in this part and shall be reinvested in the community in which they were generated.

(e) Amounts available

Amounts provided under this section to a community development corporation shall not exceed $500,000 per year.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31122, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1886.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13842 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 So in original. Probably should be paragraph "(3)".

subpart 3—miscellaneous provisions

§12211. Definitions

As used in this part:

(1) Community development corporation

The term "community development corporation" means a private, nonprofit corporation whose board of directors is comprised of business, civic and community leaders, and whose principal purpose includes the provision of low-income housing or community economic development projects that primarily benefit low-income individuals and communities.

(2) Local and private sector contribution

The term "local and private sector contribution" means the funds available at the local level (by private financial institutions, State and local governments) or by any private philanthropic organization and private, nonprofit organizations that will be committed and used solely for the purpose of financing private business enterprises in conjunction with amounts provided under this part.

(3) Population-losing community

The term "population-losing community" means any county in which the net population loss is at least 7 percent from April 1, 1980 to April 1, 1990, as reported by the Bureau of the Census.

(4) Private business enterprise

The term "private business enterprise" means any business enterprise that is engaged in the manufacture of a product, provision of a service, construction or development of a facility, or that is involved in some other commercial, manufacturing or industrial activity, and that agrees to target job opportunities stemming from investments authorized under this part to certain individuals.

(5) Target area

The term "target area" means any area defined in an application for assistance under this part that has a population whose income does not exceed the median for the area within which the target area is located.

(6) Very low-income community

The term "very low-income community" means a community in which the median income of the residents of such community does not exceed 50 percent of the median income of the area.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31131, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1887.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13851 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12212. Prohibition

None of the funds authorized under this part shall be used to finance the construction of housing.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31133, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1888.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13853 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part F—Community-Based Justice Grants for Prosecutors

§12221. Grant authorization

(a) In general

The Attorney General may make grants to State, Indian tribal, or local prosecutors for the purpose of supporting the creation or expansion of community-based justice programs.

(b) Consultation

The Attorney General may consult with the Ounce of Prevention Council in making grants under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31701, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1890.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13861 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12222. Use of funds

Grants made by the Attorney General under this section shall be used—

(1) to fund programs that require the cooperation and coordination of prosecutors, school officials, police, probation officers, youth and social service professionals, and community members in the effort to reduce the incidence of, and increase the successful identification and speed of prosecution of, young violent offenders;

(2) to fund programs in which prosecutors focus on the offender, not simply the specific offense, and impose individualized sanctions, designed to deter that offender from further antisocial conduct, and impose increasingly serious sanctions on a young offender who continues to commit offenses;

(3) to fund programs that coordinate criminal justice resources with educational, social service, and community resources to develop and deliver violence prevention programs, including mediation and other conflict resolution methods, treatment, counseling, educational, and recreational programs that create alternatives to criminal activity;

(4) in rural States (as defined in section 10351(b) of this title), to fund cooperative efforts between State and local prosecutors, victim advocacy and assistance groups, social and community service providers, and law enforcement agencies to investigate and prosecute child abuse cases, treat youthful victims of child abuse, and work in cooperation with the community to develop education and prevention strategies directed toward the issues with which such entities are concerned; and

(5) by a State, unit of local government, or Indian tribe to create and expand witness and victim protection programs to prevent threats, intimidation, and retaliation against victims of, and witnesses to, violent crimes.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31702, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1890; Pub. L. 110–177, title III, §301(a), Jan. 7, 2008, 121 Stat. 2538.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13862 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2008—Par. (5). Pub. L. 110–177 added par. (5).

§12223. Applications

(a) Eligibility

In order to be eligible to receive a grant under this part 1 for any fiscal year, a State, Indian tribal, or local prosecutor, in conjunction with the chief executive officer of the jurisdiction in which the program will be placed, shall submit an application to the Attorney General in such form and containing such information as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

(b) Requirements

Each applicant shall include—

(1) a request for funds for the purposes described in section 12222 of this title;

(2) a description of the communities to be served by the grant, including the nature of the youth crime, youth violence, and child abuse problems within such communities;

(3) assurances that Federal funds received under this part 1 shall be used to supplement, not supplant, non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for activities funded under this section; and

(4) statistical information in such form and containing such information that the Attorney General may require.

(c) Comprehensive plan

Each applicant shall include a comprehensive plan that shall contain—

(1) a description of the youth violence or child abuse crime problem;

(2) an action plan outlining how the applicant will achieve the purposes as described in section 12222 of this title;

(3) a description of the resources available in the community to implement the plan together with a description of the gaps in the plan that cannot be filled with existing resources; and

(4) a description of how the requested grant will be used to fill gaps.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31703, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1891.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(3), appearing in the original, is unidentifiable because subtitle Q of title III of Pub. L. 103–322 does not contain parts.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13863 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12224. Allocation of funds; limitations on grants

(a) Administrative cost limitation

The Attorney General shall use not more than 5 percent of the funds available under this program for the purposes of administration and technical assistance.

(b) Renewal of grants

A grant under this part 1 may be renewed for up to 2 additional years after the first fiscal year during which the recipient receives its initial grant under this part,1 subject to the availability of funds, if—

(1) the Attorney General determines that the funds made available to the recipient during the previous years were used in a manner required under the approved application; and

(2) the Attorney General determines that an additional grant is necessary to implement the community prosecution program described in the comprehensive plan required by section 12223 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31704, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1891.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsec. (b), appearing in the original, is unidentifiable because subtitle Q of title III of Pub. L. 103–322 does not contain parts.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13864 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12225. Award of grants

The Attorney General shall consider the following facts in awarding grants:

(1) Demonstrated need and evidence of the ability to provide the services described in the plan required under section 12223 of this title.

(2) The Attorney General shall attempt, to the extent practicable, to achieve an equitable geographic distribution of grant awards.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31705, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1891.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13865 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12226. Reports

(a) Report to Attorney General

State and local prosecutors that receive funds under this part shall submit to the Attorney General a report not later than March 1 of each year that describes progress achieved in carrying out the plan described under section 12223(c) of this title.

(b) Report to Congress

The Attorney General shall submit to the Congress a report by October 1 of each year in which grants are made available under this part which shall contain a detailed statement regarding grant awards, activities of grant recipients, a compilation of statistical information submitted by applicants, and an evaluation of programs established under this part.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31706, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1892.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13866 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12227. Definitions

In this part—

"Indian tribe" means a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including an Alaska Native village (as defined in or established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

"State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands.

"young violent offenders" means individuals, ages 7 through 22, who have committed crimes of violence, weapons offenses, drug distribution, hate crimes and civil rights violations, and offenses against personal property of another.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31708, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1892.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13868 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part G—Family Unity Demonstration Project

§12241. Purpose

The purpose of this part is to evaluate the effectiveness of certain demonstration projects in helping to—

(1) alleviate the harm to children and primary caretaker parents caused by separation due to the incarceration of the parents;

(2) reduce recidivism rates of prisoners by encouraging strong and supportive family relationships; and

(3) explore the cost effectiveness of community correctional facilities.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31902, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1892.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13881 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12242. Definitions

In this part—

"child" means a person who is less than 7 years of age.

"community correctional facility" means a residential facility that—

(A) is used only for eligible offenders and their children under 7 years of age;

(B) is not within the confines of a jail or prison;

(C) houses no more than 50 prisoners in addition to their children; and

(D) provides to inmates and their children—

(i) a safe, stable, environment for children;

(ii) pediatric and adult medical care consistent with medical standards for correctional facilities;

(iii) programs to improve the stability of the parent-child relationship, including educating parents regarding—

(I) child development; and

(II) household management;


(iv) alcoholism and drug addiction treatment for prisoners; and

(v) programs and support services to help inmates—

(I) to improve and maintain mental and physical health, including access to counseling;

(II) to obtain adequate housing upon release from State incarceration;

(III) to obtain suitable education, employment, or training for employment; and

(IV) to obtain suitable child care.


"eligible offender" means a primary caretaker parent who—

(A) has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 7 years or is awaiting sentencing for a conviction punishable by such a term of imprisonment; and

(B) has not engaged in conduct that—

(i) knowingly resulted in death or serious bodily injury;

(ii) is a felony for a crime of violence against a person; or

(iii) constitutes child neglect or mental, physical, or sexual abuse of a child.


"primary caretaker parent" means—

(A) a parent who has consistently assumed responsibility for the housing, health, and safety of a child prior to incarceration; or

(B) a woman who has given birth to a child after or while awaiting her sentencing hearing and who expresses a willingness to assume responsibility for the housing, health, and safety of that child,


a parent who, in the best interest of a child, has arranged for the temporary care of the child in the home of a relative or other responsible adult shall not for that reason be excluded from the category "primary caretaker".

"State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31903, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1893.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13882 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

subpart 1—grants to states

§12251. Authority to make grants

(a) General authority

The Attorney General may make grants, on a competitive basis, to States to carry out in accordance with this part family unity demonstration projects that enable eligible offenders to live in community correctional facilities with their children.

(b) Preferences

For the purpose of making grants under subsection (a), the Attorney General shall give preference to a State that includes in the application required by section 12252 of this title assurances that if the State receives a grant—

(1) both the State corrections agency and the State health and human services agency will participate substantially in, and cooperate closely in all aspects of, the development and operation of the family unity demonstration project for which such a grant is requested;

(2) boards made up of community members, including residents, local businesses, corrections officials, former prisoners, child development professionals, educators, and maternal and child health professionals will be established to advise the State regarding the operation of such project;

(3) the State has in effect a policy that provides for the placement of all prisoners, whenever possible, in correctional facilities for which they qualify that are located closest to their respective family homes;

(4) unless the Attorney General determines that a longer timeline is appropriate in a particular case, the State will implement the project not later than 180 days after receiving a grant under subsection (a) and will expend all of the grant during a 1-year period;

(5) the State has the capacity to continue implementing a community correctional facility beyond the funding period to ensure the continuity of the work;

(6) unless the Attorney General determines that a different process for selecting participants in a project is desirable, the State will—

(A) give written notice to a prisoner, not later than 30 days after the State first receives a grant under subsection (a) or 30 days after the prisoner is sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not more than 7 years (whichever is later), of the proposed or current operation of the project;

(B) accept at any time at which the project is in operation an application by a prisoner to participate in the project if, at the time of application, the remainder of the prisoner's sentence exceeds 180 days;

(C) review applications by prisoners in the sequence in which the State receives such applications; and

(D) not more than 50 days after reviewing such applications approve or disapprove the application; and


(7) for the purposes of selecting eligible offenders to participate in such project, the State has authorized State courts to sentence an eligible offender directly to a community correctional facility, provided that the court gives assurances that the offender would have otherwise served a term of imprisonment.

(c) Selection of grantees

The Attorney General shall make grants under subsection (a) on a competitive basis, based on such criteria as the Attorney General shall issue by rule and taking into account the preferences described in subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31911, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1894.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13891 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12252. Eligibility to receive grants

To be eligible to receive a grant under section 12251 of this title, a State shall submit to the Attorney General an application at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the Attorney General reasonably may require by rule.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31912, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1895.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13892 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12253. Report

(a) In general

A State that receives a grant under this subpart 1 shall, not later than 90 days after the 1-year period in which the grant is required to be expended, submit a report to the Attorney General regarding the family unity demonstration project for which the grant was expended.

(b) Contents

A report under subsection (a) shall—

(1) state the number of prisoners who submitted applications to participate in the project and the number of prisoners who were placed in community correctional facilities;

(2) state, with respect to prisoners placed in the project, the number of prisoners who are returned to that jurisdiction and custody and the reasons for such return;

(3) describe the nature and scope of educational and training activities provided to prisoners participating in the project;

(4) state the number, and describe the scope of, contracts made with public and nonprofit private community-based organizations to carry out such project; and

(5) evaluate the effectiveness of the project in accomplishing the purposes described in section 12241 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31913, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1895.)

References in Text

This subpart, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this title" and was translated as reading "this chapter", meaning chapter 1 of subtitle S of title III of Pub. L. 103–322, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13893 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

subpart 2—family unity demonstration project for federal prisoners

§12261. Authority of Attorney General

(a) In general

With the funds available to carry out this part for the benefit of Federal prisoners, the Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, shall select eligible prisoners to live in community correctional facilities with their children.

(b) General contracting authority

In implementing this part,1 the Attorney General may enter into contracts with appropriate public or private agencies to provide housing, sustenance, services, and supervision of inmates eligible for placement in community correctional facilities under this part.1

(c) Use of State facilities

At the discretion of the Attorney General, Federal participants may be placed in State projects as defined in subpart 1. For such participants, the Attorney General shall, with funds available under section 13883(b)(2) 1 of title 42, reimburse the State for all project costs related to the Federal participant's placement, including administrative costs.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31921, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1896.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this title" and was translated as reading "this subtitle", meaning subtitle S of title III of Pub. L. 103–322, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Section 13883 of title 42, referred to in subsec. (c), was omitted from the Code as obsolete.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13901 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12262. Requirements

For the purpose of placing Federal participants in a family unity demonstration project under section 12261 of this title, the Attorney General shall consult with the Secretary of Health and Human Services regarding the development and operation of the project.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31922, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1896.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13902 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part H—Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Correctional Institutions

§12271. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis in correctional institutions

(a) Guidelines

The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Director of the National Institute of Corrections, shall develop and disseminate to appropriate entities, including State, Indian tribal, and local correctional institutions and the Immigration and Naturalization Service, guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and followup care of tuberculosis among inmates of correctional institutions and persons held in holding facilities operated by or under contract with the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

(b) Compliance

The Attorney General shall ensure that prisons in the Federal prison system and holding facilities operated by or under contract with the Immigration and Naturalization Service comply with the guidelines described in subsection (a).

(c) Grants

(1) In general

The Attorney General shall make grants to State, Indian tribal, and local correction authorities and public health authorities to assist in establishing and operating programs for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and followup care of tuberculosis among inmates of correctional institutions.

(2) Federal share

The Federal share of funding of a program funded with a grant under paragraph (1) shall not exceed 50 percent.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

(A) $700,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(B) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

(C) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

(D) $1,100,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

(E) $1,200,000 for fiscal year 2000.

(d) Definitions

In this section—

"Indian tribe" means a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including an Alaska Native village (as defined in or established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.),1 that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

"State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §32201, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1901.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13911 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

1 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should precede the comma.

Part I—Gang Resistance Education and Training

§12281. Gang Resistance Education and Training projects

(a) Establishment of projects

(1) In general

The Attorney General shall establish not less than 50 Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) projects, to be located in communities across the country, in addition to the number of projects currently funded.

(2) Selection of communities

Communities identified for such GREAT projects shall be selected by the Attorney General on the basis of gang-related activity in that particular community.

(3) Amount of assistance per project; allocation

The Attorney General shall make available not less than $800,000 per project, subject to the availability of appropriations, and such funds shall be allocated—

(A) 50 percent to the affected State and local law enforcement and prevention organizations participating in such projects; and

(B) 50 percent to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Department of Justice for salaries, expenses, and associated administrative costs for operating and overseeing such projects.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

(1) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(2) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(3) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(4) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and

(5) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §32401, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 107–296, title XI, §1112(p), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2278; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1188, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3128.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13921 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–162, which directed the amendment of section 32401(b) of the Violent Crime Control Act of 1994 by adding pars. (1) to (5) and striking out former pars. (1) to (6), was executed by making the amendments to this section, which is section 32401(b) of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Former pars. (1) to (6) authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1995 through 2000.

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–296, §1112(p)(1), substituted "Attorney General" for "Secretary of the Treasury" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 107–296, §1112(p)(2), substituted "Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Department of Justice" for "Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

SUBCHAPTER III—VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

§12291. Definitions and grant provisions

(a) Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Alaska Native village

The term "Alaska Native village" has the same meaning given such term in the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.).

(2) Courts

The term "courts" means any civil or criminal, tribal, and Alaska Native Village, Federal, State, local or territorial court having jurisdiction to address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking, including immigration, family, juvenile, and dependency courts, and the judicial officers serving in those courts, including judges, magistrate judges, commissioners, justices of the peace, or any other person with decisionmaking authority.

(3) Child abuse and neglect

The term "child abuse and neglect" means any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caregiver with intent to cause death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm to an unemancipated minor. This definition shall not be construed to mean that failure to leave an abusive relationship, in the absence of other action constituting abuse or neglect, is itself abuse or neglect.

(4) Community-based organization

The term "community-based organization" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental, or tribal organization that serves a specific geographic community that—

(A) focuses primarily on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) has established a specialized culturally specific program that addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(C) has a primary focus on underserved populations (and includes representatives of these populations) and domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; or

(D) obtains expertise, or shows demonstrated capacity to work effectively, on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking through collaboration.

(5) Child maltreatment

The term "child maltreatment" means the physical or psychological abuse or neglect of a child or youth, including sexual assault and abuse.

(6) Culturally specific

The term "culturally specific" means primarily directed toward racial and ethnic minority groups (as defined in section 1707(g) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 300u–6(g)).1

(7) Culturally specific services

The term "culturally specific services" means community-based services that include culturally relevant and linguistically specific services and resources to culturally specific communities.

(8) Domestic violence

The term "domestic violence" includes felony or misdemeanor crimes of violence committed by a current or former spouse or intimate partner of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, by a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim as a spouse or intimate partner, by a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction receiving grant monies, or by any other person against an adult or youth victim who is protected from that person's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction.

(9) Dating partner

The term "dating partner" refers to a person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the abuser, and where the existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on a consideration of—

(A) the length of the relationship;

(B) the type of relationship; and

(C) the frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.

(10) Dating violence

The term "dating violence" means violence committed by a person—

(A) who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim; and

(B) where the existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on a consideration of the following factors:

(i) The length of the relationship.

(ii) The type of relationship.

(iii) The frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.

(11) Elder abuse

The term "elder abuse" means any action against a person who is 50 years of age or older that constitutes the willful—

(A) infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or cruel punishment with resulting physical harm, pain, or mental anguish; or

(B) deprivation by a person, including a caregiver, of goods or services with intent to cause physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness.

(12) Homeless

The term "homeless" has the meaning provided in section 12473(6) of this title.

(13) Indian

The term "Indian" means a member of an Indian tribe.

(14) Indian country

The term "Indian country" has the same meaning given such term in section 1151 of title 18.

(15) Indian housing

The term "Indian housing" means housing assistance described in the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 et seq., as amended).

(16) Indian tribe

The term "Indian tribe" means a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(17) Indian law enforcement

The term "Indian law enforcement" means the departments or individuals under the direction of the Indian tribe that maintain public order.

(18) Law enforcement

The term "law enforcement" means a public agency charged with policing functions, including any of its component bureaus (such as governmental victim services programs or Village Public Safety Officers), including those referred to in section 2802 of title 25.

(19) Legal assistance

The term "legal assistance" includes assistance to adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in—

(A) family, tribal, territorial, immigration, employment, administrative agency, housing matters, campus administrative or protection or stay away order proceedings, and other similar matters; and

(B) criminal justice investigations, prosecutions and post-trial matters (including sentencing, parole, and probation) that impact the victim's safety and privacy.

Intake or referral, by itself, does not constitute legal assistance.

(20) Personally identifying information or personal information

The term "personally identifying information" or "personal information" means individually identifying information for or about an individual including information likely to disclose the location of a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, regardless of whether the information is encoded, encrypted, hashed, or otherwise protected, including—

(A) a first and last name;

(B) a home or other physical address;

(C) contact information (including a postal, e-mail or Internet protocol address, or telephone or facsimile number);

(D) a social security number, driver license number, passport number, or student identification number; and

(E) any other information, including date of birth, racial or ethnic background, or religious affiliation, that would serve to identify any individual.

(21) Population specific organization

The term "population specific organization" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that primarily serves members of a specific underserved population and has demonstrated experience and expertise providing targeted services to members of that specific underserved population.

(22) Population specific services

The term "population specific services" means victim-centered services that address the safety, health, economic, legal, housing, workplace, immigration, confidentiality, or other needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and that are designed primarily for and are targeted to a specific underserved population.

(23) Prosecution

The term "prosecution" means any public agency charged with direct responsibility for prosecuting criminal offenders, including such agency's component bureaus (such as governmental victim assistance programs).

(24) Protection order or restraining order

The term "protection order" or "restraining order" includes—

(A) any injunction, restraining order, or any other order issued by a civil or criminal court for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, sexual violence or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person, including any temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding so long as any civil order was issued in response to a complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of a person seeking protection; and

(B) any support, child custody or visitation provisions, orders, remedies, or relief issued as part of a protection order, restraining order, or stay away injunction pursuant to State, tribal, territorial, or local law authorizing the issuance of protection orders, restraining orders, or injunctions for the protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(25) Rape crisis center

The term "rape crisis center" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental, or tribal organization, or governmental entity in a State other than a Territory that provides intervention and related assistance, as specified in section 12511(b)(2)(C) of this title, to victims of sexual assault without regard to their age. In the case of a governmental entity, the entity may not be part of the criminal justice system (such as a law enforcement agency) and must be able to offer a comparable level of confidentiality as a nonprofit entity that provides similar victim services.

(26) Rural area and rural community

The term "rural area" and "rural community" mean—

(A) any area or community, respectively, no part of which is within an area designated as a standard metropolitan statistical area by the Office of Management and Budget;

(B) any area or community, respectively, that is—

(i) within an area designated as a metropolitan statistical area or considered as part of a metropolitan statistical area; and

(ii) located in a rural census tract; or


(C) any federally recognized Indian tribe.

(27) Rural State

The term "rural State" means a State that has a population density of 57 or fewer persons per square mile or a State in which the largest county has fewer than 250,000 people, based on the most recent decennial census.

(28) Sex trafficking

The term "sex trafficking" means any conduct proscribed by section 1591 of title 18, whether or not the conduct occurs in interstate or foreign commerce or within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States.

(29) Sexual assault

The term "sexual assault" means any nonconsensual sexual act proscribed by Federal, tribal, or State law, including when the victim lacks capacity to consent.

(30) Stalking

The term "stalking" means engaging in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to—

(A) fear for his or her safety or the safety of others; or

(B) suffer substantial emotional distress.

(31) State

The term "State" means each of the several States and the District of Columbia, and except as otherwise provided, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(32) State domestic violence coalition

The term "State domestic violence coalition" means a program determined by the Administration for Children and Families under sections 10402 and 10411 of title 42.

(33) State sexual assault coalition

The term "State sexual assault coalition" means a program determined by the Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 280b et seq.).

(34) Territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition

The term "territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition" means a program addressing domestic or sexual violence that is—

(A) an established nonprofit, nongovernmental territorial coalition addressing domestic violence or sexual assault within the territory; or

(B) a nongovernmental organization with a demonstrated history of addressing domestic violence or sexual assault within the territory that proposes to incorporate as a nonprofit, nongovernmental territorial coalition.

(35) Tribal coalition

The term "tribal coalition" means an established nonprofit, nongovernmental Indian organization, Alaska Native organization, or a Native Hawaiian organization that—

(A) provides education, support, and technical assistance to member Indian service providers in a manner that enables those member providers to establish and maintain culturally appropriate services, including shelter and rape crisis services, designed to assist Indian women and the dependents of those women who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(B) is comprised of board and general members that are representative of—

(i) the member service providers described in subparagraph (A); and

(ii) the tribal communities in which the services are being provided.

(36) Tribal government

The term "tribal government" means—

(A) the governing body of an Indian tribe; or

(B) a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(37) Tribal nonprofit organization

The term "tribal nonprofit organization" means—

(A) a victim services provider that has as its primary purpose to assist Native victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(B) staff and leadership of the organization must include persons with a demonstrated history of assisting American Indian or Alaska Native victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(38) Tribal organization

The term "tribal organization" means—

(A) the governing body of any Indian tribe;

(B) any legally established organization of Indians which is controlled, sanctioned, or chartered by such governing body of a tribe or tribes to be served, or which is democratically elected by the adult members of the Indian community to be served by such organization and which includes the maximum participation of Indians in all phases of its activities; or

(C) any tribal nonprofit organization.

(39) Underserved populations

The term "underserved populations" means populations who face barriers in accessing and using victim services, and includes populations underserved because of geographic location, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, underserved racial and ethnic populations, populations underserved because of special needs (such as language barriers, disabilities, alienage status, or age), and any other population determined to be underserved by the Attorney General or by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as appropriate.

(40) Unit of local government

The term "unit of local government" means any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State.

(41) Victim advocate

The term "victim advocate" means a person, whether paid or serving as a volunteer, who provides services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or dating violence under the auspices or supervision of a victim services program.

(42) Victim assistant

The term "victim assistant" means a person, whether paid or serving as a volunteer, who provides services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or dating violence under the auspices or supervision of a court or a law enforcement or prosecution agency.

(43) Victim service provider

The term "victim service provider" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental or tribal organization or rape crisis center, including a State or tribal coalition, that assists or advocates for domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victims, including domestic violence shelters, faith-based organizations, and other organizations, with a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(44) Victim services or services

The terms "victim services" and "services" mean services provided to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including telephonic or web-based hotlines, legal advocacy, economic advocacy, emergency and transitional shelter, accompaniment and advocacy through medical, civil or criminal justice, immigration, and social support systems, crisis intervention, short-term individual and group support services, information and referrals, culturally specific services, population specific services, and other related supportive services.

(45) Youth

The term "youth" means a person who is 11 to 24 years old.

(b) Grant conditions

(1) Match

No matching funds shall be required for any grant or subgrant made under this Act for—

(A) any tribe, territory, or victim service provider; or

(B) any other entity, including a State, that—

(i) petitions for a waiver of any match condition imposed by the Attorney General or the Secretaries of Health and Human Services or Housing and Urban Development; and

(ii) whose petition for waiver is determined by the Attorney General or the Secretaries of Health and Human Services or Housing and Urban Development to have adequately demonstrated the financial need of the petitioning entity.

(2) Nondisclosure of confidential or private information

(A) In general

In order to ensure the safety of adult, youth, and child victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their families, grantees and subgrantees under this subchapter shall protect the confidentiality and privacy of persons receiving services.

(B) Nondisclosure

Subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), grantees and subgrantees shall not—

(i) disclose, reveal, or release any personally identifying information or individual information collected in connection with services requested, utilized, or denied through grantees' and subgrantees' programs, regardless of whether the information has been encoded, encrypted, hashed, or otherwise protected; or

(ii) disclose, reveal, or release individual client information without the informed, written, reasonably time-limited consent of the person (or in the case of an unemancipated minor, the minor and the parent or guardian or in the case of legal incapacity, a court-appointed guardian) about whom information is sought, whether for this program or any other Federal, State, tribal, or territorial grant program, except that consent for release may not be given by the abuser of the minor, incapacitated person, or the abuser of the other parent of the minor.


If a minor or a person with a legally appointed guardian is permitted by law to receive services without the parent's or guardian's consent, the minor or person with a guardian may release information without additional consent.

(C) Release

If release of information described in subparagraph (B) is compelled by statutory or court mandate—

(i) grantees and subgrantees shall make reasonable attempts to provide notice to victims affected by the disclosure of information; and

(ii) grantees and subgrantees shall take steps necessary to protect the privacy and safety of the persons affected by the release of the information.

(D) Information sharing

(i) Grantees and subgrantees may share—

(I) nonpersonally identifying data in the aggregate regarding services to their clients and nonpersonally identifying demographic information in order to comply with Federal, State, tribal, or territorial reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements;

(II) court-generated information and law enforcement-generated information contained in secure, governmental registries for protection order enforcement purposes; and

(III) law enforcement-generated and prosecution-generated information necessary for law enforcement and prosecution purposes.


(ii) In no circumstances may—

(I) an adult, youth, or child victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking be required to provide a consent to release his or her personally identifying information as a condition of eligibility for the services provided by the grantee or subgrantee;

(II) any personally identifying information be shared in order to comply with Federal, tribal, or State reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements, whether for this program or any other Federal, tribal, or State grant program.

(E) Statutorily mandated reports of abuse or neglect

Nothing in this section prohibits a grantee or subgrantee from reporting suspected abuse or neglect, as those terms are defined and specifically mandated by the State or tribe involved.

(F) Oversight

Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Attorney General from disclosing grant activities authorized in this Act to the chairman and ranking members of the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate exercising Congressional oversight authority. All disclosures shall protect confidentiality and omit personally identifying information, including location information about individuals.

(G) Confidentiality assessment and assurances

Grantees and subgrantees must document their compliance with the confidentiality and privacy provisions required under this section.

(3) Approved activities

In carrying out the activities under this subchapter, grantees and subgrantees may collaborate with or provide information to Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies and develop and promote State, local, or tribal legislation or model codes designed to reduce or eliminate domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(4) Non-supplantation

Any Federal funds received under this subchapter shall be used to supplement, not supplant, non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for activities under this subchapter.

(5) Use of funds

Funds authorized and appropriated under this subchapter may be used only for the specific purposes described in this subchapter and shall remain available until expended.

(6) Reports

An entity receiving a grant under this subchapter shall submit to the disbursing agency a report detailing the activities undertaken with the grant funds, including and providing additional information as the agency shall require.

(7) Evaluation

Federal agencies disbursing funds under this subchapter shall set aside up to 3 percent of such funds in order to conduct—

(A) evaluations of specific programs or projects funded by the disbursing agency under this subchapter or related research; or

(B) evaluations of promising practices or problems emerging in the field or related research, in order to inform the agency or agencies as to which programs or projects are likely to be effective or responsive to needs in the field.

Final reports of such evaluations shall be made available to the public via the agency's website.

(8) Nonexclusivity

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to prohibit male victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking from receiving benefits and services under this subchapter.

(9) Prohibition on tort litigation

Funds appropriated for the grant program under this subchapter may not be used to fund civil representation in a lawsuit based on a tort claim. This paragraph should not be construed as a prohibition on providing assistance to obtain restitution in a protection order or criminal case.

(10) Prohibition on lobbying

Any funds appropriated for the grant program shall be subject to the prohibition in section 1913 of title 18, relating to lobbying with appropriated moneys.

(11) Technical assistance

Of the total amounts appropriated under this subchapter, not less than 3 percent and up to 8 percent, unless otherwise noted, shall be available for providing training and technical assistance relating to the purposes of this subchapter to improve the capacity of the grantees, subgrantees, and other entities. If there is a demonstrated history that the Office on Violence Against Women has previously set aside amounts greater than 8 percent for technical assistance and training relating to grant programs authorized under this subchapter, the Office has the authority to continue setting aside amounts greater than 8 percent.

(12) Delivery of legal assistance

Any grantee or subgrantee providing legal assistance with funds awarded under this subchapter shall comply with the eligibility requirements in section 20121(d) of this title.

(13) Civil rights

(A) Nondiscrimination

No person in the United States shall, on the basis of actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, sex, gender identity (as defined in paragraph 249(c)(4) of title 18), sexual orientation, or disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in part with funds made available under the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (title IV of Public Law 103–322; 108 Stat. 1902), the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 (division B of Public Law 106–386; 114 Stat. 1491), the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (title IX of Public Law 109–162; 119 Stat. 3080),2 the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, and any other program or activity funded in whole or in part with funds appropriated for grants, cooperative agreements, and other assistance administered by the Office on Violence Against Women.

(B) Exception

If sex segregation or sex-specific programming is necessary to the essential operation of a program, nothing in this paragraph shall prevent any such program or activity from consideration of an individual's sex. In such circumstances, grantees may meet the requirements of this paragraph by providing comparable services to individuals who cannot be provided with the sex-segregated or sex-specific programming.

(C) Discrimination

The authority of the Attorney General and the Office of Justice Programs to enforce this paragraph shall be the same as it is under section 10228 of this title.2

(D) Construction

Nothing contained in this paragraph shall be construed, interpreted, or applied to supplant, displace, preempt, or otherwise diminish the responsibilities and liabilities under other State or Federal civil rights law, whether statutory or common.

(14) Clarification of victim services and legal assistance

Victim services and legal assistance under this subchapter also include services and assistance to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking who are also victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons as defined by section 7102 of title 22.

(15) Conferral

(A) In general

The Office on Violence Against Women shall establish a biennial conferral process with State and tribal coalitions and technical assistance providers who receive funding through grants administered by the Office on Violence Against Women and authorized by this Act, and other key stakeholders.

(B) Areas covered

The areas of conferral under this paragraph shall include—

(i) the administration of grants;

(ii) unmet needs;

(iii) promising practices in the field; and

(iv) emerging trends.

(C) Initial conferral

The first conferral shall be initiated not later than 6 months after March 7, 2013.

(D) Report

Not later than 90 days after the conclusion of each conferral period, the Office on Violence Against Women shall publish a comprehensive report that—

(i) summarizes the issues presented during conferral and what, if any, policies it intends to implement to address those issues;

(ii) is made available to the public on the Office on Violence Against Women's website and submitted to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.

(16) Accountability

All grants awarded by the Attorney General under this Act shall be subject to the following accountability provisions:

(A) Audit requirement

(i) In general

Beginning in the first fiscal year beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act,2 and in each fiscal year thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice shall conduct audits of recipients of grants under this Act to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse of funds by grantees. The Inspector General shall determine the appropriate number of grantees to be audited each year.

(ii) Definition

In this paragraph, the term "unresolved audit finding" means a finding in the final audit report of the Inspector General of the Department of Justice that the audited grantee has utilized grant funds for an unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost that is not closed or resolved within 12 months from the date when the final audit report is issued.

(iii) Mandatory exclusion

A recipient of grant funds under this Act that is found to have an unresolved audit finding shall not be eligible to receive grant funds under this Act during the following 2 fiscal years.

(iv) Priority

In awarding grants under this Act, the Attorney General shall give priority to eligible entities that did not have an unresolved audit finding during the 3 fiscal years prior to submitting an application for a grant under this Act.

(v) Reimbursement

If an entity is awarded grant funds under this Act during the 2-fiscal-year period in which the entity is barred from receiving grants under paragraph (2), the Attorney General shall—

(I) deposit an amount equal to the grant funds that were improperly awarded to the grantee into the General Fund of the Treasury; and

(II) seek to recoup the costs of the repayment to the fund from the grant recipient that was erroneously awarded grant funds.

(B) Nonprofit organization requirements

(i) Definition

For purposes of this paragraph and the grant programs described in this Act, the term "nonprofit organization" means an organization that is described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such title.

(ii) Prohibition

The Attorney General may not award a grant under any grant program described in this Act to a nonprofit organization that holds money in offshore accounts for the purpose of avoiding paying the tax described in section 511(a) of title 26.

(iii) Disclosure

Each nonprofit organization that is awarded a grant under a grant program described in this Act and uses the procedures prescribed in regulations to create a rebuttable presumption of reasonableness for the compensation of its officers, directors, trustees and key employees, shall disclose to the Attorney General, in the application for the grant, the process for determining such compensation, including the independent persons involved in reviewing and approving such compensation, the comparability data used, and contemporaneous substantiation of the deliberation and decision. Upon request, the Attorney General shall make the information disclosed under this subsection available for public inspection.

(C) Conference expenditures

(i) Limitation

No amounts authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Justice under this Act may be used by the Attorney General, or by any individual or organization awarded discretionary funds through a cooperative agreement under this Act, to host or support any expenditure for conferences that uses more than $20,000 in Department funds, unless the Deputy Attorney General or such Assistant Attorney Generals, Directors, or principal deputies as the Deputy Attorney General may designate, provides prior written authorization that the funds may be expended to host a conference.

(ii) Written approval

Written approval under clause (i) shall include a written estimate of all costs associated with the conference, including the cost of all food and beverages, audiovisual equipment, honoraria for speakers, and any entertainment.

(iii) Report

The Deputy Attorney General shall submit an annual report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives on all approved conference expenditures referenced in this paragraph.

(D) Annual certification

Beginning in the first fiscal year beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act,2 the Attorney General shall submit, to the Committee on the Judiciary and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, an annual certification that—

(i) all audits issued by the Office of the Inspector General under paragraph (1) have been completed and reviewed by the appropriate Assistant Attorney General or Director;

(ii) all mandatory exclusions required under subparagraph (A)(iii) have been issued;

(iii) all reimbursements required under subparagraph (A)(v) have been made; and

(iv) includes a list of any grant recipients excluded under subparagraph (A) from the previous year.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40002, as added Pub. L. 109–162, §3(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2964; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §§1(d)–(f), 2(e), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 751, 752; Pub. L. 111–320, title II, §202(d), Dec. 20, 2010, 124 Stat. 3509; Pub. L. 113–4, §3, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 56.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902, known as the Violence Against Women Act of 1994. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (16), (36)(B), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (a)(15), is Pub. L. 104–330, Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4016, which is classified principally to chapter 43 (§4101 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4101 of Title 25 and Tables.

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(33), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§201 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), (2)(F), (15)(A), (16), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(A), is title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(A), is div. B of Pub. L. 106–386, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1491. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(A), is Pub. L. 109–162, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2960. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2006 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(A), is Pub. L. 113–4, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 54. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2013 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Section 10228 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(C), was in the original a reference to "section 3789d of title 42, United States Code" but probably should have been a reference to section 809 of Pub. L. 90–351, which was formerly classified to section 3789d of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as section 10228 of this title.

The date of the enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(16)(A)(i), (D), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 113–4, which enacted subsec. (b)(16) of this section and was approved Mar. 7, 2013.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13925 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(3), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(H), redesignated par. (1) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(4), substituted "serious harm to an unemancipated minor." for "serious harm."

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(H), redesignated par. (2) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(5), substituted "The term 'community-based organization' means a nonprofit, nongovernmental, or tribal organization that serves a specific geographic community that—" for "The term 'community-based organization' means an organization that—" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(H), redesignated par. (3) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(H), redesignated par. (4) as (5).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (5), which defined "court-based" and "court-related personnel".

Subsec. (a)(6), (7). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(6), added pars. (6) and (7). Former pars. (6) and (7) redesignated (8) and (9), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(7), inserted "or intimate partner" after "former spouse" and after "as a spouse".

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(G), redesignated par. (6) as (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (10).

Subsec. (a)(9) to (11). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(G), redesignated pars. (7) to (9) as (9) to (11), respectively. Former pars. (10) and (11) redesignated (13) and (14), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(8), added par. (12). Former par. (12) redesignated (15).

Subsec. (a)(13) to (16). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(F), redesignated pars. (10) to (13) as (13) to (16), respectively. Former pars. (14) to (16) redesignated (17) to (19), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(F), redesignated par. (14) as (17).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (17), which defined "linguistically and culturally specific services".

Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(9), inserted "or Village Public Safety Officers" after "governmental victim services programs".

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(F), redesignated par. (15) as (18).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (18), which defined "personally identifying information" or "personal information".

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(10), inserted at end "Intake or referral, by itself, does not constitute legal assistance."

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(F), redesignated par. (16) as (19). Former par. (19) redesignated (23).

Subsec. (a)(20) to (22). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(11), added pars. (20) to (22). Former pars. (20), (21), and (22) redesignated (24), (26), and (27), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(12), substituted "assistance" for "services".

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(E), redesignated par. (19) as (23).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (23), which defined "sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(24). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(E), redesignated par. (20) as (24). Former par. (24) redesignated (30).

Subsec. (a)(25). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(13), added par. (25). Former par. (25) redesignated (31).

Subsec. (a)(26). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(D), redesignated par. (21) as (26). Former par. (26) redesignated (32).

Subsec. (a)(26)(C). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(14), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(27). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(15), substituted "57" for "52" and "250,000" for "150,000".

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(D), redesignated par. (22) as (27). Former par. (27) redesignated (33).

Subsec. (a)(28). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(16), added par. (28). Former par. (28) redesignated (34).

Subsec. (a)(29). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(16), added par. (29).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (29) which defined "tribal coalition".

Subsec. (a)(30) to (32). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(C), redesignated pars. (24) to (26) as (30) to (32), respectively. Former pars. (30) to (32) redesignated (36) to (38), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(33). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(C), redesignated par. (27) as (33).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (33) which defined "underserved populations".

Subsec. (a)(34). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(C), redesignated par. (28) as (34). Former par. (34) redesignated (41).

Subsec. (a)(35). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(17), added par. (35). Former par. (35) redesignated (42).

Subsec. (a)(36), (37). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(B), redesignated pars. (30) and (31) as (36) and (37), respectively.

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out pars. (36) and (37), which defined "victim services" or "victim service provider" and "youth", respectively.

Subsec. (a)(38). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(B), redesignated par. (32) as (38).

Subsec. (a)(39), (40). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(18), added pars. (39) and (40).

Subsec. (a)(41), (42). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(A), redesignated pars. (34) and (35) as (41) and (42), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(43) to (45). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(19), added pars. (43) to (45).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(1)(A), added cls. (i) and (ii) and concluding provisions, and struck out former cls. (i) and (ii) which read as follows:

"(i) disclose any personally identifying information or individual information collected in connection with services requested, utilized, or denied through grantees' and subgrantees' programs; or

"(ii) reveal individual client information without the informed, written, reasonably time-limited consent of the person (or in the case of an unemancipated minor, the minor and the parent or guardian or in the case of persons with disabilities, the guardian) about whom information is sought, whether for this program or any other Federal, State, tribal, or territorial grant program, except that consent for release may not be given by the abuser of the minor, person with disabilities, or the abuser of the other parent of the minor."

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(1)(B), amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:"Grantees and subgrantees may share—

"(i) nonpersonally identifying data in the aggregate regarding services to their clients and nonpersonally identifying demographic information in order to comply with Federal, State, tribal, or territorial reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements;

"(ii) court-generated information and law-enforcement generated information contained in secure, governmental registries for protection order enforcement purposes; and

"(iii) law enforcement- and prosecution-generated information necessary for law enforcement and prosecution purposes."

Subsec. (b)(2)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(1)(C)–(E), added subpars. (E) and (G) and redesignated former subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(2), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In carrying out the activities under this subchapter, grantees and subgrantees may collaborate with and provide information to Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies to reduce or eliminate domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking."

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(3), inserted at end "Final reports of such evaluations shall be made available to the public via the agency's website."

Subsec. (b)(12) to (16). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(4), added pars. (12) to (16).

2010—Subsec. (a)(26). Pub. L. 111–320 substituted "under sections 10402 and 10411 of this title" for "under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (42 U.S.C. 10410(b))".

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(e)(1), substituted "Alaska Native" for "Alaskan".

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(d), substituted "proscribed" for "prescribed".

Subsec. (a)(31) to (37). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(e)(2), (3), added par. (31) and redesignated former pars. (31) to (36) as (32) to (37), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(f), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "No matching funds shall be required for a grant or subgrant made under this subchapter for any tribe, territory, victim service provider, or any entity that the Attorney General determines has adequately demonstrated financial need."

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(e), inserted "Of the total amounts appropriated under this subchapter, not less than 3 percent and up to 8 percent, unless otherwise noted, shall be available for providing training and technical assistance relating to the purposes of this subchapter to improve the capacity of the grantees, subgrantees, and other entities." before "If there is a demonstrated history".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Findings

Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §201, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2993, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) Nearly 1/3 of American women report physical or sexual abuse by a husband or boyfriend at some point in their lives.

"(2) According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 248,000 Americans 12 years of age and older were raped or sexually assaulted in 2002.

"(3) Rape and sexual assault in the United States is estimated to cost $127,000,000,000 per year, including—

"(A) lost productivity;

"(B) medical and mental health care;

"(C) police and fire services;

"(D) social services;

"(E) loss of and damage to property; and

"(F) reduced quality of life.

"(4) Nonreporting of sexual assault in rural areas is a particular problem because of the high rate of nonstranger sexual assault.

"(5) Geographic isolation often compounds the problems facing sexual assault victims. The lack of anonymity and accessible support services can limit opportunities for justice for victims.

"(6) Domestic elder abuse is primarily family abuse. The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study found that the perpetrator was a family member in 90 percent of cases.

"(7) Barriers for older victims leaving abusive relationships include—

"(A) the inability to support themselves;

"(B) poor health that increases their dependence on the abuser;

"(C) fear of being placed in a nursing home; and

"(D) ineffective responses by domestic abuse programs and law enforcement.

"(8) Disabled women comprise another vulnerable population with unmet needs. Women with disabilities are more likely to be the victims of abuse and violence than women without disabilities because of their increased physical, economic, social, or psychological dependence on others.

"(9) Many women with disabilities also fail to report the abuse, since they are dependent on their abusers and fear being abandoned or institutionalized.

"(10) Of the 598 battered women's programs surveyed—

"(A) only 35 percent of these programs offered disability awareness training for their staff; and

"(B) only 16 percent dedicated a staff member to provide services to women with disabilities.

"(11) Problems of domestic violence are exacerbated for immigrants when spouses control the immigration status of their family members, and abusers use threats of refusal to file immigration papers and threats to deport spouses and children as powerful tools to prevent battered immigrant women from seeking help, trapping battered immigrant women in violent homes because of fear of deportation.

"(12) Battered immigrant women who attempt to flee abusive relationships may not have access to bilingual shelters or bilingual professionals, and face restrictions on public or financial assistance. They may also lack assistance of a certified interpreter in court, when reporting complaints to the police or a 9–1–1 operator, or even in acquiring information about their rights and the legal system.

"(13) More than 500 men and women call the National Domestic Violence Hotline every day to get immediate, informed, and confidential assistance to help deal with family violence.

"(14) The National Domestic Violence Hotline service is available, toll-free, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, with bilingual staff, access to translators in 150 languages, and a TTY line for the hearing-impaired.

"(15) With access to over 5,000 shelters and service providers across the United States, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands, the National Domestic Violence Hotline provides crisis intervention and immediately connects callers with sources of help in their local community.

"(16) Approximately 60 percent of the callers indicate that calling the Hotline is their first attempt to address a domestic violence situation and that they have not called the police or any other support services.

"(17) Between 2000 and 2003, there was a 27 percent increase in call volume at the National Domestic Violence Hotline.

"(18) Improving technology infrastructure at the National Domestic Violence Hotline and training advocates, volunteers, and other staff on upgraded technology will drastically increase the Hotline's ability to answer more calls quickly and effectively."

Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §301, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3003, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) Youth, under the age of 18, account for 67 percent of all sexual assault victimizations reported to law enforcement officials.

"(2) The Department of Justice consistently finds that young women between the ages of 16 and 24 experience the highest rate of non-fatal intimate partner violence.

"(3) In 1 year, over 4,000 incidents of rape or sexual assault occurred in public schools across the country.

"(4) Young people experience particular obstacles to seeking help. They often do not have access to money, transportation, or shelter services. They must overcome issues such as distrust of adults, lack of knowledge about available resources, or pressure from peers and parents.

"(5) A needs assessment on teen relationship abuse for the State of California, funded by the California Department of Health Services, identified a desire for confidentiality and confusion about the law as 2 of the most significant barriers to young victims of domestic and dating violence seeking help.

"(6) Only one State specifically allows for minors to petition the court for protection orders.

"(7) Many youth are involved in dating relationships, and these relationships can include the same kind of domestic violence and dating violence seen in the adult population. In fact, more than 40 percent of all incidents of domestic violence involve people who are not married.

"(8) 40 percent of girls ages 14 to 17 report knowing someone their age who has been hit or beaten by a boyfriend, and 13 percent of college women report being stalked.

"(9) Of college women who said they had been the victims of rape or attempted rape, 12.8 percent of completed rapes, 35 percent of attempted rapes, and 22.9 percent of threatened rapes took place on a date. Almost 60 percent of the completed rapes that occurred on campus took place in the victim's residence.

"(10) According to a 3-year study of student-athletes at 10 Division I universities, male athletes made up only 3.3 percent of the general male university population, but they accounted for 19 percent of the students reported for sexual assault and 35 percent of domestic violence perpetrators."

1 So in original. The period probably should be preceded by another closing parenthesis.

2 See References in Text note below.

Part A—Safe Streets for Women

subpart 1—safety for women in public transit

§12301. Grants for capital improvements to prevent crime in public transportation

(a) General purpose

There is authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $10,000,000, for the Secretary of Transportation (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") to make capital grants for the prevention of crime and to increase security in existing and future public transportation systems. None of the provisions of this Act may be construed to prohibit the financing of projects under this section where law enforcement responsibilities are vested in a local public body other than the grant applicant.

(b) Grants for lighting, camera surveillance, and security phones

(1) From the sums authorized for expenditure under this section for crime prevention, the Secretary is authorized to make grants and loans to States and local public bodies or agencies for the purpose of increasing the safety of public transportation by—

(A) increasing lighting within or adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages;

(B) increasing camera surveillance of areas within and adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages;

(C) providing emergency phone lines to contact law enforcement or security personnel in areas within or adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages; or

(D) any other project intended to increase the security and safety of existing or planned public transportation systems.


(2) From the sums authorized under this section, at least 75 percent shall be expended on projects of the type described in subsection (b)(1)(A) and (B).

(c) Reporting

All grants under this section are contingent upon the filing of a report with the Secretary and the Department of Justice, Office of Victims of Crime, showing crime rates in or adjacent to public transportation before, and for a 1-year period after, the capital improvement. Statistics shall be compiled on the basis of the type of crime, sex, race, ethnicity, language, and relationship of victim to the offender.

(d) Increased Federal share

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Federal share under this section for each capital improvement project that enhances the safety and security of public transportation systems and that is not required by law (including any other provision of this Act) shall be 90 percent of the net project cost of the project.

(e) Special grants for projects to study increasing security for women

From the sums authorized under this section, the Secretary shall provide grants and loans for the purpose of studying ways to reduce violent crimes against women in public transit through better design or operation of public transit systems.

(f) General requirements

All grants or loans provided under this section shall be subject to the same terms, conditions, requirements, and provisions applicable to grants and loans as specified in section 5321 of title 49.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40131, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1916.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13931 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

subpart 2—assistance to victims of sexual assault

§12311. Training programs

(a) In general

The Attorney General, after consultation with victim advocates and individuals who have expertise in treating sex offenders, shall establish criteria and develop training programs to assist probation and parole officers and other personnel who work with released sex offenders in the areas of—

(1) case management;

(2) supervision; and

(3) relapse prevention.

(b) Training programs

The Attorney General shall ensure, to the extent practicable, that training programs developed under subsection (a) are available in geographically diverse locations throughout the country.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40152, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1920; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §108, title XI, §1167, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984, 3121; Pub. L. 109–271, §2(a), (b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 751, 752; Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §105, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 77.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13941 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018." for "$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011."

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(b), which directed amendment of section 1167 of the Violence Against Women Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–162, by substituting "2007 through 2011" for "2006 through 2010", was executed to subsec. (c) of this section, which is section 40152 of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994, as amended by section 1167 of Pub. L. 109–162, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See below.

Pub. L. 109–162, §1167, added subsec. (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c) which authorized appropriations to carry out this section for fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

Pub. L. 109–162, §108, which directed the striking of subsec. (c) and the insertion of a new subsec. (c), authorizing appropriations to carry out this section for fiscal years 2007 through 2011, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §2(a).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§12312. Confidentiality of communications between sexual assault or domestic violence victims and their counselors

(a) Study and development of model legislation

The Attorney General shall—

(1) study and evaluate the manner in which the States have taken measures to protect the confidentiality of communications between sexual assault or domestic violence victims and their therapists or trained counselors;

(2) develop model legislation that will provide the maximum protection possible for the confidentiality of such communications, within any applicable constitutional limits, taking into account the following factors:

(A) the danger that counseling programs for victims of sexual assault and domestic violence will be unable to achieve their goal of helping victims recover from the trauma associated with these crimes if there is no assurance that the records of the counseling sessions will be kept confidential;

(B) consideration of the appropriateness of an absolute privilege for communications between victims of sexual assault or domestic violence and their therapists or trained counselors, in light of the likelihood that such an absolute privilege will provide the maximum guarantee of confidentiality but also in light of the possibility that such an absolute privilege may be held to violate the rights of criminal defendants under the Federal or State constitutions by denying them the opportunity to obtain exculpatory evidence and present it at trial; and

(C) consideration of what limitations on the disclosure of confidential communications between victims of these crimes and their counselors, short of an absolute privilege, are most likely to ensure that the counseling programs will not be undermined, and specifically whether no such disclosure should be allowed unless, at a minimum, there has been a particularized showing by a criminal defendant of a compelling need for records of such communications, and adequate procedural safeguards are in place to prevent unnecessary or damaging disclosures; and


(3) prepare and disseminate to State authorities the findings made and model legislation developed as a result of the study and evaluation.

(b) Report and recommendations

Not later than the date that is 1 year after September 13, 1994, the Attorney General shall report to the Congress—

(1) the findings of the study and the model legislation required by this section; and

(2) recommendations based on the findings on the need for and appropriateness of further action by the Federal Government.

(c) Review of Federal evidentiary rules

The Judicial Conference of the United States shall evaluate and report to Congress its views on whether the Federal Rules of Evidence should be amended, and if so, how they should be amended, to guarantee that the confidentiality of communications between sexual assault victims and their therapists or trained counselors will be adequately protected in Federal court proceedings.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40153, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1921.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (c), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13942 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12313. Information programs

The Attorney General shall compile information regarding sex offender treatment programs and ensure that information regarding community treatment programs in the community into which a convicted sex offender is released is made available to each person serving a sentence of imprisonment in a Federal penal or correctional institution for a commission of an offense under chapter 109A of title 18 or for the commission of a similar offense, including halfway houses and psychiatric institutions.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40154, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1922.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13943 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part B—Safe Homes for Women

subpart 1—confidentiality for abused persons

§12321. Confidentiality of abused person's address

(a) Regulations

Not later than 90 days after September 13, 1994, the United States Postal Service shall promulgate regulations to secure the confidentiality of domestic violence shelters and abused persons' addresses.

(b) Requirements

The regulations under subsection (a) shall require—

(1) in the case of an individual, the presentation to an appropriate postal official of a valid, outstanding protection order; and

(2) in the case of a domestic violence shelter, the presentation to an appropriate postal authority of proof from a State domestic violence coalition that meets the requirements of section 10410 1 of title 42 verifying that the organization is a domestic violence shelter.

(c) Disclosure for certain purposes

The regulations under subsection (a) shall not prohibit the disclosure of addresses to State or Federal agencies for legitimate law enforcement or other governmental purposes.

(d) Existing compilations

Compilations of addresses existing at the time at which order is presented to an appropriate postal official shall be excluded from the scope of the regulations under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40281, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1938.)

References in Text

Section 10410 of title 42, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was generally amended by Pub. L. 111–320, title II, §201, Dec. 20, 2010, 124 Stat. 3497, and, as so amended, no longer contains provisions relating to grants for State domestic violence coalitions. See section 10411 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13951 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

subpart 2—data and research

§12331. Research agenda

(a) Request for contract

The Attorney General shall request the National Academy of Sciences, through its National Research Council, to enter into a contract to develop a research agenda to increase the understanding and control of violence against women, including rape and domestic violence. In furtherance of the contract, the National Academy shall convene a panel of nationally recognized experts on violence against women, in the fields of law, medicine, criminal justice, and direct services to victims and experts on domestic violence in diverse, ethnic, social, and language minority communities and the social sciences. In setting the agenda, the Academy shall focus primarily on preventive, educative, social, and legal strategies, including addressing the needs of underserved populations.

(b) Declination of request

If the National Academy of Sciences declines to conduct the study and develop a research agenda, it shall recommend a nonprofit private entity that is qualified to conduct such a study. In that case, the Attorney General shall carry out subsection (a) through the nonprofit private entity recommended by the Academy. In either case, whether the study is conducted by the National Academy of Sciences or by the nonprofit group it recommends, the funds for the contract shall be made available from sums appropriated for the conduct of research by the National Institute of Justice.

(c) Report

The Attorney General shall ensure that no later than 1 year after September 13, 1994, the study required under subsection (a) is completed and a report describing the findings made is submitted to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40291, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1939.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13961 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12332. State databases

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall study and report to the States and to Congress on how the States may collect centralized databases on the incidence of sexual and domestic violence offenses within a State.

(b) Consultation

In conducting its study, the Attorney General shall consult persons expert in the collection of criminal justice data, State statistical administrators, law enforcement personnel, and nonprofit nongovernmental agencies that provide direct services to victims of domestic violence. The final report shall set forth the views of the persons consulted on the recommendations.

(c) Report

The Attorney General shall ensure that no later than 1 year after September 13, 1994, the study required under subsection (a) is completed and a report describing the findings made is submitted to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $200,000 for fiscal year 1996.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40292, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1939.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13962 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12333. Number and cost of injuries

(a) Study

The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Centers for Disease Control Injury Control Division, shall conduct a study to obtain a national projection of the incidence of injuries resulting from domestic violence, the cost of injuries to health care facilities, and recommend health care strategies for reducing the incidence and cost of such injuries.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—$100,000 for fiscal year 1996.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40293, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1940.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13963 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Change of Name

Centers for Disease Control changed to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §312, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3504.

subpart 3—rural domestic violence and child abuse enforcement

§12341. Rural domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and child abuse enforcement assistance

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this section are—

(1) to identify, assess, and appropriately respond to child, youth, and adult victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking in rural communities, by encouraging collaboration among—

(A) domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim service providers;

(B) law enforcement agencies;

(C) prosecutors;

(D) courts;

(E) other criminal justice service providers;

(F) human and community service providers;

(G) educational institutions; and

(H) health care providers, including sexual assault forensic examiners;


(2) to establish and expand nonprofit, nongovernmental, State, tribal, territorial, and local government victim services in rural communities to child, youth, and adult victims; and

(3) to increase the safety and well-being of women and children in rural communities, by—

(A) dealing directly and immediately with domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking occurring in rural communities; and

(B) creating and implementing strategies to increase awareness and prevent domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking.

(b) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women (referred to in this section as the "Director"), may award grants to States, Indian tribes, local governments, and nonprofit, public or private entities, including tribal nonprofit organizations, to carry out programs serving rural areas or rural communities that address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by—

(1) implementing, expanding, and establishing cooperative efforts and projects among law enforcement officers, prosecutors, victim service providers, and other related parties to investigate and prosecute incidents of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, including developing multidisciplinary teams focusing on high risk cases with the goal of preventing domestic and dating violence homicides;

(2) providing treatment, counseling, advocacy, legal assistance, and other long-term and short-term victim and population specific services to adult and minor victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in rural communities, including assistance in immigration matters;

(3) working in cooperation with the community to develop education and prevention strategies directed toward such issues; and

(4) developing, enlarging, or strengthening programs addressing sexual assault, including sexual assault forensic examiner programs, Sexual Assault Response Teams, law enforcement training, and programs addressing rape kit backlogs.

(5) developing programs and strategies that focus on the specific needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who reside in remote rural and geographically isolated areas, including addressing the challenges posed by the lack of access to shelters and victims services, and limited law enforcement resources and training, and providing training and resources to Community Health Aides involved in the delivery of Indian Health Service programs.

(c) Use of funds

Funds appropriated pursuant to this section shall be used only for specific programs and activities expressly described in subsection (a).

(d) Allotments and priorities

(1) Allotment for Indian tribes

(A) In general

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 10452 of this title.

(B) Applicability of part 1

The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Allotment for sexual assault

(A) In general

Not less than 25 percent of the total amount appropriated in a fiscal year under this section shall fund services that meaningfully address sexual assault in rural communities, however at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $45,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 30 percent of the total amount appropriated, at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $50,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 35 percent of the total amount appropriated, and at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $55,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 40 percent of the amounts appropriated.

(B) Multiple purpose applications

Nothing in this section shall prohibit any applicant from applying for funding to address sexual assault, domestic violence, stalking, or dating violence in the same application.

(3) Allotment for technical assistance

Of the amounts appropriated for each fiscal year to carry out this section, not more than 8 percent may be used by the Director for technical assistance costs. Of the amounts appropriated in this subsection, no less than 25 percent of such amounts shall be available to a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization or organizations whose focus and expertise is in addressing sexual assault to provide technical assistance to sexual assault grantees.

(4) Underserved populations

In awarding grants under this section, the Director shall give priority to the needs of underserved populations.

(5) Allocation of funds for rural States

Not less than 75 percent of the total amount made available for each fiscal year to carry out this section shall be allocated to eligible entities located in rural States.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018 to carry out this section.

(2) Additional funding

In addition to funds received through a grant under subsection (b), a law enforcement agency may use funds received through a grant under part Q of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796dd et seq.2 to accomplish the objectives of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40295, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1940; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §§1105, 1109(d), title V, §1512(c), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497, 1503, 1533; Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §203, title IX, §906(d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2998, 3081; Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(1), (2)(A), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 113–4, title II, §202, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 81.)

References in Text

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197. Part Q of title I of the Act was classified generally to subchapter XII–E (§3796dd et seq.) of chapter 46 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as subchapter XVI (§10381 et seq.) of chapter 101 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13971 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(1), inserted ", including sexual assault forensic examiners" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(2)(A), substituted "victim service providers" for "victim advocacy groups" and inserted ", including developing multidisciplinary teams focusing on high risk cases with the goal of preventing domestic and dating violence homicides" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(2)(B)(i), substituted "legal assistance, and other long-term and short-term victim and population specific services" for "and other long- and short-term assistance".

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(2)(B)(ii), (C), (D), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(3), substituted "$50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$55,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011".

2006Pub. L. 109–162, §203, amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to rural domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and child abuse enforcement assistance for provisions relating to rural domestic violence and child abuse enforcement assistance.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 109–162, §906(d), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by striking par. (3) and inserting a new par. (3) which read "Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized in section 3796gg–10 of this title. The requirements of this paragraph shall not apply to funds allocated for such program.", was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(A).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "Not less than 10 percent of the total amount made available for each fiscal year to carry out this section shall be allocated for grants to Indian tribes or tribal organizations."

2000—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–386, §1109(d)(1), inserted "and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)" after "domestic violence".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–386, §1512(c), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "to provide treatment and counseling to victims of domestic violence and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title) and child abuse; and".

Pub. L. 106–386, §1109(d)(2), inserted "and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)" after "domestic violence".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–386, §1105(1), added par. (1) and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

"(A) $7,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(B) $8,000,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

"(C) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1998."

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106–386, §1105(2), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10261 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

2 See References in Text note below.

subpart 4—transitional housing assistance grants for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking

Codification

This subpart was, in the original, chapter 11 of subtitle B of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, and has been designated as subpart 4 of this part for purposes of codification. Another chapter 11 of subtitle B of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322 was designated subpart 3a (former §13973) of part B of subchapter III of chapter 136 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §602(1), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 109, substituted "VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, DATING VIOLENCE, SEXUAL ASSAULT, OR STALKING" for "CHILD VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, STALKING, OR SEXUAL ASSAULT" in heading.

§12351. Transitional housing assistance grants for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking

(a) In general

The Attorney General, acting in consultation with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office of the Department of Justice, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Department of Health and Human Services, shall award grants under this section to States, units of local government, Indian tribes, and other organizations, including domestic violence and sexual assault victim service providers, domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations, or community-based and culturally specific organizations, that have a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking (referred to in this section as the "recipient") to carry out programs to provide assistance to minors, adults, and their dependents—

(1) who are homeless, or in need of transitional housing or other housing assistance, as a result of a situation of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(2) for whom emergency shelter services or other crisis intervention services are unavailable or insufficient.

(b) Grants

Grants awarded under this section may be used for programs that provide—

(1) transitional housing, including funding for the operating expenses of newly developed or existing transitional housing.1

(2) short-term housing assistance, including rental or utilities payments assistance and assistance with related expenses such as payment of security deposits and other costs incidental to relocation to transitional housing for persons described in subsection (a); and

(3) support services designed to enable a minor, an adult, or a dependent of such minor or adult, who is fleeing a situation of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking to—

(A) locate and secure permanent housing;

(B) secure employment, including obtaining employment counseling, occupational training, job retention counseling, and counseling concerning re-entry in to 2 the workforce; and

(C) integrate into a community by providing that minor, adult, or dependent with services, such as transportation, counseling, child care services, case management, and other assistance. Participation in the support services shall be voluntary. Receipt of the benefits of the housing assistance described in paragraph (2) shall not be conditioned upon the participation of the youth, adults, or their dependents in any or all of the support services offered them.

(c) Duration

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), a minor, an adult, or a dependent, who receives assistance under this section shall receive that assistance for not more than 24 months.

(2) Waiver

The recipient of a grant under this section may waive the restriction under paragraph (1) for not more than an additional 6 month period with respect to any minor, adult, or dependent, who—

(A) has made a good-faith effort to acquire permanent housing; and

(B) has been unable to acquire permanent housing.

(d) Application

(1) In general

Each eligible entity desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

(2) Contents

Each application submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall—

(A) describe the activities for which assistance under this section is sought;

(B) provide assurances that any supportive services offered to participants in programs developed under subsection (b)(3) are voluntary and that refusal to receive such services shall not be grounds for termination from the program or eviction from the victim's housing; and

(C) provide such additional assurances as the Attorney General determines to be essential to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section.

(3) Application

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require—

(A) victims to participate in the criminal justice system in order to receive services; or

(B) domestic violence advocates to breach client confidentiality.

(e) Report to the Attorney General

(1) In general

A recipient of a grant under this section shall annually prepare and submit to the Attorney General a report describing—

(A) the number of minors, adults, and dependents assisted under this section; and

(B) the types of housing assistance and support services provided under this section.

(2) Contents

Each report prepared and submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include information regarding—

(A) the purpose and amount of housing assistance provided to each minor, adult, or dependent, assisted under this section and the reason for that assistance;

(B) the number of months each minor, adult, or dependent, received assistance under this section;

(C) the number of minors, adults, and dependents who—

(i) were eligible to receive assistance under this section; and

(ii) were not provided with assistance under this section solely due to a lack of available housing;


(D) the type of support services provided to each minor, adult, or dependent, assisted under this section; and

(E) the client population served and the number of individuals requesting services that the transitional housing program is unable to serve as a result of a lack of resources.

(f) Report to Congress

(1) Reporting requirement

The Attorney General, with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office, shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section not later than 1 month after the end of each even-numbered fiscal year.

(2) Availability of report

In order to coordinate efforts to assist the victims of domestic violence, the Attorney General, in coordination with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office, shall transmit a copy of the report submitted under paragraph (1) to—

(A) the Office of Community Planning and Development at the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development; and

(B) the Office of Women's Health at the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(2) Limitations

Of the amount made available to carry out this section in any fiscal year, up to 5 percent may be used by the Attorney General for evaluation, monitoring, technical assistance, salaries and administrative expenses.

(3) Minimum amount

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), unless all qualified applications submitted by any States, units of local government, Indian tribes, or organizations within a State for a grant under this section have been funded, that State, together with the grantees within the State (other than Indian tribes), shall be allocated in each fiscal year, not less than 0.75 percent of the total amount appropriated in the fiscal year for grants pursuant to this section.

(B) Exception

The United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands shall each be allocated not less than 0.25 percent of the total amount appropriated in the fiscal year for grants pursuant to this section.

(C) Underserved populations

(i) Indian tribes.—

(I) In general.—Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 10452 of this title.

(II) Applicability of part.— 3 The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in subclause (I).


(ii) Priority shall be given to projects developed under subsection (b) that primarily serve underserved populations.

(D) Qualified application defined

In this paragraph, the term "qualified application" means an application that—

(i) has been submitted by an eligible applicant;

(ii) does not propose any activities that may compromise victim safety, including—

(I) background checks of victims; or

(II) clinical evaluations to determine eligibility for services;


(iii) reflects an understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(iv) does not propose prohibited activities, including mandatory services for victims.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40299, as added Pub. L. 108–21, title VI, §611, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 693; amended Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), title VI, §602(a), title IX, §906(e), formerly §906(f), title XI, §1135(e), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2971, 3038, 3081, 3109, renumbered §906(e), Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(B), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d), 7(c)(1), 8(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 752, 764-766; Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §602(2), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 109.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13975 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(A), substituted "victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "child victims of domestic violence, stalking, or sexual assault" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(B), struck out "fleeing" before "a situation".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(C), added subpar. (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and, in subpar. (C), struck out "employment counseling," after "case management,".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(D)(i), which directed substitution of "$35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$40,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011", was executed by making the substitution for "$40,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (g)(3)(A). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(D)(ii)(I), substituted "qualified" for "eligible".

Subsec. (g)(3)(D). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(D)(ii)(II), added subpar. (D).

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(1)(A), (B), in introductory provisions, inserted "the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Department of Health and Human Services," after "Department of Justice," and ", including domestic violence and sexual assault victim service providers, domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations, or community-based and culturally specific organizations, that have a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking" after "other organizations".

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(1)(C), inserted ", dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking" after "domestic violence".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(C), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(A), redesignated par. (1) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(A), (B), redesignated par. (2) as (3) and inserted ", dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking" after "violence" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(D), inserted "Participation in the support services shall be voluntary. Receipt of the benefits of the housing assistance described in paragraph (2) shall not be conditioned upon the participation of the youth, adults, or their dependents in any or all of the support services offered them." at end.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(3), substituted "24 months" for "18 months".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(4), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(5)(A), inserted "purpose and" before "amount".

Subsec. (e)(2)(E). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(5)(B)–(D), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §1135(e), which directed an amendment substantially identical to that made by Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d) and 8(b).

Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), substituted "shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section not later than 1 month after the end of each even-numbered fiscal year." for "shall annually prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section."

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(A)–(C), substituted "$40,000,000" for "$30,000,000", "2007" for "2004", and "2011" for "2008".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(D), (E), substituted "up to 5 percent" for "not more than 3 percent" and inserted "evaluation, monitoring, technical assistance," before "salaries".

Subsec. (g)(3)(C). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(F), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (g)(3)(C)(i). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(c)(1)(A), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "A minimum of 7 percent of the total amount appropriated in any fiscal year shall be allocated to tribal organizations serving adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their dependents."

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(c)(1)(B), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized in section 3796gg–10 of this title. The requirements of this paragraph shall not apply to funds allocated for such program."

Pub. L. 109–162, §906(e), formerly §906(f), as renumbered by Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(B), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by sections 602(a) and 906(e) of Pub. L. 109–162 not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10261 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Office on Women's Health of the Public Health Service exercised prior to Mar. 23, 2010, transferred to Office on Women's Health established under section 237a of this title, see section 3509(a)(2) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 237a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

2 So in original. Probably should be "into".

3 So in original. Probably should be "section.—".

Part C—Civil Rights for Women

§12361. Civil rights

(a) Purpose

Pursuant to the affirmative power of Congress to enact this part under section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, as well as under section 8 of Article I of the Constitution, it is the purpose of this part to protect the civil rights of victims of gender motivated violence and to promote public safety, health, and activities affecting interstate commerce by establishing a Federal civil rights cause of action for victims of crimes of violence motivated by gender.

(b) Right to be free from crimes of violence

All persons within the United States shall have the right to be free from crimes of violence motivated by gender (as defined in subsection (d)).

(c) Cause of action

A person (including a person who acts under color of any statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage of any State) who commits a crime of violence motivated by gender and thus deprives another of the right declared in subsection (b) shall be liable to the party injured, in an action for the recovery of compensatory and punitive damages, injunctive and declaratory relief, and such other relief as a court may deem appropriate.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "crime of violence motivated by gender" means a crime of violence committed because of gender or on the basis of gender, and due, at least in part, to an animus based on the victim's gender; and

(2) the term "crime of violence" means— 1

(A) an act or series of acts that would constitute a felony against the person or that would constitute a felony against property if the conduct presents a serious risk of physical injury to another, and that would come within the meaning of State or Federal offenses described in section 16 of title 18, whether or not those acts have actually resulted in criminal charges, prosecution, or conviction and whether or not those acts were committed in the special maritime, territorial, or prison jurisdiction of the United States; and

(B) includes an act or series of acts that would constitute a felony described in subparagraph (A) but for the relationship between the person who takes such action and the individual against whom such action is taken.

(e) Limitation and procedures

(1) Limitation

Nothing in this section entitles a person to a cause of action under subsection (c) for random acts of violence unrelated to gender or for acts that cannot be demonstrated, by a preponderance of the evidence, to be motivated by gender (within the meaning of subsection (d)).

(2) No prior criminal action

Nothing in this section requires a prior criminal complaint, prosecution, or conviction to establish the elements of a cause of action under subsection (c).

(3) Concurrent jurisdiction

The Federal and State courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction over actions brought pursuant to this part.

(4) Supplemental jurisdiction

Neither section 1367 of title 28 nor subsection (c) of this section shall be construed, by reason of a claim arising under such subsection, to confer on the courts of the United States jurisdiction over any State law claim seeking the establishment of a divorce, alimony, equitable distribution of marital property, or child custody decree.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40302, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1941.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (e)(3), was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle C of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1941. For complete classification of subtitle C of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322 to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13981 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section is comprised of section 40302 of Pub. L. 103–322. Subsec. (e)(5) of section 40302 of Pub. L. 103–322 amended section 1445 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Constitutionality

For constitutionality of section 40302 of Pub. L. 103–322, see Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States.

1 So in original. The word "means" probably should appear after "(A)" below.

Part D—Equal Justice for Women in Courts

subpart 1—education and training for judges and court personnel in state courts

§12371. Grants authorized

The State Justice Institute may award grants for the purpose of developing, testing, presenting, and disseminating model programs to be used by States (as defined in section 10701 of title 42) in training judges and court personnel in the laws of the States and by Indian tribes in training tribal judges and court personnel in the laws of the tribes on rape, sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and other crimes of violence motivated by the victim's gender. Nothing shall preclude the attendance of tribal judges and court personnel at programs funded under this section for States to train judges and court personnel on the laws of the States.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40411, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1942; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(c)(2), (d)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13991 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–386 inserted "dating violence," after "domestic violence," and "Nothing shall preclude the attendance of tribal judges and court personnel at programs funded under this section for States to train judges and court personnel on the laws of the States." at end.

§12372. Training provided by grants

Training provided pursuant to grants made under this part may include current information, existing studies, or current data on—

(1) the nature and incidence of rape and sexual assault by strangers and nonstrangers, marital rape, and incest;

(2) the underreporting of rape, sexual assault, and child sexual abuse;

(3) the physical, psychological, and economic impact of rape and sexual assault on the victim, the costs to society, and the implications for sentencing;

(4) the psychology of sex offenders, their high rate of recidivism, and the implications for sentencing;

(5) the historical evolution of laws and attitudes on rape and sexual assault;

(6) sex stereotyping of female and male victims of rape and sexual assault, racial stereotyping of rape victims and defendants, and the impact of such stereotypes on credibility of witnesses, sentencing, and other aspects of the administration of justice;

(7) application of rape shield laws and other limits on introduction of evidence that may subject victims to improper sex stereotyping and harassment in both rape and nonrape cases, including the need for sua sponte judicial intervention in inappropriate cross-examination;

(8) the use of expert witness testimony on rape trauma syndrome, child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome, post-traumatic stress syndrome, and similar issues;

(9) the legitimate reasons why victims of rape, sexual assault, and incest may refuse to testify against a defendant;

(10) the nature and incidence of domestic violence and dating violence (as defined in section 10447 1 of this title);

(11) the physical, psychological, and economic impact of domestic violence and dating violence on the victim, the costs to society, and the implications for court procedures and sentencing;

(12) the psychology and self-presentation of batterers and victims and the implications for court proceedings and credibility of witnesses;

(13) sex stereotyping of female and male victims of domestic violence and dating violence, myths about presence or absence of domestic violence and dating violence in certain racial, ethnic, religious, or socioeconomic groups, and their impact on the administration of justice;

(14) historical evolution of laws and attitudes on domestic violence;

(15) proper and improper interpretations of the defenses of self-defense and provocation, and the use of expert witness testimony on battered woman syndrome;

(16) the likelihood of retaliation, recidivism, and escalation of violence by batterers, and the potential impact of incarceration and other meaningful sanctions for acts of domestic violence including violations of orders of protection;

(17) economic, psychological, social and institutional reasons for victims' inability to leave the batterer, to report domestic violence or dating violence or to follow through on complaints, including the influence of lack of support from police, judges, and court personnel, and the legitimate reasons why victims of domestic violence or dating violence may refuse to testify against a defendant;

(18) the need for orders of protection, and the implications of mutual orders of protection, dual arrest policies, and mediation in domestic violence and dating violence cases;

(19) recognition of and response to gender-motivated crimes of violence other than rape, sexual assault and domestic violence, such as mass or serial murder motivated by the gender of the victims;

(20) the issues raised by domestic violence in determining custody and visitation, including how to protect the safety of the child and of a parent who is not a predominant aggressor of domestic violence, the legitimate reasons parents may report domestic violence, the ways domestic violence may relate to an abuser's desire to seek custody, and evaluating expert testimony in custody and visitation determinations involving domestic violence;

(21) the issues raised by child sexual assault in determining custody and visitation, including how to protect the safety of the child, the legitimate reasons parents may report child sexual assault, and evaluating expert testimony in custody and visitation determinations involving child sexual assault, including the current scientifically-accepted and empirically valid research on child sexual assault; 2

(22) the extent to which addressing domestic violence and victim safety contributes to the efficient administration of justice; 3

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40412, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1943; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(a)(1), (d)(2), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1515, 1517.)

References in Text

Section 10447 of this title, referred to in par. (10), was subsequently repealed and a new section 10447 enacted which does not define the terms "domestic violence" or "dating violence". However, such terms are defined in section 12291 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13992 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2000—Par. (10). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(A), inserted "and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)" before the semicolon.

Par. (11). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(B), inserted "and dating violence" after "domestic violence".

Par. (13). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(C), inserted "and dating violence" after "domestic violence" in two places.

Par. (17). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(D), inserted "or dating violence" after "domestic violence" in two places.

Par. (18). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(E), inserted "and dating violence" after "domestic violence".

Pars. (20) to (22). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(a)(1), added pars. (20) to (22).

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by "and".

3 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.

§12373. Cooperation in developing programs in making grants under this part

The State Justice Institute shall ensure that model programs carried out pursuant to grants made under this part are developed with the participation of law enforcement officials, public and private nonprofit victim advocates, including national, State, tribal, and local domestic violence and sexual assault programs and coalitions, legal experts, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and recognized experts on gender bias in the courts.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40413, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1944; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(c)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13993 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–386 inserted ", including national, State, tribal, and local domestic violence and sexual assault programs and coalitions" after "victim advocates".

subpart 2—education and training for judges and court personnel in federal courts

§12381. Authorization of circuit studies; education and training grants

(a) Studies

In order to gain a better understanding of the nature and the extent of gender bias in the Federal courts, the circuit judicial councils are encouraged to conduct studies of the instances, if any, of gender bias in their respective circuits and to implement recommended reforms.

(b) Matters for examination

The studies under subsection (a) may include an examination of the effects of gender on—

(1) the treatment of litigants, witnesses, attorneys, jurors, and judges in the courts, including before magistrate and bankruptcy judges;

(2) the interpretation and application of the law, both civil and criminal;

(3) treatment of defendants in criminal cases;

(4) treatment of victims of violent crimes in judicial proceedings;

(5) sentencing;

(6) sentencing alternatives and the nature of supervision of probation and parole;

(7) appointments to committees of the Judicial Conference and the courts;

(8) case management and court sponsored alternative dispute resolution programs;

(9) the selection, retention, promotion, and treatment of employees;

(10) appointment of arbitrators, experts, and special masters;

(11) the admissibility of the victim's past sexual history in civil and criminal cases; and

(12) the aspects of the topics listed in section 12372 of this title that pertain to issues within the jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

(c) Clearinghouse

The Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall act as a clearinghouse to disseminate any reports and materials issued by the gender bias task forces under subsection (a) and to respond to requests for such reports and materials. The gender bias task forces shall provide the Administrative Office of the Courts of the United States 1 with their reports and related material.

(d) Continuing education and training programs

The Federal Judicial Center, in carrying out section 620(b)(3) of title 28, shall include in the educational programs it prepares, including the training programs for newly appointed judges, information on the aspects of the topics listed in section 12372 of this title that pertain to issues within the jurisdiction of the Federal courts, and shall prepare materials necessary to implement this subsection.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40421, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1944; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(b)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14001 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–386 amended heading and text of subsec. (d) generally, substituting provisions relating to continuing education and training programs for provisions relating to model programs.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Administrative Office of the United States Courts".

Part E—Violence Against Women Act Improvements

§12391. Payment of cost of testing for sexually transmitted diseases

(a) Omitted

(b) Limited testing of defendants

(1) Court order

The victim of an offense of the type referred to in subsection (a) 1 may obtain an order in the district court of the United States for the district in which charges are brought against the defendant charged with the offense, after notice to the defendant and an opportunity to be heard, requiring that the defendant be tested for the presence of the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and that the results of the test be communicated to the victim and the defendant. Any test result of the defendant given to the victim or the defendant must be accompanied by appropriate counseling.

(2) Showing required

To obtain an order under paragraph (1), the victim must demonstrate that—

(A) the defendant has been charged with the offense in a State or Federal court, and if the defendant has been arrested without a warrant, a probable cause determination has been made;

(B) the test for the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome is requested by the victim after appropriate counseling; and

(C) the test would provide information necessary for the health of the victim of the alleged offense and the court determines that the alleged conduct of the defendant created a risk of transmission, as determined by the Centers for Disease Control, of the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome to the victim.

(3) Follow-up testing

The court may order follow-up tests and counseling under paragraph (1) if the initial test was negative. Such follow-up tests and counseling shall be performed at the request of the victim on dates that occur six months and twelve months following the initial test.

(4) Termination of testing requirements

An order for follow-up testing under paragraph (3) shall be terminated if the person obtains an acquittal on, or dismissal of, all charges of the type referred to in subsection (a).1

(5) Confidentiality of test

The results of any test ordered under this subsection shall be disclosed only to the victim or, where the court deems appropriate, to the parent or legal guardian of the victim, and to the person tested. The victim may disclose the test results only to any medical professional, counselor, family member or sexual partner(s) the victim may have had since the attack. Any such individual to whom the test results are disclosed by the victim shall maintain the confidentiality of such information.

(6) Disclosure of test results

The court shall issue an order to prohibit the disclosure by the victim of the results of any test performed under this subsection to anyone other than those mentioned in paragraph (5). The contents of the court proceedings and test results pursuant to this section shall be sealed. The results of such test performed on the defendant under this section shall not be used as evidence in any criminal trial.

(7) Contempt for disclosure

Any person who discloses the results of a test in violation of this subsection may be held in contempt of court.

(c) Penalties for intentional transmission of HIV

Not later than 6 months after September 13, 1994, the United States Sentencing Commission shall conduct a study and prepare and submit to the committees 2 on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report concerning recommendations for the revision of sentencing guidelines that relate to offenses in which an HIV infected individual engages in sexual activity if the individual knows that he or she is infected with HIV and intends, through such sexual activity, to expose another to HIV.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40503, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1946; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §604(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3506.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14011 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section is comprised of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322. Subsec. (a) of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322 amended section 20141 of this title. Subsec. (c) of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322 also enacted provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–294 substituted "paragraph (1)" for "paragraph (b)(1)".

Change of Name

Centers for Disease Control changed to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §312, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3504.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

1 See Codification note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§12392. Enforcement of statutory rape laws

(a) Sense of Senate

It is the sense of the Senate that States and local jurisdictions should aggressively enforce statutory rape laws.

(b) Justice Department program on statutory rape

Not later than January 1, 1997, the Attorney General shall establish and implement a program that—

(1) studies the linkage between statutory rape and teenage pregnancy, particularly by predatory older men committing repeat offenses; and

(2) educates State and local criminal law enforcement officials on the prevention and prosecution of statutory rape, focusing in particular on the commission of statutory rape by predatory older men committing repeat offenses, and any links to teenage pregnancy.

(c) Violence against women initiative

The Attorney General shall ensure that the Department of Justice's Violence Against Women initiative addresses the issue of statutory rape, particularly the commission of statutory rape by predatory older men committing repeat offenses.

(Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, §906, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2349.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14016 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Part F—National Stalker and Domestic Violence Reduction

§12401. Grant program

(a) In general

The Attorney General is authorized to provide grants to States and units of local government to improve and implement processes for entering data regarding stalking and domestic violence into local, State, and national crime information databases.

(b) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive a grant under subsection (a), a State or unit of local government shall certify that it has or intends to establish a program that enters into the National Crime Information Center records of—

(1) warrants for the arrest of persons violating protection orders intended to protect victims from stalking or domestic violence;

(2) arrests or convictions of persons violating protection 1 or domestic violence; and

(3) protection orders for the protection of persons from stalking or domestic violence.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40602, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §1106(b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14031 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–386 inserted "and implement" after "improve".

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by "orders intended to protect victims from stalking".

§12402. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $3,000,000 for fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40603, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §1106(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §109, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984; Pub. L. 113–4, title XI, §1103, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 135.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle F of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1950, which enacted this part, amended section 534 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 534 of Title 28.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14032 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "$3,000,000 for fiscal years 2014 through 2018." for "$3,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011."

2006Pub. L. 109–162, §109(2), which directed substitution of "2011" for "2006", was executed by substituting "2011" for "2005" to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because "2006" does not appear in text.

Pub. L. 109–162, §109(1), substituted "2007" for "2001".

2000Pub. L. 106–386 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part—

"(1) $1,500,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(2) $1,750,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

"(3) $2,750,000 for fiscal year 1998."

§12403. Application requirements

An application for a grant under this part shall be submitted in such form and manner, and contain such information, as the Attorney General may prescribe. In addition, applications shall include documentation showing—

(1) the need for grant funds and that State or local funding, as the case may be, does not already cover these operations;

(2) intended use of the grant funds, including a plan of action to increase record input; and

(3) an estimate of expected results from the use of the grant funds.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40604, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14033 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12404. Disbursement

Not later than 90 days after the receipt of an application under this part, the Attorney General shall either provide grant funds or shall inform the applicant why grant funds are not being provided.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40605, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14034 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12405. Technical assistance, training, and evaluations

The Attorney General may provide technical assistance and training in furtherance of the purposes of this part, and may provide for the evaluation of programs that receive funds under this part, in addition to any evaluation requirements that the Attorney General may prescribe for grantees. The technical assistance, training, and evaluations authorized by this section may be carried out directly by the Attorney General, or through contracts or other arrangements with other entities.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40606, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14035 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12406. Training programs for judges

The State Justice Institute, after consultation with nationally recognized nonprofit organizations with expertise in stalking and domestic violence cases, shall conduct training programs for State (as defined in section 10701 1 of title 42) and Indian tribal judges to ensure that a judge issuing an order in a stalking or domestic violence case has all available criminal history and other information, whether from State or Federal sources.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40607, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

References in Text

Section 10701 of title 42, referred to in text, was in the original "section 202 of the State Justice Institute Authorization Act of 1984", and was translated as reading "section 202 of the State Justice Institute Act of 1984", which is section 202 of Pub. L. 98–620, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14036 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12407. Recommendations on intrastate communication

The State Justice Institute, after consultation with nationally recognized nonprofit associations with expertise in data sharing among criminal justice agencies and familiarity with the issues raised in stalking and domestic violence cases, shall recommend proposals regarding how State courts may increase intrastate communication between civil and criminal courts.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40608, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14037 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12408. Inclusion in National Incident-Based Reporting System

Not later than 2 years after September 13, 1994, the Attorney General, in accordance with the States, shall compile data regarding domestic violence and intimidation (including stalking) as part of the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40609, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14038 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12409. Report to Congress

Each even-numbered fiscal year, the Attorney General shall submit to the Congress a biennial report that provides information concerning the incidence of stalking and domestic violence, and evaluates the effectiveness of State antistalking efforts and legislation.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40610, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952; Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), title XI, §1135(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2971, 3108; Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d), 8(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 752, 766.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14039 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–162, §1135(a), which directed an amendment substantially identical to that directed by Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271.

Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), which directed the substitution of "Each even-numbered fiscal year, the Attorney General shall submit to the Congress a biennial report that provides" for "The Attorney General shall submit to the Congress an annual report, beginning 1 year after September 13, 1994, that provides", was executed by making the substitution for "The Attorney General shall submit to the Congress an annual report, beginning one year after September 13, 1994, that provides", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Report Relating to Stalking Laws

Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §115(b)(2), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2467, provided that: "The Attorney General shall include in an annual report under section 40610 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (42 U.S.C. 14039) [now 34 U.S.C. 12409] information concerning existing or proposed State laws and penalties for stalking crimes against children."

§12410. Definitions

As used in this part—

(1) the term "national crime information databases" refers to the National Crime Information Center and its incorporated criminal history databases, including the Interstate Identification Index; and

(2) the term "protection order" includes an injunction or any other order issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person, including temporary and final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding so long as any civil order was issued in response to a complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of a person seeking protection.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40611, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14040 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part G—Enhanced Training and Services To End Abuse Later in Life

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle H of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 106–386, and was redesignated as part G of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

Pub. L. 113–4, title II, §204(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 82, substituted "ENHANCED TRAINING AND SERVICES TO END ABUSE LATER IN LIFE" for "ELDER ABUSE, NEGLECT, AND EXPLOITATION, INCLUDING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT AGAINST OLDER OR DISABLED INDIVIDUALS" in heading.

§12421. Enhanced training and services to end abuse in later life

(a) Definitions

In this section—

(1) the term "exploitation" has the meaning given the term in section 1397j of title 42;

(2) the term "later life", relating to an individual, means the individual is 50 years of age or older; and

(3) the term "neglect" means the failure of a caregiver or fiduciary to provide the goods or services that are necessary to maintain the health or safety of an individual in later life.

(b) Grant program

(1) Grants authorized

The Attorney General may make grants to eligible entities to carry out the activities described in paragraph (2).

(2) Mandatory and permissible activities

(A) Mandatory activities

An eligible entity receiving a grant under this section shall use the funds received under the grant to—

(i) provide training programs to assist law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, agencies of States or units of local government, population specific organizations, victim service providers, victim advocates, and relevant officers in Federal, tribal, State, territorial, and local courts in recognizing and addressing instances of elder abuse;

(ii) provide or enhance services for victims of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect;

(iii) establish or support multidisciplinary collaborative community responses to victims of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect; and

(iv) conduct cross-training for law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, agencies of States or units of local government, attorneys, health care providers, population specific organizations, faith-based advocates, victim service providers, and courts to better serve victims of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect.

(B) Permissible activities

An eligible entity receiving a grant under this section may use the funds received under the grant to—

(i) provide training programs to assist attorneys, health care providers, faith-based leaders, or other community-based organizations in recognizing and addressing instances of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect; or

(ii) conduct outreach activities and awareness campaigns to ensure that victims of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect receive appropriate assistance.

(C) Waiver

The Attorney General may waive 1 or more of the activities described in subparagraph (A) upon making a determination that the activity would duplicate services available in the community.

(D) Limitation

An eligible entity receiving a grant under this section may use not more than 10 percent of the total funds received under the grant for an activity described in subparagraph (B)(ii).

(3) Eligible entities

An entity shall be eligible to receive a grant under this section if—

(A) the entity is—

(i) a State;

(ii) a unit of local government;

(iii) a tribal government or tribal organization;

(iv) a population specific organization with demonstrated experience in assisting individuals over 50 years of age;

(v) a victim service provider with demonstrated experience in addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; or

(vi) a State, tribal, or territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition; and


(B) the entity demonstrates that it is part of a multidisciplinary partnership that includes, at a minimum—

(i) a law enforcement agency;

(ii) a prosecutor's office;

(iii) a victim service provider; and

(iv) a nonprofit program or government agency with demonstrated experience in assisting individuals in later life;

(4) Underserved populations

In making grants under this section, the Attorney General shall give priority to proposals providing services to culturally specific and underserved populations.

(5) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $9,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40801, as added Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title II, §1209(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1508; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title II, §204(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 82.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14041 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section defined terms for this part.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Part H—Domestic Violence Task Force

§12431. Task force

(a) Establish

The Attorney General, in consultation with national nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations whose primary expertise is in domestic violence, shall establish a task force to coordinate research on domestic violence and to report to Congress on any overlapping or duplication of efforts on domestic violence issues. The task force shall be comprised of representatives from all Federal agencies that fund such research.

(b) Uses of funds

Funds appropriated under this section shall be used to—

(1) develop a coordinated strategy to strengthen research focused on domestic violence education, prevention, and intervention strategies;

(2) track and report all Federal research and expenditures on domestic violence; and

(3) identify gaps and duplication of efforts in domestic violence research and governmental expenditures on domestic violence issues.

(c) Report

The Task Force shall report to Congress annually on its work under subsection (b).

(d) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "domestic violence" has the meaning given such term by section 10447 1 of this title.

(e) Authorization of Appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $500,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2004.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40901, as added Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1407, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1517.)

References in Text

Section 10447 of this title, referred to in subsec. (d), was subsequently repealed and a new section 10447 enacted which does not define "domestic violence". However, such term is defined in section 12291 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14042 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

Part I—Privacy Protections for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking

§12441. Grants to protect the privacy and confidentiality of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking

The Attorney General, through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, may award grants under this part to States, Indian tribes, territories, or local agencies or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations to ensure that personally identifying information of adult, youth, and child victims of domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking, and dating violence shall not be released or disclosed to the detriment of such victimized persons.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41101, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12442. Purpose areas

Grants made under this part may be used—

(1) to develop or improve protocols, procedures, and policies for the purpose of preventing the release of personally identifying information of victims (such as developing alternative identifiers);

(2) to defray the costs of modifying or improving existing databases, registries, and victim notification systems to ensure that personally identifying information of victims is protected from release, unauthorized information sharing and disclosure;

(3) to develop confidential opt out systems that will enable victims of violence to make a single request to keep personally identifying information out of multiple databases, victim notification systems, and registries; or

(4) to develop safe uses of technology (such as notice requirements regarding electronic surveillance by government entities), to protect against abuses of technology (such as electronic or GPS stalking), or providing training for law enforcement on high tech electronic crimes of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41102, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043b–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12443. Eligible entities

Entities eligible for grants under this part include—

(1) jurisdictions or agencies within jurisdictions having authority or responsibility for developing or maintaining public databases, registries or victim notification systems;

(2) nonprofit nongovernmental victim advocacy organizations having expertise regarding confidentiality, privacy, and information technology and how these issues are likely to impact the safety of victims;

(3) States or State agencies;

(4) local governments or agencies;

(5) Indian tribal governments or tribal organizations;

(6) territorial governments, agencies, or organizations; or

(7) nonprofit nongovernmental victim advocacy organizations, including statewide domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41103, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043b–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12444. Grant conditions

Applicants described in paragraph (1) and paragraphs (3) through (6) shall demonstrate that they have entered into a significant partnership with a State, tribal, territorial, or local victim service or advocacy organization or condition in order to develop safe, confidential, and effective protocols, procedures, policies, and systems for protecting personally identifying information of victims.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41104, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984.)

References in Text

Paragraph (1) and paragraphs (3) through (6), referred to in text, probably mean paragraphs (1) and (3) through (6) of section 12443 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043b–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part J—Services, Education, Protection and Justice for Young Victims of Violence

§12451. Creating hope through outreach, options, services, and education for children and youth ("CHOOSE Children & Youth")

(a) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, working in collaboration with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Education, shall award grants to enhance the safety of youth and children who are victims of, or exposed to, domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking and prevent future violence.

(b) Program purposes

Funds provided under this section may be used for the following program purpose areas:

(1) Services to advocate for and respond to youth

To develop, expand, and strengthen victim-centered interventions and services that target youth who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking. Services may include victim services, counseling, advocacy, mentoring, educational support, transportation, legal assistance in civil, criminal and administrative matters, such as family law cases, housing cases, child welfare proceedings, campus administrative proceedings, and civil protection order proceedings, population-specific services, and other activities that support youth in finding safety, stability, and justice and in addressing the emotional, cognitive, and physical effects of trauma. Funds may be used to—

(A) assess and analyze currently available services for youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking, determining relevant barriers to such services in a particular locality, and developing a community protocol to address such problems collaboratively;

(B) develop and implement policies, practices, and procedures to effectively respond to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking against youth; or

(C) provide technical assistance and training to enhance the ability of school personnel, victim service providers, child protective service workers, staff of law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, court personnel, individuals who work in after school programs, medical personnel, social workers, mental health personnel, and workers in other programs that serve children and youth to improve their ability to appropriately respond to the needs of children and youth who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking, and to properly refer such children, youth, and their families to appropriate services.

(2) Supporting youth through education and protection

To enable middle schools, high schools, and institutions of higher education to—

(A) provide training to school personnel, including healthcare providers and security personnel, on the needs of students who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking;

(B) develop and implement prevention and intervention policies in middle and high schools, including appropriate responses to, and identification and referral procedures for, students who are experiencing or perpetrating domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking, and procedures for handling the requirements of court protective orders issued to or against students;

(C) provide support services for student victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking, such as a resource person who is either on-site or on-call;

(D) implement developmentally appropriate educational programming for students regarding domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking and the impact of such violence on youth; or

(E) develop strategies to increase identification, support, referrals, and prevention programming for youth who are at high risk of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking.

(c) Eligible applicants

(1) In general

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall be—

(A) a victim service provider, tribal nonprofit, or population-specific or community-based organization with a demonstrated history of effective work addressing the needs of youth who are, including runaway or homeless youth affected by, victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking;

(B) a victim service provider that is partnered with an entity that has a demonstrated history of effective work addressing the needs of youth; or

(C) a public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under section 2164 of title 10 or section 921 of title 20, a group of schools, a school district, or an institution of higher education.

(2) Partnerships

(A) Education

To be eligible to receive a grant for the purposes described in subsection (b)(2), an entity described in paragraph (1) shall be partnered with a public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under section 2164 of title 10 or section 921 of title 20, a group of schools, a school district, or an institution of higher education.

(B) Other partnerships

All applicants under this section are encouraged to work in partnership with organizations and agencies that work with the relevant population. Such entities may include—

(i) a State, tribe, unit of local government, or territory;

(ii) a population specific or community-based organization;

(iii) batterer intervention programs or sex offender treatment programs with specialized knowledge and experience working with youth offenders; or

(iv) any other agencies or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations with the capacity to provide effective assistance to the adult, youth, and child victims served by the partnership.

(d) Grantee requirements

Applicants for grants under this section shall establish and implement policies, practices, and procedures that—

(1) require and include appropriate referral systems for child and youth victims;

(2) protect the confidentiality and privacy of child and youth victim information, particularly in the context of parental or third party involvement and consent, mandatory reporting duties, and working with other service providers all with priority on victim safety and autonomy; and

(3) ensure that all individuals providing intervention or prevention programming to children or youth through a program funded under this section have completed, or will complete, sufficient training in connection with domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking.

(e) Definitions and grant conditions

In this section, the definitions and grant conditions provided for in section 12291 of this title shall apply.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(g) Allotment

(1) In general

Not less than 50 percent of the total amount appropriated under this section for each fiscal year shall be used for the purposes described in subsection (b)(1).

(2) Indian tribes

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount appropriated under this section for each fiscal year shall be made available for grants under the program authorized by section 10452 of this title. The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated under this paragraph.

(h) Priority

The Attorney General shall prioritize grant applications under this section that coordinate with prevention programs in the community.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41201, as added Pub. L. 113–4, title III, §302, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 84.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 41201 of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §303, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3004, related to services to advocate for and respond to youth, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–4, title III, §302, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 84.

Effective Date

Section not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as an Effective Date of 2013 Amendment note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Part K—Strengthening America's Families by Preventing Violence Against Women and Children

§12461. Findings

Congress finds that—

(1) the former United States Advisory Board on Child Abuse suggests that domestic violence may be the single major precursor to child abuse and neglect fatalities in this country;

(2) studies suggest that as many as 10,000,000 children witness domestic violence every year;

(3) studies suggest that among children and teenagers, recent exposure to violence in the home was a significant factor in predicting a child's violent behavior;

(4) a study by the Nurse-Family Partnership found that children whose parents did not participate in home visitation programs that provided coaching in parenting skills, advice and support, were almost 5 times more likely to be abused in their first 2 years of life;

(5) a child's exposure to domestic violence seems to pose the greatest independent risk for being the victim of any act of partner violence as an adult;

(6) children exposed to domestic violence are more likely to believe that using violence is an effective means of getting one's needs met and managing conflict in close relationships;

(7) children exposed to abusive parenting, harsh or erratic discipline, or domestic violence are at increased risk for juvenile crime; and

(8) in a national survey of more than 6,000 American families, 50 percent of men who frequently assaulted their wives also frequently abused their children.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41301, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3017.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043d of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12462. Purpose

The purpose of this part is to—

(1) prevent crimes involving violence against women, children, and youth;

(2) increase the resources and services available to prevent violence against women, children, and youth;

(3) reduce the impact of exposure to violence in the lives of children and youth so that the intergenerational cycle of violence is interrupted;

(4) develop and implement education and services programs to prevent children in vulnerable families from becoming victims or perpetrators of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(5) promote programs to ensure that children and youth receive the assistance they need to end the cycle of violence and develop mutually respectful, nonviolent relationships; and

(6) encourage collaboration among community-based organizations and governmental agencies serving children and youth, providers of health and mental health services and providers of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim services to prevent violence against women and children.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41302, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3018.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043d–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12463. Saving money and reducing tragedies through prevention (SMART Prevention)

(a) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Education, is authorized to award grants for the purpose of preventing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by taking a comprehensive approach that focuses on youth, children exposed to violence, and men as leaders and influencers of social norms.

(b) Use of funds

Funds provided under this section may be used for the following purposes:

(1) Teen dating violence awareness and prevention

To develop, maintain, or enhance programs that change attitudes and behaviors around the acceptability of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking and provide education and skills training to young individuals and individuals who influence young individuals. The prevention program may use evidence-based, evidence-informed, or innovative strategies and practices focused on youth. Such a program should include—

(A) age and developmentally-appropriate education on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sexual coercion, as well as healthy relationship skills, in school, in the community, or in health care settings;

(B) community-based collaboration and training for those with influence on youth, such as parents, teachers, coaches, healthcare providers, faith-leaders, older teens, and mentors;

(C) education and outreach to change environmental factors contributing to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(D) policy development targeted to prevention, including school-based policies and protocols.

(2) Children exposed to violence and abuse

To develop, maintain or enhance programs designed to prevent future incidents of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by preventing, reducing and responding to children's exposure to violence in the home. Such programs may include—

(A) providing services for children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking, including direct counseling or advocacy, and support for the non-abusing parent; and

(B) training and coordination for educational, after-school, and childcare programs on how to safely and confidentially identify children and families experiencing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking and properly refer children exposed and their families to services and violence prevention programs.

(3) Engaging men as leaders and role models

To develop, maintain or enhance programs that work with men to prevent domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by helping men to serve as role models and social influencers of other men and youth at the individual, school, community or statewide levels.

(c) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall be—

(1) a victim service provider, community-based organization, tribe or tribal organization, or other non-profit, nongovernmental organization that has a history of effective work preventing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking and expertise in the specific area for which they are applying for funds; or

(2) a partnership between a victim service provider, community-based organization, tribe or tribal organization, or other non-profit, nongovernmental organization that has a history of effective work preventing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking and at least one of the following that has expertise in serving children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, youth domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking prevention, or engaging men to prevent domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking:

(A) A public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under section 2164 of title 10 or section 921 of title 20, a group of schools, or a school district.

(B) A local community-based organization, population-specific organization, or faith-based organization that has established expertise in providing services to youth.

(C) A community-based organization, population-specific organization, university or health care clinic, faith-based organization, or other non-profit, nongovernmental organization with a demonstrated history of effective work addressing the needs of children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(D) A nonprofit, nongovernmental entity providing services for runaway or homeless youth affected by domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(E) Healthcare entities eligible for reimbursement under title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq.], including providers that target the special needs of children and youth.

(F) Any other agencies, population-specific organizations, or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations with the capacity to provide necessary expertise to meet the goals of the program; or


(3) a public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under section 2164 of title 10 or section 921 of title 20, a group of schools, a school district, or an institution of higher education.

(d) Grantee requirements

(1) In general

Applicants for grants under this section shall prepare and submit to the Director an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require that demonstrates the capacity of the applicant and partnering organizations to undertake the project.

(2) Policies and procedures

Applicants under this section shall establish and implement policies, practices, and procedures that—

(A) include appropriate referral systems to direct any victim identified during program activities to highly qualified follow-up care;

(B) protect the confidentiality and privacy of adult and youth victim information, particularly in the context of parental or third party involvement and consent, mandatory reporting duties, and working with other service providers;

(C) ensure that all individuals providing prevention programming through a program funded under this section have completed or will complete sufficient training in connection with domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking; and

(D) document how prevention programs are coordinated with service programs in the community.

(3) Preference

In selecting grant recipients under this section, the Attorney General shall give preference to applicants that—

(A) include outcome-based evaluation; and

(B) identify any other community, school, or State-based efforts that are working on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking prevention and explain how the grantee or partnership will add value, coordinate with other programs, and not duplicate existing efforts.

(e) Definitions and grant conditions

In this section, the definitions and grant conditions provided for in section 12291 of this title shall apply.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018. Amounts appropriated under this section may only be used for programs and activities described under this section.

(g) Allotment

(1) In general

Not less than 25 percent of the total amounts appropriated under this section in each fiscal year shall be used for each set of purposes described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (b).

(2) Indian tribes

Not less than 10 percent of the total amounts appropriated under this section in each fiscal year shall be made available for grants to Indian tribes or tribal organizations. If an insufficient number of applications are received from Indian tribes or tribal organizations, such funds shall be allotted to other population-specific programs.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41303, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3018; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title IV, §402(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 92.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(E), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XVIII (§1395 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043d–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to grants to assist children and youth exposed to violence.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§12464. Grants to support families in the justice system

(a) In general

The Attorney General may make grants to States, units of local government, courts (including juvenile courts), Indian tribal governments, nonprofit organizations, legal services providers, and victim services providers to improve the response of all aspects of the civil and criminal justice system to families with a history of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, or in cases involving allegations of child sexual abuse.

(b) Use of funds

A grant under this section may be used to—

(1) provide supervised visitation and safe visitation exchange of children and youth by and between parents in situations involving domestic violence, dating violence, child sexual abuse, sexual assault, or stalking;

(2) develop and promote State, local, and tribal legislation, policies, and best practices for improving civil and criminal court functions, responses, practices, and procedures in cases involving a history of domestic violence or sexual assault, or in cases involving allegations of child sexual abuse, including cases in which the victim proceeds pro se;

(3) educate court-based and court-related personnel and court-appointed personnel (including custody evaluators and guardians ad litem) and child protective services workers on the dynamics of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, including information on perpetrator behavior, evidence-based risk factors for domestic and dating violence homicide, and on issues relating to the needs of victims, including safety, security, privacy, and confidentiality, including cases in which the victim proceeds pro se;

(4) provide appropriate resources in juvenile court matters to respond to dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault (including child sexual abuse), and stalking and ensure necessary services dealing with the health and mental health of victims are available;

(5) enable courts or court-based or court-related programs to develop or enhance—

(A) court infrastructure (such as specialized courts, consolidated courts, dockets, intake centers, or interpreter services);

(B) community-based initiatives within the court system (such as court watch programs, victim assistants, pro se victim assistance programs, or community-based supplementary services);

(C) offender management, monitoring, and accountability programs;

(D) safe and confidential information-storage and information-sharing databases within and between court systems;

(E) education and outreach programs to improve community access, including enhanced access for underserved populations; and

(F) other projects likely to improve court responses to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;


(6) provide civil legal assistance and advocacy services, including legal information and resources in cases in which the victim proceeds pro se, to—

(A) victims of domestic violence; and

(B) nonoffending parents in matters—

(i) that involve allegations of child sexual abuse;

(ii) that relate to family matters, including civil protection orders, custody, and divorce; and

(iii) in which the other parent is represented by counsel;


(7) collect data and provide training and technical assistance, including developing State, local, and tribal model codes and policies, to improve the capacity of grantees and communities to address the civil justice needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who have legal representation, who are proceeding pro se, or who are proceeding with the assistance of a legal advocate; and

(8) to 1 improve training and education to assist judges, judicial personnel, attorneys, child welfare personnel, and legal advocates in the civil justice system.

(c) Considerations

(1) In general

In making grants for purposes described in paragraphs (1) through (7) of subsection (b), the Attorney General shall consider—

(A) the number of families to be served by the proposed programs and services;

(B) the extent to which the proposed programs and services serve underserved populations;

(C) the extent to which the applicant demonstrates cooperation and collaboration with nonprofit, nongovernmental entities in the local community with demonstrated histories of effective work on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including State or tribal domestic violence coalitions, State or tribal sexual assault coalitions, local shelters, and programs for domestic violence and sexual assault victims; and

(D) the extent to which the applicant demonstrates coordination and collaboration with State, tribal, and local court systems, including mechanisms for communication and referral.

(2) Other grants

In making grants under subsection (b)(8) the Attorney General shall take into account the extent to which the grantee has expertise addressing the judicial system's handling of family violence, child custody, child abuse and neglect, adoption, foster care, supervised visitation, divorce, and parentage.

(d) Applicant requirements

The Attorney General may make a grant under this section to an applicant that—

(1) demonstrates expertise in the areas of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or child sexual abuse, as appropriate;

(2) ensures that any fees charged to individuals for use of supervised visitation programs and services are based on the income of those individuals, unless otherwise provided by court order;

(3) for a court-based program, certifies that victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking are not charged fees or any other costs related to the filing, petitioning, modifying, issuance, registration, enforcement, withdrawal, or dismissal of matters relating to the domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(4) demonstrates that adequate security measures, including adequate facilities, procedures, and personnel capable of preventing violence, and adequate standards are, or will be, in place (including the development of protocols or policies to ensure that confidential information is not shared with courts, law enforcement agencies, or child welfare agencies unless necessary to ensure the safety of any child or adult using the services of a program funded under this section), if the applicant proposes to operate supervised visitation programs and services or safe visitation exchange;

(5) certifies that the organizational policies of the applicant do not require mediation or counseling involving offenders and victims being physically present in the same place, in cases where domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking is alleged;

(6) certifies that any person providing legal assistance through a program funded under this section has completed or will complete training on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, including child sexual abuse, and related legal issues; and

(7) certifies that any person providing custody evaluation or guardian ad litem services through a program funded under this section has completed or will complete training developed with input from and in collaboration with a tribal, State, territorial, or local domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victim service provider or coalition on the dynamics of domestic violence and sexual assault, including child sexual abuse, that includes training on how to review evidence of past abuse and the use of evidenced-based theories to make recommendations on custody and visitation.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $22,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this subsection shall remain available until expended.

(f) Allotment for Indian tribes

(1) In general

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 10452 of this title.2

(2) Applicability of part 3

The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title III, §1301, as added Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §104(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 73.)

References in Text

Section 10452 of this title, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), was in the original "section 3796gg–10 of this title", and was translated as meaning section 2015 of Pub. L. 90–351, which was classified to section 3796gg–10 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as section 10452 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 10420 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 and also as part of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1301 of Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title III, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1509; Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(2), title III, §306, title IX, §906(d), formerly §906(e), title XI, §1135(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2971, 3016, 3081, 3109, renumbered §906(d), Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(B), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d), 7(d)(2), 8(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 752, 766, related to safe havens for children, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §104(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 73.

Effective Date

Section not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as an Effective Date of 2013 Amendment note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Definitions