[USC07] 34 USC Subtitle I, CHAPTER 121, SUBCHAPTER III: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
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34 USC Subtitle I, CHAPTER 121, SUBCHAPTER III: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
From Title 34—CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENTSubtitle I—Comprehensive ActsCHAPTER 121—VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

SUBCHAPTER III—VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

§12291. Definitions and grant provisions

(a) Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Alaska Native village

The term "Alaska Native village" has the same meaning given such term in the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.).

(2) Courts

The term "courts" means any civil or criminal, tribal, and Alaska Native Village, Federal, State, local or territorial court having jurisdiction to address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking, including immigration, family, juvenile, and dependency courts, and the judicial officers serving in those courts, including judges, magistrate judges, commissioners, justices of the peace, or any other person with decisionmaking authority.

(3) Child abuse and neglect

The term "child abuse and neglect" means any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caregiver with intent to cause death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm to an unemancipated minor. This definition shall not be construed to mean that failure to leave an abusive relationship, in the absence of other action constituting abuse or neglect, is itself abuse or neglect.

(4) Community-based organization

The term "community-based organization" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental, or tribal organization that serves a specific geographic community that—

(A) focuses primarily on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) has established a specialized culturally specific program that addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(C) has a primary focus on underserved populations (and includes representatives of these populations) and domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; or

(D) obtains expertise, or shows demonstrated capacity to work effectively, on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking through collaboration.

(5) Child maltreatment

The term "child maltreatment" means the physical or psychological abuse or neglect of a child or youth, including sexual assault and abuse.

(6) Culturally specific

The term "culturally specific" means primarily directed toward racial and ethnic minority groups (as defined in section 1707(g) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 300u–6(g)).1

(7) Culturally specific services

The term "culturally specific services" means community-based services that include culturally relevant and linguistically specific services and resources to culturally specific communities.

(8) Domestic violence

The term "domestic violence" includes felony or misdemeanor crimes of violence committed by a current or former spouse or intimate partner of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, by a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim as a spouse or intimate partner, by a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction receiving grant monies, or by any other person against an adult or youth victim who is protected from that person's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction.

(9) Dating partner

The term "dating partner" refers to a person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the abuser, and where the existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on a consideration of—

(A) the length of the relationship;

(B) the type of relationship; and

(C) the frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.

(10) Dating violence

The term "dating violence" means violence committed by a person—

(A) who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim; and

(B) where the existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on a consideration of the following factors:

(i) The length of the relationship.

(ii) The type of relationship.

(iii) The frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.

(11) Elder abuse

The term "elder abuse" means any action against a person who is 50 years of age or older that constitutes the willful—

(A) infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation, or cruel punishment with resulting physical harm, pain, or mental anguish; or

(B) deprivation by a person, including a caregiver, of goods or services with intent to cause physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness.

(12) Homeless

The term "homeless" has the meaning provided in section 12473(6) of this title.

(13) Indian

The term "Indian" means a member of an Indian tribe.

(14) Indian country

The term "Indian country" has the same meaning given such term in section 1151 of title 18.

(15) Indian housing

The term "Indian housing" means housing assistance described in the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 et seq., as amended).

(16) Indian tribe

The term "Indian tribe" means a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(17) Indian law enforcement

The term "Indian law enforcement" means the departments or individuals under the direction of the Indian tribe that maintain public order.

(18) Law enforcement

The term "law enforcement" means a public agency charged with policing functions, including any of its component bureaus (such as governmental victim services programs or Village Public Safety Officers), including those referred to in section 2802 of title 25.

(19) Legal assistance

The term "legal assistance" includes assistance to adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in—

(A) family, tribal, territorial, immigration, employment, administrative agency, housing matters, campus administrative or protection or stay away order proceedings, and other similar matters; and

(B) criminal justice investigations, prosecutions and post-trial matters (including sentencing, parole, and probation) that impact the victim's safety and privacy.

Intake or referral, by itself, does not constitute legal assistance.

(20) Personally identifying information or personal information

The term "personally identifying information" or "personal information" means individually identifying information for or about an individual including information likely to disclose the location of a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, regardless of whether the information is encoded, encrypted, hashed, or otherwise protected, including—

(A) a first and last name;

(B) a home or other physical address;

(C) contact information (including a postal, e-mail or Internet protocol address, or telephone or facsimile number);

(D) a social security number, driver license number, passport number, or student identification number; and

(E) any other information, including date of birth, racial or ethnic background, or religious affiliation, that would serve to identify any individual.

(21) Population specific organization

The term "population specific organization" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that primarily serves members of a specific underserved population and has demonstrated experience and expertise providing targeted services to members of that specific underserved population.

(22) Population specific services

The term "population specific services" means victim-centered services that address the safety, health, economic, legal, housing, workplace, immigration, confidentiality, or other needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and that are designed primarily for and are targeted to a specific underserved population.

(23) Prosecution

The term "prosecution" means any public agency charged with direct responsibility for prosecuting criminal offenders, including such agency's component bureaus (such as governmental victim assistance programs).

(24) Protection order or restraining order

The term "protection order" or "restraining order" includes—

(A) any injunction, restraining order, or any other order issued by a civil or criminal court for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, sexual violence or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person, including any temporary or final orders issued by civil or criminal courts whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding so long as any civil order was issued in response to a complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of a person seeking protection; and

(B) any support, child custody or visitation provisions, orders, remedies, or relief issued as part of a protection order, restraining order, or stay away injunction pursuant to State, tribal, territorial, or local law authorizing the issuance of protection orders, restraining orders, or injunctions for the protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(25) Rape crisis center

The term "rape crisis center" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental, or tribal organization, or governmental entity in a State other than a Territory that provides intervention and related assistance, as specified in section 12511(b)(2)(C) of this title, to victims of sexual assault without regard to their age. In the case of a governmental entity, the entity may not be part of the criminal justice system (such as a law enforcement agency) and must be able to offer a comparable level of confidentiality as a nonprofit entity that provides similar victim services.

(26) Rural area and rural community

The term "rural area" and "rural community" mean—

(A) any area or community, respectively, no part of which is within an area designated as a standard metropolitan statistical area by the Office of Management and Budget;

(B) any area or community, respectively, that is—

(i) within an area designated as a metropolitan statistical area or considered as part of a metropolitan statistical area; and

(ii) located in a rural census tract; or


(C) any federally recognized Indian tribe.

(27) Rural State

The term "rural State" means a State that has a population density of 57 or fewer persons per square mile or a State in which the largest county has fewer than 250,000 people, based on the most recent decennial census.

(28) Sex trafficking

The term "sex trafficking" means any conduct proscribed by section 1591 of title 18, whether or not the conduct occurs in interstate or foreign commerce or within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States.

(29) Sexual assault

The term "sexual assault" means any nonconsensual sexual act proscribed by Federal, tribal, or State law, including when the victim lacks capacity to consent.

(30) Stalking

The term "stalking" means engaging in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to—

(A) fear for his or her safety or the safety of others; or

(B) suffer substantial emotional distress.

(31) State

The term "State" means each of the several States and the District of Columbia, and except as otherwise provided, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(32) State domestic violence coalition

The term "State domestic violence coalition" means a program determined by the Administration for Children and Families under sections 10402 and 10411 of title 42.

(33) State sexual assault coalition

The term "State sexual assault coalition" means a program determined by the Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 280b et seq.).

(34) Territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition

The term "territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition" means a program addressing domestic or sexual violence that is—

(A) an established nonprofit, nongovernmental territorial coalition addressing domestic violence or sexual assault within the territory; or

(B) a nongovernmental organization with a demonstrated history of addressing domestic violence or sexual assault within the territory that proposes to incorporate as a nonprofit, nongovernmental territorial coalition.

(35) Tribal coalition

The term "tribal coalition" means an established nonprofit, nongovernmental Indian organization, Alaska Native organization, or a Native Hawaiian organization that—

(A) provides education, support, and technical assistance to member Indian service providers in a manner that enables those member providers to establish and maintain culturally appropriate services, including shelter and rape crisis services, designed to assist Indian women and the dependents of those women who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(B) is comprised of board and general members that are representative of—

(i) the member service providers described in subparagraph (A); and

(ii) the tribal communities in which the services are being provided.

(36) Tribal government

The term "tribal government" means—

(A) the governing body of an Indian tribe; or

(B) a tribe, band, pueblo, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(37) Tribal nonprofit organization

The term "tribal nonprofit organization" means—

(A) a victim services provider that has as its primary purpose to assist Native victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(B) staff and leadership of the organization must include persons with a demonstrated history of assisting American Indian or Alaska Native victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(38) Tribal organization

The term "tribal organization" means—

(A) the governing body of any Indian tribe;

(B) any legally established organization of Indians which is controlled, sanctioned, or chartered by such governing body of a tribe or tribes to be served, or which is democratically elected by the adult members of the Indian community to be served by such organization and which includes the maximum participation of Indians in all phases of its activities; or

(C) any tribal nonprofit organization.

(39) Underserved populations

The term "underserved populations" means populations who face barriers in accessing and using victim services, and includes populations underserved because of geographic location, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, underserved racial and ethnic populations, populations underserved because of special needs (such as language barriers, disabilities, alienage status, or age), and any other population determined to be underserved by the Attorney General or by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as appropriate.

(40) Unit of local government

The term "unit of local government" means any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State.

(41) Victim advocate

The term "victim advocate" means a person, whether paid or serving as a volunteer, who provides services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or dating violence under the auspices or supervision of a victim services program.

(42) Victim assistant

The term "victim assistant" means a person, whether paid or serving as a volunteer, who provides services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, or dating violence under the auspices or supervision of a court or a law enforcement or prosecution agency.

(43) Victim service provider

The term "victim service provider" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental or tribal organization or rape crisis center, including a State or tribal coalition, that assists or advocates for domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victims, including domestic violence shelters, faith-based organizations, and other organizations, with a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(44) Victim services or services

The terms "victim services" and "services" mean services provided to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including telephonic or web-based hotlines, legal advocacy, economic advocacy, emergency and transitional shelter, accompaniment and advocacy through medical, civil or criminal justice, immigration, and social support systems, crisis intervention, short-term individual and group support services, information and referrals, culturally specific services, population specific services, and other related supportive services.

(45) Youth

The term "youth" means a person who is 11 to 24 years old.

(b) Grant conditions

(1) Match

No matching funds shall be required for any grant or subgrant made under this Act for—

(A) any tribe, territory, or victim service provider; or

(B) any other entity, including a State, that—

(i) petitions for a waiver of any match condition imposed by the Attorney General or the Secretaries of Health and Human Services or Housing and Urban Development; and

(ii) whose petition for waiver is determined by the Attorney General or the Secretaries of Health and Human Services or Housing and Urban Development to have adequately demonstrated the financial need of the petitioning entity.

(2) Nondisclosure of confidential or private information

(A) In general

In order to ensure the safety of adult, youth, and child victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their families, grantees and subgrantees under this subchapter shall protect the confidentiality and privacy of persons receiving services.

(B) Nondisclosure

Subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), grantees and subgrantees shall not—

(i) disclose, reveal, or release any personally identifying information or individual information collected in connection with services requested, utilized, or denied through grantees' and subgrantees' programs, regardless of whether the information has been encoded, encrypted, hashed, or otherwise protected; or

(ii) disclose, reveal, or release individual client information without the informed, written, reasonably time-limited consent of the person (or in the case of an unemancipated minor, the minor and the parent or guardian or in the case of legal incapacity, a court-appointed guardian) about whom information is sought, whether for this program or any other Federal, State, tribal, or territorial grant program, except that consent for release may not be given by the abuser of the minor, incapacitated person, or the abuser of the other parent of the minor.


If a minor or a person with a legally appointed guardian is permitted by law to receive services without the parent's or guardian's consent, the minor or person with a guardian may release information without additional consent.

(C) Release

If release of information described in subparagraph (B) is compelled by statutory or court mandate—

(i) grantees and subgrantees shall make reasonable attempts to provide notice to victims affected by the disclosure of information; and

(ii) grantees and subgrantees shall take steps necessary to protect the privacy and safety of the persons affected by the release of the information.

(D) Information sharing

(i) Grantees and subgrantees may share—

(I) nonpersonally identifying data in the aggregate regarding services to their clients and nonpersonally identifying demographic information in order to comply with Federal, State, tribal, or territorial reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements;

(II) court-generated information and law enforcement-generated information contained in secure, governmental registries for protection order enforcement purposes; and

(III) law enforcement-generated and prosecution-generated information necessary for law enforcement and prosecution purposes.


(ii) In no circumstances may—

(I) an adult, youth, or child victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking be required to provide a consent to release his or her personally identifying information as a condition of eligibility for the services provided by the grantee or subgrantee;

(II) any personally identifying information be shared in order to comply with Federal, tribal, or State reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements, whether for this program or any other Federal, tribal, or State grant program.

(E) Statutorily mandated reports of abuse or neglect

Nothing in this section prohibits a grantee or subgrantee from reporting suspected abuse or neglect, as those terms are defined and specifically mandated by the State or tribe involved.

(F) Oversight

Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Attorney General from disclosing grant activities authorized in this Act to the chairman and ranking members of the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate exercising Congressional oversight authority. All disclosures shall protect confidentiality and omit personally identifying information, including location information about individuals.

(G) Confidentiality assessment and assurances

Grantees and subgrantees must document their compliance with the confidentiality and privacy provisions required under this section.

(3) Approved activities

In carrying out the activities under this subchapter, grantees and subgrantees may collaborate with or provide information to Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies and develop and promote State, local, or tribal legislation or model codes designed to reduce or eliminate domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(4) Non-supplantation

Any Federal funds received under this subchapter shall be used to supplement, not supplant, non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for activities under this subchapter.

(5) Use of funds

Funds authorized and appropriated under this subchapter may be used only for the specific purposes described in this subchapter and shall remain available until expended.

(6) Reports

An entity receiving a grant under this subchapter shall submit to the disbursing agency a report detailing the activities undertaken with the grant funds, including and providing additional information as the agency shall require.

(7) Evaluation

Federal agencies disbursing funds under this subchapter shall set aside up to 3 percent of such funds in order to conduct—

(A) evaluations of specific programs or projects funded by the disbursing agency under this subchapter or related research; or

(B) evaluations of promising practices or problems emerging in the field or related research, in order to inform the agency or agencies as to which programs or projects are likely to be effective or responsive to needs in the field.

Final reports of such evaluations shall be made available to the public via the agency's website.

(8) Nonexclusivity

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to prohibit male victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking from receiving benefits and services under this subchapter.

(9) Prohibition on tort litigation

Funds appropriated for the grant program under this subchapter may not be used to fund civil representation in a lawsuit based on a tort claim. This paragraph should not be construed as a prohibition on providing assistance to obtain restitution in a protection order or criminal case.

(10) Prohibition on lobbying

Any funds appropriated for the grant program shall be subject to the prohibition in section 1913 of title 18, relating to lobbying with appropriated moneys.

(11) Technical assistance

Of the total amounts appropriated under this subchapter, not less than 3 percent and up to 8 percent, unless otherwise noted, shall be available for providing training and technical assistance relating to the purposes of this subchapter to improve the capacity of the grantees, subgrantees, and other entities. If there is a demonstrated history that the Office on Violence Against Women has previously set aside amounts greater than 8 percent for technical assistance and training relating to grant programs authorized under this subchapter, the Office has the authority to continue setting aside amounts greater than 8 percent.

(12) Delivery of legal assistance

Any grantee or subgrantee providing legal assistance with funds awarded under this subchapter shall comply with the eligibility requirements in section 20121(d) of this title.

(13) Civil rights

(A) Nondiscrimination

No person in the United States shall, on the basis of actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, sex, gender identity (as defined in paragraph 249(c)(4) of title 18), sexual orientation, or disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in part with funds made available under the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (title IV of Public Law 103–322; 108 Stat. 1902), the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 (division B of Public Law 106–386; 114 Stat. 1491), the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (title IX of Public Law 109–162; 119 Stat. 3080),2 the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, and any other program or activity funded in whole or in part with funds appropriated for grants, cooperative agreements, and other assistance administered by the Office on Violence Against Women.

(B) Exception

If sex segregation or sex-specific programming is necessary to the essential operation of a program, nothing in this paragraph shall prevent any such program or activity from consideration of an individual's sex. In such circumstances, grantees may meet the requirements of this paragraph by providing comparable services to individuals who cannot be provided with the sex-segregated or sex-specific programming.

(C) Discrimination

The authority of the Attorney General and the Office of Justice Programs to enforce this paragraph shall be the same as it is under section 10228 of this title.2

(D) Construction

Nothing contained in this paragraph shall be construed, interpreted, or applied to supplant, displace, preempt, or otherwise diminish the responsibilities and liabilities under other State or Federal civil rights law, whether statutory or common.

(14) Clarification of victim services and legal assistance

Victim services and legal assistance under this subchapter also include services and assistance to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking who are also victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons as defined by section 7102 of title 22.

(15) Conferral

(A) In general

The Office on Violence Against Women shall establish a biennial conferral process with State and tribal coalitions and technical assistance providers who receive funding through grants administered by the Office on Violence Against Women and authorized by this Act, and other key stakeholders.

(B) Areas covered

The areas of conferral under this paragraph shall include—

(i) the administration of grants;

(ii) unmet needs;

(iii) promising practices in the field; and

(iv) emerging trends.

(C) Initial conferral

The first conferral shall be initiated not later than 6 months after March 7, 2013.

(D) Report

Not later than 90 days after the conclusion of each conferral period, the Office on Violence Against Women shall publish a comprehensive report that—

(i) summarizes the issues presented during conferral and what, if any, policies it intends to implement to address those issues;

(ii) is made available to the public on the Office on Violence Against Women's website and submitted to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.

(16) Accountability

All grants awarded by the Attorney General under this Act shall be subject to the following accountability provisions:

(A) Audit requirement

(i) In general

Beginning in the first fiscal year beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act,2 and in each fiscal year thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice shall conduct audits of recipients of grants under this Act to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse of funds by grantees. The Inspector General shall determine the appropriate number of grantees to be audited each year.

(ii) Definition

In this paragraph, the term "unresolved audit finding" means a finding in the final audit report of the Inspector General of the Department of Justice that the audited grantee has utilized grant funds for an unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost that is not closed or resolved within 12 months from the date when the final audit report is issued.

(iii) Mandatory exclusion

A recipient of grant funds under this Act that is found to have an unresolved audit finding shall not be eligible to receive grant funds under this Act during the following 2 fiscal years.

(iv) Priority

In awarding grants under this Act, the Attorney General shall give priority to eligible entities that did not have an unresolved audit finding during the 3 fiscal years prior to submitting an application for a grant under this Act.

(v) Reimbursement

If an entity is awarded grant funds under this Act during the 2-fiscal-year period in which the entity is barred from receiving grants under paragraph (2), the Attorney General shall—

(I) deposit an amount equal to the grant funds that were improperly awarded to the grantee into the General Fund of the Treasury; and

(II) seek to recoup the costs of the repayment to the fund from the grant recipient that was erroneously awarded grant funds.

(B) Nonprofit organization requirements

(i) Definition

For purposes of this paragraph and the grant programs described in this Act, the term "nonprofit organization" means an organization that is described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such title.

(ii) Prohibition

The Attorney General may not award a grant under any grant program described in this Act to a nonprofit organization that holds money in offshore accounts for the purpose of avoiding paying the tax described in section 511(a) of title 26.

(iii) Disclosure

Each nonprofit organization that is awarded a grant under a grant program described in this Act and uses the procedures prescribed in regulations to create a rebuttable presumption of reasonableness for the compensation of its officers, directors, trustees and key employees, shall disclose to the Attorney General, in the application for the grant, the process for determining such compensation, including the independent persons involved in reviewing and approving such compensation, the comparability data used, and contemporaneous substantiation of the deliberation and decision. Upon request, the Attorney General shall make the information disclosed under this subsection available for public inspection.

(C) Conference expenditures

(i) Limitation

No amounts authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Justice under this Act may be used by the Attorney General, or by any individual or organization awarded discretionary funds through a cooperative agreement under this Act, to host or support any expenditure for conferences that uses more than $20,000 in Department funds, unless the Deputy Attorney General or such Assistant Attorney Generals, Directors, or principal deputies as the Deputy Attorney General may designate, provides prior written authorization that the funds may be expended to host a conference.

(ii) Written approval

Written approval under clause (i) shall include a written estimate of all costs associated with the conference, including the cost of all food and beverages, audiovisual equipment, honoraria for speakers, and any entertainment.

(iii) Report

The Deputy Attorney General shall submit an annual report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives on all approved conference expenditures referenced in this paragraph.

(D) Annual certification

Beginning in the first fiscal year beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act,2 the Attorney General shall submit, to the Committee on the Judiciary and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, an annual certification that—

(i) all audits issued by the Office of the Inspector General under paragraph (1) have been completed and reviewed by the appropriate Assistant Attorney General or Director;

(ii) all mandatory exclusions required under subparagraph (A)(iii) have been issued;

(iii) all reimbursements required under subparagraph (A)(v) have been made; and

(iv) includes a list of any grant recipients excluded under subparagraph (A) from the previous year.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40002, as added Pub. L. 109–162, §3(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2964; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §§1(d)–(f), 2(e), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 751, 752; Pub. L. 111–320, title II, §202(d), Dec. 20, 2010, 124 Stat. 3509; Pub. L. 113–4, §3, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 56.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902, known as the Violence Against Women Act of 1994. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (16), (36)(B), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (a)(15), is Pub. L. 104–330, Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4016, which is classified principally to chapter 43 (§4101 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4101 of Title 25 and Tables.

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(33), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§201 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), (2)(F), (15)(A), (16), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(A), is title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(A), is div. B of Pub. L. 106–386, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1491. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(A), is Pub. L. 109–162, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2960. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2006 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(A), is Pub. L. 113–4, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 54. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2013 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Section 10228 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(C), was in the original a reference to "section 3789d of title 42, United States Code" but probably should have been a reference to section 809 of Pub. L. 90–351, which was formerly classified to section 3789d of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as section 10228 of this title.

The date of the enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(16)(A)(i), (D), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 113–4, which enacted subsec. (b)(16) of this section and was approved Mar. 7, 2013.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13925 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(3), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(H), redesignated par. (1) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(4), substituted "serious harm to an unemancipated minor." for "serious harm."

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(H), redesignated par. (2) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(5), substituted "The term 'community-based organization' means a nonprofit, nongovernmental, or tribal organization that serves a specific geographic community that—" for "The term 'community-based organization' means an organization that—" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(H), redesignated par. (3) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(H), redesignated par. (4) as (5).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (5), which defined "court-based" and "court-related personnel".

Subsec. (a)(6), (7). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(6), added pars. (6) and (7). Former pars. (6) and (7) redesignated (8) and (9), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(7), inserted "or intimate partner" after "former spouse" and after "as a spouse".

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(G), redesignated par. (6) as (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (10).

Subsec. (a)(9) to (11). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(G), redesignated pars. (7) to (9) as (9) to (11), respectively. Former pars. (10) and (11) redesignated (13) and (14), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(8), added par. (12). Former par. (12) redesignated (15).

Subsec. (a)(13) to (16). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(F), redesignated pars. (10) to (13) as (13) to (16), respectively. Former pars. (14) to (16) redesignated (17) to (19), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(F), redesignated par. (14) as (17).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (17), which defined "linguistically and culturally specific services".

Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(9), inserted "or Village Public Safety Officers" after "governmental victim services programs".

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(F), redesignated par. (15) as (18).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (18), which defined "personally identifying information" or "personal information".

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(10), inserted at end "Intake or referral, by itself, does not constitute legal assistance."

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(F), redesignated par. (16) as (19). Former par. (19) redesignated (23).

Subsec. (a)(20) to (22). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(11), added pars. (20) to (22). Former pars. (20), (21), and (22) redesignated (24), (26), and (27), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(12), substituted "assistance" for "services".

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(E), redesignated par. (19) as (23).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (23), which defined "sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(24). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(E), redesignated par. (20) as (24). Former par. (24) redesignated (30).

Subsec. (a)(25). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(13), added par. (25). Former par. (25) redesignated (31).

Subsec. (a)(26). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(D), redesignated par. (21) as (26). Former par. (26) redesignated (32).

Subsec. (a)(26)(C). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(14), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(27). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(15), substituted "57" for "52" and "250,000" for "150,000".

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(D), redesignated par. (22) as (27). Former par. (27) redesignated (33).

Subsec. (a)(28). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(16), added par. (28). Former par. (28) redesignated (34).

Subsec. (a)(29). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(16), added par. (29).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (29) which defined "tribal coalition".

Subsec. (a)(30) to (32). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(C), redesignated pars. (24) to (26) as (30) to (32), respectively. Former pars. (30) to (32) redesignated (36) to (38), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(33). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(C), redesignated par. (27) as (33).

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out par. (33) which defined "underserved populations".

Subsec. (a)(34). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(C), redesignated par. (28) as (34). Former par. (34) redesignated (41).

Subsec. (a)(35). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(17), added par. (35). Former par. (35) redesignated (42).

Subsec. (a)(36), (37). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(B), redesignated pars. (30) and (31) as (36) and (37), respectively.

Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(1), struck out pars. (36) and (37), which defined "victim services" or "victim service provider" and "youth", respectively.

Subsec. (a)(38). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(B), redesignated par. (32) as (38).

Subsec. (a)(39), (40). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(18), added pars. (39) and (40).

Subsec. (a)(41), (42). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(2)(A), redesignated pars. (34) and (35) as (41) and (42), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(43) to (45). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(a)(19), added pars. (43) to (45).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(1)(A), added cls. (i) and (ii) and concluding provisions, and struck out former cls. (i) and (ii) which read as follows:

"(i) disclose any personally identifying information or individual information collected in connection with services requested, utilized, or denied through grantees' and subgrantees' programs; or

"(ii) reveal individual client information without the informed, written, reasonably time-limited consent of the person (or in the case of an unemancipated minor, the minor and the parent or guardian or in the case of persons with disabilities, the guardian) about whom information is sought, whether for this program or any other Federal, State, tribal, or territorial grant program, except that consent for release may not be given by the abuser of the minor, person with disabilities, or the abuser of the other parent of the minor."

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(1)(B), amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:"Grantees and subgrantees may share—

"(i) nonpersonally identifying data in the aggregate regarding services to their clients and nonpersonally identifying demographic information in order to comply with Federal, State, tribal, or territorial reporting, evaluation, or data collection requirements;

"(ii) court-generated information and law-enforcement generated information contained in secure, governmental registries for protection order enforcement purposes; and

"(iii) law enforcement- and prosecution-generated information necessary for law enforcement and prosecution purposes."

Subsec. (b)(2)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(1)(C)–(E), added subpars. (E) and (G) and redesignated former subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(2), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In carrying out the activities under this subchapter, grantees and subgrantees may collaborate with and provide information to Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies to reduce or eliminate domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking."

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(3), inserted at end "Final reports of such evaluations shall be made available to the public via the agency's website."

Subsec. (b)(12) to (16). Pub. L. 113–4, §3(b)(4), added pars. (12) to (16).

2010—Subsec. (a)(26). Pub. L. 111–320 substituted "under sections 10402 and 10411 of this title" for "under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (42 U.S.C. 10410(b))".

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(e)(1), substituted "Alaska Native" for "Alaskan".

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(d), substituted "proscribed" for "prescribed".

Subsec. (a)(31) to (37). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(e)(2), (3), added par. (31) and redesignated former pars. (31) to (36) as (32) to (37), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §1(f), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "No matching funds shall be required for a grant or subgrant made under this subchapter for any tribe, territory, victim service provider, or any entity that the Attorney General determines has adequately demonstrated financial need."

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(e), inserted "Of the total amounts appropriated under this subchapter, not less than 3 percent and up to 8 percent, unless otherwise noted, shall be available for providing training and technical assistance relating to the purposes of this subchapter to improve the capacity of the grantees, subgrantees, and other entities." before "If there is a demonstrated history".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Findings

Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §201, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2993, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) Nearly 1/3 of American women report physical or sexual abuse by a husband or boyfriend at some point in their lives.

"(2) According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 248,000 Americans 12 years of age and older were raped or sexually assaulted in 2002.

"(3) Rape and sexual assault in the United States is estimated to cost $127,000,000,000 per year, including—

"(A) lost productivity;

"(B) medical and mental health care;

"(C) police and fire services;

"(D) social services;

"(E) loss of and damage to property; and

"(F) reduced quality of life.

"(4) Nonreporting of sexual assault in rural areas is a particular problem because of the high rate of nonstranger sexual assault.

"(5) Geographic isolation often compounds the problems facing sexual assault victims. The lack of anonymity and accessible support services can limit opportunities for justice for victims.

"(6) Domestic elder abuse is primarily family abuse. The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study found that the perpetrator was a family member in 90 percent of cases.

"(7) Barriers for older victims leaving abusive relationships include—

"(A) the inability to support themselves;

"(B) poor health that increases their dependence on the abuser;

"(C) fear of being placed in a nursing home; and

"(D) ineffective responses by domestic abuse programs and law enforcement.

"(8) Disabled women comprise another vulnerable population with unmet needs. Women with disabilities are more likely to be the victims of abuse and violence than women without disabilities because of their increased physical, economic, social, or psychological dependence on others.

"(9) Many women with disabilities also fail to report the abuse, since they are dependent on their abusers and fear being abandoned or institutionalized.

"(10) Of the 598 battered women's programs surveyed—

"(A) only 35 percent of these programs offered disability awareness training for their staff; and

"(B) only 16 percent dedicated a staff member to provide services to women with disabilities.

"(11) Problems of domestic violence are exacerbated for immigrants when spouses control the immigration status of their family members, and abusers use threats of refusal to file immigration papers and threats to deport spouses and children as powerful tools to prevent battered immigrant women from seeking help, trapping battered immigrant women in violent homes because of fear of deportation.

"(12) Battered immigrant women who attempt to flee abusive relationships may not have access to bilingual shelters or bilingual professionals, and face restrictions on public or financial assistance. They may also lack assistance of a certified interpreter in court, when reporting complaints to the police or a 9–1–1 operator, or even in acquiring information about their rights and the legal system.

"(13) More than 500 men and women call the National Domestic Violence Hotline every day to get immediate, informed, and confidential assistance to help deal with family violence.

"(14) The National Domestic Violence Hotline service is available, toll-free, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, with bilingual staff, access to translators in 150 languages, and a TTY line for the hearing-impaired.

"(15) With access to over 5,000 shelters and service providers across the United States, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands, the National Domestic Violence Hotline provides crisis intervention and immediately connects callers with sources of help in their local community.

"(16) Approximately 60 percent of the callers indicate that calling the Hotline is their first attempt to address a domestic violence situation and that they have not called the police or any other support services.

"(17) Between 2000 and 2003, there was a 27 percent increase in call volume at the National Domestic Violence Hotline.

"(18) Improving technology infrastructure at the National Domestic Violence Hotline and training advocates, volunteers, and other staff on upgraded technology will drastically increase the Hotline's ability to answer more calls quickly and effectively."

Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §301, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3003, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) Youth, under the age of 18, account for 67 percent of all sexual assault victimizations reported to law enforcement officials.

"(2) The Department of Justice consistently finds that young women between the ages of 16 and 24 experience the highest rate of non-fatal intimate partner violence.

"(3) In 1 year, over 4,000 incidents of rape or sexual assault occurred in public schools across the country.

"(4) Young people experience particular obstacles to seeking help. They often do not have access to money, transportation, or shelter services. They must overcome issues such as distrust of adults, lack of knowledge about available resources, or pressure from peers and parents.

"(5) A needs assessment on teen relationship abuse for the State of California, funded by the California Department of Health Services, identified a desire for confidentiality and confusion about the law as 2 of the most significant barriers to young victims of domestic and dating violence seeking help.

"(6) Only one State specifically allows for minors to petition the court for protection orders.

"(7) Many youth are involved in dating relationships, and these relationships can include the same kind of domestic violence and dating violence seen in the adult population. In fact, more than 40 percent of all incidents of domestic violence involve people who are not married.

"(8) 40 percent of girls ages 14 to 17 report knowing someone their age who has been hit or beaten by a boyfriend, and 13 percent of college women report being stalked.

"(9) Of college women who said they had been the victims of rape or attempted rape, 12.8 percent of completed rapes, 35 percent of attempted rapes, and 22.9 percent of threatened rapes took place on a date. Almost 60 percent of the completed rapes that occurred on campus took place in the victim's residence.

"(10) According to a 3-year study of student-athletes at 10 Division I universities, male athletes made up only 3.3 percent of the general male university population, but they accounted for 19 percent of the students reported for sexual assault and 35 percent of domestic violence perpetrators."

1 So in original. The period probably should be preceded by another closing parenthesis.

2 See References in Text note below.

Part A—Safe Streets for Women

subpart 1—safety for women in public transit

§12301. Grants for capital improvements to prevent crime in public transportation

(a) General purpose

There is authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $10,000,000, for the Secretary of Transportation (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") to make capital grants for the prevention of crime and to increase security in existing and future public transportation systems. None of the provisions of this Act may be construed to prohibit the financing of projects under this section where law enforcement responsibilities are vested in a local public body other than the grant applicant.

(b) Grants for lighting, camera surveillance, and security phones

(1) From the sums authorized for expenditure under this section for crime prevention, the Secretary is authorized to make grants and loans to States and local public bodies or agencies for the purpose of increasing the safety of public transportation by—

(A) increasing lighting within or adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages;

(B) increasing camera surveillance of areas within and adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages;

(C) providing emergency phone lines to contact law enforcement or security personnel in areas within or adjacent to public transportation systems, including bus stops, subway stations, parking lots, or garages; or

(D) any other project intended to increase the security and safety of existing or planned public transportation systems.


(2) From the sums authorized under this section, at least 75 percent shall be expended on projects of the type described in subsection (b)(1)(A) and (B).

(c) Reporting

All grants under this section are contingent upon the filing of a report with the Secretary and the Department of Justice, Office of Victims of Crime, showing crime rates in or adjacent to public transportation before, and for a 1-year period after, the capital improvement. Statistics shall be compiled on the basis of the type of crime, sex, race, ethnicity, language, and relationship of victim to the offender.

(d) Increased Federal share

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Federal share under this section for each capital improvement project that enhances the safety and security of public transportation systems and that is not required by law (including any other provision of this Act) shall be 90 percent of the net project cost of the project.

(e) Special grants for projects to study increasing security for women

From the sums authorized under this section, the Secretary shall provide grants and loans for the purpose of studying ways to reduce violent crimes against women in public transit through better design or operation of public transit systems.

(f) General requirements

All grants or loans provided under this section shall be subject to the same terms, conditions, requirements, and provisions applicable to grants and loans as specified in section 5321 of title 49.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40131, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1916.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), is Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, known as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13931 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

subpart 2—assistance to victims of sexual assault

§12311. Training programs

(a) In general

The Attorney General, after consultation with victim advocates and individuals who have expertise in treating sex offenders, shall establish criteria and develop training programs to assist probation and parole officers and other personnel who work with released sex offenders in the areas of—

(1) case management;

(2) supervision; and

(3) relapse prevention.

(b) Training programs

The Attorney General shall ensure, to the extent practicable, that training programs developed under subsection (a) are available in geographically diverse locations throughout the country.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40152, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1920; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §108, title XI, §1167, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984, 3121; Pub. L. 109–271, §2(a), (b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 751, 752; Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §105, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 77.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13941 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018." for "$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011."

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–271, §2(b), which directed amendment of section 1167 of the Violence Against Women Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–162, by substituting "2007 through 2011" for "2006 through 2010", was executed to subsec. (c) of this section, which is section 40152 of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994, as amended by section 1167 of Pub. L. 109–162, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See below.

Pub. L. 109–162, §1167, added subsec. (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c) which authorized appropriations to carry out this section for fiscal years 1996 and 1997.

Pub. L. 109–162, §108, which directed the striking of subsec. (c) and the insertion of a new subsec. (c), authorizing appropriations to carry out this section for fiscal years 2007 through 2011, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §2(a).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§12312. Confidentiality of communications between sexual assault or domestic violence victims and their counselors

(a) Study and development of model legislation

The Attorney General shall—

(1) study and evaluate the manner in which the States have taken measures to protect the confidentiality of communications between sexual assault or domestic violence victims and their therapists or trained counselors;

(2) develop model legislation that will provide the maximum protection possible for the confidentiality of such communications, within any applicable constitutional limits, taking into account the following factors:

(A) the danger that counseling programs for victims of sexual assault and domestic violence will be unable to achieve their goal of helping victims recover from the trauma associated with these crimes if there is no assurance that the records of the counseling sessions will be kept confidential;

(B) consideration of the appropriateness of an absolute privilege for communications between victims of sexual assault or domestic violence and their therapists or trained counselors, in light of the likelihood that such an absolute privilege will provide the maximum guarantee of confidentiality but also in light of the possibility that such an absolute privilege may be held to violate the rights of criminal defendants under the Federal or State constitutions by denying them the opportunity to obtain exculpatory evidence and present it at trial; and

(C) consideration of what limitations on the disclosure of confidential communications between victims of these crimes and their counselors, short of an absolute privilege, are most likely to ensure that the counseling programs will not be undermined, and specifically whether no such disclosure should be allowed unless, at a minimum, there has been a particularized showing by a criminal defendant of a compelling need for records of such communications, and adequate procedural safeguards are in place to prevent unnecessary or damaging disclosures; and


(3) prepare and disseminate to State authorities the findings made and model legislation developed as a result of the study and evaluation.

(b) Report and recommendations

Not later than the date that is 1 year after September 13, 1994, the Attorney General shall report to the Congress—

(1) the findings of the study and the model legislation required by this section; and

(2) recommendations based on the findings on the need for and appropriateness of further action by the Federal Government.

(c) Review of Federal evidentiary rules

The Judicial Conference of the United States shall evaluate and report to Congress its views on whether the Federal Rules of Evidence should be amended, and if so, how they should be amended, to guarantee that the confidentiality of communications between sexual assault victims and their therapists or trained counselors will be adequately protected in Federal court proceedings.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40153, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1921.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (c), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13942 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12313. Information programs

The Attorney General shall compile information regarding sex offender treatment programs and ensure that information regarding community treatment programs in the community into which a convicted sex offender is released is made available to each person serving a sentence of imprisonment in a Federal penal or correctional institution for a commission of an offense under chapter 109A of title 18 or for the commission of a similar offense, including halfway houses and psychiatric institutions.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40154, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1922.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13943 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part B—Safe Homes for Women

subpart 1—confidentiality for abused persons

§12321. Confidentiality of abused person's address

(a) Regulations

Not later than 90 days after September 13, 1994, the United States Postal Service shall promulgate regulations to secure the confidentiality of domestic violence shelters and abused persons' addresses.

(b) Requirements

The regulations under subsection (a) shall require—

(1) in the case of an individual, the presentation to an appropriate postal official of a valid, outstanding protection order; and

(2) in the case of a domestic violence shelter, the presentation to an appropriate postal authority of proof from a State domestic violence coalition that meets the requirements of section 10410 1 of title 42 verifying that the organization is a domestic violence shelter.

(c) Disclosure for certain purposes

The regulations under subsection (a) shall not prohibit the disclosure of addresses to State or Federal agencies for legitimate law enforcement or other governmental purposes.

(d) Existing compilations

Compilations of addresses existing at the time at which order is presented to an appropriate postal official shall be excluded from the scope of the regulations under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40281, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1938.)

References in Text

Section 10410 of title 42, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was generally amended by Pub. L. 111–320, title II, §201, Dec. 20, 2010, 124 Stat. 3497, and, as so amended, no longer contains provisions relating to grants for State domestic violence coalitions. See section 10411 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13951 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

subpart 2—data and research

§12331. Research agenda

(a) Request for contract

The Attorney General shall request the National Academy of Sciences, through its National Research Council, to enter into a contract to develop a research agenda to increase the understanding and control of violence against women, including rape and domestic violence. In furtherance of the contract, the National Academy shall convene a panel of nationally recognized experts on violence against women, in the fields of law, medicine, criminal justice, and direct services to victims and experts on domestic violence in diverse, ethnic, social, and language minority communities and the social sciences. In setting the agenda, the Academy shall focus primarily on preventive, educative, social, and legal strategies, including addressing the needs of underserved populations.

(b) Declination of request

If the National Academy of Sciences declines to conduct the study and develop a research agenda, it shall recommend a nonprofit private entity that is qualified to conduct such a study. In that case, the Attorney General shall carry out subsection (a) through the nonprofit private entity recommended by the Academy. In either case, whether the study is conducted by the National Academy of Sciences or by the nonprofit group it recommends, the funds for the contract shall be made available from sums appropriated for the conduct of research by the National Institute of Justice.

(c) Report

The Attorney General shall ensure that no later than 1 year after September 13, 1994, the study required under subsection (a) is completed and a report describing the findings made is submitted to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40291, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1939.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13961 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12332. State databases

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall study and report to the States and to Congress on how the States may collect centralized databases on the incidence of sexual and domestic violence offenses within a State.

(b) Consultation

In conducting its study, the Attorney General shall consult persons expert in the collection of criminal justice data, State statistical administrators, law enforcement personnel, and nonprofit nongovernmental agencies that provide direct services to victims of domestic violence. The final report shall set forth the views of the persons consulted on the recommendations.

(c) Report

The Attorney General shall ensure that no later than 1 year after September 13, 1994, the study required under subsection (a) is completed and a report describing the findings made is submitted to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $200,000 for fiscal year 1996.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40292, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1939.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13962 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12333. Number and cost of injuries

(a) Study

The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Centers for Disease Control Injury Control Division, shall conduct a study to obtain a national projection of the incidence of injuries resulting from domestic violence, the cost of injuries to health care facilities, and recommend health care strategies for reducing the incidence and cost of such injuries.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—$100,000 for fiscal year 1996.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40293, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1940.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13963 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Change of Name

Centers for Disease Control changed to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §312, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3504.

subpart 3—rural domestic violence and child abuse enforcement

§12341. Rural domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and child abuse enforcement assistance

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this section are—

(1) to identify, assess, and appropriately respond to child, youth, and adult victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking in rural communities, by encouraging collaboration among—

(A) domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim service providers;

(B) law enforcement agencies;

(C) prosecutors;

(D) courts;

(E) other criminal justice service providers;

(F) human and community service providers;

(G) educational institutions; and

(H) health care providers, including sexual assault forensic examiners;


(2) to establish and expand nonprofit, nongovernmental, State, tribal, territorial, and local government victim services in rural communities to child, youth, and adult victims; and

(3) to increase the safety and well-being of women and children in rural communities, by—

(A) dealing directly and immediately with domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking occurring in rural communities; and

(B) creating and implementing strategies to increase awareness and prevent domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking.

(b) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women (referred to in this section as the "Director"), may award grants to States, Indian tribes, local governments, and nonprofit, public or private entities, including tribal nonprofit organizations, to carry out programs serving rural areas or rural communities that address domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by—

(1) implementing, expanding, and establishing cooperative efforts and projects among law enforcement officers, prosecutors, victim service providers, and other related parties to investigate and prosecute incidents of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, including developing multidisciplinary teams focusing on high risk cases with the goal of preventing domestic and dating violence homicides;

(2) providing treatment, counseling, advocacy, legal assistance, and other long-term and short-term victim and population specific services to adult and minor victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking in rural communities, including assistance in immigration matters;

(3) working in cooperation with the community to develop education and prevention strategies directed toward such issues; and

(4) developing, enlarging, or strengthening programs addressing sexual assault, including sexual assault forensic examiner programs, Sexual Assault Response Teams, law enforcement training, and programs addressing rape kit backlogs.

(5) developing programs and strategies that focus on the specific needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who reside in remote rural and geographically isolated areas, including addressing the challenges posed by the lack of access to shelters and victims services, and limited law enforcement resources and training, and providing training and resources to Community Health Aides involved in the delivery of Indian Health Service programs.

(c) Use of funds

Funds appropriated pursuant to this section shall be used only for specific programs and activities expressly described in subsection (a).

(d) Allotments and priorities

(1) Allotment for Indian tribes

(A) In general

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 10452 of this title.

(B) Applicability of part 1

The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Allotment for sexual assault

(A) In general

Not less than 25 percent of the total amount appropriated in a fiscal year under this section shall fund services that meaningfully address sexual assault in rural communities, however at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $45,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 30 percent of the total amount appropriated, at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $50,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 35 percent of the total amount appropriated, and at such time as the amounts appropriated reach the amount of $55,000,000, the percentage allocated shall rise to 40 percent of the amounts appropriated.

(B) Multiple purpose applications

Nothing in this section shall prohibit any applicant from applying for funding to address sexual assault, domestic violence, stalking, or dating violence in the same application.

(3) Allotment for technical assistance

Of the amounts appropriated for each fiscal year to carry out this section, not more than 8 percent may be used by the Director for technical assistance costs. Of the amounts appropriated in this subsection, no less than 25 percent of such amounts shall be available to a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization or organizations whose focus and expertise is in addressing sexual assault to provide technical assistance to sexual assault grantees.

(4) Underserved populations

In awarding grants under this section, the Director shall give priority to the needs of underserved populations.

(5) Allocation of funds for rural States

Not less than 75 percent of the total amount made available for each fiscal year to carry out this section shall be allocated to eligible entities located in rural States.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018 to carry out this section.

(2) Additional funding

In addition to funds received through a grant under subsection (b), a law enforcement agency may use funds received through a grant under part Q of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796dd et seq.2 to accomplish the objectives of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40295, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1940; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §§1105, 1109(d), title V, §1512(c), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497, 1503, 1533; Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §203, title IX, §906(d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2998, 3081; Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(1), (2)(A), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 113–4, title II, §202, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 81.)

References in Text

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197. Part Q of title I of the Act was classified generally to subchapter XII–E (§3796dd et seq.) of chapter 46 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as subchapter XVI (§10381 et seq.) of chapter 101 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13971 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(1), inserted ", including sexual assault forensic examiners" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(2)(A), substituted "victim service providers" for "victim advocacy groups" and inserted ", including developing multidisciplinary teams focusing on high risk cases with the goal of preventing domestic and dating violence homicides" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(2)(B)(i), substituted "legal assistance, and other long-term and short-term victim and population specific services" for "and other long- and short-term assistance".

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(2)(B)(ii), (C), (D), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §202(3), substituted "$50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$55,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011".

2006Pub. L. 109–162, §203, amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to rural domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and child abuse enforcement assistance for provisions relating to rural domestic violence and child abuse enforcement assistance.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 109–162, §906(d), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by striking par. (3) and inserting a new par. (3) which read "Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized in section 3796gg–10 of this title. The requirements of this paragraph shall not apply to funds allocated for such program.", was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(A).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "Not less than 10 percent of the total amount made available for each fiscal year to carry out this section shall be allocated for grants to Indian tribes or tribal organizations."

2000—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–386, §1109(d)(1), inserted "and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)" after "domestic violence".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–386, §1512(c), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "to provide treatment and counseling to victims of domestic violence and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title) and child abuse; and".

Pub. L. 106–386, §1109(d)(2), inserted "and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)" after "domestic violence".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–386, §1105(1), added par. (1) and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

"(A) $7,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(B) $8,000,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

"(C) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1998."

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106–386, §1105(2), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10261 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

2 See References in Text note below.

subpart 4—transitional housing assistance grants for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking

Codification

This subpart was, in the original, chapter 11 of subtitle B of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, and has been designated as subpart 4 of this part for purposes of codification. Another chapter 11 of subtitle B of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322 was designated subpart 3a (former §13973) of part B of subchapter III of chapter 136 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §602(1), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 109, substituted "VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, DATING VIOLENCE, SEXUAL ASSAULT, OR STALKING" for "CHILD VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, STALKING, OR SEXUAL ASSAULT" in heading.

§12351. Transitional housing assistance grants for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking

(a) In general

The Attorney General, acting in consultation with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office of the Department of Justice, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Department of Health and Human Services, shall award grants under this section to States, units of local government, Indian tribes, and other organizations, including domestic violence and sexual assault victim service providers, domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations, or community-based and culturally specific organizations, that have a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking (referred to in this section as the "recipient") to carry out programs to provide assistance to minors, adults, and their dependents—

(1) who are homeless, or in need of transitional housing or other housing assistance, as a result of a situation of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(2) for whom emergency shelter services or other crisis intervention services are unavailable or insufficient.

(b) Grants

Grants awarded under this section may be used for programs that provide—

(1) transitional housing, including funding for the operating expenses of newly developed or existing transitional housing.1

(2) short-term housing assistance, including rental or utilities payments assistance and assistance with related expenses such as payment of security deposits and other costs incidental to relocation to transitional housing for persons described in subsection (a); and

(3) support services designed to enable a minor, an adult, or a dependent of such minor or adult, who is fleeing a situation of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking to—

(A) locate and secure permanent housing;

(B) secure employment, including obtaining employment counseling, occupational training, job retention counseling, and counseling concerning re-entry in to 2 the workforce; and

(C) integrate into a community by providing that minor, adult, or dependent with services, such as transportation, counseling, child care services, case management, and other assistance. Participation in the support services shall be voluntary. Receipt of the benefits of the housing assistance described in paragraph (2) shall not be conditioned upon the participation of the youth, adults, or their dependents in any or all of the support services offered them.

(c) Duration

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), a minor, an adult, or a dependent, who receives assistance under this section shall receive that assistance for not more than 24 months.

(2) Waiver

The recipient of a grant under this section may waive the restriction under paragraph (1) for not more than an additional 6 month period with respect to any minor, adult, or dependent, who—

(A) has made a good-faith effort to acquire permanent housing; and

(B) has been unable to acquire permanent housing.

(d) Application

(1) In general

Each eligible entity desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

(2) Contents

Each application submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall—

(A) describe the activities for which assistance under this section is sought;

(B) provide assurances that any supportive services offered to participants in programs developed under subsection (b)(3) are voluntary and that refusal to receive such services shall not be grounds for termination from the program or eviction from the victim's housing; and

(C) provide such additional assurances as the Attorney General determines to be essential to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section.

(3) Application

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require—

(A) victims to participate in the criminal justice system in order to receive services; or

(B) domestic violence advocates to breach client confidentiality.

(e) Report to the Attorney General

(1) In general

A recipient of a grant under this section shall annually prepare and submit to the Attorney General a report describing—

(A) the number of minors, adults, and dependents assisted under this section; and

(B) the types of housing assistance and support services provided under this section.

(2) Contents

Each report prepared and submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include information regarding—

(A) the purpose and amount of housing assistance provided to each minor, adult, or dependent, assisted under this section and the reason for that assistance;

(B) the number of months each minor, adult, or dependent, received assistance under this section;

(C) the number of minors, adults, and dependents who—

(i) were eligible to receive assistance under this section; and

(ii) were not provided with assistance under this section solely due to a lack of available housing;


(D) the type of support services provided to each minor, adult, or dependent, assisted under this section; and

(E) the client population served and the number of individuals requesting services that the transitional housing program is unable to serve as a result of a lack of resources.

(f) Report to Congress

(1) Reporting requirement

The Attorney General, with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office, shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section not later than 1 month after the end of each even-numbered fiscal year.

(2) Availability of report

In order to coordinate efforts to assist the victims of domestic violence, the Attorney General, in coordination with the Director of the Violence Against Women Office, shall transmit a copy of the report submitted under paragraph (1) to—

(A) the Office of Community Planning and Development at the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development; and

(B) the Office of Women's Health at the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(2) Limitations

Of the amount made available to carry out this section in any fiscal year, up to 5 percent may be used by the Attorney General for evaluation, monitoring, technical assistance, salaries and administrative expenses.

(3) Minimum amount

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), unless all qualified applications submitted by any States, units of local government, Indian tribes, or organizations within a State for a grant under this section have been funded, that State, together with the grantees within the State (other than Indian tribes), shall be allocated in each fiscal year, not less than 0.75 percent of the total amount appropriated in the fiscal year for grants pursuant to this section.

(B) Exception

The United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands shall each be allocated not less than 0.25 percent of the total amount appropriated in the fiscal year for grants pursuant to this section.

(C) Underserved populations

(i) Indian tribes.—

(I) In general.—Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 10452 of this title.

(II) Applicability of part.— 3 The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in subclause (I).


(ii) Priority shall be given to projects developed under subsection (b) that primarily serve underserved populations.

(D) Qualified application defined

In this paragraph, the term "qualified application" means an application that—

(i) has been submitted by an eligible applicant;

(ii) does not propose any activities that may compromise victim safety, including—

(I) background checks of victims; or

(II) clinical evaluations to determine eligibility for services;


(iii) reflects an understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; and

(iv) does not propose prohibited activities, including mandatory services for victims.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40299, as added Pub. L. 108–21, title VI, §611, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 693; amended Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), title VI, §602(a), title IX, §906(e), formerly §906(f), title XI, §1135(e), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2971, 3038, 3081, 3109, renumbered §906(e), Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(B), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d), 7(c)(1), 8(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 752, 764-766; Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §602(2), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 109.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13975 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(A), substituted "victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "child victims of domestic violence, stalking, or sexual assault" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(B), struck out "fleeing" before "a situation".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(C), added subpar. (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and, in subpar. (C), struck out "employment counseling," after "case management,".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(D)(i), which directed substitution of "$35,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$40,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011", was executed by making the substitution for "$40,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (g)(3)(A). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(D)(ii)(I), substituted "qualified" for "eligible".

Subsec. (g)(3)(D). Pub. L. 113–4, §602(2)(D)(ii)(II), added subpar. (D).

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(1)(A), (B), in introductory provisions, inserted "the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Department of Health and Human Services," after "Department of Justice," and ", including domestic violence and sexual assault victim service providers, domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations, or community-based and culturally specific organizations, that have a documented history of effective work concerning domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking" after "other organizations".

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(1)(C), inserted ", dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking" after "domestic violence".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(C), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(A), redesignated par. (1) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(A), (B), redesignated par. (2) as (3) and inserted ", dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking" after "violence" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(2)(D), inserted "Participation in the support services shall be voluntary. Receipt of the benefits of the housing assistance described in paragraph (2) shall not be conditioned upon the participation of the youth, adults, or their dependents in any or all of the support services offered them." at end.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(3), substituted "24 months" for "18 months".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(4), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(5)(A), inserted "purpose and" before "amount".

Subsec. (e)(2)(E). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(5)(B)–(D), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §1135(e), which directed an amendment substantially identical to that made by Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d) and 8(b).

Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(4), substituted "shall prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section not later than 1 month after the end of each even-numbered fiscal year." for "shall annually prepare and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report that contains a compilation of the information contained in the report submitted under subsection (e) of this section."

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(A)–(C), substituted "$40,000,000" for "$30,000,000", "2007" for "2004", and "2011" for "2008".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(D), (E), substituted "up to 5 percent" for "not more than 3 percent" and inserted "evaluation, monitoring, technical assistance," before "salaries".

Subsec. (g)(3)(C). Pub. L. 109–162, §602(a)(6)(F), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (g)(3)(C)(i). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(c)(1)(A), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "A minimum of 7 percent of the total amount appropriated in any fiscal year shall be allocated to tribal organizations serving adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their dependents."

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 109–271, §7(c)(1)(B), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized in section 3796gg–10 of this title. The requirements of this paragraph shall not apply to funds allocated for such program."

Pub. L. 109–162, §906(e), formerly §906(f), as renumbered by Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(B), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by sections 602(a) and 906(e) of Pub. L. 109–162 not effective until the beginning of fiscal year 2007, see section 4 of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10261 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Office on Women's Health of the Public Health Service exercised prior to Mar. 23, 2010, transferred to Office on Women's Health established under section 237a of this title, see section 3509(a)(2) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 237a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

2 So in original. Probably should be "into".

3 So in original. Probably should be "section.—".

Part C—Civil Rights for Women

§12361. Civil rights

(a) Purpose

Pursuant to the affirmative power of Congress to enact this part under section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, as well as under section 8 of Article I of the Constitution, it is the purpose of this part to protect the civil rights of victims of gender motivated violence and to promote public safety, health, and activities affecting interstate commerce by establishing a Federal civil rights cause of action for victims of crimes of violence motivated by gender.

(b) Right to be free from crimes of violence

All persons within the United States shall have the right to be free from crimes of violence motivated by gender (as defined in subsection (d)).

(c) Cause of action

A person (including a person who acts under color of any statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage of any State) who commits a crime of violence motivated by gender and thus deprives another of the right declared in subsection (b) shall be liable to the party injured, in an action for the recovery of compensatory and punitive damages, injunctive and declaratory relief, and such other relief as a court may deem appropriate.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "crime of violence motivated by gender" means a crime of violence committed because of gender or on the basis of gender, and due, at least in part, to an animus based on the victim's gender; and

(2) the term "crime of violence" means— 1

(A) an act or series of acts that would constitute a felony against the person or that would constitute a felony against property if the conduct presents a serious risk of physical injury to another, and that would come within the meaning of State or Federal offenses described in section 16 of title 18, whether or not those acts have actually resulted in criminal charges, prosecution, or conviction and whether or not those acts were committed in the special maritime, territorial, or prison jurisdiction of the United States; and

(B) includes an act or series of acts that would constitute a felony described in subparagraph (A) but for the relationship between the person who takes such action and the individual against whom such action is taken.

(e) Limitation and procedures

(1) Limitation

Nothing in this section entitles a person to a cause of action under subsection (c) for random acts of violence unrelated to gender or for acts that cannot be demonstrated, by a preponderance of the evidence, to be motivated by gender (within the meaning of subsection (d)).

(2) No prior criminal action

Nothing in this section requires a prior criminal complaint, prosecution, or conviction to establish the elements of a cause of action under subsection (c).

(3) Concurrent jurisdiction

The Federal and State courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction over actions brought pursuant to this part.

(4) Supplemental jurisdiction

Neither section 1367 of title 28 nor subsection (c) of this section shall be construed, by reason of a claim arising under such subsection, to confer on the courts of the United States jurisdiction over any State law claim seeking the establishment of a divorce, alimony, equitable distribution of marital property, or child custody decree.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40302, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1941.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (e)(3), was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle C of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1941. For complete classification of subtitle C of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322 to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13981 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section is comprised of section 40302 of Pub. L. 103–322. Subsec. (e)(5) of section 40302 of Pub. L. 103–322 amended section 1445 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Constitutionality

For constitutionality of section 40302 of Pub. L. 103–322, see Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States.

1 So in original. The word "means" probably should appear after "(A)" below.

Part D—Equal Justice for Women in Courts

subpart 1—education and training for judges and court personnel in state courts

§12371. Grants authorized

The State Justice Institute may award grants for the purpose of developing, testing, presenting, and disseminating model programs to be used by States (as defined in section 10701 of title 42) in training judges and court personnel in the laws of the States and by Indian tribes in training tribal judges and court personnel in the laws of the tribes on rape, sexual assault, domestic violence, dating violence, and other crimes of violence motivated by the victim's gender. Nothing shall preclude the attendance of tribal judges and court personnel at programs funded under this section for States to train judges and court personnel on the laws of the States.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40411, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1942; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(c)(2), (d)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13991 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–386 inserted "dating violence," after "domestic violence," and "Nothing shall preclude the attendance of tribal judges and court personnel at programs funded under this section for States to train judges and court personnel on the laws of the States." at end.

§12372. Training provided by grants

Training provided pursuant to grants made under this part may include current information, existing studies, or current data on—

(1) the nature and incidence of rape and sexual assault by strangers and nonstrangers, marital rape, and incest;

(2) the underreporting of rape, sexual assault, and child sexual abuse;

(3) the physical, psychological, and economic impact of rape and sexual assault on the victim, the costs to society, and the implications for sentencing;

(4) the psychology of sex offenders, their high rate of recidivism, and the implications for sentencing;

(5) the historical evolution of laws and attitudes on rape and sexual assault;

(6) sex stereotyping of female and male victims of rape and sexual assault, racial stereotyping of rape victims and defendants, and the impact of such stereotypes on credibility of witnesses, sentencing, and other aspects of the administration of justice;

(7) application of rape shield laws and other limits on introduction of evidence that may subject victims to improper sex stereotyping and harassment in both rape and nonrape cases, including the need for sua sponte judicial intervention in inappropriate cross-examination;

(8) the use of expert witness testimony on rape trauma syndrome, child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome, post-traumatic stress syndrome, and similar issues;

(9) the legitimate reasons why victims of rape, sexual assault, and incest may refuse to testify against a defendant;

(10) the nature and incidence of domestic violence and dating violence (as defined in section 10447 1 of this title);

(11) the physical, psychological, and economic impact of domestic violence and dating violence on the victim, the costs to society, and the implications for court procedures and sentencing;

(12) the psychology and self-presentation of batterers and victims and the implications for court proceedings and credibility of witnesses;

(13) sex stereotyping of female and male victims of domestic violence and dating violence, myths about presence or absence of domestic violence and dating violence in certain racial, ethnic, religious, or socioeconomic groups, and their impact on the administration of justice;

(14) historical evolution of laws and attitudes on domestic violence;

(15) proper and improper interpretations of the defenses of self-defense and provocation, and the use of expert witness testimony on battered woman syndrome;

(16) the likelihood of retaliation, recidivism, and escalation of violence by batterers, and the potential impact of incarceration and other meaningful sanctions for acts of domestic violence including violations of orders of protection;

(17) economic, psychological, social and institutional reasons for victims' inability to leave the batterer, to report domestic violence or dating violence or to follow through on complaints, including the influence of lack of support from police, judges, and court personnel, and the legitimate reasons why victims of domestic violence or dating violence may refuse to testify against a defendant;

(18) the need for orders of protection, and the implications of mutual orders of protection, dual arrest policies, and mediation in domestic violence and dating violence cases;

(19) recognition of and response to gender-motivated crimes of violence other than rape, sexual assault and domestic violence, such as mass or serial murder motivated by the gender of the victims;

(20) the issues raised by domestic violence in determining custody and visitation, including how to protect the safety of the child and of a parent who is not a predominant aggressor of domestic violence, the legitimate reasons parents may report domestic violence, the ways domestic violence may relate to an abuser's desire to seek custody, and evaluating expert testimony in custody and visitation determinations involving domestic violence;

(21) the issues raised by child sexual assault in determining custody and visitation, including how to protect the safety of the child, the legitimate reasons parents may report child sexual assault, and evaluating expert testimony in custody and visitation determinations involving child sexual assault, including the current scientifically-accepted and empirically valid research on child sexual assault; 2

(22) the extent to which addressing domestic violence and victim safety contributes to the efficient administration of justice; 3

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40412, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1943; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(a)(1), (d)(2), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1515, 1517.)

References in Text

Section 10447 of this title, referred to in par. (10), was subsequently repealed and a new section 10447 enacted which does not define the terms "domestic violence" or "dating violence". However, such terms are defined in section 12291 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13992 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2000—Par. (10). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(A), inserted "and dating violence (as defined in section 3796gg–2 of this title)" before the semicolon.

Par. (11). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(B), inserted "and dating violence" after "domestic violence".

Par. (13). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(C), inserted "and dating violence" after "domestic violence" in two places.

Par. (17). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(D), inserted "or dating violence" after "domestic violence" in two places.

Par. (18). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(d)(2)(E), inserted "and dating violence" after "domestic violence".

Pars. (20) to (22). Pub. L. 106–386, §1406(a)(1), added pars. (20) to (22).

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by "and".

3 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.

§12373. Cooperation in developing programs in making grants under this part

The State Justice Institute shall ensure that model programs carried out pursuant to grants made under this part are developed with the participation of law enforcement officials, public and private nonprofit victim advocates, including national, State, tribal, and local domestic violence and sexual assault programs and coalitions, legal experts, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and recognized experts on gender bias in the courts.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40413, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1944; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(c)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13993 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–386 inserted ", including national, State, tribal, and local domestic violence and sexual assault programs and coalitions" after "victim advocates".

subpart 2—education and training for judges and court personnel in federal courts

§12381. Authorization of circuit studies; education and training grants

(a) Studies

In order to gain a better understanding of the nature and the extent of gender bias in the Federal courts, the circuit judicial councils are encouraged to conduct studies of the instances, if any, of gender bias in their respective circuits and to implement recommended reforms.

(b) Matters for examination

The studies under subsection (a) may include an examination of the effects of gender on—

(1) the treatment of litigants, witnesses, attorneys, jurors, and judges in the courts, including before magistrate and bankruptcy judges;

(2) the interpretation and application of the law, both civil and criminal;

(3) treatment of defendants in criminal cases;

(4) treatment of victims of violent crimes in judicial proceedings;

(5) sentencing;

(6) sentencing alternatives and the nature of supervision of probation and parole;

(7) appointments to committees of the Judicial Conference and the courts;

(8) case management and court sponsored alternative dispute resolution programs;

(9) the selection, retention, promotion, and treatment of employees;

(10) appointment of arbitrators, experts, and special masters;

(11) the admissibility of the victim's past sexual history in civil and criminal cases; and

(12) the aspects of the topics listed in section 12372 of this title that pertain to issues within the jurisdiction of the Federal courts.

(c) Clearinghouse

The Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall act as a clearinghouse to disseminate any reports and materials issued by the gender bias task forces under subsection (a) and to respond to requests for such reports and materials. The gender bias task forces shall provide the Administrative Office of the Courts of the United States 1 with their reports and related material.

(d) Continuing education and training programs

The Federal Judicial Center, in carrying out section 620(b)(3) of title 28, shall include in the educational programs it prepares, including the training programs for newly appointed judges, information on the aspects of the topics listed in section 12372 of this title that pertain to issues within the jurisdiction of the Federal courts, and shall prepare materials necessary to implement this subsection.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40421, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1944; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1406(b)(1), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1516.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14001 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–386 amended heading and text of subsec. (d) generally, substituting provisions relating to continuing education and training programs for provisions relating to model programs.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Administrative Office of the United States Courts".

Part E—Violence Against Women Act Improvements

§12391. Payment of cost of testing for sexually transmitted diseases

(a) Omitted

(b) Limited testing of defendants

(1) Court order

The victim of an offense of the type referred to in subsection (a) 1 may obtain an order in the district court of the United States for the district in which charges are brought against the defendant charged with the offense, after notice to the defendant and an opportunity to be heard, requiring that the defendant be tested for the presence of the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and that the results of the test be communicated to the victim and the defendant. Any test result of the defendant given to the victim or the defendant must be accompanied by appropriate counseling.

(2) Showing required

To obtain an order under paragraph (1), the victim must demonstrate that—

(A) the defendant has been charged with the offense in a State or Federal court, and if the defendant has been arrested without a warrant, a probable cause determination has been made;

(B) the test for the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome is requested by the victim after appropriate counseling; and

(C) the test would provide information necessary for the health of the victim of the alleged offense and the court determines that the alleged conduct of the defendant created a risk of transmission, as determined by the Centers for Disease Control, of the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome to the victim.

(3) Follow-up testing

The court may order follow-up tests and counseling under paragraph (1) if the initial test was negative. Such follow-up tests and counseling shall be performed at the request of the victim on dates that occur six months and twelve months following the initial test.

(4) Termination of testing requirements

An order for follow-up testing under paragraph (3) shall be terminated if the person obtains an acquittal on, or dismissal of, all charges of the type referred to in subsection (a).1

(5) Confidentiality of test

The results of any test ordered under this subsection shall be disclosed only to the victim or, where the court deems appropriate, to the parent or legal guardian of the victim, and to the person tested. The victim may disclose the test results only to any medical professional, counselor, family member or sexual partner(s) the victim may have had since the attack. Any such individual to whom the test results are disclosed by the victim shall maintain the confidentiality of such information.

(6) Disclosure of test results

The court shall issue an order to prohibit the disclosure by the victim of the results of any test performed under this subsection to anyone other than those mentioned in paragraph (5). The contents of the court proceedings and test results pursuant to this section shall be sealed. The results of such test performed on the defendant under this section shall not be used as evidence in any criminal trial.

(7) Contempt for disclosure

Any person who discloses the results of a test in violation of this subsection may be held in contempt of court.

(c) Penalties for intentional transmission of HIV

Not later than 6 months after September 13, 1994, the United States Sentencing Commission shall conduct a study and prepare and submit to the committees 2 on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report concerning recommendations for the revision of sentencing guidelines that relate to offenses in which an HIV infected individual engages in sexual activity if the individual knows that he or she is infected with HIV and intends, through such sexual activity, to expose another to HIV.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40503, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1946; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §604(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3506.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14011 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section is comprised of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322. Subsec. (a) of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322 amended section 20141 of this title. Subsec. (c) of section 40503 of Pub. L. 103–322 also enacted provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–294 substituted "paragraph (1)" for "paragraph (b)(1)".

Change of Name

Centers for Disease Control changed to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §312, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3504.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

1 See Codification note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§12392. Enforcement of statutory rape laws

(a) Sense of Senate

It is the sense of the Senate that States and local jurisdictions should aggressively enforce statutory rape laws.

(b) Justice Department program on statutory rape

Not later than January 1, 1997, the Attorney General shall establish and implement a program that—

(1) studies the linkage between statutory rape and teenage pregnancy, particularly by predatory older men committing repeat offenses; and

(2) educates State and local criminal law enforcement officials on the prevention and prosecution of statutory rape, focusing in particular on the commission of statutory rape by predatory older men committing repeat offenses, and any links to teenage pregnancy.

(c) Violence against women initiative

The Attorney General shall ensure that the Department of Justice's Violence Against Women initiative addresses the issue of statutory rape, particularly the commission of statutory rape by predatory older men committing repeat offenses.

(Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, §906, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2349.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14016 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Part F—National Stalker and Domestic Violence Reduction

§12401. Grant program

(a) In general

The Attorney General is authorized to provide grants to States and units of local government to improve and implement processes for entering data regarding stalking and domestic violence into local, State, and national crime information databases.

(b) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive a grant under subsection (a), a State or unit of local government shall certify that it has or intends to establish a program that enters into the National Crime Information Center records of—

(1) warrants for the arrest of persons violating protection orders intended to protect victims from stalking or domestic violence;

(2) arrests or convictions of persons violating protection 1 or domestic violence; and

(3) protection orders for the protection of persons from stalking or domestic violence.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40602, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §1106(b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14031 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–386 inserted "and implement" after "improve".

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by "orders intended to protect victims from stalking".

§12402. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $3,000,000 for fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40603, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §1106(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1497; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §109, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984; Pub. L. 113–4, title XI, §1103, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 135.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle F of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1950, which enacted this part, amended section 534 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 534 of Title 28.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14032 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "$3,000,000 for fiscal years 2014 through 2018." for "$3,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011."

2006Pub. L. 109–162, §109(2), which directed substitution of "2011" for "2006", was executed by substituting "2011" for "2005" to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because "2006" does not appear in text.

Pub. L. 109–162, §109(1), substituted "2007" for "2001".

2000Pub. L. 106–386 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part—

"(1) $1,500,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(2) $1,750,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

"(3) $2,750,000 for fiscal year 1998."

§12403. Application requirements

An application for a grant under this part shall be submitted in such form and manner, and contain such information, as the Attorney General may prescribe. In addition, applications shall include documentation showing—

(1) the need for grant funds and that State or local funding, as the case may be, does not already cover these operations;

(2) intended use of the grant funds, including a plan of action to increase record input; and

(3) an estimate of expected results from the use of the grant funds.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40604, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1951.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14033 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12404. Disbursement

Not later than 90 days after the receipt of an application under this part, the Attorney General shall either provide grant funds or shall inform the applicant why grant funds are not being provided.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40605, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14034 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12405. Technical assistance, training, and evaluations

The Attorney General may provide technical assistance and training in furtherance of the purposes of this part, and may provide for the evaluation of programs that receive funds under this part, in addition to any evaluation requirements that the Attorney General may prescribe for grantees. The technical assistance, training, and evaluations authorized by this section may be carried out directly by the Attorney General, or through contracts or other arrangements with other entities.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40606, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14035 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12406. Training programs for judges

The State Justice Institute, after consultation with nationally recognized nonprofit organizations with expertise in stalking and domestic violence cases, shall conduct training programs for State (as defined in section 10701 1 of title 42) and Indian tribal judges to ensure that a judge issuing an order in a stalking or domestic violence case has all available criminal history and other information, whether from State or Federal sources.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40607, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

References in Text

Section 10701 of title 42, referred to in text, was in the original "section 202 of the State Justice Institute Authorization Act of 1984", and was translated as reading "section 202 of the State Justice Institute Act of 1984", which is section 202 of Pub. L. 98–620, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14036 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§12407. Recommendations on intrastate communication

The State Justice Institute, after consultation with nationally recognized nonprofit associations with expertise in data sharing among criminal justice agencies and familiarity with the issues raised in stalking and domestic violence cases, shall recommend proposals regarding how State courts may increase intrastate communication between civil and criminal courts.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40608, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14037 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12408. Inclusion in National Incident-Based Reporting System

Not later than 2 years after September 13, 1994, the Attorney General, in accordance with the States, shall compile data regarding domestic violence and intimidation (including stalking) as part of the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40609, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14038 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12409. Report to Congress

Each even-numbered fiscal year, the Attorney General shall submit to the Congress a biennial report that provides information concerning the incidence of stalking and domestic violence, and evaluates the effectiveness of State antistalking efforts and legislation.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40610, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952; Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), title XI, §1135(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2971, 3108; Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d), 8(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 752, 766.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14039 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–162, §1135(a), which directed an amendment substantially identical to that directed by Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 109–271.

Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(1), which directed the substitution of "Each even-numbered fiscal year, the Attorney General shall submit to the Congress a biennial report that provides" for "The Attorney General shall submit to the Congress an annual report, beginning 1 year after September 13, 1994, that provides", was executed by making the substitution for "The Attorney General shall submit to the Congress an annual report, beginning one year after September 13, 1994, that provides", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Report Relating to Stalking Laws

Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §115(b)(2), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2467, provided that: "The Attorney General shall include in an annual report under section 40610 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (42 U.S.C. 14039) [now 34 U.S.C. 12409] information concerning existing or proposed State laws and penalties for stalking crimes against children."

§12410. Definitions

As used in this part—

(1) the term "national crime information databases" refers to the National Crime Information Center and its incorporated criminal history databases, including the Interstate Identification Index; and

(2) the term "protection order" includes an injunction or any other order issued for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person, including temporary and final orders issued by civil or criminal courts (other than support or child custody orders) whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendente lite order in another proceeding so long as any civil order was issued in response to a complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of a person seeking protection.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40611, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1952.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14040 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part G—Enhanced Training and Services To End Abuse Later in Life

Codification

This part was, in the original, subtitle H of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added by Pub. L. 106–386, and was redesignated as part G of this subchapter for purposes of codification.

Pub. L. 113–4, title II, §204(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 82, substituted "ENHANCED TRAINING AND SERVICES TO END ABUSE LATER IN LIFE" for "ELDER ABUSE, NEGLECT, AND EXPLOITATION, INCLUDING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT AGAINST OLDER OR DISABLED INDIVIDUALS" in heading.

§12421. Enhanced training and services to end abuse in later life

(a) Definitions

In this section—

(1) the term "exploitation" has the meaning given the term in section 1397j of title 42;

(2) the term "later life", relating to an individual, means the individual is 50 years of age or older; and

(3) the term "neglect" means the failure of a caregiver or fiduciary to provide the goods or services that are necessary to maintain the health or safety of an individual in later life.

(b) Grant program

(1) Grants authorized

The Attorney General may make grants to eligible entities to carry out the activities described in paragraph (2).

(2) Mandatory and permissible activities

(A) Mandatory activities

An eligible entity receiving a grant under this section shall use the funds received under the grant to—

(i) provide training programs to assist law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, agencies of States or units of local government, population specific organizations, victim service providers, victim advocates, and relevant officers in Federal, tribal, State, territorial, and local courts in recognizing and addressing instances of elder abuse;

(ii) provide or enhance services for victims of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect;

(iii) establish or support multidisciplinary collaborative community responses to victims of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect; and

(iv) conduct cross-training for law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, agencies of States or units of local government, attorneys, health care providers, population specific organizations, faith-based advocates, victim service providers, and courts to better serve victims of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect.

(B) Permissible activities

An eligible entity receiving a grant under this section may use the funds received under the grant to—

(i) provide training programs to assist attorneys, health care providers, faith-based leaders, or other community-based organizations in recognizing and addressing instances of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect; or

(ii) conduct outreach activities and awareness campaigns to ensure that victims of abuse in later life, including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, exploitation, and neglect receive appropriate assistance.

(C) Waiver

The Attorney General may waive 1 or more of the activities described in subparagraph (A) upon making a determination that the activity would duplicate services available in the community.

(D) Limitation

An eligible entity receiving a grant under this section may use not more than 10 percent of the total funds received under the grant for an activity described in subparagraph (B)(ii).

(3) Eligible entities

An entity shall be eligible to receive a grant under this section if—

(A) the entity is—

(i) a State;

(ii) a unit of local government;

(iii) a tribal government or tribal organization;

(iv) a population specific organization with demonstrated experience in assisting individuals over 50 years of age;

(v) a victim service provider with demonstrated experience in addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; or

(vi) a State, tribal, or territorial domestic violence or sexual assault coalition; and


(B) the entity demonstrates that it is part of a multidisciplinary partnership that includes, at a minimum—

(i) a law enforcement agency;

(ii) a prosecutor's office;

(iii) a victim service provider; and

(iv) a nonprofit program or government agency with demonstrated experience in assisting individuals in later life;

(4) Underserved populations

In making grants under this section, the Attorney General shall give priority to proposals providing services to culturally specific and underserved populations.

(5) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $9,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40801, as added Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title II, §1209(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1508; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title II, §204(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 82.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14041 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section defined terms for this part.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Part H—Domestic Violence Task Force

§12431. Task force

(a) Establish

The Attorney General, in consultation with national nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations whose primary expertise is in domestic violence, shall establish a task force to coordinate research on domestic violence and to report to Congress on any overlapping or duplication of efforts on domestic violence issues. The task force shall be comprised of representatives from all Federal agencies that fund such research.

(b) Uses of funds

Funds appropriated under this section shall be used to—

(1) develop a coordinated strategy to strengthen research focused on domestic violence education, prevention, and intervention strategies;

(2) track and report all Federal research and expenditures on domestic violence; and

(3) identify gaps and duplication of efforts in domestic violence research and governmental expenditures on domestic violence issues.

(c) Report

The Task Force shall report to Congress annually on its work under subsection (b).

(d) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "domestic violence" has the meaning given such term by section 10447 1 of this title.

(e) Authorization of Appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $500,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2004.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40901, as added Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1407, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1517.)

References in Text

Section 10447 of this title, referred to in subsec. (d), was subsequently repealed and a new section 10447 enacted which does not define "domestic violence". However, such term is defined in section 12291 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14042 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

Part I—Privacy Protections for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking

§12441. Grants to protect the privacy and confidentiality of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking

The Attorney General, through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, may award grants under this part to States, Indian tribes, territories, or local agencies or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations to ensure that personally identifying information of adult, youth, and child victims of domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking, and dating violence shall not be released or disclosed to the detriment of such victimized persons.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41101, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12442. Purpose areas

Grants made under this part may be used—

(1) to develop or improve protocols, procedures, and policies for the purpose of preventing the release of personally identifying information of victims (such as developing alternative identifiers);

(2) to defray the costs of modifying or improving existing databases, registries, and victim notification systems to ensure that personally identifying information of victims is protected from release, unauthorized information sharing and disclosure;

(3) to develop confidential opt out systems that will enable victims of violence to make a single request to keep personally identifying information out of multiple databases, victim notification systems, and registries; or

(4) to develop safe uses of technology (such as notice requirements regarding electronic surveillance by government entities), to protect against abuses of technology (such as electronic or GPS stalking), or providing training for law enforcement on high tech electronic crimes of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41102, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043b–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12443. Eligible entities

Entities eligible for grants under this part include—

(1) jurisdictions or agencies within jurisdictions having authority or responsibility for developing or maintaining public databases, registries or victim notification systems;

(2) nonprofit nongovernmental victim advocacy organizations having expertise regarding confidentiality, privacy, and information technology and how these issues are likely to impact the safety of victims;

(3) States or State agencies;

(4) local governments or agencies;

(5) Indian tribal governments or tribal organizations;

(6) territorial governments, agencies, or organizations; or

(7) nonprofit nongovernmental victim advocacy organizations, including statewide domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41103, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2983.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043b–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12444. Grant conditions

Applicants described in paragraph (1) and paragraphs (3) through (6) shall demonstrate that they have entered into a significant partnership with a State, tribal, territorial, or local victim service or advocacy organization or condition in order to develop safe, confidential, and effective protocols, procedures, policies, and systems for protecting personally identifying information of victims.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41104, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984.)

References in Text

Paragraph (1) and paragraphs (3) through (6), referred to in text, probably mean paragraphs (1) and (3) through (6) of section 12443 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043b–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Part J—Services, Education, Protection and Justice for Young Victims of Violence

§12451. Creating hope through outreach, options, services, and education for children and youth ("CHOOSE Children & Youth")

(a) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, working in collaboration with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Education, shall award grants to enhance the safety of youth and children who are victims of, or exposed to, domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking and prevent future violence.

(b) Program purposes

Funds provided under this section may be used for the following program purpose areas:

(1) Services to advocate for and respond to youth

To develop, expand, and strengthen victim-centered interventions and services that target youth who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking. Services may include victim services, counseling, advocacy, mentoring, educational support, transportation, legal assistance in civil, criminal and administrative matters, such as family law cases, housing cases, child welfare proceedings, campus administrative proceedings, and civil protection order proceedings, population-specific services, and other activities that support youth in finding safety, stability, and justice and in addressing the emotional, cognitive, and physical effects of trauma. Funds may be used to—

(A) assess and analyze currently available services for youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking, determining relevant barriers to such services in a particular locality, and developing a community protocol to address such problems collaboratively;

(B) develop and implement policies, practices, and procedures to effectively respond to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking against youth; or

(C) provide technical assistance and training to enhance the ability of school personnel, victim service providers, child protective service workers, staff of law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, court personnel, individuals who work in after school programs, medical personnel, social workers, mental health personnel, and workers in other programs that serve children and youth to improve their ability to appropriately respond to the needs of children and youth who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking, and to properly refer such children, youth, and their families to appropriate services.

(2) Supporting youth through education and protection

To enable middle schools, high schools, and institutions of higher education to—

(A) provide training to school personnel, including healthcare providers and security personnel, on the needs of students who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking;

(B) develop and implement prevention and intervention policies in middle and high schools, including appropriate responses to, and identification and referral procedures for, students who are experiencing or perpetrating domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking, and procedures for handling the requirements of court protective orders issued to or against students;

(C) provide support services for student victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking, such as a resource person who is either on-site or on-call;

(D) implement developmentally appropriate educational programming for students regarding domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking and the impact of such violence on youth; or

(E) develop strategies to increase identification, support, referrals, and prevention programming for youth who are at high risk of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking.

(c) Eligible applicants

(1) In general

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall be—

(A) a victim service provider, tribal nonprofit, or population-specific or community-based organization with a demonstrated history of effective work addressing the needs of youth who are, including runaway or homeless youth affected by, victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or sex trafficking;

(B) a victim service provider that is partnered with an entity that has a demonstrated history of effective work addressing the needs of youth; or

(C) a public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under section 2164 of title 10 or section 921 of title 20, a group of schools, a school district, or an institution of higher education.

(2) Partnerships

(A) Education

To be eligible to receive a grant for the purposes described in subsection (b)(2), an entity described in paragraph (1) shall be partnered with a public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under section 2164 of title 10 or section 921 of title 20, a group of schools, a school district, or an institution of higher education.

(B) Other partnerships

All applicants under this section are encouraged to work in partnership with organizations and agencies that work with the relevant population. Such entities may include—

(i) a State, tribe, unit of local government, or territory;

(ii) a population specific or community-based organization;

(iii) batterer intervention programs or sex offender treatment programs with specialized knowledge and experience working with youth offenders; or

(iv) any other agencies or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations with the capacity to provide effective assistance to the adult, youth, and child victims served by the partnership.

(d) Grantee requirements

Applicants for grants under this section shall establish and implement policies, practices, and procedures that—

(1) require and include appropriate referral systems for child and youth victims;

(2) protect the confidentiality and privacy of child and youth victim information, particularly in the context of parental or third party involvement and consent, mandatory reporting duties, and working with other service providers all with priority on victim safety and autonomy; and

(3) ensure that all individuals providing intervention or prevention programming to children or youth through a program funded under this section have completed, or will complete, sufficient training in connection with domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sex trafficking.

(e) Definitions and grant conditions

In this section, the definitions and grant conditions provided for in section 12291 of this title shall apply.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(g) Allotment

(1) In general

Not less than 50 percent of the total amount appropriated under this section for each fiscal year shall be used for the purposes described in subsection (b)(1).

(2) Indian tribes

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount appropriated under this section for each fiscal year shall be made available for grants under the program authorized by section 10452 of this title. The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated under this paragraph.

(h) Priority

The Attorney General shall prioritize grant applications under this section that coordinate with prevention programs in the community.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41201, as added Pub. L. 113–4, title III, §302, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 84.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 41201 of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §303, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3004, related to services to advocate for and respond to youth, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–4, title III, §302, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 84.

Effective Date

Section not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as an Effective Date of 2013 Amendment note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Part K—Strengthening America's Families by Preventing Violence Against Women and Children

§12461. Findings

Congress finds that—

(1) the former United States Advisory Board on Child Abuse suggests that domestic violence may be the single major precursor to child abuse and neglect fatalities in this country;

(2) studies suggest that as many as 10,000,000 children witness domestic violence every year;

(3) studies suggest that among children and teenagers, recent exposure to violence in the home was a significant factor in predicting a child's violent behavior;

(4) a study by the Nurse-Family Partnership found that children whose parents did not participate in home visitation programs that provided coaching in parenting skills, advice and support, were almost 5 times more likely to be abused in their first 2 years of life;

(5) a child's exposure to domestic violence seems to pose the greatest independent risk for being the victim of any act of partner violence as an adult;

(6) children exposed to domestic violence are more likely to believe that using violence is an effective means of getting one's needs met and managing conflict in close relationships;

(7) children exposed to abusive parenting, harsh or erratic discipline, or domestic violence are at increased risk for juvenile crime; and

(8) in a national survey of more than 6,000 American families, 50 percent of men who frequently assaulted their wives also frequently abused their children.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41301, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3017.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043d of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12462. Purpose

The purpose of this part is to—

(1) prevent crimes involving violence against women, children, and youth;

(2) increase the resources and services available to prevent violence against women, children, and youth;

(3) reduce the impact of exposure to violence in the lives of children and youth so that the intergenerational cycle of violence is interrupted;

(4) develop and implement education and services programs to prevent children in vulnerable families from becoming victims or perpetrators of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(5) promote programs to ensure that children and youth receive the assistance they need to end the cycle of violence and develop mutually respectful, nonviolent relationships; and

(6) encourage collaboration among community-based organizations and governmental agencies serving children and youth, providers of health and mental health services and providers of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking victim services to prevent violence against women and children.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41302, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3018.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043d–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12463. Saving money and reducing tragedies through prevention (SMART Prevention)

(a) Grants authorized

The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Education, is authorized to award grants for the purpose of preventing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by taking a comprehensive approach that focuses on youth, children exposed to violence, and men as leaders and influencers of social norms.

(b) Use of funds

Funds provided under this section may be used for the following purposes:

(1) Teen dating violence awareness and prevention

To develop, maintain, or enhance programs that change attitudes and behaviors around the acceptability of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking and provide education and skills training to young individuals and individuals who influence young individuals. The prevention program may use evidence-based, evidence-informed, or innovative strategies and practices focused on youth. Such a program should include—

(A) age and developmentally-appropriate education on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and sexual coercion, as well as healthy relationship skills, in school, in the community, or in health care settings;

(B) community-based collaboration and training for those with influence on youth, such as parents, teachers, coaches, healthcare providers, faith-leaders, older teens, and mentors;

(C) education and outreach to change environmental factors contributing to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(D) policy development targeted to prevention, including school-based policies and protocols.

(2) Children exposed to violence and abuse

To develop, maintain or enhance programs designed to prevent future incidents of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by preventing, reducing and responding to children's exposure to violence in the home. Such programs may include—

(A) providing services for children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking, including direct counseling or advocacy, and support for the non-abusing parent; and

(B) training and coordination for educational, after-school, and childcare programs on how to safely and confidentially identify children and families experiencing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking and properly refer children exposed and their families to services and violence prevention programs.

(3) Engaging men as leaders and role models

To develop, maintain or enhance programs that work with men to prevent domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking by helping men to serve as role models and social influencers of other men and youth at the individual, school, community or statewide levels.

(c) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall be—

(1) a victim service provider, community-based organization, tribe or tribal organization, or other non-profit, nongovernmental organization that has a history of effective work preventing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking and expertise in the specific area for which they are applying for funds; or

(2) a partnership between a victim service provider, community-based organization, tribe or tribal organization, or other non-profit, nongovernmental organization that has a history of effective work preventing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking and at least one of the following that has expertise in serving children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, youth domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking prevention, or engaging men to prevent domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking:

(A) A public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under section 2164 of title 10 or section 921 of title 20, a group of schools, or a school district.

(B) A local community-based organization, population-specific organization, or faith-based organization that has established expertise in providing services to youth.

(C) A community-based organization, population-specific organization, university or health care clinic, faith-based organization, or other non-profit, nongovernmental organization with a demonstrated history of effective work addressing the needs of children exposed to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(D) A nonprofit, nongovernmental entity providing services for runaway or homeless youth affected by domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(E) Healthcare entities eligible for reimbursement under title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq.], including providers that target the special needs of children and youth.

(F) Any other agencies, population-specific organizations, or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations with the capacity to provide necessary expertise to meet the goals of the program; or


(3) a public, charter, tribal, or nationally accredited private middle or high school, a school administered by the Department of Defense under section 2164 of title 10 or section 921 of title 20, a group of schools, a school district, or an institution of higher education.

(d) Grantee requirements

(1) In general

Applicants for grants under this section shall prepare and submit to the Director an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Director may require that demonstrates the capacity of the applicant and partnering organizations to undertake the project.

(2) Policies and procedures

Applicants under this section shall establish and implement policies, practices, and procedures that—

(A) include appropriate referral systems to direct any victim identified during program activities to highly qualified follow-up care;

(B) protect the confidentiality and privacy of adult and youth victim information, particularly in the context of parental or third party involvement and consent, mandatory reporting duties, and working with other service providers;

(C) ensure that all individuals providing prevention programming through a program funded under this section have completed or will complete sufficient training in connection with domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault or stalking; and

(D) document how prevention programs are coordinated with service programs in the community.

(3) Preference

In selecting grant recipients under this section, the Attorney General shall give preference to applicants that—

(A) include outcome-based evaluation; and

(B) identify any other community, school, or State-based efforts that are working on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking prevention and explain how the grantee or partnership will add value, coordinate with other programs, and not duplicate existing efforts.

(e) Definitions and grant conditions

In this section, the definitions and grant conditions provided for in section 12291 of this title shall apply.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018. Amounts appropriated under this section may only be used for programs and activities described under this section.

(g) Allotment

(1) In general

Not less than 25 percent of the total amounts appropriated under this section in each fiscal year shall be used for each set of purposes described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (b).

(2) Indian tribes

Not less than 10 percent of the total amounts appropriated under this section in each fiscal year shall be made available for grants to Indian tribes or tribal organizations. If an insufficient number of applications are received from Indian tribes or tribal organizations, such funds shall be allotted to other population-specific programs.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41303, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title IV, §401, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3018; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title IV, §402(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 92.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(E), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XVIII (§1395 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043d–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to grants to assist children and youth exposed to violence.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§12464. Grants to support families in the justice system

(a) In general

The Attorney General may make grants to States, units of local government, courts (including juvenile courts), Indian tribal governments, nonprofit organizations, legal services providers, and victim services providers to improve the response of all aspects of the civil and criminal justice system to families with a history of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, or in cases involving allegations of child sexual abuse.

(b) Use of funds

A grant under this section may be used to—

(1) provide supervised visitation and safe visitation exchange of children and youth by and between parents in situations involving domestic violence, dating violence, child sexual abuse, sexual assault, or stalking;

(2) develop and promote State, local, and tribal legislation, policies, and best practices for improving civil and criminal court functions, responses, practices, and procedures in cases involving a history of domestic violence or sexual assault, or in cases involving allegations of child sexual abuse, including cases in which the victim proceeds pro se;

(3) educate court-based and court-related personnel and court-appointed personnel (including custody evaluators and guardians ad litem) and child protective services workers on the dynamics of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, including information on perpetrator behavior, evidence-based risk factors for domestic and dating violence homicide, and on issues relating to the needs of victims, including safety, security, privacy, and confidentiality, including cases in which the victim proceeds pro se;

(4) provide appropriate resources in juvenile court matters to respond to dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault (including child sexual abuse), and stalking and ensure necessary services dealing with the health and mental health of victims are available;

(5) enable courts or court-based or court-related programs to develop or enhance—

(A) court infrastructure (such as specialized courts, consolidated courts, dockets, intake centers, or interpreter services);

(B) community-based initiatives within the court system (such as court watch programs, victim assistants, pro se victim assistance programs, or community-based supplementary services);

(C) offender management, monitoring, and accountability programs;

(D) safe and confidential information-storage and information-sharing databases within and between court systems;

(E) education and outreach programs to improve community access, including enhanced access for underserved populations; and

(F) other projects likely to improve court responses to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;


(6) provide civil legal assistance and advocacy services, including legal information and resources in cases in which the victim proceeds pro se, to—

(A) victims of domestic violence; and

(B) nonoffending parents in matters—

(i) that involve allegations of child sexual abuse;

(ii) that relate to family matters, including civil protection orders, custody, and divorce; and

(iii) in which the other parent is represented by counsel;


(7) collect data and provide training and technical assistance, including developing State, local, and tribal model codes and policies, to improve the capacity of grantees and communities to address the civil justice needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who have legal representation, who are proceeding pro se, or who are proceeding with the assistance of a legal advocate; and

(8) to 1 improve training and education to assist judges, judicial personnel, attorneys, child welfare personnel, and legal advocates in the civil justice system.

(c) Considerations

(1) In general

In making grants for purposes described in paragraphs (1) through (7) of subsection (b), the Attorney General shall consider—

(A) the number of families to be served by the proposed programs and services;

(B) the extent to which the proposed programs and services serve underserved populations;

(C) the extent to which the applicant demonstrates cooperation and collaboration with nonprofit, nongovernmental entities in the local community with demonstrated histories of effective work on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including State or tribal domestic violence coalitions, State or tribal sexual assault coalitions, local shelters, and programs for domestic violence and sexual assault victims; and

(D) the extent to which the applicant demonstrates coordination and collaboration with State, tribal, and local court systems, including mechanisms for communication and referral.

(2) Other grants

In making grants under subsection (b)(8) the Attorney General shall take into account the extent to which the grantee has expertise addressing the judicial system's handling of family violence, child custody, child abuse and neglect, adoption, foster care, supervised visitation, divorce, and parentage.

(d) Applicant requirements

The Attorney General may make a grant under this section to an applicant that—

(1) demonstrates expertise in the areas of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or child sexual abuse, as appropriate;

(2) ensures that any fees charged to individuals for use of supervised visitation programs and services are based on the income of those individuals, unless otherwise provided by court order;

(3) for a court-based program, certifies that victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking are not charged fees or any other costs related to the filing, petitioning, modifying, issuance, registration, enforcement, withdrawal, or dismissal of matters relating to the domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(4) demonstrates that adequate security measures, including adequate facilities, procedures, and personnel capable of preventing violence, and adequate standards are, or will be, in place (including the development of protocols or policies to ensure that confidential information is not shared with courts, law enforcement agencies, or child welfare agencies unless necessary to ensure the safety of any child or adult using the services of a program funded under this section), if the applicant proposes to operate supervised visitation programs and services or safe visitation exchange;

(5) certifies that the organizational policies of the applicant do not require mediation or counseling involving offenders and victims being physically present in the same place, in cases where domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking is alleged;

(6) certifies that any person providing legal assistance through a program funded under this section has completed or will complete training on domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, including child sexual abuse, and related legal issues; and

(7) certifies that any person providing custody evaluation or guardian ad litem services through a program funded under this section has completed or will complete training developed with input from and in collaboration with a tribal, State, territorial, or local domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victim service provider or coalition on the dynamics of domestic violence and sexual assault, including child sexual abuse, that includes training on how to review evidence of past abuse and the use of evidenced-based theories to make recommendations on custody and visitation.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $22,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this subsection shall remain available until expended.

(f) Allotment for Indian tribes

(1) In general

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount available under this section for each fiscal year shall be available for grants under the program authorized by section 10452 of this title.2

(2) Applicability of part 3

The requirements of this section shall not apply to funds allocated for the program described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title III, §1301, as added Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §104(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 73.)

References in Text

Section 10452 of this title, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), was in the original "section 3796gg–10 of this title", and was translated as meaning section 2015 of Pub. L. 90–351, which was classified to section 3796gg–10 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as section 10452 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 10420 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 and also as part of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1301 of Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title III, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1509; Pub. L. 109–162, §3(b)(2), title III, §306, title IX, §906(d), formerly §906(e), title XI, §1135(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2971, 3016, 3081, 3109, renumbered §906(d), Pub. L. 109–271, §7(b)(2)(B), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 109–271, §§2(d), 7(d)(2), 8(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 752, 766, related to safe havens for children, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §104(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 73.

Effective Date

Section not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as an Effective Date of 2013 Amendment note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Definitions

For definitions of terms used in this section, see section 1002 of Pub. L. 106–386, as amended, set out as a note under section 10447 of this title.

1 So in original. The word "to" probably should not appear.

2 So in original. See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be "section".

Part L—Addressing the Housing Needs of Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, and Stalking

subpart 1—grant programs

§12471. Findings

Congress finds that:

(1) There is a strong link between domestic violence and homelessness. Among cities surveyed, 44 percent identified domestic violence as a primary cause of homelessness.

(2) Ninety-two percent of homeless women have experienced severe physical or sexual abuse at some point in their lives. Of all homeless women and children, 60 percent had been abused by age 12, and 63 percent have been victims of intimate partner violence as adults.

(3) Women and families across the country are being discriminated against, denied access to, and even evicted from public and subsidized housing because of their status as victims of domestic violence.

(4) A recent survey of legal service providers around the country found that these providers have responded to almost 150 documented eviction cases in the last year alone where the tenant was evicted because of the domestic violence crimes committed against her. In addition, nearly 100 clients were denied housing because of their status as victims of domestic violence.

(5) Women who leave their abusers frequently lack adequate emergency shelter options. The lack of adequate emergency options for victims presents a serious threat to their safety and the safety of their children. Requests for emergency shelter by homeless women with children increased by 78 percent of United States cities surveyed in 2004. In the same year, 32 percent of the requests for shelter by homeless families went unmet due to the lack of available emergency shelter beds.

(6) The average stay at an emergency shelter is 60 days, while the average length of time it takes a homeless family to secure housing is 6 to 10 months.

(7) Victims of domestic violence often return to abusive partners because they cannot find long-term housing.

(8) There are not enough Federal housing rent vouchers available to accommodate the number of people in need of long-term housing. Some people remain on the waiting list for Federal housing rent vouchers for years, while some lists are closed.

(9) Transitional housing resources and services provide an essential continuum between emergency shelter provision and independent living. A majority of women in transitional housing programs stated that had these programs not existed, they would have likely gone back to abusive partners.

(10) Because abusers frequently manipulate finances in an effort to control their partners, victims often lack steady income, credit history, landlord references, and a current address, all of which are necessary to obtain long-term permanent housing.

(11) Victims of domestic violence in rural areas face additional barriers, challenges, and unique circumstances, such as geographical isolation, poverty, lack of public transportation systems, shortages of health care providers, under-insurance or lack of health insurance, difficulty ensuring confidentiality in small communities, and decreased access to many resources (such as advanced education, job opportunities, and adequate childcare).

(12) Congress and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development have recognized in recent years that families experiencing domestic violence have unique needs that should be addressed by those administering the Federal housing programs.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41401, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3030.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043e of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§12472. Purpose

The purpose of this subpart is to reduce domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, and to prevent homelessness by—

(1) protecting the safety of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who reside in homeless shelters, public housing, assisted housing, tribally designated housing, or other emergency, transitional, permanent, or affordable housing, and ensuring that such victims have meaningful access to the criminal justice system without jeopardizing such housing;

(2) creating long-term housing solutions that develop communities and provide sustainable living solutions for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(3) building collaborations among victim service providers, homeless service providers, housing providers, and housing agencies to provide appropriate services, interventions, and training to address the housing needs of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(4) enabling public and assisted housing agencies, tribally designated housing entities, private landlords, property management companies, and other housing providers and agencies to respond appropriately to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, while maintaining a safe environment for all housing residents.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41402, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3031; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §601(a)(2), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 102.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043e–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "subpart" for "part" in introductory provisions.

§12473. Definitions

For purposes of this subpart—

(1) the term "assisted housing" means housing assisted—

(A) under sections 1 1715e, 1715k, 1715l(d)(3), 1715l(d)(4), 1715n(e), 1715v, or 1715z–1 of title 12;

(B) under section 1701s of title 12;

(C) under section 1701q of title 12;

(D) under section 811 of the Cranston-Gonzales 2 National Affordable Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 8013);

(E) under title II of the Cranston-Gonzales 2 National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.];

(F) under subtitle D of title VIII of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 12901 et seq.);

(G) under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.); or

(H) under section 1437f of title 42;


(2) the term "continuum of care" means a community plan developed to organize and deliver housing and services to meet the specific needs of people who are homeless as they move to stable housing and achieve maximum self-sufficiency;

(3) the term "low-income housing assistance voucher" means housing assistance described in section 1437f of title 42;

(4) the term "public housing" means housing described in section 1437a(b)(1) of title 42;

(5) the term "public housing agency" means an agency described in section 1437a(b)(6) of title 42;

(6) the terms "homeless", "homeless individual", and "homeless person"—

(A) mean an individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; and

(B) includes—

(i) an individual who—

(I) is sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason;

(II) is living in a motel, hotel, trailer park, or campground due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations;

(III) is living in an emergency or transitional shelter;

(IV) is abandoned in a hospital; or

(V) is awaiting foster care placement;


(ii) an individual who has a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; or

(iii) migratory children (as defined in section 6399 of title 20) who qualify as homeless under this section because the children are living in circumstances described in this paragraph;


(7) the term "homeless service provider" means a nonprofit, nongovernmental homeless service provider, such as a homeless shelter, a homeless service or advocacy program, a tribal organization serving homeless individuals, or coalition or other nonprofit, nongovernmental organization carrying out a community-based homeless or housing program that has a documented history of effective work concerning homelessness;

(8) the term "tribally designated housing" means housing assistance described in the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 et seq.); and

(9) the term "tribally designated housing entity" means a housing entity described in the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4103(21)); 3

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41403, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3031; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §601(a)(3), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 102.)

References in Text

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in par. (1)(E), (F), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079. Title II of the Act, known as the HOME Investment Partnerships Act, is classified principally to subchapter II (§12721 et seq.) of chapter 130 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Subtitle D of title VIII of the Act, known as the AIDS Housing Opportunity Act, is classified generally to chapter 131 (§12901 et seq.) of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, referred to in par. (1)(G), is Pub. L. 93–383, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 633. Title I of the Act is classified principally to chapter 69 (§5301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996, referred to in pars. (8) and (9), is Pub. L. 104–330, Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4016, which is classified principally to chapter 43 (§4101 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. Par. (21) of section 4103 of Title 25 was redesignated par. (22) by Pub. L. 110–411, §3(2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4320. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4101 of Title 25 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043e–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "subpart" for "part" in introductory provisions.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

2 So in original. Probably should be "Cranston-Gonzalez".

3 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.

§12474. Collaborative grants to increase the long-term stability of victims

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Administration for Children and Families, in partnership with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, shall award grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements for a period of not less than 2 years to eligible entities to develop long-term sustainability and self-sufficiency options for adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking who are currently homeless or at risk for becoming homeless.

(2) Amount

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall award funds in amounts—

(A) not less than $25,000 per year; and

(B) not more than $1,000,000 per year.

(b) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive funds under this section, an entity shall demonstrate that it is a coalition or partnership, applying jointly, that—

(1) shall include a domestic violence victim service provider;

(2) shall include—

(A) a homeless service provider;

(B) a nonprofit, nongovernmental community housing development organization or a Department of Agriculture rural housing service program; or

(C) in the absence of a homeless service provider on tribal lands or nonprofit, nongovernmental community housing development organization on tribal lands, a tribally designated housing entity or tribal housing consortium;


(3) may include a dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking victim service provider;

(4) may include housing developers, housing corporations, State housing finance agencies, other housing agencies, and associations representing landlords;

(5) may include a public housing agency or tribally designated housing entity;

(6) may include tenant organizations in public or tribally designated housing, as well as nonprofit, nongovernmental tenant organizations;

(7) may include other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations participating in the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Continuum of Care process;

(8) may include a State, tribal, territorial, or local government or government agency; and

(9) may include any other agencies or nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations with the capacity to provide effective help to adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(c) Application

Each eligible entity seeking funds under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary of Health and Human Services at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may require.

(d) Use of funds

Funds awarded to eligible entities under subsection (a) shall be used to design or replicate and implement new activities, services, and programs to increase the stability and self-sufficiency of, and create partnerships to develop long-term housing options for adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, and their dependents, who are currently homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Such activities, services, or programs—

(1) shall develop sustainable long-term living solutions in the community by—

(A) coordinating efforts and resources among the various groups and organizations comprised in the entity to access existing private and public funding;

(B) assisting with the placement of individuals and families in long-term housing; and

(C) providing services to help individuals or families find and maintain long-term housing, including financial assistance and support services;


(2) may develop partnerships with individuals, organizations, corporations, or other entities that provide capital costs for the purchase, preconstruction, construction, renovation, repair, or conversion of affordable housing units;

(3) may use funds for the administrative expenses related to the continuing operation, upkeep, maintenance, and use of housing described in paragraph (2); and

(4) may provide to the community information about housing and housing programs, and the process to locate and obtain long-term housing.

(e) Limitation

Funds provided under paragraph 1 (a) shall not be used for construction, modernization or renovation.

(f) Underserved populations and priorities

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall—

(1) give priority to linguistically and culturally specific services;

(2) give priority to applications from entities that include a sexual assault service provider as described in subsection (b)(3); and

(3) award a minimum of 15 percent of the funds appropriated under this section in any fiscal year to tribal organizations.

(g) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Affordable housing

The term "affordable housing" means housing that complies with the conditions set forth in section 12745 of title 42.

(2) Long-term housing

The term "long-term housing" means housing that is sustainable, accessible, affordable, and safe for the foreseeable future and is—

(A) rented or owned by the individual;

(B) subsidized by a voucher or other program which is not time-limited and is available for as long as the individual meets the eligibility requirements for the voucher or program; or

(C) provided directly by a program, agency, or organization and is not time-limited and is available for as long as the individual meets the eligibility requirements for the program, agency, or organization.

(h) Evaluation, monitoring, administration, and technical assistance

For purposes of this section—

(1) up to 5 percent of the funds appropriated under subsection (i) for each fiscal year may be used by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for evaluation, monitoring, and administration costs under this section; and

(2) up to 8 percent of the funds appropriated under subsection (i) for each fiscal year may be used to provide technical assistance to grantees under this section.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41404, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3033; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §5(a), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 759; Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §603(1), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 110.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043e–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "$4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011".

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §5(a)(1), substituted "for Children" for "of Children".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–271, §5(a)(2), struck out "(1) In general.—" before "Funds awarded to", inserted "Such activities, services, or programs—" after "becoming homeless.", substituted "(1)" for "(2) Activities, services, programs.—Such activities, services, or programs described in paragraph (1)", redesignated pars. (3) to (5) as (2) to (4), respectively, and substituted "paragraph (2)" for "paragraph (3)" in par. (3), as so redesignated.

1 So in original. Probably should be "subsection".

§12475. Grants to combat violence against women in public and assisted housing

(a) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section to assist eligible grantees in responding appropriately to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking so that the status of being a victim of such a crime is not a reason for the denial or loss of housing. Such assistance shall be accomplished through—

(1) education and training of eligible entities;

(2) development and implementation of appropriate housing policies and practices;

(3) enhancement of collaboration with victim service providers and tenant organizations; and

(4) reduction of the number of victims of such crimes who are evicted or denied housing because of crimes and lease violations committed or directly caused by the perpetrators of such crimes.

(b) Grants authorized

(1) In general

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Violence Against Women Office of the Department of Justice ("Director"), and in consultation with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development ("Secretary"), and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Administration for Children, Youth and Families ("ACYF"), shall award grants and contracts for not less than 2 years to eligible grantees to promote the full and equal access to and use of housing by adult and youth victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

(2) Amounts

Not less than 15 percent of the funds appropriated to carry out this section shall be available for grants to tribally designated housing entities.

(3) Award basis

The Attorney General shall award grants and contracts under this section on a competitive basis.

(4) Limitation

Appropriated funds may only be used for the purposes described in subsection (f).

(c) Eligible grantees

(1) In general

Eligible grantees are—

(A) public housing agencies;

(B) principally managed public housing resident management corporations, as determined by the Secretary;

(C) public housing projects owned by public housing agencies;

(D) tribally designated housing entities; and

(E) private, for-profit, and nonprofit owners or managers of assisted housing.

(2) Submission required for all grantees

To receive assistance under this section, an eligible grantee shall certify that—

(A) its policies and practices do not prohibit or limit a resident's right to summon police or other emergency assistance in response to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) programs and services are developed that give a preference in admission to adult and youth victims of such violence, consistent with local housing needs, and applicable law and the Secretary's instructions;

(C) it does not discriminate against any person—

(i) because that person is or is perceived to be, or has a family or household member who is or is perceived to be, a victim of such violence; or

(ii) because of the actions or threatened actions of the individual who the victim, as certified in subsection (e), states has committed or threatened to commit acts of such violence against the victim, or against the victim's family or household member;


(D) plans are developed that establish meaningful consultation and coordination with local victim service providers, tenant organizations, linguistically and culturally specific service providers, State domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, and, where they exist, tribal domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions; and

(E) its policies and practices will be in compliance with those described in this paragraph within the later of 1 year or a period selected by the Attorney General in consultation with the Secretary and ACYF.

(d) Application

Each eligible entity seeking a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such a time, in such a manner, and containing such information as the Attorney General may require.

(e) Certification

(1) In general

A public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider receiving funds under this section may request that an individual claiming relief under this section certify that the individual is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. The individual shall provide a copy of such certification to the public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider within a reasonable period of time after the agency or authority requests such certification.

(2) Contents

An individual may satisfy the certification requirement of paragraph (1) by—

(A) providing the public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider with documentation, signed by an employee, agent, or volunteer of a victim service provider, an attorney, a member of the clergy, a medical professional, or any other professional from whom the victim has sought assistance in addressing domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, or the effects of abuse; or

(B) producing a Federal, State, tribal, territorial, or local police or court record.

(3) Limitation

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require any housing agency, assisted housing provider, tribally designated housing entity, owner, or manager to demand that an individual produce official documentation or physical proof of the individual's status as a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, in order to receive any of the benefits provided in this section. A housing agency, assisted housing provider, tribally designated housing entity, owner, or manager may provide benefits to an individual based solely on the individual's statement or other corroborating evidence.

(4) Confidentiality

(A) In general

All information provided to any housing agency, assisted housing provider, tribally designated housing entity, owner, or manager pursuant to paragraph (1), including the fact that an individual is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, shall be retained in confidence by such agency, and shall neither be entered into any shared database, nor provided to any related housing agency, assisted housing provider, tribally designated housing entity, owner, or manager, except to the extent that disclosure is—

(i) requested or consented to by the individual in writing; or

(ii) otherwise required by applicable law.

(B) Notification

Public housing agencies must provide notice to tenants of their rights under this section, including their right to confidentiality and the limits thereof, and to owners and managers of their rights and obligations under this section.

(f) Use of funds

Grants and contracts awarded pursuant to subsection (a) shall provide to eligible entities personnel, training, and technical assistance to develop and implement policies, practices, and procedures, making physical improvements or changes, and developing or enhancing collaborations for the purposes of—

(1) enabling victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking with otherwise disqualifying rental, credit, or criminal histories to be eligible to obtain housing or housing assistance, if such victims would otherwise qualify for housing or housing assistance and can provide documented evidence that demonstrates the causal connection between such violence or abuse and the victims' negative histories;

(2) permitting applicants for housing or housing assistance to provide incomplete rental and employment histories, otherwise required as a condition of admission or assistance, if the victim believes that providing such rental and employment history would endanger the victim's or the victim children's safety;

(3) protecting victims' confidentiality, including protection of victims' personally identifying information, address, or rental history;

(4) assisting victims who need to leave a public housing, tribally designated housing, or assisted housing unit quickly to protect their safety, including those who are seeking transfer to a new public housing unit, tribally designated housing unit, or assisted housing unit, whether in the same or a different neighborhood or jurisdiction;

(5) enabling the public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider, or the victim, to remove, consistent with applicable State law, the perpetrator of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking without evicting, removing, or otherwise penalizing the victim;

(6) enabling the public housing agency, tribally designated housing entity, or assisted housing provider, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up;

(7) developing and implementing more effective security policies, protocols, and services;

(8) allotting not more than 15 percent of funds awarded under the grant to make modest physical improvements to enhance safety;

(9) training personnel to more effectively identify and respond to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(10) effectively providing notice to applicants and residents of the above housing policies, practices, and procedures.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(h) Technical assistance

Up to 12 percent of the amount appropriated under subsection (g) for each fiscal year shall be used by the Attorney General for technical assistance costs under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41405, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §601, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3035; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §603(2), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 110.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043e–4 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "$4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011".

subpart 2—housing rights

§12491. Housing protections for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking

(a) Definitions

In this subpart:

(1) Affiliated individual

The term "affiliated individual" means, with respect to an individual—

(A) a spouse, parent, brother, sister, or child of that individual, or an individual to whom that individual stands in loco parentis; or

(B) any individual, tenant, or lawful occupant living in the household of that individual.

(2) Appropriate agency

The term "appropriate agency" means, with respect to a covered housing program, the Executive department (as defined in section 101 of title 5) that carries out the covered housing program.

(3) Covered housing program

The term "covered housing program" means—

(A) the program under section 1701q of title 12;

(B) the program under section 811 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 8013);

(C) the program under subtitle D of title VIII of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 12901 et seq.);

(D) the program under subtitle A of title IV of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11360 et seq.);

(E) the program under subtitle A of title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 12741 et seq.);

(F) the program under paragraph (3) of section 1715l(d) of title 12 that bears interest at a rate determined under the proviso under paragraph (5) of such section 1715l(d);

(G) the program under section 1715z–1 of title 12;

(H) the programs under sections 1437d and 1437f of title 42;

(I) rural housing assistance provided under sections 1484, 1485, 1486, 1490m, and 1490p–2 of title 42; and

(J) the low income housing tax credit program under section 42 of title 26.

(b) Prohibited basis for denial or termination of assistance or eviction

(1) In general

An applicant for or tenant of housing assisted under a covered housing program may not be denied admission to, denied assistance under, terminated from participation in, or evicted from the housing on the basis that the applicant or tenant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, if the applicant or tenant otherwise qualifies for admission, assistance, participation, or occupancy.

(2) Construction of lease terms

An incident of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking shall not be construed as—

(A) a serious or repeated violation of a lease for housing assisted under a covered housing program by the victim or threatened victim of such incident; or

(B) good cause for terminating the assistance, tenancy, or occupancy rights to housing assisted under a covered housing program of the victim or threatened victim of such incident.

(3) Termination on the basis of criminal activity

(A) Denial of assistance, tenancy, and occupancy rights prohibited

No person may deny assistance, tenancy, or occupancy rights to housing assisted under a covered housing program to a tenant solely on the basis of criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking that is engaged in by a member of the household of the tenant or any guest or other person under the control of the tenant, if the tenant or an affiliated individual of the tenant is the victim or threatened victim of such domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(B) Bifurcation

(i) In general

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program may bifurcate a lease for the housing in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant of the housing and who engages in criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking against an affiliated individual or other individual, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing a victim of such criminal activity who is also a tenant or lawful occupant of the housing.

(ii) Effect of eviction on other tenants

If public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program evicts, removes, or terminates assistance to an individual under clause (i), and the individual is the sole tenant eligible to receive assistance under a covered housing program, the public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under the covered housing program shall provide any remaining tenant or resident an opportunity to establish eligibility for the covered housing program. If a tenant or resident described in the preceding sentence cannot establish eligibility, the public housing agency or owner or manager of the housing shall provide the tenant or resident a reasonable time, as determined by the appropriate agency, to find new housing or to establish eligibility for housing under another covered housing program.

(C) Rules of construction

Nothing in subparagraph (A) shall be construed—

(i) to limit the authority of a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program, when notified of a court order, to comply with a court order with respect to—

(I) the rights of access to or control of property, including civil protection orders issued to protect a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking; or

(II) the distribution or possession of property among members of a household in a case;


(ii) to limit any otherwise available authority of a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program to evict or terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act of violence in question against the tenant or an affiliated person of the tenant, if the public housing agency or owner or manager does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate;

(iii) to limit the authority to terminate assistance to a tenant or evict a tenant from housing assisted under a covered housing program if a public housing agency or owner or manager of the housing can demonstrate that an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or individuals employed at or providing service to the property would be present if the assistance is not terminated or the tenant is not evicted; or

(iv) to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(c) Documentation

(1) Request for documentation

If an applicant for, or tenant of, housing assisted under a covered housing program represents to a public housing agency or owner or manager of the housing that the individual is entitled to protection under subsection (b), the public housing agency or owner or manager may request, in writing, that the applicant or tenant submit to the public housing agency or owner or manager a form of documentation described in paragraph (3).

(2) Failure to provide certification

(A) In general

If an applicant or tenant does not provide the documentation requested under paragraph (1) within 14 business days after the tenant receives a request in writing for such certification from a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program, nothing in this subpart may be construed to limit the authority of the public housing agency or owner or manager to—

(i) deny admission by the applicant or tenant to the covered program;

(ii) deny assistance under the covered program to the applicant or tenant;

(iii) terminate the participation of the applicant or tenant in the covered program; or

(iv) evict the applicant, the tenant, or a lawful occupant that commits violations of a lease.

(B) Extension

A public housing agency or owner or manager of housing may extend the 14-day deadline under subparagraph (A) at its discretion.

(3) Form of documentation

A form of documentation described in this paragraph is—

(A) a certification form approved by the appropriate agency that—

(i) states that an applicant or tenant is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(ii) states that the incident of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking that is the ground for protection under subsection (b) meets the requirements under subsection (b); and

(iii) includes the name of the individual who committed the domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, if the name is known and safe to provide;


(B) a document that—

(i) is signed by—

(I) an employee, agent, or volunteer of a victim service provider, an attorney, a medical professional, or a mental health professional from whom an applicant or tenant has sought assistance relating to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, or the effects of the abuse; and

(II) the applicant or tenant; and


(ii) states under penalty of perjury that the individual described in clause (i)(I) believes that the incident of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking that is the ground for protection under subsection (b) meets the requirements under subsection (b);


(C) a record of a Federal, State, tribal, territorial, or local law enforcement agency, court, or administrative agency; or

(D) at the discretion of a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program, a statement or other evidence provided by an applicant or tenant.

(4) Confidentiality

Any information submitted to a public housing agency or owner or manager under this subsection, including the fact that an individual is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking shall be maintained in confidence by the public housing agency or owner or manager and may not be entered into any shared database or disclosed to any other entity or individual, except to the extent that the disclosure is—

(A) requested or consented to by the individual in writing;

(B) required for use in an eviction proceeding under subsection (b); or

(C) otherwise required by applicable law.

(5) Documentation not required

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program to request that an individual submit documentation of the status of the individual as a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(6) Compliance not sufficient to constitute evidence of unreasonable act

Compliance with subsection (b) by a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program based on documentation received under this subsection, shall not be sufficient to constitute evidence of an unreasonable act or omission by the public housing agency or owner or manager or an employee or agent of the public housing agency or owner or manager. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the liability of a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program for failure to comply with subsection (b).

(7) Response to conflicting certification

If a public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program receives documentation under this subsection that contains conflicting information, the public housing agency or owner or manager may require an applicant or tenant to submit third-party documentation, as described in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (3).

(8) Preemption

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this subsection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(d) Notification

(1) Development

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall develop a notice of the rights of individuals under this section, including the right to confidentiality and the limits thereof.

(2) Provision

Each public housing agency or owner or manager of housing assisted under a covered housing program shall provide the notice developed under paragraph (1), together with the form described in subsection (c)(3)(A), to an applicant for or tenants of housing assisted under a covered housing program—

(A) at the time the applicant is denied residency in a dwelling unit assisted under the covered housing program;

(B) at the time the individual is admitted to a dwelling unit assisted under the covered housing program;

(C) with any notification of eviction or notification of termination of assistance; and

(D) in multiple languages, consistent with guidance issued by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in accordance with Executive Order 13166 (42 U.S.C. 2000d–1 note; relating to access to services for persons with limited English proficiency).

(e) Emergency transfers

Each appropriate agency shall adopt a model emergency transfer plan for use by public housing agencies and owners or managers of housing assisted under covered housing programs that—

(1) allows tenants who are victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking to transfer to another available and safe dwelling unit assisted under a covered housing program if—

(A) the tenant expressly requests the transfer; and

(B)(i) the tenant reasonably believes that the tenant is threatened with imminent harm from further violence if the tenant remains within the same dwelling unit assisted under a covered housing program; or

(ii) in the case of a tenant who is a victim of sexual assault, the sexual assault occurred on the premises during the 90 day period preceding the request for transfer; and


(2) incorporates reasonable confidentiality measures to ensure that the public housing agency or owner or manager does not disclose the location of the dwelling unit of a tenant to a person that commits an act of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking against the tenant.

(f) Policies and procedures for emergency transfer

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall establish policies and procedures under which a victim requesting an emergency transfer under subsection (e) may receive, subject to the availability of tenant protection vouchers, assistance under section 1437f(o) of title 42.

(g) Implementation

The appropriate agency with respect to each covered housing program shall implement this section, as this section applies to the covered housing program.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41411, as added Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §601(a)(4), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 102; amended Pub. L. 114–324, §6, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1951.)

References in Text

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(C), (E), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079. Subtitle A of title II of the Act is classified generally to part A (§12741 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 130 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Subtitle D of title VIII of the Act, known as the AIDS Housing Opportunity Act, is classified generally to chapter 131 (§12901 et seq.) of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of Title 42 and Tables.

The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(D), is Pub. L. 100–77, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 482. Subtitle A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§11360 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 119 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11301 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043e–11 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 114–324 inserted "or resident" after "any remaining tenant" in first sentence and "or resident" after "tenant" in two places in second sentence.

Part M—National Resource Center

Codification

Pub. L. 109–162, title VII, §701, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3052, which directed that subtitle N of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (part L of this subchapter) be amended by adding at the end a subtitle O consisting of section 41501 (34 U.S.C. 12501), is reflected in the Code by setting out subtitle O as a separate part M (this part) and not as included in part L of this subchapter, as the probable intent of Congress.

§12501. Grant for national resource center on workplace responses to assist victims of domestic and sexual violence

(a) Authority

The Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, may award a grant to an eligible nonprofit nongovernmental entity or tribal organization, in order to provide for the establishment and operation of a national resource center on workplace responses to assist victims of domestic and sexual violence. The resource center shall provide information and assistance to employers and labor organizations to aid in their efforts to develop and implement responses to such violence.

(b) Applications

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity or organization shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Attorney General may require, including—

(1) information that demonstrates that the entity or organization has nationally recognized expertise in the area of domestic or sexual violence;

(2) a plan to maximize, to the extent practicable, outreach to employers (including private companies and public entities such as public institutions of higher education and State and local governments) and labor organizations described in subsection (a) concerning developing and implementing workplace responses to assist victims of domestic or sexual violence; and

(3) a plan for developing materials and training for materials for employers that address the needs of employees in cases of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking impacting the workplace, including the needs of underserved communities.

(c) Use of grant amount

(1) In general

An entity or organization that receives a grant under this section may use the funds made available through the grant for staff salaries, travel expenses, equipment, printing, and other reasonable expenses necessary to develop, maintain, and disseminate to employers and labor organizations described in subsection (a), information and assistance concerning workplace responses to assist victims of domestic or sexual violence.

(2) Responses

Responses referred to in paragraph (1) may include—

(A) providing training to promote a better understanding of workplace assistance to victims of domestic or sexual violence;

(B) providing conferences and other educational opportunities; and

(C) developing protocols and model workplace policies.

(d) Liability

The compliance or noncompliance of any employer or labor organization with any protocol or policy developed by an entity or organization under this section shall not serve as a basis for liability in tort, express or implied contract, or by any other means. No protocol or policy developed by an entity or organization under this section shall be referenced or enforced as a workplace safety standard by any Federal, State, or other governmental agency.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(f) Availability of grant funds

Funds appropriated under this section shall remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41501, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title VII, §701, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3052; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title VII, §701, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 110.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043f of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "fiscal years 2007 through 2011".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Part N—Sexual Assault Services

§12511. Sexual assault services program

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this section are—

(1) to assist States, Indian tribes, and territories in providing intervention, advocacy, accompaniment, support services, and related assistance for—

(A) adult, youth, and child victims of sexual assault;

(B) family and household members of such victims; and

(C) those collaterally affected by the victimization, except for the perpetrator of such victimization; and


(2) to provide for technical assistance and training relating to sexual assault to—

(A) Federal, State, tribal, territorial and local governments, law enforcement agencies, and courts;

(B) professionals working in legal, social service, and health care settings;

(C) nonprofit organizations;

(D) faith-based organizations; and

(E) other individuals and organizations seeking such assistance.

(b) Grants to States and territories

(1) Grants authorized

The Attorney General shall award grants to States and territories to support the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of rape crisis centers and other nongovernmental or tribal programs and projects to assist individuals who have been victimized by sexual assault, without regard to the age of the individual.

(2) Allocation and use of funds

(A) Administrative costs

Not more than 5 percent of the grant funds received by a State or territory governmental agency under this subsection for any fiscal year may be used for administrative costs.

(B) Grant funds

Any funds received by a State or territory under this subsection that are not used for administrative costs shall be used to provide grants to rape crisis centers and other nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations or tribal programs and activities for programs and activities within such State or territory that provide direct intervention and related assistance.

(C) Intervention and related assistance

Intervention and related assistance under subparagraph (B) may include—

(i) 24-hour hotline services providing crisis intervention services and referral;

(ii) accompaniment and advocacy through medical, criminal justice, and social support systems, including medical facilities, police, and court proceedings;

(iii) crisis intervention, short-term individual and group support services, and comprehensive service coordination and supervision to assist sexual assault victims and family or household members;

(iv) information and referral to assist the sexual assault victim and family or household members;

(v) community-based, culturally specific services and support mechanisms, including outreach activities for underserved communities; and

(vi) the development and distribution of materials on issues related to the services described in clauses (i) through (v).

(3) Application

(A) In general

Each eligible entity desiring a grant under this subsection shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time and in such manner as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

(B) Contents

Each application submitted under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) set forth procedures designed to ensure meaningful involvement of the State or territorial sexual assault coalition and representatives from underserved communities in the development of the application and the implementation of the plans;

(ii) set forth procedures designed to ensure an equitable distribution of grants and grant funds within the State or territory and between urban and rural areas within such State or territory;

(iii) identify the State or territorial agency that is responsible for the administration of programs and activities; and

(iv) meet other such requirements as the Attorney General reasonably determines are necessary to carry out the purposes and provisions of this section.

(4) Minimum amount

The Attorney General shall allocate to each State (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) not less than 1.50 percent of the total amount appropriated in a fiscal year for grants under this section, except that the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall each be allocated 0.25 percent of the total appropriations. The remaining funds shall be allotted to each State and each territory in an amount that bears the same ratio to such remaining funds as the population of such State and such territory bears to the population of all the States and the territories.

(c) Grants for culturally specific programs addressing sexual assault

(1) Grants authorized

The Attorney General shall award grants to eligible entities to support the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of culturally specific intervention and related assistance for victims of sexual assault.

(2) Eligible entities

To be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an entity shall—

(A) be a private nonprofit organization that focuses primarily on culturally specific communities;

(B) must have documented organizational experience in the area of sexual assault intervention or have entered into a partnership with an organization having such expertise;

(C) have expertise in the development of community-based, linguistically and culturally specific outreach and intervention services relevant for the specific communities to whom assistance would be provided or have the capacity to link to existing services in the community tailored to the needs of culturally specific populations; and

(D) have an advisory board or steering committee and staffing which is reflective of the targeted culturally specific community.

(3) Award basis

The Attorney General shall award grants under this section on a competitive basis.

(4) Distribution

(A) The Attorney General shall not use more than 2.5 percent of funds appropriated under this subsection in any year for administration, monitoring, and evaluation of grants made available under this subsection.

(B) Up to 5 percent of funds appropriated under this subsection in any year shall be available for technical assistance by a national, nonprofit, nongovernmental organization or organizations whose primary focus and expertise is in addressing sexual assault within underserved culturally specific populations.

(5) Term

The Attorney General shall make grants under this section for a period of no less than 2 fiscal years.

(6) Reporting

Each entity receiving a grant under this subsection shall submit a report to the Attorney General that describes the activities carried out with such grant funds.

(d) Grants to State, territorial, and tribal sexual assault coalitions

(1) Grants authorized

(A) In general

The Attorney General shall award grants to State, territorial, and tribal sexual assault coalitions to assist in supporting the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of such coalitions.

(B) Minimum amount

Not less than 10 percent of the total amount appropriated to carry out this section shall be used for grants under subparagraph (A).

(C) Eligible applicants

Each of the State, territorial, and tribal sexual assault coalitions.

(2) Use of funds

Grant funds received under this subsection may be used to—

(A) work with local sexual assault programs and other providers of direct services to encourage appropriate responses to sexual assault within the State, territory, or tribe;

(B) work with judicial and law enforcement agencies to encourage appropriate responses to sexual assault cases;

(C) work with courts, child protective services agencies, and children's advocates to develop appropriate responses to child custody and visitation issues when sexual assault has been determined to be a factor;

(D) design and conduct public education campaigns;

(E) plan and monitor the distribution of grants and grant funds to their State, territory, or tribe; or

(F) collaborate with and inform Federal, State, or local public officials and agencies to develop and implement policies to reduce or eliminate sexual assault.

(3) Allocation and use of funds

From amounts appropriated for grants under this subsection for each fiscal year—

(A) not less than 10 percent of the funds shall be available for grants to tribal sexual assault coalitions; and

(B) the remaining funds shall be available for grants to State and territorial coalitions, and the Attorney General shall allocate an amount equal to 1/56 of the amounts so appropriated to each of those State and territorial coalitions.

(4) Application

Each eligible entity desiring a grant under this subsection shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Attorney General determines to be essential to carry out the purposes of this section.

(5) First-time applicants

No entity shall be prohibited from submitting an application under this subsection during any fiscal year for which funds are available under this subsection because such entity has not previously applied or received funding under this subsection.

(e) Grants to tribes

(1) Grants authorized

The Attorney General may award grants to Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and nonprofit tribal organizations for the operation of sexual assault programs or projects in Indian tribal lands and Alaska Native villages to support the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of programs and projects to assist those victimized by sexual assault.

(2) Allocation and use of funds

(A) Administrative costs

Not more than 5 percent of the grant funds received by an Indian tribe, tribal organization, and nonprofit tribal organization under this subsection for any fiscal year may be used for administrative costs.

(B) Grant funds

Any funds received under this subsection that are not used for administrative costs shall be used to provide grants to tribal organizations and nonprofit tribal organizations for programs and activities within Indian country and Alaskan native villages that provide direct intervention and related assistance.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated $40,000,000 to remain available until expended for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(2) Allocations

Of the total amounts appropriated for each fiscal year to carry out this section—

(A) not more than 2.5 percent shall be used by the Attorney General for evaluation, monitoring, and other administrative costs under this section;

(B) not more than 2.5 percent shall be used for the provision of technical assistance to grantees and subgrantees under this section;

(C) not less than 65 percent shall be used for grants to States and territories under subsection (b);

(D) not less than 10 percent shall be used for making grants to State, territorial, and tribal sexual assault coalitions under subsection (d);

(E) not less than 10 percent shall be used for grants to tribes under subsection (e); and

(F) not less than 10 percent shall be used for grants for culturally specific programs addressing sexual assault under subsection (c).

(Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §41601, as added Pub. L. 109–271, §3(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 754; amended Pub. L. 113–4, title II, §201, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 80.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043g of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §201(a)(1), substituted "other nongovernmental or tribal programs and projects to assist individuals who have been victimized by sexual assault, without regard to the age of the individual." for "other programs and projects to assist those victimized by sexual assault."

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–4, §201(a)(2)(A), inserted "or tribal programs and activities" after "nongovernmental organizations".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 113–4, §201(a)(2)(B), struck out "linguistically and" before "culturally".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 113–4, §201(a)(3)(B), which directed striking out "the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico," after "Guam", was executed by striking out such phrase after "Guam," to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 113–4, §201(a)(3)(A), (C), (D), inserted "(including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico)" after "The Attorney General shall allocate to each State", substituted "0.25 percent" for "0.125 percent", and struck out at end "The District of Columbia shall be treated as a territory for purposes of calculating its allocation under the preceding formula."

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, §201(b), substituted "$40,000,000 to remain available until expended for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$50,000,000 to remain available until expended for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§12512. Working Group

(a) In general

The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this section as the "Secretary"), shall establish a joint working group (referred to in this section as the "Working Group") to develop, coordinate, and disseminate best practices regarding the care and treatment of sexual assault survivors and the preservation of forensic evidence.

(b) Consultation with stakeholders

The Working Group shall consult with—

(1) stakeholders in law enforcement, prosecution, forensic laboratory, counseling, forensic examiner, medical facility, and medical provider communities; and

(2) representatives of not less than 3 entities with demonstrated expertise in sexual assault prevention, sexual assault advocacy, or representation of sexual assault victims, of which not less than 1 representative shall be a sexual assault victim.

(c) Membership

The Working Group shall be composed of governmental or nongovernmental agency heads at the discretion of the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary.

(d) Duties

The Working Group shall—

(1) develop recommendations for improving the coordination of the dissemination and implementation of best practices and protocols regarding the care and treatment of sexual assault survivors and the preservation of evidence to hospital administrators, physicians, forensic examiners, and other medical associations and leaders in the medical community;

(2) encourage, where appropriate, the adoption and implementation of best practices and protocols regarding the care and treatment of sexual assault survivors and the preservation of evidence among hospital administrators, physicians, forensic examiners, and other medical associations and leaders in the medical community;

(3) develop recommendations to promote the coordination of the dissemination and implementation of best practices regarding the care and treatment of sexual assault survivors and the preservation of evidence to State attorneys general, United States attorneys, heads of State law enforcement agencies, forensic laboratory directors and managers, and other leaders in the law enforcement community;

(4) develop and implement, where practicable, incentives to encourage the adoption or implementation of best practices regarding the care and treatment of sexual assault survivors and the preservation of evidence among State attorneys general, United States attorneys, heads of State law enforcement agencies, forensic laboratory directors and managers, and other leaders in the law enforcement community;

(5) collect feedback from stakeholders, practitioners, and leadership throughout the Federal and State law enforcement, victim services, forensic science practitioner, and health care communities to inform development of future best practices or clinical guidelines regarding the care and treatment of sexual assault survivors; and

(6) perform other activities, such as activities relating to development, dissemination, outreach, engagement, or training associated with advancing victim-centered care for sexual assault survivors.

(e) Report

Not later than 2 years after October 7, 2016, the Working Group shall submit to the Attorney General, the Secretary, and Congress a report containing the findings and recommended actions of the Working Group.

(Pub. L. 114–236, §4, Oct. 7, 2016, 130 Stat. 968.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14043g–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of the Survivors' Bill of Rights Act of 2016, and not as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 which enacted this chapter.