8 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER II: IMMIGRATION
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8 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER II: IMMIGRATION
From Title 8—ALIENS AND NATIONALITYCHAPTER 12—IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY

SUBCHAPTER II—IMMIGRATION

Part I—Selection System

§1151. Worldwide level of immigration

(a) In general

Exclusive of aliens described in subsection (b), aliens born in a foreign state or dependent area who may be issued immigrant visas or who may otherwise acquire the status of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence are limited to—

(1) family-sponsored immigrants described in section 1153(a) of this title (or who are admitted under section 1181(a) of this title on the basis of a prior issuance of a visa to their accompanying parent under section 1153(a) of this title) in a number not to exceed in any fiscal year the number specified in subsection (c) for that year, and not to exceed in any of the first 3 quarters of any fiscal year 27 percent of the worldwide level under such subsection for all of such fiscal year;

(2) employment-based immigrants described in section 1153(b) of this title (or who are admitted under section 1181(a) of this title on the basis of a prior issuance of a visa to their accompanying parent under section 1153(b) of this title), in a number not to exceed in any fiscal year the number specified in subsection (d) for that year, and not to exceed in any of the first 3 quarters of any fiscal year 27 percent of the worldwide level under such subsection for all of such fiscal year; and

(3) for fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 1995, diversity immigrants described in section 1153(c) of this title (or who are admitted under section 1181(a) of this title on the basis of a prior issuance of a visa to their accompanying parent under section 1153(c) of this title) in a number not to exceed in any fiscal year the number specified in subsection (e) for that year, and not to exceed in any of the first 3 quarters of any fiscal year 27 percent of the worldwide level under such subsection for all of such fiscal year.

(b) Aliens not subject to direct numerical limitations

Aliens described in this subsection, who are not subject to the worldwide levels or numerical limitations of subsection (a), are as follows:

(1)(A) Special immigrants described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1101(a)(27) of this title.

(B) Aliens who are admitted under section 1157 of this title or whose status is adjusted under section 1159 of this title.

(C) Aliens whose status is adjusted to permanent residence under section 1160 or 1255a of this title.

(D) Aliens whose removal is canceled under section 1229b(a) of this title.

(E) Aliens provided permanent resident status under section 1259 of this title.

(2)(A)(i) Immediate relatives.—For purposes of this subsection, the term "immediate relatives" means the children, spouses, and parents of a citizen of the United States, except that, in the case of parents, such citizens shall be at least 21 years of age. In the case of an alien who was the spouse of a citizen of the United States and was not legally separated from the citizen at the time of the citizen's death, the alien (and each child of the alien) shall be considered, for purposes of this subsection, to remain an immediate relative after the date of the citizen's death but only if the spouse files a petition under section 1154(a)(1)(A)(ii) of this title within 2 years after such date and only until the date the spouse remarries. For purposes of this clause, an alien who has filed a petition under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title remains an immediate relative in the event that the United States citizen spouse or parent loses United States citizenship on account of the abuse.

(ii) Aliens admitted under section 1181(a) of this title on the basis of a prior issuance of a visa to their accompanying parent who is such an immediate relative.

(B) Aliens born to an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence during a temporary visit abroad.

(c) Worldwide level of family-sponsored immigrants

(1)(A) The worldwide level of family-sponsored immigrants under this subsection for a fiscal year is, subject to subparagraph (B), equal to—

(i) 480,000, minus

(ii) the sum of the number computed under paragraph (2) and the number computed under paragraph (4), plus

(iii) the number (if any) computed under paragraph (3).


(B)(i) For each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994, 465,000 shall be substituted for 480,000 in subparagraph (A)(i).

(ii) In no case shall the number computed under subparagraph (A) be less than 226,000.

(2) The number computed under this paragraph for a fiscal year is the sum of the number of aliens described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (b)(2) who were issued immigrant visas or who otherwise acquired the status of aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence in the previous fiscal year.

(3)(A) The number computed under this paragraph for fiscal year 1992 is zero.

(B) The number computed under this paragraph for fiscal year 1993 is the difference (if any) between the worldwide level established under paragraph (1) for the previous fiscal year and the number of visas issued under section 1153(a) of this title during that fiscal year.

(C) The number computed under this paragraph for a subsequent fiscal year is the difference (if any) between the maximum number of visas which may be issued under section 1153(b) of this title (relating to employment-based immigrants) during the previous fiscal year and the number of visas issued under that section during that year.

(4) The number computed under this paragraph for a fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1999) is the number of aliens who were paroled into the United States under section 1182(d)(5) of this title in the second preceding fiscal year—

(A) who did not depart from the United States (without advance parole) within 365 days; and

(B) who (i) did not acquire the status of aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence in the two preceding fiscal years, or (ii) acquired such status in such years under a provision of law (other than subsection (b)) which exempts such adjustment from the numerical limitation on the worldwide level of immigration under this section.


(5) If any alien described in paragraph (4) (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(B)(ii)) is subsequently admitted as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, such alien shall not again be considered for purposes of paragraph (1).

(d) Worldwide level of employment-based immigrants

(1) The worldwide level of employment-based immigrants under this subsection for a fiscal year is equal to—

(A) 140,000, plus

(B) the number computed under paragraph (2).


(2)(A) The number computed under this paragraph for fiscal year 1992 is zero.

(B) The number computed under this paragraph for fiscal year 1993 is the difference (if any) between the worldwide level established under paragraph (1) for the previous fiscal year and the number of visas issued under section 1153(b) of this title during that fiscal year.

(C) The number computed under this paragraph for a subsequent fiscal year is the difference (if any) between the maximum number of visas which may be issued under section 1153(a) of this title (relating to family-sponsored immigrants) during the previous fiscal year and the number of visas issued under that section during that year.

(e) Worldwide level of diversity immigrants

The worldwide level of diversity immigrants is equal to 55,000 for each fiscal year.

(f) Rules for determining whether certain aliens are immediate relatives

(1) Age on petition filing date

Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), for purposes of subsection (b)(2)(A)(i), a determination of whether an alien satisfies the age requirement in the matter preceding subparagraph (A) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title shall be made using the age of the alien on the date on which the petition is filed with the Attorney General under section 1154 of this title to classify the alien as an immediate relative under subsection (b)(2)(A)(i).

(2) Age on parent's naturalization date

In the case of a petition under section 1154 of this title initially filed for an alien child's classification as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title, based on the child's parent being lawfully admitted for permanent residence, if the petition is later converted, due to the naturalization of the parent, to a petition to classify the alien as an immediate relative under subsection (b)(2)(A)(i), the determination described in paragraph (1) shall be made using the age of the alien on the date of the parent's naturalization.

(3) Age on marriage termination date

In the case of a petition under section 1154 of this title initially filed for an alien's classification as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 1153(a)(3) of this title, based on the alien's being a married son or daughter of a citizen, if the petition is later converted, due to the legal termination of the alien's marriage, to a petition to classify the alien as an immediate relative under subsection (b)(2)(A)(i) or as an unmarried son or daughter of a citizen under section 1153(a)(1) of this title, the determination described in paragraph (1) shall be made using the age of the alien on the date of the termination of the marriage.

(4) Application to self-petitions

Paragraphs (1) through (3) shall apply to self-petitioners and derivatives of self-petitioners.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §201, 66 Stat. 175; Pub. L. 89–236, §1, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 911; Pub. L. 94–571, §2, Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2703; Pub. L. 95–412, §1, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §203(a), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 106; Pub. L. 97–116, §20[(a)], Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1621; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §101(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4980; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(a)(1), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1742; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40701(b)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1954; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §219(b)(1), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4316; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(e)(5), (g)(8)(A)(i), title VI, §§603, 671(d)(1)(A), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–620, 3009-624, 3009-690, 3009-723; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title V, §1507(a)(3), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1530; Pub. L. 107–208, §2, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 927; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, §805(b)(1), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3056; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §568(c)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2186.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 111–83 struck out "for at least 2 years at the time of the citizen's death" before "and was not legally separated" in second sentence.

2006—Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 109–162 added par. (4).

2002—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–208 added subsec. (f).

2000—Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 106–386 inserted at end "For purposes of this clause, an alien who has filed a petition under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title remains an immediate relative in the event that the United States citizen spouse or parent loses United States citizenship on account of the abuse."

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–208, §671(d)(1)(A), struck out ", 1161," after "section 1160".

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(8)(A)(i), substituted "section 1229b(a)" for "section 1254(a)".

Pub. L. 104–208, §308(e)(5), substituted "removal is canceled" for "deportation is suspended".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104–208, §603(1), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "the number computed under paragraph (2), plus".

Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 104–208, §603(2), added pars. (4) and (5).

1994—Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–416 inserted "(and each child of the alien)" after "death, the alien" in second sentence.

Pub. L. 103–322 substituted "1154(a)(1)(A)(ii)" for "1154(a)(1)(A)".

1991—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(a)(1)(A), added subpars. (A) and (B), designated existing text as subpar. (C), and in subpar. (C) substituted "The number computed under this paragraph for a subsequent fiscal year" for "The number computed under this paragraph for a fiscal year".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(a)(1)(B), added subpars. (A) and (B), designated existing text as subpar. (C), and in subpar. (C) substituted "The number computed under this paragraph for a subsequent fiscal year" for "The number computed under this paragraph for a fiscal year".

1990Pub. L. 101–649 amended section generally, substituting provisions setting forth general and worldwide levels for family-sponsored, employment-based, and diversity immigrants, for provisions setting forth numerical limitations on total lawful admissions without breakdown as to type.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–116 inserted proviso authorizing Secretary of State, to the extent that in a particular fiscal year the number of aliens who are issued immigrant visas or who otherwise acquire the status of aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence, and who are subject to the numerical limitations of this section, together with the aliens who adjust their status to aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence pursuant to section 1101(a)(27)(H) of this title or section 19 of the Immigration and Nationality Amendments of 1981, exceed the annual numerical limitation in effect, to reduce to such extent the annual numerical limitation in effect for the following fiscal year.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–212 inserted provisions relating to aliens admitted or granted asylums under section 1157 or 1158 of this title, struck out provisions relating to aliens entering conditionally under section 1153(a)(7) of this title, and decreased the authorized number from seventy-seven thousand to seventy-two thousand in each of the first three-quarters of any fiscal year, and from two hundred and ninety thousand to two hundred and seventy thousand in any fiscal year as the maximum number of admissions for such periods.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–412 substituted provisions establishing a single worldwide annual immigration ceiling of 290,000 aliens and limiting to 77,000 the number of aliens subject to such ceiling which may be admitted in each of the first three quarters of any fiscal year for provisions establishing separate annual immigration ceilings of 170,000 aliens for the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 aliens for the Western Hemisphere and limiting to 45,000 the number of aliens subject to the Eastern Hemisphere ceiling and to 32,000 the number of aliens subject to the Western Hemisphere ceiling which may be admitted in the first three quarters of any fiscal year.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–571, §2(1), in amending subsec. (a) generally, designated existing provisions as cl. (1) limited to aliens born in any foreign state or dependent area located in the Eastern Hemisphere and added cl. (2).

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 94–571, §2(2), struck out subsec. (c) which provided for determination of unused quota numbers, subsec. (d) which provided for an immigration pool, limitation on total numbers, and allocations therefrom, and subsec. (e) which provided for termination of immigration pool on June 30, 1968, and for carryover of admissible immigrants.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions setting up a 170,000 maximum on total annual immigration and 45,000 maximum on total quarterly immigration without regard to national origins, for provisions setting an annual quota for quota areas which allowed admission of one-sixth of one per centum of portion of national population of continental United States in 1920 attributable by national origin of that quota area and setting a minimum quota of 100 for each quota area.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions defining "immediate relatives" for provisions calling for a determination of annual quota for each quota area by Secretaries of State and Commerce and Attorney General, and proclamation of quotas by President.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions allowing carryover through June 30, 1968, of quotas for quota areas in effect on June 30, 1965, and redistribution of unused quota numbers, for provisions which limited issuance of immigrant visas.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions creating an immigration pool and allocating its numbers without reference to the quotas to which an alien is chargeable, for provisions allowing issuance of an immigrant visa to an immigrant as a quota immigrant even though he might be a nonquota immigrant.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions terminating the immigration pool on June 30, 1968, for provisions permitting reduction of annual quotas based on national origins pursuant to Act of Congress prior to effective date of proclaimed quotas.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §568(c)(2), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2186, provided that:

"(A) In general.—The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to all applications and petitions relating to immediate relative status under section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)) pending on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2009].

"(B) Transition cases.—

"(i) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an alien described in clause (ii) who seeks immediate relative status pursuant to the amendment made by paragraph (1) shall file a petition under section 204(a)(1)(A)(ii) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(A)(ii)) not later than the date that is 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(ii) Aliens described.—An alien is described in this clause if—

"(I) the alien's United States citizen spouse died before the date of the enactment of this Act;

"(II) the alien and the citizen spouse were married for less than 2 years at the time of the citizen spouse's death; and

"(III) the alien has not remarried."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–208, §8, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 930, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and sections 1153, 1154, 1157, and 1158 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 6, 2002] and shall apply to any alien who is a derivative beneficiary or any other beneficiary of—

"(1) a petition for classification under section 204 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1154) approved before such date but only if a final determination has not been made on the beneficiary's application for an immigrant visa or adjustment of status to lawful permanent residence pursuant to such approved petition;

"(2) a petition for classification under section 204 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1154) pending on or after such date; or

"(3) an application pending before the Department of Justice or the Department of State on or after such date."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 308(e)(5), (g)(8)(A)(i) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–416 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 219(dd) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40701(d), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1955, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1154 of this title] shall take effect January 1, 1995."

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–232 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 310(1) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–649 effective Oct. 1, 1991, and applicable beginning with fiscal year 1992, see section 161(a) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–116 effective Dec. 29, 1981, see section 21(a) of Pub. L. 97–116, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–212 effective, except as otherwise provided, Mar. 17, 1980, and applicable to fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year beginning Oct. 1, 1979, see section 204 of Pub. L. 96–212, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–571 effective on first day of first month which begins more than sixty days after Oct. 20, 1976, see section 10 of Pub. L. 94–571, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–236, §20, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 920, provided that: "This Act [amending this section and sections 1101, 1152 to 1156, 1181, 1182, 1201, 1202, 1204, 1251, 1253, 1254, 1255, 1259, 1322, and 1351 of this title, repealing section 1157 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall become effective on the first day of the first month after the expiration of thirty days following the date of its enactment [Oct. 3, 1965] except as provided herein."

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Extension of Posthumous Benefits to Surviving Spouses, Children, and Parents

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XVII, §1703(a)–(e), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1693, provided that:

"(a) Treatment as Immediate Relatives.—

"(1) Spouses.—Notwithstanding the second sentence of section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)), in the case of an alien who was the spouse of a citizen of the United States at the time of the citizen's death and was not legally separated from the citizen at the time of the citizen's death, if the citizen served honorably in an active duty status in the military, air, or naval forces of the United States and died as a result of injury or disease incurred in or aggravated by combat, the alien (and each child of the alien) shall be considered, for purposes of section 201(b) of such Act, to remain an immediate relative after the date of the citizen's death, but only if the alien files a petition under section 204(a)(1)(A)(ii) of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(A)(ii)] within 2 years after such date and only until the date the alien remarries. For purposes of such section 204(a)(1)(A)(ii), an alien granted relief under the preceding sentence shall be considered an alien spouse described in the second sentence of section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of such Act.

"(2) Children.—

"(A) In general.—In the case of an alien who was the child of a citizen of the United States at the time of the citizen's death, if the citizen served honorably in an active duty status in the military, air, or naval forces of the United States and died as a result of injury or disease incurred in or aggravated by combat, the alien shall be considered, for purposes of section 201(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)), to remain an immediate relative after the date of the citizen's death (regardless of changes in age or marital status thereafter), but only if the alien files a petition under subparagraph (B) within 2 years after such date.

"(B) Petitions.—An alien described in subparagraph (A) may file a petition with the Secretary of Homeland Security for classification of the alien under section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)). For purposes of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], such a petition shall be considered a petition filed under section 204(a)(1)(A) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(A)).

"(3) Parents.—

"(A) In general.—In the case of an alien who was the parent of a citizen of the United States at the time of the citizen's death, if the citizen served honorably in an active duty status in the military, air, or naval forces of the United States and died as a result of injury or disease incurred in or aggravated by combat, the alien shall be considered, for purposes of section 201(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)), to remain an immediate relative after the date of the citizen's death (regardless of changes in age or marital status thereafter), but only if the alien files a petition under subparagraph (B) within 2 years after such date.

"(B) Petitions.—An alien described in subparagraph (A) may file a petition with the Secretary of Homeland Security for classification of the alien under section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)). For purposes of such Act, such a petition shall be considered a petition filed under section 204(a)(1)(A) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(A)).

"(C) Exception.—Notwithstanding section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)), for purposes of this paragraph, a citizen described in subparagraph (A) does not have to be 21 years of age for a parent to benefit under this paragraph.

"(b) Applications for Adjustment of Status by Surviving Spouses, Children, and Parents.—

"(1) In general.—Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (c) of section 245 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1255), any alien who was the spouse, child, or parent of an alien described in paragraph (2), and who applied for adjustment of status prior to the death described in paragraph (2)(B), may have such application adjudicated as if such death had not occurred.

"(2) Alien described.—An alien is described in this paragraph if the alien—

"(A) served honorably in an active duty status in the military, air, or naval forces of the United States;

"(B) died as a result of injury or disease incurred in or aggravated by combat; and

"(C) was granted posthumous citizenship under section 329A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1440–1).

"(c) Spouses and Children of Lawful Permanent Resident Aliens.—

"(1) Treatment as immediate relatives.—

"(A) In general.—A spouse or child of an alien described in paragraph (3) who is included in a petition for classification as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 203(a)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(a)(2)) that was filed by such alien, shall be considered (if the spouse or child has not been admitted or approved for lawful permanent residence by such date) a valid petitioner for immediate relative status under section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)). Such spouse or child shall be eligible for deferred action, advance parole, and work authorization.

"(B) Petitions.—An alien spouse or child described in subparagraph (A) may file a petition with the Secretary of Homeland Security for classification of the alien under section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)). For purposes of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], such a petition shall be considered a petition filed under section 204(a)(1)(A) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(A)).

"(2) Self-petitions.—Any spouse or child of an alien described in paragraph (3) who is not a beneficiary of a petition for classification as a family-sponsored immigrant may file a petition for such classification under section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)) with the Secretary of Homeland Security, but only if the spouse or child files a petition within 2 years after such date. Such spouse or child shall be eligible for deferred action, advance parole, and work authorization.

"(3) Alien described.—An alien is described in this paragraph if the alien—

"(A) served honorably in an active duty status in the military, air, or naval forces of the United States;

"(B) died as a result of injury or disease incurred in or aggravated by combat; and

"(C) was granted posthumous citizenship under section 329A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1440–1).

"(d) Parents of Lawful Permanent Resident Aliens.—

"(1) Self-petitions.—Any parent of an alien described in paragraph (2) may file a petition for classification under section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)), but only if the parent files a petition within 2 years after such date. For purposes of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], such petition shall be considered a petition filed under section 204(a)(1)(A) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(A)). Such parent shall be eligible for deferred action, advance parole, and work authorization.

"(2) Alien described.—An alien is described in this paragraph if the alien—

"(A) served honorably in an active duty status in the military, air, or naval forces of the United States;

"(B) died as a result of injury or disease incurred in or aggravated by combat; and

"(C) was granted posthumous citizenship under section 329A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1440–1).

"(e) Waiver of Ground for Inadmissibility.—In determining the admissibility of any alien accorded an immigration benefit under this section for purposes of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], the ground for inadmissibility specified in section 212(a)(4) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(4)) shall not apply."

[Section 1703 of Pub. L. 108–136, set out above, effective as if enacted on Sept. 11, 2001, see section 1705(a) of Pub. L. 108–136, set out as an Effective Date of 2003 Amendment note under section 1439 of this title.]

Temporary Reduction in Diversity Visas

Pub. L. 105–100, title II, §203(d), Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2199, as amended by Pub. L. 105–139, §1(d), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2644, provided that:

"(1) Beginning in fiscal year 1999, subject to paragraph (2), the number of visas available for a fiscal year under section 201(e) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1151(e)] shall be reduced by 5,000 from the number of visas otherwise available under that section for such fiscal year.

"(2) In no case shall the reduction under paragraph (1) for a fiscal year exceed the amount by which—

"(A) one-half of the total number of individuals described in subclauses (I), (II), (III), and (IV) of section 309(c)(5)(C)(i) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title] who have adjusted their status to that of aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence under the Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act [title II of Pub. L. 105–100, see Short Title of 1997 Amendments note set out under section 1101 of this title] as of the end of the previous fiscal year; exceeds

"(B) the total of the reductions in available visas under this subsection for all previous fiscal years."

Transition Relating to Death of Citizen Spouse

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §101(c), as added by Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(a)(2), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1742, provided that: "In applying the second sentence of section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i)] (as amended by subsection (a)) in the case of a [sic] alien whose citizen spouse died before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990], notwithstanding the deadline specified in such sentence the alien spouse may file the classification petition referred to in such sentence within 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Inapplicability of Numerical Limitations for Certain Aliens Residing in the United States Virgin Islands

The numerical limitations described in subsec. (a) of this section not to apply in the case of certain aliens residing in the Virgin Islands seeking adjustment of their status to permanent resident alien status, and such adjustment of status not to result in any reduction in the number of aliens who may acquire the status of aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under this chapter, see section 2(c)(1) of Pub. L. 97–271, set out as a note under section 1255 of this title.

Exemption From Numerical Limitations for Certain Aliens Who Applied for Adjustment to Status of Permanent Resident Aliens on or Before June 1, 1978

Pub. L. 97–116, §19, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1621, provided that: "The numerical limitations contained in sections 201 and 202 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [sections 1151 and 1152 of this title] shall not apply to any alien who is present in the United States and who, on or before June 1, 1978—

"(1) qualified as a nonpreference immigrant under section 203(a)(8) of such Act [section 1153(a)(8) of this title] (as in effect on June 1, 1978);

"(2) was determined to be exempt from the labor certification requirement of section 212(a)(14) of such Act [former section 1182(a)(14) of this title] because the alien had actually invested, before such date, capital in an enterprise in the United States of which the alien became a principal manager and which employed a person or persons (other than the spouse or children of the alien) who are citizens of the United States or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence; and

"(3) applied for adjustment of status to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence."

Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy

Pub. L. 95–412, §4, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 907, as amended by Pub. L. 96–132, §23, Nov. 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 1051, provided for the establishment of a Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy to study and evaluate existing laws, policies, and procedures governing the admission of immigrants and refugees to the United States, to make such administrative and legislative recommendations to the President and Congress as appropriate, and to submit a final report no later than Mar. 1, 1981, at which time it ceased to exist although it was authorized to function for up to 60 days thereafter to wind up its affairs.

Select Commission on Western Hemisphere Immigration

Pub. L. 89–236, §21(a)–(d), (f)–(h), Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 920, 921, established a Select Commission on Western Hemisphere Immigration to study the operation of the immigration laws of the United States as they pertain to Western Hemisphere nations, with emphasis on the adequacy of such laws from the standpoint of fairness and the impact of such laws on employment and working conditions within the United States, and to make a final report to the President on or before Jan. 15, 1968, and terminate not later than 60 days after filing the final report.

Termination of Quota Deductions

Pub. L. 85–316, §10, Sept. 11, 1957, 71 Stat. 642, provided that the quota deductions required under the provisions of former subsec. (e) of this section, the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, the act of June 30, 1950, and the act of April 9, 1952, were terminated effective July 1, 1957.

§1151a. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–571, §7(g), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2706

Section, Pub. L. 89–236, §21(e), Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 921, limited total number of special immigrants under section 1101(a)(27)(A) of this title, less certain exclusions, to 120,000 for fiscal years beginning July 1, 1968, or later.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on first day of first month which begins more than 60 days after Oct. 20, 1976, see section 10 of Pub. L. 94–571, set out as an Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.

§1152. Numerical limitations on individual foreign states

(a) Per country level

(1) Nondiscrimination

(A) Except as specifically provided in paragraph (2) and in sections 1101(a)(27), 1151(b)(2)(A)(i), and 1153 of this title, no person shall receive any preference or priority or be discriminated against in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of the person's race, sex, nationality, place of birth, or place of residence.

(B) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of State to determine the procedures for the processing of immigrant visa applications or the locations where such applications will be processed.

(2) Per country levels for family-sponsored and employment-based immigrants

Subject to paragraphs (3), (4), and (5), the total number of immigrant visas made available to natives of any single foreign state or dependent area under subsections (a) and (b) of section 1153 of this title in any fiscal year may not exceed 7 percent (in the case of a single foreign state) or 2 percent (in the case of a dependent area) of the total number of such visas made available under such subsections in that fiscal year.

(3) Exception if additional visas available

If because of the application of paragraph (2) with respect to one or more foreign states or dependent areas, the total number of visas available under both subsections (a) and (b) of section 1153 of this title for a calendar quarter exceeds the number of qualified immigrants who otherwise may be issued such a visa, paragraph (2) shall not apply to visas made available to such states or areas during the remainder of such calendar quarter.

(4) Special rules for spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens

(A) 75 percent of 2nd preference set-aside for spouses and children not subject to per country limitation

(i) In general

Of the visa numbers made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants described in section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title in any fiscal year, 75 percent of the 2–A floor (as defined in clause (ii)) shall be issued without regard to the numerical limitation under paragraph (2).

(ii) "2–A floor" defined

In this paragraph, the term "2–A floor" means, for a fiscal year, 77 percent of the total number of visas made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title in the fiscal year.

(B) Treatment of remaining 25 percent for countries subject to subsection (e)

(i) In general

Of the visa numbers made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants described in section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title in any fiscal year, the remaining 25 percent of the 2–A floor shall be available in the case of a state or area that is subject to subsection (e) only to the extent that the total number of visas issued in accordance with subparagraph (A) to natives of the foreign state or area is less than the subsection (e) ceiling (as defined in clause (ii)).

(ii) "Subsection (e) ceiling" defined

In clause (i), the term "subsection (e) ceiling" means, for a foreign state or dependent area, 77 percent of the maximum number of visas that may be made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants who are natives of the state or area under section 1153(a)(2) of this title consistent with subsection (e).

(C) Treatment of unmarried sons and daughters in countries subject to subsection (e)

In the case of a foreign state or dependent area to which subsection (e) applies, the number of immigrant visas that may be made available to natives of the state or area under section 1153(a)(2)(B) of this title may not exceed—

(i) 23 percent of the maximum number of visas that may be made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants of the state or area described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title consistent with subsection (e), or

(ii) the number (if any) by which the maximum number of visas that may be made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants of the state or area described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title consistent with subsection (e) exceeds the number of visas issued under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title,


whichever is greater.

(D) Limiting pass down for certain countries subject to subsection (e)

In the case of a foreign state or dependent area to which subsection (e) applies, if the total number of visas issued under section 1153(a)(2) of this title exceeds the maximum number of visas that may be made available to immigrants of the state or area under section 1153(a)(2) of this title consistent with subsection (e) (determined without regard to this paragraph), in applying paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 1153(a) of this title under subsection (e)(2) all visas shall be deemed to have been required for the classes specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) of such section.

(5) Rules for employment-based immigrants

(A) Employment-based immigrants not subject to per country limitation if additional visas available

If the total number of visas available under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 1153(b) of this title for a calendar quarter exceeds the number of qualified immigrants who may otherwise be issued such visas, the visas made available under that paragraph shall be issued without regard to the numerical limitation under paragraph (2) of this subsection during the remainder of the calendar quarter.

(B) Limiting fall across for certain countries subject to subsection (e)

In the case of a foreign state or dependent area to which subsection (e) applies, if the total number of visas issued under section 1153(b) of this title exceeds the maximum number of visas that may be made available to immigrants of the state or area under section 1153(b) of this title consistent with subsection (e) (determined without regard to this paragraph), in applying subsection (e) all visas shall be deemed to have been required for the classes of aliens specified in section 1153(b) of this title.

(b) Rules for chargeability

Each independent country, self-governing dominion, mandated territory, and territory under the international trusteeship system of the United Nations, other than the United States and its outlying possessions, shall be treated as a separate foreign state for the purposes of a numerical level established under subsection (a)(2) when approved by the Secretary of State. All other inhabited lands shall be attributed to a foreign state specified by the Secretary of State. For the purposes of this chapter the foreign state to which an immigrant is chargeable shall be determined by birth within such foreign state except that (1) an alien child, when accompanied by or following to join his alien parent or parents, may be charged to the foreign state of either parent if such parent has received or would be qualified for an immigrant visa, if necessary to prevent the separation of the child from the parent or parents, and if immigration charged to the foreign state to which such parent has been or would be chargeable has not reached a numerical level established under subsection (a)(2) for that fiscal year; (2) if an alien is chargeable to a different foreign state from that of his spouse, the foreign state to which such alien is chargeable may, if necessary to prevent the separation of husband and wife, be determined by the foreign state of the spouse he is accompanying or following to join, if such spouse has received or would be qualified for an immigrant visa and if immigration charged to the foreign state to which such spouse has been or would be chargeable has not reached a numerical level established under subsection (a)(2) for that fiscal year; (3) an alien born in the United States shall be considered as having been born in the country of which he is a citizen or subject, or, if he is not a citizen or subject of any country, in the last foreign country in which he had his residence as determined by the consular officer; and (4) an alien born within any foreign state in which neither of his parents was born and in which neither of his parents had a residence at the time of such alien's birth may be charged to the foreign state of either parent.

(c) Chargeability for dependent areas

Any immigrant born in a colony or other component or dependent area of a foreign state overseas from the foreign state, other than an alien described in section 1151(b) of this title, shall be chargeable for the purpose of the limitation set forth in subsection (a), to the foreign state.

(d) Changes in territory

In the case of any change in the territorial limits of foreign states, the Secretary of State shall, upon recognition of such change issue appropriate instructions to all diplomatic and consular offices.

(e) Special rules for countries at ceiling

If it is determined that the total number of immigrant visas made available under subsections (a) and (b) of section 1153 of this title to natives of any single foreign state or dependent area will exceed the numerical limitation specified in subsection (a)(2) in any fiscal year, in determining the allotment of immigrant visa numbers to natives under subsections (a) and (b) of section 1153 of this title, visa numbers with respect to natives of that state or area shall be allocated (to the extent practicable and otherwise consistent with this section and section 1153 of this title) in a manner so that—

(1) the ratio of the visa numbers made available under section 1153(a) of this title to the visa numbers made available under section 1153(b) of this title is equal to the ratio of the worldwide level of immigration under section 1151(c) of this title to such level under section 1151(d) of this title;

(2) except as provided in subsection (a)(4), the proportion of the visa numbers made available under each of paragraphs (1) through (4) of section 1153(a) of this title is equal to the ratio of the total number of visas made available under the respective paragraph to the total number of visas made available under section 1153(a) of this title, and

(3) except as provided in subsection (a)(5), the proportion of the visa numbers made available under each of paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 1153(b) of this title is equal to the ratio of the total number of visas made available under the respective paragraph to the total number of visas made available under section 1153(b) of this title.


Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as limiting the number of visas that may be issued to natives of a foreign state or dependent area under section 1153(a) or 1153(b) of this title if there is insufficient demand for visas for such natives under section 1153(b) or 1153(a) of this title, respectively, or as limiting the number of visas that may be issued under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title pursuant to subsection (a)(4)(A).

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §202, 66 Stat. 176; Pub. L. 87–301, §9, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 654; Pub. L. 89–236, §2, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 911; Pub. L. 94–571, §3, Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2703; Pub. L. 95–412, §2, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §203(b), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 97–116, §§18(c), 20(b), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1620, 1622; Pub. L. 99–603, title III, §311(a), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3434; Pub. L. 99–653, §4, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3655; Pub. L. 100–525, §§8(c), 9(f), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2617, 2620; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §102, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4982; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(a)(3), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1742; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §633, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–701; Pub. L. 106–313, title I, §104(a), (b), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1252, 1253.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original, "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–313, §104(b)(1), substituted "paragraphs (3), (4), and (5)" for "paragraphs (3) and (4)".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 106–313, §104(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 106–313, §104(b)(2), substituted "except as provided in subsection (a)(5), the proportion of the visa numbers" for "the proportion of the visa numbers".

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–208 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1991—Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102–232 struck out "minimum" before "2nd preference set-aside" in heading.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–649, §102(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "No person shall receive any preference or priority or be discriminated against in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of his race, sex, nationality, place of birth, or place of residence, except as specifically provided in sections 1101(a)(27), 1151(b), and 1153 of this title: Provided, That the total number of immigrant visas made available to natives of any single foreign state under paragraphs (1) through (7) of section 1153(a) of this title shall not exceed 20,000 in any fiscal year: And provided further, That to the extent that in a particular fiscal year the number of such natives who are issued immigrant visas or who may otherwise acquire the status of aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence and who are subject to the numerical limitations of this section, together with the aliens from the same foreign state who adjust their status to aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence pursuant to subparagraph (H) of section 1101(a)(27) of this title or section 19 of the Immigration and Nationality Amendments Act of 1981, exceed the numerical limitation in effect for such year pursuant to this section, the Secretary of State shall reduce to such extent the numerical limitation in effect for the natives of the same foreign state pursuant to this section for the following fiscal year."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–649, §102(2), inserted heading and substituted reference to numerical level established under subsec. (a)(2) of this section for reference to numerical limitation set forth in proviso to subsec. (a) of this section, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–649, §102(3), inserted heading and substituted "an alien described in section 1151(b) of this title" for "a special immigrant, as defined in section 1101(a)(27) of this title, or an immediate relative of a United States citizen, as defined in section 1151(b) of this title" and struck out ", and the number of immigrant visas available to each such colony or other component or dependent area shall not exceed 5,000 in any one fiscal year" after "to the foreign state".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–649, §102(4), inserted heading.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–649, §102(5), amended subsec. (e) generally, substituting provisions relating to special rules for countries at ceiling for provisions relating to availability and allocation of additional visas.

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–525, §8(c), amended Pub. L. 99–653, §4. See 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–525, §9(f)(1), substituted "subsection (a)" for "section 202(a)" in original, which for purposes of codification had been translated as "subsection (a)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–525, §9(f)(2), substituted "this section" for "section 202" in original, which for purposes of codification had been translated as "this section".

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–653, as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, §8(c), amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting "outlying possessions, shall" for "outlying possessions shall", in cl. (1) substituting "when accompanied by or following to join his alien" for "when accompanied by his alien", "charged to the foreign state of either parent" for "charged to the same foreign state as the accompanying parent or of either accompanying parent", "from the parent" for "from the accompanying parent", "and if immigration charged to the foreign state to which such parent has been or would be chargeable has not reached the numerical" for "and if the foreign state to which such parent has been or would be chargeable has not exceeded the numerical", in cl. (2) substituting "of his spouse" for "of his accompanying spouse", "of the spouse he is accompanying or following to join" for "of the accompanying spouse", "and if immigration charged to the foreign state to which such spouse has been or would be chargeable has not reached the numerical" for "and if the foreign state to which such spouse has been or would be chargeable has not exceeded the numerical", and in cl. (3) substituting "subject, or, if" for "subject, or if" and "country, in" for "country then in".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–603, §311(a)(1), substituted "5,000" for "six hundred".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–603, §311(a)(2), substituted "5,000" for "600" in provisions preceding par. (1).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–116, §20(b), inserted proviso authorizing Secretary of State, to the extent that in a particular fiscal year the number of natives who are issued visas or who otherwise acquire the status of aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence, and who are subject to the numerical limitation of this section, together with the aliens from the same foreign state who adjust their status to aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence pursuant to section 1101(a)(27)(H) of this title and section 19 of the Immigration and Nationality Amendments of 1981, exceed the annual numerical limitation in effect for such year, to reduce to such extent the numerical limitation in effect for the natives of the same foreign state for the following fiscal year.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–116, §18(c), inserted "and" before "(4)".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–212, §203(b)(1), (2), substituted "through (7)" for "through (8)", and struck out "and the number of conditional entries" after "visas".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–212, §203(b)(3)–(7), in introductory text struck out provisions relating to applicability to conditional entries, in par. (2) substituted "(26)" for "(20)", struck out par. (7) relating to availability of conditional entries, and redesignated par. (8) as (7) and substituted "through (6)" for "through (7)".

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–412 substituted "limitation set forth in subsection (a), to the foreign state," for "limitations set forth in section 1151(a) and subsection (a), to the hemisphere in which such colony or other component or dependent area is located, and to the foreign state, respectively," and "six hundred" for "600".

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–571, §3(1), struck out last proviso which read: "Provided further, That the foregoing proviso shall not operate to reduce the number of immigrants who may be admitted under the quota of any quota area before June 30, 1968".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–571, §3(2), in revising provisions, substituted "overseas from the foreign state, other than a special immigrant, as defined in section 1101(a)(27) of this title, or an immediate relative of a United States citizen, as defined in section 1151(b) of this title, shall be chargeable for the purpose of the limitations set forth in section 1151(a) of this title and subsection (a) of this section, to the hemisphere in which such colony or other component or dependent area is located, and to the foreign state, respectively, and the number of immigrant visas available to each such colony or other component or dependent area shall not exceed 600 in any one fiscal year" for "unless a special immigrant as provided in section 1101(a)(27) of this title or an immediate relative of a United States citizen as specified in section 1151(b) of this title, shall be chargeable, for the purpose of limitation set forth in subsection (a) of this section, to the foreign state, except that the number of persons born in any such colony or other component or dependent area overseas from the foreign state chargeable to the foreign state in any one fiscal year shall not exceed 1 per centum of the maximum number of immigrant visas available to such foreign state".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–571, §3(3), added subsec. (e).

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions prohibiting preferences or priorities or discrimination in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of race, sex, nationality, place of birth, or place of residence, setting a limit of 20,000 per year on the total number of entries available to natives of any single foreign state, and prohibiting the 20,000 limitation from reducing the number of immigrants under the quota of any quota area before June 30, 1968, for provisions calling for the charging of immigrants, with certain exceptions, to the annual quota of the quota area of his birth.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions calling for treatment of each independent country, self-governing dominion, mandated territory, and trusteeship territory as a separate foreign state for purposes of determining the numerical limitation imposed on each foreign state, and chargeability of immigrants to the country of their birth except where such chargeability would cause the family unit to be divided, for provisions setting up the Asia-Pacific triangle and providing for the special treatment of quota chargeability thereunder on the basis of racial ancestry.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions making immigrants born in colonies or other component or dependent areas of a foreign state chargeable to the foreign state and placing a limitation on the number of such immigrants of 1 per centum of the maximum number of visas available to the foreign state, for provisions making immigrants born in colonies for which no specific quota are set chargeable to the governing country and placing a limit of 100 on such immigrants from each governing country each year, with special application to the Asia-Pacific triangle.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions requiring Secretary of State, upon a change in the territorial limits of foreign states, to issue appropriate instructions to all diplomatic and consular offices, for provisions that the terms of an immigration quota for a quota area do not constitute recognition of the transfer of territory or of a government not recognized by the United States.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–236 repealed subsec. (e) which allowed revision of quotas.

1961—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 87–301 provided that if an area undergoes a change of administrative arrangements, boundaries, or other political change, the annual quota of the newly established area, or the visas authorized to be issued shall not be less than the total of quotas in effect or visas authorized for the area immediately preceding the change, and deleted provisions which in the event of an increase in minimum quota areas above twenty in the Asia-Pacific triangle, would proportionately decrease each quota of the area so the sum of all area quotas did not exceed two thousand.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–232 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 310(1) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–649 effective Oct. 1, 1991, and applicable beginning with fiscal year 1992, see section 161(a) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 8(c) of Pub. L. 100–525 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–653, see section 309(b)(15) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–653 applicable to visas issued, and admissions occurring, on or after Nov. 14, 1986, see section 23(a) of Pub. L. 99–653, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–603, title III, §311(b), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3434, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to fiscal years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1986]."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–116 effective Dec. 29, 1981, see section 21(a) of Pub. L. 97–116, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–212 effective, except as otherwise provided, Apr. 1, 1980, see section 204 of Pub. L. 96–212, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–571 effective on first day of first month which begins more than sixty days after Oct. 20, 1976, see section 10 of Pub. L. 94–571, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 89–236, see section 20 of Pub. L. 89–236, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Treatment of Hong Kong Under Per Country Levels

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §103, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4985, provided that: "The approval referred to in the first sentence of section 202(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1152(b)] shall be considered to have been granted, effective beginning with fiscal year 1991, with respect to Hong Kong as a separate foreign state, and not as a colony or other component or dependent area of another foreign state, except that the total number of immigrant visas made available to natives of Hong Kong under subsections (a) and (b) of section 203 of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(a), (b)] in each of fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993 may not exceed 10,000."

[Section 103 of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Nov. 29, 1990, and (unless otherwise provided) applicable to fiscal year 1991, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.]

Inapplicability of Numerical Limitations for Certain Aliens Residing in the United States Virgin Islands

The numerical limitations described in text not to apply in the case of certain aliens residing in the Virgin Islands seeking adjustment of their status to permanent resident alien status, and such adjustment of status not to result in any reduction in the number of aliens who may acquire the status of aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under this chapter, see section 2(c)(1) of Pub. L. 97–271, set out as a note under section 1255 of this title.

Exemption From Numerical Limitations for Certain Aliens Who Applied for Adjustment to Status of Permanent Resident Aliens on or Before June 1, 1978

For provisions rendering inapplicable the numerical limitations contained in this section to certain aliens who had applied for adjustment to the status of permanent resident alien on or before June 1, 1978, see section 19 of Pub. L. 97–116, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Approval by Secretary of State Treating Taiwan (China) as Separate Foreign State for Purposes of Numerical Limitation on Immigrant Visas

Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §714, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1548, provided that: "The approval referred to in the first sentence of section 202(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (b) of this section] shall be considered to have been granted with respect to Taiwan (China)."

§1153. Allocation of immigrant visas

(a) Preference allocation for family-sponsored immigrants

Aliens subject to the worldwide level specified in section 1151(c) of this title for family-sponsored immigrants shall be allotted visas as follows:

(1) Unmarried sons and daughters of citizens

Qualified immigrants who are the unmarried sons or daughters of citizens of the United States shall be allocated visas in a number not to exceed 23,400, plus any visas not required for the class specified in paragraph (4).

(2) Spouses and unmarried sons and unmarried daughters of permanent resident aliens

Qualified immigrants—

(A) who are the spouses or children of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or

(B) who are the unmarried sons or unmarried daughters (but are not the children) of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence,


shall be allocated visas in a number not to exceed 114,200, plus the number (if any) by which such worldwide level exceeds 226,000, plus any visas not required for the class specified in paragraph (1); except that not less than 77 percent of such visa numbers shall be allocated to aliens described in subparagraph (A).

(3) Married sons and married daughters of citizens

Qualified immigrants who are the married sons or married daughters of citizens of the United States shall be allocated visas in a number not to exceed 23,400, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(4) Brothers and sisters of citizens

Qualified immigrants who are the brothers or sisters of citizens of the United States, if such citizens are at least 21 years of age, shall be allocated visas in a number not to exceed 65,000, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraphs (1) through (3).

(b) Preference allocation for employment-based immigrants

Aliens subject to the worldwide level specified in section 1151(d) of this title for employment-based immigrants in a fiscal year shall be allotted visas as follows:

(1) Priority workers

Visas shall first be made available in a number not to exceed 28.6 percent of such worldwide level, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraphs (4) and (5), to qualified immigrants who are aliens described in any of the following subparagraphs (A) through (C):

(A) Aliens with extraordinary ability

An alien is described in this subparagraph if—

(i) the alien has extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics which has been demonstrated by sustained national or international acclaim and whose achievements have been recognized in the field through extensive documentation,

(ii) the alien seeks to enter the United States to continue work in the area of extraordinary ability, and

(iii) the alien's entry into the United States will substantially benefit prospectively the United States.

(B) Outstanding professors and researchers

An alien is described in this subparagraph if—

(i) the alien is recognized internationally as outstanding in a specific academic area,

(ii) the alien has at least 3 years of experience in teaching or research in the academic area, and

(iii) the alien seeks to enter the United States—

(I) for a tenured position (or tenure-track position) within a university or institution of higher education to teach in the academic area,

(II) for a comparable position with a university or institution of higher education to conduct research in the area, or

(III) for a comparable position to conduct research in the area with a department, division, or institute of a private employer, if the department, division, or institute employs at least 3 persons full-time in research activities and has achieved documented accomplishments in an academic field.

(C) Certain multinational executives and managers

An alien is described in this subparagraph if the alien, in the 3 years preceding the time of the alien's application for classification and admission into the United States under this subparagraph, has been employed for at least 1 year by a firm or corporation or other legal entity or an affiliate or subsidiary thereof and the alien seeks to enter the United States in order to continue to render services to the same employer or to a subsidiary or affiliate thereof in a capacity that is managerial or executive.

(2) Aliens who are members of the professions holding advanced degrees or aliens of exceptional ability

(A) In general

Visas shall be made available, in a number not to exceed 28.6 percent of such worldwide level, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraph (1), to qualified immigrants who are members of the professions holding advanced degrees or their equivalent or who because of their exceptional ability in the sciences, arts, or business, will substantially benefit prospectively the national economy, cultural or educational interests, or welfare of the United States, and whose services in the sciences, arts, professions, or business are sought by an employer in the United States.

(B) Waiver of job offer

(i) National interest waiver

Subject to clause (ii), the Attorney General may, when the Attorney General deems it to be in the national interest, waive the requirements of subparagraph (A) that an alien's services in the sciences, arts, professions, or business be sought by an employer in the United States.

(ii) Physicians working in shortage areas or veterans facilities

(I) In general

The Attorney General shall grant a national interest waiver pursuant to clause (i) on behalf of any alien physician with respect to whom a petition for preference classification has been filed under subparagraph (A) if—

(aa) the alien physician agrees to work full time as a physician in an area or areas designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services as having a shortage of health care professionals or at a health care facility under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs; and

(bb) a Federal agency or a department of public health in any State has previously determined that the alien physician's work in such an area or at such facility was in the public interest.

(II) Prohibition

No permanent resident visa may be issued to an alien physician described in subclause (I) by the Secretary of State under section 1154(b) of this title, and the Attorney General may not adjust the status of such an alien physician from that of a nonimmigrant alien to that of a permanent resident alien under section 1255 of this title, until such time as the alien has worked full time as a physician for an aggregate of 5 years (not including the time served in the status of an alien described in section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title), in an area or areas designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services as having a shortage of health care professionals or at a health care facility under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

(III) Statutory construction

Nothing in this subparagraph may be construed to prevent the filing of a petition with the Attorney General for classification under section 1154(a) of this title, or the filing of an application for adjustment of status under section 1255 of this title, by an alien physician described in subclause (I) prior to the date by which such alien physician has completed the service described in subclause (II).

(IV) Effective date

The requirements of this subsection do not affect waivers on behalf of alien physicians approved under subsection (b)(2)(B) before the enactment date of this subsection. In the case of a physician for whom an application for a waiver was filed under subsection (b)(2)(B) prior to November 1, 1998, the Attorney General shall grant a national interest waiver pursuant to subsection (b)(2)(B) except that the alien is required to have worked full time as a physician for an aggregate of 3 years (not including time served in the status of an alien described in section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title) before a visa can be issued to the alien under section 1154(b) of this title or the status of the alien is adjusted to permanent resident under section 1255 of this title.

(C) Determination of exceptional ability

In determining under subparagraph (A) whether an immigrant has exceptional ability, the possession of a degree, diploma, certificate, or similar award from a college, university, school, or other institution of learning or a license to practice or certification for a particular profession or occupation shall not by itself be considered sufficient evidence of such exceptional ability.

(3) Skilled workers, professionals, and other workers

(A) In general

Visas shall be made available, in a number not to exceed 28.6 percent of such worldwide level, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), to the following classes of aliens who are not described in paragraph (2):

(i) Skilled workers

Qualified immigrants who are capable, at the time of petitioning for classification under this paragraph, of performing skilled labor (requiring at least 2 years training or experience), not of a temporary or seasonal nature, for which qualified workers are not available in the United States.

(ii) Professionals

Qualified immigrants who hold baccalaureate degrees and who are members of the professions.

(iii) Other workers

Other qualified immigrants who are capable, at the time of petitioning for classification under this paragraph, of performing unskilled labor, not of a temporary or seasonal nature, for which qualified workers are not available in the United States.

(B) Limitation on other workers

Not more than 10,000 of the visas made available under this paragraph in any fiscal year may be available for qualified immigrants described in subparagraph (A)(iii).

(C) Labor certification required

An immigrant visa may not be issued to an immigrant under subparagraph (A) until the consular officer is in receipt of a determination made by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the provisions of section 1182(a)(5)(A) of this title.

(4) Certain special immigrants

Visas shall be made available, in a number not to exceed 7.1 percent of such worldwide level, to qualified special immigrants described in section 1101(a)(27) of this title (other than those described in subparagraph (A) or (B) thereof), of which not more than 5,000 may be made available in any fiscal year to special immigrants described in subclause (II) or (III) of section 1101(a)(27)(C)(ii) of this title, and not more than 100 may be made available in any fiscal year to special immigrants, excluding spouses and children, who are described in section 1101(a)(27)(M) of this title.

(5) Employment creation

(A) In general

Visas shall be made available, in a number not to exceed 7.1 percent of such worldwide level, to qualified immigrants seeking to enter the United States for the purpose of engaging in a new commercial enterprise (including a limited partnership)—

(i) in which such alien has invested (after November 29, 1990) or, is actively in the process of investing, capital in an amount not less than the amount specified in subparagraph (C), and

(ii) which will benefit the United States economy and create full-time employment for not fewer than 10 United States citizens or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence or other immigrants lawfully authorized to be employed in the United States (other than the immigrant and the immigrant's spouse, sons, or daughters).

(B) Set-aside for targeted employment areas

(i) In general

Not less than 3,000 of the visas made available under this paragraph in each fiscal year shall be reserved for qualified immigrants who invest in a new commercial enterprise described in subparagraph (A) which will create employment in a targeted employment area.

(ii) "Targeted employment area" defined

In this paragraph, the term "targeted employment area" means, at the time of the investment, a rural area or an area which has experienced high unemployment (of at least 150 percent of the national average rate).

(iii) "Rural area" defined

In this paragraph, the term "rural area" means any area other than an area within a metropolitan statistical area or within the outer boundary of any city or town having a population of 20,000 or more (based on the most recent decennial census of the United States).

(C) Amount of capital required

(i) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the amount of capital required under subparagraph (A) shall be $1,000,000. The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of State, may from time to time prescribe regulations increasing the dollar amount specified under the previous sentence.

(ii) Adjustment for targeted employment areas

The Attorney General may, in the case of investment made in a targeted employment area, specify an amount of capital required under subparagraph (A) that is less than (but not less than ½ of) the amount specified in clause (i).

(iii) Adjustment for high employment areas

In the case of an investment made in a part of a metropolitan statistical area that at the time of the investment—

(I) is not a targeted employment area, and

(II) is an area with an unemployment rate significantly below the national average unemployment rate,


 the Attorney General may specify an amount of capital required under subparagraph (A) that is greater than (but not greater than 3 times) the amount specified in clause (i).

(D) Full-time employment defined

In this paragraph, the term "full-time employment" means employment in a position that requires at least 35 hours of service per week at any time, regardless of who fills the position.

(6) Special rules for "K" special immigrants

(A) Not counted against numerical limitation in year involved

Subject to subparagraph (B), the number of immigrant visas made available to special immigrants under section 1101(a)(27)(K) of this title in a fiscal year shall not be subject to the numerical limitations of this subsection or of section 1152(a) of this title.

(B) Counted against numerical limitations in following year

(i) Reduction in employment-based immigrant classifications

The number of visas made available in any fiscal year under paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) shall each be reduced by 1/3 of the number of visas made available in the previous fiscal year to special immigrants described in section 1101(a)(27)(K) of this title.

(ii) Reduction in per country level

The number of visas made available in each fiscal year to natives of a foreign state under section 1152(a) of this title shall be reduced by the number of visas made available in the previous fiscal year to special immigrants described in section 1101(a)(27)(K) of this title who are natives of the foreign state.

(iii) Reduction in employment-based immigrant classifications within per country ceiling

In the case of a foreign state subject to section 1152(e) of this title in a fiscal year (and in the previous fiscal year), the number of visas made available and allocated to each of paragraphs (1) through (3) of this subsection in the fiscal year shall be reduced by 1/3 of the number of visas made available in the previous fiscal year to special immigrants described in section 1101(a)(27)(K) of this title who are natives of the foreign state.

(c) Diversity immigrants

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), aliens subject to the worldwide level specified in section 1151(e) of this title for diversity immigrants shall be allotted visas each fiscal year as follows:

(A) Determination of preference immigration

The Attorney General shall determine for the most recent previous 5-fiscal-year period for which data are available, the total number of aliens who are natives of each foreign state and who (i) were admitted or otherwise provided lawful permanent resident status (other than under this subsection) and (ii) were subject to the numerical limitations of section 1151(a) of this title (other than paragraph (3) thereof) or who were admitted or otherwise provided lawful permanent resident status as an immediate relative or other alien described in section 1151(b)(2) of this title.

(B) Identification of high-admission and low-admission regions and high-admission and low-admission states

The Attorney General—

(i) shall identify—

(I) each region (each in this paragraph referred to as a "high-admission region") for which the total of the numbers determined under subparagraph (A) for states in the region is greater than 1/6 of the total of all such numbers, and

(II) each other region (each in this paragraph referred to as a "low-admission region"); and


(ii) shall identify—

(I) each foreign state for which the number determined under subparagraph (A) is greater than 50,000 (each such state in this paragraph referred to as a "high-admission state"), and

(II) each other foreign state (each such state in this paragraph referred to as a "low-admission state").

(C) Determination of percentage of worldwide immigration attributable to high-admission regions

The Attorney General shall determine the percentage of the total of the numbers determined under subparagraph (A) that are numbers for foreign states in high-admission regions.

(D) Determination of regional populations excluding high-admission states and ratios of populations of regions within low-admission regions and high-admission regions

The Attorney General shall determine—

(i) based on available estimates for each region, the total population of each region not including the population of any high-admission state;

(ii) for each low-admission region, the ratio of the population of the region determined under clause (i) to the total of the populations determined under such clause for all the low-admission regions; and

(iii) for each high-admission region, the ratio of the population of the region determined under clause (i) to the total of the populations determined under such clause for all the high-admission regions.

(E) Distribution of visas

(i) No visas for natives of high-admission states

The percentage of visas made available under this paragraph to natives of a high-admission state is 0.

(ii) For low-admission states in low-admission regions

Subject to clauses (iv) and (v), the percentage of visas made available under this paragraph to natives (other than natives of a high-admission state) in a low-admission region is the product of—

(I) the percentage determined under subparagraph (C), and

(II) the population ratio for that region determined under subparagraph (D)(ii).

(iii) For low-admission states in high-admission regions

Subject to clauses (iv) and (v), the percentage of visas made available under this paragraph to natives (other than natives of a high-admission state) in a high-admission region is the product of—

(I) 100 percent minus the percentage determined under subparagraph (C), and

(II) the population ratio for that region determined under subparagraph (D)(iii).

(iv) Redistribution of unused visa numbers

If the Secretary of State estimates that the number of immigrant visas to be issued to natives in any region for a fiscal year under this paragraph is less than the number of immigrant visas made available to such natives under this paragraph for the fiscal year, subject to clause (v), the excess visa numbers shall be made available to natives (other than natives of a high-admission state) of the other regions in proportion to the percentages otherwise specified in clauses (ii) and (iii).

(v) Limitation on visas for natives of a single foreign state

The percentage of visas made available under this paragraph to natives of any single foreign state for any fiscal year shall not exceed 7 percent.

(F) "Region" defined

Only for purposes of administering the diversity program under this subsection, Northern Ireland shall be treated as a separate foreign state, each colony or other component or dependent area of a foreign state overseas from the foreign state shall be treated as part of the foreign state, and the areas described in each of the following clauses shall be considered to be a separate region:

(i) Africa.

(ii) Asia.

(iii) Europe.

(iv) North America (other than Mexico).

(v) Oceania.

(vi) South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.

(2) Requirement of education or work experience

An alien is not eligible for a visa under this subsection unless the alien—

(A) has at least a high school education or its equivalent, or

(B) has, within 5 years of the date of application for a visa under this subsection, at least 2 years of work experience in an occupation which requires at least 2 years of training or experience.

(3) Maintenance of information

The Secretary of State shall maintain information on the age, occupation, education level, and other relevant characteristics of immigrants issued visas under this subsection.

(d) Treatment of family members

A spouse or child as defined in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title shall, if not otherwise entitled to an immigrant status and the immediate issuance of a visa under subsection (a), (b), or (c), be entitled to the same status, and the same order of consideration provided in the respective subsection, if accompanying or following to join, the spouse or parent.

(e) Order of consideration

(1) Immigrant visas made available under subsection (a) or (b) shall be issued to eligible immigrants in the order in which a petition in behalf of each such immigrant is filed with the Attorney General (or in the case of special immigrants under section 1101(a)(27)(D) of this title, with the Secretary of State) as provided in section 1154(a) of this title.

(2) Immigrant visa numbers made available under subsection (c) (relating to diversity immigrants) shall be issued to eligible qualified immigrants strictly in a random order established by the Secretary of State for the fiscal year involved.

(3) Waiting lists of applicants for visas under this section shall be maintained in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of State.

(f) Authorization for issuance

In the case of any alien claiming in his application for an immigrant visa to be described in section 1151(b)(2) of this title or in subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section, the consular officer shall not grant such status until he has been authorized to do so as provided by section 1154 of this title.

(g) Lists

For purposes of carrying out the Secretary's responsibilities in the orderly administration of this section, the Secretary of State may make reasonable estimates of the anticipated numbers of visas to be issued during any quarter of any fiscal year within each of the categories under subsections (a), (b), and (c) and to rely upon such estimates in authorizing the issuance of visas. The Secretary of State shall terminate the registration of any alien who fails to apply for an immigrant visa within one year following notification to the alien of the availability of such visa, but the Secretary shall reinstate the registration of any such alien who establishes within 2 years following the date of notification of the availability of such visa that such failure to apply was due to circumstances beyond the alien's control.

(h) Rules for determining whether certain aliens are children

(1) In general

For purposes of subsections (a)(2)(A) and (d), a determination of whether an alien satisfies the age requirement in the matter preceding subparagraph (A) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title shall be made using—

(A) the age of the alien on the date on which an immigrant visa number becomes available for such alien (or, in the case of subsection (d), the date on which an immigrant visa number became available for the alien's parent), but only if the alien has sought to acquire the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence within one year of such availability; reduced by

(B) the number of days in the period during which the applicable petition described in paragraph (2) was pending.

(2) Petitions described

The petition described in this paragraph is—

(A) with respect to a relationship described in subsection (a)(2)(A), a petition filed under section 1154 of this title for classification of an alien child under subsection (a)(2)(A); or

(B) with respect to an alien child who is a derivative beneficiary under subsection (d), a petition filed under section 1154 of this title for classification of the alien's parent under subsection (a), (b), or (c).

(3) Retention of priority date

If the age of an alien is determined under paragraph (1) to be 21 years of age or older for the purposes of subsections (a)(2)(A) and (d), the alien's petition shall automatically be converted to the appropriate category and the alien shall retain the original priority date issued upon receipt of the original petition.

(4) Application to self-petitions

Paragraphs (1) through (3) shall apply to self-petitioners and derivatives of self-petitioners.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §203, 66 Stat. 178; Pub. L. 85–316, §3, Sept. 11, 1957, 71 Stat. 639; Pub. L. 86–363, §§1–3, Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 644; Pub. L. 89–236, §3, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 912; Pub. L. 94–571, §4, Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2705; Pub. L. 95–412, §3, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 95–417, §1, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 917; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §203(c), (i), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 107, 108; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §§111, 121(a), 131, 162(a)(1), title VI, §603(a)(3), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4986, 4987, 4997, 5009, 5082; Pub. L. 102–110, §2(b), Oct. 1, 1991, 105 Stat. 555; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(b)(2), (e)(3), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1743, 1745; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §§212(b), 219(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4314, 4316; Pub. L. 106–95, §5, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title I, §117], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-21; Pub. L. 106–536, §1(b)(1), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2560; Pub. L. 107–208, §3, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 928; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §§11035, 11036(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1846; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, §805(b)(2), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3056.)

References in Text

The enactment date of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii)(IV), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–95, which amended subsec. (b)(2)(B) of this section generally, and which was approved Nov. 12, 1999.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 109–162 added par. (4).

2002—Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 107–273, §11036(a)(1)(A), substituted "enterprise (including a limited partnership)—" for "enterprise—" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(5)(A)(i) to (iii). Pub. L. 107–273, §11036(a)(1)(B), (C), redesignated cls. (ii) and (iii) as (i) and (ii), respectively, and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "which the alien has established,".

Subsec. (b)(5)(B)(i). Pub. L. 107–273, §11036(a)(2), substituted "invest in" for "establish".

Subsec. (b)(5)(D). Pub. L. 107–273, §11035, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–208 added subsec. (h).

2000—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 106–536 inserted before period at end ", and not more than 100 may be made available in any fiscal year to special immigrants, excluding spouses and children, who are described in section 1101(a)(27)(M) of this title".

1999—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–95 and Pub. L. 106–113 amended subpar. (B) generally in substantially identical manner. Pub. L. 106–95 provided headings. Text is based on Pub. L. 106–113. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Attorney General may, when he deems it to be in the national interest, waive the requirement of subparagraph (A) that an alien's services in the sciences, arts, professions, or business be sought by an employer in the United States."

1994—Subsec. (b)(5)(B), (C). Pub. L. 103–416, §219(c), substituted "Targeted" and "targeted" for "Targetted" and "targetted", respectively, wherever appearing in headings and text.

Subsec. (b)(6)(C). Pub. L. 103–416, §212(b), struck out subpar. (C) which related to application of separate numerical limitations.

1991—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(b)(2)(A), substituted "28.6 percent of such worldwide level" for "40,000".

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(b)(2)(B), substituted "the alien seeks" for "who seeks".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(b)(2)(A), substituted "28.6 percent of such worldwide level" for "40,000".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(b)(2)(D), inserted "professions," after "arts,".

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(b)(2)(A), substituted "28.6 percent of such worldwide level" for "40,000".

Subsec. (b)(4), (5)(A). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(b)(2)(C), substituted "7.1 percent of such worldwide level" for "10,000".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 102–110 added par. (6).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(e)(3), substituted "Authorization for issuance" for "Presumption" in heading, struck out at beginning "Every immigrant shall be presumed not to be described in subsection (a) or (b) of this section, section 1101(a)(27) of this title, or section 1151(b)(2) of this title, until the immigrant establishes to the satisfaction of the consular officer and the immigration officer that the immigrant is so described.", and substituted "1151(b)(2) of this title or in subsection (a), (b), or (c)" for "1151(b)(1) of this title or in subsection (a) or (b)".

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–649, §111(2), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which related to allocation of visas of aliens subject to section 1151(a) limitations.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(3), substituted "section 1182(a)(5) of this title" for "section 1182(a)(14) of this title".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–649, §§111(1), 121(a), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–649, §§111(1), 131, added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (e).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(a)(1), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which related to order of consideration given applications for immigrant visas.

Pub. L. 101–649, §111(1), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(a)(1), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which related to order of issuance of immigrant visas.

Pub. L. 101–649, §111(1), redesignated subsec. (c) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(a)(1), added subsec. (f) and struck out former subsec. (f) which related to presumption of nonpreference status and grant of status by consular officers.

Pub. L. 101–649, §111(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(a)(1), added subsec. (g) and struck out former subsec. (g) which related to estimates of anticipated numbers of visas to be issued, termination and reinstatement of registration of aliens, and revocation of approval of petition.

Pub. L. 101–649, §111(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (g).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–212, §203(c)(1)–(6), in introductory text struck out applicability to conditional entry, in par. (2) substituted "(26)" for "(20)", struck out par. (7) relating to availability of conditional entries, redesignated former par. (8) as (7) and struck out applicability to number of conditional entries and visas available under former par. (7), and redesignated former par. (9) as (8) and substituted provisions relating to applicability of pars. (1) to (7) to visas, for provisions relating to applicability of pars. (1) to (8) to conditional entries.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–212, §203(c)(7), substituted "preference status under paragraphs (1) through (6)" for "preference status under paragraphs (1) through (7)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–212, §203(c)(8), struck out subsec. (f) which related to reports to Congress of refugees conditionally entering the United States.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–212, §203(c)(8), struck out subsec. (g) which set forth provisions respecting inspection and examination of refugees after one year.

Pub. L. 96–212, §203(i), substituted provisions relating to inspection and examination of refugees after one year for provisions relating to inspection and examination of refugees after two years.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 96–212, §203(c)(8), struck out subsec. (h) which related to the retroactive readjustment of refugee status as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.

1978—Subsec. (a)(1) to (7). Pub. L. 95–412 substituted "1151(a) of this title" for "1151(a)(1) or (2) of this title" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 95–417 inserted provisions requiring a valid adoption home-study prior to the granting of a nonpreference visa for children adopted abroad or coming for adoption by United States citizens and requiring that no other nonpreference visa be issued to an unmarried child under the age of 16 unless accompanying or following to join his natural parents.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–571, §4(1)–(3), substituted "section 1151(a)(1) or (2) of this title" for "section 1151(a)(ii) of this title" in pars. (1) to (7); made visas available, in par. (3), to qualified immigrants whose services in the professions, sciences, or arts are sought by an employer in the United States; and required, in par. (5), that the United States citizens be at least twenty-one years of age.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–571, §4(4), substituted provision requiring Secretary of State to terminate the registration of an alien who fails to apply for an immigrant visa within one year following notification of the availability of such visa, including provision for reinstatement of a registration upon establishment within two years following the notification that the failure to apply was due to circumstances beyond the alien's control for prior provision for discretionary termination of the registration on a waiting list of an alien failing to evidence continued intention to apply for a visa as prescribed by regulation and inserted provision for automatic revocation of approval of a petition approved under section 1154(b) of this title upon such termination.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions setting up preference priorities and percentage allocations of the total numerical limitation for the admission of qualified immigrants, consisting of unmarried sons or daughters of U.S. citizens (20 percent), husbands, wives, and unmarried sons or daughters of alien residents (20 percent plus any unused portion of class 1), members of professions, scientists, and artists (10 percent), married sons or daughters of U.S. citizens (10 percent plus any unused portions of classes 1–3), brothers or sisters of U.S. citizens (24 percent plus any unused portions of classes 1 through 4), skilled or unskilled persons capable of filling labor shortages in the United States (10 percent), refugees (6 percent), otherwise qualified immigrants (portion not used by classes 1 through 7), and allowing a spouse or child to be given the same status and order of consideration as the spouse or parent, for provisions spelling out the preferences under the quotas based on the previous national origins quota systems.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions requiring that consideration be given applications for immigrant visas in the order in which the classes of which they are members are listed in subsec. (a), for provisions allowing issuance of quota immigrant visas under the previous national origins quota system in the order of filing in the first calendar month after receipt of notice of approval for which a quota number was available.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions requiring issuance of immigrant visas pursuant to paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (a) of this section in the order of filing of the petitions therefor with the Attorney General, for provisions which related to issuance of quota immigrant visas in designated classes in the order of registration in each class on quota waiting lists.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions requiring each immigrant to establish his preference as claimed and prohibiting consular officers from granting status of immediate relative of a United States citizen or preference until authorized to do so, for provisions spelling out the order for consideration of applications for quota immigrant visas under the various prior classes.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions authorizing Secretary of State to make estimates of anticipated members of visas issued and to terminate the waiting-list registration of any registrant failing to evidence a continued intention to apply for a visa, for provisions establishing a presumption of quota status for immigrants and requiring the immigrant to establish any claim to a preference.

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 89–236 added subsecs. (f) to (h).

1959—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 86–363, §1, accorded adult unmarried sons or daughters of United States citizens second preference in the allocation of immigrant visas within quotas.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 86–363, §2, substituted "unmarried sons or daughters" for "children".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 86–363, §3, substituted "married sons or married daughters" for "sons, or daughters", increased percentage limitation from 25 to 50 per centum, and made preference available to spouses and children of qualified quota immigrants if accompanying them.

1957—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 85–316 substituted "or following to join him" for "him".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendments

Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11036(c), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1847, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1186b of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 2002] and shall apply to aliens having any of the following petitions pending on or after the date of the enactment of this Act:

"(1) A petition under section 204(a)(1)(H) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(H)) (or any predecessor provision), with respect to status under section 203(b)(5) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(5)).

"(2) A petition under section 216A(c)(1)(A) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1186b(c)(1)(A)) to remove the conditional basis of an alien's permanent resident status."

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–208 effective Aug. 6, 2002, and applicable to certain beneficiary aliens, see section 8 of Pub. L. 107–208, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–536, §1(b)(2), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2561, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to visas made available in any fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 2000."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 219(c) of Pub. L. 103–416 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 219(dd) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–232 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 310(1) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–110 effective 60 days after Oct. 1, 1991, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 102–110, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by sections 111, 121(a), 131, 162(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Oct. 1, 1991, and applicable beginning with fiscal year 1992, with general transition provisions, see section 161(a), (c) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by section 603(a)(3) of Pub. L. 101–649 applicable to individuals entering United States on or after June 1, 1991, see section 601(e)(1) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by section 203(c) of Pub. L. 96–212 effective, except as otherwise provided, Apr. 1, 1980, and amendment by section 203(i) of Pub. L. 96–212 effective immediately before Apr. 1, 1980, see section 204 of Pub. L. 96–212, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–571 effective on first day of first month which begins more than sixty days after Oct. 20, 1976, see section 10 of Pub. L. 94–571, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 89–236, see section 20 of Pub. L. 89–236, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

GAO Study

Pub. L. 108–156, §5, Dec. 3, 2003, 117 Stat. 1945, as amended by Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 3, 2003], the Government Accountability Office shall report to Congress on the immigrant investor program created under section 203(b)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(5)).

"(b) Contents.—The report described in subsection (a) shall include information regarding—

"(1) the number of immigrant investors that have received visas under the immigrant investor program in each year since the inception of the program;

"(2) the country of origin of the immigrant investors;

"(3) the localities where the immigrant investors are settling and whether those investors generally remain in the localities where they initially settle;

"(4) the number of immigrant investors that have sought to become citizens of the United States;

"(5) the types of commercial enterprises that the immigrant investors have established; and

"(6) the types and number of jobs created by the immigrant investors."

Recapture of Unused Employment-Based Immigrant Visas

Pub. L. 106–313, title I, §106(d), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1254, as amended by Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title V, §502, May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 322, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the number of employment-based visas (as defined in paragraph (3)) made available for a fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 2001) shall be increased by the number described in paragraph (2). Visas made available under this subsection shall only be available in a fiscal year to employment-based immigrants under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 203(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(b)] and any such visa that is made available due to the difference between the number of employment-based visas that were made available in fiscal year 2001, 2002, 2003, or 2004 and the number of such visas that were actually used in such fiscal year shall be available only to employment-based immigrants (and their family members accompanying or following to join under section 203(d) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(d))) whose immigrant worker petitions were approved based on schedule A, as defined in section 656.5 of title 20, Code of Federal Regulations, as promulgated by the Secretary of Labor.

"(2) Number available.—

"(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B), the number described in this paragraph is the difference between the number of employment-based visas that were made available in fiscal years 1999 through 2004 and the number of such visas that were actually used in such fiscal years.

"(B)(i) Reduction.—The number described in subparagraph (A) shall be reduced, for each fiscal year after fiscal year 2001, by the cumulative number of immigrant visas actually used under paragraph (1) for previous fiscal years.

"(ii) Maximum.—The total number of visas made available under paragraph (1) from unused visas from the fiscal years 2001 through 2004 may not exceed 50,000.

"(C) Construction.—Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as affecting the application of section 201(c)(3)(C) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(c)(3)(C)).

"(3) Employment-based visas defined.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'employment-based visa' means an immigrant visa which is issued pursuant to the numerical limitation under section 203(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b))."

Temporary Reduction in Workers' Visas

Pub. L. 105–100, title II, §203(e), Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2199, as amended by Pub. L. 105–139, §1(e), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2645, provided that:

"(1) Beginning in the fiscal year following the fiscal year in which a visa has been made available under section 203(b)(3)(A)(iii) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(3)(A)(iii)] for all aliens who are the beneficiary of a petition approved under section 204 of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1154] as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 1997] for classification under section 203(b)(3)(A)(iii) of such Act, subject to paragraph (2), visas available under section 203(b)(3)(A)(iii) of that Act shall be reduced by 5,000 from the number of visas otherwise available under that section for such fiscal year.

"(2) In no case shall the reduction under paragraph (1) for a fiscal year exceed the amount by which—

"(A) the number computed under subsection (d)(2)(A) [section 203(d)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 105–100, 8 U.S.C. 1151 note]; exceeds

"(B) the total of the reductions in available visas under this subsection for all previous fiscal years."

Diversity Immigrant Lottery Fee

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §636, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–703, provided that: "The Secretary of State may establish a fee to be paid by each applicant for an immigrant visa described in section 203(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(c)]. Such fee may be set at a level that will ensure recovery of the cost to the Department of State of allocating visas under such section, including the cost of processing all applications thereunder. All fees collected under this section shall be used for providing consular services. All fees collected under this section shall be deposited as an offsetting collection to any Department of State appropriation and shall remain available for obligations until expended. The provisions of the Act of August 18, 1856 (11 Stat. 58; 22 U.S.C. 4212–4214), concerning accounting for consular fees, shall not apply to fees collected under this section."

Eligibility for Visas for Polish Applicants for 1995 Diversity Immigrant Program

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §637, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–704, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall include among the aliens selected for diversity immigrant visas for fiscal year 1997 pursuant to section 203(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(c)] any alien who, on or before September 30, 1995—

"(1) was selected as a diversity immigrant under such section for fiscal year 1995;

"(2) applied for adjustment of status to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence pursuant to section 245 of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1255] during fiscal year 1995, and whose application, and any associated fees, were accepted by the Attorney General, in accordance with applicable regulations;

"(3) was not determined by the Attorney General to be excludable under section 212 of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1182] or ineligible under section 203(c)(2) of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(c)(2)]; and

"(4) did not become an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence during fiscal year 1995.

"(b) Priority.—The aliens selected under subsection (a) shall be considered to have been selected for diversity immigrant visas for fiscal year 1997 prior to any alien selected under any other provision of law.

"(c) Reduction of Immigrant Visa Number.—For purposes of applying the numerical limitations in sections 201 and 203(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1151, 1153(c)], aliens selected under subsection (a) who are granted an immigrant visa shall be treated as aliens granted a visa under section 203(c) of such Act."

Soviet Scientists Immigration

Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1304(d), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1437, provided that: "The Attorney General shall consult with the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, and the heads of other appropriate agencies of the United States regarding—

"(1) previous experience in implementing the Soviet Scientists Immigration Act of 1992 [Pub. L. 102–509 set out below]; and

"(2) any changes that those officials would recommend in the regulations prescribed under that Act."

[For definition of "Secretary" as used in section 1304(d) of Pub. L. 107–228, set out above, see section 3 of Pub. L. 107–228, set out as a note under section 2651 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.]

Pub. L. 102–509, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3316, as amended by Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1304(a)–(c), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1436, 1437, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Soviet Scientists Immigration Act of 1992'.

"SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

"For purposes of this Act—

"(1) the term 'Baltic states' means the sovereign nations of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia;

"(2) the term 'independent states of the former Soviet Union' means the sovereign nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan; and

"(3) the term 'eligible independent states and Baltic scientists' means aliens—

"(A) who are nationals of any of the independent states of the former Soviet Union or the Baltic states; and

"(B) who are scientists or engineers who have expertise in nuclear, chemical, biological or other high technology fields or who are working on nuclear, chemical, biological or other high-technology defense projects, as defined by the Attorney General.

"SEC. 3. WAIVER OF JOB OFFER REQUIREMENT.

"The requirement in section 203(b)(2)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(2)(A)) that an alien's services in the sciences, arts, or business be sought by an employer in the United States shall not apply to any eligible independent states or Baltic scientist who is applying for admission to the United States for permanent residence in accordance with that section.

"SEC. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF INDEPENDENT STATES SCIENTISTS AS HAVING EXCEPTIONAL ABILITY.

"(a) In General.—The Attorney General shall designate a class of eligible independent states and Baltic scientists, based on their level of expertise, as aliens who possess 'exceptional ability in the sciences', for purposes of section 203(b)(2)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(2)(A)), whether or not such scientists possess advanced degrees. A scientist is not eligible for designation under this subsection if the scientist has previously been granted the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence (as defined in section 101(a)(20) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(20)).

"(b) Regulations.—The Attorney General shall prescribe regulations to carry out subsection (a).

"(c) Limitation.—Not more than 950 eligible independent states and Baltic scientists (excluding spouses and children if accompanying or following to join) within the class designated under subsection (a) may be allotted visas under section 203(b)(2)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(2)(A)).

"(d) Duration of Authority.—The authority under subsection (a) shall be in effect during the following periods:

"(1) The period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1992] and ending 4 years after such date.

"(2) The period beginning on the date of the enactment of the Security Assistance Act of 2002 [Sept. 30, 2002] and ending 4 years after such date."

Immigration Program

Pub. L. 102–395, title VI, §610, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1874, as amended by Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §116(a), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2467; Pub. L. 106–396, §402, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1647; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11037(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1847; Pub. L. 108–156, §4, Dec. 3, 2003, 117 Stat. 1945; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §548, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2177; Pub. L. 112–176, §1, Sept. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1325, provided that:

"(a) Of the visas otherwise available under section 203(b)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(5)), the Secretary of State, together with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall set aside visas for a program to implement the provisions of such section. Such program shall involve a regional center in the United States, designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security on the basis of a general proposal, for the promotion of economic growth, including increased export sales, improved regional productivity, job creation, or increased domestic capital investment. A regional center shall have jurisdiction over a limited geographic area, which shall be described in the proposal and consistent with the purpose of concentrating pooled investment in defined economic zones. The establishment of a regional center may be based on general predictions, contained in the proposal, concerning the kinds of commercial enterprises that will receive capital from aliens, the jobs that will be created directly or indirectly as a result of such capital investments, and the other positive economic effects such capital investments will have.

"(b) For purposes of the program established in subsection (a), beginning on October 1, 1992, but no later than October 1, 1993, the Secretary of State, together with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall set aside 3,000 visas annually until September 30, 2015 to include such aliens as are eligible for admission under section 203(b)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(5)] and this section, as well as spouses or children which are eligible, under the terms of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], to accompany or follow to join such aliens.

"(c) In determining compliance with section 203(b)(5)(A)(iii)[(ii)] of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(5)(A)(iii)[(ii)]], and notwithstanding the requirements of 8 CFR 204.6, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall permit aliens admitted under the program described in this section to establish reasonable methodologies for determining the number of jobs created by the program, including such jobs which are estimated to have been created indirectly through revenues generated from increased exports, improved regional productivity, job creation, or increased domestic capital investment resulting from the program.

"(d) In processing petitions under section 204(a)(1)(H) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(H)) for classification under section 203(b)(5) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(5)), the Secretary of Homeland Security may give priority to petitions filed by aliens seeking admission under the program described in this section. Notwithstanding section 203(e) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(e)), immigrant visas made available under such section 203(b)(5) may be issued to such aliens in an order that takes into account any priority accorded under the preceding sentence."

[Pub. L. 114–113, div. F, title V, §575, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2526, provided that: "Section 610(b) of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1993 [Pub. L. 102–395] (8 U.S.C. 1153 note) [set out above] shall be applied by substituting 'September 30, 2016' for the date specified in section 106(3) of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2016 (Public Law 114–53) [Dec. 11, 2015, which had been substituted as applied by Pub. L. 114–53, div. B, §131, Sept. 30, 2015, 129 Stat. 509]."]

[Pub. L. 110–329, div. A, §144, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3581, as amended by Pub. L. 111–8, div. J, §101, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 988, provided that: "The requirement set forth in section 610(b) of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1993 [Pub. L. 102–395] (8 U.S.C. 1153 note) [set out above] shall continue through September 30, 2009."]

[Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11037(b), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1848, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending section 610 of Pub. L. 102–395, set out above] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 2002] and shall apply to—

"(1) any proposal for a regional center pending before the Attorney General (whether for an initial decision or on appeal) on or after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

"(2) any of the following petitions, if filed on or after the date of the enactment of this Act:

"(A) A petition under section 204(a)(1)(H) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(H)) (or any predecessor provision) (or any predecessor provision), with respect to status under section 203(b)(5) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(5)).

"(B) A petition under section 216A(c)(1)(A) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1186b(c)(1)(A)) to remove the conditional basis of an alien's permanent resident status."]

[Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §116(b), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2467, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending section 610 of Pub. L. 102–395, set out above] shall be deemed to have become effective on October 6, 1992."]

Transition for Spouses and Minor Children of Legalized Aliens

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §112, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4987, as amended by Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(b)(1), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1743, provided that:

"(a) Additional Visa Numbers.—

"(1) In general.—In addition to any immigrant visas otherwise available, immigrant visa numbers shall be available in each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994 for spouses and children of eligible, legalized aliens (as defined in subsection (c)) in a number equal to 55,000 minus the number (if any) computed under paragraph (2) for the fiscal year.

"(2) Offset.—The number computed under this paragraph for a fiscal year is the number (if any) by which—

"(A) the sum of the number of aliens described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 201(b)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)] (or, for fiscal year 1992, section 201(b) of such Act) who were issued immigrant visas or otherwise acquired the status of aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence in the previous fiscal year, exceeds

"(B) 239,000.

"(b) Order.—Visa numbers under this section shall be made available in the order in which a petition, in behalf of each such immigrant for classification under section 203(a)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(a)(2)], is filed with the Attorney General under section 204 of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1154].

"(c) Legalized Alien Defined.—In this section, the term 'legalized alien' means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence who was provided—

"(1) temporary or permanent residence status under section 210 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1160],

"(2) temporary or permanent residence status under section 245A of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1255a], or

"(3) permanent residence status under section 202 of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–603, set out as a note under section 1255a of this title].

"(d) Definitions.—The definitions in the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.] shall apply in the administration of this section."

Transition for Employees of Certain United States Businesses Operating in Hong Kong

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §124, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4996, as amended by Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(b)(5), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1743, provided that:

"(a) Additional Visa Numbers.—

"(1) Treatment of principals.—In the case of any alien described in paragraph (3) (or paragraph (2) as the spouse or child of such an alien) with respect to whom a classification petition has been filed and approved under subsection (b), there shall be made available, in addition to the immigrant visas otherwise available in each of fiscal years 1991 through 1993 and without regard to section 202(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1152(a)], up to 12,000 additional immigrant visas. If the full number of such visas are not made available in fiscal year 1991 or 1992, the shortfall shall be added to the number of such visas to be made available under this section in the succeeding fiscal year.

"(2) Derivative relatives.—A spouse or child (as defined in section 101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), (E)]) shall, if not otherwise entitled to an immigrant status and the immediate issuance of a visa under this section, be entitled to the same status, and the same order of consideration, provided under this section, if accompanying, or following to join, the alien's spouse or parent.

"(3) Employees of certain united states businesses operating in hong kong.—An alien is described in this paragraph if the alien—

"(A) is a resident of Hong Kong and is employed in Hong Kong except for temporary absences at the request of the employer and has been employed in Hong Kong for at least 12 consecutive months as an officer or supervisor or in a capacity that is managerial, executive, or involves specialized knowledge, by a business entity which (i) is owned and organized in the United States (or is the subsidiary or affiliate of a business owned and organized in the United States), (ii) employs at least 100 employees in the United States and at least 50 employees outside the United States, and (iii) has a gross annual income of at least $50,000,000, and

"(B) has an offer of employment from such business entity in the United States as an officer or supervisor or in a capacity that is managerial, executive, or involves specialized knowledge, which offer (i) is effective from the time of filing the petition for classification under this section through and including the time of entry into the United States and (ii) provides for salary and benefits comparable to the salary and benefits provided to others with similar responsibilities and experience within the same company.

"(b) Petitions.—Any employer desiring and intending to employ within the United States an alien described in subsection (a)(3) may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification. No visa may be issued under subsection (a)(1) until such a petition has been approved.

"(c) Allocation.—Visa numbers made available under subsection (a) shall be made available in the order which petitions under subsection (b) are filed with the Attorney General.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Executive capacity.—The term 'executive capacity' has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(44)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(44)(B)], as added by section 123 of this Act.

"(2) Managerial capacity.—The term 'managerial capacity' has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(44)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as added by section 123 of this Act.

"(3) Officer.—The term 'officer' means, with respect to a business entity, the chairman or vice-chairman of the board of directors of the entity, the chairman or vice-chairman of the executive committee of the board of directors, the president, any vice-president, any assistant vice-president, any senior trust officer, the secretary, any assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, any trust officer or associate trust officer, the controller, any assistant controller, or any other officer of the entity customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above officers.

"(4) Specialized knowledge.—The term 'specialized knowledge' has the meaning given such term in section 214(c)(2)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1184(c)(2)(B)], as amended by section 206(b)(2) of this Act.

"(5) Supervisor.—The term 'supervisor' means any individual having authority, in the interest of the employer, to hire, transfer, suspend, lay off, recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward, or discipline other employees, or responsibility to direct them, or to adjust their grievances, or effectively recommend such action, if in connection with the foregoing the exercise of such authority is not merely of a routine or clerical nature, but requires the use of independent judgment."

[Section 124 of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Nov. 29, 1990, and (unless otherwise provided) applicable to fiscal year 1991, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.]

Diversity Transition for Aliens Who Are Natives of Certain Adversely Affected Foreign States

Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §217(b), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4315, provided that:

"(1) Eligibility.—For the purpose of carrying out the extension of the diversity transition program under the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 132 of Pub. L. 101–649, set out below], applications for natives of diversity transition countries submitted for fiscal year 1995 for diversity immigrants under section 203(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(c)] shall be considered applications for visas made available for fiscal year 1995 for the diversity transition program under section 132 of the Immigration Act of 1990 [section 132 of Pub. L. 101–649]. No application period for the fiscal year 1995 diversity transition program shall be established and no new applications may be accepted for visas made available under such program for fiscal year 1995. Applications for visas in excess of the minimum available to natives of the country specified in section 132(c) of the Immigration Act of 1990 shall be selected for qualified applicants within the several regions defined in section 203(c)(1)(F) of the Immigration and Nationality Act in proportion to the region's share of visas issued in the diversity transition program during fiscal years 1992 and 1993.

"(2) Notification.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994], notification of the extension of the diversity transition program for fiscal year 1995 and the provision of visa numbers shall be made to each eligible applicant under paragraph (1).

"(3) Requirements.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for the purpose of carrying out the extension of the diversity transition program under the amendments made by subsection (a), the requirement of section 132(b)(2) of the Immigration Act of 1990 shall not apply to applicants under such extension and the requirement of section 203(c)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act shall apply to such applicants."

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §132, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5000, as amended by Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(b)(6), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1743; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §217(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4315, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Notwithstanding the numerical limitations in sections 201 and 202 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1151, 1152], there shall be made available to qualified immigrants described in subsection (b) (or in subsection (d) as the spouse or child of such an alien) 40,000 immigrant visas in each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994 and in fiscal year 1995 a number of immigrant visas equal to the number of such visas provided (but not made available) under this section in previous fiscal years. If the full number of such visas are not made available in fiscal year 1992 or 1993, the shortfall shall be added to the number of such visas to be made available under this section in the succeeding fiscal year.

"(b) Qualified Alien Described.—An alien described in this subsection is an alien who—

"(1) is a native of a foreign state that was identified as an adversely affected foreign state for purposes of section 314 of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–603, set out below],

"(2) has a firm commitment for employment in the United States for a period of at least 1 year (beginning on the date of admission under this section), and

"(3) except as provided in subsection (c), is admissible as an immigrant.

"(c) Distribution of Visa Numbers.—The Secretary of State shall provide for making immigrant visas provided under subsection (a) available strictly in a random order among those who qualify during the application period for each fiscal year established by the Secretary of State, except that at least 40 percent of the number of such visas in each fiscal year shall be made available to natives of the foreign state the natives of which received the greatest number of visas issued under section 314 of the Immigration Reform and Control Act [of 1986] (or to aliens described in subsection (d) who are the spouses or children of such natives) and except that if more than one application is submitted for any fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1993) with respect to any alien all such applications submitted with respect to the alien and fiscal year shall be voided. If the minimum number of such visas are not made available in fiscal year 1992, 1993, or 1994 to such natives, the shortfall shall be added to the number of such visas to be made available under this section to such natives in the succeeding fiscal year. In applying this section, natives of Northern Ireland shall be deemed to be natives of Ireland.

"(d) Derivative Status for Spouses and Children.—A spouse or child (as defined in section 101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), (E)]) shall, if not otherwise entitled to an immigrant status and the immediate issuance of a visa under this section, be entitled to the same status, and the same order of consideration, provided under this section, if accompanying, or following to join, his spouse or parent.

"(e) Waivers of Grounds of Exclusion.—In determining the admissibility of an alien provided a visa number under this section, the Attorney General shall waive the ground of exclusion specified in paragraph (6)(C) of section 212(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1182(a)], unless the Attorney General finds that such a waiver is not in the national interest. In addition, the provisions of section 212(e) of such Act shall not apply so as to prevent an individual's application for a visa or admission under this section.

"(f) Application Fee.—The Secretary of State shall require payment of a reasonable fee for the filing of an application under this section in order to cover the costs of processing applications under this section."

[Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(b)(6)(C), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1743, provided that the amendment made by section 302(b)(6)(C) to section 132(b)(1) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out above, is effective after fiscal year 1992.]

[Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(b)(6)(D)(i), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1743, provided that the amendment made by section 302(b)(6)(D)(i) to section 132(c) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out above, is effective beginning with fiscal year 1993.]

One-Year Diversity Transition for Aliens Who Have Been Notified of Availability of NP–5 Visas

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §133, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5000, provided that, notwithstanding numerical limitations in sections 1151 and 1152 of this title, there were to be made available in fiscal year 1991, immigrant visa numbers for qualified immigrants who were notified by Secretary of State before May 1, 1990, of their selection for issuance of visa under section 314 of Pub. L. 99–603, formerly set out as a note below, and were qualified for issuance of such visa but for numerical and fiscal year limitations on issuance of such visas, former section 1182(a)(19) of this title or section 1182(e) of this title, or fact that immigrant was a national, but not a native, of foreign state described in section 314 of Pub. L. 99–603.

Transition for Displaced Tibetans

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §134, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5001, as amended by Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(b)(7), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1744, provided that, notwithstanding numerical limitations in sections 1151 and 1152 of this title, there were to be made available to qualified displaced Tibetans who were natives of Tibet and had been continuously residing in India or Nepal since Nov. 29, 1990, 1,000 immigrant visas in the 3-fiscal-year period beginning with fiscal year 1991.

Expedited Issuance of Lebanese Second and Fifth Preference Visas

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §155, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5007, as amended by Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §302(d)(5), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1745, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In the issuance of immigrant visas to certain Lebanese immigrants described in subsection (b) in fiscal years 1991 and 1992 and notwithstanding section 203(c) (or section 203(e), in the case of fiscal year 1992) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(c), (e)] (to the extent inconsistent with this section), the Secretary of State shall provide that immigrant visas which would otherwise be made available in the fiscal year shall be made available as early as possible in the fiscal year.

"(b) Lebanese Immigrants Covered.—Lebanese immigrants described in this subsection are aliens who—

"(1) are natives of Lebanon,

"(2) are not firmly resettled in any foreign country outside Lebanon, and

"(3) as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990], are the beneficiaries of a petition approved to accord status under section 203(a)(2) or 203(a)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(a)(2), (5)] (as in effect as of the date of the enactment of this Act),

or who are the spouse or child of such an alien if accompanying or following to join the alien."

[Section 155 of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Nov. 29, 1990, and (unless otherwise provided) applicable to fiscal year 1991, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.]

Order of Consideration

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §162(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5010, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] may be construed as continuing the availability of visas under section 203(a)(7) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1153(a)(7)], as in effect before the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990]."

Making Visas Available to Immigrants From Underrepresented Countries To Enhance Diversity in Immigration

Pub. L. 100–658, §3, Nov. 15, 1988, 102 Stat. 3908, provided that, notwithstanding numerical limitations in section 1151(a) of this title, but subject to numerical limitations in section 1152 of this title, there were to be made available to qualified immigrants who were natives of underrepresented countries, 10,000 visa numbers in each of fiscal years 1990 and 1991.

Making Visas Available to Nonpreference Immigrants

Pub. L. 99–603, title III, §314, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3439, as amended by Pub. L. 100–658, §2(a), Nov. 15, 1988, 102 Stat. 3908, provided that, notwithstanding numerical limitations in section 1151(a) of this title, but subject to numerical limitations in section 1152 of this title, there were to be made available to qualified immigrants described in section 1153(a)(7) of this title, 5,000 visa numbers in each of fiscal years 1987 and 1988 and 15,000 visa numbers in each of fiscal years 1989 and 1990.

References to Conditional Entry Requirements of Subsection (a)(7) of This Section in Other Federal Laws

Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §203(h), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 108, provided that: "Any reference in any law (other than the Immigration and Nationality Act [this chapter] or this Act [see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title]) in effect on April 1, 1980, to section 203(a)(7) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (a)(7) of this section] shall be deemed to be a reference to such section as in effect before such date and to sections 207 and 208 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [sections 1157 and 1158 of this title]."

Retroactive Adjustment of Refugee Status

For adjustment of the status of refugees paroled into the United States pursuant to section 1182(d)(5) of this title, see section 5 of Pub. L. 95–412, set out as a note under section 1182 of this title.

Entitlement to Preferential Status

Pub. L. 94–571, §9, Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2707, provided that:

"(a) The amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title] shall not operate to effect the entitlement to immigrant status or the order of consideration for issuance of an immigrant visa of an alien entitled to a preference status, under section 203(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (a) of this section] as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title], on the basis of a petition filed with the Attorney General prior to such effective date.

"(b) An alien chargeable to the numerical limitation contained in section 21(e) of the Act of October 3, 1965 (79 Stat. 921) [which provided that unless legislation inconsistent therewith was enacted on or before June 30, 1968, the number of special immigrants within the meaning of section 1101(a)(27)(A) of this title, exclusive of special immigrants who were immediate relatives of United States citizens as described in section 1151(b) of this title, should not, in the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1968, or in any fiscal year thereafter, exceed a total of 120,000] who established a priority date at a consular office on the basis of entitlement to immigrant status under statutory or regulatory provisions in existence on the day before the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title] shall be deemed to be entitled to immigrant status under section 203(a)(8) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (a)(8) of this section] and shall be accorded the priority date previously established by him. Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude the acquisition by such an alien of a preference status under section 203(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (a) of this section], as amended by section 4 of this Act. Any petition filed by, or in behalf of, such an alien to accord him a preference status under section 203(a) [subsec. (a) of this section] shall, upon approval, be deemed to have been filed as of the priority date previously established by such alien. The numerical limitation to which such an alien shall be chargeable shall be determined as provided in sections 201 and 202 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [sections 1151 and 1152 of this title], as amended by this Act [see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of this title]."

Nonquota Immigrant Status of Certain Relatives of United States Citizens; Issuance of Nonquota Immigrant Visas on Basis of Petitions Filed Prior to January 1, 1962

Pub. L. 87–885, §1, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1247, which provided that certain alien relatives of United States citizens registered on a consular waiting list under priority date earlier than March 31, 1954, and eligible for a quota immigrant status on a basis of a petition filed with the Attorney General prior to January 1, 1962, and the spouse and children of such alien, be held to be nonquota immigrants and be issued nonquota immigrant visas, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–653, §11, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3657, as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, §8(j)(1), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2617, eff. Nov. 14, 1986.

Nonquota Immigrant Status of Skilled Specialists; Issuance of Nonquota Immigrant Visas on Basis of Petitions Filed Prior to April 1, 1962

Pub. L. 87–885, §2, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1247, which provided that certain alien skilled specialists eligible for a quota immigrant status on the basis of a petition filed with the Attorney General prior to April 1, 1962, be held to be nonquota immigrants and be issued nonquota immigrant visas, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–653, §11, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3657, as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, §8(j)(1), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2617, eff. Nov. 14, 1986.

Issuance of Nonquota Immigrant Visas to Certain Eligible Orphans

Pub. L. 87–301, §25, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 657, as amended by Pub. L. 99–653, §11, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3657; Pub. L. 100–525, §8(j)(2), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2617, provided that: "At any time prior to the expiration of the one hundred and eightieth day immediately following the enactment of this Act [Sept. 26, 1961] a special nonquota immigrant visa may be issued to an eligible orphan as defined in section 4 of the Act of September 11, 1957, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1205; 71 Stat. 639, 73 Stat. 490, 74 Stat. 505), if a visa petition filed in behalf of such eligible orphan was (A) approved by the Attorney General prior to September 30, 1961, or (B) pending before the Attorney General prior to September 30, 1961, and the Attorney General approves such petition."

[Pub. L. 99–653, §23(c), as added by Pub. L. 100–525, §8(r), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2619, provided that: "The amendments made by section 11 [amending section 25 of Pub. L. 87–301 set out above and repealing sections 1 and 2 of Pub. L. 87–885] take effect on November 14, 1986."]

Nonquota Immigrant Status of Spouses and Children of Certain Aliens

Pub. L. 86–363, §4, Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 644, providing that an alien registered on a consular waiting list was eligible for quota immigrant status on basis of a petition approved prior to Jan. 1, 1959, along with the spouse and children of such alien, was repealed by Pub. L. 87–301, §24(a)(7), Sept. 26, 1961.

[Repeal of section 4 of Pub. L. 86–363 effective upon expiration of the one hundred and eightieth day immediately following Sept. 26, 1961, see section 24(b) of Pub. L. 87–301, set out as a note under former section 1255a of this title.]

Adopted Sons or Adopted Daughters, Preference Status

Pub. L. 86–363, §5(c), Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 645, provided that aliens granted a preference pursuant to petitions approved by the Attorney General on the ground that they were the adopted sons or adopted daughters of United States citizens were to remain in that status notwithstanding the provisions of section 1 of Pub. L. 86–363 (amending this section), unless they acquired a different immigrant status pursuant to a petition approved by the Attorney General.

Special Nonquota Immigrant Visas for Refugees

Pub. L. 86–363, §6, Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 645, authorizing issuance of nonquota immigrant visas to aliens eligible to enter for permanent residence if the alien was the beneficiary of a visa petition approved by the Attorney General, and such petition was filed by a person admitted under former section 1971 et seq., of the former Appendix to Title 50, was repealed by Pub. L. 87–301, §24(a)(7), Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 657.

[Repeal of section 6 of Pub. L. 86–363 effective upon expiration of the one hundred and eightieth day immediately following Sept. 26, 1961, see section 24(b) of Pub. L. 87–301, set out as a note under former section 1255a of this title.]

Issuance of Nonquota Immigrant Visas on Basis of Petitions Approved Prior to July 1, 1957

Pub. L. 85–316, §12, Sept. 11, 1957, 71 Stat. 642, which provided that aliens eligible for quota immigrant status on basis of a petition approved prior to July 1, 1957, would be held to be nonquota immigrants, and if otherwise admissible, be issued visas, was repealed by Pub. L. 87–301, §24(a)(5), Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 657.

[Repeal of section 12 of Pub. L. 85–316 effective upon expiration of the one hundred and eightieth day immediately following Sept. 26, 1961, see section 24(b) of Pub. L. 87–301, set out as a note under former section 1255a of this title.]

Issuance of Nonquota Immigrant Visas on Basis of Petitions Approved Prior to July 1, 1958

Pub. L. 85–316, §12A, as added by Pub. L. 85–700, §2, Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 699, providing that aliens eligible for quota immigrant status on basis of a petition approved prior to July 1, 1958, shall be held to be nonquota immigrants and issued visas, was repealed by Pub. L. 87–301, §24(a)(6), Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 657.

[Repeal of section 12A of Pub. L. 85–316 effective upon expiration of the one hundred and eightieth day immediately following Sept. 26, 1961, see section 24(b) of Pub. L. 87–301, set out as a note under former section 1255a of this title.]

§1154. Procedure for granting immigrant status

(a) Petitioning procedure

(1)(A)(i) Except as provided in clause (viii), any citizen of the United States claiming that an alien is entitled to classification by reason of a relationship described in paragraph (1), (3), or (4) of section 1153(a) of this title or to an immediate relative status under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.

(ii) An alien spouse described in the second sentence of section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title also may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien (and the alien's children) under such section.

(iii)(I) An alien who is described in subclause (II) may file a petition with the Attorney General under this clause for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien) if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that—

(aa) the marriage or the intent to marry the United States citizen was entered into in good faith by the alien; and

(bb) during the marriage or relationship intended by the alien to be legally a marriage, the alien or a child of the alien has been battered or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien's spouse or intended spouse.


(II) For purposes of subclause (I), an alien described in this subclause is an alien—

(aa)(AA) who is the spouse of a citizen of the United States;

(BB) who believed that he or she had married a citizen of the United States and with whom a marriage ceremony was actually performed and who otherwise meets any applicable requirements under this chapter to establish the existence of and bona fides of a marriage, but whose marriage is not legitimate solely because of the bigamy of such citizen of the United States; or

(CC) who was a bona fide spouse of a United States citizen within the past 2 years and—

(aaa) whose spouse died within the past 2 years;

(bbb) whose spouse lost or renounced citizenship status within the past 2 years related to an incident of domestic violence; or

(ccc) who demonstrates a connection between the legal termination of the marriage within the past 2 years and battering or extreme cruelty by the United States citizen spouse;


(bb) who is a person of good moral character;

(cc) who is eligible to be classified as an immediate relative under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title or who would have been so classified but for the bigamy of the citizen of the United States that the alien intended to marry; and

(dd) who has resided with the alien's spouse or intended spouse.


(iv) An alien who is the child of a citizen of the United States, or who was a child of a United States citizen parent who within the past 2 years lost or renounced citizenship status related to an incident of domestic violence, and who is a person of good moral character, who is eligible to be classified as an immediate relative under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title, and who resides, or has resided in the past, with the citizen parent may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien) under such section if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that the alien has been battered by or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien's citizen parent. For purposes of this clause, residence includes any period of visitation.

(v) An alien who—

(I) is the spouse, intended spouse, or child living abroad of a citizen who—

(aa) is an employee of the United States Government;

(bb) is a member of the uniformed services (as defined in section 101(a) of title 10); or

(cc) has subjected the alien or the alien's child to battery or extreme cruelty in the United States; and


(II) is eligible to file a petition under clause (iii) or (iv),


shall file such petition with the Attorney General under the procedures that apply to self-petitioners under clause (iii) or (iv), as applicable.

(vi) For the purposes of any petition filed under clause (iii) or (iv), the denaturalization, loss or renunciation of citizenship, death of the abuser, divorce, or changes to the abuser's citizenship status after filing of the petition shall not adversely affect the approval of the petition, and for approved petitions shall not preclude the classification of the eligible self-petitioning spouse or child as an immediate relative or affect the alien's ability to adjust status under subsections (a) and (c) of section 1255 of this title or obtain status as a lawful permanent resident based on the approved self-petition under such clauses.

(vii) An alien may file a petition with the Secretary of Homeland Security under this subparagraph for classification of the alien under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title if the alien—

(I) is the parent of a citizen of the United States or was a parent of a citizen of the United States who, within the past 2 years, lost or renounced citizenship status related to an incident of domestic violence or died;

(II) is a person of good moral character;

(III) is eligible to be classified as an immediate relative under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title;

(IV) resides, or has resided, with the citizen daughter or son; and

(V) demonstrates that the alien has been battered or subject to extreme cruelty by the citizen daughter or son.


(viii)(I) Clause (i) shall not apply to a citizen of the United States who has been convicted of a specified offense against a minor, unless the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the Secretary's sole and unreviewable discretion, determines that the citizen poses no risk to the alien with respect to whom a petition described in clause (i) is filed.

(II) For purposes of subclause (I), the term "specified offense against a minor" is defined as in section 16911 of title 42.

(B)(i)(I) Except as provided in subclause (II), any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence claiming that an alien is entitled to a classification by reason of the relationship described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.

(I) 1 Subclause (I) shall not apply in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence who has been convicted of a specified offense against a minor (as defined in subparagraph (A)(viii)(II)), unless the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the Secretary's sole and unreviewable discretion, determines that such person poses no risk to the alien with respect to whom a petition described in subclause (I) is filed.

(ii)(I) An alien who is described in subclause (II) may file a petition with the Attorney General under this clause for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien) if such a child has not been classified under clause (iii) of section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title and if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that—

(aa) the marriage or the intent to marry the lawful permanent resident was entered into in good faith by the alien; and

(bb) during the marriage or relationship intended by the alien to be legally a marriage, the alien or a child of the alien has been battered or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien's spouse or intended spouse.


(II) For purposes of subclause (I), an alien described in this paragraph is an alien—

(aa)(AA) who is the spouse of a lawful permanent resident of the United States; or

(BB) who believed that he or she had married a lawful permanent resident of the United States and with whom a marriage ceremony was actually performed and who otherwise meets any applicable requirements under this chapter to establish the existence of and bona fides of a marriage, but whose marriage is not legitimate solely because of the bigamy of such lawful permanent resident of the United States; or

(CC) who was a bona fide spouse of a lawful permanent resident within the past 2 years and—

(aaa) whose spouse lost status within the past 2 years due to an incident of domestic violence; or

(bbb) who demonstrates a connection between the legal termination of the marriage within the past 2 years and battering or extreme cruelty by the lawful permanent resident spouse;


(bb) who is a person of good moral character;

(cc) who is eligible to be classified as a spouse of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title or who would have been so classified but for the bigamy of the lawful permanent resident of the United States that the alien intended to marry; and

(dd) who has resided with the alien's spouse or intended spouse.


(iii) An alien who is the child of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or who was the child of a lawful permanent resident who within the past 2 years lost lawful permanent resident status due to an incident of domestic violence, and who is a person of good moral character, who is eligible for classification under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title, and who resides, or has resided in the past, with the alien's permanent resident alien parent may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien) under such section if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that the alien has been battered by or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien's permanent resident parent.

(iv) An alien who—

(I) is the spouse, intended spouse, or child living abroad of a lawful permanent resident who—

(aa) is an employee of the United States Government;

(bb) is a member of the uniformed services (as defined in section 101(a) of title 10); or

(cc) has subjected the alien or the alien's child to battery or extreme cruelty in the United States; and


(II) is eligible to file a petition under clause (ii) or (iii),


shall file such petition with the Attorney General under the procedures that apply to self-petitioners under clause (ii) or (iii), as applicable.

(v)(I) For the purposes of any petition filed or approved under clause (ii) or (iii), divorce, or the loss of lawful permanent resident status by a spouse or parent after the filing of a petition under that clause shall not adversely affect approval of the petition, and, for an approved petition, shall not affect the alien's ability to adjust status under subsections (a) and (c) of section 1255 of this title or obtain status as a lawful permanent resident based on an approved self-petition under clause (ii) or (iii).

(II) Upon the lawful permanent resident spouse or parent becoming or establishing the existence of United States citizenship through naturalization, acquisition of citizenship, or other means, any petition filed with the Immigration and Naturalization Service and pending or approved under clause (ii) or (iii) on behalf of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty shall be deemed reclassified as a petition filed under subparagraph (A) even if the acquisition of citizenship occurs after divorce or termination of parental rights.

(C) Notwithstanding section 1101(f) of this title, an act or conviction that is waivable with respect to the petitioner for purposes of a determination of the petitioner's admissibility under section 1182(a) of this title or deportability under section 1227(a) of this title shall not bar the Attorney General from finding the petitioner to be of good moral character under subparagraph (A)(iii), (A)(iv), (B)(ii), or (B)(iii) if the Attorney General finds that the act or conviction was connected to the alien's having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty.

(D)(i)(I) Any child who attains 21 years of age who has filed a petition under clause (iv) of subsection (a)(1)(A) or subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii) that was filed or approved before the date on which the child attained 21 years of age shall be considered (if the child has not been admitted or approved for lawful permanent residence by the date the child attained 21 years of age) a petitioner for preference status under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 1153(a) of this title, whichever paragraph is applicable, with the same priority date assigned to the self-petition filed under clause (iv) of subsection (a)(1)(A) or subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii). No new petition shall be required to be filed.

(II) Any individual described in subclause (I) is eligible for deferred action and work authorization.

(III) Any derivative child who attains 21 years of age who is included in a petition described in clause (ii) that was filed or approved before the date on which the child attained 21 years of age shall be considered (if the child has not been admitted or approved for lawful permanent residence by the date the child attained 21 years of age) a VAWA self-petitioner with the same priority date as that assigned to the petitioner in any petition described in clause (ii). No new petition shall be required to be filed.

(IV) Any individual described in subclause (III) and any derivative child of a petition described in clause (ii) is eligible for deferred action and work authorization.

(ii) The petition referred to in clause (i)(III) is a petition filed by an alien under subparagraph (A)(iii), (A)(iv), (B)(ii) or (B)(iii) in which the child is included as a derivative beneficiary.

(iii) Nothing in the amendments made by the Child Status Protection Act shall be construed to limit or deny any right or benefit provided under this subparagraph.

(iv) Any alien who benefits from this subparagraph may adjust status in accordance with subsections (a) and (c) of section 1255 of this title as an alien having an approved petition for classification under subparagraph (A)(iii), (A)(iv), (B)(ii), or (B)(iii).

(v) For purposes of this paragraph, an individual who is not less than 21 years of age, who qualified to file a petition under subparagraph (A)(iv) or (B)(iii) as of the day before the date on which the individual attained 21 years of age, and who did not file such a petition before such day, shall be treated as having filed a petition under such subparagraph as of such day if a petition is filed for the status described in such subparagraph before the individual attains 25 years of age and the individual shows that the abuse was at least one central reason for the filing delay. Clauses (i) through (iv) of this subparagraph shall apply to an individual described in this clause in the same manner as an individual filing a petition under subparagraph (A)(iv) or (B)(iii).

(E) Any alien desiring to be classified under section 1153(b)(1)(A) of this title, or any person on behalf of such an alien, may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.

(F) Any employer desiring and intending to employ within the United States an alien entitled to classification under section 1153(b)(1)(B), 1153(b)(1)(C), 1153(b)(2), or 1153(b)(3) of this title may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.

(G)(i) Any alien (other than a special immigrant under section 1101(a)(27)(D) of this title) desiring to be classified under section 1153(b)(4) of this title, or any person on behalf of such an alien, may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.

(ii) Aliens claiming status as a special immigrant under section 1101(a)(27)(D) of this title may file a petition only with the Secretary of State and only after notification by the Secretary that such status has been recommended and approved pursuant to such section.

(H) Any alien desiring to be classified under section 1153(b)(5) of this title may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.

(I)(i) Any alien desiring to be provided an immigrant visa under section 1153(c) of this title may file a petition at the place and time determined by the Secretary of State by regulation. Only one such petition may be filed by an alien with respect to any petitioning period established. If more than one petition is submitted all such petitions submitted for such period by the alien shall be voided.

(ii)(I) The Secretary of State shall designate a period for the filing of petitions with respect to visas which may be issued under section 1153(c) of this title for the fiscal year beginning after the end of the period.

(II) Aliens who qualify, through random selection, for a visa under section 1153(c) of this title shall remain eligible to receive such visa only through the end of the specific fiscal year for which they were selected.

(III) The Secretary of State shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this clause.

(iii) A petition under this subparagraph shall be in such form as the Secretary of State may by regulation prescribe and shall contain such information and be supported by such documentary evidence as the Secretary of State may require.

(J) In acting on petitions filed under clause (iii) or (iv) of subparagraph (A) or clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (B), or in making determinations under subparagraphs (C) and (D), the Attorney General shall consider any credible evidence relevant to the petition. The determination of what evidence is credible and the weight to be given that evidence shall be within the sole discretion of the Attorney General.

(K) Upon the approval of a petition as a VAWA self-petitioner, the alien—

(i) is eligible for work authorization; and

(ii) may be provided an "employment authorized" endorsement or appropriate work permit incidental to such approval.


(L) Notwithstanding the previous provisions of this paragraph, an individual who was a VAWA petitioner or who had the status of a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101(a)(15) of this title may not file a petition for classification under this section or section 1184 of this title to classify any person who committed the battery or extreme cruelty or trafficking against the individual (or the individual's child) which established the individual's (or individual's child 2) eligibility as a VAWA petitioner or for such nonimmigrant status.

(2)(A) The Attorney General may not approve a spousal second preference petition for the classification of the spouse of an alien if the alien, by virtue of a prior marriage, has been accorded the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence as the spouse of a citizen of the United States or as the spouse of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, unless—

(i) a period of 5 years has elapsed after the date the alien acquired the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or

(ii) the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General by clear and convincing evidence that the prior marriage (on the basis of which the alien obtained the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence) was not entered into for the purpose of evading any provision of the immigration laws.


In this subparagraph, the term "spousal second preference petition" refers to a petition, seeking preference status under section 1153(a)(2) of this title, for an alien as a spouse of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.

(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a petition filed for the classification of the spouse of an alien if the prior marriage of the alien was terminated by the death of his or her spouse.

(b) Investigation; consultation; approval; authorization to grant preference status

After an investigation of the facts in each case, and after consultation with the Secretary of Labor with respect to petitions to accord a status under section 1153(b)(2) or 1153(b)(3) of this title, the Attorney General shall, if he determines that the facts stated in the petition are true and that the alien in behalf of whom the petition is made is an immediate relative specified in section 1151(b) of this title or is eligible for preference under subsection (a) or (b) of section 1153 of this title, approve the petition and forward one copy thereof to the Department of State. The Secretary of State shall then authorize the consular officer concerned to grant the preference status.

(c) Limitation on orphan petitions approved for a single petitioner; prohibition against approval in cases of marriages entered into in order to evade immigration laws; restriction on future entry of aliens involved with marriage fraud

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) no petition shall be approved if (1) the alien has previously been accorded, or has sought to be accorded, an immediate relative or preference status as the spouse of a citizen of the United States or the spouse of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, by reason of a marriage determined by the Attorney General to have been entered into for the purpose of evading the immigration laws, or (2) the Attorney General has determined that the alien has attempted or conspired to enter into a marriage for the purpose of evading the immigration laws.

(d) Recommendation of valid home-study

(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) no petition may be approved on behalf of a child defined in subparagraph (F) or (G) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title unless a valid home-study has been favorably recommended by an agency of the State of the child's proposed residence, or by an agency authorized by that State to conduct such a study, or, in the case of a child adopted abroad, by an appropriate public or private adoption agency which is licensed in the United States.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b), no petition may be approved on behalf of a child defined in section 1101(b)(1)(G) of this title unless the Secretary of State has certified that the central authority of the child's country of origin has notified the United States central authority under the convention referred to in such section 1101(b)(1)(G) of this title that a United States citizen habitually resident in the United States has effected final adoption of the child, or has been granted custody of the child for the purpose of emigration and adoption, in accordance with such convention and the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000 [42 U.S.C. 14901 et seq.].

(e) Subsequent finding of non-entitlement to preference classification

Nothing in this section shall be construed to entitle an immigrant, in behalf of whom a petition under this section is approved, to be admitted 3 the United States as an immigrant under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 1153 of this title or as an immediate relative under section 1151(b) of this title if upon his arrival at a port of entry in the United States he is found not to be entitled to such classification.

(f) Preferential treatment for children fathered by United States citizens and born in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, or Thailand after 1950 and before October 22, 1982

(1) Any alien claiming to be an alien described in paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection (or any person on behalf of such an alien) may file a petition with the Attorney General for classification under section 1151(b), 1153(a)(1), or 1153(a)(3) of this title, as appropriate. After an investigation of the facts of each case the Attorney General shall, if the conditions described in paragraph (2) are met, approve the petition and forward one copy to the Secretary of State.

(2) The Attorney General may approve a petition for an alien under paragraph (1) if—

(A) he has reason to believe that the alien (i) was born in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, or Thailand after 1950 and before October 22, 1982, and (ii) was fathered by a United States citizen;

(B) he has received an acceptable guarantee of legal custody and financial responsibility described in paragraph (4); and

(C) in the case of an alien under eighteen years of age, (i) the alien's placement with a sponsor in the United States has been arranged by an appropriate public, private, or State child welfare agency licensed in the United States and actively involved in the intercountry placement of children and (ii) the alien's mother or guardian has in writing irrevocably released the alien for emigration.


(3) In considering petitions filed under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall—

(A) consult with appropriate governmental officials and officials of private voluntary organizations in the country of the alien's birth in order to make the determinations described in subparagraphs (A) and (C)(ii) of paragraph (2); and

(B) consider the physical appearance of the alien and any evidence provided by the petitioner, including birth and baptismal certificates, local civil records, photographs of, and letters or proof of financial support from, a putative father who is a citizen of the United States, and the testimony of witnesses, to the extent it is relevant or probative.


(4)(A) A guarantee of legal custody and financial responsibility for an alien described in paragraph (2) must—

(i) be signed in the presence of an immigration officer or consular officer by an individual (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the "sponsor") who is twenty-one years of age or older, is of good moral character, and is a citizen of the United States or alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, and

(ii) provide that the sponsor agrees (I) in the case of an alien under eighteen years of age, to assume legal custody for the alien after the alien's departure to the United States and until the alien becomes eighteen years of age, in accordance with the laws of the State where the alien and the sponsor will reside, and (II) to furnish, during the five-year period beginning on the date of the alien's acquiring the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or during the period beginning on the date of the alien's acquiring the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence and ending on the date on which the alien becomes twenty-one years of age, whichever period is longer, such financial support as is necessary to maintain the family in the United States of which the alien is a member at a level equal to at least 125 per centum of the current official poverty line (as established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, under section 9902(2) of title 42 and as revised by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the second and third sentences of such section) for a family of the same size as the size of the alien's family.


(B) A guarantee of legal custody and financial responsibility described in subparagraph (A) may be enforced with respect to an alien against his sponsor in a civil suit brought by the Attorney General in the United States district court for the district in which the sponsor resides, except that a sponsor or his estate shall not be liable under such a guarantee if the sponsor dies or is adjudicated a bankrupt under title 11.

(g) Restriction on petitions based on marriages entered while in exclusion or deportation proceedings

Notwithstanding subsection (a), except as provided in section 1255(e)(3) of this title, a petition may not be approved to grant an alien immediate relative status or preference status by reason of a marriage which was entered into during the period described in section 1255(e)(2) of this title, until the alien has resided outside the United States for a 2-year period beginning after the date of the marriage.

(h) Survival of rights to petition

The legal termination of a marriage may not be the sole basis for revocation under section 1155 of this title of a petition filed under subsection (a)(1)(A)(iii) or a petition filed under subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) pursuant to conditions described in subsection (a)(1)(A)(iii)(I). Remarriage of an alien whose petition was approved under subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) or (a)(1)(A)(iii) or marriage of an alien described in clause (iv) or (vi) of subsection (a)(1)(A) or in subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii) shall not be the basis for revocation of a petition approval under section 1155 of this title.

(i) Professional athletes

(1) In general

A petition under subsection (a)(4)(D) 4 for classification of a professional athlete shall remain valid for the athlete after the athlete changes employers, if the new employer is a team in the same sport as the team which was the employer who filed the petition.

(2) "Professional athlete" defined

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "professional athlete" means an individual who is employed as an athlete by—

(A) a team that is a member of an association of 6 or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year, if the association governs the conduct of its members and regulates the contests and exhibitions in which its member teams regularly engage; or

(B) any minor league team that is affiliated with such an association.

(j) Job flexibility for long delayed applicants for adjustment of status to permanent residence

A petition under subsection (a)(1)(D) 4 for an individual whose application for adjustment of status pursuant to section 1255 of this title has been filed and remained unadjudicated for 180 days or more shall remain valid with respect to a new job if the individual changes jobs or employers if the new job is in the same or a similar occupational classification as the job for which the petition was filed.

(k) Procedures for unmarried sons and daughters of citizens

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), in the case of a petition under this section initially filed for an alien unmarried son or daughter's classification as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 1153(a)(2)(B) of this title, based on a parent of the son or daughter being an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, if such parent subsequently becomes a naturalized citizen of the United States, such petition shall be converted to a petition to classify the unmarried son or daughter as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 1153(a)(1) of this title.

(2) Exception

Paragraph (1) does not apply if the son or daughter files with the Attorney General a written statement that he or she elects not to have such conversion occur (or if it has occurred, to have such conversion revoked). Where such an election has been made, any determination with respect to the son or daughter's eligibility for admission as a family-sponsored immigrant shall be made as if such naturalization had not taken place.

(3) Priority date

Regardless of whether a petition is converted under this subsection or not, if an unmarried son or daughter described in this subsection was assigned a priority date with respect to such petition before such naturalization, he or she may maintain that priority date.

(4) Clarification

This subsection shall apply to a petition if it is properly filed, regardless of whether it was approved or not before such naturalization.

(l) Surviving relative consideration for certain petitions and applications

(1) In general

An alien described in paragraph (2) who resided in the United States at the time of the death of the qualifying relative and who continues to reside in the United States shall have such petition described in paragraph (2), or an application for adjustment of status to that of a person admitted for lawful permanent residence based upon the family relationship described in paragraph (2), and any related applications, adjudicated notwithstanding the death of the qualifying relative, unless the Secretary of Homeland Security determines, in the unreviewable discretion of the Secretary, that approval would not be in the public interest.

(2) Alien described

An alien described in this paragraph is an alien who, immediately prior to the death of his or her qualifying relative, was—

(A) the beneficiary of a pending or approved petition for classification as an immediate relative (as described in section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title);

(B) the beneficiary of a pending or approved petition for classification under section 1153(a) or (d) of this title;

(C) a derivative beneficiary of a pending or approved petition for classification under section 1153(b) of this title (as described in section 1153(d) of this title);

(D) the beneficiary of a pending or approved refugee/asylee relative petition under section 1157 or 1158 of this title;

(E) an alien admitted in "T" nonimmigrant status as described in section 1101(a)(15)(T)(ii) of this title or in "U" nonimmigrant status as described in section 1101(a)(15)(U)(ii) of this title;

(F) a child of an alien who filed a pending or approved petition for classification or application for adjustment of status or other benefit specified in section 1101(a)(51) of this title as a VAWA self-petitioner; or

(G) an asylee (as described in section 1158(b)(3) of this title).

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §204, 66 Stat. 179; Pub. L. 87–885, §3, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 89–236, §4, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 915; Pub. L. 94–571, §7(b), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2706; Pub. L. 95–417, §§2, 3, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 917; Pub. L. 96–470, title II, §207, Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2245; Pub. L. 97–116, §§3, 18(d), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1611, 1620; Pub. L. 97–359, Oct. 22, 1982, 96 Stat. 1716; Pub. L. 99–639, §§2(c), 4(a), 5(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3541, 3543; Pub. L. 100–525, §9(g), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2620; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §162(b), title VII, §702(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5010, 5086; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §§302(e)(4), (5), 308(b), 309(b)(5), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1745, 1746, 1757, 1758; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40701(a), (b)(1), (c), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1953, 1954; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §219(b)(2), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4316; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(e)(1)(A), (f)(2)(A), title VI, §624(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–619, 3009-621, 3009-699; Pub. L. 106–279, title III, §302(b), Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 106–313, title I, §106(c)(1), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1254; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title V, §§1503(b)–(d), 1507(a)(1), (2), (b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1518–1521, 1529, 1530; Pub. L. 107–208, §§6, 7, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, §§805(a),(c), 814(b),(e), 816, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3056, 3059, 3060; Pub. L. 109–248, title IV, §402(a), July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 109–271, §6(a), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §568(d)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2187; Pub. L. 113–4, title VIII, §803, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 111; Pub. L. 113–6, div. D, title V, §563, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 380.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii)(II)(aa)(BB), (B)(ii)(II)(aa)(BB), was in the original, "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

The Child Status Protection Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(D)(iii), is Pub. L. 107–208, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 927, which amended this section and sections 1151, 1153, 1157, and 1158 of this title and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1151 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2002 Amendments note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

The Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, which is classified principally to chapter 143 (§14901 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of Title 42 and Tables.

Subsection (a)(4)(D) and subsection (a)(1)(D), referred to in subsecs. (i)(1) and (j), probably should refer to subsec. (a)(1)(F) of this section. The reference to subsec. (a)(4)(D) probably should have been to subsec. "(a)(1)(D)", as no par. (4) of subsec. (a) has been enacted. Subsec. (a)(1)(D) of this section was redesignated subsec. (a)(1)(F) by Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(d)(1). See 2000 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(1)(I)(iv). Pub. L. 113–6 temporarily added cl. (iv). Text read as follows: "Each petition to compete for consideration for a visa under section 1153(c) of this title shall be accompanied by a fee equal to $30. All amounts collected under this clause shall be deposited into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts." See Effective and Termination Dates of 2013 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (l)(2)(F), (G). Pub. L. 113–4 added subpar. (F) and redesignated former subpar. (F) as (G).

2009—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 111–83 added subsec. (l).

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109–248, §402(a)(1), substituted "Except as provided in clause (viii), any" for "Any".

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(vii). Pub. L. 109–162, §816, added cl. (vii).

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(viii). Pub. L. 109–248, §402(a)(2), added cl. (viii).

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 109–248, §402(a)(3), redesignated cl. (i) as first subcl. (I), substituted "Except as provided in subclause (II), any alien" for "Any alien", and added a second subcl. (I).

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(v). Pub. L. 109–271, which directed insertion of "or (B)(iii)" after "(A)(iv)", was executed by making the insertion after "(A)(iv)" both places it appeared, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–162, §805(c)(1), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(i)(I). Pub. L. 109–162, §805(a)(1)(A), inserted "or subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii)" after "subsection (a)(1)(A)" in two places.

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(i)(III). Pub. L. 109–162, §805(a)(1)(B), substituted "a VAWA self-petitioner" for "a petitioner for preference status under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 1153(a) of this title, whichever paragraph is applicable,".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 109–162, §805(a)(2), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (a)(1)(K). Pub. L. 109–162, §814(b), added subpar. (K).

Subsec. (a)(1)(L). Pub. L. 109–162, §814(e), added subpar. (L).

2002—Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 107–208, §7, added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 107–208, §6, added subsec. (k).

2000—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(b)(1)(A), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iii) read as follows: "An alien who is the spouse of a citizen of the United States, who is a person of good moral character, who is eligible to be classified as an immediate relative under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title, and who has resided in the United States with the alien's spouse may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien if such a child has not been classified under clause (iv)) under such section if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that—

"(I) the alien is residing in the United States, the marriage between the alien and the spouse was entered into in good faith by the alien, and during the marriage the alien or a child of the alien has been battered by or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien's spouse; and

"(II) the alien is a person whose removal, in the opinion of the Attorney General, would result in extreme hardship to the alien or a child of the alien."

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(b)(2), amended cl. (iv) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iv) read as follows: "An alien who is the child of a citizen of the United States, who is a person of good moral character, who is eligible to be classified as an immediate relative under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title, and who has resided in the United States with the citizen parent may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien under such section if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that—

"(I) the alien is residing in the United States and during the period of residence with the citizen parent the alien has been battered by or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien's citizen parent; and

"(II) the alien is a person whose removal, in the opinion of the Attorney General, would result in extreme hardship to the alien."

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(v). Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(b)(3), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 106–386, §1507(a)(1), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(c)(1), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "An alien who is the spouse of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, who is a person of good moral character, who is eligible for classification under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title, and who has resided in the United States with the alien's legal permanent resident spouse may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien if such a child has not been classified under clause (iii)) under such section if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that the conditions described in subclauses (I) and (II) of subparagraph (A)(iii) are met with respect to the alien."

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(c)(2), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iii) read as follows: "An alien who is the child of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, who is a person of good moral character, who is eligible for classification under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title, and who has resided in the United States with the alien's permanent resident alien parent may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien under such section if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that—

"(I) the alien is residing in the United States and during the period of residence with the permanent resident parent the alien has been battered by or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien's permanent resident parent; and

"(II) the alien is a person whose removal, in the opinion of the Attorney General, would result in extreme hardship to the alien."

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(c)(3), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(v). Pub. L. 106–386, §1507(a)(2), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (a)(1)(C) to (I). Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(d)(1), (2), added subpars. (C) and (D) and redesignated former subpars. (C) to (G) as (E) to (I), respectively. Former subpar. (H) redesignated (J).

Subsec. (a)(1)(J). Pub. L. 106–386, §1503(d)(1), (3), redesignated subpar. (H) as (J) and inserted "or in making determinations under subparagraphs (C) and (D)," after "subparagraph (B),".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–279 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "subparagraph (F) or (G) of section 1101(b)(1)" for "section 1101(b)(1)(F)", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–386, §1507(b), inserted at end "Remarriage of an alien whose petition was approved under subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) or (a)(1)(A)(iii) or marriage of an alien described in clause (iv) or (vi) of subsection (a)(1)(A) or in subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii) shall not be the basis for revocation of a petition approval under section 1155 of this title."

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 106–313 added subsec. (j).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii)(II), (iv)(II), (B)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(e)(1)(A), substituted "removal" for "deportation".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(f)(2)(A), substituted "be admitted" for "enter".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–208, §624(b), added subsec. (i).

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–322, §40701(a), in subpar. (A), designated first sentence as cl. (i) and second sentence as cl. (ii) and added cls. (iii) and (iv), in subpar. (B), designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cls. (ii) and (iii), and added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–416 in second sentence inserted "spouse" after "alien" and "of the alien (and the alien's children)" after "for classification".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–322, §40701(b)(1), in subpar. (A), substituted "for the classification of the spouse of an alien if the alien," for "filed by an alien who," in introductory provisions and in subpar. (B), substituted "for the classification of the spouse of an alien if the prior marriage of the alien" for "by an alien whose prior marriage".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–322, §40701(c), added subsec. (h).

1991—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(e)(4)(A), inserted sentence at end authorizing filing of petitions by aliens described in second sentence of section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title.

Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(e)(4)(B), substituted "Attorney General" for "Secretary of State".

Subsec. (a)(1)(G)(iii). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(e)(4)(C), struck out "or registration" after "petition".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–232, §302(e)(5), substituted "as an immigrant" for "as a immigrant".

Subsec. (f)(4)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 102–232, §309(b)(5), substituted "the second and third sentences of such section" for "section 9847 of title 42".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–232, §308(b), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 101–649, §702(b). See 1990 Amendment note below.

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(b)(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "Any citizen of the United States claiming that an alien is entitled to a preference status by reason of a relationship described in paragraph (1), (4), or (5) of section 1153(a) of this title, or to an immediate relative status under section 1151(b) of this title, or any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence claiming that an alien is entitled to a preference status by reason of the relationship described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title, or any alien desiring to be classified as a preference immigrant under section 1153(a)(3) of this title (or any person on behalf of such an alien), or any person desiring and intending to employ within the United States an alien entitled to classification as a preference immigrant under section 1153(a)(6) of this title, may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification. The petition shall be in such form as the Attorney General may by regulations prescribe and shall contain such information and be supported by such documentary evidence as the Attorney General may require. The petition shall be made under oath administered by any individual having authority to administer oaths, if executed in the United States, but, if executed outside the United States, administered by a consular officer or an immigration officer."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(b)(2), substituted reference to section 1153(b)(2) or 1153(b)(3) of this title for reference to section 1153(a)(3) or (6) of this title, and reference to preference under section 1153(a) or (b) of this title for reference to a preference status under section 1153(a) of this title.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(b)(3), substituted "immigrant under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 1153 of this title" for "preference immigrant under section 1153(a) of this title".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(b)(5), (6), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f) and struck out former subsec. (f) which related to applicability of provisions to qualified immigrants specified in section 1152(e) of this title.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(b)(4), substituted reference to section 1153(a)(3) of this title for reference to section 1153(a)(4) of this title.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–649, §702(b), as amended by Pub. L. 102–232, §308(b), inserted "except as provided in section 1255(e)(3) of this title," after "Notwithstanding subsection (a),".

Pub. L. 101–649, §162(b)(6), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated as (f).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–649, §162(b)(6), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g).

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–525, §9(g)(1), substituted "an immediate relative" for "a nonquota".

Subsec. (g)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–525, §9(g)(2), substituted "(C)(ii) of paragraph (2)" for "(C)(i) of paragraph 2".

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–639, §2(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–639, §4(a), inserted "(1)" after "if" and ", or has sought to be accorded," and added cl. (2).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–639, §5(b), added subsec. (h).

1982—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–359 added subsec. (g).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–116, §18(d), substituted "of a relationship described in paragraph" for "of the relationships described in paragraphs".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–116, §3, redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d), directing that the Attorney General forward to the Congress a Statistical summary of petitions for immigrant status approved by him under section 1153(a)(3) or 1153(a)(6) of this title and that the reports be submitted to Congress on the first and fifteenth day of each calendar month in which Congress was in session, was struck out.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 97–116, §3, redesignated as subsec. (e) the subsec. (f) relating to subsequent finding of non-entitlement. See 1978 Amendment note below. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–470 substituted provision requiring the Attorney General to forward to Congress a statistical summary of approved petitions for professional or occupational preferences for provision requiring the Attorney General to forward to Congress a report on each petition approved for professional or occupational preference stating the basis for his approval and the facts pertinent in establishing qualifications for preferential status.

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–417, §2, struck out "no more than two petitions may be approved for one petitioner on behalf of a child as defined in section 1101(b)(1)(E) or 1101(b)(1)(F) of this title unless necessary to prevent the separation of brothers and sisters and" after "subsection (b)".

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 95–417, §3, added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e), relating to subsequent finding of non-entitlement, as subsec. (f) without regard to existing subsec. (f), relating to provisions applicable to qualified immigrants, added by Pub. L. 94–571.

1976—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–571 added subsec. (f).

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions spelling out the statutory grounds for filing a petition for preference status and prescribing the authority of the Attorney General to require documentary evidence in support and the form of the petition, for provisions prohibiting consular officers from granting preference status before being authorized to do so in cases of applications based on membership in the ministry of a religious denomination or high education, technical training, or specialized experience which would be substantially beneficial to the United States.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions authorizing investigation of petitions by the Attorney General, consultation with the Secretary of Labor, and authorization to consular officers, for provisions specifying the form of application for preference status on the basis of membership in the ministry of a religious denomination or high education, technical training, or specialized experience which would be substantially beneficial to the United States and the circumstances making an application appropriate.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions limiting the number of orphan petitions which may be approved for one petitioner and prohibiting approval of any petition of an alien whose prior marriage was determined by the Attorney General to have been entered into for the purpose of evading the immigration laws, for provisions which related to investigation of facts by the Attorney General and submission of reports to Congress covering the granting of preferential status.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions requiring the Attorney General to submit reports to Congress on each approved petition for professional or occupational preference, for provisions prohibiting a statutory construction of the section which would entitle an immigrant to preferential classification if, upon arrival at the port of entry, he was found not to be entitled to such classification.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–236 added subsec. (e).

1962—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–885 provided for submission of reports to Congress.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–6, div. D, title V, §563, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 380, provided in part that the amendment made by section 563 of Pub. L. 113—6 is effective during the period beginning on Oct. 1, 2013, and ending on Sept. 30, 2014.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–208 effective Aug. 6, 2002, and applicable to certain beneficiary aliens, see section 8 of Pub. L. 107–208, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–279 effective Apr. 1, 2008, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 308(e)(1)(A), (f)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–416 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 219(dd) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–322 effective Jan. 1, 1995, see section 40701(d) of Pub. L. 103–322, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by sections 302(e)(4), (5) and 308(b) of Pub. L. 102–232 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 310(1) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 162(b) of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Nov. 29, 1990, but only insofar as section 162(b) relates to visas for fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 1992, with general transition provisions, see section 161(b), (c) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 101–649, title VII, §702(c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5086, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending sections 1154 and 1255 of this title] shall apply to marriages entered into before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990]."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–639, §4(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3543, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to petitions filed on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1986]."

Pub. L. 99–639, §5(c), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3543, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1255 of this title] shall apply to marriages entered into on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1986]."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–116 effective Dec. 29, 1981, see section 21(a) of Pub. L. 97–116, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–571 effective on first day of first month which begins more than sixty days after Oct. 20, 1976, see section 10 of Pub. L. 94–571, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 89–236, see section 20 of Pub. L. 89–236, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Construction of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §568(d)(2), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2187, provided that: "Nothing in the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] may be construed to limit or waive any ground of removal, basis for denial of petition or application, or other criteria for adjudicating petitions or applications as otherwise provided under the immigration laws of the United States other than ineligibility based solely on the lack of a qualifying family relationship as specifically provided by such amendment."

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Alien Sheepherders

Act Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1254, §§1–3, 68 Stat. 1145, provided for the importation of skilled alien sheepherders upon approval by the Attorney General, certification to the Secretary of State by the Attorney General of names and addresses of sheepherders whose applications for importation were approved, and issuance of not more than 385 special nonquota immigrant visas. Provisions of said act expired on Sept. 3, 1955, by terms of section 1 thereof.

1 So in original. Probably should be "(II)".

2 So in original. Probably should be "child's".

3 So in original. Probably should be followed by "to".

4 See References in Text note below.

§1155. Revocation of approval of petitions; effective date

The Secretary of Homeland Security may, at any time, for what he deems to be good and sufficient cause, revoke the approval of any petition approved by him under section 1154 of this title. Such revocation shall be effective as of the date of approval of any such petition.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §205, 66 Stat. 180; Pub. L. 86–363, §5(a), (b), Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 644, 645; Pub. L. 87–301, §§3, 10, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 650, 654; Pub. L. 89–236, §5, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 916; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(g)(3)(A), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622; Pub. L. 108–458, title V, §5304(c), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3736.)

Amendments

2004Pub. L. 108–458 substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security" for "Attorney General" and struck out at end "In no case, however, shall such revocation have effect unless there is mailed to the petitioner's last known address a notice of the revocation and unless notice of the revocation is communicated through the Secretary of State to the beneficiary of the petition before such beneficiary commences his journey to the United States. If notice of revocation is not so given, and the beneficiary applies for admission to the United States, his admissibility shall be determined in the manner provided for by sections 1225 and 1229a of this title."

1996Pub. L. 104–208 substituted "1229a" for "1226".

1965Pub. L. 89–236 struck out entire section which had set out, in subsecs. (a) to (d), the procedure for granting nonquota status or preference by reason of relationship and inserted in its place, with minor changes, provisions formerly contained in section 1156 of this title authorizing the Attorney General to revoke his approval of petitions for good and sufficient cause.

1961—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–301, §3(a), provided that no petition for quota immigration status or a preference shall be approved if the beneficiary is an alien defined in section 1101(b)(1)(F) of this title, established requirements to be met by petitioners before a petition for nonquota immigrant status for a child as defined in section 1101(b)(1)(F) can be approved by the Attorney General, and authorized the administration of oaths by immigration officers when the petition is executed outside the United States.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–301, §§3(b), 10, substituted "section 1101(b)(1)(E) or (F)" for "section 1101(b)(1)(E)", and provided that no petition shall be approved if the alien had previously been accorded a nonquota status under section 1101(a)(27)(A) of this title or a preference quota status under section 1153(a)(3) of this title, by reason of marriage entered into to evade the immigration laws.

1959—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–363, §5(a), authorized filing of petitions by any United States citizen claiming that an immigrant is his unmarried son or unmarried daughter, by any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence claiming that an immigrant is his unmarried son or unmarried daughter instead of child, or by any United States citizen claiming that an immigrant is his married son or married daughter instead of son or daughter, and prohibited approval of petition for quota immigrant status or preference of alien without proof of parent relationship of the petitioner to such alien.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–363, §5(b), limited approval to two petitions for one petitioner in behalf of a child as defined in section 1101(b)(1)(E) of this title unless necessary to prevent separation of brothers and sisters.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–458, title V, §5304(d), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3736, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1201 and 1227 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004] and shall apply to revocations under sections 205 and 221(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1155, 1201(i)) made before, on, or after such date."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 89–236, see section 20 of Pub. L. 89–236, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

§1156. Unused immigrant visas

If an immigrant having an immigrant visa is denied admission to the United States and removed, or does not apply for admission before the expiration of the validity of his visa, or if an alien having an immigrant visa issued to him as a preference immigrant is found not to be a preference immigrant, an immigrant visa or a preference immigrant visa, as the case may be, may be issued in lieu thereof to another qualified alien.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §206, 66 Stat. 181; Pub. L. 89–236, §6, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 916; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(d)(4)(D), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–618.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–208 substituted "denied admission to the United States and removed" for "excluded from admission to the United States and deported".

1965Pub. L. 89–236 substituted provisions allowing immigrant visas or preference immigrant visas to be issued to another qualified alien in lieu of immigrants excluded or deported, immigrants failing to apply for admission, or immigrants found not to be preference immigrants, for provisions relating to revocation of approval of petitions which, with minor amendments, were transferred to section 1155 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 89–236, see section 20 of Pub. L. 89–236, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

§1157. Annual admission of refugees and admission of emergency situation refugees

(a) Maximum number of admissions; increases for humanitarian concerns; allocations

(1) Except as provided in subsection (b), the number of refugees who may be admitted under this section in fiscal year 1980, 1981, or 1982, may not exceed fifty thousand unless the President determines, before the beginning of the fiscal year and after appropriate consultation (as defined in subsection (e)), that admission of a specific number of refugees in excess of such number is justified by humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (b), the number of refugees who may be admitted under this section in any fiscal year after fiscal year 1982 shall be such number as the President determines, before the beginning of the fiscal year and after appropriate consultation, is justified by humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest.

(3) Admissions under this subsection shall be allocated among refugees of special humanitarian concern to the United States in accordance with a determination made by the President after appropriate consultation.

(4) In the determination made under this subsection for each fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1992), the President shall enumerate, with the respective number of refugees so determined, the number of aliens who were granted asylum in the previous year.

(b) Determinations by President respecting number of admissions for humanitarian concerns

If the President determines, after appropriate consultation, that (1) an unforeseen emergency refugee situation exists, (2) the admission of certain refugees in response to the emergency refugee situation is justified by grave humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest, and (3) the admission to the United States of these refugees cannot be accomplished under subsection (a), the President may fix a number of refugees to be admitted to the United States during the succeeding period (not to exceed twelve months) in response to the emergency refugee situation and such admissions shall be allocated among refugees of special humanitarian concern to the United States in accordance with a determination made by the President after the appropriate consultation provided under this subsection.

(c) Admission by Attorney General of refugees; criteria; admission status of spouse or child; applicability of other statutory requirements; termination of refugee status of alien, spouse or child

(1) Subject to the numerical limitations established pursuant to subsections (a) and (b), the Attorney General may, in the Attorney General's discretion and pursuant to such regulations as the Attorney General may prescribe, admit any refugee who is not firmly resettled in any foreign country, is determined to be of special humanitarian concern to the United States, and is admissible (except as otherwise provided under paragraph (3)) as an immigrant under this chapter.

(2)(A) A spouse or child (as defined in section 1101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of this title) of any refugee who qualifies for admission under paragraph (1) shall, if not otherwise entitled to admission under paragraph (1) and if not a person described in the second sentence of section 1101(a)(42) of this title, be entitled to the same admission status as such refugee if accompanying, or following to join, such refugee and if the spouse or child is admissible (except as otherwise provided under paragraph (3)) as an immigrant under this chapter. Upon the spouse's or child's admission to the United States, such admission shall be charged against the numerical limitation established in accordance with the appropriate subsection under which the refugee's admission is charged.

(B) An unmarried alien who seeks to accompany, or follow to join, a parent granted admission as a refugee under this subsection, and who was under 21 years of age on the date on which such parent applied for refugee status under this section, shall continue to be classified as a child for purposes of this paragraph, if the alien attained 21 years of age after such application was filed but while it was pending.

(3) The provisions of paragraphs (4), (5), and (7)(A) of section 1182(a) of this title shall not be applicable to any alien seeking admission to the United States under this subsection, and the Attorney General may waive any other provision of such section (other than paragraph (2)(C) or subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (E) of paragraph (3)) with respect to such an alien for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest. Any such waiver by the Attorney General shall be in writing and shall be granted only on an individual basis following an investigation. The Attorney General shall provide for the annual reporting to Congress of the number of waivers granted under this paragraph in the previous fiscal year and a summary of the reasons for granting such waivers.

(4) The refugee status of any alien (and of the spouse or child of the alien) may be terminated by the Attorney General pursuant to such regulations as the Attorney General may prescribe if the Attorney General determines that the alien was not in fact a refugee within the meaning of section 1101(a)(42) of this title at the time of the alien's admission.

(d) Oversight reporting and consultation requirements

(1) Before the start of each fiscal year the President shall report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate regarding the foreseeable number of refugees who will be in need of resettlement during the fiscal year and the anticipated allocation of refugee admissions during the fiscal year. The President shall provide for periodic discussions between designated representatives of the President and members of such committees regarding changes in the worldwide refugee situation, the progress of refugee admissions, and the possible need for adjustments in the allocation of admissions among refugees.

(2) As soon as possible after representatives of the President initiate appropriate consultation with respect to the number of refugee admissions under subsection (a) or with respect to the admission of refugees in response to an emergency refugee situation under subsection (b), the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate shall cause to have printed in the Congressional Record the substance of such consultation.

(3)(A) After the President initiates appropriate consultation prior to making a determination under subsection (a), a hearing to review the proposed determination shall be held unless public disclosure of the details of the proposal would jeopardize the lives or safety of individuals.

(B) After the President initiates appropriate consultation prior to making a determination, under subsection (b), that the number of refugee admissions should be increased because of an unforeseen emergency refugee situation, to the extent that time and the nature of the emergency refugee situation permit, a hearing to review the proposal to increase refugee admissions shall be held unless public disclosure of the details of the proposal would jeopardize the lives or safety of individuals.

(e) "Appropriate consultation" defined

For purposes of this section, the term "appropriate consultation" means, with respect to the admission of refugees and allocation of refugee admissions, discussions in person by designated Cabinet-level representatives of the President with members of the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and of the House of Representatives to review the refugee situation or emergency refugee situation, to project the extent of possible participation of the United States therein, to discuss the reasons for believing that the proposed admission of refugees is justified by humanitarian concerns or grave humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest, and to provide such members with the following information:

(1) A description of the nature of the refugee situation.

(2) A description of the number and allocation of the refugees to be admitted and an analysis of conditions within the countries from which they came.

(3) A description of the proposed plans for their movement and resettlement and the estimated cost of their movement and resettlement.

(4) An analysis of the anticipated social, economic, and demographic impact of their admission to the United States.

(5) A description of the extent to which other countries will admit and assist in the resettlement of such refugees.

(6) An analysis of the impact of the participation of the United States in the resettlement of such refugees on the foreign policy interests of the United States.

(7) Such additional information as may be appropriate or requested by such members.


To the extent possible, information described in this subsection shall be provided at least two weeks in advance of discussions in person by designated representatives of the President with such members.

(f) Training

(1) The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall provide all United States officials adjudicating refugee cases under this section with the same training as that provided to officers adjudicating asylum cases under section 1158 of this title.

(2) Such training shall include country-specific conditions, instruction on the internationally recognized right to freedom of religion, instruction on methods of religious persecution practiced in foreign countries, and applicable distinctions within a country between the nature of and treatment of various religious practices and believers.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §207, as added Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §201(b), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 103; amended Pub. L. 100–525, §9(h), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2620; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §104(b), title VI, §603(a)(4), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4985, 5082; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §307(l)(1), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §601(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–689; Pub. L. 105–292, title VI, §602(a), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2812; Pub. L. 107–208, §5, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, §101(g)(2), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 305.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), (2)(A), was in the original, "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1157, act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §207, 66 Stat. 181, prohibited issuance of immigrant visas to other immigrants in lieu of immigrants excluded from admission, immigrants deported, immigrants failing to apply for admission to the United States, or immigrants found to be nonquota immigrants after having previously been found to be quota immigrants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–236, §7, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 916.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 109–13 struck out par. (5) which read as follows: "For any fiscal year, not more than a total of 1,000 refugees may be admitted under this subsection or granted asylum under section 1158 of this title pursuant to a determination under the third sentence of section 1101(a)(42) of this title (relating to persecution for resistance to coercive population control methods)."

2002—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–208 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1998—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–292 added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–208 added par. (5).

1991—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–232 substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "subparagraphs (A)".

1990—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–649, §104(b), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(4), substituted "(4), (5), and (7)(A)" for "(14), (15), (20), (21), (25), and (32)" and "(other than paragraph (2)(C) or subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), or (E) of paragraph (3))" for "(other than paragraph (27), (29), or (33) and other than so much of paragraph (23) as relates to trafficking in narcotics)".

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–525 substituted "otherwise" for "otherwide".

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, §101(h)(5), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 306, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (g) [amending this section and section 1159 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this division [May 11, 2005]."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–208 effective Aug. 6, 2002, and applicable to certain beneficiary aliens, see section 8 of Pub. L. 107–208, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §307(l), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756, provided that the amendments made by that section [amending this section, sections 1159, 1161, 1187, 1188, 1254a, 1255a, and 1322 of this title, and provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1255 of this title] are effective as if included in section 603(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b) of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Nov. 29, 1990, and (unless otherwise provided) applicable to fiscal year 1991, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by section 603(a)(4) of Pub. L. 101–649 applicable to individuals entering United States on or after June 1, 1991, see section 601(e)(1) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date

Section (with the exception of subsec. (c) which is effective Apr. 1, 1980) effective, except as otherwise provided, Mar. 17, 1980, and applicable to fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year beginning Oct. 1, 1979, see section 204 of Pub. L. 96–212, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of Congressional reporting functions of President under subsec. (d) of this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13313, July 31, 2003, 68 F.R. 46073, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Iraq Refugee Crisis

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XII, subtitle C, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 395, as amended by Pub. L. 110–242, §1, June 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 1567; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §813(d), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2407; Pub. L. 111–118, div. A, title VIII, §8120(a), Dec. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 3457; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(f)(9), (10), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4376; Pub. L. 113–42, §1, Oct. 4, 2013, 127 Stat. 552; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XII, §1218, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 910, provided that:

"SEC. 1241. SHORT TITLE.

"This subtitle may be cited as the 'Refugee Crisis in Iraq Act of 2007'.

"SEC. 1242. PROCESSING MECHANISMS.

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall establish or use existing refugee processing mechanisms in Iraq and in countries, where appropriate, in the region in which—

"(1) aliens described in section 1243 may apply and interview for admission to the United States as refugees; and

"(2) aliens described in section 1244(b) may apply and interview for admission to United States as special immigrants.

"(b) Suspension.—If such is determined necessary, the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, may suspend in-country processing under subsection (a) for a period not to exceed 90 days. Such suspension may be extended by the Secretary of State upon notification to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate, and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate. The Secretary of State shall submit to such committees a report outlining the basis of any such suspension and any extensions thereof.

"(c) Improved Application Process.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 [Dec. 26, 2013], the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall improve the efficiency by which applications for special immigrant visas under section 1244(a), are processed so that all steps under the control of the respective departments incidental to the issuance of such visas, including required screenings and background checks, should be completed not later than 9 months after the date on which an eligible alien submits all required materials to complete an application for such visa.

"(2) Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the ability of a Secretary referred to in paragraph (1) to take longer than 9 months to complete those steps incidental to the issuance of such visas in high-risk cases for which satisfaction of national security concerns requires additional time.

"(d) Representation.—An alien applying for admission to the United States pursuant to this subtitle may be represented during the application process, including at relevant interviews and examinations, by an attorney or other accredited representative. Such representation shall not be at the expense of the United States Government.

"SEC. 1243. UNITED STATES REFUGEE PROGRAM PROCESSING PRIORITIES.

"(a) In General.—Refugees of special humanitarian concern eligible for Priority 2 processing under the refugee resettlement priority system who may apply directly to the United States Admission Program shall include—

"(1) Iraqis who were or are employed by the United States Government, in Iraq;

"(2) Iraqis who establish to the satisfaction of the Secretary of State that they are or were employed in Iraq by—

"(A) a media or nongovernmental organization headquartered in the United States; or

"(B) an organization or entity closely associated with the United States mission in Iraq that has received United States Government funding through an official and documented contract, award, grant, or cooperative agreement; and

"(3) spouses, children, and parents whether or not accompanying or following to join, and sons, daughters, and siblings of aliens described in paragraph (1), paragraph (2), or section 1244(b)(1); and

"(4) Iraqis who are members of a religious or minority community, have been identified by the Secretary of State, or the designee of the Secretary, as a persecuted group, and have close family members (as described in section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) or 203(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) and 1153(a))) in the United States.

"(b) Identification of Other Persecuted Groups.—The Secretary of State, or the designee of the Secretary, is authorized to identify other Priority 2 groups of Iraqis, including vulnerable populations.

"(c) Ineligible Organizations and Entities.—Organizations and entities described in subsection (a)(2) shall not include any that appear on the Department of the Treasury's list of Specially Designated Nationals or any entity specifically excluded by the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the heads of relevant elements of the intelligence community (as defined in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401a(4)) [now 50 U.S.C. 3003(4)]).

"(d) Applicability of Other Requirements.—Aliens under this section who qualify for Priority 2 processing under the refugee resettlement priority system shall satisfy the requirements of section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1157) for admission to the United States.

"(e) Numerical Limitations.—In determining the number of Iraqi refugees who should be resettled in the United States under paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of subsection (a) and subsection (b) of section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1157), the President shall consult with the heads of nongovernmental organizations that have a presence in Iraq or experience in assessing the problems faced by Iraqi refugees.

"(f) Eligibility for Admission as Refugee.—No alien shall be denied the opportunity to apply for admission under this section solely because such alien qualifies as an immediate relative or is eligible for any other immigrant classification.

"SEC. 1244. SPECIAL IMMIGRANT STATUS FOR CERTAIN IRAQIS.

"(a) In General.—Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary of Homeland Security, or, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of State in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, may provide an alien described in subsection (b) with the status of a special immigrant under section 101(a)(27) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(27)), if the alien—

"(1) or an agent acting on behalf of the alien, submits a petition for classification under section 203(b)(4) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(b)(4));

"(2) is otherwise eligible to receive an immigrant visa;

"(3) is otherwise admissible to the United States for permanent residence (excluding the grounds for inadmissibility specified in section 212(a)(4) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(4))); and

"(4) cleared a background check and appropriate screening, as determined by the Secretary of Homeland Security.

"(b) Aliens Described.—

"(1) Principal aliens.—An alien is described in this subsection if the alien—

"(A) is a citizen or national of Iraq;

"(B) was or is employed by or on behalf of the United States Government in Iraq, on or after March 20, 2003, for not less than one year;

"(C) provided faithful and valuable service to the United States Government, which is documented in a positive recommendation or evaluation, subject to paragraph (4), from the employee's senior supervisor or the person currently occupying that position, or a more senior person, if the employee's senior supervisor has left the employer or has left Iraq; and

"(D) has experienced or is experiencing an ongoing serious threat as a consequence of the alien's employment by the United States Government.

"(2) Spouses and children.—An alien is described in this subsection if the alien—

"(A) is the spouse or child of a principal alien described in paragraph (1); and

"(B) is accompanying or following to join the principal alien in the United States.

"(3) Treatment of surviving spouse or child.—An alien is described in subsection (b) if the alien—

"(A) was the spouse or child of a principal alien described in paragraph (1) who had a petition for classification approved pursuant to this section or section 1059 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 (Public Law 109–163; 8 U.S.C. 1101 note), which included the alien as an accompanying spouse or child; and

"(B) due to the death of the principal alien—

"(i) such petition was revoked or terminated (or otherwise rendered null); and

"(ii) such petition would have been approved if the principal alien had survived.

"(4) Approval by chief of mission required.—

"(A) In general.—Except as provided under subparagraph (B), a recommendation or evaluation required under paragraph (1)(C) shall be accompanied by approval from the Chief of Mission, or the designee of the Chief of Mission, who shall conduct a risk assessment of the alien and an independent review of records maintained by the United States Government or hiring organization or entity to confirm employment and faithful and valuable service to the United States Government prior to approval of a petition under this section.

"(B) Review process for denial by chief of mission.—

"(i) In general.—An applicant who has been denied Chief of Mission approval required by subparagraph (A) shall—

     "(I) receive a written decision that provides, to the maximum extent feasible, information describing the basis for the denial, including the facts and inferences underlying the individual determination; and

     "(II) be provided not more than one written appeal—

"(aa) that shall be submitted not more than 120 days after the date that the applicant receives such decision in writing; and

"(bb) that may request reopening of such decision and provide additional information, clarify existing information, or explain any unfavorable information.

"(ii) Iraqi special immigrant visa coordinator.—The Secretary of State shall designate, in the Embassy of the United States in Baghdad, Iraq, an Iraqi Special Immigrant Visa Coordinator responsible for overseeing the efficiency and integrity of the processing of special immigrant visas under this section, who shall be given—

     "(I) sufficiently high security clearance to review information supporting Chief of Mission denials if an appeal of a denial is filed;

     "(II) responsibility for ensuring that an applicant described in clause (i) receives the information described in clause (i)(I); and

     "(III) responsibility for ensuring that every applicant is provided a reasonable opportunity to provide additional information, clarify existing information, or explain any unfavorable information pursuant to clause (i)(II).

"(5) Evidence of serious threat.—A credible sworn statement depicting dangerous country conditions, together with official evidence of such country conditions from the United States Government, should be considered as a factor in determination of whether the alien has experienced or is experiencing an ongoing serious threat as a consequence of the alien's employment by the United States Government for purposes of paragraph (1)(D).

"(c) Numerical Limitations.—

"(1) In general.—The total number of principal aliens who may be provided special immigrant status under this section may not exceed 5,000 per year for fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

"(2) Exclusion from numerical limitations.—Aliens provided special immigrant status under this section shall not be counted against any numerical limitation under sections 201(d), 202(a), or 203(b)(4) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1151(d), 1152(a), and 1153(b)(4)).

"(3) Carry forward.—

"(A) Fiscal years 2008 through 2011.—If the numerical limitation specified in paragraph (1) is not reached during a given fiscal year referred to in such paragraph (with respect to fiscal years 2008 through 2011), the numerical limitation specified in such paragraph for the following fiscal year shall be increased by a number equal to the difference between—

"(i) the numerical limitation specified in paragraph (1) for the given fiscal year; and

"(ii) the number of principal aliens provided special immigrant status under this section during the given fiscal year.

"(B) Fiscal years 2012 and 2013.—If the numerical limitation specified in paragraph (1) is not reached in fiscal year 2012, the total number of principal aliens who may be provided special immigrant status under this section for fiscal year 2013 shall be equal to the difference between—

"(i) the numerical limitation specified in paragraph (1) for fiscal year 2012; and

"(ii) the number of principal aliens provided such status under this section during fiscal year 2012.

"(C) Limitation on number of visas.—

"(i) In general.—The total number of principal aliens who may be provided special immigrant status under this section after January 1, 2014, shall be not more than 2500.

"(ii) Employment period.—The 1-year period during which the principal alien is required to have been employed by or on behalf of the United States Government in Iraq under subsection (b)(1)(B) shall begin on or after March 20, 2003, and end on or before September 30, 2013.

"(iii) Application deadline.—The principal alien seeking special immigrant status under this subparagraph shall apply to the Chief of Mission in accordance with subsection (b)(4) not later than September 30, 2014.

"(d) Visa and Passport Issuance and Fees.—Neither the Secretary of State nor the Secretary of Homeland Security may charge an alien described in subsection (b) any fee in connection with an application for, or issuance of, a special immigrant visa. The Secretary of State shall make a reasonable effort to ensure that aliens described in this section who are issued special immigrant visas are provided with the appropriate series Iraqi passport necessary to enter the United States.

"(e) Protection of Aliens.—The Secretary of State, in consultation with the heads of other relevant Federal agencies, shall make a reasonable effort to provide an alien described in this section who is applying for a special immigrant visa with protection or the immediate removal from Iraq, if possible, of such alien if the Secretary determines after consultation that such alien is in imminent danger.

"(f) Eligibility for Admission Under Other Classification.—No alien shall be denied the opportunity to apply for admission under this section solely because such alien qualifies as an immediate relative or is eligible for any other immigrant classification.

"(g) Resettlement Support.—Iraqi aliens granted special immigrant status described in section 101(a)(27) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(27)) shall be eligible for resettlement assistance, entitlement programs, and other benefits available to refugees admitted under section 207 of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1157) to the same extent, and for the same periods of time, as such refugees.

"(h) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed to affect the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security under section 1059 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 [Pub. L. 109–163, 8 U.S.C. 1101 note].

"SEC. 1245. SENIOR COORDINATOR FOR IRAQI REFUGEES AND INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS.

"(a) Designation in Iraq.—The Secretary of State shall designate in the embassy of the United States in Baghdad, Iraq, a Senior Coordinator for Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (referred to in this section as the 'Senior Coordinator').

"(b) Responsibilities.—The Senior Coordinator shall be responsible for the oversight of processing for the resettlement in the United States of refugees of special humanitarian concern, special immigrant visa programs in Iraq, and the development and implementation of other appropriate policies and programs concerning Iraqi refugees and internally displaced persons. The Senior Coordinator shall have the authority to refer persons to the United States refugee resettlement program.

"(c) Designation of Additional Senior Coordinators.—The Secretary of State shall designate in the embassies of the United States in Cairo, Egypt, Amman, Jordan, Damascus, Syria, and Beirut, Lebanon, a Senior Coordinator to oversee resettlement in the United States of refugees of special humanitarian concern in those countries to ensure their applications to the United States refugee resettlement program are processed in an orderly manner and without delay.

"SEC. 1246. COUNTRIES WITH SIGNIFICANT POPULATIONS OF IRAQI REFUGEES.

"With respect to each country with a significant population of Iraqi refugees, including Iraq, Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, and Lebanon, the Secretary of State shall—

"(1) as appropriate, consult with the appropriate government officials of such countries and other countries and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees regarding resettlement of the most vulnerable members of such refugee populations; and

"(2) as appropriate, except where otherwise prohibited by the laws of the United States, develop mechanisms in and provide assistance to countries with a significant population of Iraqi refugees to ensure the well-being and safety of such populations in their host environments.

"SEC. 1247. MOTION TO REOPEN DENIAL OR TERMINATION OF ASYLUM.

"An alien who applied for asylum or withholding of removal and whose claim was denied on or after March 1, 2003, by an asylum officer or an immigration judge solely, or in part, on the basis of changed country conditions may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, file a motion to reopen such claim in accordance with subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 240(c)(7) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1229a(c)(7)) not later than six months after the date of the enactment of the Refugee Crisis in Iraq Act [of 2007] [Jan. 28, 2008] if the alien—

"(1) is a citizen or national of Iraq; and

"(2) has remained in the United States since the date of such denial.

"SEC. 1248. REPORTS.

"(a) Secretary of Homeland Security.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate, and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report containing plans to expedite the processing of Iraqi refugees for resettlement, including information relating to—

"(1) expediting the processing of Iraqi refugees for resettlement, including through temporary expansion of the Refugee Corps of United States Citizenship and Immigration Services;

"(2) increasing the number of personnel of the Department of Homeland Security devoted to refugee processing in Iraq, Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, and Lebanon;

"(3) enhancing existing systems for conducting background and security checks of persons applying for special immigrant status and of persons considered Priority 2 refugees of special humanitarian concern under the refugee resettlement priority system, which enhancements shall support immigration security and provide for the orderly processing of such applications without delay; and

"(4) the projections of the Secretary, per country and per month, for the number of refugee interviews that will be conducted in fiscal year 2008 and fiscal year 2009.

"(b) President.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], and annually thereafter through 2013, the President shall submit to Congress an unclassified report, with a classified annex if necessary, which includes—

"(1) an assessment of the financial, security, and personnel considerations and resources necessary to carry out the provisions of this subtitle;

"(2) the number of aliens described in section 1243(a)(1);

"(3) the number of such aliens who have applied for special immigrant visas;

"(4) the date of such applications; and

"(5) in the case of applications pending for longer than six months, the reasons that such visas have not been expeditiously processed.

"(c) Report on Iraqi Citizens and Nationals Employed by the United States Government or Federal Contractors in Iraq.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall—

"(A) review internal records and databases of their respective agencies for information that can be used to verify employment of Iraqi nationals by the United States Government; and

"(B) request from each prime contractor or grantee that has performed work in Iraq since March 20, 2003, under a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement with their respective agencies that is valued in excess of $100,000 information that can be used to verify the employment of Iraqi nationals by such contractor or grantee.

"(2) Information required.—To the extent data is available, the information referred to in paragraph (1) shall include the name and dates of employment of, biometric data for, and other data that can be used to verify the employment of each Iraqi citizen or national who has performed work in Iraq since March 20, 2003, under a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement with an executive agency.

"(3) Executive agency defined.—In this subsection, the term 'executive agency' has the meaning given the term in section 4(1) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act ([former] 41 U.S.C. 403(1)) [now 41 U.S.C. 133].

"(d) Report on Establishment of Database.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall submit to Congress a report examining the options for establishing a unified, classified database of information related to contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements entered into by executive agencies for the performance of work in Iraq since March 20, 2003, including the information described and collected under subsection (c), to be used by relevant Federal departments and agencies to adjudicate refugee, asylum, special immigrant visa, and other immigration claims and applications.

"(e) Noncompliance Report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the President shall submit a report to Congress that describes—

"(1) the inability or unwillingness of any contractor or grantee to provide the information requested under subsection (c)(1)(B); and

"(2) the reasons for failing to provide such information.

"(f) Report on Improvements.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 [Dec. 26, 2013], the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall submit a report, with a classified annex, if necessary, to—

"(A) the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate; and

"(B) the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

"(2) Contents.—The report submitted under paragraph (1) shall describe the implementation of improvements to the processing of applications for special immigrant visas under section 1244(a), including information relating to—

"(A) enhancing existing systems for conducting background and security checks of persons applying for special immigrant status, which shall—

"(i) support immigration security; and

"(ii) provide for the orderly processing of such applications without significant delay;

"(B) the financial, security, and personnel considerations and resources necessary to carry out this subtitle;

"(C) the number of aliens who have applied for special immigrant visas under section 1244 during each month of the preceding fiscal year;

"(D) the reasons for the failure to process any applications that have been pending for longer than 9 months;

"(E) the total number of applications that are pending due to the failure—

"(i) to receive approval from the Chief of Mission;

"(ii) of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services to complete the adjudication of the Form I–360;

"(iii) to conduct a visa interview; or

"(iv) to issue the visa to an eligible alien;

"(F) the average wait times for an applicant at each of the stages described in subparagraph (E);

"(G) the number of denials or rejections at each of the stages described in subparagraph (E); and

"(H) the reasons for denials by the Chief of Mission based on the categories already made available to denied special immigrant visa applicants in the denial letter sent to them by the Chief of Mission.

"(g) Public Quarterly Reports.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 [Dec. 26, 2013], and every 3 months thereafter, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall publish a report on the website of the Department of State that describes the efficiency improvements made in the process by which applications for special immigrant visas under section 1244(a) are processed, including information described in subparagraphs (C) through (H) of subsection (f)(2).

"(h) Senior Coordinating Officials.—

"(1) Requirement to designate.—The Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Defense shall each designate a senior coordinating official, with sufficient expertise, authority, and resources, to carry out the duties described in paragraph (2), with regard to the issuance of special immigrant visas under this subtitle and the Afghan Allies Protection Act of 2009 [title VI of div. F of Pub. L. 111–8] (8 U.S.C. 1101 note).

"(2) Duties.—Each senior coordinating official designated under paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) develop proposals to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the process for issuing special immigrant visas under this subtitle and the Afghan Allies Protection Act of 2009;

"(B) coordinate and monitor the implementation of such proposals;

"(C) include such proposals in the report required by subsection (f) and in each quarterly report required by subsection (g); and

"(D) implement appropriate actions as authorized by law to carry out the improvements described in the report required by subsection (f).

"(3) Submission to congress.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 [Dec. 26, 2013], the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Defense shall each submit to the committees set out in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (f)(1) the name and title of the senior coordinating official designated under paragraph (1) by each such Secretary, along with a description of the relevant expertise, authority, and resources of such official.

"SEC. 1249. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this subtitle."

[Pub. L. 110–242, §1(1), which directed amendment of section 1244(c)(1) of Pub. L. 110–181, set out above, by substituting "fiscal years 2008 through 2012" for "each of the five years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act", was executed by making the substitution for "each of the five fiscal years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

Bring Them Home Alive Program

Pub. L. 106–484, Nov. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 2195, as amended by Pub. L. 107–258, §2, Oct. 29, 2002, 116 Stat. 1738, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Bring Them Home Alive Act of 2000'.

"SEC. 2. AMERICAN VIETNAM WAR POW/MIA ASYLUM PROGRAM.

"(a) Asylum for Eligible Aliens.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Attorney General shall grant refugee status in the United States to any alien described in subsection (b), upon the application of that alien.

"(b) Eligibility.—Refugee status shall be granted under subsection (a) to—

"(1) any alien who—

"(A) is a national of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, China, or any of the independent states of the former Soviet Union; and

"(B) personally delivers into the custody of the United States Government a living American Vietnam War POW/MIA; and

"(2) any parent, spouse, or child of an alien described in paragraph (1).

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) American vietnam war pow/mia.—

"(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term 'American Vietnam War POW/MIA' means an individual—

"(i) who is a member of a uniformed service (within the meaning of section 101(3) of title 37, United States Code) in a missing status (as defined in section 551(2) of such title and this subsection) as a result of the Vietnam War; or

"(ii) who is an employee (as defined in section 5561(2) of title 5, United States Code) in a missing status (as defined in section 5561(5) of such title) as a result of the Vietnam War.

"(B) Exclusion.—Such term does not include an individual with respect to whom it is officially determined under section 552(c) of title 37, United States Code, that such individual is officially absent from such individual's post of duty without authority.

"(2) Missing status.—The term 'missing status', with respect to the Vietnam War, means the status of an individual as a result of the Vietnam War if immediately before that status began the individual—

"(A) was performing service in Vietnam; or

"(B) was performing service in Southeast Asia in direct support of military operations in Vietnam.

"(3) Vietnam war.—The term 'Vietnam War' means the conflict in Southeast Asia during the period that began on February 28, 1961, and ended on May 7, 1975.

"SEC. 3. AMERICAN KOREAN WAR POW/MIA ASYLUM PROGRAM.

"(a) Asylum for Eligible Aliens.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Attorney General shall grant refugee status in the United States to any alien described in subsection (b), upon the application of that alien.

"(b) Eligibility.—Refugee status shall be granted under subsection (a) to—

"(1) any alien—

"(A) who is a national of North Korea, China, or any of the independent states of the former Soviet Union; and

"(B) who personally delivers into the custody of the United States Government a living American Korean War POW/MIA; and

"(2) any parent, spouse, or child of an alien described in paragraph (1).

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) American korean war pow/mia.—

"(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term 'American Korean War POW/MIA' means an individual—

"(i) who is a member of a uniformed service (within the meaning of section 101(3) of title 37, United States Code) in a missing status (as defined in section 551(2) of such title and this subsection) as a result of the Korean War; or

"(ii) who is an employee (as defined in section 5561(2) of title 5, United States Code) in a missing status (as defined in section 5561(5) of such title) as a result of the Korean War.

"(B) Exclusion.—Such term does not include an individual with respect to whom it is officially determined under section 552(c) of title 37, United States Code, that such individual is officially absent from such individual's post of duty without authority.

"(2) Korean war.—The term 'Korean War' means the conflict on the Korean peninsula during the period that began on June 27, 1950, and ended January 31, 1955.

"(3) Missing status.—The term 'missing status', with respect to the Korean War, means the status of an individual as a result of the Korean War if immediately before that status began the individual—

"(A) was performing service in the Korean peninsula; or

"(B) was performing service in Asia in direct support of military operations in the Korean peninsula.

"SEC. 3A. AMERICAN PERSIAN GULF WAR POW/MIA ASYLUM PROGRAM.

"(a) Asylum for Eligible Aliens.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Attorney General shall grant refugee status in the United States to any alien described in subsection (b), upon the application of that alien.

"(b) Eligibility.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), an alien described in this subsection is—

"(A) any alien who—

"(i) is a national of Iraq or a nation of the Greater Middle East Region (as determined by the Attorney General in consultation with the Secretary of State); and

"(ii) personally delivers into the custody of the United States Government a living American Persian Gulf War POW/MIA; and

"(B) any parent, spouse, or child of an alien described in subparagraph (A).

"(2) Exceptions.—An alien described in this subsection does not include a terrorist, a persecutor, a person who has been convicted of a serious criminal offense, or a person who presents a danger to the security of the United States, as set forth in clauses (i) through (v) of section 208(b)(2)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1158(b)(2)(A)).

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) American persian gulf war pow/mia.—

"(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term 'American Persian Gulf War POW/MIA' means an individual—

"(i) who is a member of a uniformed service (within the meaning of section 101(3) of title 37, United States Code) in a missing status (as defined in section 551(2) of such title and this subsection) as a result of the Persian Gulf War, or any successor conflict, operation, or action; or

"(ii) who is an employee (as defined in section 5561(2) of title 5, United States Code) in a missing status (as defined in section 5561(5) of such title) as a result of the Persian Gulf War, or any successor conflict, operation, or action.

"(B) Exclusion.—Such term does not include an individual with respect to whom it is officially determined under section 552(c) of title 37, United States Code, that such individual is officially absent from such individual's post of duty without authority.

"(2) Missing status.—The term 'missing status', with respect to the Persian Gulf War, or any successor conflict, operation, or action, means the status of an individual as a result of the Persian Gulf War, or such conflict, operation, or action, if immediately before that status began the individual—

"(A) was performing service in Kuwait, Iraq, or another nation of the Greater Middle East Region; or

"(B) was performing service in the Greater Middle East Region in direct support of military operations in Kuwait or Iraq.

"(3) Persian gulf war.—The term 'Persian Gulf War' means the period beginning on August 2, 1990, and ending on the date thereafter prescribed by Presidential proclamation or by law."

"SEC. 4. BROADCASTING INFORMATION ON THE 'BRING THEM HOME ALIVE' PROGRAM.

"(a) Requirement.—

"(1) In general.—The International Broadcasting Bureau shall broadcast, through WORLDNET Television and Film Service and Radio, VOA–TV, VOA Radio, or otherwise, information that promotes the 'Bring Them Home Alive' refugee program under this Act to foreign countries covered by paragraph (2).

"(2) Covered countries.—The foreign countries covered by paragraph (1) are—

"(A) Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, China, and North Korea;

"(B) Russia and the other independent states of the former Soviet Union; and

"(C) Iraq, Kuwait, or any other country of the Greater Middle East Region (as determined by the International Broadcasting Bureau in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of State).

"(b) Level of Programming.—The International Broadcasting Bureau shall broadcast—

"(1) at least 20 hours of the programming described in subsection (a)(1) during the 30-day period that begins 15 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 9, 2000]; and

"(2) at least 10 hours of the programming described in subsection (a)(1) in each calendar quarter during the period beginning with the first calendar quarter that begins after the date of enactment of this Act and ending five years after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(c) Availability of Information on the Internet.—The International Broadcasting Bureau shall ensure that information regarding the 'Bring Them Home Alive' refugee program under this Act is readily available on the World Wide Web sites of the Bureau.

"(d) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that RFE/RL, Incorporated, Radio Free Asia, and any other recipient of Federal grants that engages in international broadcasting to the countries covered by subsection (a)(2) should broadcast information similar to the information required to be broadcast by subsection (a)(1).

"(e) Definition.—The term 'International Broadcasting Bureau' means the International Broadcasting Bureau of the United States Information Agency or, on and after the effective date of title XIII of the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (as contained in division G of Public Law 105–277) [see Effective Date note set out under section 6531 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse], the International Broadcasting Bureau of the Broadcasting Board of Governors.

"SEC. 5. INDEPENDENT STATES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION DEFINED.

"In this Act, the term 'independent states of the former Soviet Union' has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801)."

Gender-Related Persecution Task Force

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. A, title II, §254], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-432, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Task Force.—The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Attorney General and other appropriate Federal agencies, shall establish a task force with the goal of determining eligibility guidelines for women seeking refugee status overseas due to gender-related persecution.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1999], the Secretary of State shall prepare and submit to the Congress a report outlining the guidelines determined by the task force under subsection (a)."

Establishing Categories of Aliens for Purposes of Refugee Determinations

Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §599D, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1261, as amended by Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §598(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2063; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §582(a)(1), (b)(1), (c), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1686; Pub. L. 102–511, title IX, §905(a), (b)(1), (c), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3356; Pub. L. 103–236, title V, §512(1), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 466; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §575(1)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–121, 3009-168; Pub. L. 104–319, title I, §101(1), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3865; Pub. L. 105–118, title V, §574(1), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2432; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VII, §705(1)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-389; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(4) [title II, §214(1)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-240; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title II, §212(1)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-27; Pub. L. 107–116, title II, §213(1), Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2200; Pub. L. 108–7, div. G, title II, §213(1), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 324; Pub. L. 108–199, div. E, title II, §213(1), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 253; Pub. L. 108–447, div. F, title II, §213(1), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 109–102, title V, §534(m)(1), Nov. 14, 2005, 119 Stat. 2211; Pub. L. 109–289, div. B, title II, §20412(b)(1), as added by Pub. L. 110–5, §2, Feb. 15, 2007, 121 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, §634(k)(1), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2329; Pub. L. 111–8, div. H, title VII, §7034(g)(1), Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 878; Pub. L. 111–117, div. F, title VII, §7034(f)(1), Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3361; Pub. L. 112–10, div. B, title XI, §2121(m)(1), Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 186; Pub. L. 112–74, div. I, title VII, §7034(r)(1), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1218; Pub. L. 113–6, div. F, title VII, §1706(h)(1), Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 430; Pub. L. 113–76, div. K, title VII, §7034(m)(8)(A), Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 516; Pub. L. 113–235, div. J, title VII, §7034(l)(8)(A), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2625; Pub. L. 114–113, div. K, title VII, §7034(k)(8)(A), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2765, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In the case of an alien who is within a category of aliens established under subsection (b), the alien may establish, for purposes of admission as a refugee under section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1157], that the alien has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion by asserting such a fear and asserting a credible basis for concern about the possibility of such persecution.

"(b) Establishment of Categories.—

"(1) For purposes of subsection (a), the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Coordinator for Refugee Affairs, shall establish—

"(A) one or more categories of aliens who are or were nationals and residents of an independent state of the former Soviet Union or of Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania and who share common characteristics that identify them as targets of persecution in that state on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion,[;]

"(B) one or more categories of aliens who are or were nationals and residents of Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia and who share common characteristics that identify them as targets of persecution in such respective foreign state on such an account; and

"(C) one or more categories of aliens who are or were nationals and residents of the Islamic Republic or Iran who, as members of a religious minority in Iran, share common characteristics that identify them as targets of persecution in that state on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

"(2)(A) Aliens who are (or were) nationals and residents of an independent state of the former Soviet Union or of Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania and who are Jews or Evangelical Christians shall be deemed a category of alien established under paragraph (1)(A).

"(B) Aliens who are (or were) nationals of an independent state of the former Soviet Union or of Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania and who are current members of, and demonstrate public, active, and continuous participation (or attempted participation) in the religious activities of, the Ukrainian Catholic Church or the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, shall be deemed a category of alien established under paragraph (1)(A).

"(C) Aliens who are (or were) nationals and residents of Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia and who are members of categories of individuals determined, by the Attorney General in accordance with 'Immigration and Naturalization Service Worldwide Guidelines for Overseas Refugee Processing' (issued by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in August 1983) shall be deemed a category of alien established under paragraph (1)(B).

"(3) Within the number of admissions of refugees allocated for for [sic] each of fiscal years 1990, 1991, and 1992 for refugees who are nationals of the Soviet Union under section 207(a)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1157(a)(3)] and within the number of such admissions allocated for each of fiscal years 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 for refugees who are nationals of the independent states of the former Soviet Union, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania under such section, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President shall allocate one thousand of such admissions for such fiscal year to refugees who are within the category of aliens described in paragraph (2)(B).

"(c) Written Reasons for Denials of Refugee Status.—Each decision to deny an application for refugee status of an alien who is within a category established under this section shall be in writing and shall state, to the maximum extent feasible, the reason for the denial.

"(d) Permitting Certain Aliens Within Categories to Reapply for Refugee Status.—Each alien who is within a category established under this section and who (after August 14, 1988, and before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1989]) was denied refugee status shall be permitted to reapply for such status. Such an application shall be determined taking into account the application of this section.

"(e) Period of Application.—

"(1) Subsections (a) and (b) shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1989] and shall only apply to applications for refugee status submitted before October 1, 2016.

"(2) Subsection (c) shall apply to decisions made after the date of the enactment of this Act and before October 1, 2016.

"(3) Subsection (d) shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act and shall only apply to reapplications for refugee status submitted before October 1, 2016."

[Pub. L. 109–102, §534(m)(1)(A), which directed amendment of section 599D(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101–167, set out above, by substituting "2005, and 2006" for "and 2005", could not be executed.]

[Pub. L. 108–447, §213(1)(A), which directed amendment of section 599D(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101–167, set out above, by substituting "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006" for "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005", was executed by making the substitution for "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

[Pub. L. 108–199, §213(1)(A), which directed amendment of section 599D(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101–167, set out above, by substituting "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004" for "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003", was executed by making the substitution for "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

[Pub. L. 108–7, §213(1)(A), which directed amendment of section 599D(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101–167, set out above, by substituting "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003" for "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001", was executed by making the substitution for "1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

[Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and references to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as a note under section 2651a of Title 22.]

El Salvadoran Refugees

Pub. L. 97–113, title VII, §731, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1557, provided that: "It is the sense of the Congress that the administration should continue to review, on a case-by-case basis, petitions for extended voluntary departure made by citizens of El Salvador who claim that they are subject to persecution in their homeland, and should take full account of the civil strife in El Salvador in making decisions on such petitions."

Time for Determinations by President for Fiscal Year 1980

Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §204(d)(1), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 109, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 207(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (as added by section 201(b) of this title [subsec. (a) of this section], the President may make the determination described in the first sentence of such section not later than forty-five days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 17, 1980] for fiscal year 1980."

Presidential Determination Concerning Admission and Adjustment of Status of Refugees

Determinations by the President pursuant to this section concerning the admission and adjustment of status of refugees for particular fiscal years were contained in the following Presidential Determinations:

Presidential Determination No. 2016–13, Sept. 28, 2016, 81 F.R. 70315.

Presidential Determination No. 2015–14, Sept. 29, 2015, 80 F.R. 62433.

Presidential Determination No. 2014–17, Sept. 30, 2014, 79 F.R. 69753.

Presidential Determination No. 2014–01, Oct. 2, 2013, 78 F.R. 62415.

Presidential Determination No. 2012–17, Sept. 28, 2012, 77 F.R. 61507.

Presidential Determination No. 2011–17, Sept. 30, 2011, 76 F.R. 62597.

Presidential Determination No. 2011–02, Oct. 8, 2010, 75 F.R. 75851.

Presidential Determination No. 2009–32, Sept. 30, 2009, 74 F.R. 52385.

Presidential Determination No. 2008–29, Sept. 30, 2008, 73 F.R. 58865.

Presidential Determination No. 2008–1, Oct. 2, 2007, 72 F.R. 58991.

Presidential Determination No. 2007–1, Oct. 11, 2006, 71 F.R. 64435.

Presidential Determination No. 2006–3, Oct. 24, 2005, 70 F.R. 65825.

Presidential Determination No. 2004–53, Sept. 30, 2004, 69 F.R. 60943.

Presidential Determination No. 2004–06, Oct. 21, 2003, 68 F.R. 63979.

Presidential Determination No. 03–02, Oct. 16, 2002, 67 F.R. 65469.

Presidential Determination No. 02–04, Nov. 21, 2001, 66 F.R. 63487.

Presidential Determination No. 2000–32, Sept. 29, 2000, 65 F.R. 59697.

Presidential Determination No. 99–45, Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 54505.

Presidential Determination No. 99–33, Aug. 12, 1999, 64 F.R. 47341.

Presidential Determination No. 98–39, Sept. 30, 1998, 63 F.R. 55001.

Presidential Determination No. 97–37, Sept. 30, 1997, 62 F.R. 53219.

Presidential Determination No. 96–59, Sept. 30, 1996, 61 F.R. 56869.

Presidential Determination No. 95–48, Sept. 29, 1995, 60 F.R. 53091.

Presidential Determination No. 95–1, Oct. 1, 1994, 59 F.R. 52393.

Presidential Determination No. 94–1, Oct. 1, 1993, 58 F.R. 52213.

Presidential Determination No. 93–1, Oct. 2, 1992, 57 F.R. 47253.

Presidential Determination No. 92–2, Oct. 9, 1991, 56 F.R. 51633.

Presidential Determination No. 91–3, Oct. 12, 1990, 55 F.R. 41979.

Presidential Determination No. 90–2, Oct. 6, 1989, 54 F.R. 43035.

Presidential Determination No. 89–15, June 19, 1989, 54 F.R. 31493.

Presidential Determination No. 89–2, Oct. 5, 1988, 53 F.R. 45249.

Presidential Determination No. 88–16, May 20, 1988, 53 F.R. 21405.

Presidential Determination No. 88–01, Oct. 5, 1987, 52 F.R. 42073.

Presidential Determination No. 87–1, Oct. 17, 1986, 51 F.R. 39637.

Presidential Determination No. 83–2, Oct. 11, 1982, 47 F.R. 46483.

Presidential Determination No. 82–1, Oct. 10, 1981, 46 F.R. 55233.

Presidential Determination No. 80–28, Sept. 30, 1980, 45 F.R. 68365.

Ex. Ord. No. 12208. Consultations on the Admission of Refugees

Ex. Ord. No. 12208, Apr. 15, 1980, 45 F.R. 25789, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §49, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10628, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Refugee Act of 1980 (P.L. 96–212; 8 U.S.C. 1101 note), the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.), and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–101. Exclusive of the functions otherwise delegated, or reserved to the President, by this Order, there are hereby delegated to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, or either of them, the functions of initiating and carrying out appropriate consultations with members of the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and of the House of Representatives for purposes of Sections 101(a)(42)(B) and 207(a), (b), (d), and (e) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(42)(B) and 1157(a), (b), (d), and (e)).

1–102. There are reserved to the President the following functions under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.].

(a) To specify special circumstances for purposes of qualifying persons as refugees under Section 101(a)(42)(B) [8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(42)(B)].

(b) To make determinations under Sections 207(a)(1), 207(a)(2), 207(a)(3) and 207(b) [8 U.S.C. 1157(a)(1) to (3) and (b)].

(c) To fix the number of refugees to be admitted under Section 207(b).

1–103. Except to the extent inconsistent with this Order, all actions previously taken pursuant to any function delegated or assigned by this Order shall be deemed to have been taken and authorized by this Order.

§1158. Asylum

(a) Authority to apply for asylum

(1) In general

Any alien who is physically present in the United States or who arrives in the United States (whether or not at a designated port of arrival and including an alien who is brought to the United States after having been interdicted in international or United States waters), irrespective of such alien's status, may apply for asylum in accordance with this section or, where applicable, section 1225(b) of this title.

(2) Exceptions

(A) Safe third country

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to an alien if the Attorney General determines that the alien may be removed, pursuant to a bilateral or multilateral agreement, to a country (other than the country of the alien's nationality or, in the case of an alien having no nationality, the country of the alien's last habitual residence) in which the alien's life or freedom would not be threatened on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, and where the alien would have access to a full and fair procedure for determining a claim to asylum or equivalent temporary protection, unless the Attorney General finds that it is in the public interest for the alien to receive asylum in the United States.

(B) Time limit

Subject to subparagraph (D), paragraph (1) shall not apply to an alien unless the alien demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that the application has been filed within 1 year after the date of the alien's arrival in the United States.

(C) Previous asylum applications

Subject to subparagraph (D), paragraph (1) shall not apply to an alien if the alien has previously applied for asylum and had such application denied.

(D) Changed circumstances

An application for asylum of an alien may be considered, notwithstanding subparagraphs (B) and (C), if the alien demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Attorney General either the existence of changed circumstances which materially affect the applicant's eligibility for asylum or extraordinary circumstances relating to the delay in filing an application within the period specified in subparagraph (B).

(E) Applicability

Subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not apply to an unaccompanied alien child (as defined in section 279(g) of title 6).

(3) Limitation on judicial review

No court shall have jurisdiction to review any determination of the Attorney General under paragraph (2).

(b) Conditions for granting asylum

(1) In general

(A) Eligibility

The Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General may grant asylum to an alien who has applied for asylum in accordance with the requirements and procedures established by the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General under this section if the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General determines that such alien is a refugee within the meaning of section 1101(a)(42)(A) of this title.

(B) Burden of proof

(i) In general

The burden of proof is on the applicant to establish that the applicant is a refugee, within the meaning of section 1101(a)(42)(A) of this title. To establish that the applicant is a refugee within the meaning of such section, the applicant must establish that race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion was or will be at least one central reason for persecuting the applicant.

(ii) Sustaining burden

The testimony of the applicant may be sufficient to sustain the applicant's burden without corroboration, but only if the applicant satisfies the trier of fact that the applicant's testimony is credible, is persuasive, and refers to specific facts sufficient to demonstrate that the applicant is a refugee. In determining whether the applicant has met the applicant's burden, the trier of fact may weigh the credible testimony along with other evidence of record. Where the trier of fact determines that the applicant should provide evidence that corroborates otherwise credible testimony, such evidence must be provided unless the applicant does not have the evidence and cannot reasonably obtain the evidence.

(iii) Credibility determination

Considering the totality of the circumstances, and all relevant factors, a trier of fact may base a credibility determination on the demeanor, candor, or responsiveness of the applicant or witness, the inherent plausibility of the applicant's or witness's account, the consistency between the applicant's or witness's written and oral statements (whenever made and whether or not under oath, and considering the circumstances under which the statements were made), the internal consistency of each such statement, the consistency of such statements with other evidence of record (including the reports of the Department of State on country conditions), and any inaccuracies or falsehoods in such statements, without regard to whether an inconsistency, inaccuracy, or falsehood goes to the heart of the applicant's claim, or any other relevant factor. There is no presumption of credibility, however, if no adverse credibility determination is explicitly made, the applicant or witness shall have a rebuttable presumption of credibility on appeal.

(2) Exceptions

(A) In general

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to an alien if the Attorney General determines that—

(i) the alien ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of any person on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion;

(ii) the alien, having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime, constitutes a danger to the community of the United States;

(iii) there are serious reasons for believing that the alien has committed a serious nonpolitical crime outside the United States prior to the arrival of the alien in the United States;

(iv) there are reasonable grounds for regarding the alien as a danger to the security of the United States;

(v) the alien is described in subclause (I), (II), (III), (IV), or (VI) of section 1182(a)(3)(B)(i) of this title or section 1227(a)(4)(B) of this title (relating to terrorist activity), unless, in the case only of an alien described in subclause (IV) of section 1182(a)(3)(B)(i) of this title, the Attorney General determines, in the Attorney General's discretion, that there are not reasonable grounds for regarding the alien as a danger to the security of the United States; or

(vi) the alien was firmly resettled in another country prior to arriving in the United States.

(B) Special rules

(i) Conviction of aggravated felony

For purposes of clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), an alien who has been convicted of an aggravated felony shall be considered to have been convicted of a particularly serious crime.

(ii) Offenses

The Attorney General may designate by regulation offenses that will be considered to be a crime described in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (A).

(C) Additional limitations

The Attorney General may by regulation establish additional limitations and conditions, consistent with this section, under which an alien shall be ineligible for asylum under paragraph (1).

(D) No judicial review

There shall be no judicial review of a determination of the Attorney General under subparagraph (A)(v).

(3) Treatment of spouse and children

(A) In general

A spouse or child (as defined in section 1101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of this title) of an alien who is granted asylum under this subsection may, if not otherwise eligible for asylum under this section, be granted the same status as the alien if accompanying, or following to join, such alien.

(B) Continued classification of certain aliens as children

An unmarried alien who seeks to accompany, or follow to join, a parent granted asylum under this subsection, and who was under 21 years of age on the date on which such parent applied for asylum under this section, shall continue to be classified as a child for purposes of this paragraph and section 1159(b)(3) of this title, if the alien attained 21 years of age after such application was filed but while it was pending.

(C) Initial jurisdiction

An asylum officer (as defined in section 1225(b)(1)(E) of this title) shall have initial jurisdiction over any asylum application filed by an unaccompanied alien child (as defined in section 279(g) of title 6), regardless of whether filed in accordance with this section or section 1225(b) of this title.

(c) Asylum status

(1) In general

In the case of an alien granted asylum under subsection (b), the Attorney General—

(A) shall not remove or return the alien to the alien's country of nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, the country of the alien's last habitual residence;

(B) shall authorize the alien to engage in employment in the United States and provide the alien with appropriate endorsement of that authorization; and

(C) may allow the alien to travel abroad with the prior consent of the Attorney General.

(2) Termination of asylum

Asylum granted under subsection (b) does not convey a right to remain permanently in the United States, and may be terminated if the Attorney General determines that—

(A) the alien no longer meets the conditions described in subsection (b)(1) owing to a fundamental change in circumstances;

(B) the alien meets a condition described in subsection (b)(2);

(C) the alien may be removed, pursuant to a bilateral or multilateral agreement, to a country (other than the country of the alien's nationality or, in the case of an alien having no nationality, the country of the alien's last habitual residence) in which the alien's life or freedom would not be threatened on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, and where the alien is eligible to receive asylum or equivalent temporary protection;

(D) the alien has voluntarily availed himself or herself of the protection of the alien's country of nationality or, in the case of an alien having no nationality, the alien's country of last habitual residence, by returning to such country with permanent resident status or the reasonable possibility of obtaining such status with the same rights and obligations pertaining to other permanent residents of that country; or

(E) the alien has acquired a new nationality and enjoys the protection of the country of his or her new nationality.

(3) Removal when asylum is terminated

An alien described in paragraph (2) is subject to any applicable grounds of inadmissibility or deportability under section 1 1182(a) and 1227(a) of this title, and the alien's removal or return shall be directed by the Attorney General in accordance with sections 1229a and 1231 of this title.

(d) Asylum procedure

(1) Applications

The Attorney General shall establish a procedure for the consideration of asylum applications filed under subsection (a). The Attorney General may require applicants to submit fingerprints and a photograph at such time and in such manner to be determined by regulation by the Attorney General.

(2) Employment

An applicant for asylum is not entitled to employment authorization, but such authorization may be provided under regulation by the Attorney General. An applicant who is not otherwise eligible for employment authorization shall not be granted such authorization prior to 180 days after the date of filing of the application for asylum.

(3) Fees

The Attorney General may impose fees for the consideration of an application for asylum, for employment authorization under this section, and for adjustment of status under section 1159(b) of this title. Such fees shall not exceed the Attorney General's costs in adjudicating the applications. The Attorney General may provide for the assessment and payment of such fees over a period of time or by installments. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require the Attorney General to charge fees for adjudication services provided to asylum applicants, or to limit the authority of the Attorney General to set adjudication and naturalization fees in accordance with section 1356(m) of this title.

(4) Notice of privilege of counsel and consequences of frivolous application

At the time of filing an application for asylum, the Attorney General shall—

(A) advise the alien of the privilege of being represented by counsel and of the consequences, under paragraph (6), of knowingly filing a frivolous application for asylum; and

(B) provide the alien a list of persons (updated not less often than quarterly) who have indicated their availability to represent aliens in asylum proceedings on a pro bono basis.

(5) Consideration of asylum applications

(A) Procedures

The procedure established under paragraph (1) shall provide that—

(i) asylum cannot be granted until the identity of the applicant has been checked against all appropriate records or databases maintained by the Attorney General and by the Secretary of State, including the Automated Visa Lookout System, to determine any grounds on which the alien may be inadmissible to or deportable from the United States, or ineligible to apply for or be granted asylum;

(ii) in the absence of exceptional circumstances, the initial interview or hearing on the asylum application shall commence not later than 45 days after the date an application is filed;

(iii) in the absence of exceptional circumstances, final administrative adjudication of the asylum application, not including administrative appeal, shall be completed within 180 days after the date an application is filed;

(iv) any administrative appeal shall be filed within 30 days of a decision granting or denying asylum, or within 30 days of the completion of removal proceedings before an immigration judge under section 1229a of this title, whichever is later; and

(v) in the case of an applicant for asylum who fails without prior authorization or in the absence of exceptional circumstances to appear for an interview or hearing, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title, the application may be dismissed or the applicant may be otherwise sanctioned for such failure.

(B) Additional regulatory conditions

The Attorney General may provide by regulation for any other conditions or limitations on the consideration of an application for asylum not inconsistent with this chapter.

(6) Frivolous applications

If the Attorney General determines that an alien has knowingly made a frivolous application for asylum and the alien has received the notice under paragraph (4)(A), the alien shall be permanently ineligible for any benefits under this chapter, effective as of the date of a final determination on such application.

(7) No private right of action

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to create any substantive or procedural right or benefit that is legally enforceable by any party against the United States or its agencies or officers or any other person.

(e) Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

The provisions of this section and section 1159(b) of this title shall apply to persons physically present in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands or arriving in the Commonwealth (whether or not at a designated port of arrival and including persons who are brought to the Commonwealth after having been interdicted in international or United States waters) only on or after January 1, 2014.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §208, as added Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §201(b), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 105; amended Pub. L. 101–649, title V, §515(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5053; Pub. L. 103–322, title XIII, §130005(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2028; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §421(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1270; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §604(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–690; Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, §411(b)(2), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 107–208, §4, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 928; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, §101(a), (b), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 302, 303; Pub. L. 110–229, title VII, §702(j)(4), May 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 866; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §235(d)(7), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5080.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(5)(B), (6), was in the original, "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 110–457, §235(d)(7)(A), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 110–457, §235(d)(7)(B), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–229 added subsec. (e).

2005—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–13, §101(a)(1), (2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted subpar. heading, and substituted "The Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General" for "The Attorney General" and "the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General" for "the Attorney General" in two places.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–13, §101(a)(3), added subpar. (B)

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(v). Pub. L. 109–13, §101(b), substituted "described in" for "inadmissible under" in two places and struck out "removable under" before "section 1227(a)(4)(B)".

2002—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–208 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "A spouse or child (as defined in section 1101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of this title) of an alien who is granted asylum under this subsection may, if not otherwise eligible for asylum under this section, be granted the same status as the alien if accompanying, or following to join, such alien."

2001—Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(v). Pub. L. 107–56 substituted "(III), (IV), or (VI)" for "(III), or (IV)".

1996Pub. L. 104–208 substituted "Asylum" for "Asylum procedure" as section catchline and amended text generally, substituting subsecs. (a) to (d) for former subsecs. (a) to (e).

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–132, §421(a), inserted at end "The Attorney General may not grant an alien asylum if the Attorney General determines that the alien is excludable under subclause (I), (II), or (III) of section 1182(a)(3)(B)(i) of this title or deportable under section 1251(a)(4)(B) of this title, unless the Attorney General determines, in the discretion of the Attorney General, that there are not reasonable grounds for regarding the alien as a danger to the security of the United States."

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–322 added subsec. (e).

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–649 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–229 effective on the transition program effective date described in section 1806 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, see section 705(b) of Pub. L. 110–229, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1806 of Title 48.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, §101(h)(1), (2), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 305, provided that:

"(1) The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on March 1, 2003.

"(2) The amendments made by subsections (a)(3), (b), (c), and (d) [amending this section and sections 1229a and 1231 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this division [May 11, 2005] and shall apply to applications for asylum, withholding, or other relief from removal made on or after such date."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–208 effective Aug. 6, 2002, and applicable to certain beneficiary aliens, see section 8 of Pub. L. 107–208, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–56 effective Oct. 26, 2001, and applicable to actions taken by an alien before, on, or after Oct. 26, 2001, and to all aliens, regardless of date of entry or attempted entry into the United States, in removal proceedings on or after such date (except for proceedings in which there has been a final administrative decision before such date) or seeking admission to the United States on or after such date, with special rules and exceptions, see section 411(c) of Pub. L. 107–56, set out as a note under section 1182 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §604(c), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–694, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to applications for asylum filed on or after the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].

Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §421(b), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1270, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 24, 1996] and apply to asylum determinations made on or after such date."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–649, title V, §515(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5053, as amended by Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §306(a)(13), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1752, provided that:

"(1) The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to convictions entered before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990] and to applications for asylum made on or after such date.

"(2) The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending section 1253 of this title] shall apply to convictions entered before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990] and to applications for withholding of deportation made on or after such date."

Effective Date

Section effective Mar. 17, 1980, and applicable to fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year beginning Oct. 1, 1979, see section 204 of Pub. L. 96–212, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 110–340, §2(d), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3736, provided that:

"(1) Issuance of regulations.—Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 3, 2008], the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall promulgate final regulations establishing that, for purposes of sections 241(b)(3)(B)(iii) and 208(b)(2)(A)(iii) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1231(b)(3)(B)(iii); 8 U.S.C. 1158(b)(2)(A)(iii)), an alien who is deportable under section 237(a)(4)(F) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1227(a)(4)(F)) or inadmissible under section 212(a)(3)(G) of such Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(G)) shall be considered an alien with respect to whom there are serious reasons to believe that the alien committed a serious nonpolitical crime.

"(2) Authority to waive certain regulatory requirements.—The requirements of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code (commonly referred to as the 'Administrative Procedure Act'), chapter 35 of title 44, United States Code (commonly referred to as the 'Paperwork Reduction Act'), or any other law relating to rulemaking, information collection, or publication in the Federal Register, shall not apply to any action to implement paragraph (1) to the extent the Attorney General or the Secretary Homeland of [sic] Security determines that compliance with any such requirement would impede the expeditious implementation of such paragraph."

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Expeditious Removal for Denied Asylum Applicants

Pub. L. 103–322, title XIII, §130005, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2028, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(e)(1)(P), (17), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–620, 3009-621, provided:

"(a) In General.—The Attorney General may provide for the expeditious adjudication of asylum claims and the expeditious removal of asylum applicants whose applications have been finally denied, unless the applicant remains in an otherwise valid nonimmigrant status.

"(b) Employment Authorization.—[Amended this section.]

"(c) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

"(1) $64,000,000 for fiscal year 1995;

"(2) $90,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(3) $93,000,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

"(4) $91,000,000 for fiscal year 1998."

Time for Establishment of Asylum Procedure by Attorney General

Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §204(d)(2), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 109, provided that: "The Attorney General shall establish the asylum procedure referred to in section 208(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (as added by section 201(b) of this title) [former subsec. (a) of this section] not later than June 1, 1980."

1 So in original. Probably should be "sections".

§1159. Adjustment of status of refugees

(a) Inspection and examination by Department of Homeland Security

(1) Any alien who has been admitted to the United States under section 1157 of this title

(A) whose admission has not been terminated by the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General pursuant to such regulations as the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General may prescribe,

(B) who has been physically present in the United States for at least one year, and

(C) who has not acquired permanent resident status,


shall, at the end of such year period, return or be returned to the custody of the Department of Homeland Security for inspection and examination for admission to the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the provisions of sections 1225, 1229a, and 1231 of this title.

(2) Any alien who is found upon inspection and examination by an immigration officer pursuant to paragraph (1) or after a hearing before an immigration judge to be admissible (except as otherwise provided under subsection (c)) as an immigrant under this chapter at the time of the alien's inspection and examination shall, notwithstanding any numerical limitation specified in this chapter, be regarded as lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence as of the date of such alien's arrival into the United States.

(b) Requirements for adjustment

The Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General, in the Secretary's or the Attorney General's discretion and under such regulations as the Secretary or the Attorney General may prescribe, may adjust to the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence the status of any alien granted asylum who—

(1) applies for such adjustment,

(2) has been physically present in the United States for at least one year after being granted asylum,

(3) continues to be a refugee within the meaning of section 1101(a)(42)(A) of this title or a spouse or child of such a refugee,

(4) is not firmly resettled in any foreign country, and

(5) is admissible (except as otherwise provided under subsection (c)) as an immigrant under this chapter at the time of examination for adjustment of such alien.


Upon approval of an application under this subsection, the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General shall establish a record of the alien's admission for lawful permanent residence as of the date one year before the date of the approval of the application.

(c) Coordination with section 1182

The provisions of paragraphs (4), (5), and (7)(A) of section 1182(a) of this title shall not be applicable to any alien seeking adjustment of status under this section, and the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General may waive any other provision of such section (other than paragraph (2)(C) or subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (E) of paragraph (3)) with respect to such an alien for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §209, as added Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §201(b), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 105; amended Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §104(a)(1), title VI, §603(a)(4), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4985, 5082; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §307(l)(1), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§308(g)(3)(A), (4)(A), 371(b)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622, 3009-645; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, §101(g)(1), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 305.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(5), was in the original, "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–13, §101(g)(1)(A)(i), substituted "Department of Homeland Security" for "Service" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–13, §101(g)(1)(A)(ii), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General" for "Attorney General" in two places.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–13, §101(g)(1)(B)(ii), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General" for "Attorney General" in concluding provisions.

Pub. L. 109–13, §101(g)(1)(B)(i), added introductory provisions and struck out former introductory provisions which read as follows: "Not more than 10,000 of the refugee admissions authorized under section 1157(a) of this title in any fiscal year may be made available by the Attorney General, in the Attorney General's discretion and under such regulations as the Attorney General may prescribe, to adjust to the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence the status of any alien granted asylum who—".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–13, §101(g)(1)(C), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General" for "Attorney General".

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(3)(A), (4)(A), substituted "1229a" for "1226" and "1231" for "1227" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–208, §371(b)(2), substituted "an immigration judge" for "a special inquiry officer".

1991—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–232 substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "subparagraphs (A)".

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–649, §104(a)(1), substituted "10,000" for "five thousand".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(4), substituted "(4), (5), and (7)(A)" for "(14), (15), (20), (21), (25), and (32)" and "(other than paragraph (2)(C) or subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), or (E) of paragraph (3))" for "(other than paragraph (27), (29), or (33) and other than so much of paragraph (23) as relates to trafficking in narcotics)".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 308(g)(3)(A), (4)(A) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by section 371(b)(2) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective Sept. 30, 1996, see section 371(d)(1) of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §307(l), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756, provided that the amendment made by section 307(l) is effective as if included in section 603(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §104(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4985, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 1991 and the President is authorized, without the need for appropriate consultation, to increase the refugee determination previously made under section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1157] for fiscal year 1991 in order to make such amendment effective for such fiscal year."

Amendment by section 603(a)(4) of Pub. L. 101–649 applicable to individuals entering United States on or after June 1, 1991, see section 601(e)(1) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective, except as otherwise provided, Mar. 17, 1980, and applicable to fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year beginning Oct. 1, 1979, see section 204 of Pub. L. 96–212, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Waiver of Numerical Limitation for Certain Current Asylees; Adjustment of Certain Former Asylees

Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §104(c), (d), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4985, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §604(b)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–694, provided that:

"(c) Waiver of Numerical Limitation for Certain Current Asylees.—The numerical limitation on the number of aliens whose status may be adjusted under section 209(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1159(b)] shall not apply to an alien described in subsection (d) or to an alien who has applied for adjustment of status under such section on or before June 1, 1990.

"(d) Adjustment of Certain Former Asylees.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2), the provisions of section 209(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1159(b)] shall also apply to an alien—

"(A) who was granted asylum before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990] (regardless of whether or not such asylum has been terminated under section 208 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1158]),

"(B) who is no longer a refugee because of a change in circumstances in a foreign state, and

"(C) who was (or would be) qualified for adjustment of status under section 209(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act as of the date of the enactment of this Act but for paragraphs (2) and (3) thereof and but for any numerical limitation under such section.

"(2) Application of per country limitations.—The number of aliens who are natives of any foreign state who may adjust status pursuant to paragraph (1) in any fiscal year shall not exceed the difference between the per country limitation established under section 202(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1152(a)] and the number of aliens who are chargeable to that foreign state in the fiscal year under section 202 of such Act."

[Section 104(c), (d) of Pub. L. 101–649 effective Nov. 29, 1990, and (unless otherwise provided) applicable to fiscal year 1991, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 1101 of this title.]

§1160. Special agricultural workers

(a) Lawful residence

(1) In general

The Attorney General shall adjust the status of an alien to that of an alien lawfully admitted for temporary residence if the Attorney General determines that the alien meets the following requirements:

(A) Application period

The alien must apply for such adjustment during the 18-month period beginning on the first day of the seventh month that begins after November 6, 1986.

(B) Performance of seasonal agricultural services and residence in the United States

The alien must establish that he has—

(i) resided in the United States, and

(ii) performed seasonal agricultural services in the United States for at least 90 man-days,


during the 12-month period ending on May 1, 1986. For purposes of the previous sentence, performance of seasonal agricultural services in the United States for more than one employer on any one day shall be counted as performance of services for only 1 man-day.

(C) Admissible as immigrant

The alien must establish that he is admissible to the United States as an immigrant, except as otherwise provided under subsection (c)(2).

(2) Adjustment to permanent residence

The Attorney General shall adjust the status of any alien provided lawful temporary resident status under paragraph (1) to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence on the following date:

(A) Group 1

Subject to the numerical limitation established under subparagraph (C), in the case of an alien who has established, at the time of application for temporary residence under paragraph (1), that the alien performed seasonal agricultural services in the United States for at least 90 man-days during each of the 12-month periods ending on May 1, 1984, 1985, and 1986, the adjustment shall occur on the first day after the end of the one-year period that begins on the later of (I) the date the alien was granted such temporary resident status, or (II) the day after the last day of the application period described in paragraph (1)(A).

(B) Group 2

In the case of aliens to which subparagraph (A) does not apply, the adjustment shall occur on the day after the last day of the two-year period that begins on the later of (I) the date the alien was granted such temporary resident status, or (II) the day after the last day of the application period described in paragraph (1)(A).

(C) Numerical limitation

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to more than 350,000 aliens. If more than 350,000 aliens meet the requirements of such subparagraph, such subparagraph shall apply to the 350,000 aliens whose applications for adjustment were first filed under paragraph (1) and subparagraph (B) shall apply to the remaining aliens.

(3) Termination of temporary residence

(A) During the period of temporary resident status granted an alien under paragraph (1), the Attorney General may terminate such status only upon a determination under this chapter that the alien is deportable.

(B) Before any alien becomes eligible for adjustment of status under paragraph (2), the Attorney General may deny adjustment to permanent status and provide for termination of the temporary resident status granted such alien under paragraph (1) if—

(i) the Attorney General finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the adjustment to temporary resident status was the result of fraud or willful misrepresentation as set out in section 1182(a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, or

(ii) the alien commits an act that (I) makes the alien inadmissible to the United States as an immigrant, except as provided under subsection (c)(2), or (II) is convicted of a felony or 3 or more misdemeanors committed in the United States.

(4) Authorized travel and employment during temporary residence

During the period an alien is in lawful temporary resident status granted under this subsection, the alien has the right to travel abroad (including commutation from a residence abroad) and shall be granted authorization to engage in employment in the United States and shall be provided an "employment authorized" endorsement or other appropriate work permit, in the same manner as for aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence.

(5) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, an alien who acquires the status of an alien lawfully admitted for temporary residence under paragraph (1), such status not having changed, is considered to be an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence (as described in section 1101(a)(20) of this title), other than under any provision of the immigration laws.

(b) Applications for adjustment of status

(1) To whom may be made

(A) Within the United States

The Attorney General shall provide that applications for adjustment of status under subsection (a) may be filed—

(i) with the Attorney General, or

(ii) with a designated entity (designated under paragraph (2)), but only if the applicant consents to the forwarding of the application to the Attorney General.

(B) Outside the United States

The Attorney General, in cooperation with the Secretary of State, shall provide a procedure whereby an alien may apply for adjustment of status under subsection (a)(1) at an appropriate consular office outside the United States. If the alien otherwise qualifies for such adjustment, the Attorney General shall provide such documentation of authorization to enter the United States and to have the alien's status adjusted upon entry as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(2) Designation of entities to receive applications

For purposes of receiving applications under this section, the Attorney General—

(A) shall designate qualified voluntary organizations and other qualified State, local, community, farm labor organizations, and associations of agricultural employers, and

(B) may designate such other persons as the Attorney General determines are qualified and have substantial experience, demonstrated competence, and traditional long-term involvement in the preparation and submittal of applications for adjustment of status under section 1159 or 1255 of this title, Public Law 89–732 [8 U.S.C. 1255 note], or Public Law 95–145 [8 U.S.C. 1255 note].

(3) Proof of eligibility

(A) In general

An alien may establish that he meets the requirement of subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) through government employment records, records supplied by employers or collective bargaining organizations, and such other reliable documentation as the alien may provide. The Attorney General shall establish special procedures to credit properly work in cases in which an alien was employed under an assumed name.

(B) Documentation of work history

(i) An alien applying for adjustment of status under subsection (a)(1) has the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that the alien has worked the requisite number of man-days (as required under subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii)).

(ii) If an employer or farm labor contractor employing such an alien has kept proper and adequate records respecting such employment, the alien's burden of proof under clause (i) may be met by securing timely production of those records under regulations to be promulgated by the Attorney General.

(iii) An alien can meet such burden of proof if the alien establishes that the alien has in fact performed the work described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) by producing sufficient evidence to show the extent of that employment as a matter of just and reasonable inference. In such a case, the burden then shifts to the Attorney General to disprove the alien's evidence with a showing which negates the reasonableness of the inference to be drawn from the evidence.

(4) Treatment of applications by designated entities

Each designated entity must agree to forward to the Attorney General applications filed with it in accordance with paragraph (1)(A)(ii) but not to forward to the Attorney General applications filed with it unless the applicant has consented to such forwarding. No such entity may make a determination required by this section to be made by the Attorney General.

(5) Limitation on access to information

Files and records prepared for purposes of this section by designated entities operating under this section are confidential and the Attorney General and the Service shall not have access to such files or records relating to an alien without the consent of the alien, except as allowed by a court order issued pursuant to paragraph (6) of this subsection.

(6) Confidentiality of information

(A) In general

Except as provided in this paragraph, neither the Attorney General, nor any other official or employee of the Department of Justice, or bureau or agency thereof, may—

(i) use the information furnished by the applicant pursuant to an application filed under this section for any purpose other than to make a determination on the application, including a determination under subsection (a)(3)(B), or for enforcement of paragraph (7);

(ii) make any publication whereby the information furnished by any particular individual can be identified; or

(iii) permit anyone other than the sworn officers and employees of the Department or bureau or agency or, with respect to applications filed with a designated entity, that designated entity, to examine individual applications.

(B) Required disclosures

The Attorney General shall provide information furnished under this section, and any other information derived from such furnished information, to a duly recognized law enforcement entity in connection with a criminal investigation or prosecution, when such information is requested in writing by such entity, or to an official coroner for purposes of affirmatively identifying a deceased individual (whether or not such individual is deceased as a result of a crime).

(C) Construction

(i) In general

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the use, or release, for immigration enforcement purposes or law enforcement purposes of information contained in files or records of the Service pertaining to an application filed under this section, other than information furnished by an applicant pursuant to the application, or any other information derived from the application, that is not available from any other source.

(ii) Criminal convictions

Information concerning whether the applicant has at any time been convicted of a crime may be used or released for immigration enforcement or law enforcement purposes.

(D) Crime

Whoever knowingly uses, publishes, or permits information to be examined in violation of this paragraph shall be fined not more than $10,000.

(7) Penalties for false statements in applications

(A) Criminal penalty

Whoever—

(i) files an application for adjustment of status under this section and knowingly and willfully falsifies, conceals, or covers up a material fact or makes any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements or representations, or makes or uses any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or entry, or

(ii) creates or supplies a false writing or document for use in making such an application,


shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(B) Exclusion

An alien who is convicted of a crime under subparagraph (A) shall be considered to be inadmissible to the United States on the ground described in section 1182(a)(6)(C)(i) of this title.

(c) Waiver of numerical limitations and certain grounds for exclusion

(1) Numerical limitations do not apply

The numerical limitations of sections 1151 and 1152 of this title shall not apply to the adjustment of aliens to lawful permanent resident status under this section.

(2) Waiver of grounds for exclusion

In the determination of an alien's admissibility under subsection (a)(1)(C)—

(A) Grounds of exclusion not applicable

The provisions of paragraphs (5) and (7)(A) of section 1182(a) of this title shall not apply.

(B) Waiver of other grounds

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), the Attorney General may waive any other provision of section 1182(a) of this title in the case of individual aliens for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest.

(ii) Grounds that may not be waived

The following provisions of section 1182(a) of this title may not be waived by the Attorney General under clause (i):

(I) Paragraphs (2)(A) and (2)(B) (relating to criminals).

(II) Paragraph (4) (relating to aliens likely to become public charges).

(III) Paragraph (2)(C) (relating to drug offenses), except for so much of such paragraph as relates to a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marihuana.

(IV) Paragraph (3) (relating to security and related grounds), other than subparagraph (E) thereof.

(C) Special rule for determination of public charge

An alien is not ineligible for adjustment of status under this section due to being inadmissible under section 1182(a)(4) of this title if the alien demonstrates a history of employment in the United States evidencing self-support without reliance on public cash assistance.

(d) Temporary stay of exclusion or deportation and work authorization for certain applicants

(1) Before application period

The Attorney General shall provide that in the case of an alien who is apprehended before the beginning of the application period described in subsection (a)(1) and who can establish a nonfrivolous case of eligibility to have his status adjusted under subsection (a) (but for the fact that he may not apply for such adjustment until the beginning of such period), until the alien has had the opportunity during the first 30 days of the application period to complete the filing of an application for adjustment, the alien—

(A) may not be excluded or deported, and

(B) shall be granted authorization to engage in employment in the United States and be provided an "employment authorized" endorsement or other appropriate work permit.

(2) During application period

The Attorney General shall provide that in the case of an alien who presents a nonfrivolous application for adjustment of status under subsection (a) during the application period, and until a final determination on the application has been made in accordance with this section, the alien—

(A) may not be excluded or deported, and

(B) shall be granted authorization to engage in employment in the United States and be provided an "employment authorized" endorsement or other appropriate work permit.

(3) Use of application fees to offset program costs

No application fees collected by the Service pursuant to this subsection may be used by the Service to offset the costs of the special agricultural worker legalization program until the Service implements the program consistent with the statutory mandate as follows:

(A) During the application period described in subsection (a)(1)(A) the Service may grant temporary admission to the United States, work authorization, and provide an "employment authorized" endorsement or other appropriate work permit to any alien who presents a preliminary application for adjustment of status under subsection (a) at a designated port of entry on the southern land border. An alien who does not enter through a port of entry is subject to deportation and removal as otherwise provided in this chapter.

(B) During the application period described in subsection (a)(1)(A) any alien who has filed an application for adjustment of status within the United States as provided in subsection (b)(1)(A) pursuant to the provision of 8 CFR section 210.1(j) is subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(C) A preliminary application is defined as a fully completed and signed application with fee and photographs which contains specific information concerning the performance of qualifying employment in the United States and the documentary evidence which the applicant intends to submit as proof of such employment. The applicant must be otherwise admissible to the United States and must establish to the satisfaction of the examining officer during an interview that his or her claim to eligibility for special agriculture worker status is credible.

(e) Administrative and judicial review

(1) Administrative and judicial review

There shall be no administrative or judicial review of a determination respecting an application for adjustment of status under this section except in accordance with this subsection.

(2) Administrative review

(A) Single level of administrative appellate review

The Attorney General shall establish an appellate authority to provide for a single level of administrative appellate review of such a determination.

(B) Standard for review

Such administrative appellate review shall be based solely upon the administrative record established at the time of the determination on the application and upon such additional or newly discovered evidence as may not have been available at the time of the determination.

(3) Judicial review

(A) Limitation to review of exclusion or deportation

There shall be judicial review of such a denial only in the judicial review of an order of exclusion or deportation under section 1105a of this title (as in effect before October 1, 1996).

(B) Standard for judicial review

Such judicial review shall be based solely upon the administrative record established at the time of the review by the appellate authority and the findings of fact and determinations contained in such record shall be conclusive unless the applicant can establish abuse of discretion or that the findings are directly contrary to clear and convincing facts contained in the record considered as a whole.

(f) Temporary disqualification of newly legalized aliens from receiving aid to families with dependent children

During the five-year period beginning on the date an alien was granted lawful temporary resident status under subsection (a), and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the alien is not eligible for assistance under a State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.]. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, in the case of an alien who would be eligible for assistance under a State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act but for the previous sentence, the provisions of paragraph (3) of section 1255a(h) of this title shall apply in the same manner as they apply with respect to paragraph (1) of such section and, for this purpose, any reference in section 1255a(h)(3) of this title to paragraph (1) is deemed a reference to the previous sentence.

(g) Treatment of special agricultural workers

For all purposes (subject to subsections (a)(5) and (f)) an alien whose status is adjusted under this section to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, such status not having changed, shall be considered to be an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence (within the meaning of section 1101(a)(20) of this title).

(h) "Seasonal agricultural services" defined

In this section, the term "seasonal agricultural services" means the performance of field work related to planting, cultural practices, cultivating, growing and harvesting of fruits and vegetables of every kind and other perishable commodities, as defined in regulations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §210, as added Pub. L. 99–603, title III, §302(a)(1), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3417; amended Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title II, §211], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329, 1329-18; Pub. L. 100–525, §2(m), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 101–238, §4, Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2103; Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, §603(a)(5), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5082; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §§307(j), 309(b)(6), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756, 1758; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §219(d), (z)(7), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4316, 4318; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §431(b), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1273; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §110(s)(1), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2175; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§308(g)(2)(B), 384(d)(1), title VI, §623(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622, 3009-653, 3009-697.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(A) and (d)(3)(A), was in the original, "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Public Law 89–732, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 89–732, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1161, as amended, which is set out as a note under section 1255 of this title.

Public Law 95–145, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 95–145, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1223, as amended. Title I of Pub. L. 95–145 is set out as a note under section 1255 of this title. Title II of Pub. L. 95–145 amended Pub. L. 94–23, which was set out as a note under section 2601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and was repealed by Pub. L. 96–212, title III, §312(c), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 117.

Section 1105a of this title, referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(A), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §306(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–612.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Part A of title IV of the Social Security Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 104–132, §431(b)(1), inserted before period at end ", except as allowed by a court order issued pursuant to paragraph (6) of this subsection".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 104–208, §623(b), amended par. (6) generally, substituting subpars. (A) to (D) for former subpars. (A) to (C) and introductory and concluding provisions, relating to confidentiality of information.

Pub. L. 104–208, §384(d)(1), substituted "Anyone who uses, publishes, or permits information to be examined in violation of this paragraph shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary action and subject to a civil money penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation." for "Anyone who uses, publishes, or permits information to be examined in violation of this paragraph shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both." in concluding provisions.

Pub. L. 104–132, §431(b)(2), inserted before "Anyone who uses" in concluding provisions "Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Attorney General may authorize an application to a Federal court of competent jurisdiction for, and a judge of such court may grant an order authorizing, disclosure of information contained in the application of the alien to be used for identification of the alien when there is reason to believe that the alien has been killed or severely incapacitated, or for criminal law enforcement purposes against the alien whose application is to be disclosed or to discover information leading to the location or identity of the alien."

Subsec. (e)(3)(A). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(2)(B), inserted "(as in effect before October 1, 1996)" after "section 1105a of this title".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–193 substituted "assistance under a State program funded under" for "aid under a State plan approved under" in two places.

1994—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–416, §219(d), inserted "the" before first reference to "Service" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–416, §219(z)(7), made technical correction to Pub. L. 102–232, §309(b)(6)(F). See 1991 Amendment note below.

1991—Subsec. (b)(7)(B). Pub. L. 102–232, §307(j), substituted "section 1182(a)(6)(C)(i)" for "section 1182(a)(19)".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 102–232, §309(b)(6)(A)–(C), realigned margins of par. (3) and its subparagraphs, and in introductory provisions substituted "Service" for "the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)" and "Service" for "INS" in two places.

Subsec. (d)(3)(A). Pub. L. 102–232, §309(b)(6)(D), (E), substituted "period described in" for "period as defined in" and "Service" for "INS", and made technical amendment to reference to this chapter involving corresponding provision of original act.

Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 102–232, §309(b)(6)(F), as amended by Pub. L. 103–416, §219(z)(7), substituted "described in subsection (a)(1)(A)" for "as defined in subsection (a)(B)(1)(B)".

Pub. L. 102–232, §309(b)(6)(G), made technical amendment to reference to subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section involving corresponding provision of original act.

1990—Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(5)(A), substituted "1182(a)(6)(C)(i)" for "1182(a)(19)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(5)(B), substituted "(5) and (7)(A)" for "(14), (20), (21), (25), and (32)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(5)(C), substituted "Paragraphs (2)(A) and (2)(B)" for "Paragraph (9) and (10)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(5)(D), substituted "(4)" for "(15)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii)(III). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(5)(E), substituted "(2)(C)" for "(23)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii)(IV). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(5)(F), substituted "Paragraph (3) (relating to security and related grounds), other than subparagraph (E) thereof" for "Paragraphs (27), (28), and (29) (relating to national security and members of certain organizations)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii)(V). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(5)(G), struck out subcl. (V) which referred to par. (33).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(a)(5)(H), substituted "1182(a)(4)" for "1182(a)(15)".

1989—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–238, §4(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(6)(A). Pub. L. 101–238, §4(b), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "use the information furnished pursuant to an application filed under this section for any purpose other than to make a determination on the application or for enforcement of paragraph (7),".

1988—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–525 substituted "subsections (a)(5) and (f)" for "subsections (b)(3) and (f)".

1987—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–202 added par. (3).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by section 308(g)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §384(d)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–653, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 1255a of this title] shall apply to offenses occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–193 effective July 1, 1997, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §219(z), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4318, provided that the amendment made by subsec. (z)(7) of that section is effective as if included in the Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments of 1991, Pub. L. 102–232.

Amendment by section 219(d) of Pub. L. 103–416 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 219(dd) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §307(j), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756, provided that the amendment made by section 307(j) is effective as if included in section 603(a)(5) of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–649 applicable to applications for adjustment of status made on or after June 1, 1991, see section 601(e)(2) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–525 effective as if included in enactment of Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–603, see section 2(s) of Pub. L. 100–525, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Commission on Agricultural Workers

Pub. L. 99–603, title III, §304, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3431, as amended by Pub. L. 101–649, title VII, §704, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5086; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §308(c), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1757, established Commission on Agricultural Workers to evaluate special agricultural worker provisions and labor markets in agricultural industry, required Commission to report to Congress not later than six years after Nov. 6, 1986, on its reviews, and provided that Commission terminate at the end of the 75-month period beginning with the month after November 1986.

§1161. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §219(ee)(1), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4319

Section, act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, §210A, as added Nov. 6, 1986, Pub. L. 99–603, title III, §303(a), 100 Stat. 3422; amended Oct. 24, 1988, Pub. L. 100–525, §2(n)(1), 102 Stat. 2613; Nov. 29, 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, §603(a)(6), (b)(1), 104 Stat. 5083, 5085; Dec. 12, 1991, Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §307(l)(2), 105 Stat. 1756, related to determination of agricultural labor shortages and admission of additional special agricultural workers.

Effective Date of Repeal

Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §219(ee)(3), as added by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §671(b)(10), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–722, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [repealing this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994]."

Part II—Admission Qualifications for Aliens; Travel Control of Citizens and Aliens

§1181. Admission of immigrants into the United States

(a) Documents required; admission under quotas before June 30, 1968

Except as provided in subsection (b) and subsection (c) no immigrant shall be admitted into the United States unless at the time of application for admission he (1) has a valid unexpired immigrant visa or was born subsequent to the issuance of such visa of the accompanying parent, and (2) presents a valid unexpired passport or other suitable travel document, or document of identity and nationality, if such document is required under the regulations issued by the Attorney General. With respect to immigrants to be admitted under quotas of quota areas prior to June 30, 1968, no immigrant visa shall be deemed valid unless the immigrant is properly chargeable to the quota area under the quota of which the visa is issued.

(b) Readmission without required documents; Attorney General's discretion

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1182(a)(7)(A) of this title in such cases or in such classes of cases and under such conditions as may be by regulations prescribed, returning resident immigrants, defined in section 1101(a)(27)(A) of this title, who are otherwise admissible may be readmitted to the United States by the Attorney General in his discretion without being required to obtain a passport, immigrant visa, reentry permit or other documentation.

(c) Nonapplicability to aliens admitted as refugees

The provisions of subsection (a) shall not apply to an alien whom the Attorney General admits to the United States under section 1157 of this title.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 2, §211, 66 Stat. 181; Pub. L. 89–236, §9, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 917; Pub. L. 94–571, §7(c), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2706; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §202, Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 106; Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, §603(a)(7), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5083.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–649 substituted "1182(a)(7)(A)" for "1182(a)(20)".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–212, §202(1), inserted reference to subsection (c) of this section.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–212, §202(2), added subsec. (c).

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–571 substituted reference to section 1101 "(a)(27)(A)" of this title for "(a)(27)(B)".

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–236 restated requirement of an unexpired visa and passport for every immigrant arriving in United States to conform to the changes with respect to the classification of immigrant visas.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–236 substituted "returning resident immigrants, defined in section 1101(a)(27)(B) of this title, who are otherwise admissible", for "otherwise admissible aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence who depart from the United States temporarily".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–236 repealed subsec. (c) which gave Attorney General discretionary authority to admit aliens who arrive in United States with defective visas under specified conditions.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–236 repealed subsec. (d) which imposed restrictions on exercise of Attorney General's discretion to admit aliens arriving with defective visas.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–236 repealed subsec. (e) which required every alien making application for admission as an immigrant to present the documents required under regulations issued by Attorney General.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–649 applicable to individuals entering United States on or after June 1, 1991, see section 601(e)(1) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–212 effective Mar. 17, 1980, and applicable to fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year beginning Oct. 1, 1979, see section 204 of Pub. L. 96–212, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–571 effective on first day of first month which begins more than sixty days after Oct. 20, 1976, see section 10 of Pub. L. 94–571, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 89–236, see section 20 of Pub. L. 89–236, set out as a note under section 1151 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

§1182. Inadmissible aliens

(a) Classes of aliens ineligible for visas or admission

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, aliens who are inadmissible under the following paragraphs are ineligible to receive visas and ineligible to be admitted to the United States:

(1) Health-related grounds

(A) In general

Any alien—

(i) who is determined (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services) to have a communicable disease of public health significance; 1

(ii) except as provided in subparagraph (C), who seeks admission as an immigrant, or who seeks adjustment of status to the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, and who has failed to present documentation of having received vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases, which shall include at least the following diseases: mumps, measles, rubella, polio, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, pertussis, influenza type B and hepatitis B, and any other vaccinations against vaccine-preventable diseases recommended by the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices,

(iii) who is determined (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in consultation with the Attorney General)—

(I) to have a physical or mental disorder and behavior associated with the disorder that may pose, or has posed, a threat to the property, safety, or welfare of the alien or others, or

(II) to have had a physical or mental disorder and a history of behavior associated with the disorder, which behavior has posed a threat to the property, safety, or welfare of the alien or others and which behavior is likely to recur or to lead to other harmful behavior, or


(iv) who is determined (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services) to be a drug abuser or addict,


is inadmissible.

(B) Waiver authorized

For provision authorizing waiver of certain clauses of subparagraph (A), see subsection (g).

(C) Exception from immunization requirement for adopted children 10 years of age or younger

Clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a child who—

(i) is 10 years of age or younger,

(ii) is described in subparagraph (F) or (G) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title1 and

(iii) is seeking an immigrant visa as an immediate relative under section 1151(b) of this title,


if, prior to the admission of the child, an adoptive parent or prospective adoptive parent of the child, who has sponsored the child for admission as an immediate relative, has executed an affidavit stating that the parent is aware of the provisions of subparagraph (A)(ii) and will ensure that, within 30 days of the child's admission, or at the earliest time that is medically appropriate, the child will receive the vaccinations identified in such subparagraph.

(2) Criminal and related grounds

(A) Conviction of certain crimes

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), any alien convicted of, or who admits having committed, or who admits committing acts which constitute the essential elements of—

(I) a crime involving moral turpitude (other than a purely political offense) or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such a crime, or

(II) a violation of (or a conspiracy or attempt to violate) any law or regulation of a State, the United States, or a foreign country relating to a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21),


 is inadmissible.

(ii) Exception

Clause (i)(I) shall not apply to an alien who committed only one crime if—

(I) the crime was committed when the alien was under 18 years of age, and the crime was committed (and the alien released from any confinement to a prison or correctional institution imposed for the crime) more than 5 years before the date of application for a visa or other documentation and the date of application for admission to the United States, or

(II) the maximum penalty possible for the crime of which the alien was convicted (or which the alien admits having committed or of which the acts that the alien admits having committed constituted the essential elements) did not exceed imprisonment for one year and, if the alien was convicted of such crime, the alien was not sentenced to a term of imprisonment in excess of 6 months (regardless of the extent to which the sentence was ultimately executed).

(B) Multiple criminal convictions

Any alien convicted of 2 or more offenses (other than purely political offenses), regardless of whether the conviction was in a single trial or whether the offenses arose from a single scheme of misconduct and regardless of whether the offenses involved moral turpitude, for which the aggregate sentences to confinement were 5 years or more is inadmissible.

(C) Controlled substance traffickers

Any alien who the consular officer or the Attorney General knows or has reason to believe—

(i) is or has been an illicit trafficker in any controlled substance or in any listed chemical (as defined in section 802 of title 21), or is or has been a knowing aider, abettor, assister, conspirator, or colluder with others in the illicit trafficking in any such controlled or listed substance or chemical, or endeavored to do so; or

(ii) is the spouse, son, or daughter of an alien inadmissible under clause (i), has, within the previous 5 years, obtained any financial or other benefit from the illicit activity of that alien, and knew or reasonably should have known that the financial or other benefit was the product of such illicit activity,


is inadmissible.

(D) Prostitution and commercialized vice

Any alien who—

(i) is coming to the United States solely, principally, or incidentally to engage in prostitution, or has engaged in prostitution within 10 years of the date of application for a visa, admission, or adjustment of status,

(ii) directly or indirectly procures or attempts to procure, or (within 10 years of the date of application for a visa, admission, or adjustment of status) procured or attempted to procure or to import, prostitutes or persons for the purpose of prostitution, or receives or (within such 10-year period) received, in whole or in part, the proceeds of prostitution, or

(iii) is coming to the United States to engage in any other unlawful commercialized vice, whether or not related to prostitution,


is inadmissible.

(E) Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution

Any alien—

(i) who has committed in the United States at any time a serious criminal offense (as defined in section 1101(h) of this title),

(ii) for whom immunity from criminal jurisdiction was exercised with respect to that offense,

(iii) who as a consequence of the offense and exercise of immunity has departed from the United States, and

(iv) who has not subsequently submitted fully to the jurisdiction of the court in the United States having jurisdiction with respect to that offense,


is inadmissible.

(F) Waiver authorized

For provision authorizing waiver of certain subparagraphs of this paragraph, see subsection (h).

(G) Foreign government officials who have committed particularly severe violations of religious freedom

Any alien who, while serving as a foreign government official, was responsible for or directly carried out, at any time, particularly severe violations of religious freedom, as defined in section 6402 of title 22, is inadmissible.

(H) Significant traffickers in persons

(i) In general

Any alien who commits or conspires to commit human trafficking offenses in the United States or outside the United States, or who the consular officer, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of State, or the Attorney General knows or has reason to believe is or has been a knowing aider, abettor, assister, conspirator, or colluder with such a trafficker in severe forms of trafficking in persons, as defined in the section 7102 of title 22, is inadmissible.

(ii) Beneficiaries of trafficking

Except as provided in clause (iii), any alien who the consular officer or the Attorney General knows or has reason to believe is the spouse, son, or daughter of an alien inadmissible under clause (i), has, within the previous 5 years, obtained any financial or other benefit from the illicit activity of that alien, and knew or reasonably should have known that the financial or other benefit was the product of such illicit activity, is inadmissible.

(iii) Exception for certain sons and daughters

Clause (ii) shall not apply to a son or daughter who was a child at the time he or she received the benefit described in such clause.

(I) Money laundering

Any alien—

(i) who a consular officer or the Attorney General knows, or has reason to believe, has engaged, is engaging, or seeks to enter the United States to engage, in an offense which is described in section 1956 or 1957 of title 18 (relating to laundering of monetary instruments); or

(ii) who a consular officer or the Attorney General knows is, or has been, a knowing aider, abettor, assister, conspirator, or colluder with others in an offense which is described in such section;


is inadmissible.

(3) Security and related grounds

(A) In general

Any alien who a consular officer or the Attorney General knows, or has reasonable ground to believe, seeks to enter the United States to engage solely, principally, or incidentally in—

(i) any activity (I) to violate any law of the United States relating to espionage or sabotage or (II) to violate or evade any law prohibiting the export from the United States of goods, technology, or sensitive information,

(ii) any other unlawful activity, or

(iii) any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unlawful means,


is inadmissible.

(B) Terrorist activities

(i) In general

Any alien who—

(I) has engaged in a terrorist activity;

(II) a consular officer, the Attorney General, or the Secretary of Homeland Security knows, or has reasonable ground to believe, is engaged in or is likely to engage after entry in any terrorist activity (as defined in clause (iv));

(III) has, under circumstances indicating an intention to cause death or serious bodily harm, incited terrorist activity;

(IV) is a representative (as defined in clause (v)) of—

(aa) a terrorist organization (as defined in clause (vi)); or

(bb) a political, social, or other group that endorses or espouses terrorist activity;


(V) is a member of a terrorist organization described in subclause (I) or (II) of clause (vi);

(VI) is a member of a terrorist organization described in clause (vi)(III), unless the alien can demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that the alien did not know, and should not reasonably have known, that the organization was a terrorist organization;

(VII) endorses or espouses terrorist activity or persuades others to endorse or espouse terrorist activity or support a terrorist organization;

(VIII) has received military-type training (as defined in section 2339D(c)(1) of title 18) from or on behalf of any organization that, at the time the training was received, was a terrorist organization (as defined in clause (vi)); or

(IX) is the spouse or child of an alien who is inadmissible under this subparagraph, if the activity causing the alien to be found inadmissible occurred within the last 5 years,


 is inadmissible. An alien who is an officer, official, representative, or spokesman of the Palestine Liberation Organization is considered, for purposes of this chapter, to be engaged in a terrorist activity.

(ii) Exception

Subclause (IX) of clause (i) does not apply to a spouse or child—

(I) who did not know or should not reasonably have known of the activity causing the alien to be found inadmissible under this section; or

(II) whom the consular officer or Attorney General has reasonable grounds to believe has renounced the activity causing the alien to be found inadmissible under this section.

(iii) "Terrorist activity" defined

As used in this chapter, the term "terrorist activity" means any activity which is unlawful under the laws of the place where it is committed (or which, if it had been committed in the United States, would be unlawful under the laws of the United States or any State) and which involves any of the following:

(I) The highjacking or sabotage of any conveyance (including an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle).

(II) The seizing or detaining, and threatening to kill, injure, or continue to detain, another individual in order to compel a third person (including a governmental organization) to do or abstain from doing any act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the individual seized or detained.

(III) A violent attack upon an internationally protected person (as defined in section 1116(b)(4) of title 18) or upon the liberty of such a person.

(IV) An assassination.

(V) The use of any—

(a) biological agent, chemical agent, or nuclear weapon or device, or

(b) explosive, firearm, or other weapon or dangerous device (other than for mere personal monetary gain),


with intent to endanger, directly or indirectly, the safety of one or more individuals or to cause substantial damage to property.

(VI) A threat, attempt, or conspiracy to do any of the foregoing.

(iv) "Engage in terrorist activity" defined

As used in this chapter, the term "engage in terrorist activity" means, in an individual capacity or as a member of an organization—

(I) to commit or to incite to commit, under circumstances indicating an intention to cause death or serious bodily injury, a terrorist activity;

(II) to prepare or plan a terrorist activity;

(III) to gather information on potential targets for terrorist activity;

(IV) to solicit funds or other things of value for—

(aa) a terrorist activity;

(bb) a terrorist organization described in clause (vi)(I) or (vi)(II); or

(cc) a terrorist organization described in clause (vi)(III), unless the solicitor can demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that he did not know, and should not reasonably have known, that the organization was a terrorist organization;


(V) to solicit any individual—

(aa) to engage in conduct otherwise described in this subsection;

(bb) for membership in a terrorist organization described in clause (vi)(I) or (vi)(II); or

(cc) for membership in a terrorist organization described in clause (vi)(III) unless the solicitor can demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that he did not know, and should not reasonably have known, that the organization was a terrorist organization; or


(VI) to commit an act that the actor knows, or reasonably should know, affords material support, including a safe house, transportation, communications, funds, transfer of funds or other material financial benefit, false documentation or identification, weapons (including chemical, biological, or radiological weapons), explosives, or training—

(aa) for the commission of a terrorist activity;

(bb) to any individual who the actor knows, or reasonably should know, has committed or plans to commit a terrorist activity;

(cc) to a terrorist organization described in subclause (I) or (II) of clause (vi) or to any member of such an organization; or

(dd) to a terrorist organization described in clause (vi)(III), or to any member of such an organization, unless the actor can demonstrate by clear and convincing evidence that the actor did not know, and should not reasonably have known, that the organization was a terrorist organization.

(v) "Representative" defined

As used in this paragraph, the term "representative" includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity.

(vi) "Terrorist organization" defined

As used in this section, the term "terrorist organization" means an organization—

(I) designated under section 1189 of this title;

(II) otherwise designated, upon publication in the Federal Register, by the Secretary of State in consultation with or upon the request of the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security, as a terrorist organization, after finding that the organization engages in the activities described in subclauses (I) through (VI) of clause (iv); or

(III) that is a group of two or more individuals, whether organized or not, which engages in, or has a subgroup which engages in, the activities described in subclauses (I) through (VI) of clause (iv).

(C) Foreign policy

(i) In general

An alien whose entry or proposed activities in the United States the Secretary of State has reasonable ground to believe would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences for the United States is inadmissible.

(ii) Exception for officials

An alien who is an official of a foreign government or a purported government, or who is a candidate for election to a foreign government office during the period immediately preceding the election for that office, shall not be excludable or subject to restrictions or conditions on entry into the United States under clause (i) solely because of the alien's past, current, or expected beliefs, statements, or associations, if such beliefs, statements, or associations would be lawful within the United States.

(iii) Exception for other aliens

An alien, not described in clause (ii), shall not be excludable or subject to restrictions or conditions on entry into the United States under clause (i) because of the alien's past, current, or expected beliefs, statements, or associations, if such beliefs, statements, or associations would be lawful within the United States, unless the Secretary of State personally determines that the alien's admission would compromise a compelling United States foreign policy interest.

(iv) Notification of determinations

If a determination is made under clause (iii) with respect to an alien, the Secretary of State must notify on a timely basis the chairmen of the Committees on the Judiciary and Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and of the Committees on the Judiciary and Foreign Relations of the Senate of the identity of the alien and the reasons for the determination.

(D) Immigrant membership in totalitarian party

(i) In general

Any immigrant who is or has been a member of or affiliated with the Communist or any other totalitarian party (or subdivision or affiliate thereof), domestic or foreign, is inadmissible.

(ii) Exception for involuntary membership

Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien because of membership or affiliation if the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the consular officer when applying for a visa (or to the satisfaction of the Attorney General when applying for admission) that the membership or affiliation is or was involuntary, or is or was solely when under 16 years of age, by operation of law, or for purposes of obtaining employment, food rations, or other essentials of living and whether necessary for such purposes.

(iii) Exception for past membership

Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien because of membership or affiliation if the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the consular officer when applying for a visa (or to the satisfaction of the Attorney General when applying for admission) that—

(I) the membership or affiliation terminated at least—

(a) 2 years before the date of such application, or

(b) 5 years before the date of such application, in the case of an alien whose membership or affiliation was with the party controlling the government of a foreign state that is a totalitarian dictatorship as of such date, and


(II) the alien is not a threat to the security of the United States.

(iv) Exception for close family members

The Attorney General may, in the Attorney General's discretion, waive the application of clause (i) in the case of an immigrant who is the parent, spouse, son, daughter, brother, or sister of a citizen of the United States or a spouse, son, or daughter of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest if the immigrant is not a threat to the security of the United States.

(E) Participants in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing

(i) Participation in Nazi persecutions

Any alien who, during the period beginning on March 23, 1933, and ending on May 8, 1945, under the direction of, or in association with—

(I) the Nazi government of Germany,

(II) any government in any area occupied by the military forces of the Nazi government of Germany,

(III) any government established with the assistance or cooperation of the Nazi government of Germany, or

(IV) any government which was an ally of the Nazi government of Germany,


 ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of any person because of race, religion, national origin, or political opinion is inadmissible.

(ii) Participation in genocide

Any alien who ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in genocide, as defined in section 1091(a) of title 18, is inadmissible.

(iii) Commission of acts of torture or extrajudicial killings

Any alien who, outside the United States, has committed, ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the commission of—

(I) any act of torture, as defined in section 2340 of title 18; or

(II) under color of law of any foreign nation, any extrajudicial killing, as defined in section 3(a) of the Torture Victim Protection Act of 1991 (28 U.S.C. 1350 note),


 is inadmissible.

(F) Association with terrorist organizations

Any alien who the Secretary of State, after consultation with the Attorney General, or the Attorney General, after consultation with the Secretary of State, determines has been associated with a terrorist organization and intends while in the United States to engage solely, principally, or incidentally in activities that could endanger the welfare, safety, or security of the United States is inadmissible.

(G) Recruitment or use of child soldiers

Any alien who has engaged in the recruitment or use of child soldiers in violation of section 2442 of title 18 is inadmissible.

(4) Public charge

(A) In general

Any alien who, in the opinion of the consular officer at the time of application for a visa, or in the opinion of the Attorney General at the time of application for admission or adjustment of status, is likely at any time to become a public charge is inadmissible.

(B) Factors to be taken into account

(i) In determining whether an alien is inadmissible under this paragraph, the consular officer or the Attorney General shall at a minimum consider the alien's—

(I) age;

(II) health;

(III) family status;

(IV) assets, resources, and financial status; and

(V) education and skills.


(ii) In addition to the factors under clause (i), the consular officer or the Attorney General may also consider any affidavit of support under section 1183a of this title for purposes of exclusion under this paragraph.

(C) Family-sponsored immigrants

Any alien who seeks admission or adjustment of status under a visa number issued under section 1151(b)(2) or 1153(a) of this title is inadmissible under this paragraph unless—

(i) the alien has obtained—

(I) status as a spouse or a child of a United States citizen pursuant to clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title;

(II) classification pursuant to clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title; or

(III) classification or status as a VAWA self-petitioner; or


(ii) the person petitioning for the alien's admission (and any additional sponsor required under section 1183a(f) of this title or any alternative sponsor permitted under paragraph (5)(B) of such section) has executed an affidavit of support described in section 1183a of this title with respect to such alien.

(D) Certain employment-based immigrants

Any alien who seeks admission or adjustment of status under a visa number issued under section 1153(b) of this title by virtue of a classification petition filed by a relative of the alien (or by an entity in which such relative has a significant ownership interest) is inadmissible under this paragraph unless such relative has executed an affidavit of support described in section 1183a of this title with respect to such alien.

(E) Special rule for qualified alien victims

Subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) shall not apply to an alien who—

(i) is a VAWA self-petitioner;

(ii) is an applicant for, or is granted, nonimmigrant status under section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title; or

(iii) is a qualified alien described in section 1641(c) of this title.

(5) Labor certification and qualifications for certain immigrants

(A) Labor certification

(i) In general

Any alien who seeks to enter the United States for the purpose of performing skilled or unskilled labor is inadmissible, unless the Secretary of Labor has determined and certified to the Secretary of State and the Attorney General that—

(I) there are not sufficient workers who are able, willing, qualified (or equally qualified in the case of an alien described in clause (ii)) and available at the time of application for a visa and admission to the United States and at the place where the alien is to perform such skilled or unskilled labor, and

(II) the employment of such alien will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of workers in the United States similarly employed.

(ii) Certain aliens subject to special rule

For purposes of clause (i)(I), an alien described in this clause is an alien who—

(I) is a member of the teaching profession, or

(II) has exceptional ability in the sciences or the arts.

(iii) Professional athletes

(I) In general

A certification made under clause (i) with respect to a professional athlete shall remain valid with respect to the athlete after the athlete changes employer, if the new employer is a team in the same sport as the team which employed the athlete when the athlete first applied for the certification.

(II) "Professional athlete" defined

For purposes of subclause (I), the term "professional athlete" means an individual who is employed as an athlete by—

(aa) a team that is a member of an association of 6 or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year, if the association governs the conduct of its members and regulates the contests and exhibitions in which its member teams regularly engage; or

(bb) any minor league team that is affiliated with such an association.

(iv) Long delayed adjustment applicants

A certification made under clause (i) with respect to an individual whose petition is covered by section 1154(j) of this title shall remain valid with respect to a new job accepted by the individual after the individual changes jobs or employers if the new job is in the same or a similar occupational classification as the job for which the certification was issued.

(B) Unqualified physicians

An alien who is a graduate of a medical school not accredited by a body or bodies approved for the purpose by the Secretary of Education (regardless of whether such school of medicine is in the United States) and who is coming to the United States principally to perform services as a member of the medical profession is inadmissible, unless the alien (i) has passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners Examination (or an equivalent examination as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services) and (ii) is competent in oral and written English. For purposes of the previous sentence, an alien who is a graduate of a medical school shall be considered to have passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners if the alien was fully and permanently licensed to practice medicine in a State on January 9, 1978, and was practicing medicine in a State on that date.

(C) Uncertified foreign health-care workers

Subject to subsection (r), any alien who seeks to enter the United States for the purpose of performing labor as a health-care worker, other than a physician, is inadmissible unless the alien presents to the consular officer, or, in the case of an adjustment of status, the Attorney General, a certificate from the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools, or a certificate from an equivalent independent credentialing organization approved by the Attorney General in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, verifying that—

(i) the alien's education, training, license, and experience—

(I) meet all applicable statutory and regulatory requirements for entry into the United States under the classification specified in the application;

(II) are comparable with that required for an American health-care worker of the same type; and

(III) are authentic and, in the case of a license, unencumbered;


(ii) the alien has the level of competence in oral and written English considered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, to be appropriate for health care work of the kind in which the alien will be engaged, as shown by an appropriate score on one or more nationally recognized, commercially available, standardized assessments of the applicant's ability to speak and write; and

(iii) if a majority of States licensing the profession in which the alien intends to work recognize a test predicting the success on the profession's licensing or certification examination, the alien has passed such a test or has passed such an examination.


For purposes of clause (ii), determination of the standardized tests required and of the minimum scores that are appropriate are within the sole discretion of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and are not subject to further administrative or judicial review.

(D) Application of grounds

The grounds for inadmissibility of aliens under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall apply to immigrants seeking admission or adjustment of status under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 1153(b) of this title.

(6) Illegal entrants and immigration violators

(A) Aliens present without admission or parole

(i) In general

An alien present in the United States without being admitted or paroled, or who arrives in the United States at any time or place other than as designated by the Attorney General, is inadmissible.

(ii) Exception for certain battered women and children

Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien who demonstrates that—

(I) the alien is a VAWA self-petitioner;

(II)(a) the alien has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty by a spouse or parent, or by a member of the spouse's or parent's family residing in the same household as the alien and the spouse or parent consented or acquiesced to such battery or cruelty, or (b) the alien's child has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty by a spouse or parent of the alien (without the active participation of the alien in the battery or cruelty) or by a member of the spouse's or parent's family residing in the same household as the alien when the spouse or parent consented to or acquiesced in such battery or cruelty and the alien did not actively participate in such battery or cruelty, and

(III) there was a substantial connection between the battery or cruelty described in subclause (I) or (II) and the alien's unlawful entry into the United States.

(B) Failure to attend removal proceeding

Any alien who without reasonable cause fails or refuses to attend or remain in attendance at a proceeding to determine the alien's inadmissibility or deportability and who seeks admission to the United States within 5 years of such alien's subsequent departure or removal is inadmissible.

(C) Misrepresentation

(i) In general

Any alien who, by fraud or willfully misrepresenting a material fact, seeks to procure (or has sought to procure or has procured) a visa, other documentation, or admission into the United States or other benefit provided under this chapter is inadmissible.

(ii) Falsely claiming citizenship

(I) In general

Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself or herself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any other Federal or State law is inadmissible.

(II) Exception

In the case of an alien making a representation described in subclause (I), if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of making such representation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be inadmissible under any provision of this subsection based on such representation.

(iii) Waiver authorized

For provision authorizing waiver of clause (i), see subsection (i).

(D) Stowaways

Any alien who is a stowaway is inadmissible.

(E) Smugglers

(i) In general

Any alien who at any time knowingly has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law is inadmissible.

(ii) Special rule in the case of family reunification

Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of alien who is an eligible immigrant (as defined in section 301(b)(1) of the Immigration Act of 1990), was physically present in the United States on May 5, 1988, and is seeking admission as an immediate relative or under section 1153(a)(2) of this title (including under section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990) or benefits under section 301(a) of the Immigration Act of 1990 if the alien, before May 5, 1988, has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law.

(iii) Waiver authorized

For provision authorizing waiver of clause (i), see subsection (d)(11).

(F) Subject of civil penalty

(i) In general

An alien who is the subject of a final order for violation of section 1324c of this title is inadmissible.

(ii) Waiver authorized

For provision authorizing waiver of clause (i), see subsection (d)(12).

(G) Student visa abusers

An alien who obtains the status of a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(F)(i) of this title and who violates a term or condition of such status under section 1184(l) 2 of this title is inadmissible until the alien has been outside the United States for a continuous period of 5 years after the date of the violation.

(7) Documentation requirements

(A) Immigrants

(i) In general

Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, any immigrant at the time of application for admission—

(I) who is not in possession of a valid unexpired immigrant visa, reentry permit, border crossing identification card, or other valid entry document required by this chapter, and a valid unexpired passport, or other suitable travel document, or document of identity and nationality if such document is required under the regulations issued by the Attorney General under section 1181(a) of this title, or

(II) whose visa has been issued without compliance with the provisions of section 1153 of this title,


 is inadmissible.

(ii) Waiver authorized

For provision authorizing waiver of clause (i), see subsection (k).

(B) Nonimmigrants

(i) In general

Any nonimmigrant who—

(I) is not in possession of a passport valid for a minimum of six months from the date of the expiration of the initial period of the alien's admission or contemplated initial period of stay authorizing the alien to return to the country from which the alien came or to proceed to and enter some other country during such period, or

(II) is not in possession of a valid nonimmigrant visa or border crossing identification card at the time of application for admission,


 is inadmissible.

(ii) General waiver authorized

For provision authorizing waiver of clause (i), see subsection (d)(4).

(iii) Guam and Northern Mariana Islands visa waiver

For provision authorizing waiver of clause (i) in the case of visitors to Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, see subsection (l).

(iv) Visa waiver program

For authority to waive the requirement of clause (i) under a program, see section 1187 of this title.

(8) Ineligible for citizenship

(A) In general

Any immigrant who is permanently ineligible to citizenship is inadmissible.

(B) Draft evaders

Any person who has departed from or who has remained outside the United States to avoid or evade training or service in the armed forces in time of war or a period declared by the President to be a national emergency is inadmissible, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to an alien who at the time of such departure was a nonimmigrant and who is seeking to reenter the United States as a nonimmigrant.

(9) Aliens previously removed

(A) Certain aliens previously removed

(i) Arriving aliens

Any alien who has been ordered removed under section 1225(b)(1) of this title or at the end of proceedings under section 1229a of this title initiated upon the alien's arrival in the United States and who again seeks admission within 5 years of the date of such removal (or within 20 years in the case of a second or subsequent removal or at any time in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony) is inadmissible.

(ii) Other aliens

Any alien not described in clause (i) who—

(I) has been ordered removed under section 1229a of this title or any other provision of law, or

(II) departed the United States while an order of removal was outstanding,


 and who seeks admission within 10 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal (or within 20 years of such date in the case of a second or subsequent removal or at any time in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony) is inadmissible.

(iii) Exception

Clauses (i) and (ii) shall not apply to an alien seeking admission within a period if, prior to the date of the alien's reembarkation at a place outside the United States or attempt to be admitted from foreign contiguous territory, the Attorney General has consented to the alien's reapplying for admission.

(B) Aliens unlawfully present

(i) In general

Any alien (other than an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence) who—

(I) was unlawfully present in the United States for a period of more than 180 days but less than 1 year, voluntarily departed the United States (whether or not pursuant to section 1254a(e) 3 of this title) prior to the commencement of proceedings under section 1225(b)(1) of this title or section 1229a of this title, and again seeks admission within 3 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal, or

(II) has been unlawfully present in the United States for one year or more, and who again seeks admission within 10 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal from the United States,


 is inadmissible.

(ii) Construction of unlawful presence

For purposes of this paragraph, an alien is deemed to be unlawfully present in the United States if the alien is present in the United States after the expiration of the period of stay authorized by the Attorney General or is present in the United States without being admitted or paroled.

(iii) Exceptions

(I) Minors

No period of time in which an alien is under 18 years of age shall be taken into account in determining the period of unlawful presence in the United States under clause (i).

(II) Asylees

No period of time in which an alien has a bona fide application for asylum pending under section 1158 of this title shall be taken into account in determining the period of unlawful presence in the United States under clause (i) unless the alien during such period was employed without authorization in the United States.

(III) Family unity

No period of time in which the alien is a beneficiary of family unity protection pursuant to section 301 of the Immigration Act of 1990 shall be taken into account in determining the period of unlawful presence in the United States under clause (i).

(IV) Battered women and children

Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien who would be described in paragraph (6)(A)(ii) if "violation of the terms of the alien's nonimmigrant visa" were substituted for "unlawful entry into the United States" in subclause (III) of that paragraph.

(V) Victims of a severe form of trafficking in persons

Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien who demonstrates that the severe form of trafficking (as that term is defined in section 7102 of title 22) was at least one central reason for the alien's unlawful presence in the United States.

(iv) Tolling for good cause

In the case of an alien who—

(I) has been lawfully admitted or paroled into the United States,

(II) has filed a nonfrivolous application for a change or extension of status before the date of expiration of the period of stay authorized by the Attorney General, and

(III) has not been employed without authorization in the United States before or during the pendency of such application,


 the calculation of the period of time specified in clause (i)(I) shall be tolled during the pendency of such application, but not to exceed 120 days.

(v) Waiver

The Attorney General has sole discretion to waive clause (i) in the case of an immigrant who is the spouse or son or daughter of a United States citizen or of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, if it is established to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the refusal of admission to such immigrant alien would result in extreme hardship to the citizen or lawfully resident spouse or parent of such alien. No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision or action by the Attorney General regarding a waiver under this clause.

(C) Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violations

(i) In general

Any alien who—

(I) has been unlawfully present in the United States for an aggregate period of more than 1 year, or

(II) has been ordered removed under section 1225(b)(1) of this title, section 1229a of this title, or any other provision of law,


 and who enters or attempts to reenter the United States without being admitted is inadmissible.

(ii) Exception

Clause (i) shall not apply to an alien seeking admission more than 10 years after the date of the alien's last departure from the United States if, prior to the alien's reembarkation at a place outside the United States or attempt to be readmitted from a foreign contiguous territory, the Secretary of Homeland Security has consented to the alien's reapplying for admission.

(iii) Waiver

The Secretary of Homeland Security may waive the application of clause (i) in the case of an alien who is a VAWA self-petitioner if there is a connection between—

(I) the alien's battering or subjection to extreme cruelty; and

(II) the alien's removal, departure from the United States, reentry or reentries into the United States; or attempted reentry into the United States.

(10) Miscellaneous

(A) Practicing polygamists

Any immigrant who is coming to the United States to practice polygamy is inadmissible.

(B) Guardian required to accompany helpless alien

Any alien—

(i) who is accompanying another alien who is inadmissible and who is certified to be helpless from sickness, mental or physical disability, or infancy pursuant to section 1222(c) of this title, and

(ii) whose protection or guardianship is determined to be required by the alien described in clause (i),


is inadmissible.

(C) International child abduction

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), any alien who, after entry of an order by a court in the United States granting custody to a person of a United States citizen child who detains or retains the child, or withholds custody of the child, outside the United States from the person granted custody by that order, is inadmissible until the child is surrendered to the person granted custody by that order.

(ii) Aliens supporting abductors and relatives of abductors

Any alien who—

(I) is known by the Secretary of State to have intentionally assisted an alien in the conduct described in clause (i),

(II) is known by the Secretary of State to be intentionally providing material support or safe haven to an alien described in clause (i), or

(III) is a spouse (other than the spouse who is the parent of the abducted child), child (other than the abducted child), parent, sibling, or agent of an alien described in clause (i), if such person has been designated by the Secretary of State at the Secretary's sole and unreviewable discretion, is inadmissible until the child described in clause (i) is surrendered to the person granted custody by the order described in that clause, and such person and child are permitted to return to the United States or such person's place of residence.

(iii) Exceptions

Clauses (i) and (ii) shall not apply—

(I) to a government official of the United States who is acting within the scope of his or her official duties;

(II) to a government official of any foreign government if the official has been designated by the Secretary of State at the Secretary's sole and unreviewable discretion; or

(III) so long as the child is located in a foreign state that is a party to the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, done at The Hague on October 25, 1980.

(D) Unlawful voters

(i) In general

Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is inadmissible.

(ii) Exception

In the case of an alien who voted in a Federal, State, or local election (including an initiative, recall, or referendum) in violation of a lawful restriction of voting to citizens, if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of such violation that he or she was a citizen, the alien shall not be considered to be inadmissible under any provision of this subsection based on such violation.

(E) Former citizens who renounced citizenship to avoid taxation

Any alien who is a former citizen of the United States who officially renounces United States citizenship and who is determined by the Attorney General to have renounced United States citizenship for the purpose of avoiding taxation by the United States is inadmissible.

(b) Notices of denials

(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), if an alien's application for a visa, for admission to the United States, or for adjustment of status is denied by an immigration or consular officer because the officer determines the alien to be inadmissible under subsection (a), the officer shall provide the alien with a timely written notice that—

(A) states the determination, and

(B) lists the specific provision or provisions of law under which the alien is inadmissible or adjustment 4 of status.


(2) The Secretary of State may waive the requirements of paragraph (1) with respect to a particular alien or any class or classes of inadmissible aliens.

(3) Paragraph (1) does not apply to any alien inadmissible under paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (a).

(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §304(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–597

(d) Temporary admission of nonimmigrants

(1) The Attorney General shall determine whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(S) of this title. The Attorney General, in the Attorney General's discretion, may waive the application of subsection (a) (other than paragraph (3)(E)) in the case of a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(S) of this title, if the Attorney General considers it to be in the national interest to do so. Nothing in this section shall be regarded as prohibiting the Immigration and Naturalization Service from instituting removal proceedings against an alien admitted as a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(S) of this title for conduct committed after the alien's admission into the United States, or for conduct or a condition that was not disclosed to the Attorney General prior to the alien's admission as a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(S) of this title.

(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, §601(d)(2)(A), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5076.

(3)(A) Except as provided in this subsection, an alien (i) who is applying for a nonimmigrant visa and is known or believed by the consular officer to be ineligible for such visa under subsection (a) (other than paragraphs (3)(A)(i)(I), (3)(A)(ii), (3)(A)(iii), (3)(C), and clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (3)(E) of such subsection), may, after approval by the Attorney General of a recommendation by the Secretary of State or by the consular officer that the alien be admitted temporarily despite his inadmissibility, be granted such a visa and may be admitted into the United States temporarily as a nonimmigrant in the discretion of the Attorney General, or (ii) who is inadmissible under subsection (a) (other than paragraphs (3)(A)(i)(I), (3)(A)(ii), (3)(A)(iii), (3)(C), and clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (3)(E) of such subsection), but who is in possession of appropriate documents or is granted a waiver thereof and is seeking admission, may be admitted into the United States temporarily as a nonimmigrant in the discretion of the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall prescribe conditions, including exaction of such bonds as may be necessary, to control and regulate the admission and return of inadmissible aliens applying for temporary admission under this paragraph.

(B)(i) The Secretary of State, after consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, may determine in such Secretary's sole unreviewable discretion that subsection (a)(3)(B) shall not apply with respect to an alien within the scope of that subsection or that subsection (a)(3)(B)(vi)(III) shall not apply to a group within the scope of that subsection, except that no such waiver may be extended to an alien who is within the scope of subsection (a)(3)(B)(i)(II), no such waiver may be extended to an alien who is a member or representative of, has voluntarily and knowingly engaged in or endorsed or espoused or persuaded others to endorse or espouse or support terrorist activity on behalf of, or has voluntarily and knowingly received military-type training from a terrorist organization that is described in subclause (I) or (II) of subsection (a)(3)(B)(vi), and no such waiver may be extended to a group that has engaged terrorist activity against the United States or another democratic country or that has purposefully engaged in a pattern or practice of terrorist activity that is directed at civilians. Such a determination shall neither prejudice the ability of the United States Government to commence criminal or civil proceedings involving a beneficiary of such a determination or any other person, nor create any substantive or procedural right or benefit for a beneficiary of such a determination or any other person. Notwithstanding any other provision of law (statutory or nonstatutory), including section 2241 of title 28, or any other habeas corpus provision, and sections 1361 and 1651 of such title, no court shall have jurisdiction to review such a determination or revocation except in a proceeding for review of a final order of removal pursuant to section 1252 of this title, and review shall be limited to the extent provided in section 1252(a)(2)(D). The Secretary of State may not exercise the discretion provided in this clause with respect to an alien at any time during which the alien is the subject of pending removal proceedings under section 1229a of this title.

(ii) Not later than 90 days after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall each provide to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate, the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a report on the aliens to whom such Secretary has applied clause (i). Within one week of applying clause (i) to a group, the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide a report to such Committees.

(4) Either or both of the requirements of paragraph (7)(B)(i) of subsection (a) may be waived by the Attorney General and the Secretary of State acting jointly (A) on the basis of unforeseen emergency in individual cases, or (B) on the basis of reciprocity with respect to nationals of foreign contiguous territory or of adjacent islands and residents thereof having a common nationality with such nationals, or (C) in the case of aliens proceeding in immediate and continuous transit through the United States under contracts authorized in section 1223(c) of this title.

(5)(A) The Attorney General may, except as provided in subparagraph (B) or in section 1184(f) of this title, in his discretion parole into the United States temporarily under such conditions as he may prescribe only on a case-by-case basis for urgent humanitarian reasons or significant public benefit any alien applying for admission to the United States, but such parole of such alien shall not be regarded as an admission of the alien and when the purposes of such parole shall, in the opinion of the Attorney General, have been served the alien shall forthwith return or be returned to the custody from which he was paroled and thereafter his case shall continue to be dealt with in the same manner as that of any other applicant for admission to the United States.

(B) The Attorney General may not parole into the United States an alien who is a refugee unless the Attorney General determines that compelling reasons in the public interest with respect to that particular alien require that the alien be paroled into the United States rather than be admitted as a refugee under section 1157 of this title.

(6) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, §601(d)(2)(A), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5076.

(7) The provisions of subsection (a) (other than paragraph (7)) shall be applicable to any alien who shall leave Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands of the United States, and who seeks to enter the continental United States or any other place under the jurisdiction of the United States. The Attorney General shall by regulations provide a method and procedure for the temporary admission to the United States of the aliens described in this proviso.5 Any alien described in this paragraph, who is denied admission to the United States, shall be immediately removed in the manner provided by section 1231(c) of this title.

(8) Upon a basis of reciprocity accredited officials of foreign governments, their immediate families, attendants, servants, and personal employees may be admitted in immediate and continuous transit through the United States without regard to the provisions of this section except paragraphs (3)(A), (3)(B), (3)(C), and (7)(B) of subsection (a) of this section.

(9), (10) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, §601(d)(2)(A), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5076.

(11) The Attorney General may, in his discretion for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest, waive application of clause (i) of subsection (a)(6)(E) in the case of any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence who temporarily proceeded abroad voluntarily and not under an order of removal, and who is otherwise admissible to the United States as a returning resident under section 1181(b) of this title and in the case of an alien seeking admission or adjustment of status as an immediate relative or immigrant under section 1153(a) of this title (other than paragraph (4) thereof), if the alien has encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided only an individual who at the time of such action was the alien's spouse, parent, son, or daughter (and no other individual) to enter the United States in violation of law.

(12) The Attorney General may, in the discretion of the Attorney General for humanitarian purposes or to assure family unity, waive application of clause (i) of subsection (a)(6)(F)—

(A) in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence who temporarily proceeded abroad voluntarily and not under an order of deportation or removal and who is otherwise admissible to the United States as a returning resident under section 1181(b) of this title, and

(B) in the case of an alien seeking admission or adjustment of status under section 1151(b)(2)(A) of this title or under section 1153(a) of this title,


if no previous civil money penalty was imposed against the alien under section 1324c of this title and the offense was committed solely to assist, aid, or support the alien's spouse or child (and not another individual). No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this paragraph.

(13)(A) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall determine whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(T) of this title, except that the ground for inadmissibility described in subsection (a)(4) shall not apply with respect to such a nonimmigrant.

(B) In addition to any other waiver that may be available under this section, in the case of a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(T) of this title, if the Secretary of Homeland Security considers it to be in the national interest to do so, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the Attorney General's 6 discretion, may waive the application of—

(i) subsection (a)(1); and

(ii) any other provision of subsection (a) (excluding paragraphs (3), (4), (10)(C), and (10(E)) 7 if the activities rendering the alien inadmissible under the provision were caused by, or were incident to, the victimization described in section 1101(a)(15)(T)(i)(I) of this title.


(14) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall determine whether a ground of inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title. The Secretary of Homeland Security, in the Attorney General's 6 discretion, may waive the application of subsection (a) (other than paragraph (3)(E)) in the case of a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title, if the Secretary of Homeland Security considers it to be in the public or national interest to do so.

(e) Educational visitor status; foreign residence requirement; waiver

No person admitted under section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title or acquiring such status after admission (i) whose participation in the program for which he came to the United States was financed in whole or in part, directly or indirectly, by an agency of the Government of the United States or by the government of the country of his nationality or his last residence, (ii) who at the time of admission or acquisition of status under section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title was a national or resident of a country which the Director of the United States Information Agency, pursuant to regulations prescribed by him, had designated as clearly requiring the services of persons engaged in the field of specialized knowledge or skill in which the alien was engaged, or (iii) who came to the United States or acquired such status in order to receive graduate medical education or training, shall be eligible to apply for an immigrant visa, or for permanent residence, or for a nonimmigrant visa under section 1101(a)(15)(H) or section 1101(a)(15)(L) of this title until it is established that such person has resided and been physically present in the country of his nationality or his last residence for an aggregate of at least two years following departure from the United States: Provided, That upon the favorable recommendation of the Director, pursuant to the request of an interested United States Government agency (or, in the case of an alien described in clause (iii), pursuant to the request of a State Department of Public Health, or its equivalent), or of the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization after he has determined that departure from the United States would impose exceptional hardship upon the alien's spouse or child (if such spouse or child is a citizen of the United States or a lawfully resident alien), or that the alien cannot return to the country of his nationality or last residence because he would be subject to persecution on account of race, religion, or political opinion, the Attorney General may waive the requirement of such two-year foreign residence abroad in the case of any alien whose admission to the United States is found by the Attorney General to be in the public interest except that in the case of a waiver requested by a State Department of Public Health, or its equivalent, or in the case of a waiver requested by an interested United States Government agency on behalf of an alien described in clause (iii), the waiver shall be subject to the requirements of section 1184(l) of this title: And provided further, That, except in the case of an alien described in clause (iii), the Attorney General may, upon the favorable recommendation of the Director, waive such two-year foreign residence requirement in any case in which the foreign country of the alien's nationality or last residence has furnished the Director a statement in writing that it has no objection to such waiver in the case of such alien.

(f) Suspension of entry or imposition of restrictions by President

Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate. Whenever the Attorney General finds that a commercial airline has failed to comply with regulations of the Attorney General relating to requirements of airlines for the detection of fraudulent documents used by passengers traveling to the United States (including the training of personnel in such detection), the Attorney General may suspend the entry of some or all aliens transported to the United States by such airline.

(g) Bond and conditions for admission of alien inadmissible on health-related grounds

The Attorney General may waive the application of—

(1) subsection (a)(1)(A)(i) in the case of any alien who—

(A) is the spouse or the unmarried son or daughter, or the minor unmarried lawfully adopted child, of a United States citizen, or of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or of an alien who has been issued an immigrant visa,

(B) has a son or daughter who is a United States citizen, or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or an alien who has been issued an immigrant visa; or

(C) is a VAWA self-petitioner,


in accordance with such terms, conditions, and controls, if any, including the giving of bond, as the Attorney General, in the discretion of the Attorney General after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, may by regulation prescribe;

(2) subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii) in the case of any alien—

(A) who receives vaccination against the vaccine-preventable disease or diseases for which the alien has failed to present documentation of previous vaccination,

(B) for whom a civil surgeon, medical officer, or panel physician (as those terms are defined by section 34.2 of title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations) certifies, according to such regulations as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may prescribe, that such vaccination would not be medically appropriate, or

(C) under such circumstances as the Attorney General provides by regulation, with respect to whom the requirement of such a vaccination would be contrary to the alien's religious beliefs or moral convictions; or


(3) subsection (a)(1)(A)(iii) in the case of any alien, in accordance with such terms, conditions, and controls, if any, including the giving of bond, as the Attorney General, in the discretion of the Attorney General after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, may by regulation prescribe.

(h) Waiver of subsection (a)(2)(A)(i)(I), (II), (B), (D), and (E)

The Attorney General may, in his discretion, waive the application of subparagraphs (A)(i)(I), (B), (D), and (E) of subsection (a)(2) and subparagraph (A)(i)(II) of such subsection insofar as it relates to a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marijuana if—

(1)(A) in the case of any immigrant it is established to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that—

(i) the alien is inadmissible only under subparagraph (D)(i) or (D)(ii) of such subsection or the activities for which the alien is inadmissible occurred more than 15 years before the date of the alien's application for a visa, admission, or adjustment of status,

(ii) the admission to the United States of such alien would not be contrary to the national welfare, safety, or security of the United States, and

(iii) the alien has been rehabilitated; or


(B) in the case of an immigrant who is the spouse, parent, son, or daughter of a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if it is established to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the alien's denial of admission would result in extreme hardship to the United States citizen or lawfully resident spouse, parent, son, or daughter of such alien; or

(C) the alien is a VAWA self-petitioner; and

(2) the Attorney General, in his discretion, and pursuant to such terms, conditions and procedures as he may by regulations prescribe, has consented to the alien's applying or reapplying for a visa, for admission to the United States, or adjustment of status.


No waiver shall be provided under this subsection in the case of an alien who has been convicted of (or who has admitted committing acts that constitute) murder or criminal acts involving torture, or an attempt or conspiracy to commit murder or a criminal act involving torture. No waiver shall be granted under this subsection in the case of an alien who has previously been admitted to the United States as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if either since the date of such admission the alien has been convicted of an aggravated felony or the alien has not lawfully resided continuously in the United States for a period of not less than 7 years immediately preceding the date of initiation of proceedings to remove the alien from the United States. No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision of the Attorney General to grant or deny a waiver under this subsection.

(i) Admission of immigrant inadmissible for fraud or willful misrepresentation of material fact

(1) The Attorney General may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, waive the application of clause (i) of subsection (a)(6)(C) in the case of an immigrant who is the spouse, son, or daughter of a United States citizen or of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence if it is established to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the refusal of admission to the United States of such immigrant alien would result in extreme hardship to the citizen or lawfully resident spouse or parent of such an alien or, in the case of a VAWA self-petitioner, the alien demonstrates extreme hardship to the alien or the alien's United States citizen, lawful permanent resident, or qualified alien parent or child.

(2) No court shall have jurisdiction to review a decision or action of the Attorney General regarding a waiver under paragraph (1).

(j) Limitation on immigration of foreign medical graduates

(1) The additional requirements referred to in section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title for an alien who is coming to the United States under a program under which he will receive graduate medical education or training are as follows:

(A) A school of medicine or of one of the other health professions, which is accredited by a body or bodies approved for the purpose by the Secretary of Education, has agreed in writing to provide the graduate medical education or training under the program for which the alien is coming to the United States or to assume responsibility for arranging for the provision thereof by an appropriate public or nonprofit private institution or agency, except that, in the case of such an agreement by a school of medicine, any one or more of its affiliated hospitals which are to participate in the provision of the graduate medical education or training must join in the agreement.

(B) Before making such agreement, the accredited school has been satisfied that the alien (i) is a graduate of a school of medicine which is accredited by a body or bodies approved for the purpose by the Secretary of Education (regardless of whether such school of medicine is in the United States); or (ii)(I) has passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners Examination (or an equivalent examination as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services), (II) has competency in oral and written English, (III) will be able to adapt to the educational and cultural environment in which he will be receiving his education or training, and (IV) has adequate prior education and training to participate satisfactorily in the program for which he is coming to the United States. For the purposes of this subparagraph, an alien who is a graduate of a medical school shall be considered to have passed parts I and II of the National Board of Medical Examiners examination if the alien was fully and permanently licensed to practice medicine in a State on January 9, 1978, and was practicing medicine in a State on that date.

(C) The alien has made a commitment to return to the country of his nationality or last residence upon completion of the education or training for which he is coming to the United States, and the government of the country of his nationality or last residence has provided a written assurance, satisfactory to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, that there is a need in that country for persons with the skills the alien will acquire in such education or training.

(D) The duration of the alien's participation in the program of graduate medical education or training for which the alien is coming to the United States is limited to the time typically required to complete such program, as determined by the Director of the United States Information Agency at the time of the alien's admission into the United States, based on criteria which are established in coordination with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and which take into consideration the published requirements of the medical specialty board which administers such education or training program; except that—

(i) such duration is further limited to seven years unless the alien has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Director that the country to which the alien will return at the end of such specialty education or training has an exceptional need for an individual trained in such specialty, and

(ii) the alien may, once and not later than two years after the date the alien is admitted to the United States as an exchange visitor or acquires exchange visitor status, change the alien's designated program of graduate medical education or training if the Director approves the change and if a commitment and written assurance with respect to the alien's new program have been provided in accordance with subparagraph (C).


(E) The alien furnishes the Attorney General each year with an affidavit (in such form as the Attorney General shall prescribe) that attests that the alien (i) is in good standing in the program of graduate medical education or training in which the alien is participating, and (ii) will return to the country of his nationality or last residence upon completion of the education or training for which he came to the United States.


(2) An alien who is a graduate of a medical school and who is coming to the United States to perform services as a member of the medical profession may not be admitted as a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title unless—

(A) the alien is coming pursuant to an invitation from a public or nonprofit private educational or research institution or agency in the United States to teach or conduct research, or both, at or for such institution or agency, or

(B)(i) the alien has passed the Federation licensing examination (administered by the Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States) or an equivalent examination as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and

(ii)(I) has competency in oral and written English or (II) is a graduate of a school of medicine which is accredited by a body or bodies approved for the purpose by the Secretary of Education (regardless of whether such school of medicine is in the United States).


(3) Omitted.

(k) Attorney General's discretion to admit otherwise inadmissible aliens who possess immigrant visas

Any alien, inadmissible from the United States under paragraph (5)(A) or (7)(A)(i) of subsection (a), who is in possession of an immigrant visa may, if otherwise admissible, be admitted in the discretion of the Attorney General if the Attorney General is satisfied that inadmissibility was not known to, and could not have been ascertained by the exercise of reasonable diligence by, the immigrant before the time of departure of the vessel or aircraft from the last port outside the United States and outside foreign contiguous territory or, in the case of an immigrant coming from foreign contiguous territory, before the time of the immigrant's application for admission.

(l) Guam and Northern Mariana Islands visa waiver program

(1) In general

The requirement of subsection (a)(7)(B)(i) may be waived by the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the case of an alien applying for admission as a nonimmigrant visitor for business or pleasure and solely for entry into and stay in Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands for a period not to exceed 45 days, if the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of State, the Governor of Guam and the Governor of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, determines that—

(A) an adequate arrival and departure control system has been developed in Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; and

(B) such a waiver does not represent a threat to the welfare, safety, or security of the United States or its territories and commonwealths.

(2) Alien waiver of rights

An alien may not be provided a waiver under this subsection unless the alien has waived any right—

(A) to review or appeal under this chapter an immigration officer's determination as to the admissibility of the alien at the port of entry into Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; or

(B) to contest, other than on the basis of an application for withholding of removal under section 1231(b)(3) of this title or under the Convention Against Torture, or an application for asylum if permitted under section 1158 of this title, any action for removal of the alien.

(3) Regulations

All necessary regulations to implement this subsection shall be promulgated by the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of State, on or before the 180th day after May 8, 2008. The promulgation of such regulations shall be considered a foreign affairs function for purposes of section 553(a) of title 5. At a minimum, such regulations should include, but not necessarily be limited to—

(A) a listing of all countries whose nationals may obtain the waiver also provided by this subsection, except that such regulations shall provide for a listing of any country from which the Commonwealth has received a significant economic benefit from the number of visitors for pleasure within the one-year period preceding May 8, 2008, unless the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that such country's inclusion on such list would represent a threat to the welfare, safety, or security of the United States or its territories; and

(B) any bonding requirements for nationals of some or all of those countries who may present an increased risk of overstays or other potential problems, if different from such requirements otherwise provided by law for nonimmigrant visitors.

(4) Factors

In determining whether to grant or continue providing the waiver under this subsection to nationals of any country, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of State, shall consider all factors that the Secretary deems relevant, including electronic travel authorizations, procedures for reporting lost and stolen passports, repatriation of aliens, rates of refusal for nonimmigrant visitor visas, overstays, exit systems, and information exchange.

(5) Suspension

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall monitor the admission of nonimmigrant visitors to Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands under this subsection. If the Secretary determines that such admissions have resulted in an unacceptable number of visitors from a country remaining unlawfully in Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, unlawfully obtaining entry to other parts of the United States, or seeking withholding of removal or asylum, or that visitors from a country pose a risk to law enforcement or security interests of Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands or of the United States (including the interest in the enforcement of the immigration laws of the United States), the Secretary shall suspend the admission of nationals of such country under this subsection. The Secretary of Homeland Security may in the Secretary's discretion suspend the Guam and Northern Mariana Islands visa waiver program at any time, on a country-by-country basis, for other good cause.

(6) Addition of countries

The Governor of Guam and the Governor of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands may request the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Homeland Security to add a particular country to the list of countries whose nationals may obtain the waiver provided by this subsection, and the Secretary of Homeland Security may grant such request after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of State, and may promulgate regulations with respect to the inclusion of that country and any special requirements the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the Secretary's sole discretion, may impose prior to allowing nationals of that country to obtain the waiver provided by this subsection.

(m) Requirements for admission of nonimmigrant nurses

(1) The qualifications referred to in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title, with respect to an alien who is coming to the United States to perform nursing services for a facility, are that the alien—

(A) has obtained a full and unrestricted license to practice professional nursing in the country where the alien obtained nursing education or has received nursing education in the United States;

(B) has passed an appropriate examination (recognized in regulations promulgated in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services) or has a full and unrestricted license under State law to practice professional nursing in the State of intended employment; and

(C) is fully qualified and eligible under the laws (including such temporary or interim licensing requirements which authorize the nurse to be employed) governing the place of intended employment to engage in the practice of professional nursing as a registered nurse immediately upon admission to the United States and is authorized under such laws to be employed by the facility.


(2)(A) The attestation referred to in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title, with respect to a facility for which an alien will perform services, is an attestation as to the following:

(i) The facility meets all the requirements of paragraph (6).

(ii) The employment of the alien will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of registered nurses similarly employed.

(iii) The alien employed by the facility will be paid the wage rate for registered nurses similarly employed by the facility.

(iv) The facility has taken and is taking timely and significant steps designed to recruit and retain sufficient registered nurses who are United States citizens or immigrants who are authorized to perform nursing services, in order to remove as quickly as reasonably possible the dependence of the facility on nonimmigrant registered nurses.

(v) There is not a strike or lockout in the course of a labor dispute, the facility did not lay off and will not lay off a registered nurse employed by the facility within the period beginning 90 days before and ending 90 days after the date of filing of any visa petition, and the employment of such an alien is not intended or designed to influence an election for a bargaining representative for registered nurses of the facility.

(vi) At the time of the filing of the petition for registered nurses under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title, notice of the filing has been provided by the facility to the bargaining representative of the registered nurses at the facility or, where there is no such bargaining representative, notice of the filing has been provided to the registered nurses employed at the facility through posting in conspicuous locations.

(vii) The facility will not, at any time, employ a number of aliens issued visas or otherwise provided nonimmigrant status under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title that exceeds 33 percent of the total number of registered nurses employed by the facility.

(viii) The facility will not, with respect to any alien issued a visa or otherwise provided nonimmigrant status under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title

(I) authorize the alien to perform nursing services at any worksite other than a worksite controlled by the facility; or

(II) transfer the place of employment of the alien from one worksite to another.


Nothing in clause (iv) shall be construed as requiring a facility to have taken significant steps described in such clause before November 12, 1999. A copy of the attestation shall be provided, within 30 days of the date of filing, to registered nurses employed at the facility on the date of filing.


(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A)(iv), each of the following shall be considered a significant step reasonably designed to recruit and retain registered nurses:

(i) Operating a training program for registered nurses at the facility or financing (or providing participation in) a training program for registered nurses elsewhere.

(ii) Providing career development programs and other methods of facilitating health care workers to become registered nurses.

(iii) Paying registered nurses wages at a rate higher than currently being paid to registered nurses similarly employed in the geographic area.

(iv) Providing reasonable opportunities for meaningful salary advancement by registered nurses.


The steps described in this subparagraph shall not be considered to be an exclusive list of the significant steps that may be taken to meet the conditions of subparagraph (A)(iv). Nothing in this subparagraph shall require a facility to take more than one step if the facility can demonstrate that taking a second step is not reasonable.

(C) Subject to subparagraph (E), an attestation under subparagraph (A)—

(i) shall expire on the date that is the later of—

(I) the end of the one-year period beginning on the date of its filing with the Secretary of Labor; or

(II) the end of the period of admission under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title of the last alien with respect to whose admission it was applied (in accordance with clause (ii)); and


(ii) shall apply to petitions filed during the one-year period beginning on the date of its filing with the Secretary of Labor if the facility states in each such petition that it continues to comply with the conditions in the attestation.


(D) A facility may meet the requirements under this paragraph with respect to more than one registered nurse in a single petition.

(E)(i) The Secretary of Labor shall compile and make available for public examination in a timely manner in Washington, D.C., a list identifying facilities which have filed petitions for nonimmigrants under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title and, for each such facility, a copy of the facility's attestation under subparagraph (A) (and accompanying documentation) and each such petition filed by the facility.

(ii) The Secretary of Labor shall establish a process, including reasonable time limits, for the receipt, investigation, and disposition of complaints respecting a facility's failure to meet conditions attested to or a facility's misrepresentation of a material fact in an attestation. Complaints may be filed by any aggrieved person or organization (including bargaining representatives, associations deemed appropriate by the Secretary, and other aggrieved parties as determined under regulations of the Secretary). The Secretary shall conduct an investigation under this clause if there is reasonable cause to believe that a facility fails to meet conditions attested to. Subject to the time limits established under this clause, this subparagraph shall apply regardless of whether an attestation is expired or unexpired at the time a complaint is filed.

(iii) Under such process, the Secretary shall provide, within 180 days after the date such a complaint is filed, for a determination as to whether or not a basis exists to make a finding described in clause (iv). If the Secretary determines that such a basis exists, the Secretary shall provide for notice of such determination to the interested parties and an opportunity for a hearing on the complaint within 60 days of the date of the determination.

(iv) If the Secretary of Labor finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, that a facility (for which an attestation is made) has failed to meet a condition attested to or that there was a misrepresentation of material fact in the attestation, the Secretary shall notify the Attorney General of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $1,000 per nurse per violation, with the total penalty not to exceed $10,000 per violation) as the Secretary determines to be appropriate. Upon receipt of such notice, the Attorney General shall not approve petitions filed with respect to a facility during a period of at least one year for nurses to be employed by the facility.

(v) In addition to the sanctions provided for under clause (iv), if the Secretary of Labor finds, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, that a facility has violated the condition attested to under subparagraph (A)(iii) (relating to payment of registered nurses at the prevailing wage rate), the Secretary shall order the facility to provide for payment of such amounts of back pay as may be required to comply with such condition.

(F)(i) The Secretary of Labor shall impose on a facility filing an attestation under subparagraph (A) a filing fee, in an amount prescribed by the Secretary based on the costs of carrying out the Secretary's duties under this subsection, but not exceeding $250.

(ii) Fees collected under this subparagraph shall be deposited in a fund established for this purpose in the Treasury of the United States.

(iii) The collected fees in the fund shall be available to the Secretary of Labor, to the extent and in such amounts as may be provided in appropriations Acts, to cover the costs described in clause (i), in addition to any other funds that are available to the Secretary to cover such costs.

(3) The period of admission of an alien under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title shall be 3 years.

(4) The total number of nonimmigrant visas issued pursuant to petitions granted under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title in each fiscal year shall not exceed 500. The number of such visas issued for employment in each State in each fiscal year shall not exceed the following:

(A) For States with populations of less than 9,000,000, based upon the 1990 decennial census of population, 25 visas.

(B) For States with populations of 9,000,000 or more, based upon the 1990 decennial census of population, 50 visas.

(C) If the total number of visas available under this paragraph for a fiscal year quarter exceeds the number of qualified nonimmigrants who may be issued such visas during those quarters, the visas made available under this paragraph shall be issued without regard to the numerical limitation under subparagraph (A) or (B) of this paragraph during the last fiscal year quarter.


(5) A facility that has filed a petition under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title to employ a nonimmigrant to perform nursing services for the facility—

(A) shall provide the nonimmigrant a wage rate and working conditions commensurate with those of nurses similarly employed by the facility;

(B) shall require the nonimmigrant to work hours commensurate with those of nurses similarly employed by the facility; and

(C) shall not interfere with the right of the nonimmigrant to join or organize a union.


(6) For purposes of this subsection and section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c) of this title, the term "facility" means a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in section 1886(d)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395ww(d)(1)(B))) that meets the following requirements:

(A) As of March 31, 1997, the hospital was located in a health professional shortage area (as defined in section 254e of title 42).

(B) Based on its settled cost report filed under title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq.] for its cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 1994—

(i) the hospital has not less than 190 licensed acute care beds;

(ii) the number of the hospital's inpatient days for such period which were made up of patients who (for such days) were entitled to benefits under part A of such title [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq.] is not less than 35 percent of the total number of such hospital's acute care inpatient days for such period; and

(iii) the number of the hospital's inpatient days for such period which were made up of patients who (for such days) were eligible for medical assistance under a State plan approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.], is not less than 28 percent of the total number of such hospital's acute care inpatient days for such period.


(7) For purposes of paragraph (2)(A)(v), the term "lay off", with respect to a worker—

(A) means to cause the worker's loss of employment, other than through a discharge for inadequate performance, violation of workplace rules, cause, voluntary departure, voluntary retirement, or the expiration of a grant or contract; but

(B) does not include any situation in which the worker is offered, as an alternative to such loss of employment, a similar employment opportunity with the same employer at equivalent or higher compensation and benefits than the position from which the employee was discharged, regardless of whether or not the employee accepts the offer.


Nothing in this paragraph is intended to limit an employee's or an employer's rights under a collective bargaining agreement or other employment contract.

(n) Labor condition application

(1) No alien may be admitted or provided status as an H–1B nonimmigrant in an occupational classification unless the employer has filed with the Secretary of Labor an application stating the following:

(A) The employer—

(i) is offering and will offer during the period of authorized employment to aliens admitted or provided status as an H–1B nonimmigrant wages that are at least—

(I) the actual wage level paid by the employer to all other individuals with similar experience and qualifications for the specific employment in question, or

(II) the prevailing wage level for the occupational classification in the area of employment,


whichever is greater, based on the best information available as of the time of filing the application, and

(ii) will provide working conditions for such a nonimmigrant that will not adversely affect the working conditions of workers similarly employed.


(B) There is not a strike or lockout in the course of a labor dispute in the occupational classification at the place of employment.

(C) The employer, at the time of filing the application—

(i) has provided notice of the filing under this paragraph to the bargaining representative (if any) of the employer's employees in the occupational classification and area for which aliens are sought, or

(ii) if there is no such bargaining representative, has provided notice of filing in the occupational classification through such methods as physical posting in conspicuous locations at the place of employment or electronic notification to employees in the occupational classification for which H–1B nonimmigrants are sought.


(D) The application shall contain a specification of the number of workers sought, the occupational classification in which the workers will be employed, and wage rate and conditions under which they will be employed.

(E)(i) In the case of an application described in clause (ii), the employer did not displace and will not displace a United States worker (as defined in paragraph (4)) employed by the employer within the period beginning 90 days before and ending 90 days after the date of filing of any visa petition supported by the application.

(ii) An application described in this clause is an application filed on or after the date final regulations are first promulgated to carry out this subparagraph, and before 8 by an H–1B-dependent employer (as defined in paragraph (3)) or by an employer that has been found, on or after October 21, 1998, under paragraph (2)(C) or (5) to have committed a willful failure or misrepresentation during the 5-year period preceding the filing of the application. An application is not described in this clause if the only H–1B nonimmigrants sought in the application are exempt H–1B nonimmigrants.

(F) In the case of an application described in subparagraph (E)(ii), the employer will not place the nonimmigrant with another employer (regardless of whether or not such other employer is an H–1B-dependent employer) where—

(i) the nonimmigrant performs duties in whole or in part at one or more worksites owned, operated, or controlled by such other employer; and

(ii) there are indicia of an employment relationship between the nonimmigrant and such other employer;


unless the employer has inquired of the other employer as to whether, and has no knowledge that, within the period beginning 90 days before and ending 90 days after the date of the placement of the nonimmigrant with the other employer, the other employer has displaced or intends to displace a United States worker employed by the other employer.

(G)(i) In the case of an application described in subparagraph (E)(ii), subject to clause (ii), the employer, prior to filing the application—

(I) has taken good faith steps to recruit, in the United States using procedures that meet industry-wide standards and offering compensation that is at least as great as that required to be offered to H–1B nonimmigrants under subparagraph (A), United States workers for the job for which the nonimmigrant or nonimmigrants is or are sought; and

(II) has offered the job to any United States worker who applies and is equally or better qualified for the job for which the nonimmigrant or nonimmigrants is or are sought.


(ii) The conditions described in clause (i) shall not apply to an application filed with respect to the employment of an H–1B nonimmigrant who is described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of section 1153(b)(1) of this title.


The employer shall make available for public examination, within one working day after the date on which an application under this paragraph is filed, at the employer's principal place of business or worksite, a copy of each such application (and such accompanying documents as are necessary). The Secretary shall compile, on a current basis, a list (by employer and by occupational classification) of the applications filed under this subsection. Such list shall include the wage rate, number of aliens sought, period of intended employment, and date of need. The Secretary shall make such list available for public examination in Washington, D.C. The Secretary of Labor shall review such an application only for completeness and obvious inaccuracies. Unless the Secretary finds that the application is incomplete or obviously inaccurate, the Secretary shall provide the certification described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title within 7 days of the date of the filing of the application. The application form shall include a clear statement explaining the liability under subparagraph (F) of a placing employer if the other employer described in such subparagraph displaces a United States worker as described in such subparagraph. Nothing in subparagraph (G) shall be construed to prohibit an employer from using legitimate selection criteria relevant to the job that are normal or customary to the type of job involved, so long as such criteria are not applied in a discriminatory manner.

(2)(A) Subject to paragraph (5)(A), the Secretary shall establish a process for the receipt, investigation, and disposition of complaints respecting a petitioner's failure to meet a condition specified in an application submitted under paragraph (1) or a petitioner's misrepresentation of material facts in such an application. Complaints may be filed by any aggrieved person or organization (including bargaining representatives). No investigation or hearing shall be conducted on a complaint concerning such a failure or misrepresentation unless the complaint was filed not later than 12 months after the date of the failure or misrepresentation, respectively. The Secretary shall conduct an investigation under this paragraph if there is reasonable cause to believe that such a failure or misrepresentation has occurred.

(B) Under such process, the Secretary shall provide, within 30 days after the date such a complaint is filed, for a determination as to whether or not a reasonable basis exists to make a finding described in subparagraph (C). If the Secretary determines that such a reasonable basis exists, the Secretary shall provide for notice of such determination to the interested parties and an opportunity for a hearing on the complaint, in accordance with section 556 of title 5, within 60 days after the date of the determination. If such a hearing is requested, the Secretary shall make a finding concerning the matter by not later than 60 days after the date of the hearing. In the case of similar complaints respecting the same applicant, the Secretary may consolidate the hearings under this subparagraph on such complaints.

(C)(i) If the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(B), (1)(E), or (1)(F), a substantial failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(G)(i)(I), or a misrepresentation of material fact in an application—

(I) the Secretary shall notify the Attorney General of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $1,000 per violation) as the Secretary determines to be appropriate; and

(II) the Attorney General shall not approve petitions filed with respect to that employer under section 1154 or 1184(c) of this title during a period of at least 1 year for aliens to be employed by the employer.


(ii) If the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1), a willful misrepresentation of material fact in an application, or a violation of clause (iv)—

(I) the Secretary shall notify the Attorney General of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $5,000 per violation) as the Secretary determines to be appropriate; and

(II) the Attorney General shall not approve petitions filed with respect to that employer under section 1154 or 1184(c) of this title during a period of at least 2 years for aliens to be employed by the employer.


(iii) If the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1) or a willful misrepresentation of material fact in an application, in the course of which failure or misrepresentation the employer displaced a United States worker employed by the employer within the period beginning 90 days before and ending 90 days after the date of filing of any visa petition supported by the application—

(I) the Secretary shall notify the Attorney General of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $35,000 per violation) as the Secretary determines to be appropriate; and

(II) the Attorney General shall not approve petitions filed with respect to that employer under section 1154 or 1184(c) of this title during a period of at least 3 years for aliens to be employed by the employer.


(iv) It is a violation of this clause for an employer who has filed an application under this subsection to intimidate, threaten, restrain, coerce, blacklist, discharge, or in any other manner discriminate against an employee (which term, for purposes of this clause, includes a former employee and an applicant for employment) because the employee has disclosed information to the employer, or to any other person, that the employee reasonably believes evidences a violation of this subsection, or any rule or regulation pertaining to this subsection, or because the employee cooperates or seeks to cooperate in an investigation or other proceeding concerning the employer's compliance with the requirements of this subsection or any rule or regulation pertaining to this subsection.

(v) The Secretary of Labor and the Attorney General shall devise a process under which an H–1B nonimmigrant who files a complaint regarding a violation of clause (iv) and is otherwise eligible to remain and work in the United States may be allowed to seek other appropriate employment in the United States for a period not to exceed the maximum period of stay authorized for such nonimmigrant classification.

(vi)(I) It is a violation of this clause for an employer who has filed an application under this subsection to require an H–1B nonimmigrant to pay a penalty for ceasing employment with the employer prior to a date agreed to by the nonimmigrant and the employer. The Secretary shall determine whether a required payment is a penalty (and not liquidated damages) pursuant to relevant State law.

(II) It is a violation of this clause for an employer who has filed an application under this subsection to require an alien who is the subject of a petition filed under section 1184(c)(1) of this title, for which a fee is imposed under section 1184(c)(9) of this title, to reimburse, or otherwise compensate, the employer for part or all of the cost of such fee. It is a violation of this clause for such an employer otherwise to accept such reimbursement or compensation from such an alien.

(III) If the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, that an employer has committed a violation of this clause, the Secretary may impose a civil monetary penalty of $1,000 for each such violation and issue an administrative order requiring the return to the nonimmigrant of any amount paid in violation of this clause, or, if the nonimmigrant cannot be located, requiring payment of any such amount to the general fund of the Treasury.

(vii)(I) It is a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A) for an employer, who has filed an application under this subsection and who places an H–1B nonimmigrant designated as a full-time employee on the petition filed under section 1184(c)(1) of this title by the employer with respect to the nonimmigrant, after the nonimmigrant has entered into employment with the employer, in nonproductive status due to a decision by the employer (based on factors such as lack of work), or due to the nonimmigrant's lack of a permit or license, to fail to pay the nonimmigrant full-time wages in accordance with paragraph (1)(A) for all such nonproductive time.

(II) It is a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A) for an employer, who has filed an application under this subsection and who places an H–1B nonimmigrant designated as a part-time employee on the petition filed under section 1184(c)(1) of this title by the employer with respect to the nonimmigrant, after the nonimmigrant has entered into employment with the employer, in nonproductive status under circumstances described in subclause (I), to fail to pay such a nonimmigrant for such hours as are designated on such petition consistent with the rate of pay identified on such petition.

(III) In the case of an H–1B nonimmigrant who has not yet entered into employment with an employer who has had approved an application under this subsection, and a petition under section 1184(c)(1) of this title, with respect to the nonimmigrant, the provisions of subclauses (I) and (II) shall apply to the employer beginning 30 days after the date the nonimmigrant first is admitted into the United States pursuant to the petition, or 60 days after the date the nonimmigrant becomes eligible to work for the employer (in the case of a nonimmigrant who is present in the United States on the date of the approval of the petition).

(IV) This clause does not apply to a failure to pay wages to an H–1B nonimmigrant for nonproductive time due to non-work-related factors, such as the voluntary request of the nonimmigrant for an absence or circumstances rendering the nonimmigrant unable to work.

(V) This clause shall not be construed as prohibiting an employer that is a school or other educational institution from applying to an H–1B nonimmigrant an established salary practice of the employer, under which the employer pays to H–1B nonimmigrants and United States workers in the same occupational classification an annual salary in disbursements over fewer than 12 months, if—

(aa) the nonimmigrant agrees to the compressed annual salary payments prior to the commencement of the employment; and

(bb) the application of the salary practice to the nonimmigrant does not otherwise cause the nonimmigrant to violate any condition of the nonimmigrant's authorization under this chapter to remain in the United States.


(VI) This clause shall not be construed as superseding clause (viii).

(viii) It is a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A) for an employer who has filed an application under this subsection to fail to offer to an H–1B nonimmigrant, during the nonimmigrant's period of authorized employment, benefits and eligibility for benefits (including the opportunity to participate in health, life, disability, and other insurance plans; the opportunity to participate in retirement and savings plans; and cash bonuses and noncash compensation, such as stock options (whether or not based on performance)) on the same basis, and in accordance with the same criteria, as the employer offers to United States workers.

(D) If the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, that an employer has not paid wages at the wage level specified under the application and required under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall order the employer to provide for payment of such amounts of back pay as may be required to comply with the requirements of paragraph (1), whether or not a penalty under subparagraph (C) has been imposed.

(E) If an H–1B-dependent employer places a nonexempt H–1B nonimmigrant with another employer as provided under paragraph (1)(F) and the other employer has displaced or displaces a United States worker employed by such other employer during the period described in such paragraph, such displacement shall be considered for purposes of this paragraph a failure, by the placing employer, to meet a condition specified in an application submitted under paragraph (1); except that the Attorney General may impose a sanction described in subclause (II) of subparagraph (C)(i), (C)(ii), or (C)(iii) only if the Secretary of Labor found that such placing employer—

(i) knew or had reason to know of such displacement at the time of the placement of the nonimmigrant with the other employer; or

(ii) has been subject to a sanction under this subparagraph based upon a previous placement of an H–1B nonimmigrant with the same other employer.


(F) The Secretary may, on a case-by-case basis, subject an employer to random investigations for a period of up to 5 years, beginning on the date (on or after October 21, 1998) on which the employer is found by the Secretary to have committed a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1) (or has been found under paragraph (5) to have committed a willful failure to meet the condition of paragraph (1)(G)(i)(II)) or to have made a willful misrepresentation of material fact in an application. The preceding sentence shall apply to an employer regardless of whether or not the employer is an H–1B-dependent employer. The authority of the Secretary under this subparagraph shall not be construed to be subject to, or limited by, the requirements of subparagraph (A).

(G)(i) The Secretary of Labor may initiate an investigation of any employer that employs nonimmigrants described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title if the Secretary of Labor has reasonable cause to believe that the employer is not in compliance with this subsection. In the case of an investigation under this clause, the Secretary of Labor (or the acting Secretary in the case of the absence of 9 disability of the Secretary of Labor) shall personally certify that reasonable cause exists and shall approve commencement of the investigation. The investigation may be initiated for reasons other than completeness and obvious inaccuracies by the employer in complying with this subsection.

(ii) If the Secretary of Labor receives specific credible information from a source who is likely to have knowledge of an employer's practices or employment conditions, or an employer's compliance with the employer's labor condition application under paragraph (1), and whose identity is known to the Secretary of Labor, and such information provides reasonable cause to believe that the employer has committed a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(E), (1)(F), or (1)(G)(i)(I), has engaged in a pattern or practice of failures to meet such a condition, or has committed a substantial failure to meet such a condition that affects multiple employees, the Secretary of Labor may conduct an investigation into the alleged failure or failures. The Secretary of Labor may withhold the identity of the source from the employer, and the source's identity shall not be subject to disclosure under section 552 of title 5.

(iii) The Secretary of Labor shall establish a procedure for any person desiring to provide to the Secretary of Labor information described in clause (ii) that may be used, in whole or in part, as the basis for the commencement of an investigation described in such clause, to provide the information in writing on a form developed and provided by the Secretary of Labor and completed by or on behalf of the person. The person may not be an officer or employee of the Department of Labor, unless the information satisfies the requirement of clause (iv)(II) (although an officer or employee of the Department of Labor may complete the form on behalf of the person).

(iv) Any investigation initiated or approved by the Secretary of Labor under clause (ii) shall be based on information that satisfies the requirements of such clause and that—

(I) originates from a source other than an officer or employee of the Department of Labor; or

(II) was lawfully obtained by the Secretary of Labor in the course of lawfully conducting another Department of Labor investigation under this chapter of 9 any other Act.


(v) The receipt by the Secretary of Labor of information submitted by an employer to the Attorney General or the Secretary of Labor for purposes of securing the employment of a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title shall not be considered a receipt of information for purposes of clause (ii).

(vi) No investigation described in clause (ii) (or hearing described in clause (viii) based on such investigation) may be conducted with respect to information about a failure to meet a condition described in clause (ii), unless the Secretary of Labor receives the information not later than 12 months after the date of the alleged failure.

(vii) The Secretary of Labor shall provide notice to an employer with respect to whom there is reasonable cause to initiate an investigation described in clauses 10 (i) or (ii), prior to the commencement of an investigation under such clauses, of the intent to conduct an investigation. The notice shall be provided in such a manner, and shall contain sufficient detail, to permit the employer to respond to the allegations before an investigation is commenced. The Secretary of Labor is not required to comply with this clause if the Secretary of Labor determines that to do so would interfere with an effort by the Secretary of Labor to secure compliance by the employer with the requirements of this subsection. There shall be no judicial review of a determination by the Secretary of Labor under this clause.

(viii) An investigation under clauses 10 (i) or (ii) may be conducted for a period of up to 60 days. If the Secretary of Labor determines after such an investigation that a reasonable basis exists to make a finding that the employer has committed a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), (1)(E), (1)(F), or (1)(G)(i)(I), has engaged in a pattern or practice of failures to meet such a condition, or has committed a substantial failure to meet such a condition that affects multiple employees, the Secretary of Labor shall provide for notice of such determination to the interested parties and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 556 of title 5 within 120 days after the date of the determination. If such a hearing is requested, the Secretary of Labor shall make a finding concerning the matter by not later than 120 days after the date of the hearing.

(H)(i) Except as provided in clauses (ii) and (iii), a person or entity is considered to have complied with the requirements of this subsection, notwithstanding a technical or procedural failure to meet such requirements, if there was a good faith attempt to comply with the requirements.

(ii) Clause (i) shall not apply if—

(I) the Department of Labor (or another enforcement agency) has explained to the person or entity the basis for the failure;

(II) the person or entity has been provided a period of not less than 10 business days (beginning after the date of the explanation) within which to correct the failure; and

(III) the person or entity has not corrected the failure voluntarily within such period.


(iii) A person or entity that, in the course of an investigation, is found to have violated the prevailing wage requirements set forth in paragraph (1)(A), shall not be assessed fines or other penalties for such violation if the person or entity can establish that the manner in which the prevailing wage was calculated was consistent with recognized industry standards and practices.

(iv) Clauses (i) and (iii) shall not apply to a person or entity that has engaged in or is engaging in a pattern or practice of willful violations of this subsection.

(I) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as superseding or preempting any other enforcement-related authority under this chapter (such as the authorities under section 1324b of this title), or any other Act.

(3)(A) For purposes of this subsection, the term "H–1B-dependent employer" means an employer that—

(i)(I) has 25 or fewer full-time equivalent employees who are employed in the United States; and (II) employs more than 7 H–1B nonimmigrants;

(ii)(I) has at least 26 but not more than 50 full-time equivalent employees who are employed in the United States; and (II) employs more than 12 H–1B nonimmigrants; or

(iii)(I) has at least 51 full-time equivalent employees who are employed in the United States; and (II) employs H–1B nonimmigrants in a number that is equal to at least 15 percent of the number of such full-time equivalent employees.


(B) For purposes of this subsection—

(i) the term "exempt H–1B nonimmigrant" means an H–1B nonimmigrant who—

(I) receives wages (including cash bonuses and similar compensation) at an annual rate equal to at least $60,000; or

(II) has attained a master's or higher degree (or its equivalent) in a specialty related to the intended employment; and


(ii) the term "nonexempt H–1B nonimmigrant" means an H–1B nonimmigrant who is not an exempt H–1B nonimmigrant.


(C) For purposes of subparagraph (A)—

(i) in computing the number of full-time equivalent employees and the number of H–1B nonimmigrants, exempt H–1B nonimmigrants shall not be taken into account during the longer of—

(I) the 6-month period beginning on October 21, 1998; or

(II) the period beginning on October 21, 1998, and ending on the date final regulations are issued to carry out this paragraph; and


(ii) any group treated as a single employer under subsection (b), (c), (m), or (o) of section 414 of title 26 shall be treated as a single employer.


(4) For purposes of this subsection:

(A) The term "area of employment" means the area within normal commuting distance of the worksite or physical location where the work of the H–1B nonimmigrant is or will be performed. If such worksite or location is within a Metropolitan Statistical Area, any place within such area is deemed to be within the area of employment.

(B) In the case of an application with respect to one or more H–1B nonimmigrants by an employer, the employer is considered to "displace" a United States worker from a job if the employer lays off the worker from a job that is essentially the equivalent of the job for which the nonimmigrant or nonimmigrants is or are sought. A job shall not be considered to be essentially equivalent of another job unless it involves essentially the same responsibilities, was held by a United States worker with substantially equivalent qualifications and experience, and is located in the same area of employment as the other job.

(C) The term "H–1B nonimmigrant" means an alien admitted or provided status as a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title.

(D)(i) The term "lays off", with respect to a worker—

(I) means to cause the worker's loss of employment, other than through a discharge for inadequate performance, violation of workplace rules, cause, voluntary departure, voluntary retirement, or the expiration of a grant or contract (other than a temporary employment contract entered into in order to evade a condition described in subparagraph (E) or (F) of paragraph (1)); but

(II) does not include any situation in which the worker is offered, as an alternative to such loss of employment, a similar employment opportunity with the same employer (or, in the case of a placement of a worker with another employer under paragraph (1)(F), with either employer described in such paragraph) at equivalent or higher compensation and benefits than the position from which the employee was discharged, regardless of whether or not the employee accepts the offer.


(ii) Nothing in this subparagraph is intended to limit an employee's rights under a collective bargaining agreement or other employment contract.

(E) The term "United States worker" means an employee who—

(i) is a citizen or national of the United States; or

(ii) is an alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, is admitted as a refugee under section 1157 of this title, is granted asylum under section 1158 of this title, or is an immigrant otherwise authorized, by this chapter or by the Attorney General, to be employed.


(5)(A) This paragraph shall apply instead of subparagraphs (A) through (E) of paragraph (2) in the case of a violation described in subparagraph (B), but shall not be construed to limit or affect the authority of the Secretary or the Attorney General with respect to any other violation.

(B) The Attorney General shall establish a process for the receipt, initial review, and disposition in accordance with this paragraph of complaints respecting an employer's failure to meet the condition of paragraph (1)(G)(i)(II) or a petitioner's misrepresentation of material facts with respect to such condition. Complaints may be filed by an aggrieved individual who has submitted a resume or otherwise applied in a reasonable manner for the job that is the subject of the condition. No proceeding shall be conducted under this paragraph on a complaint concerning such a failure or misrepresentation unless the Attorney General determines that the complaint was filed not later than 12 months after the date of the failure or misrepresentation, respectively.

(C) If the Attorney General finds that a complaint has been filed in accordance with subparagraph (B) and there is reasonable cause to believe that such a failure or misrepresentation described in such complaint has occurred, the Attorney General shall initiate binding arbitration proceedings by requesting the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service to appoint an arbitrator from the roster of arbitrators maintained by such Service. The procedure and rules of such Service shall be applicable to the selection of such arbitrator and to such arbitration proceedings. The Attorney General shall pay the fee and expenses of the arbitrator.

(D)(i) The arbitrator shall make findings respecting whether a failure or misrepresentation described in subparagraph (B) occurred. If the arbitrator concludes that failure or misrepresentation was willful, the arbitrator shall make a finding to that effect. The arbitrator may not find such a failure or misrepresentation (or that such a failure or misrepresentation was willful) unless the complainant demonstrates such a failure or misrepresentation (or its willful character) by clear and convincing evidence. The arbitrator shall transmit the findings in the form of a written opinion to the parties to the arbitration and the Attorney General. Such findings shall be final and conclusive, and, except as provided in this subparagraph, no official or court of the United States shall have power or jurisdiction to review any such findings.

(ii) The Attorney General may review and reverse or modify the findings of an arbitrator only on the same bases as an award of an arbitrator may be vacated or modified under section 10 or 11 of title 9.

(iii) With respect to the findings of an arbitrator, a court may review only the actions of the Attorney General under clause (ii) and may set aside such actions only on the grounds described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of section 706(a)(2) of title 5. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such judicial review may only be brought in an appropriate United States court of appeals.

(E) If the Attorney General receives a finding of an arbitrator under this paragraph that an employer has failed to meet the condition of paragraph (1)(G)(i)(II) or has misrepresented a material fact with respect to such condition, unless the Attorney General reverses or modifies the finding under subparagraph (D)(ii)—

(i) the Attorney General may impose administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $1,000 per violation or $5,000 per violation in the case of a willful failure or misrepresentation) as the Attorney General determines to be appropriate; and

(ii) the Attorney General is authorized to not approve petitions filed, with respect to that employer and for aliens to be employed by the employer, under section 1154 or 1184(c) of this title

(I) during a period of not more than 1 year; or

(II) in the case of a willful failure or willful misrepresentation, during a period of not more than 2 years.


(F) The Attorney General shall not delegate, to any other employee or official of the Department of Justice, any function of the Attorney General under this paragraph, until 60 days after the Attorney General has submitted a plan for such delegation to the Committees on the Judiciary of the United States House of Representatives and the Senate.

(o) Omitted

(p) Computation of prevailing wage level

(1) In computing the prevailing wage level for an occupational classification in an area of employment for purposes of subsections (a)(5)(A), (n)(1)(A)(i)(II), and (t)(1)(A)(i)(II) in the case of an employee of—

(A) an institution of higher education (as defined in section 1001(a) of title 20), or a related or affiliated nonprofit entity; or

(B) a nonprofit research organization or a Governmental research organization,


the prevailing wage level shall only take into account employees at such institutions and organizations in the area of employment.

(2) With respect to a professional athlete (as defined in subsection (a)(5)(A)(iii)(II)) when the job opportunity is covered by professional sports league rules or regulations, the wage set forth in those rules or regulations shall be considered as not adversely affecting the wages of United States workers similarly employed and be considered the prevailing wage.

(3) The prevailing wage required to be paid pursuant to subsections (a)(5)(A), (n)(1)(A)(i)(II), and (t)(1)(A)(i)(II) shall be 100 percent of the wage determined pursuant to those sections.

(4) Where the Secretary of Labor uses, or makes available to employers, a governmental survey to determine the prevailing wage, such survey shall provide at least 4 levels of wages commensurate with experience, education, and the level of supervision. Where an existing government survey has only 2 levels, 2 intermediate levels may be created by dividing by 3, the difference between the 2 levels offered, adding the quotient thus obtained to the first level and subtracting that quotient from the second level.

(q) Academic honoraria

Any alien admitted under section 1101(a)(15)(B) of this title may accept an honorarium payment and associated incidental expenses for a usual academic activity or activities (lasting not longer than 9 days at any single institution), as defined by the Attorney General in consultation with the Secretary of Education, if such payment is offered by an institution or organization described in subsection (p)(1) and is made for services conducted for the benefit of that institution or entity and if the alien has not accepted such payment or expenses from more than 5 institutions or organizations in the previous 6-month period.

(r) Exception for certain alien nurses

Subsection (a)(5)(C) shall not apply to an alien who seeks to enter the United States for the purpose of performing labor as a nurse who presents to the consular officer (or in the case of an adjustment of status, the Attorney General) a certified statement from the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools (or an equivalent independent credentialing organization approved for the certification of nurses under subsection (a)(5)(C) by the Attorney General in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services) that—

(1) the alien has a valid and unrestricted license as a nurse in a State where the alien intends to be employed and such State verifies that the foreign licenses of alien nurses are authentic and unencumbered;

(2) the alien has passed the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX);

(3) the alien is a graduate of a nursing program—

(A) in which the language of instruction was English;

(B) located in a country—

(i) designated by such commission not later than 30 days after November 12, 1999, based on such commission's assessment that the quality of nursing education in that country, and the English language proficiency of those who complete such programs in that country, justify the country's designation; or

(ii) designated on the basis of such an assessment by unanimous agreement of such commission and any equivalent credentialing organizations which have been approved under subsection (a)(5)(C) for the certification of nurses under this subsection; and


(C)(i) which was in operation on or before November 12, 1999; or

(ii) has been approved by unanimous agreement of such commission and any equivalent credentialing organizations which have been approved under subsection (a)(5)(C) for the certification of nurses under this subsection.

(s) Consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge

In determining whether an alien described in subsection (a)(4)(C)(i) is inadmissible under subsection (a)(4) or ineligible to receive an immigrant visa or otherwise to adjust to the status of permanent resident by reason of subsection (a)(4), the consular officer or the Attorney General shall not consider any benefits the alien may have received that were authorized under section 1641(c) of this title.

(t) 11 Nonimmigrant professionals; labor attestations

(1) No alien may be admitted or provided status as a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title in an occupational classification unless the employer has filed with the Secretary of Labor an attestation stating the following:

(A) The employer—

(i) is offering and will offer during the period of authorized employment to aliens admitted or provided status under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title wages that are at least—

(I) the actual wage level paid by the employer to all other individuals with similar experience and qualifications for the specific employment in question; or

(II) the prevailing wage level for the occupational classification in the area of employment,


whichever is greater, based on the best information available as of the time of filing the attestation; and

(ii) will provide working conditions for such a nonimmigrant that will not adversely affect the working conditions of workers similarly employed.


(B) There is not a strike or lockout in the course of a labor dispute in the occupational classification at the place of employment.

(C) The employer, at the time of filing the attestation—

(i) has provided notice of the filing under this paragraph to the bargaining representative (if any) of the employer's employees in the occupational classification and area for which aliens are sought; or

(ii) if there is no such bargaining representative, has provided notice of filing in the occupational classification through such methods as physical posting in conspicuous locations at the place of employment or electronic notification to employees in the occupational classification for which nonimmigrants under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title are sought.


(D) A specification of the number of workers sought, the occupational classification in which the workers will be employed, and wage rate and conditions under which they will be employed.


(2)(A) The employer shall make available for public examination, within one working day after the date on which an attestation under this subsection is filed, at the employer's principal place of business or worksite, a copy of each such attestation (and such accompanying documents as are necessary).

(B)(i) The Secretary of Labor shall compile, on a current basis, a list (by employer and by occupational classification) of the attestations filed under this subsection. Such list shall include, with respect to each attestation, the wage rate, number of aliens sought, period of intended employment, and date of need.

(ii) The Secretary of Labor shall make such list available for public examination in Washington, D.C.

(C) The Secretary of Labor shall review an attestation filed under this subsection only for completeness and obvious inaccuracies. Unless the Secretary of Labor finds that an attestation is incomplete or obviously inaccurate, the Secretary of Labor shall provide the certification described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title within 7 days of the date of the filing of the attestation.

(3)(A) The Secretary of Labor shall establish a process for the receipt, investigation, and disposition of complaints respecting the failure of an employer to meet a condition specified in an attestation submitted under this subsection or misrepresentation by the employer of material facts in such an attestation. Complaints may be filed by any aggrieved person or organization (including bargaining representatives). No investigation or hearing shall be conducted on a complaint concerning such a failure or misrepresentation unless the complaint was filed not later than 12 months after the date of the failure or misrepresentation, respectively. The Secretary of Labor shall conduct an investigation under this paragraph if there is reasonable cause to believe that such a failure or misrepresentation has occurred.

(B) Under the process described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary of Labor shall provide, within 30 days after the date a complaint is filed, for a determination as to whether or not a reasonable basis exists to make a finding described in subparagraph (C). If the Secretary of Labor determines that such a reasonable basis exists, the Secretary of Labor shall provide for notice of such determination to the interested parties and an opportunity for a hearing on the complaint, in accordance with section 556 of title 5, within 60 days after the date of the determination. If such a hearing is requested, the Secretary of Labor shall make a finding concerning the matter by not later than 60 days after the date of the hearing. In the case of similar complaints respecting the same applicant, the Secretary of Labor may consolidate the hearings under this subparagraph on such complaints.

(C)(i) If the Secretary of Labor finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(B), a substantial failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(C) or (1)(D), or a misrepresentation of material fact in an attestation—

(I) the Secretary of Labor shall notify the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $1,000 per violation) as the Secretary of Labor determines to be appropriate; and

(II) the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland Security, as appropriate, shall not approve petitions or applications filed with respect to that employer under section 1154, 1184(c), 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1), or 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title during a period of at least 1 year for aliens to be employed by the employer.


(ii) If the Secretary of Labor finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1), a willful misrepresentation of material fact in an attestation, or a violation of clause (iv)—

(I) the Secretary of Labor shall notify the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $5,000 per violation) as the Secretary of Labor determines to be appropriate; and

(II) the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland Security, as appropriate, shall not approve petitions or applications filed with respect to that employer under section 1154, 1184(c), 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1), or 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title during a period of at least 2 years for aliens to be employed by the employer.


(iii) If the Secretary of Labor finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1) or a willful misrepresentation of material fact in an attestation, in the course of which failure or misrepresentation the employer displaced a United States worker employed by the employer within the period beginning 90 days before and ending 90 days after the date of filing of any visa petition or application supported by the attestation—

(I) the Secretary of Labor shall notify the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $35,000 per violation) as the Secretary of Labor determines to be appropriate; and

(II) the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Homeland Security, as appropriate, shall not approve petitions or applications filed with respect to that employer under section 1154, 1184(c), 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1), or 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title during a period of at least 3 years for aliens to be employed by the employer.


(iv) It is a violation of this clause for an employer who has filed an attestation under this subsection to intimidate, threaten, restrain, coerce, blacklist, discharge, or in any other manner discriminate against an employee (which term, for purposes of this clause, includes a former employee and an applicant for employment) because the employee has disclosed information to the employer, or to any other person, that the employee reasonably believes evidences a violation of this subsection, or any rule or regulation pertaining to this subsection, or because the employee cooperates or seeks to cooperate in an investigation or other proceeding concerning the employer's compliance with the requirements of this subsection or any rule or regulation pertaining to this subsection.

(v) The Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall devise a process under which a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title who files a complaint regarding a violation of clause (iv) and is otherwise eligible to remain and work in the United States may be allowed to seek other appropriate employment in the United States for a period not to exceed the maximum period of stay authorized for such nonimmigrant classification.

(vi)(I) It is a violation of this clause for an employer who has filed an attestation under this subsection to require a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title to pay a penalty for ceasing employment with the employer prior to a date agreed to by the nonimmigrant and the employer. The Secretary of Labor shall determine whether a required payment is a penalty (and not liquidated damages) pursuant to relevant State law.

(II) If the Secretary of Labor finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, that an employer has committed a violation of this clause, the Secretary of Labor may impose a civil monetary penalty of $1,000 for each such violation and issue an administrative order requiring the return to the nonimmigrant of any amount paid in violation of this clause, or, if the nonimmigrant cannot be located, requiring payment of any such amount to the general fund of the Treasury.

(vii)(I) It is a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A) for an employer who has filed an attestation under this subsection and who places a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title designated as a full-time employee in the attestation, after the nonimmigrant has entered into employment with the employer, in nonproductive status due to a decision by the employer (based on factors such as lack of work), or due to the nonimmigrant's lack of a permit or license, to fail to pay the nonimmigrant full-time wages in accordance with paragraph (1)(A) for all such nonproductive time.

(II) It is a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A) for an employer who has filed an attestation under this subsection and who places a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title designated as a part-time employee in the attestation, after the nonimmigrant has entered into employment with the employer, in nonproductive status under circumstances described in subclause (I), to fail to pay such a nonimmigrant for such hours as are designated on the attestation consistent with the rate of pay identified on the attestation.

(III) In the case of a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title who has not yet entered into employment with an employer who has had approved an attestation under this subsection with respect to the nonimmigrant, the provisions of subclauses (I) and (II) shall apply to the employer beginning 30 days after the date the nonimmigrant first is admitted into the United States, or 60 days after the date the nonimmigrant becomes eligible to work for the employer in the case of a nonimmigrant who is present in the United States on the date of the approval of the attestation filed with the Secretary of Labor.

(IV) This clause does not apply to a failure to pay wages to a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title for nonproductive time due to non-work-related factors, such as the voluntary request of the nonimmigrant for an absence or circumstances rendering the nonimmigrant unable to work.

(V) This clause shall not be construed as prohibiting an employer that is a school or other educational institution from applying to a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title an established salary practice of the employer, under which the employer pays to nonimmigrants under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title and United States workers in the same occupational classification an annual salary in disbursements over fewer than 12 months, if—

(aa) the nonimmigrant agrees to the compressed annual salary payments prior to the commencement of the employment; and

(bb) the application of the salary practice to the nonimmigrant does not otherwise cause the nonimmigrant to violate any condition of the nonimmigrant's authorization under this chapter to remain in the United States.


(VI) This clause shall not be construed as superseding clause (viii).

(viii) It is a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A) for an employer who has filed an attestation under this subsection to fail to offer to a nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title, during the nonimmigrant's period of authorized employment, benefits and eligibility for benefits (including the opportunity to participate in health, life, disability, and other insurance plans; the opportunity to participate in retirement and savings plans; and cash bonuses and non-cash compensation, such as stock options (whether or not based on performance)) on the same basis, and in accordance with the same criteria, as the employer offers to United States workers.

(D) If the Secretary of Labor finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, that an employer has not paid wages at the wage level specified in the attestation and required under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Labor shall order the employer to provide for payment of such amounts of back pay as may be required to comply with the requirements of paragraph (1), whether or not a penalty under subparagraph (C) has been imposed.

(E) The Secretary of Labor may, on a case-by-case basis, subject an employer to random investigations for a period of up to 5 years, beginning on the date on which the employer is found by the Secretary of Labor to have committed a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1) or to have made a willful misrepresentation of material fact in an attestation. The authority of the Secretary of Labor under this subparagraph shall not be construed to be subject to, or limited by, the requirements of subparagraph (A).

(F) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as superseding or preempting any other enforcement-related authority under this chapter (such as the authorities under section 1324b of this title), or any other Act.

(4) For purposes of this subsection:

(A) The term "area of employment" means the area within normal commuting distance of the worksite or physical location where the work of the nonimmigrant under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title is or will be performed. If such worksite or location is within a Metropolitan Statistical Area, any place within such area is deemed to be within the area of employment.

(B) In the case of an attestation with respect to one or more nonimmigrants under section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title by an employer, the employer is considered to "displace" a United States worker from a job if the employer lays off the worker from a job that is essentially the equivalent of the job for which the nonimmigrant or nonimmigrants is or are sought. A job shall not be considered to be essentially equivalent of another job unless it involves essentially the same responsibilities, was held by a United States worker with substantially equivalent qualifications and experience, and is located in the same area of employment as the other job.

(C)(i) The term "lays off", with respect to a worker—

(I) means to cause the worker's loss of employment, other than through a discharge for inadequate performance, violation of workplace rules, cause, voluntary departure, voluntary retirement, or the expiration of a grant or contract; but

(II) does not include any situation in which the worker is offered, as an alternative to such loss of employment, a similar employment opportunity with the same employer at equivalent or higher compensation and benefits than the position from which the employee was discharged, regardless of whether or not the employee accepts the offer.


(ii) Nothing in this subparagraph is intended to limit an employee's rights under a collective bargaining agreement or other employment contract.

(D) The term "United States worker" means an employee who—

(i) is a citizen or national of the United States; or

(ii) is an alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, is admitted as a refugee under section 1157 of this title, is granted asylum under section 1158 of this title, or is an immigrant otherwise authorized, by this chapter or by the Secretary of Homeland Security, to be employed.

(t) 12 Foreign residence requirement

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), no person admitted under section 1101(a)(15)(Q)(ii)(I) of this title, or acquiring such status after admission, shall be eligible to apply for nonimmigrant status, an immigrant visa, or permanent residence under this chapter until it is established that such person has resided and been physically present in the person's country of nationality or last residence for an aggregate of at least 2 years following departure from the United States.

(2) The Secretary of Homeland Security may waive the requirement of such 2-year foreign residence abroad if the Secretary determines that—

(A) departure from the United States would impose exceptional hardship upon the alien's spouse or child (if such spouse or child is a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence); or

(B) the admission of the alien is in the public interest or the national interest of the United States.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 2, §212, 66 Stat. 182; July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title III, §301 (a), 70 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 85–508, §23, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 86–3, §20(b), Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 13; Pub. L. 86–648, §8, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 505; Pub. L. 87–256, §109(c), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 87–301, §§11–15, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 654, 655; Pub. L. 89–236, §§10, 15, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 917, 919; Pub. L. 91–225, §2, Apr. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 116; Pub. L. 94–484, title VI, §601(a), (c), (d), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2300, 2301; Pub. L. 94–571, §§5, 7(d), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2705, 2706; Pub. L. 95–83, title III, §307(q)(1), (2), Aug. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 394; Pub. L. 95–549, title I, §§101, 102, Oct. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 2065; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3201(b), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 497; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §203(d), (f), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 96–538, title IV, §404, Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3192; Pub. L. 97–116, §§4, 5(a)(1), (2), (b), 18(e), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1611, 1612, 1620; Pub. L. 98–454, title VI, §602[(a)], Oct. 5, 1984, 98 Stat. 1737; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §220(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2028; Pub. L. 99–396, §14(a), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 842; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1751(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–47; Pub. L. 99–639, §6(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3543; Pub. L. 99–653, §7(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3657; Pub. L. 100–204, title VIII, §806(c), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 100–525, §§3(1)(A), 7(c)(1), (3), 8(f), 9(i), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2614, 2616, 2617, 2620; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7349(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4473; Pub. L. 101–238, §3(b), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2100; Pub. L. 101–246, title I, §131(a), (c), Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 31; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §162(e)(1), (f)(2)(B), title II, §§202(b), 205(c)(3), title V, §§511(a), 514(a), title VI, §601(a), (b), (d), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5011, 5012, 5014, 5020, 5052, 5053, 5067, 5075; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §§302(e)(6), (9), 303(a)(5)(B), (6), (7)(B), 306(a)(10), (12), 307(a)–(g), 309(b)(7), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1746, 1747, 1751, 1753-1755, 1759; Pub. L. 103–43, title XX, §2007(a), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 210; Pub. L. 103–317, title V, §506(a), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1765; Pub. L. 103–322, title XIII, §130003(b)(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2024; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §§203(a), 219(e), (z)(1), (5), 220(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4311, 4316, 4318, 4319; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §§411, 412, 440(d), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1268, 1269, 1277; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title I, §124(b)(1), title III, §§301(b)(1), (c)(1), 304(b), 305(c), 306(d), 308(c)(2)(B), (d)(1), (e)(1)(B), (C), (2)(A), (6), (f)(1)(C)–(F), (3)(A), (g)(1), (4)(B), (10)(A), (H), 322(a)(2)(B), 341(a), (b), 342(a), 343, 344(a), 345(a), 346(a), 347(a), 348(a), 349, 351(a), 352(a), 355, title V, §531(a), title VI, §§602(a), 622(b), 624(a), 671(e)(3), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–562, 3009-576, 3009-578, 3009-597, 3009-607, 3009-612, 3009-616, 3009-619 to 3009-622, 3009-625, 3009-629, 3009-635 to 3009-641, 3009-644, 3009-674, 3009-689, 3009-695, 3009-698, 3009-723; Pub. L. 105–73, §1, Nov. 12, 1997, 111 Stat. 1459; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IV, §§412(a)–(c), 413(a)–(e)(1), (f), 415(a), 431(a), div. G, subdiv. B, title XXII, §2226(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–642 to 2681-651, 2681-654, 2681-658, 2681-820; Pub. L. 105–292, title VI, §604(a), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2814; Pub. L. 106–95, §§2(b), 4(a), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1312, 1317; Pub. L. 106–120, title VIII, §809, Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1632; Pub. L. 106–313, title I, §§106(c)(2), 107(a), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1254, 1255; Pub. L. 106–386, div. A, §§107(e)(3), 111(d), div. B, title V, §§1505(a), (c)(1), (d)–(f), 1513(e), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1478, 1485, 1525, 1526, 1536; Pub. L. 106–395, title II, §201(b)(1), (2), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1633, 1634; Pub. L. 106–396, title I, §101(b)(1), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1638; Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, §411(a), title X, §1006(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 345, 394; Pub. L. 107–150, §2(a)(2), Mar. 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 74; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11018(c), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1825; Pub. L. 108–77, title IV, §402(b), (c), Sept. 3, 2003, 117 Stat. 940, 946; Pub. L. 108–193, §§4(b)(4), 8(a)(2), Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2879, 2886; Pub. L. 108–447, div. J, title IV, §§422(a), 423, 424(a)(1), (b), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3353–3355; Pub. L. 108–449, §1(b)(2), Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3470; Pub. L. 108–458, title V, §§5501(a), 5502(a), 5503, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3740, 3741; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, §§103(a)–(c), 104, title V, §501(d), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 306–309, 322; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, §802, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3054; Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title VI, §691(a), (c), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2364, 2365; Pub. L. 110–229, title VII, §702(b)(2), (3), (d), May 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 860, 862; Pub. L. 110–293, title III, §305, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2963; Pub. L. 110–340, §2(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3736; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §§222(f)(1), 234, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5071, 5074; Pub. L. 111–122, §3(b), Dec. 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 3481; Pub. L. 111–287, §2, Nov. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 3058; Pub. L. 113–4, title VIII, §804, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 111.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 107(c) of Pub. L. 108–77, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original, "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Section 3(a) of the Torture Victim Protection Act of 1991, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(E)(iii)(II), is section 3(a) of Pub. L. 102–256, which is set out as a note under section 1350 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Section 301 of the Immigration Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(E)(ii), (9)(B)(iii)(III), is section 301 of Pub. L. 101–649, which is set out as a note under section 1255a of this title.

Section 112 of the Immigration Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(E)(ii), is section 112 of Pub. L. 101–649, which is set out as a note under section 1153 of this title.

Section 1184(l) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(6)(G), probably means the subsec. (l) of section 1184, which relates to nonimmigrant elementary and secondary school students and was added by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §625(a)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–699, and redesignated subsec. (m) of section 1184 by Pub. L. 106–386, div. A, §107(e)(2)(A), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1478.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (m)(6)(B), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles XVIII and XIX of the Act are classified generally to subchapters XVIII (§1395 et seq.) and XIX (§1396 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Part A of title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to part A (§1395c et seq.) of subchapter XVIII of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Subsection (j)(3), which required the Director of the United States Information Agency to transmit an annual report to Congress on aliens submitting affidavits described in subsection (j)(1)(E) of this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 193 of House Document No. 103–7.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(4)(E). Pub. L. 113–4 added subpar. (E).

2010—Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 111–287 substituted "subparagraph (F) or (G) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title;" for "section 1101(b)(1)(F) of this title,".

2009—Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 111–122 struck out "conduct outside the United States that would, if committed in the United States or by a United States national, be" before "genocide".

2008—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 110–293 substituted a semicolon for ", which shall include infection with the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome,".

Subsec. (a)(2)(H)(i). Pub. L. 110–457 substituted "who commits or conspires to commit human trafficking offenses in the United States or outside the United States, or who the consular officer, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of State," for "who is listed in a report submitted pursuant to section 7108(b) of title 22, or who the consular officer".

Subsec. (a)(3)(G). Pub. L. 110–340 added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(7)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 110–229, §702(b)(2), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For provision authorizing waiver of clause (i) in the case of visitors to Guam, see subsection (l) of this section."

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 110–229, §702(d), inserted "the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands," after "Guam,".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 110–229, §702(b)(3), amended subsec. (l) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (l) consisted of pars. (1) to (3) relating to waiver of requirements for nonimmigrant visitors to Guam.

2007—Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 110–161, §691(c), substituted "Subclause (IX)" for "Subclause (VII)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 110–161, §691(a), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "The Secretary of State, after consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the Secretary of Homeland Security, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, may conclude in such Secretary's sole unreviewable discretion that subsection (a)(3)(B)(i)(IV)(bb) or (a)(3)(B)(i)(VII) of this section shall not apply to an alien, that subsection (a)(3)(B)(iv)(VI) of this section shall not apply with respect to any material support an alien afforded to an organization or individual that has engaged in a terrorist activity, or that subsection (a)(3)(B)(vi)(III) of this section shall not apply to a group solely by virtue of having a subgroup within the scope of that subsection. The Secretary of State may not, however, exercise discretion under this clause with respect to an alien once removal proceedings against the alien are instituted under section 1229a of this title."

2006—Subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(I). Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b)(1)(A)(i), which directed the amendment of subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(II) by substituting a semicolon for ", or", was executed to subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(I), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. The quoted matter did not appear in subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(II).

Subsec. (a)(4)(C)(i)(III). Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b)(1)(A)(ii), added subcl. (III).

Subsec. (a)(6)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b)(1)(B), amended subcl. (I) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (I) read as follows: "the alien qualifies for immigrant status under subparagraph (A)(iii), (A)(iv), (B)(ii), or (B)(iii) of section 1154(a)(1) of this title,".

Subsec. (a)(9)(B)(iii)(V). Pub. L. 109–162, §802(a), added subcl. (V).

Subsec. (a)(9)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b)(1)(C), substituted "the Secretary of Homeland Security has consented to the alien's reapplying for admission." for "the Attorney General has consented to the alien's reapplying for admission. The Attorney General in the Attorney General's discretion may waive the provisions of subsection (a)(9)(C)(i) of this section in the case of an alien to whom the Attorney General has granted classification under clause (iii), (iv), or (v) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title, or classification under clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title, in any case in which there is a connection between—

"(1) the alien's having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty; and

"(2) the alien's—

"(A) removal;

"(B) departure from the United States;

"(C) reentry or reentries into the United States; or

"(D) attempted reentry into the United States."

Subsec. (a)(9)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b)(1)(C), added subpar. (iii).

Subsec. (d)(13), (14). Pub. L. 109–162, §802(b), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security" for "Attorney General" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b)(2), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "qualifies for classification under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title or classification under clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title;".

Subsec. (h)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b)(3), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "the alien qualifies for classification under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title or classification under clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title; and".

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 109–271, §6(b)(4), substituted "a VAWA self-petitioner" for "an alien granted classification under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title or clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title".

2005—Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 109–13, §103(a), reenacted heading without change and amended first sentence of cl. (i) generally, substituting general provisions relating to inadmissibility of aliens engaging in terrorist activities for former provisions relating to inadmissibility of any alien who had engaged in a terrorist activity, any alien who a consular officer or the Attorney General knew or reasonably believed had engaged in terrorist activity, any alien who had incited terrorist activity, any alien who was a representative of a foreign terrorist organization or group that had publicly endorsed terrorist acts, any alien who was a member of a foreign terrorist organization, any alien who had used the alien's position of prominence to endorse terrorist activity, and any alien who was the spouse or child of an alien who had been found inadmissible, if the activity causing the alien to be found inadmissible had occurred within the last 5 years.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 109–13, §103(b), reenacted heading without change and amended text of cl. (iv) generally, substituting provisions defining the term "engage in terrorist activity" in subcls. (I) to (VI), including provisions relating to demonstration of certain knowledge by clear and convincing evidence, for provisions defining the term "engage in terrorist activity" in somewhat similar subcls. (I) to (VI) which did not include provisions relating to demonstration of certain knowledge by clear and convincing evidence.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 109–13, §103(c), amended heading and text of cl. (vi) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "As used in clause (i)(VI) and clause (iv), the term 'terrorist organization' means an organization—

"(I) designated under section 1189 of this title;

"(II) otherwise designated, upon publication in the Federal Register, by the Secretary of State in consultation with or upon the request of the Attorney General, as a terrorist organization, after finding that the organization engages in the activities described in subclause (I), (II), or (III) of clause (iv), or that the organization provides material support to further terrorist activity; or

"(III) that is a group of two or more individuals, whether organized or not, which engages in the activities described in subclause (I), (II), or (III) of clause (iv)."

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109–13, §104, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 109–13, §501(d)(1), inserted "or section 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii) of this title" after "section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1) of this title" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (t)(3)(C)(i)(II), (ii)(II), (iii)(II). Pub. L. 109–13, §501(d)(2), substituted "1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1), or 1101(a)(15)(E)(iii)" for "or 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b1)".

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(G). Pub. L. 108–458, §5502(a), amended heading and text of subpar. (G) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any alien who, while serving as a foreign government official, was responsible for or directly carried out, at any time during the preceding 24-month period, particularly severe violations of religious freedom, as defined in section 6402 of title 22, and the spouse and children, if any, are inadmissible."

Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 108–458, §5501(a)(3), which directed substitution of "Participants in Nazi persecution, genocide, or the commission of any act of torture or extrajudicial killing" for "Participants in nazi persecution or genocide" in heading, was executed by making the substitution for "Participants in Nazi persecutions or genocide" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 108–458, §5501(a)(1), substituted "ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in conduct outside the United States that would, if committed in the United States or by a United States national, be genocide, as defined in section 1091(a) of title 18, is inadmissible" for "has engaged in conduct that is defined as genocide for purposes of the International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide is inadmissible".

Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 108–458, §5501(a)(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (d)(3)(A), (B). Pub. L. 108–458, §5503, substituted "and clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (3)(E)" for "and (3)(E)".

Subsec. (n)(1)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 108–447, §422(a), struck out "October 1, 2003," before "by an H–1B-dependent employer".

Subsec. (n)(2)(G). Pub. L. 108–447, §424(a)(1), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (n)(2)(H), (I). Pub. L. 108–447, §424(b), added subpar. (H) and redesignated former subpar. (H) as (I).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 108–449, §1(b)(2)(A), which directed redesignation of subsec. (p), relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge, as (s), could not be executed because of the previous temporary redesignation by Pub. L. 108–77, §402(b)(1). See 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (p)(3), (4). Pub. L. 108–447, §423, added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 108–449, §1(b)(2)(A), which directed redesignation of subsec. (p), relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge, as (s), could not be executed because of the previous redesignation by Pub. L. 108–77, §402(b)(1). See 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 108–449, §1(b)(2)(B), added subsec. (t) relating to foreign residence requirement.

2003—Subsec. (d)(13). Pub. L. 108–193, §8(a)(2), redesignated par. (13), relating to Attorney General's determination whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title, as (14).

Subsec. (d)(13)(A). Pub. L. 108–193, §4(b)(4)(A), inserted ", except that the ground for inadmissibility described in subsection (a)(4) shall not apply with respect to such a nonimmigrant" before period at end.

Subsec. (d)(13)(B)(i). Pub. L. 108–193, §4(b)(4)(B)(i), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "paragraphs (1) and (4) of subsection (a) of this section; and".

Subsec. (d)(13)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 108–193, §4(b)(4)(B)(ii), substituted "subsection (a)" for "such subsection" and inserted "(4)," after "(3),".

Subsec. (d)(14). Pub. L. 108–193, §8(a)(2), redesignated par. (13), relating to Attorney General's determination whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title, as (14).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 108–77, §§107(c), 402(b)(1), temporarily redesignated subsec. (p), relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge, as (s). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 108–77, §§107(c), 402(c), temporarily substituted "(a)(5)(A), (n)(1)(A)(i)(II), and (t)(1)(A)(i)(II)" for "(n)(1)(A)(i)(II) and (a)(5)(A)". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 108–77, §§107(c), 402(b)(1), temporarily redesignated subsec. (p), relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge, as (s). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 108–77, §§107(c), 402(b)(2), temporarily added subsec. (t). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

2002—Subsec. (a)(4)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 107–150 substituted "(and any additional sponsor required under section 1183a(f) of this title or any alternative sponsor permitted under paragraph (5)(B) of such section)" for "(including any additional sponsor required under section 1183a(f) of this title)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "section 1184(l)" for "section 1184(k)".

2001—Subsec. (a)(2)(I). Pub. L. 107–56, §1006(a), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(II). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(C), substituted "clause (iv)" for "clause (iii)".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(IV). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(A)(i), amended subcl. (IV) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (IV) read as follows: "is a representative (as defined in clause (iv)) of a foreign terrorist organization, as designated by the Secretary under section 1189 of this title, or".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(V). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(A)(ii), inserted "or" after "section 1189 of this title,".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(VI), (VII). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(A)(iii), which directed addition of subcls. (VI) and (VII) at end of cl. (i), was executed by making the addition after subcl. (V) and before concluding provisions of cl. (i) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(D), added cl. (ii). Former cl. (ii) redesignated (iii).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(E)(i), inserted "it had been" before "committed in the United States" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(B), redesignated cl. (ii) as (iii). Former cl. (iii) redesignated (iv).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii)(V)(b). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(E)(ii), substituted ", firearm, or other weapon or dangerous device" for "or firearm".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(F), reenacted heading without change and amended text of cl. (iv) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "As used in this chapter, the term 'engage in terrorist activity' means to commit, in an individual capacity or as a member of an organization, an act of terrorist activity or an act which the actor knows, or reasonably should know, affords material support to any individual, organization, or government in conducting a terrorist activity at any time, including any of the following acts:

"(I) The preparation or planning of a terrorist activity.

"(II) The gathering of information on potential targets for terrorist activity.

"(III) The providing of any type of material support, including a safe house, transportation, communications, funds, false documentation or identification, weapons, explosives, or training, to any individual the actor knows or has reason to believe has committed or plans to commit a terrorist activity.

"(IV) The soliciting of funds or other things of value for terrorist activity or for any terrorist organization.

"(V) The solicitation of any individual for membership in a terrorist organization, terrorist government, or to engage in a terrorist activity."

Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(B), redesignated cl. (iii) as (iv). Former cl. (iv) redesignated (v).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(v). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(B), redesignated cl. (iv) as (v).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(1)(G), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (a)(3)(F). Pub. L. 107–56, §411(a)(2), added subpar. (F).

2000—Subsec. (a)(2)(H). Pub. L. 106–386, §111(d), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (a)(5)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 106–313, §106(c)(2), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (a)(6)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 106–395, §201(b)(2), amended heading and text of cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any alien who falsely represents, or has falsely represented, himself or herself to be a citizen of the United States for any purpose or benefit under this chapter (including section 1324a of this title) or any other Federal or State law is inadmissible."

Subsec. (a)(7)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 106–396 struck out "pilot" before "program" in heading and text.

Subsec. (a)(9)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 106–386, §1505(a), inserted at end "The Attorney General in the Attorney General's discretion may waive the provisions of subsection (a)(9)(C)(i) of this section in the case of an alien to whom the Attorney General has granted classification under clause (iii), (iv), or (v) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title, or classification under clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title, in any case in which there is a connection between—" and added subcls. (1) and (2).

Subsec. (a)(10)(D). Pub. L. 106–395, §201(b)(1), amended heading and text of subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any alien who has voted in violation of any Federal, State, or local constitutional provision, statute, ordinance, or regulation is inadmissible."

Subsec. (d)(13). Pub. L. 106–386, §1513(e), added par. (13) relating to Attorney General's determination whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(U) of this title.

Pub. L. 106–386, §107(e)(3), added par. (13) relating to Attorney General's determination whether a ground for inadmissibility exists with respect to a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(T) of this title.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C). Pub. L. 106–386, §1505(d), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (h)(1)(C). Pub. L. 106–386, §1505(e), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 106–386, §1505(c)(1), inserted before period at end "or, in the case of an alien granted classification under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title or clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title, the alien demonstrates extreme hardship to the alien or the alien's United States citizen, lawful permanent resident, or qualified alien parent or child".

Subsec. (n)(1)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 106–313, §107(a), substituted "October 1, 2003" for "October 1, 2001".

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 106–386, §1505(f), added subsec. (p) relating to consideration of benefits received as battered alien in determination of inadmissibility as likely to become public charge.

1999—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 106–120 amended heading and text of subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any alien who the consular or immigration officer knows or has reason to believe is or has been an illicit trafficker in any such controlled substance or is or has been a knowing assister, abettor, conspirator, or colluder with others in the illicit trafficking in any such controlled substance, is inadmissible."

Subsec. (a)(5)(C). Pub. L. 106–95, §4(a)(2), substituted "Subject to subsection (r), any alien who seeks" for "Any alien who seeks" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 106–95, §2(b), amended subsec. (m) generally, adding provisions providing that no more than 33 percent of a facility's workforce may be nonimmigrant aliens and making issuance of visas dependent upon State populations, and revising period of admission from a maximum of 6 years to 3 years.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 106–95, §4(a)(1), added subsec. (r).

1998—Subsec. (a)(2)(G). Pub. L. 105–292 added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(10)(C)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 105–277, §2226(a), added cls. (ii) and (iii) and struck out heading and text of former cl. (ii). Text read as follows: "Clause (i) shall not apply so long as the child is located in a foreign state that is a party to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction."

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 105–277, §412(b)(2), substituted "an H–1B nonimmigrant" for "a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 105–277, §412(a)(2), (3), inserted at end "The application form shall include a clear statement explaining the liability under subparagraph (F) of a placing employer if the other employer described in such subparagraph displaces a United States worker as described in such subparagraph. Nothing in subparagraph (G) shall be construed to prohibit an employer from using legitimate selection criteria relevant to the job that are normal or customary to the type of job involved, so long as such criteria are not applied in a discriminatory manner."

Subsec. (n)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–277, §412(b)(2), substituted "an H–1B nonimmigrant" for "a nonimmigrant described in section 1101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b) of this title" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (n)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 105–277, §412(c), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "if there is no such bargaining representative, has posted notice of filing in conspicuous locations at the place of employment."

Subsec. (n)(1)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 105–277, §412(a)(1), added subpars. (E) to (G).

Subsec. (n)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–277, §413(b)(2), substituted "Subject to paragraph (5)(A), the Secretary" for "The Secretary" in first sentence.

Subsec. (n)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–277, §413(a), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "If the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, a failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(B), a substantial failure to meet a condition of paragraphs (1)(C) or (1)(D), a willful failure to meet a condition of paragraph (1)(A), or a misrepresentation of material fact in an application—

"(i) the Secretary shall notify the Attorney General of such finding and may, in addition, impose such other administrative remedies (including civil monetary penalties in an amount not to exceed $1,000 per violation) as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, and

"(ii) the Attorney General shall not approve petitions filed with respect to that employer under section 1154 or 1184(c) of this title during a period of at least 1 year for aliens to be employed by the employer."

Subsec. (n)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105–277, §413(c), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (n)(2)(F). Pub. L. 105–277, §413(d), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (n)(2)(G). Pub. L. 105–277, §413(e), temporarily added subpar. (G). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1998 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (n)(2)(H). Pub. L. 105–277, §413(f), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (n)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–277, §412(b)(1), added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (n)(5). Pub. L. 105–277, §413(b)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 105–277, §415(a), added subsec. (p) relating to computation of prevailing wage level.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 105–277, §431(a), added subsec. (q).

1997—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 105–73, §1(1), inserted "except as provided in subparagraph (C)," after "(ii)".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105–73, §1(2), added subpar. (C).

1996Pub. L. 104–208, §308(d)(1)(A), amended section catchline.

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