[USC04] 21 USC Ch. 9: FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT
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21 USC Ch. 9: FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT
From Title 21—FOOD AND DRUGS

CHAPTER 9—FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT

SUBCHAPTER I—SHORT TITLE

Sec.
301.
Short title.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—DEFINITIONS

321.
Definitions; generally.
321a.
"Butter" defined.
321b.
"Package" defined.
321c.
Nonfat dry milk; "milk" defined.
321d.
Market names for catfish and ginseng.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES

331.
Prohibited acts.
332.
Injunction proceedings.
333.
Penalties.
333a.
Repealed.
334.
Seizure.
335.
Hearing before report of criminal violation.
335a.
Debarment, temporary denial of approval, and suspension.
335b.
Civil penalties.
335c.
Authority to withdraw approval of abbreviated drug applications.
336.
Report of minor violations.
337.
Proceedings in name of United States; provision as to subpoenas.
337a.
Extraterritorial jurisdiction.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—FOOD

341.
Definitions and standards for food.
342.
Adulterated food.
343.
Misbranded food.
343–1.
National uniform nutrition labeling.
343–2.
Dietary supplement labeling exemptions.
343–3.
Disclosure.
343a.
Repealed.
344.
Emergency permit control.
345.
Regulations making exemptions.
346.
Tolerances for poisonous or deleterious substances in food; regulations.
346a.
Tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues.
346b.
Authorization of appropriations.
347.
Intrastate sales of colored oleomargarine.
347a.
Congressional declaration of policy regarding oleomargarine sales.
347b.
Contravention of State laws.
348.
Food additives.
349.
Bottled drinking water standards; publication in Federal Register.
350.
Vitamins and minerals.
350a.
Infant formulas.
350b.
New dietary ingredients.
350c.
Maintenance and inspection of records.
350d.
Registration of food facilities.
350e.
Sanitary transportation practices.
350f.
Reportable food registry.
350g.
Hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls.
350h.
Standards for produce safety.
350i.
Protection against intentional adulteration.
350j.
Targeting of inspection resources for domestic facilities, foreign facilities, and ports of entry; annual report.
350k.
Laboratory accreditation for analyses of foods.
350l.
Mandatory recall authority.
350l–1.
Annual report to Congress.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—DRUGS AND DEVICES

Part A—Drugs and Devices

351.
Adulterated drugs and devices.
352.
Misbranded drugs and devices.
353.
Exemptions and consideration for certain drugs, devices, and biological products.
353a.
Pharmacy compounding.
353a–1.
Enhanced communication.
353b.
Outsourcing facilities.
353c.
Prereview of television advertisements.
354.
Veterinary feed directive drugs.
355.
New drugs.
355–1.
Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies.
355a.
Pediatric studies of drugs.
355b.
Adverse-event reporting.
355c.
Research into pediatric uses for drugs and biological products.
355c–1.
Report.
355d.
Internal committee for review of pediatric plans, assessments, deferrals, deferral extensions, and waivers.
355e.
Pharmaceutical security.
355f.
Extension of exclusivity period for new qualified infectious disease products.
355g.
Utilizing real world evidence.
356.
Expedited approval of drugs for serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions.
356–1.
Accelerated approval of priority countermeasures.
356a.
Manufacturing changes.
356b.
Reports of postmarketing studies.
356c.
Discontinuance or interruption in the production of life-saving drugs.
356c–1.
Annual reporting on drug shortages.
356d.
Coordination; task force and strategic plan.
356e.
Drug shortage list.
356f.
Hospital repackaging of drugs in shortage.
356g.
Standards for regenerative medicine and regenerative advanced therapies.
356h.
Competitive generic therapies.
356i.
Prompt reports of marketing status.
357.
Qualification of drug development tools.
358.
Authority to designate official names.
359.
Nonapplicability of subchapter to cosmetics.
360.
Registration of producers of drugs or devices.
360a.
Clinical trial guidance for antibiotic drugs.
360a–1.
Clinical trials.
360a–2.
Susceptibility test interpretive criteria for microorganisms.
360b.
New animal drugs.
360c.
Classification of devices intended for human use.
360c–1.
Reporting.
360d.
Performance standards.
360e.
Premarket approval.
360e–1.
Pediatric uses of devices.
360e–3.
Breakthrough devices.
360f.
Banned devices.
360g.
Judicial review.
360g–1.
Agency documentation and review of significant decisions regarding devices.
360h.
Notification and other remedies.
360h–1.
Program to improve the device recall system.
360i.
Records and reports on devices.
360j.
General provisions respecting control of devices intended for human use.
360k.
State and local requirements respecting devices.
360l.
Postmarket surveillance.
360m.
Accredited persons.
360n.
Priority review to encourage treatments for tropical diseases.
360n–1.
Priority review for qualified infectious disease products.

        

Part B—Drugs for Rare Diseases or Conditions

360aa.
Recommendations for investigations of drugs for rare diseases or conditions.
360bb.
Designation of drugs for rare diseases or conditions.
360cc.
Protection for drugs for rare diseases or conditions.
360dd.
Open protocols for investigations of drugs for rare diseases or conditions.
360ee.
Grants and contracts for development of drugs for rare diseases and conditions.
360ff.
Priority review to encourage treatments for rare pediatric diseases.
360ff–1.
Targeted drugs for rare diseases.

        

Part C—Electronic Product Radiation Control

360hh.
Definitions.
360ii.
Program of control.
360jj.
Studies by Secretary.
360kk.
Performance standards for electronic products.
360ll.
Notification of defects in and repair or replacement of electronic products.
360mm.
Imports.
360nn.
Inspection, records, and reports.
360oo.
Prohibited acts.
360pp.
Enforcement.
360qq.
Repealed.
360rr.
Federal-State cooperation.
360ss.
State standards.

        

Part D—Dissemination of Treatment Information

360aaa to 360aaa–6. Omitted

        

Part E—General Provisions Relating to Drugs and Devices

360bbb.
Expanded access to unapproved therapies and diagnostics.
360bbb–0.
Expanded access policy required for investigational drugs.
360bbb–1.
Dispute resolution.
360bbb–2.
Classification of products.
360bbb–3.
Authorization for medical products for use in emergencies.
360bbb–3a.
Emergency use of medical products.
360bbb–3b.
Products held for emergency use.
360bbb–4.
Countermeasure development, review, and technical assistance.
360bbb–4a.
Priority review to encourage treatments for agents that present national security threats.
360bbb–5.
Critical Path Public-Private Partnerships.
360bbb–6.
Risk communication.
360bbb–7.
Notification.
360bbb–8.
Consultation with external experts on rare diseases, targeted therapies, and genetic targeting of treatments.
360bbb–8a.
Optimizing global clinical trials.
360bbb–8b.
Use of clinical investigation data from outside the United States.
360bbb–8c.
Patient participation in medical product discussion.

        

Part F—New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

360ccc.
Conditional approval of new animal drugs for minor use and minor species.
360ccc–1.
Index of legally marketed unapproved new animal drugs for minor species.
360ccc–2.
Designated new animal drugs for minor use or minor species.

        

Part G—Medical Gases

360ddd.
Definitions.
360ddd–1.
Regulation of medical gases.
360ddd–2.
Inapplicability of drug fees to designated medical gases.

        

Part H—Pharmaceutical Distribution Supply Chain

360eee.
Definitions.
360eee–1.
Requirements.
360eee–2.
National standards for prescription drug wholesale distributors.
360eee–3.
National standards for third-party logistics providers.
360eee–4.
Uniform national policy.

        

Part I—Nonprescription Sunscreen and Other Active Ingredients

360fff.
Definitions.
360fff–1.
Submission of requests.
360fff–2.
Eligibility determinations; data submission; filing.
360fff–3.
GRASE determination.
360fff–4.
Guidance; other provisions.
360fff–5.
Sunscreen monograph.
360fff–6.
Non-sunscreen time and extent applications.
360fff–7.
Report.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—COSMETICS

361.
Adulterated cosmetics.
362.
Misbranded cosmetics.
363.
Regulations making exemptions.
364.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—GENERAL AUTHORITY

Part A—General Administrative Provisions

371.
Regulations and hearings.
372.
Examinations and investigations.
372a.
Transferred.
373.
Records.
374.
Inspection.
374a.
Inspections relating to food allergens.
375.
Publicity.
376.
Examination of sea food on request of packer; marking food with results; fees; penalties.
377.
Revision of United States Pharmacopoeia; development of analysis and mechanical and physical tests.
378.
Advertising of foods.
379.
Confidential information.
379a.
Presumption of existence of jurisdiction.
379b.
Consolidated administrative and laboratory facility.
379c.
Transferred.
379d.
Automation of Food and Drug Administration.
379d–1.
Conflicts of interest.
379d–2.
Policy on the review and clearance of scientific articles published by FDA employees.
379d–3.
Streamlined hiring authority.
379d–3a.
Hiring authority for scientific, technical, and professional personnel.
379d–4.
Reporting requirements.
379d–5.
Guidance document regarding product promotion using the Internet.

        

Part B—Colors

379e.
Listing and certification of color additives for foods, drugs, devices, and cosmetics.

        

Part C—Fees

subpart 1—freedom of information fees

379f.
Recovery and retention of fees for freedom of information requests.

        

subpart 2—fees relating to drugs

379g.
Definitions.
379h.
Authority to assess and use drug fees.
379h–1.
Fees relating to advisory review of prescription-drug television advertising.
379h–2.
Reauthorization; reporting requirements.

        

subpart 3—fees relating to devices

379i.
Definitions.
379j.
Authority to assess and use device fees.
379j–1.
Reauthorization; reporting requirements.

        

subpart 4—fees relating to animal drugs

379j–11.
Definitions.
379j–12.
Authority to assess and use animal drug fees.
379j–13.
Reauthorization; reporting requirements.

        

subpart 5—fees relating to generic new animal drugs

379j–21.
Authority to assess and use generic new animal drug fees.
379j–22.
Reauthorization; reporting requirements.

        

subpart 6—fees related to food

379j–31.
Authority to collect and use fees.

        

subpart 7—fees relating to generic drugs

379j–41.
Definitions.
379j–42.
Authority to assess and use human generic drug fees.
379j–43.
Reauthorization; reporting requirements.

        

subpart 8—fees relating to biosimilar biological products

379j–51.
Definitions.
379j–52.
Authority to assess and use biosimilar biological product fees.
379j–53.
Reauthorization; reporting requirements.

        

subpart 9—fees relating to outsourcing facilities

379j–61.
Definitions.
379j–62.
Authority to assess and use outsourcing facility fees.

        

Part D—Information and Education

379k.
Information system.
379k–1.
Electronic format for submissions.
379l.
Education.

        

Part E—Environmental Impact Review

379o.
Environmental impact.

        

Part F—National Uniformity for Nonprescription Drugs and Preemption for Labeling or Packaging of Cosmetics

379r.
National uniformity for nonprescription drugs.
379s.
Preemption for labeling or packaging of cosmetics.

        

Part G—Safety Reports

379v.
Safety report disclaimers.

        

Part H—Serious Adverse Event Reports

379aa.
Serious adverse event reporting for nonprescription drugs.
379aa–1.
Serious adverse event reporting for dietary supplements.

        

Part I—Reagan-Udall Foundation for the Food and Drug Administration

379dd.
Establishment and functions of the Foundation.
379dd–1.
Location of Foundation.
379dd–2.
Activities of the Food and Drug Administration.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

381.
Imports and exports.
382.
Exports of certain unapproved products.
383.
Office of International Relations.
384.
Importation of prescription drugs.
384a.
Foreign supplier verification program.
384b.
Voluntary qualified importer program.
384c.
Inspection of foreign food facilities.
384d.
Accreditation of third-party auditors.
384e.
Recognition of foreign government inspections.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—TOBACCO PRODUCTS

387.
Definitions.
387a.
FDA authority over tobacco products.
387a–1.
Final rule.
387b.
Adulterated tobacco products.
387c.
Misbranded tobacco products.
387d.
Submission of health information to the Secretary.
387e.
Annual registration.
387f.
General provisions respecting control of tobacco products.
387f–1.
Enforcement action plan for advertising and promotion restrictions.
387g.
Tobacco product standards.
387h.
Notification and other remedies.
387i.
Records and reports on tobacco products.
387j.
Application for review of certain tobacco products.
387k.
Modified risk tobacco products.
387l.
Judicial review.
387m.
Equal treatment of retail outlets.
387n.
Jurisdiction of and coordination with the Federal Trade Commission.
387o.
Regulation requirement.
387p.
Preservation of State and local authority.
387q.
Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee.
387r.
Drug products used to treat tobacco dependence.
387s.
User fees.
387t.
Labeling, recordkeeping, records inspection.
387u.
Studies of progress and effectiveness.

        

SUBCHAPTER X—MISCELLANEOUS

391.
Separability clause.
392.
Exemption of meats and meat food products.
393.
Food and Drug Administration.
393a.
Office of Pediatric Therapeutics.
394.
Scientific review groups.
395.
Loan repayment program.
396.
Practice of medicine.
397.
Contracts for expert review.
398.
Notices to States regarding imported food.
399.
Grants to enhance food safety.
399a.
Office of the Chief Scientist.
399b.
Office of Women's Health.
399c.
Improving the training of State, local, territorial, and tribal food safety officials.
399d.
Employee protections.
399e.
Nanotechnology.
399f.
Ensuring adequate information regarding pharmaceuticals for all populations, particularly underrepresented subpopulations, including racial subgroups.
399g.
Food and Drug Administration Intercenter Institutes.
399h.
Grants for studying continuous drug manufacturing.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—SHORT TITLE

§301. Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §1, 52 Stat. 1040.)

Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases

Act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, §§1, 2, 53 Stat. 853, 854, provided that:

"[Sec. 1] (a) The effective date of the following provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is hereby postponed until January 1, 1940: Sections 402(c) [342(c) of this title]; 403(e)(1) [343(e)(1) of this title]; 403(g), (h), (i), (j), and (k) [343(g) to (k) of this title]; 501(a), (4) [351(a)(4) of this title]; 502(b), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) [352(b), (d) to (h) of this title]; 601(e) [361(e) of this title]; and 602(b) [362(b) of this title].

"(b) The Secretary of Agriculture shall promulgate regulations further postponing to July 1, 1940[,] the effective date of the provisions of sections 403(e)(1) [343(e)(1) of this title]; 403(g), (h), (i), (j), and (k) [343(g) to (k)]; 502(b), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) [352(b), (d) to (h) of this title]; and 602(b) [362(b) of this title] of such Act with respect to lithographed labeling which was manufactured prior to February 1, 1939, and to containers bearing labeling which, prior to February 1, 1939, was lithographed, etched, stamped, pressed, printed, fused or blown on or in such containers, where compliance with such provisions would be unduly burdensome by reason of causing the loss of valuable stocks of such labeling or containers, and where such postponement would not prevent the public interest being adequately served: Provided, That in no case shall such regulations apply to labeling which would not have complied with the requirements of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended.

"Sec. 2. (a) The provisions of section 8 [section 10 of this title], paragraph fifth, under the heading 'In the case of food:', of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and regulations promulgated thereunder, and all other provisions of such Act to the extent that they may relate to the enforcement of such section 8 [section 10 of this title] and of such regulations, shall remain in force until January 1, 1940.

"(b) The provisions of such Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, [sections 1 to 5, 7 to 15, and 372a of this title] to the extent that they impose, or authorize the imposition of, any requirement imposed by section 403(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 343(k) of this title], shall remain in force until January 1, 1940.

"(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1 of this Act, such section shall not apply—

"(1) to the provisions of section 502(d) and (e) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [352(d), (e) of this title], insofar as such provisions relate to any substance named in section 8 [section 10 of this title], paragraph second, under the heading 'In the case of drugs:', of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, or a derivative of any such substance; or

"(2) to the provisions of section 502(b), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [352(b), (d) to (h) of this title], insofar as such provisions relate to drugs to which section 505 [355 of this title] of such Act applies."

Effective Date

Act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §1002(a), formerly §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059; renumbered §1002(a), Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §101(b)(2), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1784, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter and repealing sections 1 to 5 and 7 to 15 of this title], shall take effect twelve months after the date of its enactment [June 25, 1938]. The Federal Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 21, secs. 1–15), shall remain in force until such effective date, and, except as otherwise provided in this subsection, is hereby repealed effective upon such date: Provided, That the provisions of section 701 [section 371 of this title] shall become effective on the enactment of this Act, and thereafter the Secretary is authorized hereby to (1) conduct hearings and to promulgate regulations which shall become effective on or after the effective date of this Act as the Secretary shall direct, and (2) designate prior to the effective date of this Act food having common or usual names and exempt such food from the requirements of clause (2) of section 403(i) [section 343(i) of this title] for a reasonable time to permit the formulation, promulgation, and effective application of definitions and standards of identity therefor as provided by section 401 [section 341 of this title]: Provided further, That sections 502(j), 505, and 601(a) [sections 352(j), 355, 361(a), respectively of this title], and all other provisions of this Act to the extent that they may relate to the enforcement of such sections, shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act, except that in the case of a cosmetic to which the proviso of section 601(a) [section 361(a) of this title], relates, such cosmetic shall not, prior to the ninetieth day after such date of enactment, be deemed adulterated by reason of the failure of its label to bear the legend prescribed in such proviso: Provided further, That the Act of March 4, 1923 (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 21, sec. 6 [section 321a of this title]; 42 Stat. 1500, ch. 268), defining butter and providing a standard therefor; the Act of July 24, 1919 (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 21, sec. 10 [section 321b of this title]; 41 Stat. 271, ch. 26], defining wrapped meats as in package form; and the amendment to the Food and Drugs Act, section 10A, approved August 27, 1935 (U.S.C. 1934 ed., Sup. III, title 21, sec. 14a [section 372a of this title]) shall remain in force and effect and be applicable to the provisions of this Act."

Short Title of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–52, §1, Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1005, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017'."

Pub. L. 115–52, title I, §101(a), Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1006, provided that: "This title [amending sections 379h, 379h–2, and 379j–12 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379g and 379h–2 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 379g and 379h–2 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2017'."

Pub. L. 115–52, title II, §201(a), Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1013, provided that: "This title [amending sections 360d, 360e, 360m, 379d–3, 379i, 379j, 379j–1, and 379k–1 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379i and 379j–1 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 379i of this title] may be cited as the 'Medical Device User Fee Amendments of 2017'."

Pub. L. 115–52, title III, §301(a), Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1020, provided that: "This title [amending sections 379j–41 to 379j–43 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–41 and 379j–43 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–41 and 379j–43 of this title] may be cited as the 'Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2017'."

Pub. L. 115–52, title IV, §401(a), Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1028, provided that: "This title [amending sections 379j–51 to 379j–53 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–51 and 379j–53 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–51 and 379j–53 of this title] may be cited as the 'Biosimilar User Fee Amendments of 2017'."

Short Title of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–229, §1, Sept. 30, 2016, 130 Stat. 943, provided that: "This Act [amending section 360ff of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 360ff of this title] may be cited as the 'Advancing Hope Act of 2016'."

Pub. L. 114–146, §1, Apr. 19, 2016, 130 Stat. 357, provided that: "This Act [amending section 360n of this title] may be cited as the 'Adding Zika Virus to the FDA Priority Review Voucher Program Act'."

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–114, §1, Dec. 28, 2015, 129 Stat. 3129, provided that: "This Act [amending section 331 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 331 of this title] may be cited as the 'Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–89, §1, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 698, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 355, 360b, 360ccc to 360ccc–2, 811, 823, and 953 of this title, section 156 of Title 35, Patents, and section 262 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act'."

Short Title of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–233, §1, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2127, provided that: "This Act [amending section 360n of this title] may be cited as the 'Adding Ebola to the FDA Priority Review Voucher Program Act'."

Pub. L. 113–195, §1, Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2035, provided that: "This Act [enacting part I of subchapter V of this chapter and provisions set out as a note under section 360fff of this title] may be cited as the 'Sunscreen Innovation Act'."

Short Title of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–54, §1, Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 587, provided that: "This Act [enacting part H of subchapter V and subpart 9 of part C of subchapter VII of this chapter and sections 353a–1 and 353b of this title, amending sections 331, 333, 352 to 353a, 353b, 353c, and 360eee–1 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 331, 333, and 353 of this title] may be cited as the 'Drug Quality and Security Act'."

Pub. L. 113–54, title I, §101, Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 587, provided that: "This Act [probably means "This title", enacting subpart 9 of part C of subchapter VII of this chapter and sections 353a–1 and 353b of this title, amending sections 331, 352, 353a, 353b, and 353c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 331 of this title] may be cited as the 'Compounding Quality Act'."

Pub. L. 113–54, title II, §201, Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 599, provided that: "This title [enacting part H of subchapter V of this chapter, amending sections 331, 333, 352, 353, and 360eee–1 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 331, 333, and 353 of this title] may be cited as the 'Drug Supply Chain Security Act'."

Pub. L. 113–14, §1, June 13, 2013, 127 Stat. 451, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 379j–11 to 379j–13, 379j–21, and 379j–22 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 379j–11 to 379j–13, 379j–21, and 379j–22 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–11, 379j–21, and 379j–22 of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Drug and Animal Generic Drug User Fee Reauthorization Act of 2013'."

Pub. L. 113–14, title I, §101(a), June 13, 2013, 127 Stat. 451, provided that: "This title [amending sections 379j–11 to 379j–13 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–11 to 379j–13 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under section 379j–11 of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Drug User Fee Amendments of 2013'."

Pub. L. 113–14, title II, §201(a), June 13, 2013, 127 Stat. 464, provided that: "This title [amending sections 379j–21 and 379j–22 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–21 and 379j–22 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–21 and 379j–22 of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2013'."

Short Title of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–193, §1, Oct. 5, 2012, 126 Stat. 1443, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 352, 379j, and 379j–42 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 379j–42 of this title] may be cited as the 'FDA User Fee Corrections Act of 2012'."

Pub. L. 112–144, §1, July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 993, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act'."

Pub. L. 112–144, title I, §101(a), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 996, provided that: "This title [amending sections 379g, 379h, and 379h–2 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379g and 379h–2 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 379g and 379h–2 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012'."

Pub. L. 112–144, title II, §201(a), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1002, provided that: "This title [enacting section 379d–3 of this title, amending sections 360e, 379i, 379j, and 379j–1 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 379i of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under section 379i of this title] may be cited as the 'Medical Device User Fee Amendments of 2012'."

Pub. L. 112–144, title III, §301(a), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1008, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 379d–4 and 379j–41 to 379j–43 of this title, amending sections 352 and 379d–3 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–41 and 379j–43 of this title] may be cited as the 'Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012'."

Pub. L. 112–144, title IV, §401(a), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1026, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 379j–51 to 379j–53 of this title, amending sections 379d–4 and 379g of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379g, 379j–51, and 379j–53 of this title] may be cited as the 'Biosimilar User Fee Act of 2012'."

Short Title of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, §1(a), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1776, provided that: "This division [enacting subchapter IX of this chapter, amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 355, 360m, 372 to 374, 375, 379a, 381, 391 to 393, 394 to 399a, and 679 of this title and sections 1333, 1334, 4402, 4406, and 4408 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 331, 333, 387, and 387c of this title and sections 1333 and 4402 of Title 15, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 392 of this title] may be cited as the 'Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act'."

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–316, title I, §101(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3509, provided that: "This title [enacting section 379j–13 of this title, amending sections 360b, 379j–11, and 379j–12 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 360b and 379j–11 of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Drug User Fee Amendments of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–316, title II, §201(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3515, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 379j–21 and 379j–22 of this title, amending sections 379k, 379l, and 379o of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379j–21 and 379j–22 of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act of 2008'."

Short Title of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–85, §1, Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 823, provided that: "This Act [enacting part I of subchapter VII of this chapter, chapter 26 of this title, sections 350f, 353b, 355–1, 355d, 355e, 360a, 360e–1, 360n, 360bbb–5, 360bbb–6, 379d–1, 379d–2, 379h–1, 379h–2, 379j–1, and 399a of this title, and section 247d–5a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 352, 355, 355a, 355c, 360, 360e, 360i, 360j, 360l, 360m, 360ee, 374, 379g, 379h, 379i, 379j, 379j–11, 379l, 381, and 393a of this title and sections 247d–3b, 262, 282, 283, 283a–2, 283a–3, 284m, 285g–10, 288–6, and 290b of Title 42, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 331, 350f, 352, 355, 355a, 355c, 360j, 379g, 379h, 379h–2, 379i, and 2110 of this title and section 282 of Title 42, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 284m of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007'."

Pub. L. 110–85, title I, §101(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 825, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 379h–1 and 379h–2 of this title, amending sections 379g, 379h, and 379j–11 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 379g, 379h, and 379h–2 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2007'."

Pub. L. 110–85, title II, §201(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 842, provided that: "This title [enacting section 379j–1 of this title, amending sections 333, 360, 360i, 360m, 374, 379i, and 379j of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 379i of this title] may be cited as the 'Medical Device User Fee Amendments of 2007'."

Pub. L. 110–85, title III, §301, Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 859, provided that: "This title [enacting section 360e–1 of this title, amending sections 360j, 360l, and 393a of this title and section 282 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360j of this title and section 282 of Title 42, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 284m of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act of 2007'."

Pub. L. 110–85, title IV, §401, Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 866, provided that: "This title [enacting section 355d of this title, amending section 355c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 355c of this title] may be cited as the 'Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2007'."

Pub. L. 110–85, title V, §501, Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 876, provided that: "This title [amending section 355a of this title and sections 284m, 285g–10, 288–6, and 290b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 355a of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 284m of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act of 2007'."

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–462, §1, Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3469, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 379aa and 379aa–1 of this title, amending sections 331, 343, 352, and 381 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 331, 343, 352, 379aa, and 381 of this title] may be cited as the 'Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act'."

Short Title of 2005 Amendments

Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7201, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1911, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle B (§§7201–7204) of title VII of Pub. L. 109–59, enacting section 350e of this title, amending sections 331, 342, and 373 of this title and section 5701 of Title 49, Transportation, omitting sections 5702 to 5714 of Title 49, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 331 of this title] may be cited as the 'Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–43, §1, Aug. 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 439, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 352 and 379j of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 352 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 352 and 379i of this title] may be cited as the 'Medical Device User Fee Stabilization Act of 2005'."

Short Title of 2004 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–282, title I, §101, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 891, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 360ccc to 360ccc–2 of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 352, 353, 354, and 360b of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 360ccc and 393 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the 'Minor Use and Minor Species Animal Health Act of 2004'."

Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §201, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 905, provided that: "This title [enacting section 374a of this title and section 242r of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 343, and 343–1 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 343 of this title and sections 243 and 300d–2 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004'."

Pub. L. 108–214, §1, Apr. 1, 2004, 118 Stat. 572, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 331, 352, 360, 360e, 374, 379i, and 379j of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 352, 360l, and 379j of this title] may be cited as the 'Medical Devices Technical Corrections Act'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–155, §1, Dec. 3, 2003, 117 Stat. 1936, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 355c of this title, amending sections 355, 355a, and 355b of this title and sections 262 and 284m of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 355c of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 355a of this title and section 284m of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003'."

Pub. L. 108–130, §1, Nov. 18, 2003, 117 Stat. 1361, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 379j–11 and 379j–12 of this title and provisions set out as notes under section 379j–11 of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Drug User Fee Act of 2003'."

Short Title of 2002 Amendments

Pub. L. 107–281, §1, Nov. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 1992, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 360cc and 360ee of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 360ee of this title] may be cited as the 'Rare Diseases Orphan Product Development Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–250, §1(a), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1588, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 379i and 379j of this title and section 289g–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 331, 333, 335a, 352, 353, 360, 360c, 360e, 360m, and 374 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 352, 360e, 360j, 360l, 379i, and 379j of this title and section 289g–3 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–188, title V, §501, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 687, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§501–509) of title V of Pub. L. 107–188, amending sections 356b, 379g, and 379h of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 356b and 379g of this title] may be cited as the 'Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–109, §1, Jan. 4, 2002, 115 Stat. 1408, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 355b and 393a of this title and section 284m of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 355, 355a, and 379h of this title and sections 282, 284k, 284l, 285a–2, and 290b of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 355 and 355a of this title and sections 284m and 289 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act'."

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §745(a)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-35, provided that: "This section [enacting section 384 of this title, amending sections 331, 333, and 381 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 384 of this title] may be cited as the 'Medicine Equity and Drug Safety Act of 2000'."

Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §746(a)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-40, provided that: "This section [amending section 381 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 381 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prescription Drug Import Fairness Act of 2000'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–324, §1, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3035, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 321 and 346a of this title] may be cited as the 'Antimicrobial Regulation Technical Corrections Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–115, §1(a), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2296, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 343–3, 353a, 355a, 356 to 356c, 360m, 360aaa to 360aaa–6, 360bbb to 360bbb–2, 379k, 379l, 379o, 379r, 379s, 379v, 396, and 397 of this title and sections 247b–8 and 299a–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 331, 334, 335a, 343, 348, 351 to 353, 355, 360, 360b to 360e, 360g, 360i, 360j, 360l, 360aa to 360cc, 360ee, 371, 374, 379a, 379g, 379h, 381 to 383, 393, and 802 of this title, section 45C of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 156 of Title 35, Patents, section 8126 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, and sections 262, 263a, and 282 of Title 42, repealing sections 356 and 357 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 348, 351, 352, 353a, 355 to 356b, 360i, 360l, 360m, 360aaa, 371, 379g, 379h, 379k, and 393 of this title and sections 247b–8 and 282 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–250, §1(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3151, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 354 of this title, amending sections 331, 353, and 360b of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Drug Availability Act of 1996'."

Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §401(a), Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1513, provided that: "This title [amending sections 321, 331, 333, 342, and 346a of this title] may be cited as the 'Food Quality Protection Act of 1996'."

[Another "Food Quality Protection Act of 1996", was enacted by Pub. L. 104–170, §1, 110 Stat. 1489, which is set out as a note under section 136 of Title 7, Agriculture.]

Pub. L. 104–134, title II, §2101(a), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–313, provided that: "This chapter [chapter 1A (§§2101–2105) of title II of Pub. L. 104–134, enacting section 382 of this title and amending sections 331 and 381 of this title and section 262 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendments

Pub. L. 103–417, §1(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4325, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 343–2 and 350b of this title and section 287c–11 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 321, 331, 342, 343, and 350 of this title and section 281 of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 343 of this title] may be cited as the 'Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–396, §1, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4153, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 331, 343–1, 360b, and 371 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994'."

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–80, §1, Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 773, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 321, 331 to 333, 334, 335b, 341 to 343, 346a, 350a, 352, 355 to 358, 360b to 360e, 360i, 360cc, 360hh to 360ss, 361, 371, 372, 373, 374, 376, 379e, and 381 of this title and section 263b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 343 of this title] may be cited as the 'Nutrition Labeling and Education Act Amendments of 1993'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendments

Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §101(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4491, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 379g and 379h of this title, transferring sections 372a, 376, and 379c of this title to sections 376, 379e and 379f, respectively, of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 342, 343, 346a, 351, 352, 360j, 361, 362, 453, 601, and 1033 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 379g of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 343–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prescription Drug User Fee Act of 1992'."

Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §201, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, provided that: "This title [enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 393 of this title and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 343–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Dietary Supplement Act of 1992'."

Pub. L. 102–353, §1(a), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 941, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 333, 353, and 381 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 353 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992'."

Pub. L. 102–300, §1(a), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 238, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 321, 331, 334, 346a, 352, 353, 356, 357, 360c, 360d, 360g to 360i, 360l, 360mm, 371 to 372a, 376, and 381 of this title and section 262 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare and enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under section 360i of this title] may be cited as the 'Medical Device Amendments of 1992'."

Pub. L. 102–282, §1(a), May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 149, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 335a to 335c of this title, amending sections 321, 336, 337, and 355 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 335a of this title] may be cited as the 'Generic Drug Enforcement Act of 1992'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendments

Pub. L. 101–635, §1(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4583, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 379b to 379d and 394 of this title] may be cited as the 'Food and Drug Administration Revitalization Act'."

Pub. L. 101–629, §1(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4511, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 360l and 383 of this title, amending sections 321, 333, 351, 353, and 360c to 360j of this title and sections 263b to 263n of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, redesignating sections 263b to 263n of Title 42 as sections 360gg to 360ss of this title, repealing section 263b of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 333, 360c, 360i, 360j, 360hh and 383 of this title] may be cited as the 'Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–535, §1(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2353, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 343–1 of this title, amending sections 321, 337, 343, 345, and 371 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 343–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–670, §1(a), Nov. 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 3971, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 321, 353, and 360b of this title, section 2201 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and sections 156 and 271 of Title 35, Patents, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the 'Generic Animal Drug and Patent Term Restoration Act'."

Pub. L. 100–607, title V, §501, Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3120, provided that: "This title [enacting section 393 of this title, amending sections 5315 and 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 393 of this title] may be cited as the 'Food and Drug Administration Act of 1988'."

Pub. L. 100–293, §1(a), Apr. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 95, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 331, 333, 353, and 381 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 353 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987'."

Pub. L. 100–290, §1, Apr. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 90, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 360bb and 360ee of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 360aa of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 236 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Orphan Drug Amendments of 1988'."

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–660, title I, §101(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3743, provided that: "This title [enacting section 382 of this title, amending sections 241 and 262 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 333 of this title and section 262 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Drug Export Amendments Act of 1986'."

Short Title of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–91, §1, Aug. 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 387, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 360aa to 360cc, and 360ee of this title, and sections 295g–1 and 6022 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360aa of this title and section 236 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Orphan Drug Amendments of 1985'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–417, §1, Sept. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 1585, provided: "That this Act [enacting section 156 of Title 35, Patents, amending sections 355 and 360cc of this title, sections 68b, 68c, and 70b of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 2201 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and sections 271 and 282 of Title 35, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 355 of this title and section 68b of Title 15] may be cited as the 'Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984'."

Short Title of 1983 Amendments

Pub. L. 98–22, §1, Apr. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 173, provided: "That this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 348 of this title] may be cited as the 'Saccharin Study and Labeling Act Amendment of 1983'."

Pub. L. 97–414, §1(a), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2049, provided that: "This Act [enacting part B of subchapter V of chapter 9 of this title, section 44H of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 155 of Title 35, Patents, and sections 236, 255, and 298b–4 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 1274, 1472, 2055, 2060, 2064, 2068, and 2080 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 904 of this title, sections 280C and 6096 of Title 26, and sections 209, 231, 242k, 242m, 243, 254c, 254j, 254m, 254o, 254p, 256, 294j, 295g–1, 295g–4, 295h, 295h–1a, 297–1, 300, 300a–1, 300a–3, 300b, 300e–1, 300m, 300n–5, 300q–2, 300u–5, 300w–3, 300x–1, 300x–4, 300y–11, 4577, and 4588 of Title 42, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360aa of this title, section 44H of Title 26, and sections 241, 255, 287i, and 300x–1 of Title 42, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 300t–11 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Orphan Drug Act'."

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–42, §1, Aug. 14, 1981, 95 Stat. 946, provided: "That this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 348 of this title] may be cited as the 'Saccharin Study and Labeling Act Amendment of 1981'."

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–359, §1, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1190, provided: "That this Act [enacting section 350a of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 374, 830, 841 to 843, and 873 of this title, and enacting a provision set out as a note under section 350a of this title] may be cited as the 'Infant Formula Act of 1980'."

Short Title of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–203, §1, Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1451, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 343a of this title, amending sections 321 and 343 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 343 and 348 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 218 and 289l–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Saccharin Study and Labeling Act'."

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–295, §1(a), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 539, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 360c to 360k, 379, and 379a of this title and section 3512 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending sections 321, 331, 334, 351, 352, 358, 360, 374, 379e, and 381 of this title and section 55 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] may be cited as the 'Medical Device Amendments of 1976'."

Short Title of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–387, §1, Aug. 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 559, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 331, 335, and 360 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 360 of this title] may be cited as the 'Drug Listing Act of 1972'."

Short Title of 1968 Amendments

Pub. L. 90–602, §1, Oct. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 1173, provided that: "This Act [enacting provisions now comprising part C (§§360hh–360ss) of subchapter III of this chapter and provisions set out as notes under section 360hh of this title] may be cited as the 'Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968'."

Pub. L. 90–399, §1, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 342, provided: "That this Act [enacting section 360b of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 342, 351, 352, 357, 381, and 392 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 360b of this title] may be cited as the 'Animal Drug Amendments of 1968'."

Short Title of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–74, §1, July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 226, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 360, and 372 of this title and section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 352 of this title] may be cited as the 'Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965'."

Short Title of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–781, §1, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 780, provided in part that such Act [enacting sections 358 to 360 of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 332, 348, 351 to 353, 355, 357, 372, 374, 379e, and 381 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 331, 332, 352, 355, 358, 360, and 374 of this title] may be cited as the 'Drug Amendments of 1962'."

Short Title of 1960 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–618, §1, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 397, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 321, 331, 333, 342, 346, 351, 352, 361, 362, 371, and 379e of this title, repealing sections 354 and 364 of this title, and enacting notes set out under this section] may be cited as the 'Color Additive Amendments of 1960'."

Short Title of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–929, §1, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 321, 331, 342, 346, 348 of this title and section 210 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 342, and 451 of this title] may be cited as the 'Food Additives Amendment of 1958'."

Severability

Pub. L. 113–54, title I, §106(b), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 598, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 2013 Amendment note above] (including the amendments made by this Act) is declared unconstitutional, or the applicability of this Act (including the amendments made by this Act) to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the constitutionality of the remainder of this Act (including the amendments made by this Act) and the applicability thereof to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected."

Pub. L. 110–85, title XI, §1105, Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 975, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above], an amendment made [by] this Act, or the application of such provision or amendment to any person or circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this Act, the amendments made by this Act, and the application of the provisions of such to any person or circumstances shall not be affected thereby."

Hazardous Substances

Federal Hazardous Substances Act as not modifying this chapter, see Pub. L. 86–613, §18, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 380, set out as an Effect Upon Federal and State Laws note under section 1261 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

SUBCHAPTER II—DEFINITIONS

§321. Definitions; generally

For the purposes of this chapter—

(a)(1) The term "State", except as used in the last sentence of section 372(a) of this title, means any State or Territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(2) The term "Territory" means any Territory or possession of the United States, including the District of Columbia, and excluding the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone.

(b) The term "interstate commerce" means (1) commerce between any State or Territory and any place outside thereof, and (2) commerce within the District of Columbia or within any other Territory not organized with a legislative body.

(c) The term "Department" means Department of Health and Human Services.

(d) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(e) The term "person" includes individual, partnership, corporation, and association.

(f) The term "food" means (1) articles used for food or drink for man or other animals, (2) chewing gum, and (3) articles used for components of any such article.

(g)(1) The term "drug" means (A) articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; and (B) articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; and (C) articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals; and (D) articles intended for use as a component of any article specified in clause (A), (B), or (C). A food or dietary supplement for which a claim, subject to sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(3) of this title or sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(5)(D) of this title, is made in accordance with the requirements of section 343(r) of this title is not a drug solely because the label or the labeling contains such a claim. A food, dietary ingredient, or dietary supplement for which a truthful and not misleading statement is made in accordance with section 343(r)(6) of this title is not a drug under clause (C) solely because the label or the labeling contains such a statement.

(2) The term "counterfeit drug" means a drug which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device, or any likeness thereof, of a drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, processed, packed, or distributed such drug and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been packed or distributed by, such other drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor.

(h) The term "device" (except when used in paragraph (n) of this section and in sections 331(i), 343(f), 352(c), and 362(c) of this title) means an instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article, including any component, part, or accessory, which is—

(1) recognized in the official National Formulary, or the United States Pharmacopeia, or any supplement to them,

(2) intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, in man or other animals, or

(3) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, and


which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of its primary intended purposes. The term "device" does not include software functions excluded pursuant to section 360j(o) of this title.

(i) The term "cosmetic" means (1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and (2) articles intended for use as a component of any such articles; except that such term shall not include soap.

(j) The term "official compendium" means the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them.

(k) The term "label" means a display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon the immediate container of any article; and a requirement made by or under authority of this chapter that any word, statement, or other information appear on the label shall not be considered to be complied with unless such word, statement, or other information also appears on the outside container or wrapper, if any there be, of the retail package of such article, or is easily legible through the outside container or wrapper.

(l) The term "immediate container" does not include package liners.

(m) The term "labeling" means all labels and other written, printed, or graphic matter (1) upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers, or (2) accompanying such article.

(n) If an article is alleged to be misbranded because the labeling or advertising is misleading, then in determining whether the labeling or advertising is misleading there shall be taken into account (among other things) not only representations made or suggested by statement, word, design, device, or any combination thereof, but also the extent to which the labeling or advertising fails to reveal facts material in the light of such representations or material with respect to consequences which may result from the use of the article to which the labeling or advertising relates under the conditions of use prescribed in the labeling or advertising thereof or under such conditions of use as are customary or usual.

(o) The representation of a drug, in its labeling, as an antiseptic shall be considered to be a representation that it is a germicide, except in the case of a drug purporting to be, or represented as, an antiseptic for inhibitory use as a wet dressing, ointment, dusting powder, or such other use as involves prolonged contact with the body.

(p) The term "new drug" means—

(1) Any drug (except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug) the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof, except that such a drug not so recognized shall not be deemed to be a "new drug" if at any time prior to June 25, 1938, it was subject to the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and if at such time its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use; or

(2) Any drug (except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug) the composition of which is such that such drug, as a result of investigations to determine its safety and effectiveness for use under such conditions, has become so recognized, but which has not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a material time under such conditions.


(q)(1)(A) Except as provided in clause (B), the term "pesticide chemical" means any substance that is a pesticide within the meaning of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], including all active and inert ingredients of such pesticide. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the term "pesticide" within such meaning includes ethylene oxide and propylene oxide when such substances are applied on food.

(B) In the case of the use, with respect to food, of a substance described in clause (A) to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, and slime), the following applies for purposes of clause (A):

(i) The definition in such clause for the term "pesticide chemical" does not include the substance if the substance is applied for such use on food, or the substance is included for such use in water that comes into contact with the food, in the preparing, packing, or holding of the food for commercial purposes. The substance is not excluded under this subclause from such definition if the substance is ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, and is applied for such use on food. The substance is not so excluded if the substance is applied for such use on a raw agricultural commodity, or the substance is included for such use in water that comes into contact with the commodity, as follows:

(I) The substance is applied in the field.

(II) The substance is applied at a treatment facility where raw agricultural commodities are the only food treated, and the treatment is in a manner that does not change the status of the food as a raw agricultural commodity (including treatment through washing, waxing, fumigating, and packing such commodities in such manner).

(III) The substance is applied during the transportation of such commodity between the field and such a treatment facility.


(ii) The definition in such clause for the term "pesticide chemical" does not include the substance if the substance is a food contact substance as defined in section 348(h)(6) of this title, and any of the following circumstances exist: The substance is included for such use in an object that has a food contact surface but is not intended to have an ongoing effect on any portion of the object; the substance is included for such use in an object that has a food contact surface and is intended to have an ongoing effect on a portion of the object but not on the food contact surface; or the substance is included for such use in or is applied for such use on food packaging (without regard to whether the substance is intended to have an ongoing effect on any portion of the packaging). The food contact substance is not excluded under this subclause from such definition if any of the following circumstances exist: The substance is applied for such use on a semipermanent or permanent food contact surface (other than being applied on food packaging); or the substance is included for such use in an object that has a semipermanent or permanent food contact surface (other than being included in food packaging) and the substance is intended to have an ongoing effect on the food contact surface.


With respect to the definition of the term "pesticide" that is applicable to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], this clause does not exclude any substance from such definition.

(2) The term "pesticide chemical residue" means a residue in or on raw agricultural commodity or processed food of—

(A) a pesticide chemical; or

(B) any other added substance that is present on or in the commodity or food primarily as a result of the metabolism or other degradation of a pesticide chemical.


(3) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (1) and (2), the Administrator may by regulation except a substance from the definition of "pesticide chemical" or "pesticide chemical residue" if—

(A) its occurrence as a residue on or in a raw agricultural commodity or processed food is attributable primarily to natural causes or to human activities not involving the use of any substances for a pesticidal purpose in the production, storage, processing, or transportation of any raw agricultural commodity or processed food; and

(B) the Administrator, after consultation with the Secretary, determines that the substance more appropriately should be regulated under one or more provisions of this chapter other than sections 342(a)(2)(B) and 346a of this title.


(r) The term "raw agricultural commodity" means any food in its raw or natural state, including all fruits that are washed, colored, or otherwise treated in their unpeeled natural form prior to marketing.

(s) The term "food additive" means any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food (including any substance intended for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting, or holding food; and including any source of radiation intended for any such use), if such substance is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate its safety, as having been adequately shown through scientific procedures (or, in the case of a substance used in food prior to January 1, 1958, through either scientific procedures or experience based on common use in food) to be safe under the conditions of its intended use; except that such term does not include—

(1) a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity or processed food; or

(2) a pesticide chemical; or

(3) a color additive; or

(4) any substance used in accordance with a sanction or approval granted prior to September 6, 1958, pursuant to this chapter, the Poultry Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.] or the Meat Inspection Act of March 4, 1907, as amended and extended [21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.];

(5) a new animal drug; or

(6) an ingredient described in paragraph (ff) in, or intended for use in, a dietary supplement.


(t)(1) The term "color additive" means a material which—

(A) is a dye, pigment, or other substance made by a process of synthesis or similar artifice, or extracted, isolated, or otherwise derived, with or without intermediate or final change of identity, from a vegetable, animal, mineral, or other source, and

(B) when added or applied to a food, drug, or cosmetic, or to the human body or any part thereof, is capable (alone or through reaction with other substance) of imparting color thereto;


except that such term does not include any material which the Secretary, by regulation, determines is used (or intended to be used) solely for a purpose or purposes other than coloring.

(2) The term "color" includes black, white, and intermediate grays.

(3) Nothing in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be construed to apply to any pesticide chemical, soil or plant nutrient, or other agricultural chemical solely because of its effect in aiding, retarding, or otherwise affecting, directly or indirectly, the growth or other natural physiological processes of produce of the soil and thereby affecting its color, whether before or after harvest.

(u) The term "safe" as used in paragraph (s) of this section and in sections 348, 360b, 360ccc, and 379e of this title, has reference to the health of man or animal.

(v) The term "new animal drug" means any drug intended for use for animals other than man, including any drug intended for use in animal feed but not including such animal feed,—

(1) the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of animal drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof; except that such a drug not so recognized shall not be deemed to be a "new animal drug" if at any time prior to June 25, 1938, it was subject to the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and if at such time its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use; or

(2) the composition of which is such that such drug, as a result of investigations to determine its safety and effectiveness for use under such conditions, has become so recognized but which has not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a material time under such conditions.


Provided that any drug intended for minor use or use in a minor species that is not the subject of a final regulation published by the Secretary through notice and comment rulemaking finding that the criteria of paragraphs (1) and (2) have not been met (or that the exception to the criterion in paragraph (1) has been met) is a new animal drug.

(w) The term "animal feed", as used in paragraph (w) 1 of this section, in section 360b of this title, and in provisions of this chapter referring to such paragraph or section, means an article which is intended for use for food for animals other than man and which is intended for use as a substantial source of nutrients in the diet of the animal, and is not limited to a mixture intended to be the sole ration of the animal.

(x) The term "informal hearing" means a hearing which is not subject to section 554, 556, or 557 of title 5 and which provides for the following:

(1) The presiding officer in the hearing shall be designated by the Secretary from officers and employees of the Department who have not participated in any action of the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing and who are not directly responsible to an officer or employee of the Department who has participated in any such action.

(2) Each party to the hearing shall have the right at all times to be advised and accompanied by an attorney.

(3) Before the hearing, each party to the hearing shall be given reasonable notice of the matters to be considered at the hearing, including a comprehensive statement of the basis for the action taken or proposed by the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing and a general summary of the information which will be presented by the Secretary at the hearing in support of such action.

(4) At the hearing the parties to the hearing shall have the right to hear a full and complete statement of the action of the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing together with the information and reasons supporting such action, to conduct reasonable questioning, and to present any oral or written information relevant to such action.

(5) The presiding officer in such hearing shall prepare a written report of the hearing to which shall be attached all written material presented at the hearing. The participants in the hearing shall be given the opportunity to review and correct or supplement the presiding officer's report of the hearing.

(6) The Secretary may require the hearing to be transcribed. A party to the hearing shall have the right to have the hearing transcribed at his expense. Any transcription of a hearing shall be included in the presiding officer's report of the hearing.


(y) The term "saccharin" includes calcium saccharin, sodium saccharin, and ammonium saccharin.

(z) The term "infant formula" means a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk.

(aa) The term "abbreviated drug application" means an application submitted under section 355(j) of this title for the approval of a drug that relies on the approved application of another drug with the same active ingredient to establish safety and efficacy, and—

(1) in the case of section 335a of this title, includes a supplement to such an application for a different or additional use of the drug but does not include a supplement to such an application for other than a different or additional use of the drug, and

(2) in the case of sections 335b and 335c of this title, includes any supplement to such an application.


(bb) The term "knowingly" or "knew" means that a person, with respect to information—

(1) has actual knowledge of the information, or

(2) acts in deliberate ignorance or reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information.


(cc) For purposes of section 335a of this title, the term "high managerial agent"—

(1) means—

(A) an officer or director of a corporation or an association,

(B) a partner of a partnership, or

(C) any employee or other agent of a corporation, association, or partnership,


having duties such that the conduct of such officer, director, partner, employee, or agent may fairly be assumed to represent the policy of the corporation, association, or partnership, and

(2) includes persons having management responsibility for—

(A) submissions to the Food and Drug Administration regarding the development or approval of any drug product,

(B) production, quality assurance, or quality control of any drug product, or

(C) research and development of any drug product.


(dd) For purposes of sections 335a and 335b of this title, the term "drug product" means a drug subject to regulation under section 355, 360b, or 382 of this title or under section 262 of title 42.

(ee) The term "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Food and Drugs.

(ff) The term "dietary supplement"—

(1) means a product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients:

(A) a vitamin;

(B) a mineral;

(C) an herb or other botanical;

(D) an amino acid;

(E) a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or

(F) a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any ingredient described in clause (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E);


(2) means a product that—

(A)(i) is intended for ingestion in a form described in section 350(c)(1)(B)(i) of this title; or

(ii) complies with section 350(c)(1)(B)(ii) of this title;

(B) is not represented for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or the diet; and

(C) is labeled as a dietary supplement; and


(3) does—

(A) include an article that is approved as a new drug under section 355 of this title or licensed as a biologic under section 262 of title 42 and was, prior to such approval, certification, or license, marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food unless the Secretary has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article, when used as or in a dietary supplement under the conditions of use and dosages set forth in the labeling for such dietary supplement, is unlawful under section 342(f) of this title; and

(B) not include—

(i) an article that is approved as a new drug under section 355 of this title, certified as an antibiotic under section 357 of this title, or licensed as a biologic under section 262 of title 42, or

(ii) an article authorized for investigation as a new drug, antibiotic, or biological for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public,


which was not before such approval, certification, licensing, or authorization marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food unless the Secretary, in the Secretary's discretion, has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article would be lawful under this chapter.2


Except for purposes of paragraph (g) and section 350f of this title, a dietary supplement shall be deemed to be a food within the meaning of this chapter.

(gg) The term "processed food" means any food other than a raw agricultural commodity and includes any raw agricultural commodity that has been subject to processing, such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydration, or milling.

(hh) The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

(ii) The term "compounded positron emission tomography drug"—

(1) means a drug that—

(A) exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei by the emission of positrons and is used for the purpose of providing dual photon positron emission tomographic diagnostic images; and

(B) has been compounded by or on the order of a practitioner who is licensed by a State to compound or order compounding for a drug described in subparagraph (A), and is compounded in accordance with that State's law, for a patient or for research, teaching, or quality control; and


(2) includes any nonradioactive reagent, reagent kit, ingredient, nuclide generator, accelerator, target material, electronic synthesizer, or other apparatus or computer program to be used in the preparation of such a drug.


(jj) The term "antibiotic drug" means any drug (except drugs for use in animals other than humans) composed wholly or partly of any kind of penicillin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, or any other drug intended for human use containing any quantity of any chemical substance which is produced by a micro-organism and which has the capacity to inhibit or destroy micro-organisms in dilute solution (including a chemically synthesized equivalent of any such substance) or any derivative thereof.

(kk) Priority supplement.—The term "priority supplement" means a drug application referred to in section 101(4) of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (111 Stat. 2298).

(ll)(1) The term "single-use device" means a device that is intended for one use, or on a single patient during a single procedure.

(2)(A) The term "reprocessed", with respect to a single-use device, means an original device that has previously been used on a patient and has been subjected to additional processing and manufacturing for the purpose of an additional single use on a patient. The subsequent processing and manufacture of a reprocessed single-use device shall result in a device that is reprocessed within the meaning of this definition.

(B) A single-use device that meets the definition under clause (A) shall be considered a reprocessed device without regard to any description of the device used by the manufacturer of the device or other persons, including a description that uses the term "recycled" rather than the term "reprocessed".

(3) The term "original device" means a new, unused single-use device.

(mm)(1) The term "critical reprocessed single-use device" means a reprocessed single-use device that is intended to contact normally sterile tissue or body spaces during use.

(2) The term "semi-critical reprocessed single-use device" means a reprocessed single-use device that is intended to contact intact mucous membranes and not penetrate normally sterile areas of the body.

(nn) The term "major species" means cattle, horses, swine, chickens, turkeys, dogs, and cats, except that the Secretary may add species to this definition by regulation.

(oo) The term "minor species" means animals other than humans that are not major species.

(pp) The term "minor use" means the intended use of a drug in a major species for an indication that occurs infrequently and in only a small number of animals or in limited geographical areas and in only a small number of animals annually.

(qq) The term "major food allergen" means any of the following:

(1) Milk, egg, fish (e.g., bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean shellfish (e.g., crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (e.g., almonds, pecans, or walnuts), wheat, peanuts, and soybeans.

(2) A food ingredient that contains protein derived from a food specified in paragraph (1), except the following:

(A) Any highly refined oil derived from a food specified in paragraph (1) and any ingredient derived from such highly refined oil.

(B) A food ingredient that is exempt under paragraph (6) or (7) of section 343(w) of this title.


(rr)(1) The term "tobacco product" means any product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption, including any component, part, or accessory of a tobacco product (except for raw materials other than tobacco used in manufacturing a component, part, or accessory of a tobacco product).

(2) The term "tobacco product" does not mean an article that is a drug under subsection (g)(1), a device under subsection (h), or a combination product described in section 353(g) of this title.

(3) The products described in paragraph (2) shall be subject to subchapter V of this chapter.

(4) A tobacco product shall not be marketed in combination with any other article or product regulated under this chapter (including a drug, biologic, food, cosmetic, medical device, or a dietary supplement).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §201, 52 Stat. 1040; July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §1, 68 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 85–929, §2, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §101, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 397; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §102(a), title III, §307(a), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 781, 796; Pub. L. 89–74, §§3(a), 9(b), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 227, 234; Pub. L. 90–399, §102, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 90–639, §§1, 4(a), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361, 1362; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(a), (g), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281, 1282; Pub. L. 92–516, §3(3), Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 998; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(2)(A), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 94–295, §3(a)(1)(A), (2), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 95–203, §4(b)(3), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453; Pub. L. 96–359, §3, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 100–670, title I, §107(a)(1), Nov. 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 3984; Pub. L. 101–535, §5(b), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; Pub. L. 101–629, §16(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4526; Pub. L. 102–282, §6, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 161; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(a), (b), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §§3(b), (dd)(1), 4(b), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775, 779; Pub. L. 103–417, §§3(a), (b), 10(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4327, 4332; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §402, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1513; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §§121(a), 125(b)(2)(A), (e), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2320, 2325, 2327; Pub. L. 105–324, §2(a), (c), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3035, 3037; Pub. L. 107–109, §5(b)(1), Jan. 4, 2002, 115 Stat. 1413; Pub. L. 107–250, title III, §302(d), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1619; Pub. L. 108–282, title I, §102(b)(1), (5)(A), (B), title II, §203(c)(1), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 891, 902, 908; Pub. L. 110–85, title X, §1005(c), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 968; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §101(a), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, §3060(d), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1133.)

References in Text

The Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, referred to in par. (p)(1), and the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, referred to in par. (v)(1), is act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 34 Stat. 768, which was classified to subchapter I (§1 et seq.) of chapter 1 of this title, was repealed (except for section 14a which was transferred to section 376 of this title) by act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §1002(a), formerly §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059; renumbered §1002(a), Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §101(b)(2), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1784, and is covered by this chapter.

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, referred to in par. (q)(1), is act June 25, 1947, ch. 125, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–516, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 973, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§136 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 136 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Poultry Products Inspection Act, referred to in par. (s)(4), is Pub. L. 85–172, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 441, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 10 (§451 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 451 of this title and Tables.

The Meat Inspection Act of March 4, 1907, as amended and extended, referred to in par. (s)(4), is act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, titles I to IV, as added Dec. 15, 1967, Pub. L. 90–201, 81 Stat. 584, which are classified generally to subchapters I to IV (§601 et seq.) of chapter 12 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 601 of this title and Tables.

Section 101(4) of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997, referred to in par. (kk), is section 101(4) of Pub. L. 105–115, which is set out as a note under section 379g of this title.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–255 inserted at end of concluding provisions "The term 'device' does not include software functions excluded pursuant to section 360j(o) of this title."

2009—Par. (rr). Pub. L. 111–31 added par. (rr).

2007—Par. (ff). Pub. L. 110–85 substituted "paragraph (g) and section 350f of this title" for "paragraph (g)" in concluding provisions.

2004–Par. (u). Pub. L. 108–282, §102(b)(5)(A), substituted "360b, 360ccc" for "360b".

Par. (v). Pub. L. 108–282, §102(b)(5)(B), inserted concluding provisions.

Pars. (nn) to (pp). Pub. L. 108–282, §102(b)(1), added pars. (nn) to (pp).

Par. (qq). Pub. L. 108–282, §203(c)(1), added par. (qq).

2002—Par. (kk). Pub. L. 107–109 added par. (kk).

Pars. (ll), (mm). Pub. L. 107–250 added pars. (ll) and (mm).

1998—Par. (q)(1). Pub. L. 105–324, §2(a), added subpar. (1) and struck out former subpar. (1) which read as follows: "The term 'pesticide chemical' means any substance that is a pesticide within the meaning of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, including all active and inert ingredients of such pesticide."

Par. (q)(3). Pub. L. 105–324, §2(c), substituted "subparagraphs (1) and (2)" for "paragraphs (1) and (2)" in introductory provisions.

1997—Par. (aa). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(A), struck out "or 357" after "section 355(j)".

Par. (dd). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(A), struck out "357," after "section 355,".

Par. (ff)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(A), struck out ", certified as an antibiotic under section 357 of this title," before "or licensed as a biologic".

Par. (ii). Pub. L. 105–115, §121(a), added par. (ii).

Par. (jj). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(e), added par. (jj).

1996—Par. (q). Pub. L. 104–170, §402(a), amended par. (q) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (q) read as follows: "The term 'pesticide chemical' means any substance which, alone, in chemical combination or in formulation with one or more other substances, is 'a pesticide' within the meaning of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as now in force or as hereafter amended, and which is used in the production, storage, or transportation of raw agricultural commodities."

Par. (s)(1), (2). Pub. L. 104–170, §402(b), amended subpars. (1) and (2) generally. Prior to amendment, subpars. (1) and (2) read as follows:

"(1) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; or

"(2) a pesticide chemical to the extent that it is intended for use or is used in the production, storage, or transportation of any raw agricultural commodity; or".

Pars. (gg), (hh). Pub. L. 104–170, §402(c), added pars. (gg) and (hh).

1994—Par. (g)(1). Pub. L. 103–417, §10(a), amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: "A food for which a claim, subject to sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(3) of this title or sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(5)(D) of this title, is made in accordance with the requirements of section 343(r) of this title is not a drug under clause (B) solely because the label or labeling contains such a claim."

Par. (s)(6). Pub. L. 103–417, §3(b), added subpar. (6).

Par. (ff). Pub. L. 103–417, §3(a), added par. (ff).

1993—Pars. (c), (d). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(dd)(1), substituted "Health and Human Services" for "Agriculture".

Par. (h). Pub. L. 103–80, §4(b), amended directory language of Pub. L. 102–300, §6(a)(1). See 1992 amendment note below.

Pars. (v) to (ff). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(b), redesignated pars. (w) to (ff) as (v) to (ee), respectively.

1992—Pars. (c), (d). Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(1), which directed the substitution of "Health and Human Services" for "Health, Education, and Welfare", could not be executed because such words did not appear in the original statutory text. See 1993 Amendment note above and Transfer of Functions notes below.

Par. (h). Pub. L. 102–300, §6(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 103–80, §4(b), substituted "its primary" for "any of its principal" in two places in concluding provisions.

Par. (u). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted "379e" for "376".

Par. (y)(1). Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(2), struck out "of Health, Education, and Welfare" after "employees of the Department".

Pars. (bb) to (ee). Pub. L. 102–282 added pars. (bb) to (ee).

Par. (ff). Pub. L. 102–300, §6(a)(2), added par. (ff).

1990—Par. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–629, §16(b)(1), struck out "; but does not include devices or their components, parts, or accessories" after "clause (A), (B), or (C)".

Pub. L. 101–535 inserted at end "A food for which a claim, subject to sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(3) of this title or sections 343(r)(1)(B) and 343(r)(5)(D) of this title, is made in accordance with the requirements of section 343(r) of this title is not a drug under clause (B) solely because the label or labeling contains such a claim."

Par. (h)(3). Pub. L. 101–629, §16(b)(2), which directed the amendment of subpar. (3) by substituting "its primary" for "any of its principal", could not be executed because "any of its principal" did not appear in subpar. (3).

1988—Par. (w)(3). Pub. L. 100–670 struck out subpar. (3) which read as follows: "which drug is composed wholly or partly of any kind of penicillin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, chloramphenicol, or bacitracin, or any derivative thereof, except when there is in effect a published order of the Secretary declaring such drug not to be a new animal drug on the grounds that (A) the requirement of certification of batches of such drug, as provided for in section 360b(n) of this title, is not necessary to insure that the objectives specified in paragraph (3) thereof are achieved and (B) that neither subparagraph (1) nor (2) of this paragraph (w) applies to such drug."

1980—Par. (aa). Pub. L. 96–359 added par. (aa).

1977—Par. (z). Pub. L. 95–203 added par. (z).

1976—Par. (h). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(a)(1)(A), expanded definition of "device" to include implements, machines, implants, in vitro reagents, and other similar or related articles, added recognition in the National Formulary or the United States Pharmacopeia, or any supplement to the Formulary or Pharmacopeia, to the enumeration of conditions under which a device may qualify for inclusion under this chapter, and inserted requirements that a device be one which does not achieve any of its principal intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of any of its principal intended purposes.

Par. (n). Pub. L. 94–278 inserted "or advertising" after "labeling" wherever appearing.

Par. (y). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(a)(2), added par. (y).

1972—Par. (q). Pub. L. 92–516 substituted reference to pesticide for reference to economic poison.

1970—Par. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(g), struck out reference to sections 321, 331(i), 331(p), 331(q), 332, 333, 334, 337, 360, 360a, 372, 373, 374, and 375 of this title as they apply to depressant or stimulant drugs.

Par. (v). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(a), struck out par. (v) which defined "depressant or stimulant drug".

1968—Par. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–639, §4(a), extended provisions to cover depressant and stimulant drugs, the containers thereof, and equipment used in manufacturing, compounding, or processing such drugs, to the Canal Zone.

Par. (p). Pub. L. 90–399, §102(a), (b), inserted "(except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug)" after "Any drug" in subpars. (1) and (2), respectively.

Par. (s)(5). Pub. L. 90–399, §102(c), added subpar. (5).

Par. (u). Pub. L. 90–399, §102(d), inserted reference to section 360b of this title.

Par. (v)(3). Pub. L. 90–639, §1, inserted reference to lysergic acid diethylamide.

Pars. (w), (x). Pub. L. 90–399, §102(e), added pars. (w) and (x).

1965—Par. (g). Pub. L. 89–74, §9(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (1), redesignated cls. (1) to (4) thereof as (A) to (D), substituted "(A), (B), or (C)" for "(1), (2), or (3)" and added subpar. (2).

Par. (v). Pub. L. 89–74, §3(a), added par. (v).

1962—Par. (a). Pub. L. 87–781, §307(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (2), inserted "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the", and added subpar. (1).

Par. (p)(1). Pub. L. 87–781, §102(a)(1), inserted "and effectiveness" after "to evaluate the safety", and "and effective" after "as safe".

Par. (p)(2). Pub. L. 87–781, §102(a)(2), inserted "and effectiveness" after "safety".

1960—Par. (s). Pub. L. 86–618, §101(a), excluded color additives from definition of "food additive".

Par. (t). Pub. L. 86–618, §101(c), added par. (t). Former par. (t) redesignated (u).

Par. (u). Pub. L. 86–618, §101(b), redesignated par. (t) as (u) and inserted reference to section 376 of this title.

1958—Pars. (s), (t). Pub. L. 85–929 added pars. (s) and (t).

1954—Pars. (q), (r). Act July 22, 1954, added pars. (q) and (r).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §203(d), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 908, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 343 and 343–1 of this title] shall apply to any food that is labeled on or after January 1, 2006."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–115, title V, §501, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2380, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title], this Act and the amendments made by this Act, other than the provisions of and the amendments made by sections 111, 121, 125, and 307 [enacting section 355a of this title, amending this section and sections 331, 335a, 351, 352, 360, 360j, 360aa to 360cc, 360ee, 374, 379g, 381, and 382 of this title, section 45C of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 156 of Title 35, Patents, and section 8126 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, repealing sections 356 and 357 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 351 and 355 of this title], shall take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1997]."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–535 effective six months after the date of the promulgation of final regulations to implement section 343(r) of this title, or if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations (Nov. 8, 1992), with exception for persons marketing food the brand name of which contains a term defined by the Secretary under section 343(r)(2)(A)(i) of this title, see section 10(a) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–278 effective 180 days after Apr. 22, 1976, see section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–278, set out as a note under section 334 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–516 effective at the close of Oct. 21, 1972, except if regulations are necessary for the implementation of any provision that becomes effective on Oct. 21, 1972, and continuation in effect of subchapter I of chapter 6 of Title 7, and regulations thereunder, relating to the control of economic poisons, as in existence prior to Oct. 21, 1972, until superseded by provisions of Pub. L. 92–516, and regulations thereunder, see section 4 of Pub. L. 92–516, set out as an Effective Date note under section 136 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendments; Transitional Provisions

Pub. L. 90–639, §6, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1362, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [amending this section, sections 331, 333, 334, and 360a of this title, and provisions set out as a note under section 289a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply only with respect to violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] committed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1968]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–399 effective on first day of thirteenth calendar month after July 13, 1968, except that in the case of a drug (other than one subject to section 360b(n) of this title) intended for use in animals other than man which, on Oct. 9, 1962, was commercially used or sold in the United States, was not a new drug as defined in par. (p) of this section then in force, and was not covered by an effective application under section 355 of this title, the words "effectiveness" and "effective" contained in par. (v) of this section not applicable to such drug when intended solely for use under conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in labeling with respect to such drug on that day, see section 108(a), (b)(3) of Pub. L. 90–399, as amended, set out as an Effective Date and Transitional Provisions note under section 360b of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–74, §11, July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 235, provided that: "The foregoing provisions of this Act [see Short Title of 1965 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month [Feb. 1, 1966] following the month in which this Act is enacted [July 15, 1965]; except that (1) the Secretary shall permit persons, owning or operating any establishment engaged in manufacturing, preparing, propagating, compounding, processing, wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing any depressant or stimulant drug, as referred to in the amendments made by section 4 of this Act to section 510 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 360 of this title], to register their name, places of business, and establishments, and other information prescribed by such amendments, with the Secretary prior to such effective date, and (2) sections 201(v) and 511(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as added by this act [par. (v) of this section and par. (g) of section 360a of this title], and the provisions of sections 8 [amending section 372 of this title and section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] and 10 [set out as a note under this section] shall take effect upon the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 1965]."

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §107, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 788, provided that:

"(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by the foregoing sections of this part A [amending this section and sections 331, 332, 348, 351 to 353, 355, 357, 379e of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 355 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 1962].

"(b) The amendments made by sections 101, 103, 105, and 106 of this part A [amending sections 331, 332, 351, 352, 355, and 357 of this title] shall, with respect to any drug, take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month following the month in which this Act is enacted [Oct. 1962].

"(c)(1) As used in this subsection, the term 'enactment date' means the date of enactment of this Act; and the term 'basic Act' means the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter].

"(2) An application filed pursuant to section 505(b) of the basic Act [section 355(b) of this title] which was 'effective' within the meaning of that Act on the day immediately preceding the enactment date shall be deemed as of the enactment date, to be an application 'approved' by the Secretary within the meaning of the basic Act as amended by this Act.

"(3) In the case of any drug with respect to which an application filed under section 505(b) of the basic Act is deemed to be an approved application on the enactment date by virtue of paragraph (2) of this subsection—

"(A) the amendments made by this Act to section 201(p), and to subsections (b) and (d) of section 505, of the basic Act [par. (p) of this section, and subsecs. (b) and (d) of section 355 of this title], insofar as such amendments relate to the effectiveness of drugs, shall not, so long as approval of such application is not withdrawn or suspended pursuant to section 505(e) of that Act [section 355(e) of this title], apply to such drug when intended solely for use under conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in labeling covered by such approved application, but shall apply to any changed use, or conditions of use, prescribed, recommended, or suggested in its labeling, including such conditions of use as are the subject of an amendment or supplement to such application pending on, or filed after, the enactment date; and

"(B) clause (3) of the first sentence of section 505(e) of the basic Act, as amended by this Act [section 355(e) of this title], shall not apply to such drug when intended solely for use under conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in labeling covered by such approved application (except with respect to such use, or conditions of use, as are the subject of an amendment or supplement to such approved application, which amendment or supplement has been approved after the enactment date under section 505 of the basic Act as amended by this Act [section 355 of this title]) until whichever of the following first occurs: (i) the expiration of the two-year period beginning with the enactment date; (ii) the effective date of an order under section 505(e) of the basic Act [section 355(e) of this title], other than clause (3) of the first sentence of such section 505(e) [section 355(e) of this title], withdrawing or suspending the approval of such application.

"(4) In the case of any drug which, on the day immediately preceding the enactment date, (A) was commercially used or sold in the United States, (B) was not a new drug as defined by section 201(p) of the basic Act as then in force [par. (p) of this section], and (C) was not covered by an effective application under section 505 of that Act [section 355 of this title], the amendments to section 201(p) [par. (p) of this section] made by this Act shall not apply to such drug when intended solely for use under conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in labeling with respect to such drug on that day."

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–929 effective Sept. 6, 1958, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by act July 22, 1954, see section 5 of that act, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 102–282

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–282 not to preclude any other civil, criminal, or administrative remedy provided under Federal or State law, including any private right of action against any person for the same action subject to any action or civil penalty under an amendment made by Pub. L. 102–282, see section 7 of Pub. L. 102–282, set out as a note under section 335a of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §702, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1283, as amended by Pub. L. 93–481, §2, Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1455, provided that:

"(a) Prosecutions for any violation of law occurring prior to the effective date [see Effective Date of 1970 Amendment note above] of section 701 [repealing section 360a of this title, and amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 360, 372, and 381 of this title, sections 1114 and 1952 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and section 242 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall not be affected by the repeals or amendments made by such section, or abated by reason thereof.

"(b) Civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of section 701 shall not be affected by the repeals or amendments made by such section, or abated by reason thereof.

"(c) All administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now the Drug Enforcement Administration] on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1970] shall be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to such date of enactment. Where a drug is finally determined under such proceedings to be a depressant or stimulant drug, as defined in section 201(v) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [par. (v) of this section], such drug shall automatically be controlled under this title [subchapter I of chapter 13 of this title] by the Attorney General without further proceedings and listed in the appropriate schedule after he has obtained the recommendation of the Secretary. Any drug with respect to which such a final determination has been made prior to the date of enactment of this Act which is not listed in section 202 [section 812 of this title] within schedules I through V shall automatically be controlled under this title [subchapter I of chapter 13 of this title] by the Attorney General without further proceedings, and be listed in the appropriate schedule, after he has obtained the recommendations of the Secretary.

"(d) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section or section 1103 [of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under sections 171 to 174 of this title], section 4202 of title 18, United States Code, shall apply to any individual convicted under any of the laws repealed by this title or title III [subchapter I or subchapter II of chapter 13 of this title] without regard to the terms of any sentence imposed on such individual under such law."

Transfer of Functions

Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary and Department of Health and Human Services by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Functions of Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] under Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, to the extent such functions related to administration and enforcement of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 (15 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.), transferred to Consumer Product Safety Commission by section 2079 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Functions of Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] under Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965 [see Short Title of 1965 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] transferred to Attorney General except function of regulating counterfeiting of those drugs which are not "depressant or stimulant" drugs, see section 2 of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1968, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Functions of Federal Security Administrator transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and all agencies of Federal Security Agency transferred to Department of Health, Education, and Welfare by section 5 of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1953, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Federal Security Agency and office of Administrator abolished by section 8 of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1953.

Food and Drug Administration in Department of Agriculture and its functions, except those functions relating to administration of Insecticide Act of 1910 and Naval Stores Act, transferred to Federal Security Agency, to be administered under direction and supervision of Federal Security Administrator, by Reorg. Plan No. IV of 1940, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Regulation of Tobacco

Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, §422, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2380, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] or the amendments made by this Act shall be construed to affect the question of whether the Secretary of Health and Human Services has any authority to regulate any tobacco product, tobacco ingredient, or tobacco additive. Such authority, if any, shall be exercised under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1997]."

Congressional Findings Relating to Pub. L. 103–417

Pub. L. 103–417, §2, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4325, provided that: "Congress finds that—

"(1) improving the health status of United States citizens ranks at the top of the national priorities of the Federal Government;

"(2) the importance of nutrition and the benefits of dietary supplements to health promotion and disease prevention have been documented increasingly in scientific studies;

"(3)(A) there is a link between the ingestion of certain nutrients or dietary supplements and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis; and

"(B) clinical research has shown that several chronic diseases can be prevented simply with a healthful diet, such as a diet that is low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium, with a high proportion of plant-based foods;

"(4) healthful diets may mitigate the need for expensive medical procedures, such as coronary bypass surgery or angioplasty;

"(5) preventive health measures, including education, good nutrition, and appropriate use of safe nutritional supplements will limit the incidence of chronic diseases, and reduce long-term health care expenditures;

"(6)(A) promotion of good health and healthy lifestyles improves and extends lives while reducing health care expenditures; and

"(B) reduction in health care expenditures is of paramount importance to the future of the country and the economic well-being of the country;

"(7) there is a growing need for emphasis on the dissemination of information linking nutrition and long-term good health;

"(8) consumers should be empowered to make choices about preventive health care programs based on data from scientific studies of health benefits related to particular dietary supplements;

"(9) national surveys have revealed that almost 50 percent of the 260,000,000 Americans regularly consume dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, or herbs as a means of improving their nutrition;

"(10) studies indicate that consumers are placing increased reliance on the use of nontraditional health care providers to avoid the excessive costs of traditional medical services and to obtain more holistic consideration of their needs;

"(11) the United States will spend over $1,000,000,000,000 on health care in 1994, which is about 12 percent of the Gross National Product of the United States, and this amount and percentage will continue to increase unless significant efforts are undertaken to reverse the increase;

"(12)(A) the nutritional supplement industry is an integral part of the economy of the United States;

"(B) the industry consistently projects a positive trade balance; and

"(C) the estimated 600 dietary supplement manufacturers in the United States produce approximately 4,000 products, with total annual sales of such products alone reaching at least $4,000,000,000;

"(13) although the Federal Government should take swift action against products that are unsafe or adulterated, the Federal Government should not take any actions to impose unreasonable regulatory barriers limiting or slowing the flow of safe products and accurate information to consumers;

"(14) dietary supplements are safe within a broad range of intake, and safety problems with the supplements are relatively rare; and

"(15)(A) legislative action that protects the right of access of consumers to safe dietary supplements is necessary in order to promote wellness; and

"(B) a rational Federal framework must be established to supersede the current ad hoc, patchwork regulatory policy on dietary supplements."

Dissemination of Information Regarding the Dangers of Drug Abuse

Pub. L. 90–639, §5, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1362, provided that: "It is the sense of the Congress that, because of the inadequate knowledge on the part of the people of the United States of the substantial adverse effects of misuse of depressant and stimulant drugs, and of other drugs liable to abuse, on the individual, his family, and the community, the highest priority should be given to Federal programs to disseminate information which may be used to educate the public, particularly young persons, regarding the dangers of drug abuse."

Congressional Findings and Declaration of Policy

Pub. L. 89–74, §2, July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 226, provided that: "The Congress hereby finds and declares that there is a widespread illicit traffic in depressant and stimulant drugs moving in or otherwise affecting interstate commerce; that the use of such drugs, when not under the supervision of a licensed practitioner, often endangers safety on the highways (without distinction of interstate and intrastate traffic thereon) and otherwise has become a threat to the public health and safety, making additional regulation of such drugs necessary regardless of the intrastate or interstate origin of such drugs; that in order to make regulation and protection of interstate commerce in such drugs effective, regulation of intrastate commerce is also necessary because, among other things, such drugs, when held for illicit sale, often do not bear labeling showing their place of origin and because in the form in which they are so held or in which they are consumed a determination of their place of origin is often extremely difficult or impossible; and that regulation of interstate commerce without the regulation of intrastate commerce in such drugs, as provided in this Act [see Short Title of 1965 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title], would discriminate against and adversely affect interstate commerce in such drugs."

Effect of Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965 on State Laws

Pub. L. 89–74, §10, July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 235, provided that:

"(a) Nothing in this Act [enacting section 360a of this title, amending sections 321, 331, 333, 334, 360, and 372 of this title and section 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 352, and 360a of this title] shall be construed as authorizing the manufacture, compounding, processing, possession, sale, delivery, or other disposal of any drug in any State in contravention of the laws of such State.

"(b) No provision of this Act nor any amendment made by it shall be construed as indicating an intent on the part of the Congress to occupy the field in which such provision or amendment operates to the exclusion of any State law on the same subject matter, unless there is a direct and positive conflict between such provision or amendment and such State law so that the two cannot be reconciled or consistently stand together.

"(c) No amendment made by this Act shall be construed to prevent the enforcement in the courts of any State of any statute of such State prescribing any criminal penalty for any act made criminal by any such amendment."

Effect of Drug Amendments of 1962 on State Laws

Pub. L. 87–781, title II, §202, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 793, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 358 to 360, amending sections 321, 331, 332, 348, 351 to 353, 355, 357, 372, 374, 379e, and 381 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321, 331, 332, 352, 355, 360, and 374 of this title] to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] shall be construed as invalidating any provision of State law which would be valid in the absence of such amendments unless there is a direct and positive conflict between such amendments and such provision of State law."

Definitions

Pub. L. 105–115, §2, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2297, provided that: "In this Act [see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title], the terms 'drug', 'device', 'food', and 'dietary supplement' have the meaning given such terms in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321)."

1 So in original. Probably should be paragraph "(v)".

2 So in original. Provision probably should be set flush with subpar. (B).

§321a. "Butter" defined

For the purposes of the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906 (Thirty-fourth Statutes at Large, page 768) "butter" shall be understood to mean the food product usually known as butter, and which is made exclusively from milk or cream, or both, with or without common salt, and with or without additional coloring matter, and containing not less than 80 per centum by weight of milk fat, all tolerances having been allowed for.

(Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 268, 42 Stat. 1500.)

References in Text

The Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, referred to in text, is act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 34 Stat. 768, which was classified to subchapter I (§1 et seq.) of chapter 1 of this title, was repealed (except for section 14a which was transferred to section 376 of this title) by act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §1002(a), formerly §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059; renumbered §1002(a), Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §101(b)(2), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1784, and is covered by this chapter.

Codification

Section, which was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter, was formerly classified to section 6 of this title. Section 1002(a) of act June 25, 1938, set out as an Effective Date note under section 301 of this title, provided that this section should remain in force and effect and be applicable to the provisions of this chapter.

§321b. "Package" defined

The word "package" where it occurs the second and last time in the act entitled "An act to amend section 8 of an act entitled, 'An act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes,' " approved March 3, 1913, shall include and shall be construed to include wrapped meats inclosed in papers or other materials as prepared by the manufacturers thereof for sale.

(July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 271.)

References in Text

An act approved March 3, 1913, referred to in text, is act Mar. 3, 1913, ch. 117, 37 Stat. 732, which amended section 10 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

"An act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes", referred to in text, is act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 34 Stat. 768, which was classified to subchapter I (§1 et seq.) of chapter 1 of this title, was repealed (except for section 14a which was transferred to section 376 of this title) by act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §1002(a), formerly §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059; renumbered §1002(a), Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §101(b)(2), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1784, and is covered by this chapter.

Codification

Section, which was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter, was formerly classified to the last sentence of paragraph third of section 10 of this title. Section 1002(a) of act June 25, 1938, set out as an Effective Date note under section 301 of this title, provided that this section should remain in force and effect and be applicable to the provisions of this chapter.

§321c. Nonfat dry milk; "milk" defined

For the purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of June 26, 1938, (ch. 675, sec. 1, 52 Stat. 1040) [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] nonfat dry milk is the product resulting from the removal of fat and water from milk, and contains the lactose, milk proteins, and milk minerals in the same relative proportions as in the fresh milk from which made. It contains not over 5 per centum by weight of moisture. The fat content is not over 1½ per centum by weight unless otherwise indicated.

The term "milk", when used herein, means sweet milk of cows.

(Mar. 2, 1944, ch. 77, 58 Stat. 108; July 2, 1956, ch. 495, 70 Stat. 486.)

References in Text

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of June 26, 1938 (ch. 675, sec. 1, 52 Stat. 1040), referred to in text, probably means act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§301 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as a part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter, but was made applicable thereto.

Amendments

1956—Act July 2, 1956, substituted "nonfat dry milk" for "nonfat dry milk solids or defatted milk solids".

§321d. Market names for catfish and ginseng

(a) Catfish labeling

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.)—

(A) the term "catfish" may only be considered to be a common or usual name (or part thereof) for fish classified within the family Ictaluridae; and

(B) only labeling or advertising for fish classified within that family may include the term "catfish".

(2) Omitted

(b) Ginseng labeling

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.)—

(A) the term "ginseng" may only be considered to be a common or usual name (or part thereof) for any herb or herbal ingredient derived from a plant classified within the genus Panax; and

(B) only labeling or advertising for herbs or herbal ingredients classified within that genus may include the term "ginseng".

(2) Omitted

(Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10806, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 526.)

References in Text

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 10806 of Pub. L. 107–171. Subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(2) of section 10806 of Pub. L. 107–171 amended section 343 of this title.

Section was enacted as part of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, and not as part of Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

SUBCHAPTER III—PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES

§331. Prohibited acts

The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited:

(a) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.

(b) The adulteration or misbranding of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic in interstate commerce.

(c) The receipt in interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded, and the delivery or proffered delivery thereof for pay or otherwise.

(d) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any article in violation of section 344, 350d, 355, or 360bbb–3 of this title.

(e) The refusal to permit access to or copying of any record as required by section 350a, 350c, 350f(j), 350e, 354, 360bbb–3, 373, 374(a), 379aa, or 379aa–1 of this title; or the failure to establish or maintain any record, or make any report, required under section 350a, 350c(b), 350f, 350e, 354, 355(i) or (k), 360b(a)(4)(C), 360b(j), (l) or (m), 360ccc–1(i), 360e(f), 360i, 360bbb–3, 379aa, 379aa–1, 387i, or 387t of this title or the refusal to permit access to or verification or copying of any such required record; or the violation of any recordkeeping requirement under section 2223 1 of this title (except when such violation is committed by a farm).

(f) The refusal to permit entry or inspection as authorized by section 374 of this title.

(g) The manufacture within any Territory of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.

(h) The giving of a guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 333(c)(2) of this title, which guaranty or undertaking is false, except by a person who relied upon a guaranty or undertaking to the same effect signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the United States from whom he received in good faith the food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic; or the giving of a guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 333(c)(3) of this title, which guaranty or undertaking is false.

(i)(1) Forging, counterfeiting, simulating, or falsely representing, or without proper authority using any mark, stamp, tag, label, or other identification device authorized or required by regulations promulgated under the provisions of section 344 or 379e of this title.

(2) Making, selling, disposing of, or keeping in possession, control, or custody, or concealing any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as to render such drug a counterfeit drug.

(3) The doing of any act which causes a drug to be a counterfeit drug, or the sale or dispensing, or the holding for sale or dispensing, of a counterfeit drug.

(j) The using by any person to his own advantage, or revealing, other than to the Secretary or officers or employees of the Department, or to the courts when relevant in any judicial proceeding under this chapter, any information acquired under authority of section 344, 348, 350a, 350c, 355, 360, 360b, 360c, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360h, 360i, 360j, 360ccc, 360ccc–1, 360ccc–2, 374, 379, 379e, 387d, 387e, 387f, 387g, 387h, 387i, or 387t(b) of this title concerning any method or process which as a trade secret is entitled to protection; or the violating of section 346a(i)(2) of this title or any regulation issued under that section..2 This paragraph does not authorize the withholding of information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee.

(k) The alteration, mutilation, destruction, obliteration, or removal of the whole or any part of the labeling of, or the doing of any other act with respect to, a food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic, if such act is done while such article is held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce and results in such article being adulterated or misbranded.

(l) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, §421, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2380.

(m) The sale or offering for sale of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine, or the possession or serving of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine in violation of subsections (b) or (c) of section 347 of this title.

(n) The using, in labeling, advertising or other sales promotion of any reference to any report or analysis furnished in compliance with section 374 of this title.

(o) In the case of a prescription drug distributed or offered for sale in interstate commerce, the failure of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof to maintain for transmittal, or to transmit, to any practitioner licensed by applicable State law to administer such drug who makes written request for information as to such drug, true and correct copies of all printed matter which is required to be included in any package in which that drug is distributed or sold, or such other printed matter as is approved by the Secretary. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to exempt any person from any labeling requirement imposed by or under other provisions of this chapter.

(p) The failure to register in accordance with section 360 or 387e of this title, the failure to provide any information required by section 360(j), 360(k), 387e(i), or 387e(j) of this title, or the failure to provide a notice required by section 360(j)(2) or 387e(i)(3) of this title.

(q)(1) The failure or refusal—

(A) to comply with any requirement prescribed under section 360h, 360j(g), 387c(b), 387g, 387h, or 387o of this title;

(B) to furnish any notification or other material or information required by or under section 360i, 360j(g), 387d, 387i, or 387t of this title; or

(C) to comply with a requirement under section 360l or 387m of this title.


(2) With respect to any device or tobacco product, the submission of any report that is required by or under this chapter that is false or misleading in any material respect.

(r) The movement of a device, drug, or tobacco product in violation of an order under section 334(g) of this title or the removal or alteration of any mark or label required by the order to identify the device, drug, or tobacco product as detained.

(s) The failure to provide the notice required by section 350a(c) or 350a(e) of this title, the failure to make the reports required by section 350a(f)(1)(B) of this title, the failure to retain the records required by section 350a(b)(4) of this title, or the failure to meet the requirements prescribed under section 350a(f)(3) of this title.

(t) The importation of a drug in violation of section 381(d)(1) of this title, the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample in violation of section 353(c) of this title, the sale, purchase, or trade of a coupon, the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or the counterfeiting of such a coupon in violation of section 353(c)(2) of this title, the distribution of a drug sample in violation of section 353(d) of this title or the failure to otherwise comply with the requirements of section 353(d) of this title, the distribution of drugs in violation of section 353(e) of this title, failure to comply with the requirements under section 360eee–1 of this title, the failure to comply with the requirements under section 360eee–3 of this title, as applicable, or the failure to otherwise comply with the requirements of section 353(e) of this title.

(u) The failure to comply with any requirements of the provisions of, or any regulations or orders of the Secretary, under section 360b(a)(4)(A), 360b(a)(4)(D), or 360b(a)(5) of this title.

(v) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of a dietary supplement that is unsafe under section 350b of this title.

(w) The making of a knowingly false statement in any statement, certificate of analysis, record, or report required or requested under section 381(d)(3) of this title; the failure to submit a certificate of analysis as required under such section; the failure to maintain records or to submit records or reports as required by such section; the release into interstate commerce of any article or portion thereof imported into the United States under such section or any finished product made from such article or portion, except for export in accordance with section 381(e) or 382 of this title, or with section 262(h) of title 42; or the failure to so export or to destroy such an article or portions thereof, or such a finished product.

(x) The falsification of a declaration of conformity submitted under section 360d(c) of this title or the failure or refusal to provide data or information requested by the Secretary under paragraph (3) of such section.

(y) In the case of a drug, device, or food—

(1) the submission of a report or recommendation by a person accredited under section 360m of this title that is false or misleading in any material respect;

(2) the disclosure by a person accredited under section 360m of this title of confidential commercial information or any trade secret without the express written consent of the person who submitted such information or secret to such person; or

(3) the receipt by a person accredited under section 360m of this title of a bribe in any form or the doing of any corrupt act by such person associated with a responsibility delegated to such person under this chapter.


(z) Omitted.

(aa) The importation of a prescription drug in violation of section 384 of this title, the falsification of any record required to be maintained or provided to the Secretary under such section, or any other violation of regulations under such section.

(bb) The transfer of an article of food in violation of an order under section 334(h) of this title, or the removal or alteration of any mark or label required by the order to identify the article as detained.

(cc) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food by, with the assistance of, or at the direction of, a person debarred under section 335a(b)(3) of this title.

(dd) The failure to register in accordance with section 350d of this title.

(ee) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of the requirements under section 381(m) of this title.

(ff) The importing or offering for import into the United States of a drug or device with respect to which there is a failure to comply with a request of the Secretary to submit to the Secretary a statement under section 381(o) of this title.

(gg) The knowing failure to comply with paragraph (7)(E) of section 374(g) of this title; the knowing inclusion by a person accredited under paragraph (2) of such section of false information in an inspection report under paragraph (7)(A) of such section; or the knowing failure of such a person to include material facts in such a report.

(hh) The failure by a shipper, carrier by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receiver, or any other person engaged in the transportation of food to comply with the sanitary transportation practices prescribed by the Secretary under section 350e of this title.

(ii) The falsification of a report of a serious adverse event submitted to a responsible person (as defined under section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title) or the falsification of a serious adverse event report (as defined under section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title) submitted to the Secretary.

(jj)(1) The failure to submit the certification required by section 282(j)(5)(B) of title 42, or knowingly submitting a false certification under such section.

(2) The failure to submit clinical trial information required under subsection (j) of section 282 of title 42.

(3) The submission of clinical trial information under subsection (j) of section 282 of title 42 that is false or misleading in any particular under paragraph (5)(D) of such subsection (j).

(kk) The dissemination of a television advertisement without complying with section 353c 1 of this title.

(ll) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any food to which has been added a drug approved under section 355 of this title, a biological product licensed under section 262 of title 42, or a drug or a biological product for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public, unless—

(1) such drug or such biological product was marketed in food before any approval of the drug under section 355 of this title, before licensure of the biological product under such section 262 of title 42, and before any substantial clinical investigations involving the drug or the biological product have been instituted;

(2) the Secretary, in the Secretary's discretion, has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, approving the use of such drug or such biological product in the food;

(3) the use of the drug or the biological product in the food is to enhance the safety of the food to which the drug or the biological product is added or applied and not to have independent biological or therapeutic effects on humans, and the use is in conformity with—

(A) a regulation issued under section 348 of this title prescribing conditions of safe use in food;

(B) a regulation listing or affirming conditions under which the use of the drug or the biological product in food is generally recognized as safe;

(C) the conditions of use identified in a notification to the Secretary of a claim of exemption from the premarket approval requirements for food additives based on the notifier's determination that the use of the drug or the biological product in food is generally recognized as safe, provided that the Secretary has not questioned the general recognition of safety determination in a letter to the notifier;

(D) a food contact substance notification that is effective under section 348(h) of this title; or

(E) such drug or biological product had been marketed for smoking cessation prior to September 27, 2007; or


(4) the drug is a new animal drug whose use is not unsafe under section 360b of this title.


(mm) The failure to submit a report or provide a notification required under section 350f(d) of this title.

(nn) The falsification of a report or notification required under section 350f(d) of this title.

(oo) The sale of tobacco products in violation of a no-tobacco-sale order issued under section 333(f) of this title.

(pp) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of a tobacco product in violation of section 387k of this title.

(qq)(1) Forging, counterfeiting, simulating, or falsely representing, or without proper authority using any mark, stamp (including tax stamp), tag, label, or other identification device upon any tobacco product or container or labeling thereof so as to render such tobacco product a counterfeit tobacco product.

(2) Making, selling, disposing of, or keeping in possession, control, or custody, or concealing any punch, die, plate, stone, or other item that is designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any tobacco product or container or labeling thereof so as to render such tobacco product a counterfeit tobacco product.

(3) The doing of any act that causes a tobacco product to be a counterfeit tobacco product, or the sale or dispensing, or the holding for sale or dispensing, of a counterfeit tobacco product.

(rr) The charitable distribution of tobacco products.

(ss) The failure of a manufacturer or distributor to notify the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury of their knowledge of tobacco products used in illicit trade.

(tt) Making any express or implied statement or representation directed to consumers with respect to a tobacco product, in a label or labeling or through the media or advertising, that either conveys, or misleads or would mislead consumers into believing, that—

(1) the product is approved by the Food and Drug Administration;

(2) the Food and Drug Administration deems the product to be safe for use by consumers;

(3) the product is endorsed by the Food and Drug Administration for use by consumers; or

(4) the product is safe or less harmful by virtue of—

(A) its regulation or inspection by the Food and Drug Administration; or

(B) its compliance with regulatory requirements set by the Food and Drug Administration;


including any such statement or representation rendering the product misbranded under section 387c of this title.

(uu) The operation of a facility that manufactures, processes, packs, or holds food for sale in the United States if the owner, operator, or agent in charge of such facility is not in compliance with section 350g of this title.

(vv) The failure to comply with the requirements under section 350h of this title.

(ww) The failure to comply with section 350i of this title.

(xx) The refusal or failure to follow an order under section 350l of this title.

(yy) The knowing and willful failure to comply with the notification requirement under section 350f(h) of this title.

(zz) The importation or offering for importation of a food if the importer (as defined in section 384a of this title) does not have in place a foreign supplier verification program in compliance with such section 384a of this title.

(aaa) The failure to register in accordance with section 381(s) of this title.

(bbb) The failure to notify the Secretary in violation of section 360bbb–7 of this title.

(ccc)(1) The resale of a compounded drug that is labeled "not for resale" in accordance with section 353b of this title.

(2) With respect to a drug to be compounded pursuant to section 353a or 353b of this title, the intentional falsification of a prescription, as applicable.

(3) The failure to report drugs or adverse events by an entity that is registered in accordance with subsection (b) of section 353b of this title.

(ddd)(1) The manufacture or the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of a rinse-off cosmetic that contains intentionally-added plastic microbeads.

(2) In this paragraph—

(A) the term "plastic microbead" means any solid plastic particle that is less than five millimeters in size and is intended to be used to exfoliate or cleanse the human body or any part thereof; and

(B) the term "rinse-off cosmetic" includes toothpaste.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §301, 52 Stat. 1042; Dec. 22, 1941, ch. 613, §1, 55 Stat. 851; July 6, 1945, ch. 281, §1, 59 Stat. 463; Mar. 10, 1947, ch. 16, §1, 61 Stat. 11; June 24, 1948, ch. 613, §1, 62 Stat. 582; Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(b), 64 Stat. 20; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 350, §2, 67 Stat. 477; Pub. L. 85–929, §5, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §§104, 105(a), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §§103(c), 104(e)(1), 106(c), 114(a), title III, §304, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 784, 785, 788, 791, 795; Pub. L. 89–74, §§5, 9(c), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 232, 235; Pub. L. 90–399, §103, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 90–639, §2(b), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(a), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281; Pub. L. 92–387, §4(e), Aug. 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 562; Pub. L. 94–295, §§3(b), 4(b)(1), 7(b), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 576, 580, 582; Pub. L. 96–359, §5, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 99–570, title IV, §4014(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–120; Pub. L. 100–293, §7(a), Apr. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 101–502, §5(j), Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, §4755(c)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–210; Pub. L. 102–300, §3(a)(1), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(2), (3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(c), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 103–396, §2(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4154; Pub. L. 103–417, §10(b), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4332; Pub. L. 104–134, title II, §2103, Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–319; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §403, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 104–250, §5(d), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3156; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §125(a)(2)(A), (C), (b)(2)(B), title II, §§204(b), 210(c), title IV, §§401(b), 421, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325, 2336, 2345, 2364, 2380; Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §745(d)(1)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-39; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §§303(b), 304(d), 305(b), 306(c), 307(b), 321(b)(2), 322(b), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 664, 666, 668, 670, 672, 676, 677; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, §201(d), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XVI, §1603(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1690; Pub. L. 108–173, title XI, §1121(b)(1), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2469; Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(2)(A), Apr. 1, 2004, 118 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 108–282, title I, §102(b)(5)(C), (D), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7202(d), (e), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1913; Pub. L. 109–462, §§2(c), 3(b), 4(a), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3472, 3475; Pub. L. 110–85, title VIII, §801(b)(1), title IX, §§901(d)(1), 912(a), title X, §1005(d), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 920, 939, 951, 968; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(b), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1833; Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §§102(d)(1), 103(e), 105(c), 106(d), title II, §§204(j)(1), 206(d), 211(b), (c), title III, §301(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3889, 3898, 3904, 3906, 3937, 3943, 3953, 3954; Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, §§714(a), 715(a), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1073, 1075; Pub. L. 113–54, title I, §103(a), title II, §206(a), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 597, 639; Pub. L. 114–114, §2(a), Dec. 28, 2015, 129 Stat. 3129; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, §3101(a)(2)(A), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1152.)

References in Text

Section 2223 of this title, referred to in par. (e), was in the original "section 204 of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act", meaning section 204 of Pub. L. 111–353, which enacted section 2223 of this title and amended this section and section 381 of this title.

Section 353c of this title, referred to in par. (kk), was in the original a reference to section 503B of act June 25, 1938, and was translated as if it referred to section 503C of that Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the renumbering of section 503B as 503C by Pub. L. 113–54, title I, §102(a)(1), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 587, and its transfer to section 353c of this title. A new section 503B, which was enacted by section 102(a)(2) of Pub. L. 113–54, is classified to section 353b of this title and does not relate to television advertisements.

Constitutionality

For information regarding constitutionality of certain provisions of section 301 of act June 25, 1938, see Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 114–255 inserted ", drug," after "device" in two places.

2015—Par. (ddd). Pub. L. 114–114 added par. (ddd).

2013—Par. (t). Pub. L. 113–54, §206(a), struck out "or" after "the requirements of section 353(d) of this title," and inserted ", failure to comply with the requirements under section 360eee–1 of this title, the failure to comply with the requirements under section 360eee–3 of this title, as applicable," after "in violation of section 353(e) of this title".

Par. (ccc). Pub. L. 113–54, §103(a), added par. (ccc).

2012—Par. (aaa). Pub. L. 112–144, §714(a), added par. (aaa).

Par. (bbb). Pub. L. 112–144, §715(a), added par. (bbb).

2011—Par. (d). Pub. L. 111–353, §102(d)(1), inserted "350d," after "344,".

Par. (e). Pub. L. 111–353, §§204(j)(1), 211(c), substituted "350f(j)" for "350f(g)" and inserted before period at end "; or the violation of any recordkeeping requirement under section 2223 of this title (except when such violation is committed by a farm)".

Par. (uu). Pub. L. 111–353, §103(e), added par. (uu).

Par. (vv). Pub. L. 111–353, §105(c), added par. (vv).

Par. (ww). Pub. L. 111–353, §106(d), added par. (ww).

Par. (xx). Pub. L. 111–353, §206(d), added par. (xx).

Par. (yy). Pub. L. 111–353, §211(b), added par. (yy).

Par. (zz). Pub. L. 111–353, §301(b), added par. (zz).

2009—Pars. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(1)–(3), inserted "tobacco product," after "device,".

Par. (e). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(4)(B), which directed substitution of "379aa–1, 387i, or 387t of this title or the refusal to permit access to" for "or 379aa–1 of this title or the refusal to permit access to", was executed by making the substitution for "or 379aa–1 of this title, or the refusal to permit access to", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(4)(A), struck out period after "360ccc–1(i)".

Pars. (g), (h). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(5), (6), inserted "tobacco product," after "device,".

Par. (j). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(7), struck out period after "360ccc–2" and substituted "379, 379e, 387d, 387e, 387f, 387g, 387h, 387i, or 387t(b)" for "379, or 379e".

Par. (k). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(8), inserted "tobacco product," after "device,".

Par. (p). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(9), added par. (p) and struck out former par. (p) which read as follows: "The failure to register in accordance with section 360 of this title, the failure to provide any information required by section 360(j) or 360(k) of this title, or the failure to provide a notice required by section 360(j)(2) of this title."

Par. (q)(1). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(10), added subpar. (1) and struck out former subpar. (1) which read as follows: "The failure or refusal to (A) comply with any requirement prescribed under section 360h or 360j(g) of this title, (B) furnish any notification or other material or information required by or under section 360i or 360j(g) of this title, or (C) comply with a requirement under section 360l of this title."

Par. (q)(2). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(11), substituted "device or tobacco product," for "device,".

Par. (r). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(12), inserted "or tobacco product" after "device" in two places.

Pars. (oo) to (tt). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(b)(13), added pars. (oo) to (tt).

2007—Par. (e). Pub. L. 110–85, §1005(d)(1), substituted "350c, 350f(g)," for "350c," and "350c(b), 350f" for "350c(b)".

Par. (jj). Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(1), added par. (jj).

Par. (kk). Pub. L. 110–85, §901(d)(1), added par. (kk).

Par. (ll). Pub. L. 110–85, §912(a), added par. (ll).

Pars. (mm), (nn). Pub. L. 110–85, §1005(d)(2), added pars. (mm) and (nn).

2006—Par. (e). Pub. L. 109–462, §3(b), substituted "374(a), 379aa, or 379aa–1" for "374(a), or 379aa" and "360bbb–3, 379aa, or 379aa–1" for "360bbb–3, or 379aa".

Pub. L. 109–462, §2(c), substituted ", 374(a), or 379aa" for ", or 374(a)" and ", 360bbb–3, or 379aa" for ", or 360bbb–3".

Par. (ii). Pub. L. 109–462, §4(a), added par. (ii).

2005—Par. (e). Pub. L. 109–59, §7202(d), inserted "350e," before "354," in two places.

Par. (hh). Pub. L. 109–59, §7202(e), added par. (hh).

2004—Par. (e). Pub. L. 108–282, §102(b)(5)(C), which directed the substitution of "360b(a)(4)(C), 360b (j), (l) or (m), 360ccc–1(i)." for "360b(a)(4)(C), 360b(j), (l) or (m)" was executed by making the substitution for "360b(a)(4)(C), 360b(j), (l), or (m)", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 108–282, §102(b)(5)(D), substituted "360j, 360ccc, 360ccc–1, 360ccc–2." for "360j".

Par. (gg). Pub. L. 108–214 amended par. (gg) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The knowing failure of a person accredited under paragraph (2) of section 374(g) of this title to comply with paragraph (7)(E) of such section; the knowing inclusion by such a person of false information in an inspection report under paragraph (7)(A) of such section; or the knowing failure of such a person to include material facts in such a report."

2003—Par. (d). Pub. L. 108–136 substituted "section 344, 355, or 360bbb–3" for "section 344 or 355".

Par. (e). Pub. L. 108–136 inserted "360bbb–3," after "350c, 354," and substituted "360i, or 360bbb–3" for "or 360i".

Par. (aa). Pub. L. 108–173 substituted "prescription drug in violation of section 384" for "covered product in violation of section 384".

2002—Par. (e). Pub. L. 107–188, §306(c)(1), substituted "by section 350a, 350c, 354, 373, or 374(a) of this title" for "by section 350a, 354, or 373 of this title" and "under section 350a, 350c(b)" for "under section 350a".

Par. (j). Pub. L. 107–188, §306(c)(2), inserted "350c," after "350a,".

Par. (w). Pub. L. 107–188, §322(b), amended par. (w) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (w) read as follows: "The making of a knowingly false statement in any record or report required or requested under subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 381(d)(3) of this title, the failure to submit or maintain records as required by sections 381(d)(3)(A) and 381(d)(3)(B) of this title, the release into interstate commerce of any article imported into the United States under section 381(d)(3) of this title or any finished product made from such article (except for export in accordance with section 381(e) or 382 of this title or section 262(h) of title 42), or the failure to export or destroy any component, part or accessory not incorporated into a drug, biological product or device that will be exported in accordance with section 381(e) or 382 of this title or section 262(h) of title 42."

Par. (bb). Pub. L. 107–188, §303(b), added par. (bb).

Par. (cc). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(d), added par. (cc).

Par. (dd). Pub. L. 107–188, §305(b), added par. (dd).

Par. (ee). Pub. L. 107–188, §307(b), added par. (ee).

Par. (ff). Pub. L. 107–188, §321(b)(2), added par. (ff).

Par. (gg). Pub. L. 107–250 added par. (gg).

2000—Par. (aa). Pub. L. 106–387 added par. (aa).

1997—Par. (e). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(B), struck out "357(d) or (g)," after "355(i) or (k),".

Par. (i)(1). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(a)(2)(C), struck out ", 356, 357," before "or 379e of this title".

Par. (j). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(a)(2)(A), struck out "356, 357," before "360,".

Par. (l). Pub. L. 105–115, §421, struck out par. (l) which read as follows: "The using, on the labeling of any drug or device or in any advertising relating to such drug or device, of any representation or suggestion that approval of an application with respect to such drug or device is in effect under section 355, 360e, or 360j(g) of this title, as the case may be, or that such drug or device complies with the provisions of such section."

Par. (x). Pub. L. 105–115, §204(b), added par. (x).

Par. (y). Pub. L. 105–115, §210(c), added par. (y).

Par. (z). Pub. L. 105–115, §401(b), temporarily added par. (z) which related to dissemination of information in violation of section 360aaa of this title. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1997 Amendment note below.

1996—Par. (e). Pub. L. 104–250 inserted ", 354," before "or 373 of this title" and "354," before "355(i) or (k)".

Par. (j). Pub. L. 104–170 inserted before period at end of first sentence "; or the violating of section 346a(i)(2) of this title or any regulation issued under that section."

Pars. (u) to (w). Pub. L. 104–134 redesignated par. (u) relating to introduction into interstate commerce of unsafe dietary supplement as (v) and added par. (w).

1994—Par. (e). Pub. L. 103–396, §2(b)(1)(A), substituted "357(d) or (g), 360b(a)(4)(C)," for "357(d) or (g),".

Par. (u). Pub. L. 103–417 added par. (u) relating to introduction into interstate commerce of unsafe dietary supplement.

Pub. L. 103–396, §2(b)(1)(B), added par. (u) relating to failure to comply with regulations or orders of Secretary.

1993—Par. (j). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(c)(1), substituted "379, or 379e" for "379e, or 379".

Par. (s). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(c)(2), substituted "350a(e)" for "350a(d)".

1992—Pars. (i)(1), (j). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted "379e" for "376".

Par. (q)(1)(C). Pub. L. 102–300 added cl. (C).

1990—Par. (e). Pub. L. 101–502 substituted "or (k)" for "or (j)".

Par. (j). Pub. L. 101–508 inserted at end "This paragraph does not authorize the withholding of information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee."

1988—Par. (t). Pub. L. 100–293 added par. (t).

1986—Par. (s). Pub. L. 99–570 amended par. (s) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (s) read as follows: "The failure to provide the notice required by section 350a(b) or 350a(c), the failure to make the reports required by section 350a(d)(1)(B), or the failure to meet the requirements prescribed under section 350a(d)(2)."

1980—Par. (e). Pub. L. 96–359, §5(b), inserted reference to section 350a of this title in two places.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 96–359, §5(c), inserted reference to section 350a of this title.

Par. (s). Pub. L. 96–359, §5(a), added par. (s).

1976—Par. (e). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(b)(2), inserted references to sections 360e(f) and 360i of this title.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(b)(3), inserted references to sections 360, 360c, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360h, 360i, 360j, and 379 of this title.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(b)(4), substituted "drug or device" for "drug" wherever appearing, and inserted references to sections 360e and 360j(g) of this title.

Par. (p). Pub. L. 94–295, §4(b)(1), substituted "section 360(j) or 360(k) of this title," for "section 360(j) of this title,".

Par. (q). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(b)(1), added par. (q).

Par. (r). Pub. L. 94–295, §7(b), added par. (r).

1972—Par. (p). Pub. L. 92–387 added failure to provide information required by section 360(j) of this title, and failure to provide notice required by section 360(j)(2) of this title as prohibited acts.

1970—Par. (q). Pub. L. 91–513 struck out par. (q) which set out penalties for illegal manufacture, sale, disposition, possession and other traffic in stimulant and depressant drugs. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

1968—Par. (e). Pub. L. 90–399, §103(1), struck out "or" before "357(d) or (g)" and inserted ", or 360b(j), (l), or (m)" after "357(d) or (g)". Amendment striking out "or" was executed as described, notwithstanding directory language that "or" before "357," be stricken out, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 90–399, §103(2), inserted reference to section 360b of this title.

Par. (q). Pub. L. 90–639 divided cl. (3), which referred simply to possession in violation of section 360a(c) of this title, into subcls. (A) and (B) which refer, respectively, to possession in violation of section 360a(c)(1) of this title and possession in violation of section 360a(c)(2) of this title.

1965—Par. (i). Pub. L. 89–74, §9(c), designated existing provisions as subpar. (1) and added subpars. (2) and (3).

Par. (q). Pub. L. 89–74, §5, added par. (q).

1962—Par. (e). Pub. L. 87–781, §§103(c), 106(c), prohibited the failure to establish or maintain any record, or make any report, required under sections 355(i) or (j) and 507(d) or (g) of this title, or the refusal to permit access to, or verification or copying of, any such required record.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 87–781, §104(e)(1), inserted "approval of" before "an application", and substituted "in effect" for "effective".

Par. (o). Pub. L. 87–781, §114(a), added par. (o).

Par. (p). Pub. L. 87–781, §304, added par. (p).

1960—Par. (i). Pub. L. 86–618, §105(a), struck out references to sections 346(b), 354, and 364 of this title and inserted reference to section 376 of this title.

Par. (j). Pub. L. 86–618, §104, inserted reference to section 376 of this title.

1958—Par. (j). Pub. L. 85–929, inserted reference to section 348 of this title.

1953—Par. (n). Act Aug. 7, 1953, added par. (n).

1950—Par. (m). Act Mar. 16, 1950, added par. (m).

1948—Par. (k). Act June 24, 1948, inserted "(whether or not the first sale)" so as to make it clear that this subsection is not limited to the case where the act occurs while the article is held for the first sale after interstate shipment, and extended coverage of subsection to acts which result in adulteration.

1947—Par. (j). Act Mar. 10, 1947, inserted reference to sections 356 and 357 of this title.

1945—Par. (i). Act July 6, 1945, inserted reference to section 357 of this title.

1941—Par. (i). Act Dec. 22, 1941, inserted reference to section 356 of this title.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–114, §2(b), Dec. 28, 2015, 129 Stat. 3129, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] applies—

"(A) with respect to manufacturing, beginning on July 1, 2017, and with respect to introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce, beginning on July 1, 2018; and

"(B) notwithstanding subparagraph (A), in the case of a rinse-off cosmetic that is a nonprescription drug, with respect to manufacturing, beginning on July 1, 2018, and with respect to the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce, beginning on July 1, 2019.

"(2) Nonprescription drug.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'nonprescription drug' means a drug not subject to section 503(b)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 353(b)(1))."

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(e) of Pub. L. 111–353 effective 18 months after Jan. 4, 2011, and applicable to a small business (as defined in the regulations promulgated under section 350g(n) of this title) beginning on the date that is 6 months after the effective date of such regulations and to a very small business (as defined in such regulations) beginning on the date that is 18 months after the effective date of such regulations, see section 103(i) of Pub. L. 111–353, set out as an Effective Date note under section 350g of this title.

Pub. L. 111–353, title III, §301(d), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3955, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 384a of this title and amending this section and section 381 of this title] shall take effect 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011]."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–85, title IX, §909, Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 950, provided that:

"(a) Effective Date.—This subtitle [subtitle A (§§901–909) of title IX of Pub. L. 110–85, enacting sections 353b and 355–1 of this title, amending this section, sections 333, 352, and 355 of this title, and section 262 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 352, 355, and 355a of this title] takes effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 2007].

"(b) Drugs Deemed to Have Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies.—

"(1) In general.—A drug that was approved before the effective date of this Act [probably means "this subtitle", see above] is, in accordance with paragraph (2), deemed to have in effect an approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy under section 505–1 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 355–1] (as added by section 901) (referred to in this section as the 'Act') if there are in effect on the effective date of this Act elements to assure safe use—

"(A) required under section 314.520 or section 601.42 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations; or

"(B) otherwise agreed to by the applicant and the Secretary for such drug.

"(2) Elements of strategy; enforcement.—The approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy in effect for a drug under paragraph (1)—

"(A) is deemed to consist of the timetable required under section 505–1(d) and any additional elements under subsections (e) and (f) of such section in effect for such drug on the effective date of this Act; and

"(B) is subject to enforcement by the Secretary to the same extent as any other risk evaluation and mitigation strategy under section 505–1 of the Act, except that sections 303(f)(4) and 502(y) and (z) of the Act [21 U.S.C. 333(f)(4), 352(y), (z)] (as added by section 902) shall not apply to such strategy before the Secretary has completed review of, and acted on, the first assessment of such strategy under such section 505–1.

"(3) Submission.—Not later than 180 days after the effective date of this Act, the holder of an approved application for which a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy is deemed to be in effect under paragraph (1) shall submit to the Secretary a proposed risk evaluation and mitigation strategy. Such proposed strategy is subject to section 505–1 of the Act as if included in such application at the time of submission of the application to the Secretary."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 2(c) of Pub. L. 109–462 effective 1 year after Dec. 22, 2006, see section 2(e)(1) of Pub. L. 109–462, set out as a note under section 352 of this title.

Amendment by section 3(b) of Pub. L. 109–462 effective 1 year after Dec. 22, 2006, see section 3(d)(1) of Pub. L. 109–462, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–462, §4(b), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3475, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2006]."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7204, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1914, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle B (§§7201–7204) of title VII of Pub. L. 109–59, enacting section 350e of this title, amending this section, sections 342 and 373 of this title, and section 5701 of Title 49, Transportation, omitting sections 5702 to 5714 of Title 49, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 301 of this title] takes effect on October 1, 2005."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §321(c), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 676, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 360 and 381 of this title] take effect upon the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002]."

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §322(c), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 678, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 381 of this title] take effect upon the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002]."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by sections 204, 210, and 421 of Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Amendment by section 401(b) of Pub. L. 105–115 effective 1 year after Nov. 21, 1997, or upon Secretary's issuance of final regulations pursuant to section 401(c) of Pub. L. 105–115, whichever is sooner, and ceases to be effective Sept. 30, 2006, see section 401(d), (e) of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under former section 360aaa of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–396 effective upon adoption of final regulations under section 2(c) of Pub. L. 103–396, set out as a Regulations note under section 360b of this title, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 103–396, set out as a note under section 360b of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, §4755(c)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–210, provided that the amendment made by section 4755(c)(2) is effective as if included in subtitle D of title VI of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §§6601, 6602, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2285, see 42 U.S.C. 300aa–1 note, 300aa–10 note.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–293 effective upon expiration of 90 days after Apr. 22, 1988, see section 8(a) of Pub. L. 100–293, set out as a note under section 353 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–387 effective on first day of sixth month beginning after Aug. 16, 1972, see section 5 of Pub. L. 92–387, set out as a note under section 360 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–399 effective on first day of thirteenth calendar month after July 13, 1968, see section 108(a) of Pub. L. 90–399, set out as an Effective Date and Transitional Provisions note under section 360b of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–639 applicable only with respect to violations of this chapter committed after Oct. 24, 1968, see section 6 of Pub. L. 90–639, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendments; Transitional Provisions note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–74 effective Feb. 1, 1966, see section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by sections 103(c) and 106(c) of Pub. L. 87–781 effective on first day of seventh calendar month following Oct. 1962, and amendment by section 104(e)(1) of Pub. L. 87–781 effective Oct. 10, 1962, see section 107 of Pub. L. 87–781, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §114(b), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 791, provided that: "This section [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month following the month in which this Act is enacted [October 1962]."

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–929 effective Sept. 6, 1958, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Amendment by act Mar. 16, 1950, effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of that act, set out as an Effective Date note under section 347 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 113–54, title I, §104, Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 597, provided that: "In promulgating any regulations to implement this title [enacting subpart 9 of part C of subchapter VII of this chapter and sections 353a–1 and 353b of this title, amending this section and sections 352, 353a, 352b, and 353c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 301 of this title] (and the amendments made by this title), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall—

"(1) issue a notice of proposed rulemaking that includes the proposed regulation;

"(2) provide a period of not less than 60 calendar days for comments on the proposed regulation; and

"(3) publish the final regulation not more than 18 months following publication of the proposed rule and not less than 30 calendar days before the effective date of such final regulation."

Secretary of Health and Human Services to promulgate regulations to implement amendments made by section 401 of Pub. L. 105–115 not later than 1 year after Nov. 21, 1997, see section 401(c) of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 360aaa of this title.

Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 113–54, title II, §208, Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 640, provided that: "Except as provided in the amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 204(a) [amending section 353 of this title] and by section 206(a) [amending this section], nothing in this title [enacting part H of subchapter V of this chapter, amending this section and sections 333, 352, 353, and 360eee–1 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 301, 333, and 353 of this title] (including the amendments made by this title) shall be construed as altering any authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services with respect to a drug subject to section 503(b)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 353(b)(1)) under any other provision of such Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] or the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.)."

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now the Drug Enforcement Administration] on Oct. 27, 1970, to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Construction of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–114, §2(d), Dec. 28, 2015, 129 Stat. 3130, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 301 of this title] (or the amendments made by this Act) shall be construed to apply with respect to drugs that are not also cosmetics (as such terms are defined in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321))."

Construction of 2011 Amendment

Nothing in amendments by sections 103(e), 105(c), 106(d), 204(j)(1), 211(b), (c), and 301(b) of Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, see section 2206 of this title.

Nothing in amendments by Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2251 and 2252 of this title.

Construction of 2009 Amendments

Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(p), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1838, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section and sections 333, 334, 355, 360m, 372 to 374, 375, 379a, 381, 393, 399, and 679 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 333 and 387c of this title] is intended or shall be construed to expand, contract, or otherwise modify or amend the existing limitations on State government authority over tribal restricted fee or trust lands."

Construction of 2002 Amendments

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §315, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 675, provided that: "Nothing in this title [enacting sections 350c, 350d, 398, 399, and 679c of this title, sections 3353, 3354, 8319, and 8320 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 247b–20 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending this section, sections 334, 335a, 342, 343, 360, 372, 374, and 381 of this title, and section 43 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 341, 350c, 350d, and 381 of this title], or an amendment made by this title, shall be construed to alter the jurisdiction between the Secretaries of Agriculture and of Health and Human Services, under applicable statutes and regulations."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Preemption of State Laws

Pub. L. 114–114, §2(c), Dec. 28, 2015, 129 Stat. 3129, provided that: "No State or political subdivision of a State may directly or indirectly establish under any authority or continue in effect restrictions with respect to the manufacture or introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of rinse-off cosmetics containing plastic microbeads (as defined in section 301(ddd) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as added by subsection (a)) that are not identical to the restrictions under such section 301(ddd) that have begun to apply under subsection (b) [set out as a note above]."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original.

§332. Injunction proceedings

(a) Jurisdiction of courts

The district courts of the United States and the United States courts of the Territories shall have jurisdiction, for cause shown 1 to restrain violations of section 331 of this title, except paragraphs (h), (i), and (j).

(b) Violation of injunction

In case of violation of an injunction or restraining order issued under this section, which also constitutes a violation of this chapter, trial shall be by the court, or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §302, 52 Stat. 1043; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §103(d), title II, §201(c), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 784, 793; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(d), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775.)

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(d)(1), struck out ", and subject to the provisions of section 17 (relating to notice to opposite party) of the Act entitled 'An Act to supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes', approved October 15, 1914, as amended (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 28, sec. 381)," after "for cause shown".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(d)(2), struck out at end "Such trial shall be conducted in accordance with the practice and procedure applicable in the case of proceedings subject to the provisions of section 22 of such Act of October 15, 1914, as amended (U.S.C., 1934 ed., title 28, sec. 387)."

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–781, §103(d), struck out "(e)," after "paragraphs".

Pub. L. 87–781, §201(c), struck out "(f)," after "paragraphs".

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 87–781 effective on first day of seventh calendar month following October 1962, see section 107 of Pub. L. 87–781, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Pub. L. 87–781, title II, §203, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 793, provided that: "The amendments made by this title [amending this section and section 374 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 374 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 1962]."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§333. Penalties

(a) Violation of section 331 of this title; second violation; intent to defraud or mislead

(1) Any person who violates a provision of section 331 of this title shall be imprisoned for not more than one year or fined not more than $1,000, or both.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this section,1 if any person commits such a violation after a conviction of him under this section has become final, or commits such a violation with the intent to defraud or mislead, such person shall be imprisoned for not more than three years or fined not more than $10,000, or both.

(b) Prescription drug marketing violations

(1) Notwithstanding subsection (a), any person who violates section 331(t) of this title by—

(A) knowingly importing a drug in violation of section 381(d)(1) of this title,

(B) knowingly selling, purchasing, or trading a drug or drug sample or knowingly offering to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample, in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title,

(C) knowingly selling, purchasing, or trading a coupon, knowingly offering to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or knowingly counterfeiting such a coupon, in violation of section 353(c)(2) of this title, or

(D) knowingly distributing drugs in violation of section 353(e)(1) of this title,


shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.

(2) Any manufacturer or distributor who distributes drug samples by means other than the mail or common carrier whose representative, during the course of the representative's employment or association with that manufacturer or distributor, violated section 331(t) of this title because of a violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title or violated any State law prohibiting the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample subject to section 353(b) of this title or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a drug sample shall, upon conviction of the representative for such violation, be subject to the following civil penalties:

(A) A civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each of the first two such violations resulting in a conviction of any representative of the manufacturer or distributor in any 10-year period.

(B) A civil penalty of not more than $1,000,000 for each violation resulting in a conviction of any representative after the second conviction in any 10-year period.


For the purposes of this paragraph, multiple convictions of one or more persons arising out of the same event or transaction, or a related series of events or transactions, shall be considered as one violation.

(3) Any manufacturer or distributor who violates section 331(t) of this title because of a failure to make a report required by section 353(d)(3)(E) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $100,000.

(4)(A) If a manufacturer or distributor or any representative of such manufacturer or distributor provides information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, any representative of that manufacturer or distributor for a violation of section 331(t) of this title because of a sale, purchase, or trade or offer to purchase, sell, or trade a drug sample in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title or for a violation of State law prohibiting the sale, purchase, or trade or offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample, the conviction of such representative shall not be considered as a violation for purposes of paragraph (2).

(B) If, in an action brought under paragraph (2) against a manufacturer or distributor relating to the conviction of a representative of such manufacturer or distributor for the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug, it is shown, by clear and convincing evidence—

(i) that the manufacturer or distributor conducted, before the institution of a criminal proceeding against such representative for the violation which resulted in such conviction, an investigation of events or transactions which would have led to the reporting of information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, such representative for such purchase, sale, or trade or offer to purchase, sell, or trade, or

(ii) that, except in the case of the conviction of a representative employed in a supervisory function, despite diligent implementation by the manufacturer or distributor of an independent audit and security system designed to detect such a violation, the manufacturer or distributor could not reasonably have been expected to have detected such violation,


the conviction of such representative shall not be considered as a conviction for purposes of paragraph (2).

(5) If a person provides information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, a person for a violation of section 331(t) of this title because of the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title, such person shall be entitled to one-half of the criminal fine imposed and collected for such violation but not more than $125,000.

(6) Notwithstanding subsection (a), any person who is a manufacturer or importer of a prescription drug under section 384(b) of this title and knowingly fails to comply with a requirement of section 384(e) of this title that is applicable to such manufacturer or importer, respectively, shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.

(7) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2), any person that knowingly and intentionally adulterates a drug such that the drug is adulterated under subsection (a)(1), (b), (c), or (d) of section 351 of this title and has a reasonable probability of causing serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals shall be imprisoned for not more than 20 years or fined not more than $1,000,000, or both.

(8) Notwithstanding subsection (a), any person who violates section 331(i)(3) of this title by knowingly making, selling or dispensing, or holding for sale or dispensing, a counterfeit drug shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined in accordance with title 18, or both.

(c) Exceptions in certain cases of good faith, etc.

No person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (a)(1) of this section, (1) for having received in interstate commerce any article and delivered it or proffered delivery of it, if such delivery or proffer was made in good faith, unless he refuses to furnish on request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary the name and address of the person from whom he purchased or received such article and copies of all documents, if any there be, pertaining to the delivery of the article to him; or (2) for having violated section 331(a) or (d) of this title, if he establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the United States from whom he received in good faith the article, to the effect, in case of an alleged violation of section 331(a) of this title, that such article is not adulterated or misbranded, within the meaning of this chapter designating this chapter or to the effect, in case of an alleged violation of section 331(d) of this title, that such article is not an article which may not, under the provisions of section 344 or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce; or (3) for having violated section 331(a) of this title, where the violation exists because the article is adulterated by reason of containing a color additive not from a batch certified in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter, if such person establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the manufacturer of the color additive, to the effect that such color additive was from a batch certified in accordance with the applicable regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter; or (4) for having violated section 331(b), (c) or (k) of this title by failure to comply with section 352(f) of this title in respect to an article received in interstate commerce to which neither section 353(a) nor 353(b)(1) of this title is applicable, if the delivery or proffered delivery was made in good faith and the labeling at the time thereof contained the same directions for use and warning statements as were contained in the labeling at the time of such receipt of such article; or (5) for having violated section 331(i)(2) of this title if such person acted in good faith and had no reason to believe that use of the punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing involved would result in a drug being a counterfeit drug, or for having violated section 331(i)(3) of this title if the person doing the act or causing it to be done acted in good faith and had no reason to believe that the drug was a counterfeit drug.

(d) Exceptions involving misbranded food

No person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (a)(1) of this section for a violation of section 331 of this title involving misbranded food if the violation exists solely because the food is misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title because of its advertising.

(e) Prohibited distribution of human growth hormone

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), whoever knowingly distributes, or possesses with intent to distribute, human growth hormone for any use in humans other than the treatment of a disease or other recognized medical condition, where such use has been authorized by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under section 355 of this title and pursuant to the order of a physician, is guilty of an offense punishable by not more than 5 years in prison, such fines as are authorized by title 18, or both.

(2) Whoever commits any offense set forth in paragraph (1) and such offense involves an individual under 18 years of age is punishable by not more than 10 years imprisonment, such fines as are authorized by title 18, or both.

(3) Any conviction for a violation of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall be considered a felony violation of the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.] for the purposes of forfeiture under section 413 of such Act [21 U.S.C. 853].

(4) As used in this subsection the term "human growth hormone" means somatrem, somatropin, or an analogue of either of them.

(5) The Drug Enforcement Administration is authorized to investigate offenses punishable by this subsection.

(f) Violations related to devices

(1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), any person who violates a requirement of this chapter which relates to devices shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $15,000 for each such violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a person accredited under paragraph (2) of section 374(g) of this title who is substantially not in compliance with the standards of accreditation under such section, or who poses a threat to public health or fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of such section, shall be considered to have violated a requirement of this chapter that relates to devices.

(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply—

(i) to any person who violates the requirements of section 360i(a) or 360j(f) of this title unless such violation constitutes (I) a significant or knowing departure from such requirements, or (II) a risk to public health,

(ii) to any person who commits minor violations of section 360i(e) or 360i(g) of this title (only with respect to correction reports) if such person demonstrates substantial compliance with such section, or

(iii) to violations of section 351(a)(2)(A) of this title which involve one or more devices which are not defective.


(2)(A) Any person who introduces into interstate commerce or delivers for introduction into interstate commerce an article of food that is adulterated within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title or any person who does not comply with a recall order under section 350l of this title shall be subject to a civil money penalty of not more than $50,000 in the case of an individual and $250,000 in the case of any other person for such introduction or delivery, not to exceed $500,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.

(B) This paragraph shall not apply to any person who grew the article of food that is adulterated. If the Secretary assesses a civil penalty against any person under this paragraph, the Secretary may not use the criminal authorities under this section to sanction such person for the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of the article of food that is adulterated. If the Secretary assesses a civil penalty against any person under this paragraph, the Secretary may not use the seizure authorities of section 334 of this title or the injunction authorities of section 332 of this title with respect to the article of food that is adulterated.

(C) In a hearing to assess a civil penalty under this paragraph, the presiding officer shall have the same authority with regard to compelling testimony or production of documents as a presiding officer has under section 346a(g)(2)(B) of this title. The third sentence of paragraph (5)(A) shall not apply to any investigation under this paragraph.

(3)(A) Any person who violates section 331(jj) of this title shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of not more than $10,000 for all violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.

(B) If a violation of section 331(jj) of this title is not corrected within the 30-day period following notification under section 282(j)(5)(C)(ii) 2 of title 42, the person shall, in addition to any penalty under subparagraph (A), be subject to a civil monetary penalty of not more than $10,000 for each day of the violation after such period until the violation is corrected.

(4)(A) Any responsible person (as such term is used in section 355–1 of this title) that violates a requirement of section 355(o), 355(p), or 355–1 of this title shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of—

(i) not more than $250,000 per violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding; or

(ii) in the case of a violation that continues after the Secretary provides written notice to the responsible person, the responsible person shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of $250,000 for the first 30-day period (or any portion thereof) that the responsible person continues to be in violation, and such amount shall double for every 30-day period thereafter that the violation continues, not to exceed $1,000,000 for any 30-day period, and not to exceed $10,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.


(B) In determining the amount of a civil penalty under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Secretary shall take into consideration whether the responsible person is making efforts toward correcting the violation of the requirement of section 355(o), 355(p), or 355–1 of this title for which the responsible person is subject to such civil penalty.

(5)(A) A civil penalty under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (9) shall be assessed, or a no-tobacco-sale order may be imposed, by the Secretary by an order made on the record after opportunity for a hearing provided in accordance with this subparagraph and section 554 of title 5. Before issuing such an order, the Secretary shall give written notice to the person to be assessed a civil penalty, or upon whom a no-tobacco-sale order is to be imposed, under such order of the Secretary's proposal to issue such order and provide such person an opportunity for a hearing on the order. In the course of any investigation, the Secretary may issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(B) In determining the amount of a civil penalty, or the period to be covered by a no-tobacco-sale order, the Secretary shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations and, with respect to the violator, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, any history of prior such violations, the degree of culpability, and such other matters as justice may require. A no-tobacco-sale order permanently prohibiting an individual retail outlet from selling tobacco products shall include provisions that allow the outlet, after a specified period of time, to request that the Secretary compromise, modify, or terminate the order.

(C) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which may be assessed under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (9). The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, or the amount agreed upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the person charged.

(D) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or terminate, with or without conditions, any no-tobacco-sale order.

(6) Any person who requested, in accordance with paragraph (5)(A), a hearing respecting the assessment of a civil penalty or the imposition of a no-tobacco-sale order and who is aggrieved by an order assessing a civil penalty or the imposition of a no-tobacco-sale order may file a petition for judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 60-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessment was issued, or on which the no-tobacco-sale order was imposed, as the case may be.

(7) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty—

(A) after the order making the assessment becomes final, and if such person does not file a petition for judicial review of the order in accordance with paragraph (6), or

(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (6) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary,


the Attorney General shall recover the amount assessed (plus interest at currently prevailing rates from the date of the expiration of the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (6) or the date of such final judgment, as the case may be) in an action brought in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such penalty shall not be subject to review.

(8) If the Secretary finds that a person has committed repeated violations of restrictions promulgated under section 387f(d) of this title at a particular retail outlet then the Secretary may impose a no-tobacco-sale order on that person prohibiting the sale of tobacco products in that outlet. A no-tobacco-sale order may be imposed with a civil penalty under paragraph (1). Prior to the entry of a no-sale order under this paragraph, a person shall be entitled to a hearing pursuant to the procedures established through regulations of the Food and Drug Administration for assessing civil money penalties, including at a retailer's request a hearing by telephone, or at the nearest regional or field office of the Food and Drug Administration, or at a Federal, State, or county facility within 100 miles from the location of the retail outlet, if such a facility is available.

(9) Civil Monetary Penalties for Violation of Tobacco Product Requirements.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B), any person who violates a requirement of this chapter which relates to tobacco products shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $15,000 for each such violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.

(B) Enhanced penalties.—

(i) Any person who intentionally violates a requirement of section 387b(5), 387b(6), 387d, 387h(c), or 387k(a) of this title, shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of—

(I) not to exceed $250,000 per violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding; or

(II) in the case of a violation that continues after the Secretary provides written notice to such person, $250,000 for the first 30-day period (or any portion thereof) that the person continues to be in violation, and such amount shall double for every 30-day period thereafter that the violation continues, not to exceed $1,000,000 for any 30-day period, and not to exceed $10,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.


(ii) Any person who violates a requirement of section 387k(g)(2)(C)(ii) or 387k(i)(1) of this title, shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of—

(I) not to exceed $250,000 per violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding; or

(II) in the case of a violation that continues after the Secretary provides written notice to such person, $250,000 for the first 30-day period (or any portion thereof) that the person continues to be in violation, and such amount shall double for every 30-day period thereafter that the violation continues, not to exceed $1,000,000 for any 30-day period, and not to exceed $10,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.


(iii) In determining the amount of a civil penalty under clause (i)(II) or (ii)(II), the Secretary shall take into consideration whether the person is making efforts toward correcting the violation of the requirements of the section for which such person is subject to such civil penalty.

(g) Violations regarding direct-to-consumer advertising

(1) With respect to a person who is a holder of an approved application under section 355 of this title for a drug subject to section 353(b) of this title or under section 262 of title 42, any such person who disseminates or causes another party to disseminate a direct-to-consumer advertisement that is false or misleading shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $250,000 for the first such violation in any 3-year period, and not to exceed $500,000 for each subsequent violation in any 3-year period. No other civil monetary penalties in this chapter (including the civil penalty in subsection (f)(4)) shall apply to a violation regarding direct-to-consumer advertising. For purposes of this paragraph: (A) Repeated dissemination of the same or similar advertisement prior to the receipt of the written notice referred to in paragraph (2) for such advertisements shall be considered one violation. (B) On and after the date of the receipt of such a notice, all violations under this paragraph occurring in a single day shall be considered one violation. With respect to advertisements that appear in magazines or other publications that are published less frequently than daily, each issue date (whether weekly or monthly) shall be treated as a single day for the purpose of calculating the number of violations under this paragraph.

(2) A civil penalty under paragraph (1) shall be assessed by the Secretary by an order made on the record after providing written notice to the person to be assessed a civil penalty and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with this paragraph and section 554 of title 5. If upon receipt of the written notice, the person to be assessed a civil penalty objects and requests a hearing, then in the course of any investigation related to such hearing, the Secretary may issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation, including information pertaining to the factors described in paragraph (3).

(3) The Secretary, in determining the amount of the civil penalty under paragraph (1), shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations, including the following factors:

(A) Whether the person submitted the advertisement or a similar advertisement for review under section 379h–1 of this title.

(B) Whether the person submitted the advertisement for review if required under section 353c 2 of this title.

(C) Whether, after submission of the advertisement as described in subparagraph (A) or (B), the person disseminated or caused another party to disseminate the advertisement before the end of the 45-day comment period.

(D) Whether the person incorporated any comments made by the Secretary with regard to the advertisement into the advertisement prior to its dissemination.

(E) Whether the person ceased distribution of the advertisement upon receipt of the written notice referred to in paragraph (2) for such advertisement.

(F) Whether the person had the advertisement reviewed by qualified medical, regulatory, and legal reviewers prior to its dissemination.

(G) Whether the violations were material.

(H) Whether the person who created the advertisement or caused the advertisement to be created acted in good faith.

(I) Whether the person who created the advertisement or caused the advertisement to be created has been assessed a civil penalty under this provision within the previous 1-year period.

(J) The scope and extent of any voluntary, subsequent remedial action by the person.

(K) Such other matters, as justice may require.


(4)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), no person shall be required to pay a civil penalty under paragraph (1) if the person submitted the advertisement to the Secretary and disseminated or caused another party to disseminate such advertisement after incorporating each comment received from the Secretary.

(B) The Secretary may retract or modify any prior comments the Secretary has provided to an advertisement submitted to the Secretary based on new information or changed circumstances, so long as the Secretary provides written notice to the person of the new views of the Secretary on the advertisement and provides a reasonable time for modification or correction of the advertisement prior to seeking any civil penalty under paragraph (1).

(5) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which may be assessed under paragraph (1). The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, or the amount charged upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums owed by the United States to the person charged.

(6) Any person who requested, in accordance with paragraph (2), a hearing with respect to the assessment of a civil penalty and who is aggrieved by an order assessing a civil penalty, may file a petition for de novo judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 60-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessments was issued.

(7) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty under paragraph (1)—

(A) after the order making the assessment becomes final, and if such person does not file a petition for judicial review of the order in accordance with paragraph (6), or

(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (6) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary,


the Attorney General of the United States shall recover the amount assessed (plus interest at currently prevailing rates from the date of the expiration of the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (6) or the date of such final judgment, as the case may be) in an action brought in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such penalty shall not be subject to review.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §303, 52 Stat. 1043; Oct. 26, 1951, ch. 578, §2, 65 Stat. 649; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §105(b), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 89–74, §§7, 9(d), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 233, 235; Pub. L. 90–639, §3, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(b), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(2)(B), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 100–293, §7(b), Apr. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2403, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4230; Pub. L. 101–629, §17(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4526; Pub. L. 101–647, title XIX, §1904, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4853; Pub. L. 102–353, §3, Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 941; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(e), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330015, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2146; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §407, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1535; Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §745(d)(2)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-40; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, §201(c), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 108–173, title XI, §1121(b)(2), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2469; Pub. L. 110–85, title II, §226(b), title VIII, §801(b)(2), title IX, §§901(d)(4), 902(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 854, 920, 940, 943; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(c), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1835; Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §206(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3943; Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, §716, July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1075; Pub. L. 113–54, title II, §207(a), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 640; Pub. L. 115–52, title VI, §604(b), Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1048.)

References in Text

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Section 282(j)(5)(C)(ii) of title 42, referred to in subsec. (f)(3)(B), was in the original "section 402(j)(5)(C)(ii)", and was translated as meaning section 402(j)(5)(C)(ii) of the Public Health Service Act to reflect the probable intent of Congress because there is no subsec. (j) of section 402 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and section 402(j)(5)(C)(ii) of the Public Health Service Act relates to notification of noncompliance with clinical trial information requirements.

Section 353c of this title, referred to in subsec. (g)(3)(B), was in the original a reference to section 503B of act June 25, 1938, and was translated as if it referred to section 503C of that Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the renumbering of section 503B as 503C by Pub. L. 113–54, title I, §102(a)(1), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 587, and its transfer to section 353c of this title. A new section 503B, which was enacted by section 102(a)(2) of Pub. L. 113–54, is classified to section 353b of this title and does not relate to television advertisements.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 115–52 added par. (8).

2013—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 113–54 substituted "353(e)(1)" for "353(e)(2)(A)".

2012—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 112–144 added par. (7).

2011—Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–353 inserted "or any person who does not comply with a recall order under section 350l of this title" after "section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title".

2009—Subsec. (f)(5)(A). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(c)(1)(A), (B), substituted "paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (9)" for "paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4)", "shall be assessed, or a no-tobacco-sale order may be imposed," for "shall be assessed", and "assessed a civil penalty, or upon whom a no-tobacco-sale order is to be imposed," for "assessed a civil penalty".

Subsec. (f)(5)(B). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(c)(1)(C), inserted "or the period to be covered by a no-tobacco-sale order," after "penalty," and inserted at end "A no-tobacco-sale order permanently prohibiting an individual retail outlet from selling tobacco products shall include provisions that allow the outlet, after a specified period of time, to request that the Secretary compromise, modify, or terminate the order."

Subsec. (f)(5)(C). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(c)(1)(A), substituted "paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (9)" for "paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4)".

Subsec. (f)(5)(D). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(c)(1)(D), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(c)(2), inserted "or the imposition of a no-tobacco-sale order" after "penalty" in two places and substituted "issued, or on which the no-tobacco-sale order was imposed, as the case may be." for "issued."

Subsec. (f)(8), (9). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(c)(3), added pars. (8) and (9).

2007—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–85, §226(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f).

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 110–85, §226(b)(2), substituted "360i(g)" for "360i(f)".

Subsec. (f)(2)(C). Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(2)(C), substituted "paragraph (5)(A)" for "paragraph (3)(A)".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(2)(B), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 110–85, §902(b)(1), added par. (4).

Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(2)(A), redesignated par. (4) as (6).

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(2)(A), redesignated par. (3) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (f)(5)(A), (C). Pub. L. 110–85, §902(b)(2), substituted "paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4)" for "paragraph (1), (2), or (3)".

Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(2)(D), substituted "paragraph (1), (2), or (3)" for "paragraph (1) or (2)".

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(2)(A), (E), redesignated par. (4) as (6) and substituted "paragraph (5)(A)" for "paragraph (3)(A)".

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(2)(A), (F), redesignated par. (5) as (7) and substituted "paragraph (6)" for "paragraph (4)" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–85, §901(d)(4), added subsec. (g).

Pub. L. 110–85, §226(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f).

2003—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 108–173, which directed amendment of subsec. (a)(6) by substituting "prescription drug under section 384(b)" for "covered product pursuant to section 384(a)", was executed by making the substitution in subsec. (b)(6), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2002—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–250 inserted at end "For purposes of the preceding sentence, a person accredited under paragraph (2) of section 374(g) of this title who is substantially not in compliance with the standards of accreditation under such section, or who poses a threat to public health or fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of such section, shall be considered to have violated a requirement of this chapter that relates to devices."

2000—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 106–387 added par. (6).

1996—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 104–170, §407(1), (2), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 104–170, §407(1), (3), redesignated par. (2) as (3) and substituted "paragraph (1) or (2)" for "paragraph (1)" in subpars. (A) and (C). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 104–170, §407(1), (4), redesignated par. (3) as (4) and substituted "paragraph (3)(A)" for "paragraph (2)(A)". Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (g)(5). Pub. L. 104–170, §407(1), (5), redesignated par. (4) as (5) and substituted "paragraph (4)" for "paragraph (3)" wherever appearing.

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–322 amended directory language of Pub. L. 101–647. See 1990 Amendment note below.

1993—Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 103–80, which directed the amendment of this section by redesignating the second subsec. (e) and subsec. (f) as subsecs. (f) and (g), respectively, could only be executed by designating subsec. (f) as (g) because this section did not contain a second subsec. (e) subsequent to amendment of Pub. L. 101–647 by Pub. L. 103–322. See 1990 and 1994 amendment notes for subsec. (e) under this section.

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, any person who violates section 331(t) of this title because of an importation of a drug in violation of section 381(d)(1) of this title, because of a sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample in violation of section 353(c) of this title, because of the sale, purchase, or trade of a coupon, the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or the counterfeiting of such a coupon in violation of section 353(c)(2) of this title, or the distribution of drugs in violation of section 353(e)(2)(A) of this title shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both."

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(1), substituted "the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of," for "the arrest and conviction of".

Subsec. (b)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(1), (2), substituted "before the institution of a criminal proceeding against" for "before the arrest of" and "the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of," for "the arrest and conviction of".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(3), substituted "the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of," for "the arrest and conviction of".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(4), substituted "subsection (a)(1) of this section" for "subsection (a) of this section".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–353, §3(b)(4), (5), substituted "subsection (a)(1) of this section" for "subsection (a) of this section" and struck out ", and no person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (b) of this section for such a violation unless the violation is committed with the intent to defraud or mislead" after "advertising".

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–647, as amended by Pub. L. 103–322, amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows:

"(e)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), any person who distributes or possesses with the intent to distribute any anabolic steroid for any use in humans other than the treatment of disease pursuant to the order of a physician shall be imprisoned for not more than three years or fined under title 18, or both.

"(2) Any person who distributes or possesses with the intent to distribute to an individual under 18 years of age, any anabolic steroid for any use in humans other than the treatment of disease pursuant to the order of a physician shall be imprisoned for not more than six years or fined under title 18, or both."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–629 added subsec. (f).

1988—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 100–293 designated existing subsecs. (a) and (b) as pars. (1) and (2) of subsec. (a), substituted "paragraph (1)" for "subsection (a)" in par. (2), and added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–690 added subsec. (e).

1976—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–278 added subsec. (d).

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–513 struck out reference to subsec. (b) and transferred to subsec. (b) provisions covering second offenses and offenses committed with intent to defraud or mislead.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–513 inserted provisions covering second offenses and offenses committed with intent to defraud or mislead formerly set out in subsec. (a) and struck out provisions covering violations involving depressant and stimulant drugs. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

1968—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 90–639 made a general revision in the penalties prescribed for offenses involving depressant or stimulant drugs, set a fine of not to exceed $10,000 or imprisonment of not more than 5 years for offenses involving the unlawful manufacturing of, sale, or disposal of, or possession with intent to sell, a depressant or stimulant drug or involving counterfeit depressant or stimulant drugs, stiffened the penalties for unlawful sales or other disposals by persons over 18 to persons under 21, and set new penalties for possession of a depressant or stimulant drug for purposes other than sale or other disposal.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–74, §7(a), inserted proviso limiting the penalties for depressant or stimulant drug violations to two years imprisonment or $5,000 fine or both for first offense and to two years imprisonment or $15,000 fine or both for subsequent offenses.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–74, §7(b), inserted parenthetical exception provision.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 89–74, §9(d), added cl. (5).

1960—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 86–618 substituted "a color additive" for "a coal-tar color", "the color additive" for "the coal-tar color" and "such color additive was" for "such color was".

1951—Subsec. (c)(4). Act Oct. 26, 1951, added cl. (4).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–54, title II, §207(b), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 640, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 2015."

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(q)(3), (4), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1840, provided that:

"(3) General effective date.—The amendments made by paragraphs (2) [amending this section], (3) [amending this section], and (4) [no par. (4) has been enacted] of subsection (c) shall take effect upon the issuance of guidance described in paragraph (1) of this subsection [set out as a Guidance note below].

"(4) Special effective date.—The amendment made by subsection (c)(1) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [June 22, 2009]."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by sections 901(d)(4) and 902(b) of Pub. L. 110–85 effective 180 days after Sept. 27, 2007, see section 909 of Pub. L. 110–85, set out as a note under section 331 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330015, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2146, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of the date on which section 1904 of Pub. L. 101–647, which amended this section, took effect.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–629, §17(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4528, provided that:

"(b) Effective Date of Application to Device User Facilities.—

"(1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall conduct a study to determine whether there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of section 519(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 360i(b)] by device user facilities (as defined in section 519(b)(5)(A) of such Act). The Secretary shall report the results of the study to the Congress after the expiration of 45 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990].

"(2)(A) If upon the expiration of 48 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990] the Secretary has not made the report required by paragraph (1), section 303(f) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 333(f)], as added by the amendment made by subsection (a), shall take effect with respect to device user facilities (as defined in section 519(b)(5)(A) of such Act). [Secretary of Health and Human Services had not made the report required by par. (1) on the expiration of 48 months after Nov. 28, 1990.]

"(B) If in the report under paragraph (1) the Secretary reports that there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of such section 519(b) by a type of device user facility and if the Secretary does not make a determination under subparagraph (C) with respect to such type of facility, such section 303(f) shall not take effect with respect to such type of facility.

"(C) If the Secretary determines in the report under paragraph (1) that there is not substantial compliance with the requirements of such section 519(b) by a type of device user facility or if the Secretary makes such a determination after making the report under paragraph (1), such section 303(f) shall take effect with respect to such type of facility upon the effective date of the report."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–293 effective upon expiration of 90 days after Apr. 22, 1988, see section 8(a) of Pub. L. 100–293, set out as a note under section 353 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–278 effective 180 days after Apr. 22, 1976, see section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–278, set out as a note under section 334 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–639 applicable only with respect to violations of this chapter committed after Oct. 24, 1968, see section 6 of Pub. L. 90–639, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendments; Transitional Provisions note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–74 effective Feb. 1, 1966, see section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of 1951 Amendment

Act Oct. 26, 1951, ch. 578, §3, 65 Stat. 649, provided that: "The provisions of this Act [amending this section and section 353 of this title] shall take effect six months after the date of its enactment [Oct. 26, 1951]."

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now the Drug Enforcement Administration] on Oct. 27, 1970, to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Guidance

Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(q)(1), (2), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1838, 1839, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue guidance [see 76 F.R. 22905, effective Apr. 15, 2011]—

"(A) defining the term 'repeated violation', as used in section 303(f)(8) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 333(f)(8)) as amended by subsection (c), as including at least 5 violations of particular requirements over a 36-month period at a particular retail outlet that constitute a repeated violation and providing for civil penalties in accordance with paragraph (2);

"(B) providing for timely and effective notice by certified or registered mail or personal delivery to the retailer of each alleged violation at a particular retail outlet prior to conducting a followup compliance check, such notice to be sent to the location specified on the retailer's registration or to the retailer's registered agent if the retailer has provider [sic] such agent information to the Food and Drug Administration prior to the violation;

"(C) providing for a hearing pursuant to the procedures established through regulations of the Food and Drug Administration for assessing civil money penalties, including at a retailer's request a hearing by telephone or at the nearest regional or field office of the Food and Drug Administration, and providing for an expedited procedure for the administrative appeal of an alleged violation;

"(D) providing that a person may not be charged with a violation at a particular retail outlet unless the Secretary has provided notice to the retailer of all previous violations at that outlet;

"(E) establishing that civil money penalties for multiple violations shall increase from one violation to the next violation pursuant to paragraph (2) within the time periods provided for in such paragraph;

"(F) providing that good faith reliance on the presentation of a false government-issued photographic identification that contains a date of birth does not constitute a violation of any minimum age requirement for the sale of tobacco products if the retailer has taken effective steps to prevent such violations, including—

"(i) adopting and enforcing a written policy against sales to minors;

"(ii) informing its employees of all applicable laws;

"(iii) establishing disciplinary sanctions for employee noncompliance; and

"(iv) requiring its employees to verify age by way of photographic identification or electronic scanning device; and

"(G) providing for the Secretary, in determining whether to impose a no-tobacco-sale order and in determining whether to compromise, modify, or terminate such an order, to consider whether the retailer has taken effective steps to prevent violations of the minimum age requirements for the sale of tobacco products, including the steps listed in subparagraph (F).

"(2) Penalties for violations.—

"(A) In general.—The amount of the civil penalty to be applied for violations of restrictions promulgated under section 906(d) [probably means section 906(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. 387f(d)], as described in paragraph (1), shall be as follows:

"(i) With respect to a retailer with an approved training program, the amount of the civil penalty shall not exceed—

"(I) in the case of the first violation, $0.00 together with the issuance of a warning letter to the retailer;

"(II) in the case of a second violation within a 12-month period, $250;

"(III) in the case of a third violation within a 24-month period, $500;

"(IV) in the case of a fourth violation within a 24-month period, $2,000;

"(V) in the case of a fifth violation within a 36-month period, $5,000; and

"(VI) in the case of a sixth or subsequent violation within a 48-month period, $10,000 as determined by the Secretary on a case-by-case basis.

"(ii) With respect to a retailer that does not have an approved training program, the amount of the civil penalty shall not exceed—

"(I) in the case of the first violation, $250;

"(II) in the case of a second violation within a 12-month period, $500;

"(III) in the case of a third violation within a 24-month period, $1,000;

"(IV) in the case of a fourth violation within a 24-month period, $2,000;

"(V) in the case of a fifth violation within a 36-month period, $5,000; and

"(VI) in the case of a sixth or subsequent violation within a 48-month period, $10,000 as determined by the Secretary on a case-by-case basis.

"(B) Training program.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term 'approved training program' means a training program that complies with standards developed by the Food and Drug Administration for such programs.

"(C) Consideration of state penalties.—The Secretary shall coordinate with the States in enforcing the provisions of this Act [probably means div. A of Pub. L. 111–31, see Short Title of 2009 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title and Tables for classifications] and, for purposes of mitigating a civil penalty to be applied for a violation by a retailer of any restriction promulgated under section 906(d) [21 U.S.C. 387f(d)], shall consider the amount of any penalties paid by the retailer to a State for the same violation."

Construction of 2011 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2251 and 2252 of this title.

Enforcement

Pub. L. 99–660, title I, §103, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3751, provided that: "For the fines authorized to be imposed under section 303 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 333], see section 3623 of title 18, United States Code, for the period ending October 31, 1986 [probably should be October 31, 1987], and sections 3559 and 3571 of such title for the period beginning November 1, 1986 [probably should be November 1, 1987]."

1 So in original. Words "of this section" probably should not appear.

2 See References in Text note below.

§333a. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–647, title XIX, §1905, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4853

Section, Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2401, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4230, related to forfeiture and illegal trafficking in steroids or human growth hormones.

§334. Seizure

(a) Grounds and jurisdiction

(1) Any article of food, drug, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded when introduced into or while in interstate commerce or while held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce, or which may not, under the provisions of section 331(ll), 344, or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce, shall be liable to be proceeded against while in interstate commerce, or at any time thereafter, on libel of information and condemned in any district court of the United States or United States court of a Territory within the jurisdiction of which the article is found. No libel for condemnation shall be instituted under this chapter, for any alleged misbranding if there is pending in any court a libel for condemnation proceeding under this chapter based upon the same alleged misbranding, and not more than one such proceeding shall be instituted if no such proceeding is so pending, except that such limitations shall not apply (A) when such misbranding has been the basis of a prior judgment in favor of the United States, in a criminal, injunction, or libel for condemnation proceeding under this chapter, or (B) when the Secretary has probable cause to believe from facts found, without hearing, by him or any officer or employee of the Department that the misbranded article is dangerous to health, or that the labeling of the misbranded article is fraudulent, or would be in a material respect misleading to the injury or damage of the purchaser or consumer. In any case where the number of libel for condemnation proceedings is limited as above provided the proceeding pending or instituted shall, on application of the claimant, seasonably made, be removed for trial to any district agreed upon by stipulation between the parties, or, in case of failure to so stipulate within a reasonable time, the claimant may apply to the court of the district in which the seizure has been made, and such court (after giving the United States attorney for such district reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard) shall by order, unless good cause to the contrary is shown, specify a district of reasonable proximity to the claimant's principal place of business, to which the case shall be removed for trial.

(2) The following shall be liable to be proceeded against at any time on libel of information and condemned in any district court of the United States or United States court of a Territory within the jurisdiction of which they are found: (A) Any drug that is a counterfeit drug, (B) Any container of a counterfeit drug, (C) Any punch, die, plate, stone, labeling, container, or other thing used or designed for use in making a counterfeit drug or drugs, (D) Any adulterated or misbranded device, and (E) Any adulterated or misbranded tobacco product.

(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no libel for condemnation may be instituted under paragraph (1) or (2) against any food which—

(i) is misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title because of its advertising, and

(ii) is being held for sale to the ultimate consumer in an establishment other than an establishment owned or operated by a manufacturer, packer, or distributor of the food.


(B) A libel for condemnation may be instituted under paragraph (1) or (2) against a food described in subparagraph (A) if—

(i)(I) the food's advertising which resulted in the food being misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title was disseminated in the establishment in which the food is being held for sale to the ultimate consumer,

(II) such advertising was disseminated by, or under the direction of, the owner or operator of such establishment, or

(III) all or part of the cost of such advertising was paid by such owner or operator; and

(ii) the owner or operator of such establishment used such advertising in the establishment to promote the sale of the food.

(b) Procedure; multiplicity of pending proceedings

The article, equipment, or other thing proceeded against shall be liable to seizure by process pursuant to the libel, and the procedure in cases under this section shall conform, as nearly as may be, to the procedure in admiralty; except that on demand of either party any issue of fact joined in any such case shall be tried by jury. When libel for condemnation proceedings under this section, involving the same claimant and the same issues of adulteration or misbranding, are pending in two or more jurisdictions, such pending proceedings, upon application of the claimant seasonably made to the court of one such jurisdiction, shall be consolidated for trial by order of such court, and tried in (1) any district selected by the claimant where one of such proceedings is pending; or (2) a district agreed upon by stipulation between the parties. If no order for consolidation is so made within a reasonable time, the claimant may apply to the court of one such jurisdiction and such court (after giving the United States attorney for such district reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard) shall by order, unless good cause to the contrary is shown, specify a district of reasonable proximity to the claimant's principal place of business, in which all such pending proceedings shall be consolidated for trial and tried. Such order of consolidation shall not apply so as to require the removal of any case the date for trial of which has been fixed. The court granting such order shall give prompt notification thereof to the other courts having jurisdiction of the cases covered thereby.

(c) Availability of samples of seized goods prior to trial

The court at any time after seizure up to a reasonable time before trial shall by order allow any party to a condemnation proceeding, his attorney or agent, to obtain a representative sample of the article seized and a true copy of the analysis, if any, on which the proceeding is based and the identifying marks or numbers, if any, of the packages from which the samples analyzed were obtained.

(d) Disposition of goods after decree of condemnation; claims for remission or mitigation of forfeitures

(1) Any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic condemned under this section shall, after entry of the decree, be disposed of by destruction or sale as the court may, in accordance with the provisions of this section, direct and the proceeds thereof, if sold, less the legal costs and charges, shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States; but such article shall not be sold under such decree contrary to the provisions of this chapter or the laws of the jurisdiction in which sold. After entry of the decree and upon the payment of the costs of such proceedings and the execution of a good and sufficient bond conditioned that such article shall not be sold or disposed of contrary to the provisions of this chapter or the laws of any State or Territory in which sold, the court may by order direct that such article be delivered to the owner thereof to be destroyed or brought into compliance with the provisions of this chapter, under the supervision of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, and the expenses of such supervision shall be paid by the person obtaining release of the article under bond. If the article was imported into the United States and the person seeking its release establishes (A) that the adulteration, misbranding, or violation did not occur after the article was imported, and (B) that he had no cause for believing that it was adulterated, misbranded, or in violation before it was released from customs custody, the court may permit the article to be delivered to the owner for exportation in lieu of destruction upon a showing by the owner that all of the conditions of section 381(e) of this title can and will be met. The provisions of this sentence shall not apply where condemnation is based upon violation of section 342(a)(1), (2), or (6), section 351(a)(3), section 352(j), or section 361(a) or (d) of this title. Where such exportation is made to the original foreign supplier, then subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 381(e)(1) of this title and the preceding sentence shall not be applicable; and in all cases of exportation the bond shall be conditioned that the article shall not be sold or disposed of until the applicable conditions of section 381(e) of this title have been met. Any person seeking to export an imported article pursuant to any of the provisions of this subsection shall establish that the article was intended for export at the time the article entered commerce. Any article condemned by reason of its being an article which may not, under section 344 or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce, shall be disposed of by destruction.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall, to the extent deemed appropriate by the court, apply to any equipment or other thing which is not otherwise within the scope of such paragraph and which is referred to in paragraph (2) of subsection (a).

(3) Whenever in any proceeding under this section, involving paragraph (2) of subsection (a), the condemnation of any equipment or thing (other than a drug) is decreed, the court shall allow the claim of any claimant, to the extent of such claimant's interest, for remission or mitigation of such forfeiture if such claimant proves to the satisfaction of the court (i) that he has not committed or caused to be committed any prohibited act referred to in such paragraph (2) and has no interest in any drug referred to therein, (ii) that he has an interest in such equipment or other thing as owner or lienor or otherwise, acquired by him in good faith, and (iii) that he at no time had any knowledge or reason to believe that such equipment or other thing was being or would be used in, or to facilitate, the violation of laws of the United States relating to counterfeit drugs.

(e) Costs

When a decree of condemnation is entered against the article, court costs and fees, and storage and other proper expenses, shall be awarded against the person, if any, intervening as claimant of the article.

(f) Removal of case for trial

In the case of removal for trial of any case as provided by subsection (a) or (b)—

(1) The clerk of the court from which removal is made shall promptly transmit to the court in which the case is to be tried all records in the case necessary in order that such court may exercise jurisdiction.

(2) The court to which such case was removed shall have the powers and be subject to the duties, for purposes of such case, which the court from which removal was made would have had, or to which such court would have been subject, if such case had not been removed.

(g) Administrative restraint; detention orders

(1) If during an inspection conducted under section 374 of this title of a facility or a vehicle, a device, drug, or tobacco product which the officer or employee making the inspection has reason to believe is adulterated or misbranded is found in such facility or vehicle, such officer or employee may order the device, drug, or tobacco product detained (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary) for a reasonable period which may not exceed twenty days unless the Secretary determines that a period of detention greater than twenty days is required to institute an action under subsection (a) or section 332 of this title, in which case he may authorize a detention period of not to exceed thirty days. Regulations of the Secretary prescribed under this paragraph shall require that before a device, drug, or tobacco product may be ordered detained under this paragraph the Secretary or an officer or employee designated by the Secretary approve such order. A detention order under this paragraph may require the labeling or marking of a device, drug, or tobacco product during the period of its detention for the purpose of identifying the device, drug, or tobacco product as detained. Any person who would be entitled to claim a device, drug, or tobacco product if it were seized under subsection (a) may appeal to the Secretary a detention of such device, drug, or tobacco product under this paragraph. Within five days of the date an appeal of a detention is filed with the Secretary, the Secretary shall after affording opportunity for an informal hearing by order confirm the detention or revoke it.

(2)(A) Except as authorized by subparagraph (B), a device, drug, or tobacco product subject to a detention order issued under paragraph (1) shall not be moved by any person from the place at which it is ordered detained until—

(i) released by the Secretary, or

(ii) the expiration of the detention period applicable to such order,


whichever occurs first.

(B) A device or drug subject to a detention order under paragraph (1) may be moved—

(i) in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, and

(ii) if not in final form for shipment, at the discretion of the manufacturer of the device or drug for the purpose of completing the work required to put it in such form.

(h) Administrative detention of foods

(1) Detention authority

(A) In general

An officer or qualified employee of the Food and Drug Administration may order the detention, in accordance with this subsection, of any article of food that is found during an inspection, examination, or investigation under this chapter conducted by such officer or qualified employee, if the officer or qualified employee has reason to believe that such article is adulterated or misbranded.

(B) Secretary's approval

An article of food may be ordered detained under subparagraph (A) only if the Secretary or an official designated by the Secretary approves the order. An official may not be so designated unless the official is the director of the district under this chapter in which the article involved is located, or is an official senior to such director.

(2) Period of detention

An article of food may be detained under paragraph (1) for a reasonable period, not to exceed 20 days, unless a greater period, not to exceed 30 days, is necessary, to enable the Secretary to institute an action under subsection (a) or section 332 of this title. The Secretary shall by regulation provide for procedures for instituting such action on an expedited basis with respect to perishable foods.

(3) Security of detained article

An order under paragraph (1) with respect to an article of food may require that such article be labeled or marked as detained, and shall require that the article be removed to a secure facility, as appropriate. An article subject to such an order shall not be transferred by any person from the place at which the article is ordered detained, or from the place to which the article is so removed, as the case may be, until released by the Secretary or until the expiration of the detention period applicable under such order, whichever occurs first. This subsection may not be construed as authorizing the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is subject to the order, and section 381(b) of this title does not authorize the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is subject to the order.

(4) Appeal of detention order

(A) In general

With respect to an article of food ordered detained under paragraph (1), any person who would be entitled to be a claimant for such article if the article were seized under subsection (a) may appeal the order to the Secretary. Within five days after such an appeal is filed, the Secretary, after providing opportunity for an informal hearing, shall confirm or terminate the order involved, and such confirmation by the Secretary shall be considered a final agency action for purposes of section 702 of title 5. If during such five-day period the Secretary fails to provide such an opportunity, or to confirm or terminate such order, the order is deemed to be terminated.

(B) Effect of instituting court action

The process under subparagraph (A) for the appeal of an order under paragraph (1) terminates if the Secretary institutes an action under subsection (a) or section 332 of this title regarding the article of food involved.

(i) Procedures for promulgating regulations

(1) In general

In promulgating a regulation implementing this section, the Secretary shall—

(A) issue a notice of proposed rulemaking that includes the proposed regulation;

(B) provide a period of not less than 60 days for comments on the proposed regulation; and

(C) publish the final regulation not less than 30 days before the regulation's effective date.

(2) Restrictions

Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law, in implementing this section, the Secretary shall only promulgate regulations as described in paragraph (1).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §304, 52 Stat. 1044; June 24, 1948, ch. 613, §2, 62 Stat. 582; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 350, §3, 67 Stat. 477; Pub. L. 85–250, Aug. 31, 1957, 71 Stat. 567; Pub. L. 89–74, §6, July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 232; Pub. L. 90–639, §4(b), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1362; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(c), (d), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281, 1282; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(2)(C), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 94–295, §§3(c), 7(a), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 576, 582; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(c), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(f), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, §418, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §303(a), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 663; Pub. L. 110–85, title IX, §912(b)(1), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(d), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1836; Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §207(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3944; Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, §709(a), (b)(2), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1069.)

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 112–144, §709(a)(1), inserted ", drug," after "device" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 112–144, §709(a)(2), inserted ", drug," after "(B), a device".

Subsec. (g)(2)(B). Pub. L. 112–144, §709(a)(3), inserted "or drug" after "device" in introductory provisions and in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 112–144, §709(b)(2), added subsec. (i).

2011—Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–353 substituted "reason to believe" for "credible evidence or information indicating" and "is adulterated or misbranded" for "presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals".

2009—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(d)(1), added cl. (E).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(d)(2), inserted "tobacco product," after "device," in first sentence.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(d)(3), inserted "or tobacco product" after "device" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(d)(4), inserted "or tobacco product" after "device" in introductory provisions.

2007—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–85 substituted "section 331(ll), 344, or 355" for "section 344 or 355".

2002—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–188 added subsec. (h).

1997—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–115 substituted "subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 381(e)(1) of this title" for "paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 381(e) of this title" and inserted "Any person seeking to export an imported article pursuant to any of the provisions of this subsection shall establish that the article was intended for export at the time the article entered commerce." before "Any article condemned by reason".

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(f)(1), substituted "found. No libel" for "found: Provided, however, That no libel".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(f)(2), substituted "sold. After entry" for "sold: Provided, That after entry", "met. The provisions of this sentence" for "met: Provided, however, That the provisions of this sentence", "title. Where such exportation" for "title: And provided further, That where such exportation", and "the preceding sentence shall not be applicable" for "the foregoing proviso shall not be applicable".

1992—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–300 substituted "381(e)" for "381(d)" in three places and "paragraphs" for "clauses" before "(1) and (2) of section 381(e)".

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(c)(1), struck out "device," after "Any article of food, drug,".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–295, §3(c)(2), (3), added cl. (D) covering adulterated or misbranded devices.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 94–278 added par. (3).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 94–295, §7(a), added subsec. (g).

1970—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(c), struck out cls. (A) and (D) which dealt with depressant or stimulant drugs, struck out reference to depressant or stimulant drugs in cl. (C), and redesignated cls. (B), (C), and (E) as cls. (A), (B), and (C), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(3)(iii). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(d), struck out reference to depressant or stimulant drugs.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–639 inserted references to the United States courts of Territories.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–74, §6(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated cls. (1) and (2) of proviso as (A) and (B), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–74, §6(b)(1), inserted "equipment, or other thing proceeded against" after "article" in first sentence.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–74, §6(b)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated cls. (1) and (2) of the second sentence thereof as (A) and (B), and added pars. (2) and (3).

1957—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85–250 permitted, under certain circumstances, reexportation of articles condemned at places other than original port of entry.

1953—Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 7, 1953, provided that a true copy of the analysis in any case shall be furnished the owner.

1948—Subsec. (a). Act June 24, 1948, inserted "or while held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce" to make this subsection coextensive with section 331(k) of this title.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, §709(c), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1070, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not take effect until the Secretary has issued a final regulation under subsection (b) [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section]."

[Final regulation issued May 29, 2014, effective June 30, 2014. See 79 F.R. 30716.]

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §207(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3944, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011]."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(c), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 413, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 321, 333, and 343 of this title] shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 22, 1976]."

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–639 applicable only with respect to violations of this chapter committed after Oct. 24, 1968, see section 6 of Pub. L. 90–639, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendments; Transitional Provisions note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–74 effective Feb. 1, 1966, see section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, §709(b)(1), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1069, provided that: "Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 9, 2012], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall promulgate regulations in accordance with section 304(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 334(i)], as added by paragraph (2) of this subsection, to implement administrative detention authority with respect to drugs, as authorized by the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section]. Before promulgating such regulations, the Secretary shall consult with stakeholders, including manufacturers of drugs."

Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §207(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3944, provided that: "Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], the Secretary shall issue an interim final rule amending subpart K of part 1 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, to implement the amendment made by this section [amending this section]."

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for any violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now the Drug Enforcement Administration] on Oct. 27, 1970, to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Construction of 2011 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2251 and 2252 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§335. Hearing before report of criminal violation

Before any violation of this chapter is reported by the Secretary to any United States attorney for institution of a criminal proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding is contemplated shall be given appropriate notice and an opportunity to present his views, either orally or in writing, with regard to such contemplated proceeding.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §305, 52 Stat. 1045.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§335a. Debarment, temporary denial of approval, and suspension

(a) Mandatory debarment; certain drug applications

(1) Corporations, partnerships, and associations

If the Secretary finds that a person other than an individual has been convicted, after May 13, 1992, of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any abbreviated drug application, the Secretary shall debar such person from submitting, or assisting in the submission of, any such application.

(2) Individuals

If the Secretary finds that an individual has been convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct—

(A) relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product, or

(B) otherwise relating to the regulation of any drug product under this chapter,


the Secretary shall debar such individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application.

(b) Permissive debarment; certain drug applications; food imports

(1) In general

The Secretary, on the Secretary's own initiative or in response to a petition, may, in accordance with paragraph (2), debar—

(A) a person other than an individual from submitting or assisting in the submission of any abbreviated drug application,

(B) an individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application, or

(C) a person from importing an article of food or offering such an article for import into the United States.

(2) Persons subject to permissive debarment; certain drug applications

The following persons are subject to debarment under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1):

(A) Corporations, partnerships, and associations

Any person other than an individual that the Secretary finds has been convicted—

(i) for conduct that—

(I) relates to the development or approval, including the process for the development or approval, of any abbreviated drug application; and

(II) is a felony under Federal law (if the person was convicted before May 13, 1992), a misdemeanor under Federal law, or a felony under State law, or


(ii) of a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, a criminal offense described in clause (i) or a felony described in subsection (a)(1),


if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(B) Individuals

(i) Any individual whom the Secretary finds has been convicted of—

(I) a misdemeanor under Federal law or a felony under State law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product or otherwise relating to the regulation of drug products under this chapter, or

(II) a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, such criminal offense or a felony described in subsection (a)(2),


if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(ii) Any individual whom the Secretary finds has been convicted of—

(I) a felony which is not described in subsection (a)(2) or clause (i) of this subparagraph and which involves bribery, payment of illegal gratuities, fraud, perjury, false statement, racketeering, blackmail, extortion, falsification or destruction of records, or interference with, obstruction of an investigation into, or prosecution of, any criminal offense, or

(II) a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, such felony,


if the Secretary finds, on the basis of the conviction of such individual and other information, that such individual has demonstrated a pattern of conduct sufficient to find that there is reason to believe that such individual may violate requirements under this chapter relating to drug products.

(iii) Any individual whom the Secretary finds materially participated in acts that were the basis for a conviction for an offense described in subsection (a) or in clause (i) or (ii) for which a conviction was obtained, if the Secretary finds, on the basis of such participation and other information, that such individual has demonstrated a pattern of conduct sufficient to find that there is reason to believe that such individual may violate requirements under this chapter relating to drug products.

(iv) Any high managerial agent whom the Secretary finds—

(I) worked for, or worked as a consultant for, the same person as another individual during the period in which such other individual took actions for which a felony conviction was obtained and which resulted in the debarment under subsection (a)(2), or clause (i), of such other individual,

(II) had actual knowledge of the actions described in subclause (I) of such other individual, or took action to avoid such actual knowledge, or failed to take action for the purpose of avoiding such actual knowledge,

(III) knew that the actions described in subclause (I) were violative of law, and

(IV) did not report such actions, or did not cause such actions to be reported, to an officer, employee, or agent of the Department or to an appropriate law enforcement officer, or failed to take other appropriate action that would have ensured that the process for the regulation of drugs was not undermined, within a reasonable time after such agent first knew of such actions,


if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such other individual's conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(3) Persons subject to permissive debarment; food importation

A person is subject to debarment under paragraph (1)(C) if—

(A) the person has been convicted of a felony for conduct relating to the importation into the United States of any food; or

(B) the person has engaged in a pattern of importing or offering for import adulterated food that presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.

(4) Stay of certain orders

An order of the Secretary under clause (iii) or (iv) of paragraph (2)(B) shall not take effect until 30 days after the order has been issued.

(c) Debarment period and considerations

(1) Effect of debarment

The Secretary—

(A) shall not accept or review (other than in connection with an audit under this section) any abbreviated drug application submitted by or with the assistance of a person debarred under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(2)(A) during the period such person is debarred,

(B) shall, during the period of a debarment under subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2)(B), debar an individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application and shall not accept or review (other than in connection with an audit under this section) an abbreviated drug application from such individual, and

(C) shall, if the Secretary makes the finding described in paragraph (6) or (7) of section 335b(a) of this title, assess a civil penalty in accordance with section 335b of this title.

(2) Debarment periods

(A) In general

The Secretary shall debar a person under subsection (a) or (b) for the following periods:

(i) The period of debarment of a person (other than an individual) under subsection (a)(1) shall not be less than 1 year or more than 10 years, but if an act leading to a subsequent debarment under subsection (a) occurs within 10 years after such person has been debarred under subsection (a)(1), the period of debarment shall be permanent.

(ii) The debarment of an individual under subsection (a)(2) shall be permanent.

(iii) The period of debarment of any person under paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (b) shall not be more than 5 years.


The Secretary may determine whether debarment periods shall run concurrently or consecutively in the case of a person debarred for multiple offenses.

(B) Notification

Upon a conviction for an offense described in subsection (a) or (b) or upon execution of an agreement with the United States to plead guilty to such an offense, the person involved may notify the Secretary that the person acquiesces to debarment and such person's debarment shall commence upon such notification.

(3) Considerations

In determining the appropriateness and the period of a debarment of a person under subsection (b) and any period of debarment beyond the minimum specified in subparagraph (A)(i) of paragraph (2), the Secretary shall consider where applicable—

(A) the nature and seriousness of any offense involved,

(B) the nature and extent of management participation in any offense involved, whether corporate policies and practices encouraged the offense, including whether inadequate institutional controls contributed to the offense,

(C) the nature and extent of voluntary steps to mitigate the impact on the public of any offense involved, including the recall or the discontinuation of the distribution of suspect drugs, full cooperation with any investigations (including the extent of disclosure to appropriate authorities of all wrongdoing), the relinquishing of profits on drug approvals fraudulently obtained, and any other actions taken to substantially limit potential or actual adverse effects on the public health,

(D) whether the extent to which changes in ownership, management, or operations have corrected the causes of any offense involved and provide reasonable assurances that the offense will not occur in the future,

(E) whether the person to be debarred is able to present adequate evidence that current production of drugs subject to abbreviated drug applications and all pending abbreviated drug applications are free of fraud or material false statements, and

(F) prior convictions under this chapter or under other Acts involving matters within the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.

(d) Termination of debarment

(1) Application

Any person that is debarred under subsection (a) (other than a person permanently debarred) or any person that is debarred under subsection (b) may apply to the Secretary for termination of the debarment under this subsection. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this paragraph does not constitute an amendment or supplement to pending or approved abbreviated drug applications.

(2) Deadline

The Secretary shall grant or deny any application respecting a debarment which is submitted under paragraph (1) within 180 days of the date the application is submitted.

(3) Action by the Secretary

(A) Corporations

(i) Conviction reversal

If the conviction which served as the basis for the debarment of a person under subsection (a)(1) or paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b) is reversed, the Secretary shall withdraw the order of debarment.

(ii) Application

Upon application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall terminate the debarment of a person if the Secretary finds that—

(I) changes in ownership, management, or operations have fully corrected the causes of the offense involved and provide reasonable assurances that the offense will not occur in the future, and

(II) in applicable cases, sufficient audits, conducted by the Food and Drug Administration or by independent experts acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration, demonstrate that pending applications and the development of drugs being tested before the submission of an application are free of fraud or material false statements.


 In the case of persons debarred under subsection (a)(1), such termination shall take effect no earlier than the expiration of one year from the date of the debarment.

(B) Individuals

(i) Conviction reversal

If the conviction which served as the basis for the debarment of an individual under subsection (a)(2) or clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) or subsection (b)(3) is reversed, the Secretary shall withdraw the order of debarment.

(ii) Application

Upon application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall terminate the debarment of an individual who has been debarred under subsection (b)(2)(B) or subsection (b)(3) if such termination serves the interests of justice and adequately protects the integrity of the drug approval process or the food importation process, as the case may be.

(4) Special termination

(A) Application

Any person that is debarred under subsection (a)(1) (other than a person permanently debarred under subsection (c)(2)(A)(i)) or any individual who is debarred under subsection (a)(2) may apply to the Secretary for special termination of debarment under this subsection. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this subparagraph does not constitute an amendment or supplement to pending or approved abbreviated drug applications.

(B) Corporations

Upon an application submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may take the action described in subparagraph (D) if the Secretary, after an informal hearing, finds that—

(i) the person making the application under subparagraph (A) has demonstrated that the felony conviction which was the basis for such person's debarment involved the commission of an offense which was not authorized, requested, commanded, performed, or recklessly tolerated by the board of directors or by a high managerial agent acting on behalf of the person within the scope of the board's or agent's office or employment,

(ii) all individuals who were involved in the commission of the offense or who knew or should have known of the offense have been removed from employment involving the development or approval of any drug subject to sections 1 355 of this title,

(iii) the person fully cooperated with all investigations and promptly disclosed all wrongdoing to the appropriate authorities, and

(iv) the person acted to mitigate any impact on the public of any offense involved, including the recall, or the discontinuation of the distribution, of any drug with respect to which the Secretary requested a recall or discontinuation of distribution due to concerns about the safety or efficacy of the drug.

(C) Individuals

Upon an application submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may take the action described in subparagraph (D) if the Secretary, after an informal hearing, finds that such individual has provided substantial assistance in the investigations or prosecutions of offenses which are described in subsection (a) or (b) or which relate to any matter under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.

(D) Secretarial action

The action referred to in subparagraphs (B) and (C) is—

(i) in the case of a person other than an individual—

(I) terminating the debarment immediately, or

(II) limiting the period of debarment to less than one year, and


(ii) in the case of an individual, limiting the period of debarment to less than permanent but to no less than 1 year,


whichever best serves the interest of justice and protects the integrity of the drug approval process.

(e) Publication and list of debarred persons

The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the name of any person debarred under subsection (a) or (b), the effective date of the debarment, and the period of the debarment. The Secretary shall also maintain and make available to the public a list, updated no less often than quarterly, of such persons, of the effective dates and minimum periods of such debarments, and of the termination of debarments.

(f) Temporary denial of approval

(1) In general

The Secretary, on the Secretary's own initiative or in response to a petition, may, in accordance with paragraph (3), refuse by order, for the period prescribed by paragraph (2), to approve any abbreviated drug application submitted by any person—

(A) if such person is under an active Federal criminal investigation in connection with an action described in subparagraph (B),

(B) if the Secretary finds that such person—

(i) has bribed or attempted to bribe, has paid or attempted to pay an illegal gratuity, or has induced or attempted to induce another person to bribe or pay an illegal gratuity to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services or to any other Federal, State, or local official in connection with any abbreviated drug application, or has conspired to commit, or aided or abetted, such actions, or

(ii) has knowingly made or caused to be made a pattern or practice of false statements or misrepresentations with respect to material facts relating to any abbreviated drug application, or the production of any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application, to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services, or has conspired to commit, or aided or abetted, such actions, and


(C) if a significant question has been raised regarding—

(i) the integrity of the approval process with respect to such abbreviated drug application, or

(ii) the reliability of data in or concerning such person's abbreviated drug application.


Such an order may be modified or terminated at any time.

(2) Applicable period

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a denial of approval of an application of a person under paragraph (1) shall be in effect for a period determined by the Secretary but not to exceed 18 months beginning on the date the Secretary finds that the conditions described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) exist. The Secretary shall terminate such denial—

(i) if the investigation with respect to which the finding was made does not result in a criminal charge against such person, if criminal charges have been brought and the charges have been dismissed, or if a judgment of acquittal has been entered, or

(ii) if the Secretary determines that such finding was in error.

(B) Extension

If, at the end of the period described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary determines that a person has been criminally charged for an action described in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), the Secretary may extend the period of denial of approval of an application for a period not to exceed 18 months. The Secretary shall terminate such extension if the charges have been dismissed, if a judgment of acquittal has been entered, or if the Secretary determines that the finding described in subparagraph (A) was in error.

(3) Informal hearing

Within 10 days of the date an order is issued under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide such person with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be held within such 10 days, on the decision of the Secretary to refuse approval of an abbreviated drug application. Within 60 days of the date on which such hearing is held, the Secretary shall notify the person given such hearing whether the Secretary's refusal of approval will be continued, terminated, or otherwise modified. Such notification shall be final agency action.

(g) Suspension authority

(1) In general

If—

(A) the Secretary finds—

(i) that a person has engaged in conduct described in subparagraph (B) of subsection (f)(1) in connection with 2 or more drugs under abbreviated drug applications, or

(ii) that a person has engaged in flagrant and repeated, material violations of good manufacturing practice or good laboratory practice in connection with the development, manufacturing, or distribution of one or more drugs approved under an abbreviated drug application during a 2-year period, and—

(I) such violations may undermine the safety and efficacy of such drugs, and

(II) the causes of such violations have not been corrected within a reasonable period of time following notice of such violations by the Secretary, and


(B) such person is under an active investigation by a Federal authority in connection with a civil or criminal action involving conduct described in subparagraph (A),


the Secretary shall issue an order suspending the distribution of all drugs the development or approval of which was related to such conduct described in subparagraph (A) or suspending the distribution of all drugs approved under abbreviated drug applications of such person if the Secretary finds that such conduct may have affected the development or approval of a significant number of drugs which the Secretary is unable to identify. The Secretary shall exclude a drug from such order if the Secretary determines that such conduct was not likely to have influenced the safety or efficacy of such drug.

(2) Public health waiver

The Secretary shall, on the Secretary's own initiative or in response to a petition, waive the suspension under paragraph (1) (involving an action described in paragraph (1)(A)(i)) with respect to any drug if the Secretary finds that such waiver is necessary to protect the public health because sufficient quantities of the drug would not otherwise be available. The Secretary shall act on any petition seeking action under this paragraph within 180 days of the date the petition is submitted to the Secretary.

(h) Termination of suspension

The Secretary shall withdraw an order of suspension of the distribution of a drug under subsection (g) if the person with respect to whom the order was issued demonstrates in a petition to the Secretary—

(1)(A) on the basis of an audit by the Food and Drug Administration or by experts acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration, or on the basis of other information, that the development, approval, manufacturing, and distribution of such drug is in substantial compliance with the applicable requirements of this chapter, and

(B) changes in ownership, management, or operations—

(i) fully remedy the patterns or practices with respect to which the order was issued, and

(ii) provide reasonable assurances that such actions will not occur in the future, or


(2) the initial determination was in error.


The Secretary shall act on a submission of a petition under this subsection within 180 days of the date of its submission and the Secretary may consider the petition concurrently with the suspension proceeding. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this subsection does not constitute an amendment or supplement to a pending or approved abbreviated drug application.

(i) Procedure

The Secretary may not take any action under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d)(3), (g), or (h) with respect to any person unless the Secretary has issued an order for such action made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subsection, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(j) Judicial review

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (f), (g), or (h) may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary's decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(2) Exception

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under clause (iii) or (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) may obtain a review of such decision by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or a district court of the United States for the district in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 30 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary's decision) a complaint requesting that the decision be modified or set aside. In such an action, the court shall determine the matter de novo.

(k) Certification

Any application for approval of a drug product shall include—

(1) a certification that the applicant did not and will not use in any capacity the services of any person debarred under subsection (a) or (b), in connection with such application, and

(2) if such application is an abbreviated drug application, a list of all convictions, described in subsections (a) and (b) which occurred within the previous 5 years, of the applicant and affiliated persons responsible for the development or submission of such application.

(l) Applicability

(1) Conviction

For purposes of this section, a person is considered to have been convicted of a criminal offense—

(A) when a judgment of conviction has been entered against the person by a Federal or State court, regardless of whether there is an appeal pending,

(B) when a plea of guilty or nolo contendere by the person has been accepted by a Federal or State court, or

(C) when the person has entered into participation in a first offender, deferred adjudication, or other similar arrangement or program where judgment of conviction has been withheld.

(2) Effective dates

Subsection (a), subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2), clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection (b)(2)(B), and subsection (b)(3)(A) shall not apply to a conviction which occurred more than 5 years before the initiation of an agency action proposed to be taken under subsection (a) or (b). Clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B), subsection (b)(3)(B), and subsections (f) and (g) shall not apply to an act or action which occurred more than 5 years before the initiation of an agency action proposed to be taken under subsection (b), (f), or (g). Clause (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) shall not apply to an action which occurred before June 1, 1992. Subsection (k) shall not apply to applications submitted to the Secretary before June 1, 1992.

(m) Devices; mandatory debarment regarding third-party inspections and reviews

(1) In general

If the Secretary finds that a person has been convicted of a felony under section 331(gg) of this title, the Secretary shall debar such person from being accredited under section 360m(b) or 374(g)(2) of this title and from carrying out activities under an agreement described in section 383(b) of this title.

(2) Debarment period

The Secretary shall debar a person under paragraph (1) for the following periods:

(A) The period of debarment of a person (other than an individual) shall not be less than 1 year or more than 10 years, but if an act leading to a subsequent debarment under such paragraph occurs within 10 years after such person has been debarred under such paragraph, the period of debarment shall be permanent.

(B) The debarment of an individual shall be permanent.

(3) Termination of debarment; judicial review; other matters

Subsections (c)(3), (d), (e), (i), (j), and (l)(1) apply with respect to a person (other than an individual) or an individual who is debarred under paragraph (1) to the same extent and in the same manner as such subsections apply with respect to a person who is debarred under subsection (a)(1), or an individual who is debarred under subsection (a)(2), respectively.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §306, as added Pub. L. 102–282, §2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150; amended Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §125(b)(2)(C), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §304(a)–(c), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 665, 666; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, §203, Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1610.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 306 of act June 25, 1938, was renumbered section 309 and is classified to section 336 of this title.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(1), substituted "Mandatory debarment; certain drug applications" for "Mandatory debarment" in heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(2)(A), substituted "Permissive debarment; certain drug applications; food imports" for "Permissive debarment" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(a)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(2)(B), substituted "permissive debarment; certain drug applications" for "permissive debarment" in heading.

Pub. L. 107–188, §304(a)(2)(A), inserted "subparagraph (A) or (B) of" before "paragraph (1)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(a)(2)(B), (C), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(3), substituted "paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (b)" for "subsection (b)(2)".

Subsec. (d)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(4)(A), substituted "subsection (a)(1) or paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b)" for "subsection (a)(1) or (b)(2)(A)".

Subsec. (d)(3)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(4)(B), inserted "in applicable cases," before "sufficient audits".

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(4)(C), inserted "or subsection (b)(3)" after "subsection (b)(2)(B)".

Subsec. (d)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(b)(4)(C), (D), inserted "or subsection (b)(3)" after "subsection (b)(2)(B)" and "or the food importation process, as the case may be" before period.

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 107–188, §304(c), in first sentence struck out "and" after "subsection (b)(2)," and inserted ", and subsection (b)(3)(A)" after "subsection (b)(2)(B)" and in second sentence inserted ", subsection (b)(3)(B)," after "subsection (b)(2)(B)".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 107–250 added subsec. (m).

1997—Subsec. (d)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–115 struck out "or 357" after "355".

Construction

Pub. L. 102–282, §7, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 162, provided that: "No amendment made by this Act [enacting this section and sections 335b and 335c of this title and amending sections 321, 336, 337, and 355 of this title] shall preclude any other civil, criminal, or administrative remedy provided under Federal or State law, including any private right of action against any person for the same action subject to any action or civil penalty under an amendment made by this Act."

Congressional Findings

Pub. L. 102–282, §1(c), May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 149, provided that: "The Congress finds that—

"(1) there is substantial evidence that significant corruption occurred in the Food and Drug Administration's process of approving drugs under abbreviated drug applications,

"(2) there is a need to establish procedures designed to restore and to ensure the integrity of the abbreviated drug application approval process and to protect the public health, and

"(3) there is a need to establish procedures to bar individuals who have been convicted of crimes pertaining to the regulation of drug products from working for companies that manufacture or distribute such products."

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§335b. Civil penalties

(a) In general

Any person that the Secretary finds—

(1) knowingly made or caused to be made, to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services, a false statement or misrepresentation of a material fact in connection with an abbreviated drug application,

(2) bribed or attempted to bribe or paid or attempted to pay an illegal gratuity to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services in connection with an abbreviated drug application,

(3) destroyed, altered, removed, or secreted, or procured the destruction, alteration, removal, or secretion of, any material document or other material evidence which was the property of or in the possession of the Department of Health and Human Services for the purpose of interfering with that Department's discharge of its responsibilities in connection with an abbreviated drug application,

(4) knowingly failed to disclose, to an officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services, a material fact which such person had an obligation to disclose relating to any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application,

(5) knowingly obstructed an investigation of the Department of Health and Human Services into any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application,

(6) is a person that has an approved or pending drug product application and has knowingly—

(A) employed or retained as a consultant or contractor, or

(B) otherwise used in any capacity the services of,


a person who was debarred under section 335a of this title, or

(7) is an individual debarred under section 335a of this title and, during the period of debarment, provided services in any capacity to a person that had an approved or pending drug product application,


shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty for each such violation in an amount not to exceed $250,000 in the case of an individual and $1,000,000 in the case of any other person.

(b) Procedure

(1) In general

(A) Action by the Secretary

A civil penalty under subsection (a) shall be assessed by the Secretary on a person by an order made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact and the amount of the penalty. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subparagraph, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(B) Action by the Attorney General

In lieu of a proceeding under subparagraph (A), the Attorney General may, upon request of the Secretary, institute a civil action to recover a civil money penalty in the amount and for any of the acts set forth in subsection (a). Such an action may be instituted separately from or in connection with any other claim, civil or criminal, initiated by the Attorney General under this chapter.

(2) Amount

In determining the amount of a civil penalty under paragraph (1), the Secretary or the court shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the act subject to penalty, the person's ability to pay, the effect on the person's ability to continue to do business, any history of prior, similar acts, and such other matters as justice may require.

(3) Limitation on actions

No action may be initiated under this section—

(A) with respect to any act described in subsection (a) that occurred before May 13, 1992, or

(B) more than 6 years after the date when facts material to the act are known or reasonably should have been known by the Secretary but in no event more than 10 years after the date the act took place.

(c) Judicial review

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (b)(1)(A) may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary's decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(d) Recovery of penalties

The Attorney General may recover any civil penalty (plus interest at the currently prevailing rates from the date the penalty became final) assessed under subsection (b)(1)(A) in an action brought in the name of the United States. The amount of such penalty may be deducted, when the penalty has become final, from any sums then or later owing by the United States to the person against whom the penalty has been assessed. In an action brought under this subsection, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of the penalty shall not be subject to judicial review.

(e) Informants

The Secretary may award to any individual (other than an officer or employee of the Federal Government or a person who materially participated in any conduct described in subsection (a)) who provides information leading to the imposition of a civil penalty under this section an amount not to exceed—

(1) $250,000, or

(2) one-half of the penalty so imposed and collected,


whichever is less. The decision of the Secretary on such award shall not be reviewable.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §307, as added Pub. L. 102–282, §3, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 159; amended Pub. L. 103–80, §3(g), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 307 of act June 25, 1938, was renumbered section 310 and is classified to section 337 of this title.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–80 made technical amendment to reference to May 13, 1992, to reflect correction of corresponding provision of original act.

Construction

This section not to preclude any other civil, criminal, or administrative remedy provided under Federal or State law, including any private right of action against any person for the same action subject to any action or civil penalty under an amendment made by Pub. L. 102–282, see section 7 of Pub. L. 102–282, set out as a note under section 335a of this title.

§335c. Authority to withdraw approval of abbreviated drug applications

(a) In general

The Secretary—

(1) shall withdraw approval of an abbreviated drug application if the Secretary finds that the approval was obtained, expedited, or otherwise facilitated through bribery, payment of an illegal gratuity, or fraud or material false statement, and

(2) may withdraw approval of an abbreviated drug application if the Secretary finds that the applicant has repeatedly demonstrated a lack of ability to produce the drug for which the application was submitted in accordance with the formulations or manufacturing practice set forth in the abbreviated drug application and has introduced, or attempted to introduce, such adulterated or misbranded drug into commerce.

(b) Procedure

The Secretary may not take any action under subsection (a) with respect to any person unless the Secretary has issued an order for such action made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subsection, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(c) Applicability

Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to offenses or acts regardless of when such offenses or acts occurred.

(d) Judicial review

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (a) may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary's decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §308, as added Pub. L. 102–282, §4, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 160.)

Construction

This section not to preclude any other civil, criminal, or administrative remedy provided under Federal or State law, including any private right of action against any person for the same action subject to any action or civil penalty under an amendment made by Pub. L. 102–282, see section 7 of Pub. L. 102–282, set out as a note under section 335a of this title.

§336. Report of minor violations

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the Secretary to report for prosecution, or for the institution of libel or injunction proceedings, minor violations of this chapter whenever he believes that the public interest will be adequately served by a suitable written notice or warning.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §309, formerly §306, 52 Stat. 1045; renumbered §309, Pub. L. 102–282, §2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§337. Proceedings in name of United States; provision as to subpoenas

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), all such proceedings for the enforcement, or to restrain violations, of this chapter shall be by and in the name of the United States. Subpoenas for witnesses who are required to attend a court of the United States, in any district, may run into any other district in any proceeding under this section.

(b)(1) A State may bring in its own name and within its jurisdiction proceedings for the civil enforcement, or to restrain violations, of section 341, 343(b), 343(c), 343(d), 343(e), 343(f), 343(g), 343(h), 343(i), 343(k), 343(q), or 343(r) of this title if the food that is the subject of the proceedings is located in the State.

(2) No proceeding may be commenced by a State under paragraph (1)—

(A) before 30 days after the State has given notice to the Secretary that the State intends to bring such proceeding,

(B) before 90 days after the State has given notice to the Secretary of such intent if the Secretary has, within such 30 days, commenced an informal or formal enforcement action pertaining to the food which would be the subject of such proceeding, or

(C) if the Secretary is diligently prosecuting a proceeding in court pertaining to such food, has settled such proceeding, or has settled the informal or formal enforcement action pertaining to such food.


In any court proceeding described in subparagraph (C), a State may intervene as a matter of right.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §310, formerly §307, 52 Stat. 1046; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §37, 68 Stat. 1239; Pub. L. 101–535, §4, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; renumbered §310, Pub. L. 102–282, §2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150.)

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–535 substituted "(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), all" for "All" and "any proceeding under this section" for "any such proceeding" and added subsec. (b).

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, struck out reference to section 654 of title 28.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–535 effective 24 months after Nov. 8, 1990, except that such amendment effective Dec. 31, 1993, with respect to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances, see section 10(a)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

§337a. Extraterritorial jurisdiction

There is extraterritorial jurisdiction over any violation of this chapter relating to any article regulated under this chapter if such article was intended for import into the United States or if any act in furtherance of the violation was committed in the United States.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §311, as added Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, §718, July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1077.)

SUBCHAPTER IV—FOOD

§341. Definitions and standards for food

Whenever in the judgment of the Secretary such action will promote honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, he shall promulgate regulations fixing and establishing for any food, under its common or usual name so far as practicable, a reasonable definition and standard of identity, a reasonable standard of quality, or reasonable standards of fill of container. No definition and standard of identity and no standard of quality shall be established for fresh or dried fruits, fresh or dried vegetables, or butter, except that definitions and standards of identity may be established for avocadoes, cantaloupes, citrus fruits, and melons. In prescribing any standard of fill of container, the Secretary shall give due consideration to the natural shrinkage in storage and in transit of fresh natural food and to need for the necessary packing and protective material. In the prescribing of any standard of quality for any canned fruit or canned vegetable, consideration shall be given and due allowance made for the differing characteristics of the several varieties of such fruit or vegetable. In prescribing a definition and standard of identity for any food or class of food in which optional ingredients are permitted, the Secretary shall, for the purpose of promoting honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, designate the optional ingredients which shall be named on the label. Any definition and standard of identity prescribed by the Secretary for avocadoes, cantaloupes, citrus fruits, or melons shall relate only to maturity and to the effects of freezing.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §401, 52 Stat. 1046; Apr. 15, 1954, ch. 143, §1, 68 Stat. 54; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 861, §1, 70 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(h), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776.)

Amendments

1993Pub. L. 103–80 substituted "or reasonable standards of fill of container. No definition" for "and/or reasonable standards of fill of container: Provided, That no definition".

1956—Act Aug. 1, 1956, designated provisions constituting subsec. (a) as entire section and repealed subsec. (b) which provided the procedure for establishment of regulations and is covered by section 371(e) of this title.

1954—Act Apr. 15, 1954, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Savings Provision

Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 861, §3, 70 Stat. 919, provided that: "In any case in which, prior to the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1956], a public hearing has been begun in accordance with section 401 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [341 of this title] upon a proposal to issue, amend, or repeal any regulation contemplated by such section, or has been begun in accordance with section 701(e) of such Act [section 371(e) of this title] upon a proposal to issue, amend, or repeal any regulation contemplated by section 403(j), 404(a), 406(a) or (b), 501(b), 502(d), 502(h), 504 or 604 of such Act [section 343(j), 344(a), 346(a) or (b), 351(b), 352(d), 352(h), 354, or 364 of this title], the provisions of such section 401 or 701(e), as the case may be, as in force immediately prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1956], shall be applicable as though this Act [amending this section and section 371(e) of this title] had not been enacted."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Food Safety and Security Strategy

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §301, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 662, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The President's Council on Food Safety (as established by Executive Order No. 13100 [set out below]) shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of the Treasury, other relevant Federal agencies, the food industry, consumer and producer groups, scientific organizations, and the States, develop a crisis communications and education strategy with respect to bioterrorist threats to the food supply. Such strategy shall address threat assessments; technologies and procedures for securing food processing and manufacturing facilities and modes of transportation; response and notification procedures; and risk communications to the public.

"(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—For the purpose of implementing the strategy developed under subsection (a), there are authorized to be appropriated $750,000 for fiscal year 2002, and such sums as may be necessary for each subsequent fiscal year."

Food Safety Commission

Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10807, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 527, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—

"(1) In general.—There is established a commission to be known as the 'Food Safety Commission' (referred to in this section as the 'Commission').

"(2) Membership.—

"(A) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 15 members (including a Chairperson, appointed by the President[)].

"(B) Eligibility.—

"(i) In general.—Members of the Commission—

     "(I) shall have specialized training or significant experience in matters under the jurisdiction of the Commission; and

     "(II) shall represent, at a minimum—

"(aa) consumers;

"(bb) food scientists;

"(cc) the food industry; and

"(dd) health professionals.

"(ii) Federal employees.—Not more than 3 members of the Commission may be Federal employees.

"(C) Date of appointments.—The appointment of the members of the Commission shall be made as soon as practicable after the date on which funds authorized to be appropriated under subsection (e)(1) are made available.

"(D) Vacancies.—A vacancy on the Commission—

"(i) shall not affect the powers of the Commission; and

"(ii) shall be filled—

     "(I) not later than 60 days after the date on which the vacancy occurs; and

     "(II) in the same manner as the original appointment was made.

"(3) Meetings.—

"(A) Initial meeting.—The initial meeting of the Commission shall be conducted not later than 30 days after the date of appointment of the final member of the Commission.

"(B) Other meetings.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairperson.

"(4) Quorum; standing rules.—

"(A) Quorum.—A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum to conduct business.

"(B) Standing rules.—At the first meeting of the Commission, the Commission shall adopt standing rules of the Commission to guide the conduct of business and decisionmaking of the Commission.

"(b) Duties.—

"(1) Recommendations.—The Commission shall make specific recommendations to enhance the food safety system of the United States, including a description of how each recommendation would improve food safety.

"(2) Components.—Recommendations made by the Commission under paragraph (1) shall address all food available commercially in the United States.

"(3) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date on which the Commission first meets, the Commission shall submit to the President and Congress—

"(A) the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the Commission, including a description of how each recommendation would improve food safety;

"(B) a summary of any other material used by the Commission in the preparation of the report under this paragraph; and

"(C) if requested by 1 or more members of the Commission, a statement of the minority views of the Commission.

"(c) Powers of the Commission.—

"(1) Hearings.—The Commission may, for the purpose of carrying out this section, hold such hearings, meet and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission considers advisable.

"(2) Information from federal agencies.—

"(A) In general.—The Commission may secure directly, from any Federal agency, such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out this section.

"(B) Provision of information.—

"(i) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (C), on the request of the Commission, the head of a Federal agency described in subparagraph (A) may furnish information requested by the Commission to the Commission.

"(ii) Administration.—The furnishing of information by a Federal agency to the Commission shall not be considered a waiver of any exemption available to the agency under section 552 of title 5, United States Code.

"(C) Information to be kept confidential.—

"(i) In general.—For purposes of section 1905 of title 18, United States Code

     "(I) the Commission shall be considered an agency of the Federal Government; and

     "(II) any individual employed by an individual, entity, or organization that is a party to a contract with the Commission under this section shall be considered an employee of the Commission.

"(ii) Prohibition on disclosure.—Information obtained by the Commission, other than information that is available to the public, shall not be disclosed to any person in any manner except to an employee of the Commission as described in clause (i), for the purpose of receiving, reviewing, or processing the information.

"(d) Commission Personnel Matters.—

"(1) Members.—

"(A) Compensation.—A member of the Commission shall serve without compensation for the services of the member on the Commission.

"(B) Travel expenses.—A member of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for an employee of an agency under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from the home or regular place of business of the member in the performance of the duties of the Commission.

"(2) Staff.—

"(A) In general.—The Chairperson of the Commission may, without regard to the civil service laws (including regulations), appoint and terminate the appointment of an executive director and such other additional personnel as are necessary to enable the Commission to perform the duties of the Commission.

"(B) Confirmation of executive director.—The employment of an executive director shall be subject to confirmation by the Commission.

"(C) Compensation.—

"(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), the Chairperson of the Commission may fix the compensation of the executive director and other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates.

"(ii) Maximum rate of pay.—The rate of pay for the executive director and other personnel shall not exceed the rate payable for level II of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code.

"(3) Detail of federal government employees.—

"(A) In general.—An employee of the Federal Government may be detailed to the Commission, without reimbursement, for such period of time as is permitted by law.

"(B) Civil service status.—The detail of the employee shall be without interruption or loss of civil service status or privilege.

"(4) Procurement of temporary and intermittent services.—The Chairperson of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services in accordance with section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals that do not exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level II of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of that title.

"(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—

"(1) In general.—There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

"(2) Limitation.—No payment may be made under subsection (d) except to the extent provided for in advance in an appropriations Act.

"(f) Termination.—The Commission shall terminate on the date that is 60 days after the date on which the Commission submits the recommendations and report under subsection (b)(3)."

Ex. Ord. No. 13100. President's Council on Food Safety

Ex. Ord. No. 13100, Aug. 25, 1998, 63 F.R. 45661, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §16, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10623, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to improve the safety of the food supply through science-based regulation and well-coordinated inspection, enforcement, research, and education programs, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of President's Council on Food Safety. (a) There is established the President's Council on Food Safety ("Council"). The Council shall comprise the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Health and Human Services, and Homeland Security, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology/Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and the Director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. The Council shall consult with other Federal agencies and State, local, and tribal government agencies, and consumer, producer, scientific, and industry groups, as appropriate.

(b) The Secretaries of Agriculture and of Health and Human Services and the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology/Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall serve as Joint Chairs of the Council.

Sec. 2. Purpose. The purpose of the Council shall be to develop a comprehensive strategic plan for Federal food safety activities, taking into consideration the findings and recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences report "Ensuring Safe Food from Production to Consumption" and other input from the public on how to improve the effectiveness of the current food safety system. The Council shall make recommendations to the President on how to advance Federal efforts to implement a comprehensive science-based strategy to improve the safety of the food supply and to enhance coordination among Federal agencies, State, local, and tribal governments, and the private sector. The Council shall advise Federal agencies in setting priority areas for investment in food safety.

Sec. 3. Specific Activities and Functions. (a) The Council shall develop a comprehensive strategic Federal food safety plan that contains specific recommendations on needed changes, including measurable outcome goals. The principal goal of the plan should be the establishment of a seamless, science-based food safety system. The plan should address the steps necessary to achieve this goal, including the key public health, resource, and management issues regarding food safety. The planning process should consider both short-term and long-term issues including new and emerging threats and the special needs of vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly. In developing this plan, the Council shall consult with all interested parties, including State and local agencies, tribes, consumers, producers, industry, and academia.

(b) Consistent with the comprehensive strategic Federal food safety plan described in section 3(a) of this order, the Council shall advise agencies of priority areas for investment in food safety and ensure that Federal agencies annually develop coordinated food safety budgets for submission to the OMB that sustain and strengthen existing capacities, eliminate duplication, and ensure the most effective use of resources for improving food safety. The Council shall also ensure that Federal agencies annually develop a unified budget for submission to the OMB for the President's Food Safety Initiative and such other food safety issues as the Council determines appropriate.

(c) The Council shall ensure that the Joint Institute for Food Safety Research (JIFSR), in consultation with the National Science and Technology Council, establishes mechanisms to guide Federal research efforts toward the highest priority food safety needs. The JIFSR shall report to the Council on a regular basis on its efforts: (i) to develop a strategic plan for conducting food safety research activities consistent with the President's Food Safety Initiative and such other food safety activities as the JIFSR determines appropriate; and (ii) to coordinate efficiently, within the executive branch and with the private sector and academia, all Federal food safety research.

Sec. 4. Cooperation. All actions taken by the Council shall, as appropriate, promote partnerships and cooperation with States, tribes, and other public and private sector efforts wherever possible to improve the safety of the food supply.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, nor does it, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers or any person. Nothing in this order shall affect or alter the statutory responsibilities of any Federal agency charged with food safety responsibilities.

§342. Adulterated food

A food shall be deemed to be adulterated—

(a) Poisonous, insanitary, etc., ingredients

(1) If it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to health; but in case the substance is not an added substance such food shall not be considered adulterated under this clause if the quantity of such substance in such food does not ordinarily render it injurious to health.1 (2)(A) if it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than a substance that is a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity or processed food, a food additive, a color additive, or a new animal drug) that is unsafe within the meaning of section 346 of this title; or (B) if it bears or contains a pesticide chemical residue that is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a(a) of this title; or (C) if it is or if it bears or contains (i) any food additive that is unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title; or (ii) a new animal drug (or conversion product thereof) that is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title; or (3) if it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or if it is otherwise unfit for food; or (4) if it has been prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; or (5) if it is, in whole or in part, the product of a diseased animal or of an animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter; or (6) if its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (7) if it has been intentionally subjected to radiation, unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation or exemption in effect pursuant to section 348 of this title.

(b) Absence, substitution, or addition of constituents

(1) If any valuable constituent has been in whole or in part omitted or abstracted therefrom; or (2) if any substance has been substituted wholly or in part therefor; or (3) if damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or (4) if any substance has been added thereto or mixed or packed therewith so as to increase its bulk or weight, or reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear better or of greater value than it is.

(c) Color additives

If it is, or it bears or contains, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 379e(a) of this title.

(d) Confectionery containing alcohol or nonnutritive substance

If it is confectionery, and—

(1) has partially or completely imbedded therein any nonnutritive object, except that this subparagraph shall not apply in the case of any nonnutritive object if, in the judgment of the Secretary as provided by regulations, such object is of practical functional value to the confectionery product and would not render the product injurious or hazardous to health;

(2) bears or contains any alcohol other than alcohol not in excess of one-half of 1 per centum by volume derived solely from the use of flavoring extracts, except that this clause shall not apply to confectionery which is introduced or delivered for introduction into, or received or held for sale in, interstate commerce if the sale of such confectionery is permitted under the laws of the State in which such confectionery is intended to be offered for sale; or

(3) bears or contains any nonnutritive substance, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to a safe nonnutritive substance which is in or on confectionery by reason of its use for some practical functional purpose in the manufacture, packaging, or storage of such confectionery if the use of the substance does not promote deception of the consumer or otherwise result in adulteration or misbranding in violation of any provision of this chapter, except that the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this subparagraph, issue regulations allowing or prohibiting the use of particular nonnutritive substances.

(e) Oleomargarine containing filthy, putrid, etc., matter

If it is oleomargarine or margarine or butter and any of the raw material used therein consisted in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or such oleomargarine or margarine or butter is otherwise unfit for food.

(f) Dietary supplement or ingredient: safety

(1) If it is a dietary supplement or contains a dietary ingredient that—

(A) presents a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury under—

(i) conditions of use recommended or suggested in labeling, or

(ii) if no conditions of use are suggested or recommended in the labeling, under ordinary conditions of use;


(B) is a new dietary ingredient for which there is inadequate information to provide reasonable assurance that such ingredient does not present a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury;

(C) the Secretary declares to pose an imminent hazard to public health or safety, except that the authority to make such declaration shall not be delegated and the Secretary shall promptly after such a declaration initiate a proceeding in accordance with sections 554 and 556 of title 5 to affirm or withdraw the declaration; or

(D) is or contains a dietary ingredient that renders it adulterated under paragraph (a)(1) under the conditions of use recommended or suggested in the labeling of such dietary supplement.


In any proceeding under this subparagraph, the United States shall bear the burden of proof on each element to show that a dietary supplement is adulterated. The court shall decide any issue under this paragraph on a de novo basis.

(2) Before the Secretary may report to a United States attorney a violation of paragraph 2 (1)(A) for a civil proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding would be initiated shall be given appropriate notice and the opportunity to present views, orally and in writing, at least 10 days before such notice, with regard to such proceeding.

(g) Dietary supplement: manufacturing practices

(1) If it is a dietary supplement and it has been prepared, packed, or held under conditions that do not meet current good manufacturing practice regulations, including regulations requiring, when necessary, expiration date labeling, issued by the Secretary under subparagraph (2).

(2) The Secretary may by regulation prescribe good manufacturing practices for dietary supplements. Such regulations shall be modeled after current good manufacturing practice regulations for food and may not impose standards for which there is no current and generally available analytical methodology. No standard of current good manufacturing practice may be imposed unless such standard is included in a regulation promulgated after notice and opportunity for comment in accordance with chapter 5 of title 5.

(h) Reoffer of food previously denied admission

If it is an article of food imported or offered for import into the United States and the article of food has previously been refused admission under section 381(a) of this title, unless the person reoffering the article affirmatively establishes, at the expense of the owner or consignee of the article, that the article complies with the applicable requirements of this chapter, as determined by the Secretary.

(i) Noncompliance with sanitary transportation practices

If it is transported or offered for transport by a shipper, carrier by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receiver, or any other person engaged in the transportation of food under conditions that are not in compliance with regulations promulgated under section 350e of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §402, 52 Stat. 1046; Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(d), 64 Stat. 21; July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §2, 68 Stat. 511; July 9, 1956, ch. 530, 70 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 85–929, §3(a), (b), Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784; Pub. L. 86–2, Mar. 17, 1959, 73 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §§102(a)(1), (2), 105(c), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 397, 398, 404; Pub. L. 89–477, June 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 231; Pub. L. 90–399, §104, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 99–252, §10, Feb. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 35; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 103–417, §§4, 9, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4328, 4332; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §404, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §309, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7202(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1911.)

Amendments

2005—Par. (i). Pub. L. 109–59 added par. (i).

2002—Par. (h). Pub. L. 107–188 added par. (h).

1996—Par. (a). Pub. L. 104–170 added subpar. (2) and struck out former subpar. (2) which read as follows: "(2)(A) if it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; (ii) a food additive; (iii) a color additive; or (iv) a new animal drug) which is unsafe within the meaning of section 346 of this title, or (B) if it is a raw agricultural commodity and it bears or contains a pesticide chemical which is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a(a) of this title, or (C) if it is, or if it bears or contains, any food additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title: Provided, That where a pesticide chemical has been used in or on a raw agricultural commodity in conformity with an exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 346a of this title and such raw agricultural commodity has been subjected to processing such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydrating, or milling, the residue of such pesticide chemical remaining in or on such processed food shall, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 346 and 348 of this title, not be deemed unsafe if such residue in or on the raw agricultural commodity has been removed to the extent possible in good manufacturing practice and the concentration of such residue in the processed food when ready to eat is not greater than the tolerance prescribed for the raw agricultural commodity, or (D) if it is, or it bears or contains, a new animal drug (or conversion product thereof) which is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title;". That part of Pub. L. 104–170 which directed the substitution of "or (3) if it consists" for "(3) if it consists" was executed by making the substitution for "(3) If it consists" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Par. (f). Pub. L. 103–417, §4, added par. (f).

Par. (g). Pub. L. 103–417, §9, added par. (g).

1993—Par. (a). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(1), substituted a period for "; or" at end of subpar. (1) and "If it" for "if it" at beginning of par. (3). That part of Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(1), which directed the substitution of a period for "; or" at end of subpar. (2) could not be executed because "; or" did not appear.

Par. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(2), substituted ", except that this subparagraph" for ": Provided, That this clause".

Par. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(3), substituted ", except that this subparagraph shall not apply" for ": Provided, That this clause shall not apply" and ", except that the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this subparagraph" for ": And provided further, That the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this clause".

1992—Par. (c). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted "379e(a)" for "376(a)".

1986—Par. (d)(2). Pub. L. 99–252 inserted provision that this clause not apply to confectionery introduced or delivered for introduction into or received or held for sale in, interstate commerce if the sale is permitted under the laws of the State in which the confectionery is intended to be offered for sale.

1968—Par. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–399 added cls. (A)(iv) and (D).

1966—Par. (d). Pub. L. 89–477 permitted the imbedding of nonnutritive objects in confectionery foods if in the judgment of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, as provided by regulation, the imbedding of the object is of practical functional value to the confectionery product and would not render it injurious or hazardous to health, raised to one-half of 1 per centum by volume the upper limit for the allowable use of alcohol derived solely from the use of flavoring extracts, allowed the use of safe nonnutritive substances in and on confectionery foods by reason of their use for some practical and functional purpose in the manufacture, packaging, or storage of the confectionery foods if the use of the substances does not promote deception of the consumer or otherwise result in adulteration or misbranding, authorized the Secretary to issue regulations on the use of particular nonnutritive substances, and removed reference to nonnutritive masticatory substances added to chewing gum and harmless flavoring, harmless resinous glaze not in excess of four-tenths of 1 per centum, natural gum, authorized coloring, and pectin.

1960—Par. (a). Pub. L. 86–618, §102(a)(1), substituted "other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; (ii) a food additive; or (iii) a color additive" for "(except a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity and except a food additive)" in cl. (2)(A).

Par. (c). Pub. L. 86–618, §102(a)(2), amended par. (c) generally, substituting provisions deeming a food adulterated if it is, or it bears or contains, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 376 of this title for provisions which related to food that bears or contains a coal-tar color other than one from a batch that has been certified in accordance with regulations as provided by section 346 of this title, and struck out provisos which related to the use of color on oranges.

Par. (d). Pub. L. 86–618, §105(c), substituted "authorized coloring" for "harmless coloring".

1959—Par. (c). Pub. L. 86–2 extended from Mar. 1, 1959, to May 1, 1959, the period during which par. is inapplicable to oranges which have been colored with F.D. & C. Red 32, and inserted proviso requiring Secretary to establish regulations prescribing the conditions under which Citrus Red No. 2 may be safely used in coloring certain mature oranges, and providing for separately listing and for certification of batches of such color.

1958—Par. (a). Pub. L. 85–929, among other changes, inserted cl. (2)(C) relating to food additive unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title, and to pesticide chemical, and added cl. (7) relating to radiated food.

1956—Par. (c). Act July 9, 1956, inserted second proviso relating to coloring of oranges.

1954—Par. (a)(2). Act July 22, 1954, provided in the case of any raw agricultural commodity bearing or containing a pesticide chemical, that such commodity shall be deemed to be adulterated if such pesticide chemical is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a of this title.

1950—Par. (e). Act Mar. 16, 1950, added par. (e).

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–59 effective Oct. 1, 2005, see section 7204 of Pub. L. 109–59, set out as a note under section 331 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–399 effective on first day of thirteenth calendar month after July 13, 1968, see section 108(a) of Pub. L. 90–399, set out as an Effective Date and Transitional Provisions note under section 360b of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of Nematocide, Plant Regulator, Defoliant, and Desiccant Amendment of 1959

Effective date of par. (a)(2) as in force prior to July 22, 1954, with respect to particular commercial use of a nematocide, plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant in or on a raw agricultural commodity made before Jan. 1, 1958, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–139, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 288.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–929, §6, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1788, as amended by Pub. L. 87–19, §2, Apr. 7, 1961, 75 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 88–625, §2, Oct. 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 1002, provided that:

"(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, this Act [amending this section, sections 321, 331, 346, and 348 of this title, and section 210 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 451 of this title] shall take effect on the date of its enactment [Sept. 6, 1958].

"(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, section 3 of this Act [amending this section and section 346 of this title] shall take effect on the one hundred and eightieth day after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 6, 1958].

"(c) With respect to any particular commercial use of a food additive, if such use was made of such additive before January 1, 1958, section 3 of this Act [amending this section and section 346 of this title] shall take effect—

"(1) Either (A) one year after the effective date established in subsection (b) of this section, or (B) at the end of such additional period (but not later than two years from such effective date established in subsection (b)) as the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] may prescribe on the basis of a finding that such extension involves no undue risk to the public health and that conditions exist which necessitate the prescribing of such an additional period, or

"(2) on the date on which an order with respect to such use under section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 348 of this title] becomes effective,

whichever date first occurs. Whenever the Secretary has, pursuant to clause (1)(B) of this subsection, extended the effective date of section 3 of this Act [amending this section] to March 5, 1961, or has on that date a request for such extension pending before him, with respect to any such particular use of a food additive, he may, notwithstanding the parenthetical time limitation in that clause, further extend such effective date, not beyond June 30, 1964, under the authority of that clause (but subject to clause (2)) with respect to such use of the additive (or a more limited specified use or uses thereof) if, in addition to making the findings required by clause (1)(B), he finds (i) that bona fide action to determine the applicability of such section 409 [section 348 of this title] to such use or uses, or to develop the scientific data necessary for action under such section, was commenced by an interested person before March 6, 1960, and was thereafter pursued with reasonable diligence, and (ii) that in the Secretary's judgment such extension is consistent with the objective of carrying to completion in good faith, as soon as reasonably practicable, the scientific investigations necessary as a basis for action under such section 409 [section 348 of this title]: Provided, That if the Secretary has, pursuant to this sentence, granted an extension to June 30, 1964, he may, upon making the findings required by clause (1)(B) of this subsection and clauses (i) and (ii) of this sentence, further extend such effective date, but not beyond December 31, 1965. The Secretary may at any time terminate an extension so granted if he finds that it should not have been granted, or that by reason of a change in circumstances the basis for such extension no longer exists, or that there has been a failure to comply with a requirement for submission of progress reports or with other conditions attached to such extension."

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Act July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §5, 68 Stat. 517, provided that: "This Act [amending this section and section 321 of this title and enacting sections 346a and 346b of this title] shall take effect upon the date of its enactment [July 22, 1954], except that with respect to pesticide chemicals for which tolerances or exemptions have not been established under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 346a of this title], the amendment to section 402(a) of such Act [par. (a) of this section] made by section 2 of this Act shall not be effective—

"(1) for the period of one year following the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1954]; or

"(2) for such additional period following such period of one year, but not extending beyond two years after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1954] as the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] may prescribe on the basis of a finding that conditions exist which necessitate the prescribing of such additional period."

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Amendment by act Mar. 16, 1950, effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, set out as an Effective Date note under section 347 of this title.

Effective Date; Postponement

Par. (c) effective Jan. 1, 1940, see act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, 53 Stat. 853, set out as an Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases note under section 301 of this title.

Short Title

Pub. L. 88–625, §1, Oct. 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 1002, provided: "That this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under this section and section 135 of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the 'Food Additives Transitional Provisions Amendment of 1964'."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Updating Guidance Relating to Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Controls

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(h), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3898, provided that: "The Secretary shall, not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], update the Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Control Guidance to take into account advances in technology that have occurred since the previous publication of such Guidance by the Secretary."

Guidance Relating to Post Harvest Processing of Raw Oysters

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §114, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3921, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 90 days prior to the issuance of any guidance, regulation, or suggested amendment by the Food and Drug Administration to the National Shellfish Sanitation Program's Model Ordinance, or the issuance of any guidance or regulation by the Food and Drug Administration relating to the Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Program of the Food and Drug Administration (parts 123 and 1240 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations)[)], where such guidance, regulation or suggested amendment relates to post harvest processing for raw oysters, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report which shall include—

"(1) an assessment of how post harvest processing or other equivalent controls feasibly may be implemented in the fastest, safest, and most economical manner;

"(2) the projected public health benefits of any proposed post harvest processing;

"(3) the projected costs of compliance with such post harvest processing measures;

"(4) the impact post harvest processing is expected to have on the sales, cost, and availability of raw oysters;

"(5) criteria for ensuring post harvest processing standards will be applied equally to shellfish imported from all nations of origin;

"(6) an evaluation of alternative measures to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of foodborne illness; and

"(7) the extent to which the Food and Drug Administration has consulted with the States and other regulatory agencies, as appropriate, with regard to post harvest processing measures.

"(b) Limitation.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to the guidance described in section 103(h) [section 103(h) of Pub. L. 111–353, set out as a note above].

"(c) Review and Evaluation.—Not later than 30 days after the Secretary issues a proposed regulation or guidance described in subsection (a), the Comptroller General of the United States shall—

"(1) review and evaluate the report described in (a) and report to Congress on the findings of the estimates and analysis in the report;

"(2) compare such proposed regulation or guidance to similar regulations or guidance with respect to other regulated foods, including a comparison of risks the Secretary may find associated with seafood and the instances of those risks in such other regulated foods; and

"(3) evaluate the impact of post harvest processing on the competitiveness of the domestic oyster industry in the United States and in international markets.

"(d) Waiver.—The requirement of preparing a report under subsection (a) shall be waived if the Secretary issues a guidance that is adopted as a consensus agreement between Federal and State regulators and the oyster industry, acting through the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference.

"(e) Public Access.—Any report prepared under this section shall be made available to the public."

Domestic Fish or Fish Product Compliance With Food Safety Standards or Procedures Deemed To Have Met Requirements for Federal Commodity Purchase Programs

Pub. L. 104–180, title VII, §733, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1601, provided that: "Hereafter, notwithstanding any other provision of law, any domestic fish or fish product produced in compliance with food safety standards or procedures accepted by the Food and Drug Administration as satisfying the requirements of the 'Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Fish and Fish Products' (published by the Food and Drug Administration as a final regulation in the Federal Register of December 18, 1995), shall be deemed to have met any inspection requirements of the Department of Agriculture or other Federal agency for any Federal commodity purchase program, including the program authorized under section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 612c) except that the Department of Agriculture or other Federal agency may utilize lot inspection to establish a reasonable degree of certainty that fish or fish products purchased under a Federal commodity purchase program, including the program authorized under section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 612c), meet Federal product specifications."

1 So in original. The period probably should be "; or".

2 So in original. Probably should be "subparagraph".

§343. Misbranded food

A food shall be deemed to be misbranded—

(a) False or misleading label

If (1) its labeling is false or misleading in any particular, or (2) in the case of a food to which section 350 of this title applies, its advertising is false or misleading in a material respect or its labeling is in violation of section 350(b)(2) of this title.

(b) Offer for sale under another name

If it is offered for sale under the name of another food.

(c) Imitation of another food

If it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, in type of uniform size and prominence, the word "imitation" and, immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated.

(d) Misleading container

If its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading.

(e) Package form

If in package form unless it bears a label containing (1) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and (2) an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count, except that under clause (2) of this paragraph reasonable variations shall be permitted, and exemptions as to small packages shall be established, by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(f) Prominence of information on label

If any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or labeling is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness (as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, in the labeling) and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.

(g) Representation as to definition and standard of identity

If it purports to be or is represented as a food for which a definition and standard of identity has been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, unless (1) it conforms to such definition and standard, and (2) its label bears the name of the food specified in the definition and standard, and, insofar as may be required by such regulations, the common names of optional ingredients (other than spices, flavoring, and coloring) present in such food.

(h) Representation as to standards of quality and fill of container

If it purports to be or is represented as—

(1) a food for which a standard of quality has been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, and its quality falls below such standard, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard;

(2) a food for which a standard or standards of fill of container have been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, and it falls below the standard of fill of container applicable thereto, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard; or

(3) a food that is pasteurized unless—

(A) such food has been subjected to a safe process or treatment that is prescribed as pasteurization for such food in a regulation promulgated under this chapter; or

(B)(i) such food has been subjected to a safe process or treatment that—

(I) is reasonably certain to achieve destruction or elimination in the food of the most resistant microorganisms of public health significance that are likely to occur in the food;

(II) is at least as protective of the public health as a process or treatment described in subparagraph (A);

(III) is effective for a period that is at least as long as the shelf life of the food when stored under normal and moderate abuse conditions; and

(IV) is the subject of a notification to the Secretary, including effectiveness data regarding the process or treatment; and


(ii) at least 120 days have passed after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary without the Secretary making a determination that the process or treatment involved has not been shown to meet the requirements of subclauses (I) through (III) of clause (i).


For purposes of paragraph (3), a determination by the Secretary that a process or treatment has not been shown to meet the requirements of subclauses (I) through (III) of subparagraph (B)(i) shall constitute final agency action under such subclauses.

(i) Label where no representation as to definition and standard of identity

Unless its label bears (1) the common or usual name of the food, if any there be, and (2) in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the common or usual name of each such ingredient and if the food purports to be a beverage containing vegetable or fruit juice, a statement with appropriate prominence on the information panel of the total percentage of such fruit or vegetable juice contained in the food; except that spices, flavorings, and colors not required to be certified under section 379e(c) of this title 1 unless sold as spices, flavorings, or such colors, may be designated as spices, flavorings, and colorings without naming each. To the extent that compliance with the requirements of clause (2) of this paragraph is impracticable, or results in deception or unfair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(j) Representation for special dietary use

If it purports to be or is represented for special dietary uses, unless its label bears such information concerning its vitamin, mineral, and other dietary properties as the Secretary determines to be, and by regulations prescribes as, necessary in order fully to inform purchasers as to its value for such uses.

(k) Artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservatives

If it bears or contains any artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservative, unless it bears labeling stating that fact, except that to the extent that compliance with the requirements of this paragraph is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary. The provisions of this paragraph and paragraphs (g) and (i) with respect to artificial coloring shall not apply in the case of butter, cheese, or ice cream. The provisions of this paragraph with respect to chemical preservatives shall not apply to a pesticide chemical when used in or on a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil.

(l) Pesticide chemicals on raw agricultural commodities

If it is a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil, bearing or containing a pesticide chemical applied after harvest, unless the shipping container of such commodity bears labeling which declares the presence of such chemical in or on such commodity and the common or usual name and the function of such chemical, except that no such declaration shall be required while such commodity, having been removed from the shipping container, is being held or displayed for sale at retail out of such container in accordance with the custom of the trade.

(m) Color additives

If it is a color additive, unless its packaging and labeling are in conformity with such packaging and labeling requirements, applicable to such color additive, as may be contained in regulations issued under section 379e of this title.

(n) Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations

If its packaging or labeling is in violation of an applicable regulation issued pursuant to section 1472 or 1473 of title 15.

(o) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-73

(p) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–124, §1, Apr. 1, 1996, 110 Stat. 882

(q) Nutrition information

(1) Except as provided in subparagraphs (3), (4), and (5), if it is a food intended for human consumption and is offered for sale, unless its label or labeling bears nutrition information that provides—

(A)(i) the serving size which is an amount customarily consumed and which is expressed in a common household measure that is appropriate to the food, or

(ii) if the use of the food is not typically expressed in a serving size, the common household unit of measure that expresses the serving size of the food,

(B) the number of servings or other units of measure per container,

(C) the total number of calories—

(i) derived from any source, and

(ii) derived from the total fat,


in each serving size or other unit of measure of the food,

(D) the amount of the following nutrients: Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fiber, and total protein contained in each serving size or other unit of measure,

(E) any vitamin, mineral, or other nutrient required to be placed on the label and labeling of food under this chapter before October 1, 1990, if the Secretary determines that such information will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.


The Secretary may by regulation require any information required to be placed on the label or labeling by this subparagraph or subparagraph (2)(A) to be highlighted on the label or labeling by larger type, bold type, or contrasting color if the Secretary determines that such highlighting will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.

(2)(A) If the Secretary determines that a nutrient other than a nutrient required by subparagraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(E) should be included in the label or labeling of food subject to subparagraph (1) for purposes of providing information regarding the nutritional value of such food that will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may by regulation require that information relating to such additional nutrient be included in the label or labeling of such food.

(B) If the Secretary determines that the information relating to a nutrient required by subparagraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(E) or clause (A) of this subparagraph to be included in the label or labeling of food is not necessary to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may by regulation remove information relating to such nutrient from such requirement.

(3) For food that is received in bulk containers at a retail establishment, the Secretary may, by regulation, provide that the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) be displayed at the location in the retail establishment at which the food is offered for sale.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall provide for furnishing the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) with respect to raw agricultural commodities and raw fish by issuing voluntary nutrition guidelines, as provided by clause (B) or by issuing regulations that are mandatory as provided by clause (D).

(B)(i) Upon the expiration of 12 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary, after providing an opportunity for comment, shall issue guidelines for food retailers offering raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to provide nutrition information specified in subparagraphs (1) and (2). Such guidelines shall take into account the actions taken by food retailers during such 12-month period to provide to consumers nutrition information on raw agricultural commodities and raw fish. Such guidelines shall only apply—

(I) in the case of raw agricultural commodities, to the 20 varieties of vegetables most frequently consumed during a year and the 20 varieties of fruit most frequently consumed during a year, and

(II) to the 20 varieties of raw fish most frequently consumed during a year.


The vegetables, fruits, and raw fish to which such guidelines apply shall be determined by the Secretary by regulation and the Secretary may apply such guidelines regionally.

(ii) Upon the expiration of 12 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary shall issue a final regulation defining the circumstances that constitute substantial compliance by food retailers with the guidelines issued under subclause (i). The regulation shall provide that there is not substantial compliance if a significant number of retailers have failed to comply with the guidelines. The size of the retailers and the portion of the market served by retailers in compliance with the guidelines shall be considered in determining whether the substantial-compliance standard has been met.

(C)(i) Upon the expiration of 30 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary shall issue a report on actions taken by food retailers to provide consumers with nutrition information for raw agricultural commodities and raw fish under the guidelines issued under clause (A). Such report shall include a determination of whether there is substantial compliance with the guidelines.

(ii) If the Secretary finds that there is substantial compliance with the guidelines, the Secretary shall issue a report and make a determination of the type required in subclause (i) every two years.

(D)(i) If the Secretary determines that there is not substantial compliance with the guidelines issued under clause (A), the Secretary shall at the time such determination is made issue proposed regulations requiring that any person who offers raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to consumers provide, in a manner prescribed by regulations, the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2). The Secretary shall issue final regulations imposing such requirements 6 months after issuing the proposed regulations. The final regulations shall become effective 6 months after the date of their promulgation.

(ii) Regulations issued under subclause (i) may require that the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) be provided for more than 20 varieties of vegetables, 20 varieties of fruit, and 20 varieties of fish most frequently consumed during a year if the Secretary finds that a larger number of such products are frequently consumed. Such regulations shall permit such information to be provided in a single location in each area in which raw agricultural commodities and raw fish are offered for sale. Such regulations may provide that information shall be expressed as an average or range per serving of the same type of raw agricultural commodity or raw fish. The Secretary shall develop and make available to the persons who offer such food to consumers the information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2).

(iii) Regulations issued under subclause (i) shall permit the required information to be provided in each area of an establishment in which raw agricultural commodities and raw fish are offered for sale. The regulations shall permit food retailers to display the required information by supplying copies of the information provided by the Secretary, by making the information available in brochure, notebook or leaflet form, or by posting a sign disclosing the information. Such regulations shall also permit presentation of the required information to be supplemented by a video, live demonstration, or other media which the Secretary approves.

(E) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "fish" includes freshwater or marine fin fish, crustaceans, and mollusks, including shellfish, amphibians, and other forms of aquatic animal life.

(F) No person who offers raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to consumers may be prosecuted for minor violations of this subparagraph if there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of this paragraph.

(5)(A) Subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply to food—

(i) except as provided in clause (H)(ii)(III), which is served in restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption or which is sold for sale or use in such establishments,

(ii) except as provided in clause (H)(ii)(III), which is processed and prepared primarily in a retail establishment, which is ready for human consumption, which is of the type described in subclause (i), and which is offered for sale to consumers but not for immediate human consumption in such establishment and which is not offered for sale outside such establishment,

(iii) which is an infant formula subject to section 350a of this title,

(iv) which is a medical food as defined in section 360ee(b) of this title, or

(v) which is described in section 345(2) of this title.


(B) Subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to the label of a food if the Secretary determines by regulations that compliance with such subparagraphs is impracticable because the package of such food is too small to comply with the requirements of such subparagraphs and if the label of such food does not contain any nutrition information.

(C) If a food contains insignificant amounts, as determined by the Secretary, of all the nutrients required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) to be listed in the label or labeling of food, the requirements of such subparagraphs shall not apply to such food if the label, labeling, or advertising of such food does not make any claim with respect to the nutritional value of such food. If a food contains insignificant amounts, as determined by the Secretary, of more than one-half the nutrients required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) to be in the label or labeling of the food, the Secretary shall require the amounts of such nutrients to be stated in a simplified form prescribed by the Secretary.

(D) If a person offers food for sale and has annual gross sales made or business done in sales to consumers which is not more than $500,000 or has annual gross sales made or business done in sales of food to consumers which is not more than $50,000, the requirements of subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply with respect to food sold by such person to consumers unless the label or labeling of food offered by such person provides nutrition information or makes a nutrition claim.

(E)(i) During the 12-month period for which an exemption from subparagraphs (1) and (2) is claimed pursuant to this subclause, the requirements of such subparagraphs shall not apply to any food product if—

(I) the labeling for such product does not provide nutrition information or make a claim subject to paragraph (r),

(II) the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 100 full-time equivalent employees,

(III) such person provided the notice described in subclause (iii), and

(IV) in the case of a food product which was sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which an exemption was claimed, fewer than 100,000 units of such product were sold in the United States during such preceding period, or in the case of a food product which was not sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which such exemption is claimed, fewer than 100,000 units of such product are reasonably anticipated to be sold in the United States during the period for which such exemption is claimed.


(ii) During the 12-month period after the applicable date referred to in this sentence, the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any food product which was first introduced into interstate commerce before May 8, 1994, if the labeling for such product does not provide nutrition information or make a claim subject to paragraph (r), if such person provided the notice described in subclause (iii), and if—

(I) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1994, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 300 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 600,000 units of such product were sold in the United States,

(II) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1995, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 300 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 400,000 units of such product were sold in the United States, or

(III) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1996, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 200 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 200,000 units of such product were sold in the United States.


(iii) The notice referred to in subclauses (i) and (ii) shall be given to the Secretary prior to the beginning of the period during which the exemption under subclause (i) or (ii) is to be in effect, shall state that the person claiming such exemption for a food product has complied with the applicable requirements of subclause (i) or (ii), and shall—

(I) state the average number of full-time equivalent employees such person employed during the 12 months preceding the date such person claims such exemption,

(II) state the approximate number of units the person claiming the exemption sold in the United States,

(III) if the exemption is claimed for a food product which was sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which the exemption was claimed, state the approximate number of units of such product which were sold in the United States during such preceding period, and, if the exemption is claimed for a food product which was not sold in such preceding period, state the number of units of such product which such person reasonably anticipates will be sold in the United States during the period for which the exemption was claimed, and

(IV) contain such information as the Secretary may require to verify the information required by the preceding provisions of this subclause if the Secretary has questioned the validity of such information.


If a person is not an importer, has fewer than 10 full-time equivalent employees, and sells fewer than 10,000 units of any food product in any year, such person is not required to file a notice for such product under this subclause for such year.

(iv) In the case of a person who claimed an exemption under subclause (i) or (ii), if, during the period of such exemption, the number of full-time equivalent employees of such person exceeds the number in such subclause or if the number of food products sold in the United States exceeds the number in such subclause, such exemption shall extend to the expiration of 18 months after the date the number of full-time equivalent employees or food products sold exceeded the applicable number.

(v) For any food product first introduced into interstate commerce after May 8, 2002, the Secretary may by regulation lower the employee or units of food products requirement of subclause (i) if the Secretary determines that the cost of compliance with such lower requirement will not place an undue burden on persons subject to such lower requirement.

(vi) For purposes of subclauses (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v)—

(I) the term "unit" means the packaging or, if there is no packaging, the form in which a food product is offered for sale to consumers,

(II) the term "food product" means food in any sized package which is manufactured by a single manufacturer or which bears the same brand name, which bears the same statement of identity, and which has similar preparation methods, and

(III) the term "person" in the case of a corporation includes all domestic and foreign affiliates of the corporation.


(F) A dietary supplement product (including a food to which section 350 of this title applies) shall comply with the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) in a manner which is appropriate for the product and which is specified in regulations of the Secretary which shall provide that—

(i) nutrition information shall first list those dietary ingredients that are present in the product in a significant amount and for which a recommendation for daily consumption has been established by the Secretary, except that a dietary ingredient shall not be required to be listed if it is not present in a significant amount, and shall list any other dietary ingredient present and identified as having no such recommendation;

(ii) the listing of dietary ingredients shall include the quantity of each such ingredient (or of a proprietary blend of such ingredients) per serving;

(iii) the listing of dietary ingredients may include the source of a dietary ingredient; and

(iv) the nutrition information shall immediately precede the ingredient information required under subclause (i), except that no ingredient identified pursuant to subclause (i) shall be required to be identified a second time.


(G) Subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply to food which is sold by a food distributor if the food distributor principally sells food to restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption and does not manufacture, process, or repackage the food it sells.

(H) Restaurants, Retail Food Establishments, and Vending Machines.—

(i) General requirements for restaurants and similar retail food establishments.—Except for food described in subclause (vii), in the case of food that is a standard menu item that is offered for sale in a restaurant or similar retail food establishment that is part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name (regardless of the type of ownership of the locations) and offering for sale substantially the same menu items, the restaurant or similar retail food establishment shall disclose the information described in subclauses (ii) and (iii).

(ii) Information required to be disclosed by restaurants and retail food establishments.—Except as provided in subclause (vii), the restaurant or similar retail food establishment shall disclose in a clear and conspicuous manner—

(I)(aa) in a nutrient content disclosure statement adjacent to the name of the standard menu item, so as to be clearly associated with the standard menu item, on the menu listing the item for sale, the number of calories contained in the standard menu item, as usually prepared and offered for sale; and

(bb) a succinct statement concerning suggested daily caloric intake, as specified by the Secretary by regulation and posted prominently on the menu and designed to enable the public to understand, in the context of a total daily diet, the significance of the caloric information that is provided on the menu;

(II)(aa) in a nutrient content disclosure statement adjacent to the name of the standard menu item, so as to be clearly associated with the standard menu item, on the menu board, including a drive-through menu board, the number of calories contained in the standard menu item, as usually prepared and offered for sale; and

(bb) a succinct statement concerning suggested daily caloric intake, as specified by the Secretary by regulation and posted prominently on the menu board, designed to enable the public to understand, in the context of a total daily diet, the significance of the nutrition information that is provided on the menu board;

(III) in a written form, available on the premises of the restaurant or similar retail establishment and to the consumer upon request, the nutrition information required under clauses (C) and (D) of subparagraph (1); and

(IV) on the menu or menu board, a prominent, clear, and conspicuous statement regarding the availability of the information described in item (III).


(iii) Self-service food and food on display.—Except as provided in subclause (vii), in the case of food sold at a salad bar, buffet line, cafeteria line, or similar self-service facility, and for self-service beverages or food that is on display and that is visible to customers, a restaurant or similar retail food establishment shall place adjacent to each food offered a sign that lists calories per displayed food item or per serving.

(iv) Reasonable basis.—For the purposes of this clause, a restaurant or similar retail food establishment shall have a reasonable basis for its nutrient content disclosures, including nutrient databases, cookbooks, laboratory analyses, and other reasonable means, as described in section 101.10 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation) or in a related guidance of the Food and Drug Administration.

(v) Menu variability and combination meals.—The Secretary shall establish by regulation standards for determining and disclosing the nutrient content for standard menu items that come in different flavors, varieties, or combinations, but which are listed as a single menu item, such as soft drinks, ice cream, pizza, doughnuts, or children's combination meals, through means determined by the Secretary, including ranges, averages, or other methods.

(vi) Additional information.—If the Secretary determines that a nutrient, other than a nutrient required under subclause (ii)(III), should be disclosed for the purpose of providing information to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may require, by regulation, disclosure of such nutrient in the written form required under subclause (ii)(III).

(vii) Nonapplicability to certain food.—

(I) In general.—Subclauses (i) through (vi) do not apply to—

(aa) items that are not listed on a menu or menu board (such as condiments and other items placed on the table or counter for general use);

(bb) daily specials, temporary menu items appearing on the menu for less than 60 days per calendar year, or custom orders; or

(cc) such other food that is part of a customary market test appearing on the menu for less than 90 days, under terms and conditions established by the Secretary.


(II) Written forms.—Subparagraph (5)(C) shall apply to any regulations promulgated under subclauses (ii)(III) and (vi).


(viii) Vending machines.—

(I) In general.—In the case of an article of food sold from a vending machine that—

(aa) does not permit a prospective purchaser to examine the Nutrition Facts Panel before purchasing the article or does not otherwise provide visible nutrition information at the point of purchase; and

(bb) is operated by a person who is engaged in the business of owning or operating 20 or more vending machines,


the vending machine operator shall provide a sign in close proximity to each article of food or the selection button that includes a clear and conspicuous statement disclosing the number of calories contained in the article.


(ix) Voluntary provision of nutrition information.—

(I) In general.—An authorized official of any restaurant or similar retail food establishment or vending machine operator not subject to the requirements of this clause may elect to be subject to the requirements of such clause, by registering biannually the name and address of such restaurant or similar retail food establishment or vending machine operator with the Secretary, as specified by the Secretary by regulation.

(II) Registration.—Within 120 days of March 23, 2010, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register specifying the terms and conditions for implementation of item (I), pending promulgation of regulations.

(III) Rule of construction.—Nothing in this subclause shall be construed to authorize the Secretary to require an application, review, or licensing process for any entity to register with the Secretary, as described in such item.


(x) Regulations.—

(I) Proposed regulation.—Not later than 1 year after March 23, 2010, the Secretary shall promulgate proposed regulations to carry out this clause.

(II) Contents.—In promulgating regulations, the Secretary shall—

(aa) consider standardization of recipes and methods of preparation, reasonable variation in serving size and formulation of menu items, space on menus and menu boards, inadvertent human error, training of food service workers, variations in ingredients, and other factors, as the Secretary determines; and

(bb) specify the format and manner of the nutrient content disclosure requirements under this subclause.


(III) Reporting.—The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a quarterly report that describes the Secretary's progress toward promulgating final regulations under this subparagraph.


(xi) Definition.—In this clause, the term "menu" or "menu board" means the primary writing of the restaurant or other similar retail food establishment from which a consumer makes an order selection.

(r) Nutrition levels and health-related claims

(1) Except as provided in clauses (A) through (C) of subparagraph (5), if it is a food intended for human consumption which is offered for sale and for which a claim is made in the label or labeling of the food which expressly or by implication—

(A) characterizes the level of any nutrient which is of the type required by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) to be in the label or labeling of the food unless the claim is made in accordance with subparagraph (2), or

(B) characterizes the relationship of any nutrient which is of the type required by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) to be in the label or labeling of the food to a disease or a health-related condition unless the claim is made in accordance with subparagraph (3) or (5)(D).


A statement of the type required by paragraph (q) that appears as part of the nutrition information required or permitted by such paragraph is not a claim which is subject to this paragraph and a claim subject to clause (A) is not subject to clause (B).

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (4)(A)(ii) and (4)(A)(iii) and clauses (A) through (C) of subparagraph (5), a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A)—

(i) may be made only if the characterization of the level made in the claim uses terms which are defined in regulations of the Secretary,

(ii) may not state the absence of a nutrient unless—

(I) the nutrient is usually present in the food or in a food which substitutes for the food as defined by the Secretary by regulation, or

(II) the Secretary by regulation permits such a statement on the basis of a finding that such a statement would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and the statement discloses that the nutrient is not usually present in the food,


(iii) may not be made with respect to the level of cholesterol in the food if the food contains, as determined by the Secretary by regulation, fat or saturated fat in an amount which increases to persons in the general population the risk of disease or a health related condition which is diet related unless—

(I) the Secretary finds by regulation that the level of cholesterol is substantially less than the level usually present in the food or in a food which substitutes for the food and which has a significant market share, or the Secretary by regulation permits a statement regarding the absence of cholesterol on the basis of a finding that cholesterol is not usually present in the food and that such a statement would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and the regulation requires that the statement disclose that cholesterol is not usually present in the food, and

(II) the label or labeling of the food discloses the level of such fat or saturated fat in immediate proximity to such claim and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of cholesterol,


(iv) may not be made with respect to the level of saturated fat in the food if the food contains cholesterol unless the label or labeling of the food discloses the level of cholesterol in the food in immediate proximity to such claim and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of saturated fat,

(v) may not state that a food is high in dietary fiber unless the food is low in total fat as defined by the Secretary or the label or labeling discloses the level of total fat in the food in immediate proximity to such statement and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of dietary fiber, and

(vi) may not be made if the Secretary by regulation prohibits the claim because the claim is misleading in light of the level of another nutrient in the food.


(B) If a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) is made with respect to a nutrient in a food and the Secretary makes a determination that the food contains a nutrient at a level that increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition that is diet related, the label or labeling of such food shall contain, prominently and in immediate proximity to such claim, the following statement: "See nutrition information for ______ content." The blank shall identify the nutrient associated with the increased disease or health-related condition risk. In making the determination described in this clause, the Secretary shall take into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet.

(C) Subparagraph (2)(A) does not apply to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) and contained in the label or labeling of a food if such claim is contained in the brand name of such food and such brand name was in use on such food before October 25, 1989, unless the brand name contains a term defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). Such a claim is subject to paragraph (a).

(D) Subparagraph (2) does not apply to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) which uses the term "diet" and is contained in the label or labeling of a soft drink if (i) such claim is contained in the brand name of such soft drink, (ii) such brand name was in use on such soft drink before October 25, 1989, and (iii) the use of the term "diet" was in conformity with section 105.66 of title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Such a claim is subject to paragraph (a).

(E) Subclauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (2)(A) do not apply to a statement in the label or labeling of food which describes the percentage of vitamins and minerals in the food in relation to the amount of such vitamins and minerals recommended for daily consumption by the Secretary.

(F) Subclause (i) clause (A) does not apply to a statement in the labeling of a dietary supplement that characterizes the percentage level of a dietary ingredient for which the Secretary has not established a reference daily intake, daily recommended value, or other recommendation for daily consumption.

(G) A claim of the type described in subparagraph (1)(A) for a nutrient, for which the Secretary has not promulgated a regulation under clause (A)(i), shall be authorized and may be made with respect to a food if—

(i) a scientific body of the United States Government with official responsibility for public health protection or research directly relating to human nutrition (such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) or the National Academy of Sciences or any of its subdivisions has published an authoritative statement, which is currently in effect, which identifies the nutrient level to which the claim refers;

(ii) a person has submitted to the Secretary, at least 120 days (during which the Secretary may notify any person who is making a claim as authorized by clause (C) that such person has not submitted all the information required by such clause) before the first introduction into interstate commerce of the food with a label containing the claim, (I) a notice of the claim, which shall include the exact words used in the claim and shall include a concise description of the basis upon which such person relied for determining that the requirements of subclause (i) have been satisfied, (II) a copy of the statement referred to in subclause (i) upon which such person relied in making the claim, and (III) a balanced representation of the scientific literature relating to the nutrient level to which the claim refers;

(iii) the claim and the food for which the claim is made are in compliance with clauses (A) and (B), and are otherwise in compliance with paragraph (a) and section 321(n) of this title; and

(iv) the claim is stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the authoritative statement referred to in subclause (i) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.


For purposes of this clause, a statement shall be regarded as an authoritative statement of a scientific body described in subclause (i) only if the statement is published by the scientific body and shall not include a statement of an employee of the scientific body made in the individual capacity of the employee.

(H) A claim submitted under the requirements of clause (G) may be made until—

(i) such time as the Secretary issues a regulation—

(I) prohibiting or modifying the claim and the regulation has become effective, or

(II) finding that the requirements of clause (G) have not been met, including finding that the petitioner had not submitted all the information required by such clause; or


(ii) a district court of the United States in an enforcement proceeding under subchapter III has determined that the requirements of clause (G) have not been met.


(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (5), a claim described in subparagraph (1)(B) may only be made—

(i) if the claim meets the requirements of the regulations of the Secretary promulgated under clause (B), and

(ii) if the food for which the claim is made does not contain, as determined by the Secretary by regulation, any nutrient in an amount which increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition which is diet related, taking into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet, except that the Secretary may by regulation permit such a claim based on a finding that such a claim would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and based on a requirement that the label contain a disclosure of the type required by subparagraph (2)(B).


(B)(i) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations authorizing claims of the type described in subparagraph (1)(B) only if the Secretary determines, based on the totality of publicly available scientific evidence (including evidence from well-designed studies conducted in a manner which is consistent with generally recognized scientific procedures and principles), that there is significant scientific agreement, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate such claims, that the claim is supported by such evidence.

(ii) A regulation described in subclause (i) shall describe—

(I) the relationship between a nutrient of the type required in the label or labeling of food by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) and a disease or health-related condition, and

(II) the significance of each such nutrient in affecting such disease or health-related condition.


(iii) A regulation described in subclause (i) shall require such claim to be stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the matters set out in subclause (ii) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.

(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of clauses (A)(i) and (B), a claim of the type described in subparagraph (1)(B) which is not authorized by the Secretary in a regulation promulgated in accordance with clause (B) shall be authorized and may be made with respect to a food if—

(i) a scientific body of the United States Government with official responsibility for public health protection or research directly relating to human nutrition (such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) or the National Academy of Sciences or any of its subdivisions has published an authoritative statement, which is currently in effect, about the relationship between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition to which the claim refers;

(ii) a person has submitted to the Secretary, at least 120 days (during which the Secretary may notify any person who is making a claim as authorized by clause (C) that such person has not submitted all the information required by such clause) before the first introduction into interstate commerce of the food with a label containing the claim, (I) a notice of the claim, which shall include the exact words used in the claim and shall include a concise description of the basis upon which such person relied for determining that the requirements of subclause (i) have been satisfied, (II) a copy of the statement referred to in subclause (i) upon which such person relied in making the claim, and (III) a balanced representation of the scientific literature relating to the relationship between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition to which the claim refers;

(iii) the claim and the food for which the claim is made are in compliance with clause (A)(ii) and are otherwise in compliance with paragraph (a) and section 321(n) of this title; and

(iv) the claim is stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the authoritative statement referred to in subclause (i) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.


For purposes of this clause, a statement shall be regarded as an authoritative statement of a scientific body described in subclause (i) only if the statement is published by the scientific body and shall not include a statement of an employee of the scientific body made in the individual capacity of the employee.

(D) A claim submitted under the requirements of clause (C) may be made until—

(i) such time as the Secretary issues a regulation under the standard in clause (B)(i)—

(I) prohibiting or modifying the claim and the regulation has become effective, or

(II) finding that the requirements of clause (C) have not been met, including finding that the petitioner has not submitted all the information required by such clause; or


(ii) a district court of the United States in an enforcement proceeding under subchapter III has determined that the requirements of clause (C) have not been met.


(4)(A)(i) Any person may petition the Secretary to issue a regulation under subparagraph (2)(A)(i) or (3)(B) relating to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) or (1)(B). Not later than 100 days after the petition is received by the Secretary, the Secretary shall issue a final decision denying the petition or file the petition for further action by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not act within such 100 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary denies the petition or the petition is deemed to be denied, the petition shall not be made available to the public. If the Secretary files the petition, the Secretary shall deny the petition or issue a proposed regulation to take the action requested in the petition not later than 90 days after the date of such decision. If the Secretary does not act within such 90 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary issues a proposed regulation, the rulemaking shall be completed within 540 days of the date the petition is received by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not issue a regulation within such 540 days, the Secretary shall provide the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate the reasons action on the regulation did not occur within such 540 days.

(ii) Any person may petition the Secretary for permission to use in a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) terms that are consistent with the terms defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). Within 90 days of the submission of such a petition, the Secretary shall issue a final decision denying the petition or granting such permission.

(iii) Any person may petition the Secretary for permission to use an implied claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) in a brand name. After publishing notice of an opportunity to comment on the petition in the Federal Register and making the petition available to the public, the Secretary shall grant the petition if the Secretary finds that such claim is not misleading and is consistent with terms defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). The Secretary shall grant or deny the petition within 100 days of the date it is submitted to the Secretary and the petition shall be considered granted if the Secretary does not act on it within such 100 days.

(B) A petition under clause (A)(i) respecting a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) shall include an explanation of the reasons why the claim meets the requirements of this paragraph and a summary of the scientific data which supports such reasons.

(C) If a petition for a regulation under subparagraph (3)(B) relies on a report from an authoritative scientific body of the United States, the Secretary shall consider such report and shall justify any decision rejecting the conclusions of such report.

(5)(A) This paragraph does not apply to infant formulas subject to section 350a(h) of this title and medical foods as defined in section 360ee(b) of this title.

(B) Subclauses (iii) through (v) of subparagraph (2)(A) and subparagraph (2)(B) do not apply to food which is served in restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption or which is sold for sale or use in such establishments.

(C) A subparagraph (1)(A) claim made with respect to a food which claim is required by a standard of identity issued under section 341 of this title shall not be subject to subparagraph (2)(A)(i) or (2)(B).

(D) A subparagraph (1)(B) claim made with respect to a dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be subject to subparagraph (3) but shall be subject to a procedure and standard, respecting the validity of such claim, established by regulation of the Secretary.

(6) For purposes of paragraph (r)(1)(B), a statement for a dietary supplement may be made if—

(A) the statement claims a benefit related to a classical nutrient deficiency disease and discloses the prevalence of such disease in the United States, describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the structure or function in humans, characterizes the documented mechanism by which a nutrient or dietary ingredient acts to maintain such structure or function, or describes general well-being from consumption of a nutrient or dietary ingredient,

(B) the manufacturer of the dietary supplement has substantiation that such statement is truthful and not misleading, and

(C) the statement contains, prominently displayed and in boldface type, the following: "This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.".


A statement under this subparagraph may not claim to diagnose, mitigate, treat, cure, or prevent a specific disease or class of diseases. If the manufacturer of a dietary supplement proposes to make a statement described in the first sentence of this subparagraph in the labeling of the dietary supplement, the manufacturer shall notify the Secretary no later than 30 days after the first marketing of the dietary supplement with such statement that such a statement is being made.

(7) The Secretary may make proposed regulations issued under this paragraph effective upon publication pending consideration of public comment and publication of a final regulation if the Secretary determines that such action is necessary—

(A) to enable the Secretary to review and act promptly on petitions the Secretary determines provide for information necessary to—

(i) enable consumers to develop and maintain healthy dietary practices;

(ii) enable consumers to be informed promptly and effectively of important new knowledge regarding nutritional and health benefits of food; or

(iii) ensure that scientifically sound nutritional and health information is provided to consumers as soon as possible; or


(B) to enable the Secretary to act promptly to ban or modify a claim under this paragraph.


Such proposed regulations shall be deemed final agency action for purposes of judicial review.

(s) Dietary supplements

If—

(1) it is a dietary supplement; and

(2)(A) the label or labeling of the supplement fails to list—

(i) the name of each ingredient of the supplement that is described in section 321(ff) of this title; and

(ii)(I) the quantity of each such ingredient; or

(II) with respect to a proprietary blend of such ingredients, the total quantity of all ingredients in the blend;


(B) the label or labeling of the dietary supplement fails to identify the product by using the term "dietary supplement", which term may be modified with the name of such an ingredient;

(C) the supplement contains an ingredient described in section 321(ff)(1)(C) of this title, and the label or labeling of the supplement fails to identify any part of the plant from which the ingredient is derived;

(D) the supplement—

(i) is covered by the specifications of an official compendium;

(ii) is represented as conforming to the specifications of an official compendium; and

(iii) fails to so conform; or


(E) the supplement—

(i) is not covered by the specifications of an official compendium; and

(ii)(I) fails to have the identity and strength that the supplement is represented to have; or

(II) fails to meet the quality (including tablet or capsule disintegration), purity, or compositional specifications, based on validated assay or other appropriate methods, that the supplement is represented to meet.


A dietary supplement shall not be deemed misbranded solely because its label or labeling contains directions or conditions of use or warnings.

(t) Catfish

If it purports to be or is represented as catfish, unless it is fish classified within the family Ictaluridae.

(u) Ginseng

If it purports to be or is represented as ginseng, unless it is an herb or herbal ingredient derived from a plant classified within the genus Panax.

(v) Failure to label; health threat

If—

(1) it fails to bear a label required by the Secretary under section 381(n)(1) of this title (relating to food refused admission into the United States);

(2) the Secretary finds that the food presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals; and

(3) upon or after notifying the owner or consignee involved that the label is required under section 381 of this title, the Secretary informs the owner or consignee that the food presents such a threat.

(w) Major food allergen labeling requirements

(1) If it is not a raw agricultural commodity and it is, or it contains an ingredient that bears or contains, a major food allergen, unless either—

(A) the word "Contains", followed by the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived, is printed immediately after or is adjacent to the list of ingredients (in a type size no smaller than the type size used in the list of ingredients) required under subsections (g) and (i); or

(B) the common or usual name of the major food allergen in the list of ingredients required under subsections (g) and (i) is followed in parentheses by the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived, except that the name of the food source is not required when—

(i) the common or usual name of the ingredient uses the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived; or

(ii) the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived appears elsewhere in the ingredient list, unless the name of the food source that appears elsewhere in the ingredient list appears as part of the name of a food ingredient that is not a major food allergen under section 321(qq)(2)(A) or (B) of this title.


(2) As used in this subsection, the term "name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived" means the name described in section 321(qq)(1) of this title; provided that in the case of a tree nut, fish, or Crustacean shellfish, the term "name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived" means the name of the specific type of nut or species of fish or Crustacean shellfish.

(3) The information required under this subsection may appear in labeling in lieu of appearing on the label only if the Secretary finds that such other labeling is sufficient to protect the public health. A finding by the Secretary under this paragraph (including any change in an earlier finding under this paragraph) is effective upon publication in the Federal Register as a notice.

(4) Notwithstanding subsection (g), (i), or (k), or any other law, a flavoring, coloring, or incidental additive that is, or that bears or contains, a major food allergen shall be subject to the labeling requirements of this subsection.

(5) The Secretary may by regulation modify the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), or eliminate either the requirement of subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), if the Secretary determines that the modification or elimination of the requirement of subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) is necessary to protect the public health.

(6)(A) Any person may petition the Secretary to exempt a food ingredient described in section 321(qq)(2) of this title from the allergen labeling requirements of this subsection.

(B) The Secretary shall approve or deny such petition within 180 days of receipt of the petition or the petition shall be deemed denied, unless an extension of time is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner.

(C) The burden shall be on the petitioner to provide scientific evidence (including the analytical method used to produce the evidence) that demonstrates that such food ingredient, as derived by the method specified in the petition, does not cause an allergic response that poses a risk to human health.

(D) A determination regarding a petition under this paragraph shall constitute final agency action.

(E) The Secretary shall promptly post to a public site all petitions received under this paragraph within 14 days of receipt and the Secretary shall promptly post the Secretary's response to each.

(7)(A) A person need not file a petition under paragraph (6) to exempt a food ingredient described in section 321(qq)(2) of this title from the allergen labeling requirements of this subsection, if the person files with the Secretary a notification containing—

(i) scientific evidence (including the analytical method used) that demonstrates that the food ingredient (as derived by the method specified in the notification, where applicable) does not contain allergenic protein; or

(ii) a determination by the Secretary that the ingredient does not cause an allergic response that poses a risk to human health under a premarket approval or notification program under section 348 of this title.


(B) The food ingredient may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce as a food ingredient that is not a major food allergen 90 days after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary, unless the Secretary determines within the 90-day period that the notification does not meet the requirements of this paragraph, or there is insufficient scientific evidence to determine that the food ingredient does not contain allergenic protein or does not cause an allergenic response that poses a risk to human health.

(C) The Secretary shall promptly post to a public site all notifications received under this subparagraph within 14 days of receipt and promptly post any objections thereto by the Secretary.

(x) Nonmajor food allergen labeling requirements

Notwithstanding subsection (g), (i), or (k), or any other law, a spice, flavoring, coloring, or incidental additive that is, or that bears or contains, a food allergen (other than a major food allergen), as determined by the Secretary by regulation, shall be disclosed in a manner specified by the Secretary by regulation.

(y) Dietary supplements

If it is a dietary supplement that is marketed in the United States, unless the label of such dietary supplement includes a domestic address or domestic phone number through which the responsible person (as described in section 379aa–1 of this title) may receive a report of a serious adverse event with such dietary supplement.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403, 52 Stat. 1047; Pub. L. 86–537, §1, June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 251; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §102(a)(3), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 398; Pub. L. 91–601, §6(c), formerly §7(c), Dec. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1673, renumbered Pub. L. 97–35, title XII, §1205(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 716; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(1), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 95–203, §4(a)(1), (b)(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1452, 1453; Pub. L. 101–535, §§2(a), 3(a), 7, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2353, 2357, 2364; Pub. L. 102–108, §2(a), (c), Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(5), (6), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §§2(b), 3(j), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 773, 776; Pub. L. 103–417, §§6, 7(a)–(c), 10(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4329, 4330, 4332; Pub. L. 104–124, §1, Apr. 1, 1996, 110 Stat. 882; Pub. L. 105–115, title III, §§301–305, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2350–2353; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-73; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §§10806(a)(2), (b)(2), 10808(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 526, 527, 530; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §308(b), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 672; Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §203(a), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 906; Pub. L. 109–462, §3(c), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3475; Pub. L. 111–148, title IV, §4205(a), (b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 573.)

Amendments

2010—Par. (q)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 111–148, §4205(a)(1), inserted "except as provided in clause (H)(ii)(III)," before "which is served".

Par. (q)(5)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 111–148, §4205(a)(2), inserted "except as provided in clause (H)(ii)(III)," before "which is processed".

Par. (q)(5)(H). Pub. L. 111–148, §4205(b), added cl. (H).

2006—Par. (y). Pub. L. 109–462 added par. (y).

2004—Pars. (w), (x). Pub. L. 108–282 added pars. (w) and (x).

2002—Par. (h). Pub. L. 107–171, §10808(b), added subpar. (3) and concluding provisions.

Par. (t). Pub. L. 107–171, §10806(a)(2), added par. (t).

Par. (u). Pub. L. 107–171, §10806(b)(2), added par. (u).

Par. (v). Pub. L. 107–188 added par. (v).

2000—Par. (o). Pub. L. 106–554, which directed repeal of section 403(o) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, was executed by repealing par. (o) of this section, which is section 403 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to repeal, par. (o) provided that a food containing saccharin was to be deemed misbranded unless a specified warning statement was placed in a conspicuous place on its label.

1997—Par. (r)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–115, §305, amended cl. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (B) read as follows: "If a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) is made with respect to a nutrient in a food, the label or labeling of such food shall contain, prominently and in immediate proximity to such claim, the following statement: 'See __________ for nutrition information.'. In the statement—

"(i) the blank shall identify the panel on which the information described in the statement may be found, and

"(ii) if the Secretary determines that the food contains a nutrient at a level which increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition which is diet related, taking into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet, the statement shall also identify such nutrient."

Par. (r)(2)(G), (H). Pub. L. 105–115, §304, added cls. (G) and (H).

Par. (r)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 105–115, §303, added cls. (C) and (D).

Par. (r)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–115, §302, inserted after second sentence "If the Secretary does not act within such 100 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner.", inserted "or the petition is deemed to be denied" after "If the Secretary denies the petition", and inserted at end "If the Secretary does not act within such 90 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary issues a proposed regulation, the rulemaking shall be completed within 540 days of the date the petition is received by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not issue a regulation within such 540 days, the Secretary shall provide the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate the reasons action on the regulation did not occur within such 540 days."

Par. (r)(7). Pub. L. 105–115, §301, added subpar. (7).

1996—Par. (p). Pub. L. 104–124 struck out par. (p), which deemed products containing saccharin and offered for sale, but not for immediate consumption, by retail establishment, to be misbranded, unless notice of information required by subsec. (o) was provided by manufacturer and prominently displayed near product.

1994—Par. (q)(5)(F). Pub. L. 103–417, §7(b), amended cl. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (F) read as follows: "If a food to which section 350 of this title applies (as defined in section 350(c) of this title) contains one or more of the nutrients required by subparagraph (1) or (2) to be in the label or labeling of the food, the label or labeling of such food shall comply with the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) in a manner which is appropriate for such food and which is specified in regulations of the Secretary."

Par. (r)(2)(F). Pub. L. 103–417, §7(c), added cl. (F).

Par. (r)(6). Pub. L. 103–417, §6, added subpar. (6).

Par. (s). Pub. L. 103–417, §10(c), inserted at end: "A dietary supplement shall not be deemed misbranded solely because its label or labeling contains directions or conditions of use or warnings."

Pub. L. 103–417, §7(a), added par. (s).

1993—Par. (e). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(1), substituted "count, except that" for "count: Provided, That".

Par. (i). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(2), substituted "unless sold as spices, flavorings, or such colors" for ", other than those sold as such" and "naming each. To the extent" for "naming each: Provided, That, to the extent".

Par. (k). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(3), substituted ", except that" for ": Provided, That".

Par. (l). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(4), substituted "chemical, except that" for "chemical: Provided, however, That".

Par. (q)(5)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 103–80, §2(b), added cl. (E) and redesignated former cls. (E) and (F) as (F) and (G), respectively.

Par. (r)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(5), substituted "(5)(D)" for "5(D)".

Par. (r)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(6), substituted "paragraph" for "subsection".

1992—Par. (i). Pub. L. 102–571, §107(5), substituted "379e(c)" for "376(c)".

Par. (m). Pub. L. 102–571, §107(6), substituted "379e" for "376".

1991—Par. (i). Pub. L. 102–108, §2(c), amended directory language of Pub. L. 101–535, §7(1), (3). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Par. (q)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102–108, §2(a), substituted "(D)" for "(C)".

1990—Par. (i). Pub. L. 101–535, §7, as amended by Pub. L. 102–108, §2(c), substituted "Unless" for "If it is not subject to the provisions of paragraph (g) unless", inserted "and if the food purports to be a beverage containing vegetable or fruit juice, a statement with appropriate prominence on the information panel of the total percentage of such fruit or vegetable juice contained in the food", and substituted "colors not required to be certified under section 376(c) of this title" for "colorings" the first time appearing.

Par. (q). Pub. L. 101–535, §2(a), added par. (q).

Par. (r). Pub. L. 101–535, §3(a), added par. (r).

1977—Par. (o). Pub. L. 95–203, §4(a)(1), added par. (o).

Par. (p). Pub. L. 95–203, §4(b)(1), added par. (p).

1976—Par. (a). Pub. L. 94–278 inserted "(1)" after "If" and inserted ", or (2) in the case of a food to which section 350 of this title applies, its advertising is false or misleading in a material respect or its labeling is in violation of section 350(b)(2) of this title" after "any particular".

1970—Par. (n). Pub. L. 91–601 added par. (n).

1960—Par. (k). Pub. L. 86–537, §1(1), exempted pesticide chemicals when used in or on a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 86–537, §1(2), added par. (l).

Par. (m). Pub. L. 86–618 added par. (m).

Change of Name

Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–462, §3(d)(1), (2), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3475, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 379aa–1 of this title and amending this section and section 331 of this title] shall take effect 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2006].

"(2) Misbranding.—Section 403(y) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(y)] (as added by this section) shall apply to any dietary supplement labeled on or after the date that is 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2006]."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–282 applicable to any food that is labeled on or after Jan. 1, 2006, see section 203(d) of Pub. L. 108–282, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–417, §7(e), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4331, provided that: "Dietary supplements—

"(1) may be labeled after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994] in accordance with the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 350 of this title], and

"(2) shall be labeled after December 31, 1996, in accordance with such amendments."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–535, §10(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2365, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4501, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2)—

"(A) the amendments made by section 2 [amending this section] shall take effect 6 months after—

"(i) the date of the promulgation of all final regulations required to implement section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)], or

"(ii) if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations [Nov. 8, 1992, see 57 F.R. 56347],

except that section 403(q)(4) of such Act shall take effect as prescribed by such section,

"(B) the amendments made by section 3 [amending this section] shall take effect 6 months after—

"(i) the date of the promulgation of final regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or

"(ii) if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations [Nov. 8, 1992, see 57 F.R. 56347], except that any person marketing a food the brand name of which contains a term defined by the Secretary under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall be given an additional 6 months to comply with section 3,

"(C) the amendments made by section 4 [amending section 337 of this title] shall take effect 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], except that such amendments shall take effect with respect to such dietary supplements [probably means dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances, see section 202(a)(1) of Pub. L. 102–571, set out below] on December 31, 1993, and

"(D) the amendments made by section 5 [amending sections 321 and 345 of this title] shall take effect on the date the amendments made by section 3 take effect.

"(2) Section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by section 2) shall not apply with respect to food which was labeled before the effective date of the amendments made by section 2 and section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by section 3) shall not apply with respect to food which was labeled before the effective date of the amendments made by section 3.

"(3)(A) If the Secretary finds that a person who is subject to section 403(q)(4) of such Act is unable to comply with the requirements of such section upon the effective date of final regulations to implement section 403(q) of such Act or of proposed regulations to be considered as such final regulations because the Secretary has not made available to such person the information required by such section, the Secretary shall delay the application of such section to such person for such time as the Secretary may require to provide such information.

"(B) If the Secretary finds that compliance with section 403(q) or 403(r)(2) of such Act would cause an undue economic hardship, the Secretary may delay the application of such sections for no more than one year."

Pub. L. 101–535, §10(c), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2367, as amended by Pub. L. 102–108, §1, Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(17), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by section 7 [amending this section] shall take effect one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990].

"(2)(A) If a food subject to section 403(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(g)] or a food with one or more colors required to be certified under section 721(c) [of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. 379e(c)] bears a label which was printed before July 1, 1991, and which is attached to the food before May 8, 1993, such food shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(1) and section 7(3) [amending this section].

"(B) If a food described in subparagraph (A)—

"(i) bears a label which was printed after July 1, 1991, but before the date the proposed regulation described in clause (ii) takes effect as a final regulation and which was attached to the food before May 8, 1993, and

"(ii) meets the requirements of the proposed regulation of the Secretary of Health and Human Services published in 56 Fed. Reg. 28592–28636 (June 21, 1991) as it pertains to the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title],

such food shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(1) and section 7(3) [amending this section].

"(3) A food purported to be a beverage containing a vegetable or fruit juice which bears a label attached to the food before May 8, 1993, shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(2) [amending this section]."

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–203, §4(a)(2), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to food introduced or delivered for introduction in interstate commerce on and after the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1977]."

Pub. L. 95–203, §4(b)(2), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to food which is sold in retail establishments on or after the 90th day after the effective date of the regulations of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Health and Human Services] under paragraph (p)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(p)(4)]."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–278 effective 180 days after Apr. 22, 1976, see section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–278, set out as a note under section 334 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–601 effective Dec. 30, 1970, and regulations establishing special packaging standards effective no sooner than 180 days or later than one year from date regulations are final, or an earlier date published in Federal Register, see section 8 of Pub. L. 91–601, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1471 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date; Postponement

Subsecs. (e)(1) and (g) to (k) effective Jan. 1, 1940, and such subsections effective July 1, 1940, as provided by regulations for certain lithographed labeling and containers bearing certain labeling, see act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, 53 Stat. 853, set out as an Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases note under section 301 of this title.

Construction of Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148

Pub. L. 111–148, title IV, §4205(d), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 576, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 343–1 of this title] shall be construed—

"(1) to preempt any provision of State or local law, unless such provision establishes or continues into effect nutrient content disclosures of the type required under section 403(q)(5)(H) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(H)] (as added by subsection (b)) and is expressly preempted under subsection (a)(4) of such section;

"(2) to apply to any State or local requirement respecting a statement in the labeling of food that provides for a warning concerning the safety of the food or component of the food; or

"(3) except as provided in section 403(q)(5)(H)(ix) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(H)(ix)] (as added by subsection (b)), to apply to any restaurant or similar retail food establishment other than a restaurant or similar retail food establishment described in section 403(q)(5)(H)(i) of such Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(H)(i)]."

Construction of Amendment by Pub. L. 108–282

Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §203(b), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 908, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 321 and 343–1 of this title] that require a label or labeling for major food allergens do not alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) to require a label or labeling for other food allergens."

Construction of Amendment by Pub. L. 107–188

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 107–188 to be construed to limit authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services or Secretary of the Treasury to require marking of articles of food imported or offered for import into the United States which are refused admission, see section 308(c) of Pub. L. 107–188, set out as a note under section 381 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Pub. L. 101–535, §9, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2365, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [enacting section 343–1 of this title and amending this section and sections 321, 337, 345, and 371 of this title] shall not be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], the Federal Meat Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], the Poultry Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.], and the Egg Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.]."

Findings

Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §202, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 905, provided that: "Congress finds that—

"(1) it is estimated that—

"(A) approximately 2 percent of adults and about 5 percent of infants and young children in the United States suffer from food allergies; and

"(B) each year, roughly 30,000 individuals require emergency room treatment and 150 individuals die because of allergic reactions to food;

"(2)(A) eight major foods or food groups—milk, eggs, fish, Crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans—account for 90 percent of food allergies;

"(B) at present, there is no cure for food allergies; and

"(C) a food allergic consumer must avoid the food to which the consumer is allergic;

"(3)(A) in a review of the foods of randomly selected manufacturers of baked goods, ice cream, and candy in Minnesota and Wisconsin in 1999, the Food and Drug Administration found that 25 percent of sampled foods failed to list peanuts or eggs as ingredients on the food labels; and

"(B) nationally, the number of recalls because of unlabeled allergens rose to 121 in 2000 from about 35 a decade earlier;

"(4) a recent study shows that many parents of children with a food allergy were unable to correctly identify in each of several food labels the ingredients derived from major food allergens;

"(5)(A) ingredients in foods must be listed by their 'common or usual name';

"(B) in some cases, the common or usual name of an ingredient may be unfamiliar to consumers, and many consumers may not realize the ingredient is derived from, or contains, a major food allergen; and

"(C) in other cases, the ingredients may be declared as a class, including spices, flavorings, and certain colorings, or are exempt from the ingredient labeling requirements, such as incidental additives; and

"(6)(A) celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease that causes damage to the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and other organs;

"(B) the current recommended treatment is avoidance of glutens in foods that are associated with celiac disease; and

"(C) a multicenter, multiyear study estimated that the prevalence of celiac disease in the United States is 0.5 to 1 percent of the general population."

Regulations

Pub. L. 101–535, §2(b), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2356, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, 4501, provided that:

"(1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue proposed regulations to implement section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)] within 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than June 15, 1993, proposed regulations that are applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances to implement such section. Not later than 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to implement the requirements of such section, except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than December 31, 1993, such a final regulation applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances..[sic] Such regulations shall—

"(A) require the required information to be conveyed to the public in a manner which enables the public to readily observe and comprehend such information and to understand its relative significance in the context of a total daily diet,

"(B) include regulations which establish standards, in accordance with paragraph (1)(A), to define serving size or other unit of measure for food,

"(C) permit the label or labeling of food to include nutrition information which is in addition to the information required by such section 403(q) and which is of the type described in subparagraph (1) or (2) of such section, and

"(D) permit the nutrition information on the label or labeling of a food to remain the same or permit the information to be stated as a range even though (i) there are minor variations in the nutritional value of the food which occur in the normal course of the production or processing of the food, or (ii) the food is comprised of an assortment of similar foods which have variations in nutritional value.

"(2) If the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not promulgate final regulations under paragraph (1) upon the expiration of 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 24 months, except that the proposed regulations applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be considered to be final regulations until December 31, 1993. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of new status of the proposed regulations [see 57 F.R. 56347].

"(3) If the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not promulgate final regulations under section 403(q)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act upon the expiration of 6 months after the date on which the Secretary makes a finding that there has been no substantial compliance with section 403(q)(4)(C) of such Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with such section shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 6 months. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of new status of the proposed regulations."

[Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(2)(C), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4501, provided that: "The amendments made by subparagraph (B) [amending sections 2(b) and 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out above and below] shall not be construed to modify the effective date of final regulations under sections 2(b) and 3(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535] (21 U.S.C. 343 note) with respect to foods that are not such dietary supplements."]

Pub. L. 101–535, §3(b), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2360, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, 4501, provided that:

"(1)(A) Within 12 months of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue proposed regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(r)], except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than June 15, 1993, proposed regulations that are applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances to implement such section. Such regulations—

"(i) shall identify claims described in section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act which comply with section 403(r)(2) of such Act,

"(ii) shall identify claims described in section 403(r)(1)(B) of such Act which comply with section 403(r)(3) of such Act,

"(iii) shall, in defining terms used to characterize the level of any nutrient in food under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of such Act, define—

"(I) free,

"(II) low,

"(III) light or lite,

"(IV) reduced,

"(V) less, and

"(VI) high,

unless the Secretary finds that the use of any such term would be misleading,

"(iv) shall permit statements describing the amount and percentage of nutrients in food which are not misleading and are consistent with the terms defined in section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of such Act,

"(v) shall provide that if multiple claims subject to section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act are made on a single panel of the food label or page of a labeling brochure, a single statement may be made to satisfy section 403(r)(2)(B) of such Act,

"(vi) shall determine whether claims respecting the following nutrients and diseases meet the requirements of section 403(r)(3) of such Act: Calcium and osteoporosis, dietary fiber and cancer, lipids and cardiovascular disease, lipids and cancer, sodium and hypertension, and dietary fiber and cardiovascular disease,

"(vii) shall not require a person who proposes to make a claim described in section 403(r)(1)(B) of such Act which is in compliance with such regulations to secure the approval of the Secretary before making such claim,

"(viii) may permit a claim described in section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act to be made for butter,

"(ix) may, in defining terms under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i), include similar terms which are commonly understood to have the same meaning, and

"(x) shall establish, as required by section 403(r)(5)(D), the procedure and standard respecting the validity of claims made with respect to a dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances and shall determine whether claims respecting the following nutrients and diseases meet the requirements of section 403(r)(5)(D) of such Act: folic acid and neural tube defects, antioxident [sic] vitamins and cancer, zinc and immune function in the elderly, and omega-3 fatty acids and heart disease.

"(B) Not later than 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than December 31, 1993, such a final regulation applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances..[sic]

"(2) If the Secretary does not promulgate final regulations under paragraph (1)(B) upon the expiration of 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with paragraph (1)(A) shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 24 months, except that the proposed regulations applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be considered to be final regulations until December 31, 1993. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of the new status of the proposed regulations [see 57 F.R. 56347]."

[For construction of amendment made by section 202(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 102–571 to section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–535 set out above, see section 202(a)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 102–571 set out above following section 2(b) of Pub. L. 101–535.]

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Rulemaking on Labeling

Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §206, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 910, provided that: "Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 2, 2004], the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with appropriate experts and stakeholders, shall issue a proposed rule to define, and permit use of, the term 'gluten-free' on the labeling of foods. Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue a final rule to define, and permit use of, the term 'gluten-free' on the labeling of foods."

Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10809, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 531, provided that: "The Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this section as the 'Secretary') shall publish a proposed rule and, with due consideration to public comment, a final rule to revise, as appropriate, the current regulation governing the labeling of foods that have been treated to reduce pest infestation or pathogens by treatment by irradiation using radioactive isotope, electronic beam, or x-ray. Pending promulgation of the final rule required by this subsection [probably should be "this section"], any person may petition the Secretary for approval of labeling, which is not false or misleading in any material respect, of a food which has been treated by irradiation using radioactive isotope, electronic beam, or x-ray. The Secretary shall approve or deny such a petition within 180 days of receipt of the petition, or the petition shall be deemed denied, except to the extent additional agency review is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. Any denial of a petition under this subsection shall constitute final agency action subject to judicial review by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Any labeling approved through the foregoing petition process shall be subject to the provisions of the final rule referred to in the first sentence of the subparagraph on the effective date of such final rule."

Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels

Pub. L. 103–417, §12, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4332, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—There shall be established as an independent agency within the executive branch a commission to be known as the Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Commission').

"(b) Membership.—

"(1) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 7 members who shall be appointed by the President.

"(2) Expertise requirement.—The members of the Commission shall consist of individuals with expertise and experience in dietary supplements and in the manufacture, regulation, distribution, and use of such supplements. At least three of the members of the Commission shall be qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the benefits to health of the use of dietary supplements and one of such three members shall have experience in pharmacognosy, medical botany, traditional herbal medicine, or other related sciences. Members and staff of the Commission shall be without bias on the issue of dietary supplements.

"(c) Functions of the Commission.—The Commission shall conduct a study on, and provide recommendations for, the regulation of label claims and statements for dietary supplements, including the use of literature in connection with the sale of dietary supplements and procedures for the evaluation of such claims. In making such recommendations, the Commission shall evaluate how best to provide truthful, scientifically valid, and not misleading information to consumers so that such consumers may make informed and appropriate health care choices for themselves and their families.

"(d) Administrative Powers of the Commission.—

"(1) Hearings.—The Commission may hold hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission considers advisable to carry out the purposes of this section.

"(2) Information from federal agencies.—The Commission may secure directly from any Federal department or agency such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

"(3) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

"(e) Reports and Recommendations.—

"(1) Final report required.—Not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994], the Commission shall prepare and submit to the President and to the Congress a final report on the study required by this section.

"(2) Recommendations.—The report described in paragraph (1) shall contain such recommendations, including recommendations for legislation, as the Commission deems appropriate.

"(3) Action on recommendations.—Within 90 days of the issuance of the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of any recommendation of Commission for changes in regulations of the Secretary for the regulation of dietary supplements and shall include in such notice a notice of proposed rulemaking on such changes together with an opportunity to present views on such changes. Such rulemaking shall be completed not later than 2 years after the date of the issuance of such report. If such rulemaking is not completed on or before the expiration of such 2 years, regulations of the Secretary published in 59 FR 395–426 on January 4, 1994, shall not be in effect."

Extension of Compliance Deadline for Certain Food Products Packaged Prior to August 8, 1994

Pub. L. 103–261, May 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 705, provided: "That before August 8, 1994, sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q), (r)(2)] and the provision of section 403(i) of such Act added by section 7(2) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535], shall not apply with respect to a food product which is contained in a package for which the label was printed before May 8, 1994 (or before August 8, 1994, in the case of a juice or milk food product if the person responsible for the labeling of such food product exercised due diligence in obtaining before such date labels which are in compliance with such sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) and such provision of section 403(i)), if, before June 15, 1994, the person who introduces or delivers for introduction such food product into interstate commerce submits to the Secretary of Health and Human Services a certification that such person will comply with this section and will comply with such sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) and such provision of section 403(i) after August 8, 1994."

Limitations on Application of Small Business Exemption

Pub. L. 103–80, §2(a), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 773, provided that:

"(1) Before may 8, 1995.—Before May 8, 1995, the exemption provided by section 403(q)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(D)] shall be available in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary of Health and Human Services published at 21 C.F.R. 101.9(j)(1)(i)(1993).

"(2) After may 8, 1995.—After May 8, 1995, the exemption provided by section 403(q)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall only be available with respect to food when it is sold to consumers."

Prohibition on Implementation of Pub. L. 101–535 With Respect to Dietary Supplements

Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law and except as provided in subsection (b) [set out as a note below] and in the amendment made by paragraph (2)(A) [amending provisions set out as notes above], the Secretary of Health and Human Services may not implement the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–535; 104 Stat. 2353) [see Short Title of 1990 Amendments note set out under section 301 of this title], or any amendment made by such Act, earlier than December 15, 1993, with respect to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances."

Health Claims Made With Respect to Dietary Supplements

Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4501, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 403(r)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343(r)(5)(D)) and subsection (a) [enacting provisions set out as notes above and amending provisions set out as notes above and under section 343–1 of this title], the Secretary of Health and Human Services may, earlier than December 15, 1993, approve claims made with respect to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances that are claims described in clauses (vi) and (x) of section 3(b)(1)(A) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535] (21 U.S.C. 343 note)."

United States Recommended Daily Allowances of Vitamins or Minerals

Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §203, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4502, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law, no regulations that require the use of, or are based upon, recommended daily allowances of vitamins or minerals may be promulgated before November 8, 1993 (other than regulations establishing the United States recommended daily allowances specified at section 101.9(c)(7)(iv) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on October 6, 1992, or regulations under section 403(r)(1)(A) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343(r)(1)(A)) that are based on such recommended daily allowances)."

Consumer Education

Pub. L. 101–535, §2(c), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2357, provided that: "The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall carry out activities which educate consumers about—

"(1) the availability of nutrition information in the label or labeling of food, and

"(2) the importance of that information in maintaining healthy dietary practices."

Studies Concerning Carcinogenic and Other Toxic Substances in Food and Impurities in and Toxicity of Saccharin

Pub. L. 95–203, §2, Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1451, directed Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to conduct a study concerning carcinogenic and other toxic substances in food and impurities in and toxicity of saccharin and make a report respecting the carcinogenic and other substances to Committee on Human Resources of the Senate within 12 months of Nov. 23, 1977, and a report respecting saccharin to such committee within 15 months of Nov. 23, 1977.

Report to Congressional Committees Respecting Action Taken Pursuant to Former Par. (o)(2)

Pub. L. 95–203, §4(a)(3), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453, provided that the Secretary was to report to specified congressional committees any action taken under former par. (o)(2) of this section.

State or Territorial Requirements

Pub. L. 86–537, §2, June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 251, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall affect any requirement of the laws of any State or Territory."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§343–1. National uniform nutrition labeling

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), no State or political subdivision of a State may directly or indirectly establish under any authority or continue in effect as to any food in interstate commerce—

(1) any requirement for a food which is the subject of a standard of identity established under section 341 of this title that is not identical to such standard of identity or that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(g) of this title, except that this paragraph does not apply to a standard of identity of a State or political subdivision of a State for maple syrup that is of the type required by sections 341 and 343(g) of this title,

(2) any requirement for the labeling of food of the type required by section 343(c), 343(e), 343(i)(2), 343(w), or 343(x) of this title that is not identical to the requirement of such section, except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(c) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,

(3) any requirement for the labeling of food of the type required by section 343(b), 343(d), 343(f), 343(h), 343(i)(1), or 343(k) of this title that is not identical to the requirement of such section, except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(h)(1) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,

(4) any requirement for nutrition labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(q) of this title, except that this paragraph does not apply to food that is offered for sale in a restaurant or similar retail food establishment that is not part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name (regardless of the type of ownership of the locations) and offering for sale substantially the same menu items unless such restaurant or similar retail food establishment complies with the voluntary provision of nutrition information requirements under section 343(q)(5)(H)(ix) of this title, or

(5) any requirement respecting any claim of the type described in section 343(r)(1) of this title made in the label or labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(r) of this title, except a requirement respecting a claim made in the label or labeling of food which is exempt under section 343(r)(5)(B) of this title.


Paragraph (3) shall take effect in accordance with section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990.

(b) Upon petition of a State or a political subdivision of a State, the Secretary may exempt from subsection (a), under such conditions as may be prescribed by regulation, any State or local requirement that—

(1) would not cause any food to be in violation of any applicable requirement under Federal law,

(2) would not unduly burden interstate commerce, and

(3) is designed to address a particular need for information which need is not met by the requirements of the sections referred to in subsection (a).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403A, as added Pub. L. 101–535, §6(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; amended Pub. L. 102–108, §2(b), Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4154; Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §203(c)(2), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 111–148, title IV, §4205(c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 576.)

References in Text

Section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535], referred to in subsec. (a), is set out below.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111–148 substituted "except that this paragraph does not apply to food that is offered for sale in a restaurant or similar retail food establishment that is not part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name (regardless of the type of ownership of the locations) and offering for sale substantially the same menu items unless such restaurant or similar retail food establishment complies with the voluntary provision of nutrition information requirements under section 343(q)(5)(H)(ix) of this title" for "except a requirement for nutrition labeling of food which is exempt under subclause (i) or (ii) of section 343(q)(5)(A) of this title".

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–282 substituted "343(i)(2), 343(w), or 343(x)" for "or 343(i)(2)".

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(1), inserted at end "except that this paragraph does not apply to a standard of identity of a State or political subdivision of a State for maple syrup that is of the type required by sections 341 and 343(g) of this title,".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(2), inserted at end "except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(c) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(3), inserted at end "except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(h)(1) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,".

1991—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–108 substituted "section 343(r)(5)(B) of this title" for "clause (B) of such section".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–282 applicable to any food that is labeled on or after Jan. 1, 2006, see section 203(d) of Pub. L. 108–282, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 101–535, §10(b), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2366, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(16), title II, §202(a)(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499, 4501, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by section 6 [enacting this section] shall take effect—

"(A) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (1) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [subsec. (a)(1) of this section], on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990],

"(B) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (2) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, one year after the date of the enactment of this Act,

"(C) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (3) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as prescribed by section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535, set out below],

"(D) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (4) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, on the date regulations to implement section 403(q) of such Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)] take effect, and

"(E) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (5) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, on the date regulations to implement section 403(r) of such Act take effect.

"(2) Exception.—If a State or political subdivision submits a petition under section 403A(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for a requirement described in section 403A(a) of such Act within 18 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, paragraphs (3) through (5) of such section 403A(a) shall not apply with respect to such State or political subdivision requirement until—

"(A) 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, or

"(B) action on the petition,

whichever occurs later.

"(3) Requirements pertaining to certain claims.—Notwithstanding subparagraphs (D) and (E) of paragraph (1) and except with respect to claims approved in accordance with section 202(b) of the Dietary Supplement Act of 1992 [Pub. L. 102–571, set out as a note under section 343 of this title], the requirements described in paragraphs (4) and (5) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(4) and (5)) that pertain to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not take effect until the date final regulations take effect to implement subsection (q) or (r), as appropriate, of section 403 of such Act with respect to such dietary supplements."

Pub. L. 101–535, §6(b), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2363, provided that:

"(1) For the purpose of implementing section 403A(a)(3) [21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(3)], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall enter into a contract with a public or nonprofit private entity to conduct a study of—

"(A) State and local laws which require the labeling of food that is of the type required by sections 403(b), 403(d), 403(f), 403(h), 403(i)(1), and 403(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(b), (d), (f), (h), (i)(1), (k)], and

"(B) the sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act referred to in subparagraph (A) and the regulations issued by the Secretary to enforce such sections to determine whether such sections and regulations adequately implement the purposes of such sections.

"(2) The contract under paragraph (1) shall provide that the study required by such paragraph shall be completed within 6 months of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990].

"(3)(A) Within 9 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish a proposed list of sections which are adequately being implemented by regulations as determined under paragraph (1)(B) and sections which are not adequately being implemented by regulations as so determined. After publication of the lists, the Secretary shall provide 60 days for comments on such lists.

"(B) Within 24 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish a final list of sections which are adequately being implemented by regulations and a list of sections which are not adequately being implemented by regulations. With respect to a section which is found by the Secretary to be adequately implemented, no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect as to any food in interstate commerce any requirement which is not identical to the requirement of such section.

"(C) Within 24 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish proposed revisions to the regulations found to be inadequate under subparagraph (B) and within 30 months of such date shall issue final revisions. Upon the effective date of such final revisions, no State or political subdivision may establish or continue in effect any requirement which is not identical to the requirement of the section which had its regulations revised in accordance with this subparagraph.

"(D)(i) If the Secretary does not issue a final list in accordance with subparagraph (B), the proposed list issued under subparagraph (A) shall be considered the final list and States and political subdivisions shall be preempted with respect to sections found to be adequate in such proposed list in accordance with subparagraph (B).

"(ii) If the Secretary does not issue final revisions of regulations in accordance with subparagraph (C), the proposed revisions issued under such subparagraph shall be considered the final revisions and States and political subdivisions shall be preempted with respect to sections the regulations of which are revised by the proposed revisions.

"(E) Subsection (b) of section 403A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall apply with respect to the prohibition prescribed by subparagraphs (B) and (C)."

Construction of Pub. L. 101–535

Pub. L. 101–535, §6(c), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2364, provided that:

"(1) The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535, see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] shall not be construed to preempt any provision of State law, unless such provision is expressly preempted under section 403A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this section].

"(2) The amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] and the provisions of subsection (b) [set out as a note above] shall not be construed to apply to any requirement respecting a statement in the labeling of food that provides for a warning concerning the safety of the food or component of the food.

"(3) The amendment made by subsection (a), the provisions of subsection (b) and paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall not be construed to affect preemption, express or implied, of any such requirement of a State or political subdivision, which may arise under the Constitution, any provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] not amended by subsection (a), any other Federal law, or any Federal regulation, order, or other final agency action reviewable under chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code."

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Delayed Applicability of Certain Provisions

Pub. L. 102–408, title III, §310, Oct. 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 2090, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, section 403A(a)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(1)) shall not apply with respect to any requirement of any State or political subdivision regarding maple syrup until September 1, 1994."

§343–2. Dietary supplement labeling exemptions

(a) In general

A publication, including an article, a chapter in a book, or an official abstract of a peer-reviewed scientific publication that appears in an article and was prepared by the author or the editors of the publication, which is reprinted in its entirety, shall not be defined as labeling when used in connection with the sale of a dietary supplement to consumers when it—

(1) is not false or misleading;

(2) does not promote a particular manufacturer or brand of a dietary supplement;

(3) is displayed or presented, or is displayed or presented with other such items on the same subject matter, so as to present a balanced view of the available scientific information on a dietary supplement;

(4) if displayed in an establishment, is physically separate from the dietary supplements; and

(5) does not have appended to it any information by sticker or any other method.

(b) Application

Subsection (a) shall not apply to or restrict a retailer or wholesaler of dietary supplements in any way whatsoever in the sale of books or other publications as a part of the business of such retailer or wholesaler.

(c) Burden of proof

In any proceeding brought under subsection (a), the burden of proof shall be on the United States to establish that an article or other such matter is false or misleading.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403B, as added Pub. L. 103–417, §5, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4328.)

§343–3. Disclosure

(a) No provision of section 321(n), 343(a), or 348 of this title shall be construed to require on the label or labeling of a food a separate radiation disclosure statement that is more prominent than the declaration of ingredients required by section 343(i)(2) of this title.

(b) In this section, the term "radiation disclosure statement" means a written statement that discloses that a food has been intentionally subject to radiation.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403C, as added Pub. L. 105–115, title III, §306, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2353.)

Effective Date

Section effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as an Effective Date of 1997 Amendment note under section 321 of this title.

§343a. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-73

Section, Pub. L. 95–203, §4(c), (d), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453, 1454, related to distribution of information on health risks of saccharin.

§344. Emergency permit control

(a) Conditions on manufacturing, processing, etc., as health measure

Whenever the Secretary finds after investigation that the distribution in interstate commerce of any class of food may, by reason of contamination with micro-organisms during the manufacture, processing, or packing thereof in any locality, be injurious to health, and that such injurious nature cannot be adequately determined after such articles have entered interstate commerce, he then, and in such case only, shall promulgate regulations providing for the issuance, to manufacturers, processors, or packers of such class of food in such locality, of permits to which shall be attached such conditions governing the manufacture, processing, or packing of such class of food, for such temporary period of time, as may be necessary to protect the public health; and after the effective date of such regulations, and during such temporary period, no person shall introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any such food manufactured, processed, or packed by any such manufacturer, processor, or packer unless such manufacturer, processor, or packer holds a permit issued by the Secretary as provided by such regulations.

(b) Violation of permit; suspension and reinstatement

The Secretary is authorized to suspend immediately upon notice any permit issued under authority of this section if it is found that any of the conditions of the permit have been violated. The holder of a permit so suspended shall be privileged at any time to apply for the reinstatement of such permit, and the Secretary shall, immediately after prompt hearing and an inspection of the establishment, reinstate such permit if it is found that adequate measures have been taken to comply with and maintain the conditions of the permit, as originally issued or as amended.

(c) Inspection of permit-holding establishments

Any officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary shall have access to any factory or establishment, the operator of which holds a permit from the Secretary, for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not the conditions of the permit are being complied with, and denial of access for such inspection shall be ground for suspension of the permit until such access is freely given by the operator.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §404, 52 Stat. 1048.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§345. Regulations making exemptions

The Secretary shall promulgate regulations exempting from any labeling requirement of this chapter (1) small open containers of fresh fruits and fresh vegetables and (2) food which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed, labeled, or repacked in substantial quantities at establishments other than those where originally processed or packed, on condition that such food is not adulterated or misbranded under the provisions of this chapter upon removal from such processing, labeling, or repacking establishment. This section does not apply to the labeling requirements of sections 343(q) and 343(r) of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §405, 52 Stat. 1049; Pub. L. 101–535, §5(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362.)

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–535 inserted at end "This section does not apply to the labeling requirements of sections 343(q) and 343(r) of this title."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–535 effective six months after the date of the promulgation of final regulations to implement section 343(r) of this title, or if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations (Nov. 8, 1992), with exception for persons marketing food the brand name of which contains a term defined by the Secretary under section 343(r)(2)(A)(i) of this title, see section 10(a) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§346. Tolerances for poisonous or deleterious substances in food; regulations

Any poisonous or deleterious substance added to any food, except where such substance is required in the production thereof or cannot be avoided by good manufacturing practice shall be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application of clause (2)(A) of section 342(a) of this title; but when such substance is so required or cannot be so avoided, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations limiting the quantity therein or thereon to such extent as he finds necessary for the protection of public health, and any quantity exceeding the limits so fixed shall also be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application of clause (2)(A) of section 342(a) of this title. While such a regulation is in effect limiting the quantity of any such substance in the case of any food, such food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing any added amount of such substance, be considered to be adulterated within the meaning of clause (1) of section 342(a) of this title. In determining the quantity of such added substance to be tolerated in or on different articles of food the Secretary shall take into account the extent to which the use of such substance is required or cannot be avoided in the production of each such article, and the other ways in which the consumer may be affected by the same or other poisonous or deleterious substances.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §406, 52 Stat. 1049; Pub. L. 85–929, §3(c), Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1785; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §103(a)(1), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 398.)

Amendments

1960Pub. L. 86–618 repealed subsec. (b) which required Secretary to promulgate regulations for listing of coal-tar colors.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–929 substituted "clause (2)(A)" for "clause (2)" in first sentence.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of Nematocide, Plant Regulator, Defoliant, and Desiccant Amendment of 1959

Effective date of subsec. (a) as in force prior to July 22, 1954, with respect to particular commercial use of a nematocide, plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant in or on a raw agricultural commodity made before Jan. 1, 1958, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–139, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 288.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 85–929, see section 6(b), (c) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested in Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] in establishing tolerances for pesticide chemicals under this section together with authority to monitor compliance with tolerances and effectiveness of surveillance and enforcement and to provide technical assistance to States and conduct research under this chapter and section 201 et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, transferred to Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1970, §2(a)(4), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§346a. Tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues

(a) Requirement for tolerance or exemption

(1) General rule

Except as provided in paragraph (2) or (3), any pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall be deemed unsafe for the purpose of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title unless—

(A) a tolerance for such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food is in effect under this section and the quantity of the residue is within the limits of the tolerance; or

(B) an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is in effect under this section for the pesticide chemical residue.


For the purposes of this section, the term "food", when used as a noun without modification, shall mean a raw agricultural commodity or processed food.

(2) Processed food

Notwithstanding paragraph (1)—

(A) if a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity, a pesticide chemical residue that is present in or on a processed food because the food is made from that raw agricultural commodity shall not be considered unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title despite the lack of a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue in or on the processed food if the pesticide chemical has been used in or on the raw agricultural commodity in conformity with a tolerance under this section, such residue in or on the raw agricultural commodity has been removed to the extent possible in good manufacturing practice, and the concentration of the pesticide chemical residue in the processed food is not greater than the tolerance prescribed for the pesticide chemical residue in the raw agricultural commodity; or

(B) if an exemption for the requirement for a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity, a pesticide chemical residue that is present in or on a processed food because the food is made from that raw agricultural commodity shall not be considered unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title.

(3) Residues of degradation products

If a pesticide chemical residue is present in or on a food because it is a metabolite or other degradation product of a precursor substance that itself is a pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue, such a residue shall not be considered to be unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title despite the lack of a tolerance or exemption from the need for a tolerance for such residue in or on such food if—

(A) the Administrator has not determined that the degradation product is likely to pose any potential health risk from dietary exposure that is of a different type than, or of a greater significance than, any risk posed by dietary exposure to the precursor substance;

(B) either—

(i) a tolerance is in effect under this section for residues of the precursor substance in or on the food, and the combined level of residues of the degradation product and the precursor substance in or on the food is at or below the stoichiometrically equivalent level that would be permitted by the tolerance if the residue consisted only of the precursor substance rather than the degradation product; or

(ii) an exemption from the need for a tolerance is in effect under this section for residues of the precursor substance in or on the food; and


(C) the tolerance or exemption for residues of the precursor substance does not state that it applies only to particular named substances and does not state that it does not apply to residues of the degradation product.

(4) Effect of tolerance or exemption

While a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue with respect to any food, the food shall not by reason of bearing or containing any amount of such a residue be considered to be adulterated within the meaning of section 342(a)(1) of this title.

(b) Authority and standard for tolerance

(1) Authority

The Administrator may issue regulations establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food—

(A) in response to a petition filed under subsection (d); or

(B) on the Administrator's own initiative under subsection (e).


As used in this section, the term "modify" shall not mean expanding the tolerance to cover additional foods.

(2) Standard

(A) General rule

(i) Standard

The Administrator may establish or leave in effect a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food only if the Administrator determines that the tolerance is safe. The Administrator shall modify or revoke a tolerance if the Administrator determines it is not safe.

(ii) Determination of safety

As used in this section, the term "safe", with respect to a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, means that the Administrator has determined that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.

(iii) Rule of construction

With respect to a tolerance, a pesticide chemical residue meeting the standard under clause (i) is not an eligible pesticide chemical residue for purposes of subparagraph (B).

(B) Tolerances for eligible pesticide chemical residues

(i) Definition

As used in this subparagraph, the term "eligible pesticide chemical residue" means a pesticide chemical residue as to which—

(I) the Administrator is not able to identify a level of exposure to the residue at which the residue will not cause or contribute to a known or anticipated harm to human health (referred to in this section as a "nonthreshold effect");

(II) the lifetime risk of experiencing the nonthreshold effect is appropriately assessed by quantitative risk assessment; and

(III) with regard to any known or anticipated harm to human health for which the Administrator is able to identify a level at which the residue will not cause such harm (referred to in this section as a "threshold effect"), the Administrator determines that the level of aggregate exposure is safe.

(ii) Determination of tolerance

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)(i), a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue may be left in effect or modified under this subparagraph if—

(I) at least one of the conditions described in clause (iii) is met; and

(II) both of the conditions described in clause (iv) are met.

(iii) Conditions regarding use

For purposes of clause (ii), the conditions described in this clause with respect to a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue are the following:

(I) Use of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue protects consumers from adverse effects on health that would pose a greater risk than the dietary risk from the residue.

(II) Use of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue is necessary to avoid a significant disruption in domestic production of an adequate, wholesome, and economical food supply.

(iv) Conditions regarding risk

For purposes of clause (ii), the conditions described in this clause with respect to a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue are the following:

(I) The yearly risk associated with the nonthreshold effect from aggregate exposure to the residue does not exceed 10 times the yearly risk that would be allowed under subparagraph (A) for such effect.

(II) The tolerance is limited so as to ensure that the risk over a lifetime associated with the nonthreshold effect from aggregate exposure to the residue is not greater than twice the lifetime risk that would be allowed under subparagraph (A) for such effect.

(v) Review

Five years after the date on which the Administrator makes a determination to leave in effect or modify a tolerance under this subparagraph, and thereafter as the Administrator deems appropriate, the Administrator shall determine, after notice and opportunity for comment, whether it has been demonstrated to the Administrator that a condition described in clause (iii)(I) or clause (iii)(II) continues to exist with respect to the tolerance and that the yearly and lifetime risks from aggregate exposure to such residue continue to comply with the limits specified in clause (iv). If the Administrator determines by such date that such demonstration has not been made, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date of such determination, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) to modify or revoke the tolerance.

(vi) Infants and children

Any tolerance under this subparagraph shall meet the requirements of subparagraph (C).

(C) Exposure of infants and children

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator—

(i) shall assess the risk of the pesticide chemical residue based on—

(I) available information about consumption patterns among infants and children that are likely to result in disproportionately high consumption of foods containing or bearing such residue among infants and children in comparison to the general population;

(II) available information concerning the special susceptibility of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residues, including neurological differences between infants and children and adults, and effects of in utero exposure to pesticide chemicals; and

(III) available information concerning the cumulative effects on infants and children of such residues and other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity; and


(ii) shall—

(I) ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue; and

(II) publish a specific determination regarding the safety of the pesticide chemical residue for infants and children.


The Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Administrator, shall conduct surveys to document dietary exposure to pesticides among infants and children. In the case of threshold effects, for purposes of clause (ii)(I) an additional tenfold margin of safety for the pesticide chemical residue and other sources of exposure shall be applied for infants and children to take into account potential pre- and post-natal toxicity and completeness of the data with respect to exposure and toxicity to infants and children. Notwithstanding such requirement for an additional margin of safety, the Administrator may use a different margin of safety for the pesticide chemical residue only if, on the basis of reliable data, such margin will be safe for infants and children.

(D) Factors

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator shall consider, among other relevant factors—

(i) the validity, completeness, and reliability of the available data from studies of the pesticide chemical and pesticide chemical residue;

(ii) the nature of any toxic effect shown to be caused by the pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue in such studies;

(iii) available information concerning the relationship of the results of such studies to human risk;

(iv) available information concerning the dietary consumption patterns of consumers (and major identifiable subgroups of consumers);

(v) available information concerning the cumulative effects of such residues and other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity;

(vi) available information concerning the aggregate exposure levels of consumers (and major identifiable subgroups of consumers) to the pesticide chemical residue and to other related substances, including dietary exposure under the tolerance and all other tolerances in effect for the pesticide chemical residue, and exposure from other non-occupational sources;

(vii) available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities of major identifiable subgroups of consumers;

(viii) such information as the Administrator may require on whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects; and

(ix) safety factors which in the opinion of experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of food additives are generally recognized as appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data.

(E) Data and information regarding anticipated and actual residue levels

(i) Authority

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator may consider available data and information on the anticipated residue levels of the pesticide chemical in or on food and the actual residue levels of the pesticide chemical that have been measured in food, including residue data collected by the Food and Drug Administration.

(ii) Requirement

If the Administrator relies on anticipated or actual residue levels in establishing, modifying, or leaving in effect a tolerance, the Administrator shall pursuant to subsection (f)(1) require that data be provided five years after the date on which the tolerance is established, modified, or left in effect, and thereafter as the Administrator deems appropriate, demonstrating that such residue levels are not above the levels so relied on. If such data are not so provided, or if the data do not demonstrate that the residue levels are not above the levels so relied on, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the data were required to be provided, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1), or an order under subsection (f)(2), as appropriate, to modify or revoke the tolerance.

(F) Percent of food actually treated

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator may, when assessing chronic dietary risk, consider available data and information on the percent of food actually treated with the pesticide chemical (including aggregate pesticide use data collected by the Department of Agriculture) only if the Administrator—

(i) finds that the data are reliable and provide a valid basis to show what percentage of the food derived from such crop is likely to contain such pesticide chemical residue;

(ii) finds that the exposure estimate does not understate exposure for any significant subpopulation group;

(iii) finds that, if data are available on pesticide use and consumption of food in a particular area, the population in such area is not dietarily exposed to residues above those estimated by the Administrator; and

(iv) provides for the periodic reevaluation of the estimate of anticipated dietary exposure.

(3) Detection methods

(A) General rule

A tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall not be established or modified by the Administrator unless the Administrator determines, after consultation with the Secretary, that there is a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of the pesticide chemical residue in or on the food.

(B) Detection limit

A tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall not be established at or modified to a level lower than the limit of detection of the method for detecting and measuring the pesticide chemical residue specified by the Administrator under subparagraph (A).

(4) International standards

In establishing a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food, the Administrator shall determine whether a maximum residue level for the pesticide chemical has been established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. If a Codex maximum residue level has been established for the pesticide chemical and the Administrator does not propose to adopt the Codex level, the Administrator shall publish for public comment a notice explaining the reasons for departing from the Codex level.

(c) Authority and standard for exemptions

(1) Authority

The Administrator may issue a regulation establishing, modifying, or revoking an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food—

(A) in response to a petition filed under subsection (d); or

(B) on the Administrator's initiative under subsection (e).

(2) Standard

(A) General rule

(i) Standard

The Administrator may establish or leave in effect an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food only if the Administrator determines that the exemption is safe. The Administrator shall modify or revoke an exemption if the Administrator determines it is not safe.

(ii) Determination of safety

The term "safe", with respect to an exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, means that the Administrator has determined that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.

(B) Factors

In making a determination under this paragraph, the Administrator shall take into account, among other relevant considerations, the considerations set forth in subparagraphs (C) and (D) of subsection (b)(2).

(3) Limitation

An exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food shall not be established or modified by the Administrator unless the Administrator determines, after consultation with the Secretary—

(A) that there is a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of such pesticide chemical residue in or on food; or

(B) that there is no need for such a method, and states the reasons for such determination in issuing the regulation establishing or modifying the exemption.

(d) Petition for tolerance or exemption

(1) Petitions and petitioners

Any person may file with the Administrator a petition proposing the issuance of a regulation—

(A) establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food; or

(B) establishing, modifying, or revoking an exemption from the requirement of a tole