[USC07] 21 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER I, Part B: Authority To Control; Standards and Schedules
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21 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER I, Part B: Authority To Control; Standards and Schedules
From Title 21—FOOD AND DRUGSCHAPTER 13—DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROLSUBCHAPTER I—CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT

Part B—Authority To Control; Standards and Schedules

§811. Authority and criteria for classification of substances

(a) Rules and regulations of Attorney General; hearing

The Attorney General shall apply the provisions of this subchapter to the controlled substances listed in the schedules established by section 812 of this title and to any other drug or other substance added to such schedules under this subchapter. Except as provided in subsections (d) and (e), the Attorney General may by rule—

(1) add to such a schedule or transfer between such schedules any drug or other substance if he—

(A) finds that such drug or other substance has a potential for abuse, and

(B) makes with respect to such drug or other substance the findings prescribed by subsection (b) of section 812 of this title for the schedule in which such drug is to be placed; or


(2) remove any drug or other substance from the schedules if he finds that the drug or other substance does not meet the requirements for inclusion in any schedule.


Rules of the Attorney General under this subsection shall be made on the record after opportunity for a hearing pursuant to the rulemaking procedures prescribed by subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5. Proceedings for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of such rules may be initiated by the Attorney General (1) on his own motion, (2) at the request of the Secretary, or (3) on the petition of any interested party.

(b) Evaluation of drugs and other substances

The Attorney General shall, before initiating proceedings under subsection (a) to control a drug or other substance or to remove a drug or other substance entirely from the schedules, and after gathering the necessary data, request from the Secretary a scientific and medical evaluation, and his recommendations, as to whether such drug or other substance should be so controlled or removed as a controlled substance. In making such evaluation and recommendations, the Secretary shall consider the factors listed in paragraphs (2), (3), (6), (7), and (8) of subsection (c) and any scientific or medical considerations involved in paragraphs (1), (4), and (5) of such subsection. The recommendations of the Secretary shall include recommendations with respect to the appropriate schedule, if any, under which such drug or other substance should be listed. The evaluation and the recommendations of the Secretary shall be made in writing and submitted to the Attorney General within a reasonable time. The recommendations of the Secretary to the Attorney General shall be binding on the Attorney General as to such scientific and medical matters, and if the Secretary recommends that a drug or other substance not be controlled, the Attorney General shall not control the drug or other substance. If the Attorney General determines that these facts and all other relevant data constitute substantial evidence of potential for abuse such as to warrant control or substantial evidence that the drug or other substance should be removed entirely from the schedules, he shall initiate proceedings for control or removal, as the case may be, under subsection (a).

(c) Factors determinative of control or removal from schedules

In making any finding under subsection (a) of this section or under subsection (b) of section 812 of this title, the Attorney General shall consider the following factors with respect to each drug or other substance proposed to be controlled or removed from the schedules:

(1) Its actual or relative potential for abuse.

(2) Scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect, if known.

(3) The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the drug or other substance.

(4) Its history and current pattern of abuse.

(5) The scope, duration, and significance of abuse.

(6) What, if any, risk there is to the public health.

(7) Its psychic or physiological dependence liability.

(8) Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a substance already controlled under this subchapter.

(d) International treaties, conventions, and protocols requiring control; procedures respecting changes in drug schedules of Convention on Psychotropic Substances

(1) If control is required by United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on October 27, 1970, the Attorney General shall issue an order controlling such drug under the schedule he deems most appropriate to carry out such obligations, without regard to the findings required by subsection (a) of this section or section 812(b) of this title and without regard to the procedures prescribed by subsections (a) and (b) of this section.

(2)(A) Whenever the Secretary of State receives notification from the Secretary-General of the United Nations that information has been transmitted by or to the World Health Organization, pursuant to article 2 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which may justify adding a drug or other substance to one of the schedules of the Convention, transferring a drug or substance from one schedule to another, or deleting it from the schedules, the Secretary of State shall immediately transmit the notice to the Secretary of Health and Human Services who shall publish it in the Federal Register and provide opportunity to interested persons to submit to him comments respecting the scientific and medical evaluations which he is to prepare respecting such drug or substance. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall prepare for transmission through the Secretary of State to the World Health Organization such medical and scientific evaluations as may be appropriate regarding the possible action that could be proposed by the World Health Organization respecting the drug or substance with respect to which a notice was transmitted under this subparagraph.

(B) Whenever the Secretary of State receives information that the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the United Nations proposes to decide whether to add a drug or other substance to one of the schedules of the Convention, transfer a drug or substance from one schedule to another, or delete it from the schedules, the Secretary of State shall transmit timely notice to the Secretary of Health and Human Services of such information who shall publish a summary of such information in the Federal Register and provide opportunity to interested persons to submit to him comments respecting the recommendation which he is to furnish, pursuant to this subparagraph, respecting such proposal. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall evaluate the proposal and furnish a recommendation to the Secretary of State which shall be binding on the representative of the United States in discussions and negotiations relating to the proposal.

(3) When the United States receives notification of a scheduling decision pursuant to article 2 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances that a drug or other substance has been added or transferred to a schedule specified in the notification or receives notification (referred to in this subsection as a "schedule notice") that existing legal controls applicable under this subchapter to a drug or substance and the controls required by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] do not meet the requirements of the schedule of the Convention in which such drug or substance has been placed, the Secretary of Health and Human Services after consultation with the Attorney General, shall first determine whether existing legal controls under this subchapter applicable to the drug or substance and the controls required by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, meet the requirements of the schedule specified in the notification or schedule notice and shall take the following action:

(A) If such requirements are met by such existing controls but the Secretary of Health and Human Services nonetheless believes that more stringent controls should be applied to the drug or substance, the Secretary shall recommend to the Attorney General that he initiate proceedings for scheduling the drug or substance, pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section, to apply to such controls.

(B) If such requirements are not met by such existing controls and the Secretary of Health and Human Services concurs in the scheduling decision or schedule notice transmitted by the notification, the Secretary shall recommend to the Attorney General that he initiate proceedings for scheduling the drug or substance under the appropriate schedule pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section.

(C) If such requirements are not met by such existing controls and the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not concur in the scheduling decision or schedule notice transmitted by the notification, the Secretary shall—

(i) if he deems that additional controls are necessary to protect the public health and safety, recommend to the Attorney General that he initiate proceedings for scheduling the drug or substance pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section, to apply such additional controls;

(ii) request the Secretary of State to transmit a notice of qualified acceptance, within the period specified in the Convention, pursuant to paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention, to the Secretary-General of the United Nations;

(iii) request the Secretary of State to transmit a notice of qualified acceptance as prescribed in clause (ii) and request the Secretary of State to ask for a review by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, in accordance with paragraph 8 of article 2 of the Convention, of the scheduling decision; or

(iv) in the case of a schedule notice, request the Secretary of State to take appropriate action under the Convention to initiate proceedings to remove the drug or substance from the schedules under the Convention or to transfer the drug or substance to a schedule under the Convention different from the one specified in the schedule notice.


(4)(A) If the Attorney General determines, after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, that proceedings initiated under recommendations made under paragraph 1 (B) or (C)(i) of paragraph (3) will not be completed within the time period required by paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention, the Attorney General, after consultation with the Secretary and after providing interested persons opportunity to submit comments respecting the requirements of the temporary order to be issued under this sentence, shall issue a temporary order controlling the drug or substance under schedule IV or V, whichever is most appropriate to carry out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention. As a part of such order, the Attorney General shall, after consultation with the Secretary, except such drug or substance from the application of any provision of part C of this subchapter which he finds is not required to carry out the United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention. In the case of proceedings initiated under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3), the Attorney General, concurrently with the issuance of such order, shall request the Secretary of State to transmit a notice of qualified acceptance to the Secretary-General of the United Nations pursuant to paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention. A temporary order issued under this subparagraph controlling a drug or other substance subject to proceedings initiated under subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall expire upon the effective date of the application to the drug or substance of the controls resulting from such proceedings.

(B) After a notice of qualified acceptance of a scheduling decision with respect to a drug or other substance is transmitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations in accordance with clause (ii) or (iii) of paragraph (3)(C) or after a request has been made under clause (iv) of such paragraph with respect to a drug or substance described in a schedule notice, the Attorney General, after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and after providing interested persons opportunity to submit comments respecting the requirements of the order to be issued under this sentence, shall issue an order controlling the drug or substance under schedule IV or V, whichever is most appropriate to carry out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention in the case of a drug or substance for which a notice of qualified acceptance was transmitted or whichever the Attorney General determines is appropriate in the case of a drug or substance described in a schedule notice. As a part of such order, the Attorney General shall, after consultation with the Secretary, except such drug or substance from the application of any provision of part C of this subchapter which he finds is not required to carry out the United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention. If, as a result of a review under paragraph 8 of article 2 of the Convention of the scheduling decision with respect to which a notice of qualified acceptance was transmitted in accordance with clause (ii) or (iii) of paragraph (3)(C)—

(i) the decision is reversed, and

(ii) the drug or substance subject to such decision is not required to be controlled under schedule IV or V to carry out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention,


the order issued under this subparagraph with respect to such drug or substance shall expire upon receipt by the United States of the review decision. If, as a result of action taken pursuant to action initiated under a request transmitted under clause (iv) of paragraph (3)(C), the drug or substance with respect to which such action was taken is not required to be controlled under schedule IV or V, the order issued under this paragraph with respect to such drug or substance shall expire upon receipt by the United States of a notice of the action taken with respect to such drug or substance under the Convention.

(C) An order issued under subparagraph (A) or (B) may be issued without regard to the findings required by subsection (a) of this section or by section 812(b) of this title and without regard to the procedures prescribed by subsection (a) or (b) of this section.

(5) Nothing in the amendments made by the Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 or the regulations or orders promulgated thereunder shall be construed to preclude requests by the Secretary of Health and Human Services or the Attorney General through the Secretary of State, pursuant to article 2 or other applicable provisions of the Convention, for review of scheduling decisions under such Convention, based on new or additional information.

(e) Immediate precursors

The Attorney General may, without regard to the findings required by subsection (a) of this section or section 812(b) of this title and without regard to the procedures prescribed by subsections (a) and (b) of this section, place an immediate precursor in the same schedule in which the controlled substance of which it is an immediate precursor is placed or in any other schedule with a higher numerical designation. If the Attorney General designates a substance as an immediate precursor and places it in a schedule, other substances shall not be placed in a schedule solely because they are its precursors.

(f) Abuse potential

If, at the time a new-drug application is submitted to the Secretary for any drug having a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system, it appears that such drug has an abuse potential, such information shall be forwarded by the Secretary to the Attorney General.

(g) Exclusion of non-narcotic substances sold over the counter without a prescription; dextromethorphan; exemption of substances lacking abuse potential

(1) The Attorney General shall by regulation exclude any non-narcotic drug which contains a controlled substance from the application of this subchapter and subchapter II of this chapter if such drug may, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], be lawfully sold over the counter without a prescription.

(2) Dextromethorphan shall not be deemed to be included in any schedule by reason of enactment of this subchapter unless controlled after October 27, 1970 pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this section.

(3) The Attorney General may, by regulation, exempt any compound, mixture, or preparation containing a controlled substance from the application of all or any part of this subchapter if he finds such compound, mixture, or preparation meets the requirements of one of the following categories:

(A) A mixture, or preparation containing a nonnarcotic controlled substance, which mixture or preparation is approved for prescription use, and which contains one or more other active ingredients which are not listed in any schedule and which are included therein in such combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration as to vitiate the potential for abuse.

(B) A compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any controlled substance, which is not for administration to a human being or animal, and which is packaged in such form or concentration, or with adulterants or denaturants, so that as packaged it does not present any significant potential for abuse.

(C) Upon the recommendation of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, a compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any anabolic steroid, which is intended for administration to a human being or an animal, and which, because of its concentration, preparation, formulation or delivery system, does not present any significant potential for abuse.

(h) Temporary scheduling to avoid imminent hazards to public safety

(1) If the Attorney General finds that the scheduling of a substance in schedule I on a temporary basis is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety, he may, by order and without regard to the requirements of subsection (b) relating to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, schedule such substance in schedule I if the substance is not listed in any other schedule in section 812 of this title or if no exemption or approval is in effect for the substance under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 355]. Such an order may not be issued before the expiration of thirty days from—

(A) the date of the publication by the Attorney General of a notice in the Federal Register of the intention to issue such order and the grounds upon which such order is to be issued, and

(B) the date the Attorney General has transmitted the notice required by paragraph (4).


(2) The scheduling of a substance under this subsection shall expire at the end of 2 years from the date of the issuance of the order scheduling such substance, except that the Attorney General may, during the pendency of proceedings under subsection (a)(1) with respect to the substance, extend the temporary scheduling for up to 1 year.

(3) When issuing an order under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall be required to consider, with respect to the finding of an imminent hazard to the public safety, only those factors set forth in paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of subsection (c), including actual abuse, diversion from legitimate channels, and clandestine importation, manufacture, or distribution.

(4) The Attorney General shall transmit notice of an order proposed to be issued under paragraph (1) to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. In issuing an order under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall take into consideration any comments submitted by the Secretary in response to a notice transmitted pursuant to this paragraph.

(5) An order issued under paragraph (1) with respect to a substance shall be vacated upon the conclusion of a subsequent rulemaking proceeding initiated under subsection (a) with respect to such substance.

(6) An order issued under paragraph (1) is not subject to judicial review.

(i) Temporary and permanent scheduling of recently emerged anabolic steroids

(1) The Attorney General may issue a temporary order adding a drug or other substance to the definition of anabolic steroids if the Attorney General finds that—

(A) the drug or other substance satisfies the criteria for being considered an anabolic steroid under section 802(41) of this title but is not listed in that section or by regulation of the Attorney General as being an anabolic steroid; and

(B) adding such drug or other substance to the definition of anabolic steroids will assist in preventing abuse or misuse of the drug or other substance.


(2) An order issued under paragraph (1) shall not take effect until 30 days after the date of the publication by the Attorney General of a notice in the Federal Register of the intention to issue such order and the grounds upon which such order is to be issued. The order shall expire not later than 24 months after the date it becomes effective, except that the Attorney General may, during the pendency of proceedings under paragraph (6), extend the temporary scheduling order for up to 6 months.

(3) The Attorney General shall transmit notice of an order proposed to be issued under paragraph (1) to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. In issuing an order under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall take into consideration any comments submitted by the Secretary in response to a notice transmitted pursuant to this paragraph.

(4) A temporary scheduling order issued under paragraph (1) shall be vacated upon the issuance of a permanent scheduling order under paragraph (6).

(5) An order issued under paragraph (1) is not subject to judicial review.

(6) The Attorney General may, by rule, issue a permanent order adding a drug or other substance to the definition of anabolic steroids if such drug or other substance satisfies the criteria for being considered an anabolic steroid under section 802(41) of this title. Such rulemaking may be commenced simultaneously with the issuance of the temporary order issued under paragraph (1).

(j) Interim final rule; date of issuance; procedure for final rule

(1) With respect to a drug referred to in subsection (f), if the Secretary of Health and Human Services recommends that the Attorney General control the drug in schedule II, III, IV, or V pursuant to subsections (a) and (b), the Attorney General shall, not later than 90 days after the date described in paragraph (2), issue an interim final rule controlling the drug in accordance with such subsections and section 812(b) of this title using the procedures described in paragraph (3).

(2) The date described in this paragraph shall be the later of—

(A) the date on which the Attorney General receives the scientific and medical evaluation and the scheduling recommendation from the Secretary of Health and Human Services in accordance with subsection (b); or

(B) the date on which the Attorney General receives notification from the Secretary of Health and Human Services that the Secretary has approved an application under section 505(c), 512, or 571 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 355(c), 360b, 360ccc] or section 262(a) of title 42, or indexed a drug under section 572 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 360ccc–1], with respect to the drug described in paragraph (1).


(3) A rule issued by the Attorney General under paragraph (1) shall become immediately effective as an interim final rule without requiring the Attorney General to demonstrate good cause therefor. The interim final rule shall give interested persons the opportunity to comment and to request a hearing. After the conclusion of such proceedings, the Attorney General shall issue a final rule in accordance with the scheduling criteria of subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section and section 812(b) of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §201, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 95–633, title I, §102(a), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3769; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§508, 509(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2071, 2072; Pub. L. 108–358, §2(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1663; Pub. L. 112–144, title XI, §1153, July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1132; Pub. L. 113–260, §2(b), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2930; Pub. L. 114–89, §2(b), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 700.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (c)(8), (d)(3), (4)(A), (B), and (g)(2), (3), was in the original "this title", meaning title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, and is popularly known as the "Controlled Substances Act". For complete classification of title II to the Code, see second paragraph of Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(3) and (g)(1), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (§301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of this title and Tables.

Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V, referred to in subsecs. (d)(4)(A), (B), (h)(1), and (j)(1), are set out in section 812(c) of this title.

The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (d)(5), is Pub. L. 95–633, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3768, which enacted sections 801a, 830, and 852 of this title, amended sections 352, 802, 811, 812, 823, 827, 841 to 843, 872, 881, 952, 953, and 965 of this title and section 242a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealed section 830 of this title effective Jan. 1, 1981, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 801, 801a, 812, and 830 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1978 Amendment note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

This subchapter and subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), was in the original "titles II and III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act", which was translated as meaning titles II and III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, 1285, as amended, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Title II is classified principally to this subchapter and part A of title III comprises subchapter II of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title notes set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 114–89 added subsec. (j).

2014—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 113–260 added subsec. (i).

2012—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 112–144 substituted "2 years" for "one year" and "1 year" for "six months".

2004—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 108–358, §2(b)(1), substituted "drug which contains a controlled substance from the application of this subchapter and subchapter II of this chapter if such drug" for "substance from a schedule if such substance".

Subsec. (g)(3)(C). Pub. L. 108–358, §2(b)(2), added subpar. (C).

1984—Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 98–473, §509(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–473, §508, added subsec. (h).

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–633 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) to (5).

Change of Name

"Secretary of Health and Human Services" substituted for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare" in subsec. (d)(2), (3), (4)(A), (B), (5) pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–358 effective 90 days after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 108–358, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–633 effective on date the Convention on Psychotropic Substances enters into force in the United States [July 15, 1980], see section 112 of Pub. L. 95–633, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801a of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "subparagraph".

§812. Schedules of controlled substances

(a) Establishment

There are established five schedules of controlled substances, to be known as schedules I, II, III, IV, and V. Such schedules shall initially consist of the substances listed in this section. The schedules established by this section shall be updated and republished on a semiannual basis during the two-year period beginning one year after October 27, 1970, and shall be updated and republished on an annual basis thereafter.

(b) Placement on schedules; findings required

Except where control is required by United States obligations under an international treaty, convention, or protocol, in effect on October 27, 1970, and except in the case of an immediate precursor, a drug or other substance may not be placed in any schedule unless the findings required for such schedule are made with respect to such drug or other substance. The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

(1) Schedule I.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.

(B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.


(2) Schedule II.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.

(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.

(C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.


(3) Schedule III.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.

(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.


(4) Schedule IV.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.

(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.


(5) Schedule V.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

(c) Initial schedules of controlled substances

Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V shall, unless and until amended pursuant to section 811 of this title,1 consist of the following drugs or other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated:

Schedule I

(a) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Acetylmethadol.

(2) Allylprodine.

(3) Alphacetylmathadol.2

(4) Alphameprodine.

(5) Alphamethadol.

(6) Benzethidine.

(7) Betacetylmethadol.

(8) Betameprodine.

(9) Betamethadol.

(10) Betaprodine.

(11) Clonitazene.

(12) Dextromoramide.

(13) Dextrorphan.

(14) Diampromide.

(15) Diethylthiambutene.

(16) Dimenoxadol.

(17) Dimepheptanol.

(18) Dimethylthiambutene.

(19) Dioxaphetyl butyrate.

(20) Dipipanone.

(21) Ethylmethylthiambutene.

(22) Etonitazene.

(23) Etoxeridine.

(24) Furethidine.

(25) Hydroxypethidine.

(26) Ketobemidone.

(27) Levomoramide.

(28) Levophenacylmorphan.

(29) Morpheridine.

(30) Noracymethadol.

(31) Norlevorphanol.

(32) Normethadone.

(33) Norpipanone.

(34) Phenadoxone.

(35) Phenampromide.

(36) Phenomorphan.

(37) Phenoperidine.

(38) Piritramide.

(39) Proheptazine.

(40) Properidine.

(41) Racemoramide.

(42) Trimeperidine.


(b) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opium derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Acetorphine.

(2) Acetyldihydrocodeine.

(3) Benzylmorphine.

(4) Codeine methylbromide.

(5) Codeine-N-Oxide.

(6) Cyprenorphine.

(7) Desomorphine.

(8) Dihydromorphine.

(9) Etorphine.

(10) Heroin.

(11) Hydromorphinol.

(12) Methyldesorphine.

(13) Methylhydromorphine.

(14) Morphine methylbromide.

(15) Morphine methylsulfonate.

(16) Morphine-N-Oxide.

(17) Myrophine.

(18) Nicocodeine.

(19) Nicomorphine.

(20) Normorphine.

(21) Pholcodine.

(22) Thebacon.


(c) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, or which contains any of their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.

(2) 5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.

(3) 3,4,5-trimethoxy amphetamine.

(4) Bufotenine.

(5) Diethyltryptamine.

(6) Dimethyltryptamine.

(7) 4-methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.

(8) Ibogaine.

(9) Lysergic acid diethylamide.

(10) Marihuana.

(11) Mescaline.

(12) Peyote.

(13) N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

(14) N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

(15) Psilocybin.

(16) Psilocyn.

(17) Tetrahydrocannabinols.

(18) 4-methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone).

(19) 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).

(20) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylphenyl)ethanamine (2C–E).

(21) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)ethanamine (2C–D).

(22) 2-(4-Chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C–C).

(23) 2-(4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C–I).

(24) 2-[4-(Ethylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (2C–T–2).

(25) 2-[4-(Isopropylthio)-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]ethanamine (2C–T–4).

(26) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C–H).

(27) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitro-phenyl)ethanamine (2C–N).

(28) 2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylphenyl)ethanamine (2C–P).


(d)(1) Unless specifically exempted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of cannabimimetic agents, or which contains their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation.

(2) In paragraph (1):

(A) The term "cannabimimetic agents" means any substance that is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) agonist as demonstrated by binding studies and functional assays within any of the following structural classes:

(i) 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by alkyl or alkenyl, whether or not substituted on the cyclohexyl ring to any extent.

(ii) 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 3-(1-naphthylmethane)indole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl or naphthyl ring to any extent.

(iii) 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl ring to any extent.

(iv) 1-(1-naphthylmethylene)indene by substitution of the 3-position of the indene ring, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent.

(v) 3-phenylacetylindole or 3-benzoylindole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the phenyl ring to any extent.


(B) Such term includes—

(i) 5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (CP–47,497);

(ii) 5-(1,1-dimethyloctyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (cannabicyclohexanol or CP–47,497 C8-homolog);

(iii) 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH–018 and AM678);

(iv) 1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH–073);

(v) 1-hexyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH–019);

(vi) 1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH–200);

(vii) 1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (JWH–250);

(viii) 1-pentyl-3-[1-(4-methoxynaphthoyl)]indole (JWH–081);

(ix) 1-pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH–122);

(x) 1-pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH–398);

(xi) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (AM2201);

(xii) 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (AM694);

(xiii) 1-pentyl-3-[(4-methoxy)-benzoyl]indole (SR–19 and RCS–4);

(xiv) 1-cyclohexylethyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (SR–18 and RCS–8); and

(xv) 1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (JWH–203).

Schedule II

(a) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following substances whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(1) Opium and opiate, and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of opium or opiate.

(2) Any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of the substances referred to in clause (1), except that these substances shall not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

(3) Opium poppy and poppy straw.

(4) coca 3 leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed; cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers; or any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in this paragraph.


(b) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(1) Alphaprodine.

(2) Anileridine.

(3) Bezitramide.

(4) Dihydrocodeine.

(5) Diphenoxylate.

(6) Fentanyl.

(7) Isomethadone.

(8) Levomethorphan.

(9) Levorphanol.

(10) Metazocine.

(11) Methadone.

(12) Methadone-Intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl butane.

(13) Moramide-Intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenylpropane-carboxylic acid.

(14) Pethidine.

(15) Pethidine-Intermediate-A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine.

(16) Pethidine-Intermediate-B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate.

(17) Pethidine-Intermediate-C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid.

(18) Phenazocine.

(19) Piminodine.

(20) Racemethorphan.

(21) Racemorphan.


(c) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any injectable liquid which contains any quantity of methamphetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.

Schedule III

(a) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system:

(1) Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts of its optical isomers.

(2) Phenmetrazine and its salts.

(3) Any substance (except an injectable liquid) which contains any quantity of methamphetamine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers.

(4) Methylphenidate.


(b) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system:

(1) Any substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid, or any salt of a derivative of barbituric acid.

(2) Chorhexadol.

(3) Glutethimide.

(4) Lysergic acid.

(5) Lysergic acid amide.

(6) Methyprylon.

(7) Phencyclidine.

(8) Sulfondiethylmethane.

(9) Sulfonethylmethane.

(10) Sulfonmethane.


(c) Nalorphine.

(d) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotic drugs, or any salts thereof:

(1) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.

(2) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, non-narcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(3) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with a fourfold or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.

(4) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(5) Not more than 1.8 grams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(6) Not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(7) Not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, or not more than 25 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(8) Not more than 50 milligrams of morphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.


(e) Anabolic steroids.

Schedule IV

(1) Barbital.

(2) Chloral betaine.

(3) Chloral hydrate.

(4) Ethchlorvynol.

(5) Ethinamate.

(6) Methohexital.

(7) Meprobamate.

(8) Methylphenobarbital.

(9) Paraldehyde.

(10) Petrichloral.

(11) Phenobarbital.

Schedule V

Any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any of the following limited quantities of narcotic drugs, which shall include one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic drug alone:

(1) Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

(2) Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

(3) Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

(4) Not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit.

(5) Not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §202, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 95–633, title I, §103, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3772; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§507(c), 509(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2071, 2072; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1867, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–55; Pub. L. 99–646, §84, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3619; Pub. L. 101–647, title XIX, §1902(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4851; Pub. L. 112–144, title XI, §1152, July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1130.)

Amendment of Schedules of Controlled Substances

For updated and republished schedules of controlled substances established by this section, see Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1308 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–144, §1152(b), added schedule I(c)(18) to (28).

Pub. L. 112–144, §1152(a), added schedule I(d).

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647 added item (e) at end of schedule III.

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646 amended schedule II(a)(4) generally. Prior to amendment, schedule II(a)(4) read as follows: "Coca leaves (except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed); cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; and ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers."

Pub. L. 99–570 amended schedule II(a)(4) generally. Prior to amendment, schedule II(a)(4) read as follows: "Coca leaves and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation of coca leaves (including cocaine and ecgonine and their salts, isomers, derivatives, and salts of isomers and derivatives), and any salt, compound, derivative, or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with any of these substances, except that the substances shall not include decocainized coca leaves or extraction of coca leaves, which extractions do not contain cocaine or ecgonine."

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473, §507(c), in schedule II(a)(4) added applicability to cocaine and ecgonine and their salts, isomers, etc.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–473, §509(b), struck out subsec. (d) which related to authority of Attorney General to except stimulants or depressants containing active medicinal ingredients.

1978—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 95–633 added cl. (3).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–647 effective 90 days after Nov. 29, 1990, see section 1902(d) of Pub. L. 101–647, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–633 effective on date the Convention on Psychotropic Substances enters into force in the United States [July 15, 1980], see section 112 of Pub. L. 95–633, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801a of this title.

Congressional Finding; Emergency Scheduling of GHB in Controlled Substances Act

Pub. L. 106–172, §§2, 3(a), Feb. 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 7, 8, provided that:

"SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

"Congress finds as follows:

"(1) Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (also called G, Liquid X, Liquid Ecstasy, Grievous Bodily Harm, Georgia Home Boy, Scoop) has become a significant and growing problem in law enforcement. At least 20 States have scheduled such drug in their drug laws and law enforcement officials have been experiencing an increased presence of the drug in driving under the influence, sexual assault, and overdose cases especially at night clubs and parties.

"(2) A behavioral depressant and a hypnotic, gamma hydroxybutyric acid ('GHB') is being used in conjunction with alcohol and other drugs with detrimental effects in an increasing number of cases. It is difficult to isolate the impact of such drug's ingestion since it is so typically taken with an ever-changing array of other drugs and especially alcohol which potentiates its impact.

"(3) GHB takes the same path as alcohol, processes via alcohol dehydrogenase, and its symptoms at high levels of intake and as impact builds are comparable to alcohol ingestion/intoxication. Thus, aggression and violence can be expected in some individuals who use such drug.

"(4) If taken for human consumption, common industrial chemicals such as gamma butyrolactone and 1.4-butanediol are swiftly converted by the body into GHB. Illicit use of these and other GHB analogues and precursor chemicals is a significant and growing law enforcement problem.

"(5) A human pharmaceutical formulation of gamma hydroxybutyric acid is being developed as a treatment for cataplexy, a serious and debilitating disease. Cataplexy, which causes sudden and total loss of muscle control, affects about 65 percent of the estimated 180,000 Americans with narcolepsy, a sleep disorder. People with cataplexy often are unable to work, drive a car, hold their children or live a normal life.

"(6) Abuse of illicit GHB is an imminent hazard to public safety that requires immediate regulatory action under the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.).

"SEC. 3. EMERGENCY SCHEDULING OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID AND LISTING OF GAMMA BUTYROLACTONE AS LIST I CHEMICAL.

"(a) Emergency Scheduling of GHB.—

"(1) In general.—The Congress finds that the abuse of illicit gamma hydroxybutyric acid is an imminent hazard to the public safety. Accordingly, the Attorney General, notwithstanding sections 201(a), 201(b), 201(c), and 202 of the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 811(a)–(c), 812], shall issue, not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 18, 2000], a final order that schedules such drug (together with its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers) in the same schedule under section 202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act as would apply to a scheduling of a substance by the Attorney General under section 201(h)(1) of such Act (relating to imminent hazards to the public safety), except as follows:

"(A) For purposes of any requirements that relate to the physical security of registered manufacturers and registered distributors, the final order shall treat such drug, when the drug is manufactured, distributed, or possessed in accordance with an exemption under section 505(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 355(i)] (whether the exemption involved is authorized before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 18, 2000]), as being in the same schedule as that recommended by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the drug when the drug is the subject of an authorized investigational new drug application (relating to such section 505(i)). The recommendation referred to in the preceding sentence is contained in the first paragraph of the letter transmitted on May 19, 1999, by such Secretary (acting through the Assistant Secretary for Health) to the Attorney General (acting through the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration), which letter was in response to the letter transmitted by the Attorney General (acting through such Deputy Administrator) on September 16, 1997. In publishing the final order in the Federal Register, the Attorney General shall publish a copy of the letter that was transmitted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

"(B) In the case of gamma hydroxybutyric acid that is contained in a drug product for which an application is approved under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 355] (whether the application involved is approved before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 18, 2000]), the final order shall schedule such drug in the same schedule as that recommended by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for authorized formulations of the drug. The recommendation referred to in the preceding sentence is contained in the last sentence of the fourth paragraph of the letter referred to in subparagraph (A) with respect to May 19, 1999.

"(2) Failure to issue order.—If the final order is not issued within the period specified in paragraph (1), gamma hydroxybutyric acid (together with its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers) is deemed to be scheduled under section 202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 812(c)] in accordance with the policies described in paragraph (1), as if the Attorney General had issued a final order in accordance with such paragraph."

Placement of Pipradrol and SPA in Schedule IV To Carry Out Obligation Under Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Pub. L. 95–633, title I, §102(c), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3772, provided that: "For the purpose of carrying out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, signed at Vienna, Austria, on February 21, 1971, with respect to pipradrol and SPA (also known as (-)-1-dimethylamino-1,2-diphenylethane), the Attorney General shall by order, made without regard to sections 201 and 202 of the Controlled Substances Act [this section and section 811 of this title], place such drugs in schedule IV of such Act [see subsec. (c) of this section]."

Provision of section 102(c) of Pub. L. 95–633, set out above, effective on the date the Convention on Psychotropic Substances enters into force in the United States [July 15, 1980], see section 112 of Pub. L. 95–633, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801a of this title.

1 See Amendment of Schedules of Controlled Substances note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "Alphacetylmethadol."

3 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§813. Treatment of controlled substance analogues

A controlled substance analogue shall, to the extent intended for human consumption, be treated, for the purposes of any Federal law as a controlled substance in schedule I.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1202, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–13; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6470(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4378.)

References in Text

Schedule I, referred to in text, is set out in section 812(c) of this title.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690 substituted "any Federal law" for "this subchapter and subchapter II of this chapter".

§814. Removal of exemption of certain drugs

(a) Removal of exemption

The Attorney General shall by regulation remove from exemption under section 802(39)(A)(iv) of this title a drug or group of drugs that the Attorney General finds is being diverted to obtain a listed chemical for use in the illicit production of a controlled substance.

(b) Factors to be considered

In removing a drug or group of drugs from exemption under subsection (a), the Attorney General shall consider, with respect to a drug or group of drugs that is proposed to be removed from exemption—

(1) the scope, duration, and significance of the diversion;

(2) whether the drug or group of drugs is formulated in such a way that it cannot be easily used in the illicit production of a controlled substance; and

(3) whether the listed chemical can be readily recovered from the drug or group of drugs.

(c) Specificity of designation

The Attorney General shall limit the designation of a drug or a group of drugs removed from exemption under subsection (a) to the most particularly identifiable type of drug or group of drugs for which evidence of diversion exists unless there is evidence, based on the pattern of diversion and other relevant factors, that the diversion will not be limited to that particular drug or group of drugs.

(d) Reinstatement of exemption with respect to particular drug products

(1) Reinstatement

On application by a manufacturer of a particular drug product that has been removed from exemption under subsection (a), the Attorney General shall by regulation reinstate the exemption with respect to that particular drug product if the Attorney General determines that the particular drug product is manufactured and distributed in a manner that prevents diversion.

(2) Factors to be considered

In deciding whether to reinstate the exemption with respect to a particular drug product under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall consider—

(A) the package sizes and manner of packaging of the drug product;

(B) the manner of distribution and advertising of the drug product;

(C) evidence of diversion of the drug product;

(D) any actions taken by the manufacturer to prevent diversion of the drug product; and

(E) such other factors as are relevant to and consistent with the public health and safety, including the factors described in subsection (b) as applied to the drug product.

(3) Status pending application for reinstatement

A transaction involving a particular drug product that is the subject of a bona fide pending application for reinstatement of exemption filed with the Attorney General not later than 60 days after a regulation removing the exemption is issued pursuant to subsection (a) shall not be considered to be a regulated transaction if the transaction occurs during the pendency of the application and, if the Attorney General denies the application, during the period of 60 days following the date on which the Attorney General denies the application, unless—

(A) the Attorney General has evidence that, applying the factors described in subsection (b) to the drug product, the drug product is being diverted; and

(B) the Attorney General so notifies the applicant.

(4) Amendment and modification

A regulation reinstating an exemption under paragraph (1) may be modified or revoked with respect to a particular drug product upon a finding that—

(A) applying the factors described in subsection (b) to the drug product, the drug product is being diverted; or

(B) there is a significant change in the data that led to the issuance of the regulation.

(Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §204, as added Pub. L. 103–200, §2(b)(1), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2334; amended Pub. L. 104–237, title IV, §401(c), Oct. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 3108; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §712(a)(2), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 263.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–177 struck out subsec. (e). Text read as follows: "Pursuant to subsection (d)(1) of this section, the Attorney General shall by regulation reinstate the exemption with respect to a particular ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine drug product if the Attorney General determines that the drug product is manufactured and distributed in a manner that prevents diversion. In making this determination the Attorney General shall consider the factors listed in subsection (d)(2) of this section. Any regulation issued pursuant to this subsection may be amended or revoked based on the factors listed in subsection (d)(4) of this section."

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–237 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–237 not applicable to sale of any pseudoephedrine or phenylpropanolamine product prior to 12 months after Oct. 3, 1996, except that, on application of manufacturer of particular drug product, Attorney General may exercise sole and judicially unreviewable discretion to extend such effective date up to additional 6 months, see section 401(g) of Pub. L. 104–237, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on date that is 120 days after Dec. 17, 1993, see section 11 of Pub. L. 103–200, set out as an Effective Date of 1993 Amendment note under section 802 of this title.