[USC10] 22 USC Ch. 53B: FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES HISTORICAL SERIES
Result 1 of 1
   
 
22 USC Ch. 53B: FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES HISTORICAL SERIES
From Title 22—FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE

CHAPTER 53B—FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES HISTORICAL SERIES

Sec.
4351.
General authority and contents of publication.
4352.
Responsibility for preparation of FRUS series.
4353.
Procedures for identifying records for FRUS series; declassification, revisions, and summaries.
4354.
Declassification of State Department records.
4355.
Relationship to Privacy Act and Freedom of Information Act.
4356.
Advisory Committee.
4357.
Definitions.

        

§4351. General authority and contents of publication

(a) Charter of publication

The Department of State shall continue to publish the "Foreign Relations of the United States historical series" (hereafter in this chapter referred to as the "FRUS series"), which shall be a thorough, accurate, and reliable documentary record of major United States foreign policy decisions and significant United States diplomatic activity. Volumes of this publication shall include all records needed to provide a comprehensive documentation of the major foreign policy decisions and actions of the United States Government, including the facts which contributed to the formulation of policies and records providing supporting and alternative views to the policy position ultimately adopted.

(b) Editing principles

The editing of records for preparation of the FRUS series shall be guided by the principles of historical objectivity and accuracy. Records shall not be altered and deletions shall not be made without indicating in the published text that a deletion has been made. The published record shall omit no facts which were of major importance in reaching a decision, and nothing shall be omitted for the purpose of concealing a defect of policy.

(c) Deadline for publication of records

The Secretary of State shall ensure that the FRUS series shall be published not more than 30 years after the events recorded.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, title IV, §401, as added Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(a), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 685.)

Compliance With Deadline for Publication of FRUS Series; Notification to Congressional Committees on Failure To Comply; Final Deadline

Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(c)(2), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 691, provided that:

"(A) In order to come into compliance with section 401(c) of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 [22 U.S.C. 4351(c)] (as amended by this section) the Secretary of State shall ensure that, by the end of the 3-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1991], all volumes of the Foreign Relations of the United States historical series (FRUS) for the years that are more than 30 years before the end of that 3-year period have been published.

"(B) If the Secretary cannot reasonably meet the requirements of subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and describe how the Department of State plans to meet the requirements of subparagraph (A). In no event shall volumes subject to subparagraph (A) be published later than 5 years after the date of the enactment of this Act."

§4352. Responsibility for preparation of FRUS series

(a) In general

(1)(A) The Historian of the Department of State shall be responsible for the preparation of the FRUS series, including the selection of records, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(B) The Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation shall review records, and shall advise and make recommendations to the Historian concerning all aspects of preparation and publication of the FRUS series, including, in accordance with the procedures contained in section 4353 of this title, the review and selection of records for inclusion in volumes of the series.

(2) Other departments, agencies, and other entities of the United States Government shall cooperate with the Office of the Historian by providing full and complete access to the records pertinent to United States foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records in accordance with the procedures developed under section 4353 of this title, except that no access to any record, and no provision of any copy of a record, shall be required in the case of any record that was prepared less than 26 years before the date of a request for such access or copy made by the Office of the Historian.

(b) National Archives and Records Administration

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the requirement for the National Archives and Records Administration to provide access to, and copies of, records to the Department of State for the FRUS series shall be governed by chapter 21 of title 44, by any agreement concluded between the Department of State and the National Archives and Records Administration, and, in the case of Presidential records, by section 2204 of such title.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, title IV, §402, as added Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(a), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 685.)

Authority of Secretary of State

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and references to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of this title and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

§4353. Procedures for identifying records for FRUS series; declassification, revisions, and summaries

(a) Development of procedures

Not later than 180 days after October 28, 1991, each department, agency, or other entity of the United States Government engaged in foreign policy formulation, execution, or support shall develop procedures for its historical office (or a designated individual in the event that there is no historical office)—

(1) to coordinate with the State Department's Office of the Historian in selecting records for possible inclusion in the FRUS series;

(2) to permit full access to the original, unrevised records by such individuals holding appropriate security clearances as have been designated by the Historian as liaison to that department, agency, or entity, for purposes of this chapter, and by members of the Advisory Committee; and

(3) to permit access to specific types of records not selected for inclusion in the FRUS series by the individuals identified in paragraph (2) when requested by the Historian in order to confirm that records selected by that department, agency, or entity accurately represent the policymaking process reflected in the relevant part of the FRUS series.

(b) Declassification review

(1) Subject to the provisions of this subsection, records selected by the Historian for inclusion in the FRUS series shall be submitted to the respective originating agency for declassification review in accordance with that agency's procedures for such review, except that such declassification review shall be completed by the originating agency within 120 days after such records are submitted for review. If the originating agency determines that any such record is not declassifiable because of a continuing need to protect sources and methods for the collection of intelligence information or to protect other sensitive national security information, then the originating agency shall attempt to make such deletions in the text as will make the record declassifiable.

(2) If the Historian determines that the meaning of the records proposed for inclusion in a volume of the FRUS series would be so altered or changed by deletions made under paragraph (1) that publication in that condition could be misleading or lead to an inaccurate or incomplete historical record, then the Historian shall take steps to achieve a satisfactory resolution of the problem with the originating agency. Within 60 days of receiving a proposed solution from the Historian, the originating agency shall furnish the Historian a written response agreeing to the solution or explaining the reasons for the alteration or deletion.

(3) The Historian shall inform the Advisory Committee of any failure by an originating agency to complete its declassification review of a record within 120 days and of any steps taken under paragraph (2).

(4) If the Advisory Committee determines that the meaning of the records proposed for inclusion in a volume of the FRUS series would be so altered or changed by deletions made under paragraph (1), or if the Advisory Committee determines as a result of inspection of other documents under subsection (a)(3) that the selection of documents could be misleading or lead to an inaccurate or incomplete historical record, then the Advisory Committee shall so advise the Secretary of State and submit recommendations to resolve the issue.

(5)(A) The Advisory Committee shall have full and complete access to the original text of any record in which deletions have been made. In the event that the head of any originating agency considers it necessary to deny access by the Advisory Committee to the original text of any record, that agency head shall promptly notify the Advisory Committee in writing, describing the nature of the record in question and the justification for withholding that record.

(B) The Historian shall provide the Advisory Committee with a complete list of the records described in subparagraph (A).

(6) If a record is deleted in whole or in part as a result of review under this subsection then a note to that effect shall be inserted at the appropriate place in the FRUS volume.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, title IV, §403, as added Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(a), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 686.)

Authority of Secretary of State

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and references to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of this title and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.

§4354. Declassification of State Department records

(a) Deadline for declassification

(1) Except as provided in subsection (b), each classified record of permanent historical value (as determined by the Secretary of State and the Archivist of the United States) which was published, issued, or otherwise prepared by the Department of State (or any officer or employee thereof acting in an official capacity) shall be declassified not later than 30 years after the record was prepared, shall be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration, and shall be made available at the National Archives for public inspection and copying.

(2) Nothing in this subsection may be construed to require the declassification of a record wholly prepared by a foreign government.

(b) Exempted records

Subsection (a) shall not apply to any record (or portion thereof) the publication of which the Secretary of State, in coordination with any agency that originated information in the records, determines—

(1) would compromise weapons technology important to the national defense of the United States or reveal sensitive information relating to the design of United States or foreign military equipment or relating to United States cryptologic systems or activities;

(2) would disclose the names or identities of living persons who provided confidential information to the United States and would pose a substantial risk of harm to such persons;

(3) would demonstrably impede current diplomatic negotiations or other ongoing official activities of the United States Government or would demonstrably impair the national security of the United States; or

(4) would disclose matters that are related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of the Department of State or are contained in personnel, medical, or similar files the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

(c) Review

(1) The Advisory Committee shall review—

(A) the State Department's declassification procedures,

(B) all guidelines used in declassification, including those guidelines provided to the National Archives and Records Administration which are in effect on October 28, 1991, and

(C) by random sampling, records representative of all Department of State records published, issued, or otherwise prepared by the Department of State that remain classified after 30 years.


(2) In the event that the Secretary of State considers it necessary to deny access to records under paragraph (1)(C), the Secretary shall notify the Advisory Committee in writing, describing the nature of the records in question and the justification for withholding them.

(d) Annual reports by the Advisory Committee

The Advisory Committee shall annually submit to the Secretary of State and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives a report setting forth its findings from the review conducted under subsection (c).

(e) Annual reports by the Secretary

(1) In general

Not later than March 1 of each year, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives on the compliance of the Department of State with the provisions of this chapter, including—

(A) the volumes published in the previous calendar year;

(B) the degree to which the Department is not in compliance with the deadline set forth in section 4351(c) of this title; and

(C) the factors relevant to the inability of the Department to comply with the provisions of this chapter, including section 4351(c) of this title.

(2) Form of reports

Each report required to be submitted by paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, together with a classified annex if necessary.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, title IV, §404, as added Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(a), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 687; amended Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title II, §205, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1363.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–228, §205(a), substituted "Annual reports by the Advisory Committee" for "Reporting requirement" in heading and inserted "and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives" after "Secretary of State" in text.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–228, §205(b), substituted "Annual reports by the Secretary" for "Report to Congress" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Not later than 180 days after October 28, 1991, the Secretary of State shall prepare and submit a written report to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate on factors relevant to compliance with this section, and the procedures to be used for implementing the requirements of this section."

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Compliance With Declassification of State Department Records; Notification to Congressional Committees on Inability To Comply; Final Deadline

Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(c)(1), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 691, provided that: "The Secretary of State shall ensure that the requirements of section 404 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 [22 U.S.C. 4354] (as amended by this section) are met not later than one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1991]. If the Secretary cannot reasonably meet the requirements of such section, he shall so notify the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and describe how the Department of State intends to meet the requirements of that section. In no event shall full compliance with the requirements of such section take place later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act."

§4355. Relationship to Privacy Act and Freedom of Information Act

(a) Privacy Act

Nothing in this chapter may be construed as requiring the public disclosure of records or portions of records protected under section 552a of title 5 (relating to the privacy of personal records).

(b) Freedom of Information Act

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), no record (or portion thereof) shall be excluded from publication in the FRUS series under section 4353 of this title, or exempted from the declassification requirement of section 4354 of this title, solely by virtue of the application of section 552(b) of title 5 (relating to the exemption of certain matters from freedom of information requirements).

(2) Records described in section 1202(f) of title 8 (relating to visa records) shall be excluded from publication in the FRUS series under section 4353 of this title and, to the extent applicable, exempted from the declassification requirement of section 4354 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, title IV, §405, as added Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(a), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 688.)

§4356. Advisory Committee

(a) Establishment

(1) There is established on a permanent basis the Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation for the Department of State. The activities of the Advisory Committee shall be coordinated by the Office of the Historian of the Department of State.

(2) The Advisory Committee shall be composed of 9 members and an executive secretary. The Historian shall serve as executive secretary.

(3)(A) The members of the Advisory Committee shall be appointed by the Secretary of State from among distinguished historians, political scientists, archivists, international lawyers, and other social scientists who have a demonstrable record of substantial research pertaining to the foreign relations of the United States. No officer or employee of the United States Government shall be appointed to the Advisory Committee.

(B)(i) Six members of the Advisory Committee shall be appointed from lists of individuals nominated by the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, the American Political Science Association, Society of American Archivists, the American Society of International Law, and the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations. One member shall be appointed from each list.

(ii) If an organization does not submit a list of nominees under clause (i) in a timely fashion, the Secretary of State shall make an appointment from among the nominees on other lists.

(b) Terms of service for appointments

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), members of the Advisory Committee shall be appointed for terms of three years.

(2) Of the members first appointed, as designated by the Secretary of State at the time of their appointment (after consultation with the appropriate organizations) three shall be appointed for terms of one year, three shall be appointed for terms of two years, and three shall be appointed for terms of three years.

(3) Each term of service under paragraph (1) shall begin on September 1 of the year in which the appointment is made.

(4) A vacancy in the membership of the Advisory Committee shall be filled in the same manner as provided under this subsection to make the original appointment. A member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of a term shall serve for the remainder of that term. A member may continue to serve when his or her term expires until a successor is appointed. A member may be appointed to a new term upon the expiration of his or her term.

(c) Selection of chairperson

The Advisory Committee shall select, from among its members, a chairperson to serve a term of 1 year. A chairperson may be reelected upon expiration of his or her term as chairperson.

(d) Meetings

A majority of the members of the Advisory Committee shall constitute a quorum. The Advisory Committee shall meet at least quarterly or as frequently as may be necessary to carry out its duties.

(e) Security clearances

(1) All members of the Advisory Committee shall be granted the necessary security clearances, subject to the standard procedures for granting such clearances.

(2) For purposes of any law or regulation governing access to classified records, a member of the Advisory Committee seeking access under this paragraph to a record shall be deemed to have a need to know.

(f) Compensation

(1) Members of the Advisory Committee—

(A) shall each receive compensation at a rate of not to exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay payable for positions at GS–15 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5 for each day such member is engaged in the actual performance of the duties of the Advisory Committee; and

(B) shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services of the Advisory Committee.


(2) The Secretary of State is authorized to provide for necessary secretarial and staff assistance for the Advisory Committee.

(3) The Federal Advisory Committee Act shall not apply to the Advisory Committee to the extent that the provisions of this chapter are inconsistent with that Act.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, title IV, §406, as added Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(a), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 688.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Termination of Previous Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation

Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(b), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 691, provided that: "The Advisory Committee on Historical Documentation for the Department of State established before the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1991] shall terminate on such date."

§4357. Definitions

For purposes of this chapter—

(1) the term "Advisory Committee" means the Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation for the Department of State;

(2) the term "Historian" means the Historian of the Department of State or any successor officer of the Department of State responsible for carrying out the functions of the Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, of the Department of State, as in effect on October 28, 1991;

(3) the term "originating agency" means, with respect to a record, the department, agency, or entity of the United States (or any officer or employee thereof of acting in his official capacity) that originates, develops, publishes, issues, or otherwise prepares that record or receives that record from outside the United States Government; and

(4) the term "record" includes any written material (including any document, memorandum, correspondence, statistical data, book, or other papers), map, photograph, machine readable material, or other documentary material, regardless of physical form or characteristics, made or received by an agency of the United States Government under Federal law or in connection with the transaction of public business and preserved or appropriate for preservation by that agency or its legitimate successor as evidence of the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities of the Government or because of the informational value in them, and such term does not include library or museum material made or acquired and preserved solely for reference or exhibition purposes, any extra copy of a document preserved only for convenience of reference, or any stocks of publications or of processed documents.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, title IV, §407, as added Pub. L. 102–138, title I, §198(a), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 690.)

Authority of Secretary of State

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and references to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of this title and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as a note under section 2651a of this title.