29 USC Ch. 32: WORKFORCE INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITY
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29 USC Ch. 32: WORKFORCE INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITY
From Title 29—LABOR

CHAPTER 32—WORKFORCE INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITY

Sec.
3101.
Purposes.
3102.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

Part A—System Alignment

subpart 1—state provisions

3111.
State workforce development boards.
3112.
Unified State plan.
3113.
Combined State plan.

        

subpart 2—local provisions

3121.
Workforce development areas.
3122.
Local workforce development boards.
3123.
Local plan.

        

subpart 3—board provisions

3131.
Funding of State and local boards.

        

subpart 4—performance accountability

3141.
Performance accountability system.

        

Part B—Workforce Investment Activities and Providers

subpart 1—workforce investment activities and providers

3151.
Establishment of one-stop delivery systems.
3152.
Identification of eligible providers of training services.
3153.
Eligible providers of youth workforce investment activities.

        

subpart 2—youth workforce investment activities

3161.
General authorization.
3162.
State allotments.
3163.
Within State allocations.
3164.
Use of funds for youth workforce investment activities.

        

subpart 3—adult and dislocated worker employment and training activities

3171.
General authorization.
3172.
State allotments.
3173.
Within State allocations.
3174.
Use of funds for employment and training activities.

        

subpart 4—general workforce investment provisions

3181.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part C—Job Corps

3191.
Purposes.
3192.
Definitions.
3193.
Establishment.
3193a.
Transfer of administration of Job Corps program to Employment and Training Administration.
3194.
Individuals eligible for the Job Corps.
3195.
Recruitment, screening, selection, and assignment of enrollees.
3196.
Enrollment.
3197.
Job Corps centers.
3198.
Program activities.
3199.
Counseling and job placement.
3200.
Support.
3201.
Operations.
3202.
Standards of conduct.
3203.
Community participation.
3204.
Workforce councils.
3205.
Advisory committees.
3206.
Experimental projects and technical assistance.
3207.
Application of provisions of Federal law.
3208.
Special provisions.
3209.
Management information.
3210.
General provisions.
3211.
Job Corps oversight and reporting.
3212.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part D—National Programs

3221.
Native American programs.
3222.
Migrant and seasonal farmworker programs.
3223.
Technical assistance.
3224.
Evaluations and research.
3224a.
Job training grants.
3225.
National dislocated worker grants.
3226.
YouthBuild program.
3226a.
Re-enrollment in alternative school by high-school dropout.
3227.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part E—Administration

3241.
Requirements and restrictions.
3242.
Prompt allocation of funds.
3243.
Monitoring.
3244.
Fiscal controls; sanctions.
3245.
Reports; recordkeeping; investigations.
3246.
Administrative adjudication.
3247.
Judicial review.
3248.
Nondiscrimination.
3249.
Secretarial administrative authorities and responsibilities.
3250.
Workforce flexibility plans.
3251.
State legislative authority.
3252.
Transfer of Federal equity in State employment security agency real property to the States.
3253.
Continuation of State activities and policies.
3254.
General program requirements.
3255.
Restrictions on lobbying activities.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ADULT EDUCATION AND LITERACY

3271.
Purpose.
3272.
Definitions.
3273.
Home schools.
3274.
Rule of construction regarding postsecondary transition and concurrent enrollment activities.
3275.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

Part A—Federal Provisions

3291.
Reservation of funds; grants to eligible agencies; allotments.
3292.
Performance accountability system.
3293.
Educational assistance and training.

        

Part B—State Provisions

3301.
State administration.
3302.
State distribution of funds; matching requirement.
3303.
State leadership activities.
3304.
State plan.
3305.
Programs for corrections education and other institutionalized individuals.

        

Part C—Local Provisions

3321.
Grants and contracts for eligible providers.
3322.
Local application.
3323.
Local administrative cost limits.

        

Part D—General Provisions

3331.
Administrative provisions.
3332.
National leadership activities.
3333.
Integrated English literacy and civics education.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Part A—Workforce Investment

3341.
Privacy.
3342.
Buy-American requirements.
3343.
Transition provisions.
3344.
Reduction of reporting burdens and requirements.

        

Part B—Miscellaneous Provisions

3361.
References.

        

§3101. Purposes

The purposes of this Act are the following:

(1) To increase, for individuals in the United States, particularly those individuals with barriers to employment, access to and opportunities for the employment, education, training, and support services they need to succeed in the labor market.

(2) To support the alignment of workforce investment, education, and economic development systems in support of a comprehensive, accessible, and high-quality workforce development system in the United States.

(3) To improve the quality and labor market relevance of workforce investment, education, and economic development efforts to provide America's workers with the skills and credentials necessary to secure and advance in employment with family-sustaining wages and to provide America's employers with the skilled workers the employers need to succeed in a global economy.

(4) To promote improvement in the structure of and delivery of services through the United States workforce development system to better address the employment and skill needs of workers, jobseekers, and employers.

(5) To increase the prosperity of workers and employers in the United States, the economic growth of communities, regions, and States, and the global competitiveness of the United States.

(6) For purposes of parts A and B of subchapter I, to provide workforce investment activities, through statewide and local workforce development systems, that increase the employment, retention, and earnings of participants, and increase attainment of recognized postsecondary credentials by participants, and as a result, improve the quality of the workforce, reduce welfare dependency, increase economic self-sufficiency, meet the skill requirements of employers, and enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the Nation.

(Pub. L. 113–128, §2, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1428.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §506, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act, this Act [see Tables for classification], including the amendments made by this Act, shall take effect on the first day of the first full program year after the date of enactment of this Act [July 22, 2014].

"(b) Application Date for Workforce Development Performance Accountability System.—

"(1) In general.—Section 136 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 2871), as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act, shall apply in lieu of section 116 of this Act [29 U.S.C. 3141], for the first full program year after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(2) Special provisions.—For purposes of the application described in paragraph (1)—

"(A) except as otherwise specified, a reference in section 136 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to a provision in such Act (29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.), other than to a provision in such section or section 112 of such Act [29 U.S.C. 2822], shall be deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of this Act;

"(B) the terms 'local area', 'local board', 'one-stop partner', and 'State board' have the meanings given the terms in section 3 of this Act [29 U.S.C. 3102];

"(C) except as provided in subparagraph (B), terms used in such section 136 shall have the meanings given the terms in section 101 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 2801);

"(D) any agreement negotiated and reached under section 136(c)(2) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 2871(c)(2)) shall remain in effect, until a new agreement is so negotiated and reached, for that first full program year;

"(E) if a State or local area fails to meet levels of performance under subsection (g) or (h), respectively, of section 136 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2871(g), (h)] during that first full program year, the sanctions provided under such subsection shall apply during the second full program year [probably means beginning July 1, 2016] after the date of enactment of this Act; and

"(F) the Secretary shall use an amount retained, as a result of a reduction in an allotment to a State made under section 136(g)(1)(B) of such Act (29 U.S.C. 2871(g)(1)(B)), to provide technical assistance as described in subsections (f)(1) and (g)(1) of section 116 of this Act [29 U.S.C. 3141(f)(1), (g)(1)], in lieu of incentive grants under section 503 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (20 U.S.C. 9273) as provided in section 136(g)(2) of such Act (29 U.S.C. 2871(g)(2)).

"(c) Application Date for State and Local Plan Provisions.—

"(1) Implementation.—Sections 112 and 118 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 2822, 2833), as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act, shall apply to implementation of State and local plans, in lieu of sections 102 and 103, and section 108, respectively, of this Act [29 U.S.C. 3112, 3113, 3123], for the first full program year after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(2) Special provisions.—For purposes of the application described in paragraph (1)—

"(A) except as otherwise specified, a reference in section 112 or 118 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to a provision in such Act (29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.), other than to a provision in or to either such section or to section 136 of such Act, shall be deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of this Act;

"(B) the terms 'local area', 'local board', 'one-stop partner', and 'State board' have the meanings given the terms in section 3 of this Act;

"(C) except as provided in subparagraph (B), terms used in such section 112 or 118 shall have the meanings given the terms in section 101 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 2801); and

"(D) section 112(b)(18)(D) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (29 U.S.C. 2822(b)(18)(D)) shall not apply.

"(3) Submission.—Sections 102, 103, and 108 of this Act shall apply to plans for the second full program year after the date of enactment, including the development, submission, and approval of such plans during the first full program year after such date.

"(d) Disability Provisions.—Except as otherwise provided in title IV of this Act, title IV [see Tables for classification], and the amendments made by title IV, shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act."

[The first full program year after the date of enactment of Pub. L. 113–128, referred to in section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out above, begins on July 1, 2015, based on section 189(g)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 113–128, which is classified to section 3249(g)(1)(A) of this title.]

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–18, §1, May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 213, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 780, 3112, 3121, 3122, 3141, 3164, 3172, and 3174 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 780 and 3112 of this title] may be cited as the 'WIOA Technical Amendments Act'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 113–128, §1(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act'."

Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §201, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1608, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter II of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Adult Education and Family Literacy Act'."

Declaration of Policy

Pub. L. 102–367, title I, §101(a), Sept. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1022, provided that: "In recognition of the training needs of low-income adults and youth, the Congress declares it to be the policy of the United States to—

"(1) provide financial assistance to States and local service delivery areas to meet the training needs of such low-income adults and youth, and to assist such individuals in obtaining unsubsidized employment;

"(2) increase the funds available for programs under title II of the Job Training Partnership Act ([former] 29 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) by not less than 10 percent of the baseline each fiscal year to provide for growth in the percentage of eligible adults and youth served above the 5 percent of the eligible population that is currently served; and

"(3) encourage the provision of longer, more comprehensive, education, training, and employment services to the eligible population, which also requires increased funding in order to maintain current service levels."

§3102. Definitions

In this Act, and the core program provisions that are not in this Act, except as otherwise expressly provided:

(1) Administrative costs

The term "administrative costs" means expenditures incurred by State boards and local boards, direct recipients (including State grant recipients under part B of subchapter I and recipients of awards under parts C and D of subchapter I), local grant recipients, local fiscal agents or local grant subrecipients, and one-stop operators in the performance of administrative functions and in carrying out activities under subchapter I that are not related to the direct provision of workforce investment services (including services to participants and employers). Such costs include both personnel and nonpersonnel costs and both direct and indirect costs.

(2) Adult

Except as otherwise specified in section 3172 of this title, the term "adult" means an individual who is age 18 or older.

(3) Adult education; adult education and literacy activities

The terms "adult education" and "adult education and literacy activities" have the meanings given the terms in section 3272 of this title.

(4) Area career and technical education school

The term "area career and technical education school" has the meaning given the term in section 2302 of title 20.

(5) Basic skills deficient

The term "basic skills deficient" means, with respect to an individual—

(A) who is a youth, that the individual has English reading, writing, or computing skills at or below the 8th grade level on a generally accepted standardized test; or

(B) who is a youth or adult, that the individual is unable to compute or solve problems, or read, write, or speak English, at a level necessary to function on the job, in the individual's family, or in society.

(6) Career and technical education

The term "career and technical education" has the meaning given the term in section 2302 of title 20.

(7) Career pathway

The term "career pathway" means a combination of rigorous and high-quality education, training, and other services that—

(A) aligns with the skill needs of industries in the economy of the State or regional economy involved;

(B) prepares an individual to be successful in any of a full range of secondary or postsecondary education options, including apprenticeships registered under the Act of August 16, 1937 (commonly known as the "National Apprenticeship Act"; 50 Stat. 664, chapter 663; 29 U.S.C. 50 et seq.) (referred to individually in this Act as an "apprenticeship", except in section 3226 of this title);

(C) includes counseling to support an individual in achieving the individual's education and career goals;

(D) includes, as appropriate, education offered concurrently with and in the same context as workforce preparation activities and training for a specific occupation or occupational cluster;

(E) organizes education, training, and other services to meet the particular needs of an individual in a manner that accelerates the educational and career advancement of the individual to the extent practicable;

(F) enables an individual to attain a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent, and at least 1 recognized postsecondary credential; and

(G) helps an individual enter or advance within a specific occupation or occupational cluster.

(8) Career planning

The term "career planning" means the provision of a client-centered approach in the delivery of services, designed—

(A) to prepare and coordinate comprehensive employment plans, such as service strategies, for participants to ensure access to necessary workforce investment activities and supportive services, using, where feasible, computer-based technologies; and

(B) to provide job, education, and career counseling, as appropriate during program participation and after job placement.

(9) Chief elected official

The term "chief elected official" means—

(A) the chief elected executive officer of a unit of general local government in a local area; and

(B) in a case in which a local area includes more than 1 unit of general local government, the individuals designated under the agreement described in section 3122(c)(1)(B) of this title.

(10) Community-based organization

The term "community-based organization" means a private nonprofit organization (which may include a faith-based organization), that is representative of a community or a significant segment of a community and that has demonstrated expertise and effectiveness in the field of workforce development.

(11) Competitive integrated employment

The term "competitive integrated employment" has the meaning given the term in section 7 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 705), for individuals with disabilities.

(12) Core program

The term "core programs" means a program authorized under a core program provision.

(13) Core program provision

The term "core program provision" means—

(A) subparts 2 and 3 of part B of subchapter I (relating to youth workforce investment activities and adult and dislocated worker employment and training activities);

(B) subchapter II (relating to adult education and literacy activities);

(C) sections 1 through 13 of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.) (relating to employment services); and

(D) title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.), other than section 112 or part C of that title (29 U.S.C. 732, 741) (relating to vocational rehabilitation services).

(14) Customized training

The term "customized training" means training—

(A) that is designed to meet the specific requirements of an employer (including a group of employers);

(B) that is conducted with a commitment by the employer to employ an individual upon successful completion of the training; and

(C) for which the employer pays—

(i) a significant portion of the cost of training, as determined by the local board involved, taking into account the size of the employer and such other factors as the local board determines to be appropriate, which may include the number of employees participating in training, wage and benefit levels of those employees (at present and anticipated upon completion of the training), relation of the training to the competitiveness of a participant, and other employer-provided training and advancement opportunities; and

(ii) in the case of customized training (as defined in subparagraphs (A) and (B)) involving an employer located in multiple local areas in the State, a significant portion of the cost of the training, as determined by the Governor of the State, taking into account the size of the employer and such other factors as the Governor determines to be appropriate.

(15) Dislocated worker

The term "dislocated worker" means an individual who—

(A)(i) has been terminated or laid off, or who has received a notice of termination or layoff, from employment;

(ii)(I) is eligible for or has exhausted entitlement to unemployment compensation; or

(II) has been employed for a duration sufficient to demonstrate, to the appropriate entity at a one-stop center referred to in section 3151(e) of this title, attachment to the workforce, but is not eligible for unemployment compensation due to insufficient earnings or having performed services for an employer that were not covered under a State unemployment compensation law; and

(iii) is unlikely to return to a previous industry or occupation;

(B)(i) has been terminated or laid off, or has received a notice of termination or layoff, from employment as a result of any permanent closure of, or any substantial layoff at, a plant, facility, or enterprise;

(ii) is employed at a facility at which the employer has made a general announcement that such facility will close within 180 days; or

(iii) for purposes of eligibility to receive services other than training services described in section 3174(c)(3) of this title, career services described in section 3174(c)(2)(A)(xii) of this title, or supportive services, is employed at a facility at which the employer has made a general announcement that such facility will close;

(C) was self-employed (including employment as a farmer, a rancher, or a fisherman) but is unemployed as a result of general economic conditions in the community in which the individual resides or because of natural disasters;

(D) is a displaced homemaker; or

(E)(i) is the spouse of a member of the Armed Forces on active duty (as defined in section 101(d)(1) of title 10), and who has experienced a loss of employment as a direct result of relocation to accommodate a permanent change in duty station of such member; or

(ii) is the spouse of a member of the Armed Forces on active duty and who meets the criteria described in paragraph (16)(B).

(16) Displaced homemaker

The term "displaced homemaker" means an individual who has been providing unpaid services to family members in the home and who—

(A)(i) has been dependent on the income of another family member but is no longer supported by that income; or

(ii) is the dependent spouse of a member of the Armed Forces on active duty (as defined in section 101(d)(1) of title 10) and whose family income is significantly reduced because of a deployment (as defined in section 991(b) of title 10 or pursuant to paragraph (4) of such section), a call or order to active duty pursuant to a provision of law referred to in section 101(a)(13)(B) of title 10, a permanent change of station, or the service-connected (as defined in section 101(16) of title 38) death or disability of the member; and

(B) is unemployed or underemployed and is experiencing difficulty in obtaining or upgrading employment.

(17) Economic development agency

The term "economic development agency" includes a local planning or zoning commission or board, a community development agency, or another local agency or institution responsible for regulating, promoting, or assisting in local economic development.

(18) Eligible youth

Except as provided in parts C and D of subchapter I, the term "eligible youth" means an in-school youth or out-of-school youth.

(19) Employment and training activity

The term "employment and training activity" means an activity described in section 3174 of this title that is carried out for an adult or dislocated worker.

(20) English language acquisition program

The term "English language acquisition program" has the meaning given the term in section 3272 of this title.

(21) English language learner

The term "English language learner" has the meaning given the term in section 3272 of this title.

(22) Governor

The term "Governor" means the chief executive of a State or an outlying area.

(23) In-demand industry sector or occupation

(A) In general

The term "in-demand industry sector or occupation" means—

(i) an industry sector that has a substantial current or potential impact (including through jobs that lead to economic self-sufficiency and opportunities for advancement) on the State, regional, or local economy, as appropriate, and that contributes to the growth or stability of other supporting businesses, or the growth of other industry sectors; or

(ii) an occupation that currently has or is projected to have a number of positions (including positions that lead to economic self-sufficiency and opportunities for advancement) in an industry sector so as to have a significant impact on the State, regional, or local economy, as appropriate.

(B) Determination

The determination of whether an industry sector or occupation is in-demand under this paragraph shall be made by the State board or local board, as appropriate, using State and regional business and labor market projections, including the use of labor market information.

(24) Individual with a barrier to employment

The term "individual with a barrier to employment" means a member of 1 or more of the following populations:

(A) Displaced homemakers.

(B) Low-income individuals.

(C) Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians, as such terms are defined in section 3221 of this title.

(D) Individuals with disabilities, including youth who are individuals with disabilities.

(E) Older individuals.

(F) Ex-offenders.

(G) Homeless individuals (as defined in section 14043e–2(6) of title 42), or homeless children and youths (as defined in section 11434a(2) of title 42).

(H) Youth who are in or have aged out of the foster care system.

(I) Individuals who are English language learners, individuals who have low levels of literacy, and individuals facing substantial cultural barriers.

(J) Eligible migrant and seasonal farmworkers, as defined in section 3222(i) of this title.

(K) Individuals within 2 years of exhausting lifetime eligibility under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.).

(L) Single parents (including single pregnant women).

(M) Long-term unemployed individuals.

(N) Such other groups as the Governor involved determines to have barriers to employment.

(25) Individual with a disability

(A) In general

The term "individual with a disability" means an individual with a disability as defined in section 12102 of title 42.

(B) Individuals with disabilities

The term "individuals with disabilities" means more than 1 individual with a disability.

(26) Industry or sector partnership

The term "industry or sector partnership" means a workforce collaborative, convened by or acting in partnership with a State board or local board, that—

(A) organizes key stakeholders in an industry cluster into a working group that focuses on the shared goals and human resources needs of the industry cluster and that includes, at the appropriate stage of development of the partnership—

(i) representatives of multiple businesses or other employers in the industry cluster, including small and medium-sized employers when practicable;

(ii) 1 or more representatives of a recognized State labor organization or central labor council, or another labor representative, as appropriate; and

(iii) 1 or more representatives of an institution of higher education with, or another provider of, education or training programs that support the industry cluster; and


(B) may include representatives of—

(i) State or local government;

(ii) State or local economic development agencies;

(iii) State boards or local boards, as appropriate;

(iv) a State workforce agency or other entity providing employment services;

(v) other State or local agencies;

(vi) business or trade associations;

(vii) economic development organizations;

(viii) nonprofit organizations, community-based organizations, or intermediaries;

(ix) philanthropic organizations;

(x) industry associations; and

(xi) other organizations, as determined to be necessary by the members comprising the industry or sector partnership.

(27) In-school youth

The term "in-school youth" means a youth described in section 3164(a)(1)(C) of this title.

(28) Institution of higher education

The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001 of title 20, and subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1002(a)(1), of title 20.

(29) Integrated education and training

The term "integrated education and training" has the meaning given the term in section 3272 of this title.

(30) Labor market area

The term "labor market area" means an economically integrated geographic area within which individuals can reside and find employment within a reasonable distance or can readily change employment without changing their place of residence. Such an area shall be identified in accordance with criteria used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor in defining such areas or similar criteria established by a Governor.

(31) Literacy

The term "literacy" has the meaning given the term in section 3272 of this title.

(32) Local area

The term "local area" means a local workforce investment area designated under section 3121 of this title, subject to sections 3121(c)(3)(A), 3122(c)(4)(B)(i), and 3249(i) of this title.

(33) Local board

The term "local board" means a local workforce development board established under section 3122 of this title, subject to section 3122(c)(4)(B)(i) of this title.

(34) Local educational agency

The term "local educational agency" has the meaning given the term in section 7801 of title 20.

(35) Local plan

The term "local plan" means a plan submitted under section 3123 of this title, subject to section 3121(c)(3)(B) of this title.

(36) Low-income individual

(A) In general

The term "low-income individual" means an individual who—

(i) receives, or in the past 6 months has received, or is a member of a family that is receiving or in the past 6 months has received, assistance through the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), the program of block grants to States for temporary assistance for needy families program under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), or the supplemental security income program established under title XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.), or State or local income-based public assistance;

(ii) is in a family with total family income that does not exceed the higher of—

(I) the poverty line; or

(II) 70 percent of the lower living standard income level;


(iii) is a homeless individual (as defined in section 14043e–2(6) of title 42), or a homeless child or youth (as defined under section 11434a(2) of title 42);

(iv) receives or is eligible to receive a free or reduced price lunch under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.);

(v) is a foster child on behalf of whom State or local government payments are made; or

(vi) is an individual with a disability whose own income meets the income requirement of clause (ii), but who is a member of a family whose income does not meet this requirement.

(B) Lower living standard income level

The term "lower living standard income level" means that income level (adjusted for regional, metropolitan, urban, and rural differences and family size) determined annually by the Secretary of Labor based on the most recent lower living family budget issued by the Secretary.

(37) Nontraditional employment

The term "nontraditional employment" refers to occupations or fields of work, for which individuals from the gender involved comprise less than 25 percent of the individuals employed in each such occupation or field of work.

(38) Offender

The term "offender" means an adult or juvenile—

(A) who is or has been subject to any stage of the criminal justice process, and for whom services under this Act may be beneficial; or

(B) who requires assistance in overcoming artificial barriers to employment resulting from a record of arrest or conviction.

(39) Older individual

The term "older individual" means an individual age 55 or older.

(40) One-stop center

The term "one-stop center" means a site described in section 3151(e)(2) of this title.

(41) One-stop operator

The term "one-stop operator" means 1 or more entities designated or certified under section 3151(d) of this title.

(42) One-stop partner

The term "one-stop partner" means—

(A) an entity described in section 3151(b)(1) of this title; and

(B) an entity described in section 3151(b)(2) of this title that is participating, with the approval of the local board and chief elected official, in the operation of a one-stop delivery system.

(43) One-stop partner program

The term "one-stop partner program" means a program or activities described in section 3151(b) of this title of a one-stop partner.

(44) On-the-job training

The term "on-the-job training" means training by an employer that is provided to a paid participant while engaged in productive work in a job that—

(A) provides knowledge or skills essential to the full and adequate performance of the job;

(B) is made available through a program that provides reimbursement to the employer of up to 50 percent of the wage rate of the participant, except as provided in section 3174(c)(3)(H) of this title, for the extraordinary costs of providing the training and additional supervision related to the training; and

(C) is limited in duration as appropriate to the occupation for which the participant is being trained, taking into account the content of the training, the prior work experience of the participant, and the service strategy of the participant, as appropriate.

(45) Outlying area

The term "outlying area" means—

(A) American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands; and

(B) the Republic of Palau, except during any period for which the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education determine that a Compact of Free Association is in effect and contains provisions for training and education assistance prohibiting the assistance provided under this Act.

(46) Out-of-school youth

The term "out-of-school youth" means a youth described in section 3164(a)(1)(B) of this title.

(47) Pay-for-performance contract strategy

The term "pay-for-performance contract strategy" means a procurement strategy that uses pay-for-performance contracts in the provision of training services described in section 3174(c)(3) of this title or activities described in section 3164(c)(2) of this title, and includes—

(A) contracts, each of which shall specify a fixed amount that will be paid to an eligible service provider (which may include a local or national community-based organization or intermediary, community college, or other training provider, that is eligible under section 3152 or 3153 of this title, as appropriate) based on the achievement of specified levels of performance on the primary indicators of performance described in section 3141(b)(2)(A) of this title for target populations as identified by the local board (including individuals with barriers to employment), within a defined timetable, and which may provide for bonus payments to such service provider to expand capacity to provide effective training;

(B) a strategy for independently validating the achievement of the performance described in subparagraph (A); and

(C) a description of how the State or local area will reallocate funds not paid to a provider because the achievement of the performance described in subparagraph (A) did not occur, for further activities related to such a procurement strategy, subject to section 3249(g)(4) of this title.

(48) Planning region

The term "planning region" means a region described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 3121(a)(2) of this title, subject to section 3122(c)(4)(B)(i) of this title.

(49) Poverty line

The term "poverty line" means the poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of title 42) applicable to a family of the size involved.

(50) Public assistance

The term "public assistance" means Federal, State, or local government cash payments for which eligibility is determined by a needs or income test.

(51) Rapid response activity

The term "rapid response activity" means an activity provided by a State, or by an entity designated by a State, with funds provided by the State under section 3174(a)(1)(A) of this title, in the case of a permanent closure or mass layoff at a plant, facility, or enterprise, or a natural or other disaster, that results in mass job dislocation, in order to assist dislocated workers in obtaining reemployment as soon as possible, with services including—

(A) the establishment of onsite contact with employers and employee representatives—

(i) immediately after the State is notified of a current or projected permanent closure or mass layoff; or

(ii) in the case of a disaster, immediately after the State is made aware of mass job dislocation as a result of such disaster;


(B) the provision of information on and access to available employment and training activities;

(C) assistance in establishing a labor-management committee, voluntarily agreed to by labor and management, with the ability to devise and implement a strategy for assessing the employment and training needs of dislocated workers and obtaining services to meet such needs;

(D) the provision of emergency assistance adapted to the particular closure, layoff, or disaster; and

(E) the provision of assistance to the local community in developing a coordinated response and in obtaining access to State economic development assistance.

(52) Recognized postsecondary credential

The term "recognized postsecondary credential" means a credential consisting of an industry-recognized certificate or certification, a certificate of completion of an apprenticeship, a license recognized by the State involved or Federal Government, or an associate or baccalaureate degree.

(53) Region

The term "region", used without further description, means a region identified under section 3121(a) of this title, subject to section 3122(c)(4)(B)(i) of this title and except as provided in section 3121(b)(1)(B)(ii) of this title.

(54) School dropout

The term "school dropout" means an individual who is no longer attending any school and who has not received a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent.

(55) Secondary school

The term "secondary school" has the meaning given the term in section 7801 of title 20.

(56) State

The term "State" means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(57) State board

The term "State board" means a State workforce development board established under section 3111 of this title.

(58) State plan

The term "State plan", used without further description, means a unified State plan under section 3112 of this title or a combined State plan under section 3113 of this title.

(59) Supportive services

The term "supportive services" means services such as transportation, child care, dependent care, housing, and needs-related payments, that are necessary to enable an individual to participate in activities authorized under this Act.

(60) Training services

The term "training services" means services described in section 3174(c)(3) of this title.

(61) Unemployed individual

The term "unemployed individual" means an individual who is without a job and who wants and is available for work. The determination of whether an individual is without a job, for purposes of this paragraph, shall be made in accordance with the criteria used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor in defining individuals as unemployed.

(62) Unit of general local government

The term "unit of general local government" means any general purpose political subdivision of a State that has the power to levy taxes and spend funds, as well as general corporate and police powers.

(63) Veteran; related definition

(A) Veteran

The term "veteran" has the meaning given the term in section 101 of title 38.

(B) Recently separated veteran

The term "recently separated veteran" means any veteran who applies for participation under this Act within 48 months after the discharge or release from active military, naval, or air service.

(64) Vocational rehabilitation program

The term "vocational rehabilitation program" means a program authorized under a provision covered under paragraph (13)(D).

(65) Workforce development activity

The term "workforce development activity" means an activity carried out through a workforce development program.

(66) Workforce development program

The term "workforce development program" means a program made available through a workforce development system.

(67) Workforce development system

The term "workforce development system" means a system that makes available the core programs, the other one-stop partner programs, and any other programs providing employment and training services as identified by a State board or local board.

(68) Workforce investment activity

The term "workforce investment activity" means an employment and training activity, and a youth workforce investment activity.

(69) Workforce preparation activities

The term "workforce preparation activities" has the meaning given the term in section 3272 of this title.

(70) Workplace learning advisor

The term "workplace learning advisor" means an individual employed by an organization who has the knowledge and skills necessary to advise other employees of that organization about the education, skill development, job training, career counseling services, and credentials, including services provided through the workforce development system, required to progress toward career goals of such employees in order to meet employer requirements related to job openings and career advancements that support economic self-sufficiency.

(71) Youth workforce investment activity

The term "youth workforce investment activity" means an activity described in section 3164 of this title that is carried out for eligible youth (or as described in section 3164(a)(3)(A) of this title).

(Pub. L. 113–128, §3, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1429; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(yyy)(1), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2191.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The National Apprenticeship Act, referred to in par. (7)(B), is act Aug. 16, 1937, ch. 663, 50 Stat. 664, which is classified generally to chapter 4C (§50 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 50 of this title and Tables.

The Wagner-Peyser Act, referred to in par. (13)(C), is act June 6, 1933, ch. 49, 48 Stat. 113, which is classified generally to chapter 4B (§49 et seq.) of this title. Sections 1 to 13 of the Act are classified to sections 49 to 49c, 49d, and 49e to 49l of this title, respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 49 of this title and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in par. (13)(D), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§720 et seq.) of chapter 16 of this title. Part C of title I of the Act is classified generally to part C (§741) of subchapter I of chapter 16 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in pars. (24)(K) and (36)(A)(i), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title XVI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XVI (§1381 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in par. (36)(A)(i), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, referred to in par. (36)(A)(iv), is act June 4, 1946, ch. 281, 60 Stat. 230, which is classified generally to chapter 13 (§1751 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1751 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Pars. (34), (55). Pub. L. 114–95 made technical amendments to references in original act which appear in text as references to section 7801 of title 20.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER I—WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

Part A—System Alignment

subpart 1—state provisions

§3111. State workforce development boards

(a) In general

The Governor of a State shall establish a State workforce development board to carry out the functions described in subsection (d).

(b) Membership

(1) In general

The State board shall include—

(A) the Governor;

(B) a member of each chamber of the State legislature (to the extent consistent with State law), appointed by the appropriate presiding officers of such chamber; and

(C) members appointed by the Governor, of which—

(i) a majority shall be representatives of businesses in the State, who—

(I) are owners of businesses, chief executives or operating officers of businesses, or other business executives or employers with optimum policymaking or hiring authority, and who, in addition, may be members of a local board described in section 3122(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title;

(II) represent businesses (including small businesses), or organizations representing businesses described in this subclause, that provide employment opportunities that, at a minimum, include high-quality, work-relevant training and development in in-demand industry sectors or occupations in the State; and

(III) are appointed from among individuals nominated by State business organizations and business trade associations;


(ii) not less than 20 percent shall be representatives of the workforce within the State, who—

(I) shall include representatives of labor organizations, who have been nominated by State labor federations;

(II) shall include a representative, who shall be a member of a labor organization or a training director, from a joint labor-management apprenticeship program, or if no such joint program exists in the State, such a representative of an apprenticeship program in the State;

(III) may include representatives of community-based organizations that have demonstrated experience and expertise in addressing the employment, training, or education needs of individuals with barriers to employment, including organizations that serve veterans or that provide or support competitive, integrated employment for individuals with disabilities; and

(IV) may include representatives of organizations that have demonstrated experience and expertise in addressing the employment, training, or education needs of eligible youth, including representatives of organizations that serve out-of-school youth; and


(iii) the balance—

(I) shall include representatives of government, who—

(aa) shall include the lead State officials with primary responsibility for the core programs; and

(bb) shall include chief elected officials (collectively representing both cities and counties, where appropriate); and


(II) may include such other representatives and officials as the Governor may designate, such as—

(aa) the State agency officials from agencies that are one-stop partners not specified in subclause (I) (including additional one-stop partners whose programs are covered by the State plan, if any);

(bb) State agency officials responsible for economic development or juvenile justice programs in the State;

(cc) individuals who represent an Indian tribe or tribal organization, as such terms are defined in section 3221(b) of this title; and

(dd) State agency officials responsible for education programs in the State, including chief executive officers of community colleges and other institutions of higher education.

(2) Diverse and distinct representation

The members of the State board shall represent diverse geographic areas of the State, including urban, rural, and suburban areas.

(3) No representation of multiple categories

No person shall serve as a member for more than 1 of—

(A) the category described in paragraph (1)(C)(i); or

(B) 1 category described in a subclause of clause (ii) or (iii) of paragraph (1)(C).

(c) Chairperson

The Governor shall select a chairperson for the State board from among the representatives described in subsection (b)(1)(C)(i).

(d) Functions

The State board shall assist the Governor in—

(1) the development, implementation, and modification of the State plan;

(2) consistent with paragraph (1), the review of statewide policies, of statewide programs, and of recommendations on actions that should be taken by the State to align workforce development programs in the State in a manner that supports a comprehensive and streamlined workforce development system in the State, including the review and provision of comments on the State plans, if any, for programs and activities of one-stop partners that are not core programs;

(3) the development and continuous improvement of the workforce development system in the State, including—

(A) the identification of barriers and means for removing barriers to better coordinate, align, and avoid duplication among the programs and activities carried out through the system;

(B) the development of strategies to support the use of career pathways for the purpose of providing individuals, including low-skilled adults, youth, and individuals with barriers to employment (including individuals with disabilities), with workforce investment activities, education, and supportive services to enter or retain employment;

(C) the development of strategies for providing effective outreach to and improved access for individuals and employers who could benefit from services provided through the workforce development system;

(D) the development and expansion of strategies for meeting the needs of employers, workers, and jobseekers, particularly through industry or sector partnerships related to in-demand industry sectors and occupations;

(E) the identification of regions, including planning regions, for the purposes of section 3121(a) of this title, and the designation of local areas under section 3121 of this title, after consultation with local boards and chief elected officials;

(F) the development and continuous improvement of the one-stop delivery system in local areas, including providing assistance to local boards, one-stop operators, one-stop partners, and providers with planning and delivering services, including training services and supportive services, to support effective delivery of services to workers, jobseekers, and employers; and

(G) the development of strategies to support staff training and awareness across programs supported under the workforce development system;


(4) the development and updating of comprehensive State performance accountability measures, including State adjusted levels of performance, to assess the effectiveness of the core programs in the State as required under section 3141(b) of this title;

(5) the identification and dissemination of information on best practices, including best practices for—

(A) the effective operation of one-stop centers, relating to the use of business outreach, partnerships, and service delivery strategies, including strategies for serving individuals with barriers to employment;

(B) the development of effective local boards, which may include information on factors that contribute to enabling local boards to exceed negotiated local levels of performance, sustain fiscal integrity, and achieve other measures of effectiveness; and

(C) effective training programs that respond to real-time labor market analysis, that effectively use direct assessment and prior learning assessment to measure an individual's prior knowledge, skills, competencies, and experiences, and that evaluate such skills, and competencies for adaptability, to support efficient placement into employment or career pathways;


(6) the development and review of statewide policies affecting the coordinated provision of services through the State's one-stop delivery system described in section 3151(e) of this title, including the development of—

(A) objective criteria and procedures for use by local boards in assessing the effectiveness and continuous improvement of one-stop centers described in such section;

(B) guidance for the allocation of one-stop center infrastructure funds under section 3151(h) of this title; and

(C) policies relating to the appropriate roles and contributions of entities carrying out one-stop partner programs within the one-stop delivery system, including approaches to facilitating equitable and efficient cost allocation in such system;


(7) the development of strategies for technological improvements to facilitate access to, and improve the quality of, services and activities provided through the one-stop delivery system, including such improvements to—

(A) enhance digital literacy skills (as defined in section 9101 of title 20; referred to in this Act as "digital literacy skills");

(B) accelerate the acquisition of skills and recognized postsecondary credentials by participants;

(C) strengthen the professional development of providers and workforce professionals; and

(D) ensure such technology is accessible to individuals with disabilities and individuals residing in remote areas;


(8) the development of strategies for aligning technology and data systems across one-stop partner programs to enhance service delivery and improve efficiencies in reporting on performance accountability measures (including the design and implementation of common intake, data collection, case management information, and performance accountability measurement and reporting processes and the incorporation of local input into such design and implementation, to improve coordination of services across one-stop partner programs);

(9) the development of allocation formulas for the distribution of funds for employment and training activities for adults, and youth workforce investment activities, to local areas as permitted under sections 3163(b)(3) and 3173(b)(3) of this title;

(10) the preparation of the annual reports described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 3141(d) of this title;

(11) the development of the statewide workforce and labor market information system described in section 49l–2(e) of this title; and

(12) the development of such other policies as may promote statewide objectives for, and enhance the performance of, the workforce development system in the State.

(e) Alternative entity

(1) In general

For the purposes of complying with subsections (a), (b), and (c), a State may use any State entity (including a State council, State workforce development board (within the meaning of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), combination of regional workforce development boards, or similar entity) that—

(A) was in existence on the day before August 7, 1998;

(B) is substantially similar to the State board described in subsections (a) through (c); and

(C) includes representatives of business in the State and representatives of labor organizations in the State.

(2) References

A reference in this Act, or a core program provision that is not in this Act, to a State board shall be considered to include such an entity.

(f) Conflict of interest

A member of a State board may not—

(1) vote on a matter under consideration by the State board—

(A) regarding the provision of services by such member (or by an entity that such member represents); or

(B) that would provide direct financial benefit to such member or the immediate family of such member; or


(2) engage in any other activity determined by the Governor to constitute a conflict of interest as specified in the State plan.

(g) Sunshine provision

The State board shall make available to the public, on a regular basis through electronic means and open meetings, information regarding the activities of the State board, including information regarding the State plan, or a modification to the State plan, prior to submission of the plan or modification of the plan, respectively, information regarding membership, and, on request, minutes of formal meetings of the State board.

(h) Authority to hire staff

(1) In general

The State board may hire a director and other staff to assist in carrying out the functions described in subsection (d) using funds available as described in section 3164(b)(3) of this title or 3174(a)(3)(B)(i) of this title.

(2) Qualifications

The State board shall establish and apply a set of objective qualifications for the position of director, that ensures that the individual selected has the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities, to meet identified benchmarks and to assist in effectively carrying out the functions of the State board.

(3) Limitation on rate

The director and staff described in paragraph (1) shall be subject to the limitations on the payment of salary and bonuses described in section 3254(15) of this title.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §101, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1440.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(7)(A) and (e)(2), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3112. Unified State plan

(a) Plan

For a State to be eligible to receive allotments for the core programs, the Governor shall submit to the Secretary of Labor for the approval process described under subsection (c)(2), a unified State plan. The unified State plan shall outline a 4-year strategy for the core programs of the State and meet the requirements of this section.

(b) Contents

(1) Strategic planning elements

The unified State plan shall include strategic planning elements consisting of a strategic vision and goals for preparing an educated and skilled workforce, that include—

(A) an analysis of the economic conditions in the State, including—

(i) existing and emerging in-demand industry sectors and occupations; and

(ii) the employment needs of employers, including a description of the knowledge, skills, and abilities, needed in those industries and occupations;


(B) an analysis of the current workforce, employment and unemployment data, labor market trends, and the educational and skill levels of the workforce, including individuals with barriers to employment (including individuals with disabilities), in the State;

(C) an analysis of the workforce development activities (including education and training) in the State, including an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of such activities, and the capacity of State entities to provide such activities, in order to address the identified education and skill needs of the workforce and the employment needs of employers in the State;

(D) a description of the State's strategic vision and goals for preparing an educated and skilled workforce (including preparing youth and individuals with barriers to employment) and for meeting the skilled workforce needs of employers, including goals relating to performance accountability measures based on primary indicators of performance described in section 3141(b)(2)(A) of this title, in order to support economic growth and economic self-sufficiency, and of how the State will assess the overall effectiveness of the workforce investment system in the State; and

(E) taking into account analyses described in subparagraphs (A) through (C), a strategy for aligning the core programs, as well as other resources available to the State, to achieve the strategic vision and goals described in subparagraph (D).

(2) Operational planning elements

(A) In general

The unified State plan shall include the operational planning elements contained in this paragraph, which shall support the strategy described in paragraph (1)(E), including a description of how the State board will implement the functions under section 3111(d) of this title.

(B) Implementation of State strategy

The unified State plan shall describe how the lead State agency with responsibility for the administration of a core program will implement the strategy described in paragraph (1)(E), including a description of—

(i) the activities that will be funded by the entities carrying out the respective core programs to implement the strategy and how such activities will be aligned across the programs and among the entities administering the programs, including using co-enrollment and other strategies;

(ii) how the activities described in clause (i) will be aligned with activities provided under employment, training, education, including career and technical education, and human services programs not covered by the plan, as appropriate, assuring coordination of, and avoiding duplication among, the activities referred to in this clause;

(iii) how the entities carrying out the respective core programs will coordinate activities and provide comprehensive, high-quality services including supportive services, to individuals;

(iv) how the State's strategy will engage the State's community colleges and area career and technical education schools as partners in the workforce development system and enable the State to leverage other Federal, State, and local investments that have enhanced access to workforce development programs at those institutions;

(v) how the activities described in clause (i) will be coordinated with economic development strategies and activities in the State; and

(vi) how the State's strategy will improve access to activities leading to a recognized postsecondary credential (including a credential that is an industry-recognized certificate or certification, portable, and stackable).

(C) State operating systems and policies

The unified State plan shall describe the State operating systems and policies that will support the implementation of the strategy described in paragraph (1)(E), including a description of—

(i) the State board, including the activities to assist members of the State board and the staff of such board in carrying out the functions of the State board effectively (but funds for such activities may not be used for long-distance travel expenses for training or development activities available locally or regionally);

(ii)(I) how the respective core programs will be assessed each year, including an assessment of the quality, effectiveness, and improvement of programs (analyzed by local area, or by provider), based on State performance accountability measures described in section 3141(b) of this title; and

(II) how other one-stop partner programs will be assessed each year;

(iii) the results of an assessment of the effectiveness of the core programs and other one-stop partner programs during the preceding 2-year period;

(iv) the methods and factors the State will use in distributing funds under the core programs, in accordance with the provisions authorizing such distributions;

(v)(I) how the lead State agencies with responsibility for the administration of the core programs will align and integrate available workforce and education data on core programs, unemployment insurance programs, and education through postsecondary education;

(II) how such agencies will use the workforce development system to assess the progress of participants that are exiting from core programs in entering, persisting in, and completing postsecondary education, or entering or remaining in employment; and

(III) the privacy safeguards incorporated in such system, including safeguards required by section 1232g of title 20 and other applicable Federal laws;

(vi) how the State will implement the priority of service provisions for veterans in accordance with the requirements of section 4215 of title 38;

(vii) how the one-stop delivery system, including one-stop operators and the one-stop partners, will comply with section 3248 of this title, if applicable, and applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), regarding the physical and programmatic accessibility of facilities, programs, services, technology, and materials, for individuals with disabilities, including complying through providing staff training and support for addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities; and

(viii) such other operational planning elements as the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary of Education, as appropriate, determines to be necessary for effective State operating systems and policies.

(D) Program-specific requirements

The unified State plan shall include—

(i) with respect to activities carried out under part B, a description of—

(I) State policies or guidance, for the statewide workforce development system and for use of State funds for workforce investment activities;

(II) the local areas designated in the State, including the process used for designating local areas, and the process used for identifying any planning regions under section 3121(a) of this title, including a description of how the State consulted with the local boards and chief elected officials in determining the planning regions;

(III) the appeals process referred to in section 3121(b)(6) of this title, relating to designation of local areas;

(IV) the appeals process referred to in section 3151(h)(2)(E) of this title, relating to determinations for infrastructure funding; and

(V) with respect to youth workforce investment activities authorized in section 3164 of this title, information identifying the criteria to be used by local boards in awarding grants for youth workforce investment activities and describing how the local boards will take into consideration the ability of the providers to meet performance accountability measures based on primary indicators of performance for the youth program as described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title in awarding such grants;


(ii) with respect to activities carried out under subchapter II, a description of—

(I) how the eligible agency will, if applicable, align content standards for adult education with challenging State academic standards, as adopted under section 6311(b)(1) of title 20;

(II) how the State will fund local activities using considerations specified in section 3321(e) of this title for—

(aa) activities under section 3321(b) of this title;

(bb) programs for corrections education under section 3305 of this title;

(cc) programs for integrated English literacy and civics education under section 3333 of this title; and

(dd) integrated education and training;


(III) how the State will use the funds to carry out activities under section 3303 of this title;

(IV) how the State will use the funds to carry out activities under section 3333 of this title;

(V) how the eligible agency will assess the quality of providers of adult education and literacy activities under subchapter II and take actions to improve such quality, including providing the activities described in section 3303(a)(1)(B) of this title;


(iii) with respect to programs carried out under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.), other than section 112 or part C of that title (29 U.S.C. 732, 741), the information described in section 101(a) of that Act (29 U.S.C. 721(a)); and

(iv) information on such additional specific requirements for a program referenced in any of clauses (i) through (iii) or the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.) as the Secretary of Labor determines to be necessary to administer that program but cannot reasonably be applied across all such programs.

(E) Assurances

The unified State plan shall include assurances—

(i) that the State has established a policy identifying circumstances that may present a conflict of interest for a State board or local board member, or the entity or class of officials that the member represents, and procedures to resolve such conflicts;

(ii) that the State has established a policy to provide to the public (including individuals with disabilities) access to meetings of State boards and local boards, and information regarding activities of State boards and local boards, such as data on board membership and minutes;

(iii)(I) that the lead State agencies with responsibility for the administration of core programs reviewed and commented on the appropriate operational planning elements of the unified State plan, and approved the elements as serving the needs of the populations served by such programs; and

(II) that the State obtained input into the development of the unified State plan and provided an opportunity for comment on the plan by representatives of local boards and chief elected officials, businesses, labor organizations, institutions of higher education, other primary stakeholders, and the general public and that the unified State plan is available and accessible to the general public;

(iv) that the State has established, in accordance with section 3141(i) of this title, fiscal control and fund accounting procedures that may be necessary to ensure the proper disbursement of, and accounting for, funds paid to the State through allotments made for adult, dislocated worker, and youth programs to carry out workforce investment activities under subparts 2 and 3 of part B;

(v) that the State has taken appropriate action to secure compliance with uniform administrative requirements in this Act, including that the State will annually monitor local areas to ensure compliance and otherwise take appropriate action to secure compliance with the uniform administrative requirements under section 3244(a)(3) of this title;

(vi) that the State has taken the appropriate action to be in compliance with section 3248 of this title, if applicable;

(vii) that the Federal funds received to carry out a core program will not be expended for any purpose other than for activities authorized with respect to such funds under that core program;

(viii) that the eligible agency under subchapter II will—

(I) expend the funds appropriated to carry out that subchapter only in a manner consistent with fiscal requirements under section 3331(a) of this title (regarding supplement and not supplant provisions); and

(II) ensure that there is at least 1 eligible provider serving each local area;


(ix) that the State will pay an appropriate share (as defined by the State board) of the costs of carrying out section 3141 of this title, from funds made available through each of the core programs; and

(x) regarding such other matters as the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary of Education, as appropriate, determines to be necessary for the administration of the core programs.

(3) Existing analysis

As appropriate, a State may use an existing analysis in order to carry out the requirements of paragraph (1) concerning an analysis.

(c) Plan submission and approval

(1) Submission

(A) Initial plan

The initial unified State plan under this section (after July 22, 2014) shall be submitted to the Secretary of Labor not later than 120 days prior to the commencement of the second full program year after July 22, 2014.

(B) Subsequent plans

Except as provided in subparagraph (A), a unified State plan shall be submitted to the Secretary of Labor not later than 120 days prior to the end of the 4-year period covered by the preceding unified State plan.

(2) Submission and approval

(A) Submission

In approving a unified State plan under this section, the Secretary shall submit the portion of the unified State plan covering a program or activity to the head of the Federal agency that administers the program or activity for the approval of such portion by such head.

(B) Approval

A unified State plan shall be subject to the approval of both the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education, after approval of the Commissioner of the Rehabilitation Services Administration for the portion of the plan described in subsection (b)(2)(D)(iii). The plan shall be considered to be approved at the end of the 90-day period beginning on the day the plan is submitted, unless the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary of Education makes a written determination, during the 90-day period, that the plan is inconsistent with the provisions of this section or the provisions authorizing the core programs, as appropriate.

(3) Modifications

(A) Modifications

At the end of the first 2-year period of any 4-year unified State plan, the State board shall review the unified State plan, and the Governor shall submit modifications to the plan to reflect changes in labor market and economic conditions or in other factors affecting the implementation of the unified State plan.

(B) Approval

A modified unified State plan submitted for the review required under subparagraph (A) shall be subject to the approval requirements described in paragraph (2). A Governor may submit a modified unified State plan at such other times as the Governor determines to be appropriate, and such modified unified State plan shall also be subject to the approval requirements described in paragraph (2).

(4) Early implementers

The Secretary of Labor, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education, shall establish a process for approving and may approve unified State plans that meet the requirements of this section and are submitted to cover periods commencing prior to the second full program year described in paragraph (1)(A).

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §102, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1444; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(e)(1), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(yyy)(2), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2191.)

References in Text

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(C)(vii), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(D)(iii), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§720 et seq.) of chapter 16 of this title. Part C of title I of the Act is classified generally to part C (§741) of subchapter I of chapter 16 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

The Wagner-Peyser Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(D)(iv), is act June 6, 1933, ch. 49, 48 Stat. 113, which is classified generally to chapter 4B (§49 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 49 of this title and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(E)(v), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(i)(III). Pub. L. 114–18 substituted "section 3121(b)(6)" for "section 3121(b)(5)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 114–95 substituted "with challenging State academic standards, as adopted under section 6311(b)(1) of title 20" for "with State-adopted challenging academic content standards, as adopted under section 6311(b)(1) of title 20".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Pub. L. 114–18, §2(f), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 214, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 3121, 3122, 3141, 3164, 3172, and 3174 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128]."

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3113. Combined State plan

(a) In general

(1) Authority to submit plan

A State may develop and submit to the appropriate Secretaries a combined State plan for the core programs and 1 or more of the programs and activities described in paragraph (2) in lieu of submitting 2 or more plans, for the programs and activities and the core programs.

(2) Programs

The programs and activities referred to in paragraph (1) are as follows:

(A) Career and technical education programs authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (20 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.).

(B) Programs authorized under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.).

(C) Programs authorized under section 2015(d)(4) of title 7.

(D) Work programs authorized under section 2015(o) of title 7.

(E) Activities authorized under chapter 2 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2271 et seq.).

(F) Activities authorized under chapter 41 of title 38.

(G) Programs authorized under State unemployment compensation laws (in accordance with applicable Federal law).

(H) Programs authorized under title V of the Older Americans Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 3056 et seq.).

(I) Employment and training activities carried out by the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

(J) Employment and training activities carried out under the Community Services Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9901 et seq.).

(K) Programs authorized under section 17532 of title 42.

(b) Requirements

(1) In general

The portion of a combined plan covering the core programs shall be subject to the requirements of section 3112 of this title (including section 3112(c)(3) of this title). The portion of such plan covering a program or activity described in subsection (a)(2) shall be subject to the requirements, if any, applicable to a plan or application for assistance for that program or activity, under the Federal law authorizing the program or activity. At the election of the State, section 3112(c)(3) of this title may apply to that portion.

(2) Additional submission not required

A State that submits a combined plan that is approved under subsection (c) shall not be required to submit any other plan or application in order to receive Federal funds to carry out the core programs or the program or activities described in subsection (a)(2) that are covered by the combined plan.

(3) Coordination

A combined plan shall include—

(A) a description of the methods used for joint planning and coordination of the core programs and the other programs and activities covered by the combined plan; and

(B) an assurance that the methods included an opportunity for the entities responsible for planning or administering the core programs and the other programs and activities to review and comment on all portions of the combined plan.

(c) Approval by the appropriate Secretaries

(1) Jurisdiction

The appropriate Secretary shall have the authority to approve the corresponding portion of a combined plan as described in subsection (d). On the approval of the appropriate Secretary, that portion of the combined plan, covering a program or activity, shall be implemented by the State pursuant to that portion of the combined plan, and the Federal law authorizing the program or activity.

(2) Approval of core programs

No portion of the plan relating to a core program shall be implemented until the appropriate Secretary approves the corresponding portions of the plan for all core programs.

(3) Timing of approval

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), a portion of the combined State plan covering the core programs or a program or activity described in subsection (a)(2) shall be considered to be approved by the appropriate Secretary at the end of the 90-day period beginning on the day the plan is submitted.

(B) Plan approved by 3 or more appropriate Secretaries

If an appropriate Secretary other than the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary of Education has authority to approve a portion of a combined plan, that portion of the combined plan shall be considered to be approved by the appropriate Secretary at the end of the 120-day period beginning on the day the plan is submitted.

(C) Disapproval

The portion shall not be considered to be approved if the appropriate Secretary makes a written determination, during the 90-day period (or the 120-day period, for an appropriate Secretary covered by subparagraph (B)), that the portion is not consistent with the requirements of the Federal law authorizing or applicable to the program or activity involved, including the criteria for approval of a plan or application, if any, under such law, or the plan is not consistent with the requirements of this section.

(4) Special rule

In paragraph (3), the term "criteria for approval of a plan or application", with respect to a State and a core program or a program under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (20 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.), includes a requirement for agreement between the State and the appropriate Secretaries regarding State performance measures or State performance accountability measures, as the case may be, including levels of performance.

(d) Appropriate Secretary

In this section, the term "appropriate Secretary" means—

(1) with respect to the portion of a combined plan relating to any of the core programs (including a description, and an assurance concerning that program, specified in subsection (b)(3)), the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education; and

(2) with respect to the portion of a combined plan relating to a program or activity described in subsection (a)(2) (including a description, and an assurance concerning that program or activity, specified in subsection (b)(3)), the head of the Federal agency who exercises plan or application approval authority for the program or activity under the Federal law authorizing the program or activity, or, if there are no planning or application requirements for such program or activity, exercises administrative authority over the program or activity under that Federal law.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §103, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1450.)

References in Text

The Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(A) and (c)(4), is Pub. L. 88–210, Dec. 18, 1963, 77 Stat. 403, as amended generally by Pub. L. 109–270, §1(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 683, which is classified generally to chapter 44 (§2301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2301 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(E), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978. Chapter 2 of title II of the Act is classified generally to part 2 (§2271 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 12 of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 2101 of Title 19 and Tables.

The Older Americans Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(H), is Pub. L. 89–73, July 14, 1965, 79 Stat. 218, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title V of the Act, known as the Community Service Senior Opportunities Act, is classified generally to subchapter IX (§3056 et seq.) of chapter 35 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3001 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Community Services Block Grant Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(J), is subtitle B (§671 et seq.) of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 511, which is classified generally to chapter 106 (§9901 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9901 of Title 42 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

subpart 2—local provisions

§3121. Workforce development areas

(a) Regions

(1) Identification

Before the second full program year after July 22, 2014, in order for a State to receive an allotment under section 3162(b) or 3172(b) of this title and as part of the process for developing the State plan, a State shall identify regions in the State after consultation with the local boards and chief elected officials in the local areas and consistent with the considerations described in subsection (b)(1)(B).

(2) Types of regions

For purposes of this Act, the State shall identify—

(A) which regions are comprised of 1 local area that is aligned with the region;

(B) which regions are comprised of 2 or more local areas that are (collectively) aligned with the region (referred to as planning regions, consistent with section 3102 of this title); and

(C) which, of the regions described in subparagraph (B), are interstate areas contained within 2 or more States, and consist of labor market areas, economic development areas, or other appropriate contiguous subareas of those States.

(b) Local areas

(1) In general

(A) Process

Except as provided in subsection (d), and consistent with paragraphs (2) and (3), in order for a State to receive an allotment under section 3162(b) or 3172(b) of this title, the Governor of the State shall designate local workforce development areas within the State—

(i) through consultation with the State board; and

(ii) after consultation with chief elected officials and local boards, and after consideration of comments received through the public comment process as described in section 3112(b)(2)(E)(iii)(II) of this title.

(B) Considerations

The Governor shall designate local areas (except for those local areas described in paragraphs (2) and (3)) based on considerations consisting of the extent to which the areas—

(i) are consistent with labor market areas in the State;

(ii) are consistent with regional economic development areas in the State; and

(iii) have available the Federal and non-Federal resources necessary to effectively administer activities under part B and other applicable provisions of this Act, including whether the areas have the appropriate education and training providers, such as institutions of higher education and area career and technical education schools.

(2) Initial designation

During the first 2 full program years following July 22, 2014, the Governor shall approve a request for initial designation as a local area from any area that was designated as a local area for purposes of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for the 2-year period preceding July 22, 2014, performed successfully, and sustained fiscal integrity.

(3) Subsequent designation

After the period for which a local area is initially designated under paragraph (2), the Governor shall approve a request for subsequent designation as a local area from such local area, if such area—

(A) performed successfully;

(B) sustained fiscal integrity; and

(C) in the case of a local area in a planning region, met the requirements described in subsection (c)(1).

(4) Designation on recommendation of State board

The Governor may approve a request from any unit of general local government (including a combination of such units) for designation of an area as a local area if the State board determines, based on the considerations described in paragraph (1)(B), and recommends to the Governor, that such area should be so designated.

(5) Areas served by rural concentrated employment programs

The Governor may approve, under paragraph (2) or (3), a request for designation as a local area from an area described in section 3122(c)(1)(C) of this title.

(6) Appeals

A unit of general local government (including a combination of such units) or grant recipient that requests but is not granted designation of an area as a local area under paragraph (2) or (3) may submit an appeal to the State board under an appeal process established in the State plan. If the appeal does not result in such a designation, the Secretary of Labor, after receiving a request for review from the unit or grant recipient and on determining that the unit or grant recipient was not accorded procedural rights under the appeals process described in the State plan, as specified in section 3112(b)(2)(D)(i)(III) of this title, or that the area meets the requirements of paragraph (2) or (3), may require that the area be designated as a local area under such paragraph.

(7) Redesignation assistance

On the request of all of the local areas in a planning region, the State shall provide funding from funds made available under sections 3163(a) and 3173(a)(1) of this title to assist the local areas in carrying out activities to facilitate the redesignation of the local areas to a single local area.

(c) Regional coordination

(1) Regional planning

The local boards and chief elected officials in each planning region described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of subsection (a)(2) shall engage in a regional planning process that results in—

(A) the preparation of a regional plan, as described in paragraph (2);

(B) the establishment of regional service strategies, including use of cooperative service delivery agreements;

(C) the development and implementation of sector initiatives for in-demand industry sectors or occupations for the region;

(D) the collection and analysis of regional labor market data (in conjunction with the State);

(E) the establishment of administrative cost arrangements, including the pooling of funds for administrative costs, as appropriate, for the region;

(F) the coordination of transportation and other supportive services, as appropriate, for the region;

(G) the coordination of services with regional economic development services and providers; and

(H) the establishment of an agreement concerning how the planning region will collectively negotiate and reach agreement with Governor 1 on local levels of performance for, and report on, the performance accountability measures described in section 3141(c) of this title, for local areas or the planning region.

(2) Regional plans

The State, after consultation with local boards and chief elected officials for the planning regions, shall require the local boards and chief elected officials within a planning region to prepare, submit, and obtain approval of a single regional plan that includes a description of the activities described in paragraph (1) and that incorporates local plans for each of the local areas in the planning region. The State shall provide technical assistance and labor market data, as requested by local areas, to assist with such regional planning and subsequent service delivery efforts.

(3) References

In this Act, and the core program provisions that are not in this Act:

(A) Local area

Except as provided in section 3111(d)(9) of this title, this section, paragraph (1)(B) or (4) of section 3122(c) of this title, or section 3122(d)(12)(B) of this title, or in any text that provides an accompanying provision specifically for a planning region, the term "local area" in a provision includes a reference to a planning region for purposes of implementation of that provision by the corresponding local areas in the region.

(B) Local plan

Except as provided in this subsection, the term "local plan" includes a reference to the portion of a regional plan developed with respect to the corresponding local area within the region, and any regionwide provision of that plan that impacts or relates to the local area.

(d) Single State local areas

(1) Continuation of previous designation

The Governor of any State that was a single State local area for purposes of title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, as in effect on July 1, 2013, may designate the State as a single State local area for purposes of this subchapter. In the case of such designation, the Governor shall identify the State as a local area in the State plan.

(2) Effect on local plan and local functions

In any case in which a State is designated as a local area pursuant to this subsection, the local plan prepared under section 3123 of this title for the area shall be submitted for approval as part of the State plan. In such a State, the State board shall carry out the functions of a local board, as specified in this Act or the provisions authorizing a core program, but the State shall not be required to meet and report on a set of local performance accountability measures.

(e) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Performed successfully

The term "performed successfully", used with respect to a local area, means the local area met or exceeded the adjusted levels of performance for primary indicators of performance described in section 3141(b)(2)(A) of this title (or, if applicable, core indicators of performance described in section 136(b)(2)(A) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2871(b)(2)(A)], as in effect the day before July 22, 2014) for each of the last 2 consecutive years for which data are available preceding the determination of performance under this paragraph.

(2) Sustained fiscal integrity

The term "sustained fiscal integrity", used with respect to a local area, means that the Secretary has not made a formal determination, during either of the last 2 consecutive years preceding the determination regarding such integrity, that either the grant recipient or the administrative entity of the area misexpended funds provided under part B (or, if applicable, title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 as in effect prior to the effective date of such part B) due to willful disregard of the requirements of the provision involved, gross negligence, or failure to comply with accepted standards of administration.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §106, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1452; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(a)(1), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 213.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2), (b)(1)(B)(iii), (c)(3), and (d)(2), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2), (d)(1), and (e)(2), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Title I of the Act was classified principally to chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The effective date of such part B, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 [probably July 1, 2015], see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3101 of this title.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 114–18 added par. (5) and redesignated former pars. (5) and (6) as (6) and (7), respectively.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–18 effective as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128], see §2(f) of Pub. L. 114–18, set out as a note under section 3112 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

1 So in original.

§3122. Local workforce development boards

(a) Establishment

Except as provided in subsection (c)(2)(A), there shall be established, and certified by the Governor of the State, a local workforce development board in each local area of a State to carry out the functions described in subsection (d) (and any functions specified for the local board under this Act or the provisions establishing a core program) for such area.

(b) Membership

(1) State criteria

The Governor, in partnership with the State board, shall establish criteria for use by chief elected officials in the local areas for appointment of members of the local boards in such local areas in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (2).

(2) Composition

Such criteria shall require that, at a minimum—

(A) a majority of the members of each local board shall be representatives of business in the local area, who—

(i) are owners of businesses, chief executives or operating officers of businesses, or other business executives or employers with optimum policymaking or hiring authority;

(ii) represent businesses, including small businesses, or organizations representing businesses described in this clause, that provide employment opportunities that, at a minimum, include high-quality, work-relevant training and development in in-demand industry sectors or occupations in the local area; and

(iii) are appointed from among individuals nominated by local business organizations and business trade associations;


(B) not less than 20 percent of the members of each local board shall be representatives of the workforce within the local area, who—

(i) shall include representatives of labor organizations (for a local area in which employees are represented by labor organizations), who have been nominated by local labor federations, or (for a local area in which no employees are represented by such organizations) other representatives of employees;

(ii) shall include a representative, who shall be a member of a labor organization or a training director, from a joint labor-management apprenticeship program, or if no such joint program exists in the area, such a representative of an apprenticeship program in the area, if such a program exists;

(iii) may include representatives of community-based organizations that have demonstrated experience and expertise in addressing the employment needs of individuals with barriers to employment, including organizations that serve veterans or that provide or support competitive integrated employment for individuals with disabilities; and

(iv) may include representatives of organizations that have demonstrated experience and expertise in addressing the employment, training, or education needs of eligible youth, including representatives of organizations that serve out-of-school youth;


(C) each local board shall include representatives of entities administering education and training activities in the local area, who—

(i) shall include a representative of eligible providers administering adult education and literacy activities under subchapter II;

(ii) shall include a representative of institutions of higher education providing workforce investment activities (including community colleges);

(iii) may include representatives of local educational agencies, and of community-based organizations with demonstrated experience and expertise in addressing the education or training needs of individuals with barriers to employment;


(D) each local board shall include representatives of governmental and economic and community development entities serving the local area, who—

(i) shall include a representative of economic and community development entities;

(ii) shall include an appropriate representative from the State employment service office under the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.) serving the local area;

(iii) shall include an appropriate representative of the programs carried out under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.), other than section 112 or part C of that title (29 U.S.C. 732, 741), serving the local area;

(iv) may include representatives of agencies or entities administering programs serving the local area relating to transportation, housing, and public assistance; and

(v) may include representatives of philanthropic organizations serving the local area; and


(E) each local board may include such other individuals or representatives of entities as the chief elected official in the local area may determine to be appropriate.

(3) Chairperson

The members of the local board shall elect a chairperson for the local board from among the representatives described in paragraph (2)(A).

(4) Standing committees

(A) In general

The local board may designate and direct the activities of standing committees to provide information and to assist the local board in carrying out activities under this section. Such standing committees shall be chaired by a member of the local board, may include other members of the local board, and shall include other individuals appointed by the local board who are not members of the local board and who the local board determines have appropriate experience and expertise. At a minimum, the local board may designate each of the following:

(i) A standing committee to provide information and assist with operational and other issues relating to the one-stop delivery system, which may include as members representatives of the one-stop partners.

(ii) A standing committee to provide information and to assist with planning, operational, and other issues relating to the provision of services to youth, which shall include community-based organizations with a demonstrated record of success in serving eligible youth.

(iii) A standing committee to provide information and to assist with operational and other issues relating to the provision of services to individuals with disabilities, including issues relating to compliance with section 3248 of this title, if applicable, and applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.) regarding providing programmatic and physical access to the services, programs, and activities of the one-stop delivery system, as well as appropriate training for staff on providing supports for or accommodations to, and finding employment opportunities for, individuals with disabilities.

(B) Additional committees

The local board may designate standing committees in addition to the standing committees specified in subparagraph (A).

(C) Designation of entity

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit the designation of an existing (as of July 22, 2014) entity, such as an effective youth council, to fulfill the requirements of this paragraph as long as the entity meets the requirements of this paragraph.

(5) Authority of board members

Members of the board that represent organizations, agencies, or other entities shall be individuals with optimum policymaking authority within the organizations, agencies, or entities. The members of the board shall represent diverse geographic areas within the local area.

(6) Special rule

If there are multiple eligible providers serving the local area by administering adult education and literacy activities under subchapter II, or multiple institutions of higher education serving the local area by providing workforce investment activities, each representative on the local board described in clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (2)(C), respectively, shall be appointed from among individuals nominated by local providers representing such providers or institutions, respectively.

(c) Appointment and certification of board

(1) Appointment of board members and assignment of responsibilities

(A) In general

The chief elected official in a local area is authorized to appoint the members of the local board for such area, in accordance with the State criteria established under subsection (b).

(B) Multiple units of local government in area

(i) In general

In a case in which a local area includes more than 1 unit of general local government, the chief elected officials of such units may execute an agreement that specifies the respective roles of the individual chief elected officials—

(I) in the appointment of the members of the local board from the individuals nominated or recommended to be such members in accordance with the criteria established under subsection (b); and

(II) in carrying out any other responsibilities assigned to such officials under this subchapter.

(ii) Lack of agreement

If, after a reasonable effort, the chief elected officials are unable to reach agreement as provided under clause (i), the Governor may appoint the members of the local board from individuals so nominated or recommended.

(C) Concentrated employment programs

In the case of an area that was designated as a local area in accordance with section 2831(a)(2)(B) of this title (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), and that remains a local area on that date, the governing body of the concentrated employment program involved shall act in consultation with the chief elected official in the local area to appoint members of the local board, in accordance with the State criteria established under subsection (b), and to carry out any other responsibility relating to workforce investment activities assigned to such official under this Act.

(2) Certification

(A) In general

The Governor shall, once every 2 years, certify 1 local board for each local area in the State.

(B) Criteria

Such certification shall be based on criteria established under subsection (b), and for a second or subsequent certification, the extent to which the local board has ensured that workforce investment activities carried out in the local area have enabled the local area to meet the corresponding performance accountability measures and achieve sustained fiscal integrity, as defined in section 3121(e)(2) of this title.

(C) Failure to achieve certification

Failure of a local board to achieve certification shall result in appointment and certification of a new local board for the local area pursuant to the process described in paragraph (1) and this paragraph.

(3) Decertification

(A) Fraud, abuse, failure to carry out functions

Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the Governor shall have the authority to decertify a local board at any time after providing notice and an opportunity for comment, for—

(i) fraud or abuse; or

(ii) failure to carry out the functions specified for the local board in subsection (d).

(B) Nonperformance

Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the Governor may decertify a local board if a local area fails to meet the local performance accountability measures for such local area in accordance with section 3141(c) of this title for 2 consecutive program years.

(C) Reorganization plan

If the Governor decertifies a local board for a local area under subparagraph (A) or (B), the Governor may require that a new local board be appointed and certified for the local area pursuant to a reorganization plan developed by the Governor, in consultation with the chief elected official in the local area and in accordance with the criteria established under subsection (b).

(4) Single State local area

(A) State board

Notwithstanding subsection (b) and paragraphs (1) and (2), if a State described in section 3121(d) of this title indicates in the State plan that the State will be treated as a single State local area, for purposes of the application of this Act or the provisions authorizing a core program, the State board shall carry out any of the functions of a local board under this Act or the provisions authorizing a core program, including the functions described in subsection (d).

(B) References

(i) In general

Except as provided in clauses (ii) and (iii), with respect to such a State, a reference in this Act or a core program provision to a local board shall be considered to be a reference to the State board, and a reference in the Act or provision to a local area or region shall be considered to be a reference to the State.

(ii) Plans

The State board shall prepare a local plan under section 3123 of this title for the State, and submit the plan for approval as part of the State plan.

(iii) Performance accountability measures

The State shall not be required to meet and report on a set of local performance accountability measures.

(d) Functions of local board

Consistent with section 3123 of this title, the functions of the local board shall include the following:

(1) Local plan

The local board, in partnership with the chief elected official for the local area involved, shall develop and submit a local plan to the Governor that meets the requirements in section 3123 of this title. If the local area is part of a planning region that includes other local areas, the local board shall collaborate with the other local boards and chief elected officials from such other local areas in the preparation and submission of a regional plan as described in section 3121(c)(2) of this title.

(2) Workforce research and regional labor market analysis

In order to assist in the development and implementation of the local plan, the local board shall—

(A) carry out analyses of the economic conditions in the region, the needed knowledge and skills for the region, the workforce in the region, and workforce development activities (including education and training) in the region described in section 3123(b)(1)(D) of this title, and regularly update such information;

(B) assist the Governor in developing the statewide workforce and labor market information system described in section 15(e) of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49l–2(e)), specifically in the collection, analysis, and utilization of workforce and labor market information for the region; and

(C) conduct such other research, data collection, and analysis related to the workforce needs of the regional economy as the board, after receiving input from a wide array of stakeholders, determines to be necessary to carry out its functions.

(3) Convening, brokering, leveraging

The local board shall convene local workforce development system stakeholders to assist in the development of the local plan under section 3123 of this title and in identifying non-Federal expertise and resources to leverage support for workforce development activities. The local board, including standing committees, may engage such stakeholders in carrying out the functions described in this subsection.

(4) Employer engagement

The local board shall lead efforts to engage with a diverse range of employers and with entities in the region involved—

(A) to promote business representation (particularly representatives with optimal policymaking or hiring authority from employers whose employment opportunities reflect existing and emerging employment opportunities in the region) on the local board;

(B) to develop effective linkages (including the use of intermediaries) with employers in the region to support employer utilization of the local workforce development system and to support local workforce investment activities;

(C) to ensure that workforce investment activities meet the needs of employers and support economic growth in the region, by enhancing communication, coordination, and collaboration among employers, economic development entities, and service providers; and

(D) to develop and implement proven or promising strategies for meeting the employment and skill needs of workers and employers (such as the establishment of industry and sector partnerships), that provide the skilled workforce needed by employers in the region, and that expand employment and career advancement opportunities for workforce development system participants in in-demand industry sectors or occupations.

(5) Career pathways development

The local board, with representatives of secondary and postsecondary education programs, shall lead efforts in the local area to develop and implement career pathways within the local area by aligning the employment, training, education, and supportive services that are needed by adults and youth, particularly individuals with barriers to employment.

(6) Proven and promising practices

The local board shall lead efforts in the local area to—

(A) identify and promote proven and promising strategies and initiatives for meeting the needs of employers, and workers and jobseekers (including individuals with barriers to employment) in the local workforce development system, including providing physical and programmatic accessibility, in accordance with section 3248 of this title, if applicable, and applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), to the one-stop delivery system; and

(B) identify and disseminate information on proven and promising practices carried out in other local areas for meeting such needs.

(7) Technology

The local board shall develop strategies for using technology to maximize the accessibility and effectiveness of the local workforce development system for employers, and workers and jobseekers, by—

(A) facilitating connections among the intake and case management information systems of the one-stop partner programs to support a comprehensive workforce development system in the local area;

(B) facilitating access to services provided through the one-stop delivery system involved, including facilitating the access in remote areas;

(C) identifying strategies for better meeting the needs of individuals with barriers to employment, including strategies that augment traditional service delivery, and increase access to services and programs of the one-stop delivery system, such as improving digital literacy skills; and

(D) leveraging resources and capacity within the local workforce development system, including resources and capacity for services for individuals with barriers to employment.

(8) Program oversight

The local board, in partnership with the chief elected official for the local area, shall—

(A)(i) conduct oversight for local youth workforce investment activities authorized under section 3164(c) of this title, local employment and training activities authorized under subsections (c) and (d) of section 3174 of this title, and the one-stop delivery system in the local area; and

(ii) ensure the appropriate use and management of the funds provided under part B for the activities and system described in clause (i); and

(B) for workforce development activities, ensure the appropriate use, management, and investment of funds to maximize performance outcomes under section 3141 of this title.

(9) Negotiation of local performance accountability measures

The local board, the chief elected official, and the Governor shall negotiate and reach agreement on local performance accountability measures as described in section 3141(c) of this title.

(10) Selection of operators and providers

(A) Selection of one-stop operators

Consistent with section 3151(d) of this title, the local board, with the agreement of the chief elected official for the local area—

(i) shall designate or certify one-stop operators as described in section 3151(d)(2)(A) of this title; and

(ii) may terminate for cause the eligibility of such operators.

(B) Selection of youth providers

Consistent with section 3153 of this title, the local board—

(i) shall identify eligible providers of youth workforce investment activities in the local area by awarding grants or contracts on a competitive basis (except as provided in section 3153(b) of this title), based on the recommendations of the youth standing committee, if such a committee is established for the local area under subsection (b)(4); and

(ii) may terminate for cause the eligibility of such providers.

(C) Identification of eligible providers of training services

Consistent with section 3152 of this title, the local board shall identify eligible providers of training services in the local area.

(D) Identification of eligible providers of career services

If the one-stop operator does not provide career services described in section 3174(c)(2) of this title in a local area, the local board shall identify eligible providers of those career services in the local area by awarding contracts.

(E) Consumer choice requirements

Consistent with section 3152 of this title and paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 3174(c) of this title, the local board shall work with the State to ensure there are sufficient numbers and types of providers of career services and training services (including eligible providers with expertise in assisting individuals with disabilities and eligible providers with expertise in assisting adults in need of adult education and literacy activities) serving the local area and providing the services involved in a manner that maximizes consumer choice, as well as providing opportunities that lead to competitive integrated employment for individuals with disabilities.

(11) Coordination with education providers

(A) In general

The local board shall coordinate activities with education and training providers in the local area, including providers of workforce investment activities, providers of adult education and literacy activities under subchapter II, providers of career and technical education (as defined in section 2302 of title 20) and local agencies administering plans under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.), other than section 112 or part C of that title (29 U.S.C. 732, 741).

(B) Applications and agreements

The coordination described in subparagraph (A) shall include—

(i) consistent with section 3322 of this title

(I) reviewing the applications to provide adult education and literacy activities under subchapter II for the local area, submitted under such section to the eligible agency by eligible providers, to determine whether such applications are consistent with the local plan; and

(II) making recommendations to the eligible agency to promote alignment with such plan; and


(ii) replicating cooperative agreements in accordance with subparagraph (B) of section 101(a)(11) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 721(a)(11)[(B)]), and implementing cooperative agreements in accordance with that section with the local agencies administering plans under title I of that Act (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.) (other than section 112 or part C of that title (29 U.S.C. 732, 741) and subject to section 3151(f) of this title), with respect to efforts that will enhance the provision of services to individuals with disabilities and other individuals, such as cross training of staff, technical assistance, use and sharing of information, cooperative efforts with employers, and other efforts at cooperation, collaboration, and coordination.

(C) Cooperative agreement

In this paragraph, the term "cooperative agreement" means an agreement entered into by a State designated agency or State designated unit under subparagraph (A) of section 101(a)(11) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 721(a)(11)(A)].

(12) Budget and administration

(A) Budget

The local board shall develop a budget for the activities of the local board in the local area, consistent with the local plan and the duties of the local board under this section, subject to the approval of the chief elected official.

(B) Administration

(i) Grant recipient

(I) In general

The chief elected official in a local area shall serve as the local grant recipient for, and shall be liable for any misuse of, the grant funds allocated to the local area under sections 3163 and 3173 of this title, unless the chief elected official reaches an agreement with the Governor for the Governor to act as the local grant recipient and bear such liability.

(II) Designation

In order to assist in administration of the grant funds, the chief elected official or the Governor, where the Governor serves as the local grant recipient for a local area, may designate an entity to serve as a local grant subrecipient for such funds or as a local fiscal agent. Such designation shall not relieve the chief elected official or the Governor of the liability for any misuse of grant funds as described in subclause (I).

(III) Disbursal

The local grant recipient or an entity designated under subclause (II) shall disburse the grant funds for workforce investment activities at the direction of the local board, pursuant to the requirements of this subchapter. The local grant recipient or entity designated under subclause (II) shall disburse the funds immediately on receiving such direction from the local board.

(ii) Grants and donations

The local board may solicit and accept grants and donations from sources other than Federal funds made available under this Act.

(iii) Tax-exempt status

For purposes of carrying out duties under this Act, local boards may incorporate, and may operate as entities described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26 that are exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such title.

(13) Accessibility for individuals with disabilities

The local board shall annually assess the physical and programmatic accessibility, in accordance with section 3248 of this title, if applicable, and applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), of all one-stop centers in the local area.

(e) Sunshine provision

The local board shall make available to the public, on a regular basis through electronic means and open meetings, information regarding the activities of the local board, including information regarding the local plan prior to submission of the plan, and regarding membership, the designation and certification of one-stop operators, and the award of grants or contracts to eligible providers of youth workforce investment activities, and on request, minutes of formal meetings of the local board.

(f) Staff

(1) In general

The local board may hire a director and other staff to assist in carrying out the functions described in subsection (d) using funds available under sections 3163(b) and 3173(b) of this title as described in section 3163(b)(4) of this title.

(2) Qualifications

The local board shall establish and apply a set of objective qualifications for the position of director, that ensures that the individual selected has the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities, to meet identified benchmarks and to assist in effectively carrying out the functions of the local board.

(3) Limitation on rate

The director and staff described in paragraph (1) shall be subject to the limitations on the payment of salaries and bonuses described in section 3254(15) of this title.

(g) Limitations

(1) Training services

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no local board may provide training services.

(B) Waivers of training prohibition

The Governor of the State in which a local board is located may, pursuant to a request from the local board, grant a written waiver of the prohibition set forth in subparagraph (A) (relating to the provision of training services) for a program of training services, if the local board—

(i) submits to the Governor a proposed request for the waiver that includes—

(I) satisfactory evidence that there is an insufficient number of eligible providers of such a program of training services to meet local demand in the local area;

(II) information demonstrating that the board meets the requirements for an eligible provider of training services under section 3152 of this title; and

(III) information demonstrating that the program of training services prepares participants for an in-demand industry sector or occupation in the local area;


(ii) makes the proposed request available to eligible providers of training services and other interested members of the public for a public comment period of not less than 30 days; and

(iii) includes, in the final request for the waiver, the evidence and information described in clause (i) and the comments received pursuant to clause (ii).

(C) Duration

A waiver granted to a local board under subparagraph (B) shall apply for a period that shall not exceed the duration of the local plan. The waiver may be renewed for additional periods under subsequent local plans, not to exceed the durations of such subsequent plans, pursuant to requests from the local board, if the board meets the requirements of subparagraph (B) in making the requests.

(D) Revocation

The Governor shall have the authority to revoke the waiver during the appropriate period described in subparagraph (C) if the Governor determines the waiver is no longer needed or that the local board involved has engaged in a pattern of inappropriate referrals to training services operated by the local board.

(2) Career services; designation or certification as one-stop operators

A local board may provide career services described in section 3174(c)(2) of this title through a one-stop delivery system or be designated or certified as a one-stop operator only with the agreement of the chief elected official in the local area and the Governor.

(3) Limitation on authority

Nothing in this Act shall be construed to provide a local board with the authority to mandate curricula for schools.

(h) Conflict of interest

A member of a local board, or a member of a standing committee, may not—

(1) vote on a matter under consideration by the local board—

(A) regarding the provision of services by such member (or by an entity that such member represents); or

(B) that would provide direct financial benefit to such member or the immediate family of such member; or


(2) engage in any other activity determined by the Governor to constitute a conflict of interest as specified in the State plan.

(i) Alternative entity

(1) In general

For purposes of complying with subsections (a), (b), and (c), a State may use any local entity (including a local council, regional workforce development board, or similar entity) that—

(A) is established to serve the local area (or the service delivery area that most closely corresponds to the local area);

(B) was in existence on the day before August 7, 1998, pursuant to State law; and

(C) includes—

(i) representatives of business in the local area; and

(ii)(I) representatives of labor organizations (for a local area in which employees are represented by labor organizations), nominated by local labor federations; or

(II) other representatives of employees in the local area (for a local area in which no employees are represented by such organizations).

(2) References

A reference in this Act or a core program provision to a local board, shall include a reference to such an entity.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §107, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1456; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(b), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 213.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a), (c)(1)(C), (4)(A), (B)(i), (d)(12)(B)(ii), (iii), (g)(3), and (i)(2), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Wagner-Peyser Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(D)(ii), is act June 6, 1933, ch. 49, 48 Stat. 113, which is classified generally to chapter 4B (§49 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 49 of this title and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2)(D)(iii) and (d)(11)(A), (B)(ii), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§720 et seq.) of chapter 16 of this title. Part C of title I of the Act is classified generally to part C (§741) of subchapter I of chapter 16 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsecs. (b)(4)(A)(iii) and (d)(6)(A), (13), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (i)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–18 substituted "August 7, 1998" for "July 22, 2014".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–18 effective as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128], see §2(f) of Pub. L. 114–18, set out as a note under section 3112 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3123. Local plan

(a) In general

Each local board shall develop and submit to the Governor a comprehensive 4-year local plan, in partnership with the chief elected official. The local plan shall support the strategy described in the State plan in accordance with section 3112(b)(1)(E) of this title, and otherwise be consistent with the State plan. If the local area is part of a planning region, the local board shall comply with section 3121(c) of this title in the preparation and submission of a regional plan. At the end of the first 2-year period of the 4-year local plan, each local board shall review the local plan and the local board, in partnership with the chief elected official, shall prepare and submit modifications to the local plan to reflect changes in labor market and economic conditions or in other factors affecting the implementation of the local plan.

(b) Contents

The local plan shall include—

(1) a description of the strategic planning elements consisting of—

(A) an analysis of the regional economic conditions including—

(i) existing and emerging in-demand industry sectors and occupations; and

(ii) the employment needs of employers in those industry sectors and occupations;


(B) an analysis of the knowledge and skills needed to meet the employment needs of the employers in the region, including employment needs in in-demand industry sectors and occupations;

(C) an analysis of the workforce in the region, including current labor force employment (and unemployment) data, and information on labor market trends, and the educational and skill levels of the workforce in the region, including individuals with barriers to employment;

(D) an analysis of the workforce development activities (including education and training) in the region, including an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of such services, and the capacity to provide such services, to address the identified education and skill needs of the workforce and the employment needs of employers in the region;

(E) a description of the local board's strategic vision and goals for preparing an educated and skilled workforce (including youth and individuals with barriers to employment), including goals relating to the performance accountability measures based on primary indicators of performance described in section 3141(b)(2)(A) of this title in order to support regional economic growth and economic self-sufficiency; and

(F) taking into account analyses described in subparagraphs (A) through (D), a strategy to work with the entities that carry out the core programs to align resources available to the local area, to achieve the strategic vision and goals described in subparagraph (E);


(2) a description of the workforce development system in the local area that identifies the programs that are included in that system and how the local board will work with the entities carrying out core programs and other workforce development programs to support alignment to provide services, including programs of study authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (20 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.), that support the strategy identified in the State plan under section 3112(b)(1)(E) of this title;

(3) a description of how the local board, working with the entities carrying out core programs, will expand access to employment, training, education, and supportive services for eligible individuals, particularly eligible individuals with barriers to employment, including how the local board will facilitate the development of career pathways and co-enrollment, as appropriate, in core programs, and improve access to activities leading to a recognized postsecondary credential (including a credential that is an industry-recognized certificate or certification, portable, and stackable);

(4) a description of the strategies and services that will be used in the local area—

(A) in order to—

(i) facilitate engagement of employers, including small employers and employers in in-demand industry sectors and occupations, in workforce development programs;

(ii) support a local workforce development system that meets the needs of businesses in the local area;

(iii) better coordinate workforce development programs and economic development; and

(iv) strengthen linkages between the one-stop delivery system and unemployment insurance programs; and


(B) that may include the implementation of initiatives such as incumbent worker training programs, on-the-job training programs, customized training programs, industry and sector strategies, career pathways initiatives, utilization of effective business intermediaries, and other business services and strategies, designed to meet the needs of employers in the corresponding region in support of the strategy described in paragraph (1)(F);


(5) a description of how the local board will coordinate workforce investment activities carried out in the local area with economic development activities carried out in the region in which the local area is located (or planning region), and promote entrepreneurial skills training and microenterprise services;

(6) a description of the one-stop delivery system in the local area, including—

(A) a description of how the local board will ensure the continuous improvement of eligible providers of services through the system and ensure that such providers meet the employment needs of local employers, and workers and jobseekers;

(B) a description of how the local board will facilitate access to services provided through the one-stop delivery system, including in remote areas, through the use of technology and through other means;

(C) a description of how entities within the one-stop delivery system, including one-stop operators and the one-stop partners, will comply with section 3248 of this title, if applicable, and applicable provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.) regarding the physical and programmatic accessibility of facilities, programs and services, technology, and materials for individuals with disabilities, including providing staff training and support for addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities; and

(D) a description of the roles and resource contributions of the one-stop partners;


(7) a description and assessment of the type and availability of adult and dislocated worker employment and training activities in the local area;

(8) a description of how the local board will coordinate workforce investment activities carried out in the local area with statewide rapid response activities, as described in section 3174(a)(2)(A) of this title;

(9) a description and assessment of the type and availability of youth workforce investment activities in the local area, including activities for youth who are individuals with disabilities, which description and assessment shall include an identification of successful models of such youth workforce investment activities;

(10) a description of how the local board will coordinate education and workforce investment activities carried out in the local area with relevant secondary and postsecondary education programs and activities to coordinate strategies, enhance services, and avoid duplication of services;

(11) a description of how the local board will coordinate workforce investment activities carried out under this subchapter in the local area with the provision of transportation, including public transportation, and other appropriate supportive services in the local area;

(12) a description of plans and strategies for, and assurances concerning, maximizing coordination of services provided by the State employment service under the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.) and services provided in the local area through the one-stop delivery system, to improve service delivery and avoid duplication of services;

(13) a description of how the local board will coordinate workforce investment activities carried out under this subchapter in the local area with the provision of adult education and literacy activities under subchapter II in the local area, including a description of how the local board will carry out, consistent with subparagraphs (A) and (B)(i) of section 3122(d)(11) of this title and section 3322 of this title, the review of local applications submitted under subchapter II;

(14) a description of the replicated cooperative agreements (as defined in section 3122(d)(11) of this title) between the local board or other local entities described in section 101(a)(11)(B) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 721(a)(11)(B)) and the local office of a designated State agency or designated State unit administering programs carried out under title I of such Act (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.) (other than section 112 or part C of that title (29 U.S.C. 732, 741) and subject to section 3151(f) of this title) in accordance with section 101(a)(11) of such Act (29 U.S.C. 721(a)(11)) with respect to efforts that will enhance the provision of services to individuals with disabilities and to other individuals, such as cross training of staff, technical assistance, use and sharing of information, cooperative efforts with employers, and other efforts at cooperation, collaboration, and coordination;

(15) an identification of the entity responsible for the disbursal of grant funds described in section 3122(d)(12)(B)(i)(III) of this title, as determined by the chief elected official or the Governor under section 3122(d)(12)(B)(i) of this title;

(16) a description of the competitive process to be used to award the subgrants and contracts in the local area for activities carried out under this subchapter;

(17) a description of the local levels of performance negotiated with the Governor and chief elected official pursuant to section 3141(c) of this title, to be used to measure the performance of the local area and to be used by the local board for measuring the performance of the local fiscal agent (where appropriate), eligible providers under part B, and the one-stop delivery system, in the local area;

(18) a description of the actions the local board will take toward becoming or remaining a high-performing board, consistent with the factors developed by the State board pursuant to section 3111(d)(6) of this title;

(19) a description of how training services under subpart 3 of part B will be provided in accordance with section 3174(c)(3)(G) of this title, including, if contracts for the training services will be used, how the use of such contracts will be coordinated with the use of individual training accounts under that subpart and how the local board will ensure informed customer choice in the selection of training programs regardless of how the training services are to be provided;

(20) a description of the process used by the local board, consistent with subsection (d), to provide an opportunity for public comment, including comment by representatives of businesses and comment by representatives of labor organizations, and input into the development of the local plan, prior to submission of the plan;

(21) a description of how one-stop centers are implementing and transitioning to an integrated, technology-enabled intake and case management information system for programs carried out under this Act and programs carried out by one-stop partners; and

(22) such other information as the Governor may require.

(c) Existing analysis

As appropriate, a local area may use an existing analysis in order to carry out the requirements of subsection (b)(1) concerning an analysis.

(d) Process

Prior to the date on which the local board submits a local plan under this section, the local board shall—

(1) make available copies of a proposed local plan to the public through electronic and other means, such as public hearings and local news media;

(2) allow members of the public, including representatives of business, representatives of labor organizations, and representatives of education to submit to the local board comments on the proposed local plan, not later than the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date on which the proposed local plan is made available; and

(3) include with the local plan submitted to the Governor under this section any such comments that represent disagreement with the plan.

(e) Plan submission and approval

A local plan submitted to the Governor under this section (including a modification to such a local plan) shall be considered to be approved by the Governor at the end of the 90-day period beginning on the day the Governor receives the plan (including such a modification), unless the Governor makes a written determination during the 90-day period that—

(1) deficiencies in activities carried out under this part or part B have been identified, through audits conducted under section 3244 of this title or otherwise, and the local area has not made acceptable progress in implementing corrective measures to address the deficiencies;

(2) the plan does not comply with the applicable provisions of this Act; or

(3) the plan does not align with the State plan, including failing to provide for alignment of the core programs to support the strategy identified in the State plan in accordance with section 3112(b)(1)(E) of this title.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §108, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1466.)

References in Text

The Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 88–210, Dec. 18, 1963, 77 Stat. 403, as amended generally by Pub. L. 109–270, §1(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 683, which is classified generally to chapter 44 (§2301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2301 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(6)(C), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Wagner-Peyser Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(12), is act June 6, 1933, ch. 49, 48 Stat. 113, which is classified generally to chapter 4B (§49 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 49 of this title and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (b)(14), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§720 et seq.) of chapter 16 of this title. Part C of title I of the Act is classified generally to part C (§741) of subchapter I of chapter 16 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(21) and (e)(2), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

subpart 3—board provisions

§3131. Funding of State and local boards

(a) State boards

In funding a State board under this part, a State—

(1) shall use funds available as described in section 3164(b)(3) or 3174(a)(3)(B) of this title; and

(2) may use non-Federal funds available to the State that the State determines are appropriate and available for that use.

(b) Local boards

In funding a local board under this part, the chief elected official and local board for the local area—

(1) shall use funds available as described in section 3163(b)(4) of this title; and

(2) may use non-Federal funds available to the local area that the chief elected official and local board determine are appropriate and available for that use.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §111, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1471.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

subpart 4—performance accountability

§3141. Performance accountability system

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to establish performance accountability measures that apply across the core programs to assess the effectiveness of States and local areas (for core programs described in part B) in achieving positive outcomes for individuals served by those programs.

(b) State performance accountability measures

(1) In general

For each State, the performance accountability measures for the core programs shall consist of—

(A)(i) the primary indicators of performance described in paragraph (2)(A); and

(ii) the additional indicators of performance (if any) identified by the State under paragraph (2)(B); and

(B) a State adjusted level of performance for each indicator described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Indicators of performance

(A) Primary indicators of performance

(i) In general

The State primary indicators of performance for activities provided under the adult and dislocated worker programs authorized under subpart 3 of part B, the program of adult education and literacy activities authorized under subchapter II, the employment services program authorized under sections 1 through 13 of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.) (except that subclauses (IV) and (V) shall not apply to such program), and the program authorized under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.), other than section 112 or part C of that title (29 U.S.C. 732, 741), shall consist of—

(I) the percentage of program participants who are in unsubsidized employment during the second quarter after exit from the program;

(II) the percentage of program participants who are in unsubsidized employment during the fourth quarter after exit from the program;

(III) the median earnings of program participants who are in unsubsidized employment during the second quarter after exit from the program;

(IV) the percentage of program participants who obtain a recognized postsecondary credential, or a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent (subject to clause (iii)), during participation in or within 1 year after exit from the program;

(V) the percentage of program participants who, during a program year, are in an education or training program that leads to a recognized postsecondary credential or employment and who are achieving measurable skill gains toward such a credential or employment; and

(VI) the indicators of effectiveness in serving employers established pursuant to clause (iv).

(ii) Primary indicators for eligible youth

The primary indicators of performance for the youth program authorized under subpart 2 of part B shall consist of—

(I) the percentage of program participants who are in education or training activities, or in unsubsidized employment, during the second quarter after exit from the program;

(II) the percentage of program participants who are in education or training activities, or in unsubsidized employment, during the fourth quarter after exit from the program; and

(III) the primary indicators of performance described in subclauses (III) through (VI) of subparagraph (A)(i).

(iii) Indicator relating to credential

For purposes of clause (i)(IV), or clause (ii)(III) with respect to clause (i)(IV), program participants who obtain a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent shall be included in the percentage counted as meeting the criterion under such clause only if such participants, in addition to obtaining such diploma or its recognized equivalent, have obtained or retained employment or are in an education or training program leading to a recognized postsecondary credential within 1 year after exit from the program.

(iv) Indicator for services to employers

Prior to the commencement of the second full program year after July 22, 2014, for purposes of clauses (i)(VI), or clause (ii)(III) with respect to clause (i)(VI), the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education, after consultation with the representatives described in paragraph (4)(B), shall jointly develop and establish, for purposes of this subparagraph, 1 or more primary indicators of performance that indicate the effectiveness of the core programs in serving employers.

(B) Additional indicators

A State may identify in the State plan additional performance accountability indicators.

(3) Levels of performance

(A) State adjusted levels of performance for primary indicators

(i) In general

For each State submitting a State plan, there shall be established, in accordance with this subparagraph, levels of performance for each of the corresponding primary indicators of performance described in paragraph (2) for each of the programs described in clause (ii).

(ii) Included programs

The programs included under clause (i) are—

(I) the youth program authorized under subpart 2 of part B;

(II) the adult program authorized under subpart 3 of part B;

(III) the dislocated worker program authorized under subpart 3 of part B;

(IV) the program of adult education and literacy activities authorized under subchapter II;

(V) the employment services program authorized under sections 1 through 13 of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.); and

(VI) the program authorized under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.), other than section 112 or part C of that title (29 U.S.C. 732, 741).

(iii) Identification in State plan

Each State shall identify, in the State plan, expected levels of performance for each of the corresponding primary indicators of performance for each of the programs described in clause (ii) for the first 2 program years covered by the State plan.

(iv) Agreement on State adjusted levels of performance

(I) First 2 years

The State shall reach agreement with the Secretary of Labor, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education on levels of performance for each indicator described in clause (iii) for each of the programs described in clause (ii) for each of the first 2 program years covered by the State plan. In reaching the agreement, the State and the Secretary of Labor in conjunction with the Secretary of Education shall take into account the levels identified in the State plan under clause (iii) and the factors described in clause (v). The levels agreed to shall be considered to be the State adjusted levels of performance for the State for such program years and shall be incorporated into the State plan prior to the approval of such plan.

(II) Third and fourth year

The State and the Secretary of Labor, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education, shall reach agreement, prior to the third program year covered by the State plan, on levels of performance for each indicator described in clause (iii) for each of the programs described in clause (ii) for each of the third and fourth program years covered by the State plan. In reaching the agreement, the State and Secretary of Labor, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education, shall take into account the factors described in clause (v). The levels agreed to shall be considered to be the State adjusted levels of performance for the State for such program years and shall be incorporated into the State plan as a modification to the plan.

(v) Factors

In reaching the agreements described in clause (iv), the State and Secretaries shall—

(I) take into account how the levels involved compare with the State adjusted levels of performance established for other States;

(II) ensure that the levels involved are adjusted, using the objective statistical model established by the Secretaries pursuant to clause (viii), based on—

(aa) the differences among States in actual economic conditions (including differences in unemployment rates and job losses or gains in particular industries); and

(bb) the characteristics of participants when the participants entered the program involved, including indicators of poor work history, lack of work experience, lack of educational or occupational skills attainment, dislocation from high-wage and high-benefit employment, low levels of literacy or English proficiency, disability status, homelessness, ex-offender status, and welfare dependency;


(III) take into account the extent to which the levels involved promote continuous improvement in performance accountability on the performance accountability measures by such State and ensure optimal return on the investment of Federal funds; and

(IV) take into account the extent to which the levels involved will assist the State in meeting the goals described in clause (vi).

(vi) Goals

In order to promote enhanced performance outcomes and to facilitate the process of reaching agreements with the States under clause (iv), the Secretary of Labor, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education, shall establish performance goals for the core programs, in accordance with the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (Public Law 103–62; 107 Stat. 285) and the amendments made by that Act, and in consultation with States and other appropriate parties. Such goals shall be long-term goals for the adjusted levels of performance to be achieved by each of the programs described in clause (ii) regarding the corresponding primary indicators of performance described in paragraph (2)(A).

(vii) Revisions based on economic conditions and individuals served during the program year

The Secretary of Labor, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education, shall, in accordance with the objective statistical model developed pursuant to clause (viii), revise the State adjusted levels of performance applicable for each of the programs described in clause (ii), for a program year and a State, to reflect the actual economic conditions and characteristics of participants (as described in clause (v)(II)) in that program during such program year in such State.

(viii) Statistical adjustment model

The Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education, after consultation with the representatives described in paragraph (4)(B), shall develop and disseminate an objective statistical model that will be used to make the adjustments in the State adjusted levels of performance for actual economic conditions and characteristics of participants under clauses (v) and (vii).

(B) Levels of performance for additional indicators

The State may identify, in the State plan, State levels of performance for each of the additional indicators identified under paragraph (2)(B). Such levels shall be considered to be State adjusted levels of performance for purposes of this section.

(4) Definitions of indicators of performance

(A) In general

In order to ensure nationwide comparability of performance data, the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education, after consultation with representatives described in subparagraph (B), shall issue definitions for the indicators described in paragraph (2).

(B) Representatives

The representatives referred to in subparagraph (A) are representatives of States and political subdivisions, business and industry, employees, eligible providers of activities carried out through the core programs, educators, researchers, participants, the lead State agency officials with responsibility for the programs carried out through the core programs, individuals with expertise in serving individuals with barriers to employment, and other interested parties.

(c) Local performance accountability measures for part B

(1) In general

For each local area in a State designated under section 3121 of this title, the local performance accountability measures for each of the programs described in subclauses (I) through (III) of subsection (b)(3)(A)(ii) shall consist of—

(A)(i) the primary indicators of performance described in subsection (b)(2)(A) that are applicable to such programs; and

(ii) additional indicators of performance, if any, identified by the State for such programs under subsection (b)(2)(B); and

(B) the local level of performance for each indicator described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Local level of performance

The local board, the chief elected official, and the Governor shall negotiate and reach agreement on local levels of performance based on the State adjusted levels of performance established under subsection (b)(3)(A).

(3) Adjustment factors

In negotiating the local levels of performance, the local board, the chief elected official, and the Governor shall make adjustments for the expected economic conditions and the expected characteristics of participants to be served in the local area, using the statistical adjustment model developed pursuant to subsection (b)(3)(A)(viii). In addition, the negotiated local levels of performance applicable to a program year shall be revised to reflect the actual economic conditions experienced and the characteristics of the populations served in the local area during such program year using the statistical adjustment model.

(d) Performance reports

(1) In general

Not later than 12 months after July 22, 2014, the Secretary of Labor, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education, shall develop a template for performance reports that shall be used by States, local boards, and eligible providers of training services under section 3152 of this title to report on outcomes achieved by the core programs. In developing such templates, the Secretary of Labor, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education, will take into account the need to maximize the value of the templates for workers, jobseekers, employers, local elected officials, State officials, Federal policymakers, and other key stakeholders.

(2) Contents of State performance reports

The performance report for a State shall include, subject to paragraph (5)(C)—

(A) information specifying the levels of performance achieved with respect to the primary indicators of performance described in subsection (b)(2)(A) for each of the programs described in subsection (b)(3)(A)(ii) and the State adjusted levels of performance with respect to such indicators for each program;

(B) information specifying the levels of performance achieved with respect to the primary indicators of performance described in subsection (b)(2)(A) for each of the programs described in subsection (b)(3)(A)(ii) with respect to individuals with barriers to employment, disaggregated by each subpopulation of such individuals, and by race, ethnicity, sex, and age;

(C) the total number of participants served by each of the programs described in subsection (b)(3)(A)(ii);

(D) the number of participants who received career and training services, respectively, during the most recent program year and the 3 preceding program years, and the amount of funds spent on each type of service;

(E) the number of participants who exited from career and training services, respectively, during the most recent program year and the 3 preceding program years;

(F) the average cost per participant of those participants who received career and training services, respectively, during the most recent program year and the 3 preceding program years;

(G) the percentage of participants in a program authorized under this part who received training services and obtained unsubsidized employment in a field related to the training received;

(H) the number of individuals with barriers to employment served by each of the programs described in subsection (b)(3)(A)(ii), disaggregated by each subpopulation of such individuals;

(I) the number of participants who are enrolled in more than 1 of the programs described in subsection (b)(3)(A)(ii);

(J) the percentage of the State's annual allotment under section 3172(b) of this title that the State spent on administrative costs;

(K) in the case of a State in which local areas are implementing pay-for-performance contract strategies for programs—

(i) the performance of service providers entering into contracts for such strategies, measured against the levels of performance specified in the contracts for such strategies; and

(ii) an evaluation of the design of the programs and performance of the strategies, and, where possible, the level of satisfaction with the strategies among employers and participants benefitting from the strategies; and


(L) other information that facilitates comparisons of programs with programs in other States.

(3) Contents of local area performance reports

The performance reports for a local area shall include, subject to paragraph (6)(C)—

(A) the information specified in subparagraphs (A) through (L) of paragraph (2), for each of the programs described in subclauses (I) through (III) of subsection (b)(3)(A)(ii);

(B) the percentage of the local area's allocation under sections 3163(b) and 3173(b) of this title that the local area spent on administrative costs; and

(C) other information that facilitates comparisons of programs with programs in other local areas (or planning regions, as appropriate).

(4) Contents of eligible training providers performance reports

The performance report for an eligible provider of training services under section 3152 of this title shall include, subject to paragraph (6)(C), with respect to each program of study (or the equivalent) of such provider—

(A) information specifying the levels of performance achieved with respect to the primary indicators of performance described in subclauses (I) through (IV) of subsection (b)(2)(A)(i) with respect to all individuals engaging in the program of study (or the equivalent);

(B) the total number of individuals exiting from the program of study (or the equivalent);

(C) the total number of participants who received training services through each of the adult program and the dislocated worker program authorized under subpart 3 of part B, disaggregated by the type of entity that provided the training, during the most recent program year and the 3 preceding program years;

(D) the total number of participants who exited from training services, disaggregated by the type of entity that provided the training, during the most recent program year and the 3 preceding program years;

(E) the average cost per participant for the participants who received training services, disaggregated by the type of entity that provided the training, during the most recent program year and the 3 preceding program years; and

(F) the number of individuals with barriers to employment served by each of the adult program and the dislocated worker program authorized under subpart 3 of part B, disaggregated by each subpopulation of such individuals, and by race, ethnicity, sex, and age.

(5) Data validation

In preparing the State reports described in this subsection, each State shall establish procedures, consistent with guidelines issued by the Secretary, in conjunction with the Secretary of Education, to ensure the information contained in the reports is valid and reliable.

(6) Publication

(A) State performance reports

The Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education shall annually make available (including by electronic means), in an easily understandable format, the performance reports for States containing the information described in paragraph (2).

(B) Local area and eligible training provider performance reports

The State shall make available (including by electronic means), in an easily understandable format, the performance reports for the local areas containing the information described in paragraph (3) and the performance reports for eligible providers of training services containing the information described in paragraph (4).

(C) Rules for reporting of data

The disaggregation of data under this subsection shall not be required when the number of participants in a category is insufficient to yield statistically reliable information or when the results would reveal personally identifiable information about an individual participant.

(D) Dissemination to Congress

The Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education shall make available (including by electronic means) a summary of the reports, and the reports, required under this subsection to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate. The Secretaries shall prepare and make available with the reports a set of recommendations for improvements in and adjustments to pay-for-performance contract strategies used under part B.

(e) Evaluation of State programs

(1) In general

Using funds authorized under a core program and made available to carry out this section, the State, in coordination with local boards in the State and the State agencies responsible for the administration of the core programs, shall conduct ongoing evaluations of activities carried out in the State under such programs. The State, local boards, and State agencies shall conduct the evaluations in order to promote, establish, implement, and utilize methods for continuously improving core program activities in order to achieve high-level performance within, and high-level outcomes from, the workforce development system. The State shall coordinate the evaluations with the evaluations provided for by the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education under section 3224 of this title, section 3332(c)(2)(D) of this title, and sections 12(a)(5), 14, and 107 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 709(a)(5), 711, 727) (applied with respect to programs carried out under title I of that Act (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.)) and the investigations provided for by the Secretary of Labor under section 10(b) of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49i(b)).

(2) Design

The evaluations conducted under this subsection shall be designed in conjunction with the State board, State agencies responsible for the administration of the core programs, and local boards and shall include analysis of customer feedback and outcome and process measures in the statewide workforce development system. The evaluations shall use designs that employ the most rigorous analytical and statistical methods that are reasonably feasible, such as the use of control groups.

(3) Results

The State shall annually prepare, submit to the State board and local boards in the State, and make available to the public (including by electronic means), reports containing the results of evaluations conducted under this subsection, to promote the efficiency and effectiveness of the workforce development system.

(4) Cooperation with Federal evaluations

The State shall, to the extent practicable, cooperate in the conduct of evaluations (including related research projects) provided for by the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary of Education under the provisions of Federal law identified in paragraph (1). Such cooperation shall include the provision of data (in accordance with appropriate privacy protections established by the Secretary of Labor), the provision of responses to surveys, and allowing site visits in a timely manner, for the Secretaries or their agents.

(f) Sanctions for State failure to meet State performance accountability measures

(1) States

(A) Technical assistance

If a State fails to meet the State adjusted levels of performance relating to indicators described in subsection (b)(2)(A) for a program for any program year, the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education shall provide technical assistance, including assistance in the development of a performance improvement plan.

(B) Reduction in amount of grant

If such failure continues for a second consecutive year, or (except in the case of exceptional circumstances as determined by the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary of Education, as appropriate) a State fails to submit a report under subsection (d) for any program year, the percentage of each amount that would (in the absence of this paragraph) be reserved by the Governor under section 3163(a) of this title for the immediately succeeding program year shall be reduced by 5 percentage points until such date as the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary of Education, as appropriate, determines that the State meets such State adjusted levels of performance and has submitted such reports for the appropriate program years.

(g) Sanctions for local area failure to meet local performance accountability measures

(1) Technical assistance

If a local area fails to meet local performance accountability measures established under subsection (c) for the youth, adult, or dislocated worker program authorized under subpart 2 or 3 of part B for any program year, the Governor, or upon request by the Governor, the Secretary of Labor, shall provide technical assistance, which may include assistance in the development of a performance improvement plan or the development of a modified local plan (or regional plan).

(2) Corrective actions

(A) In general

If such failure continues for a third consecutive year, the Governor shall take corrective actions, which shall include development of a reorganization plan through which the Governor shall—

(i) require the appointment and certification of a new local board, consistent with the criteria established under section 3122(b) of this title;

(ii) prohibit the use of eligible providers and one-stop partners identified as achieving a poor level of performance; or

(iii) take such other significant actions as the Governor determines are appropriate.

(B) Appeal by local area

(i) Appeal to Governor

The local board and chief elected official for a local area that is subject to a reorganization plan under subparagraph (A) may, not later than 30 days after receiving notice of the reorganization plan, appeal to the Governor to rescind or revise such plan. In such case, the Governor shall make a final decision not later than 30 days after the receipt of the appeal.

(ii) Subsequent action

The local board and chief elected official for a local area may, not later than 30 days after receiving a decision from the Governor pursuant to clause (i), appeal such decision to the Secretary of Labor. In such case, the Secretary shall make a final decision not later than 30 days after the receipt of the appeal.

(C) Effective date

The decision made by the Governor under subparagraph (B)(i) shall become effective at the time the Governor issues the decision pursuant to such clause. Such decision shall remain effective unless the Secretary of Labor rescinds or revises such plan pursuant to subparagraph (B)(ii).

(h) Establishing pay-for-performance contract strategy incentives

Using non-Federal funds, the Governor may establish incentives for local boards to implement pay-for-performance contract strategies for the delivery of training services described in section 3174(c)(3) of this title or activities described in section 3164(c)(2) of this title in the local areas served by the local boards.

(i) Fiscal and management accountability information systems

(1) In general

Using funds authorized under a core program and made available to carry out this subpart, the Governor, in coordination with the State board, the State agencies administering the core programs, local boards, and chief elected officials in the State, shall establish and operate a fiscal and management accountability information system based on guidelines established by the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education after consultation with the Governors of States, chief elected officials, and one-stop partners. Such guidelines shall promote efficient collection and use of fiscal and management information for reporting and monitoring the use of funds authorized under the core programs and for preparing the annual report described in subsection (d).

(2) Wage records

In measuring the progress of the State on State and local performance accountability measures, a State shall utilize quarterly wage records, consistent with State law. The Secretary of Labor shall make arrangements, consistent with State law, to ensure that the wage records of any State are available to any other State to the extent that such wage records are required by the State in carrying out the State plan of the State or completing the annual report described in subsection (d).

(3) Confidentiality

In carrying out the requirements of this Act, the State shall comply with section 1232g of title 20.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §116, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1471; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(c), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 213.)

References in Text

The Wagner-Peyser Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i), (3)(A)(ii)(V), is act June 6, 1933, ch. 49, 48 Stat. 113, which is classified generally to chapter 4B (§49 et seq.) of this title. Sections 1 to 13 of the Act are classified to sections 49 to 49c, 49d, and 49e to 49l of this title, respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 49 of this title and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2)(A)(i), (3)(A)(ii)(VI) and (e)(1), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§720 et seq.) of chapter 16 of this title. Part C of title I of the Act is classified generally to part C (§741) of subchapter I of chapter 16 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(A)(vi), is Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285, which enacted section 306 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 1115 to 1119, 9703, and 9704 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and sections 2801 to 2805 of Title 39, Postal Service, amended section 1105 of Title 31, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1115 of Title 31. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of Title 31 and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (i)(3), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 114–18, §2(c)(1), substituted "clause (i)(VI)" for "clause (i)(IV)".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 114–18, §2(c)(2), struck out "for a program described in subsection (d)(2)(A)" after "part B".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–18 effective as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128], see §2(f) of Pub. L. 114–18, set out as a note under section 3112 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Part B—Workforce Investment Activities and Providers

Definition of "Secretary"

In this part, Secretary means the Secretary of Labor, see section 3151(b)(1)(C)(ii)(II) of this title.

subpart 1—workforce investment activities and providers

§3151. Establishment of one-stop delivery systems

(a) In general

Consistent with an approved State plan, the local board for a local area, with the agreement of the chief elected official for the local area, shall—

(1) develop and enter into the memorandum of understanding described in subsection (c) with one-stop partners;

(2) designate or certify one-stop operators under subsection (d); and

(3) conduct oversight with respect to the one-stop delivery system in the local area.

(b) One-stop partners

(1) Required partners

(A) Roles and responsibilities of one-stop partners

Each entity that carries out a program or activities described in subparagraph (B) in a local area shall—

(i) provide access through the one-stop delivery system to such program or activities carried out by the entity, including making the career services described in section 3174(c)(2) of this title that are applicable to the program or activities available at the one-stop centers (in addition to any other appropriate locations);

(ii) use a portion of the funds available for the program and activities to maintain the one-stop delivery system, including payment of the infrastructure costs of one-stop centers in accordance with subsection (h);

(iii) enter into a local memorandum of understanding with the local board, relating to the operation of the one-stop system, that meets the requirements of subsection (c);

(iv) participate in the operation of the one-stop system consistent with the terms of the memorandum of understanding, the requirements of this subchapter, and the requirements of the Federal laws authorizing the program or activities; and

(v) provide representation on the State board to the extent provided under section 3111 of this title.

(B) Programs and activities

The programs and activities referred to in subparagraph (A) consist of—

(i) programs authorized under this subchapter;

(ii) programs authorized under the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.);

(iii) adult education and literacy activities authorized under subchapter II;

(iv) programs authorized under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.) (other than section 112 or part C of title I of such Act (29 U.S.C. 732, 741); 1

(v) activities authorized under title V of the Older Americans Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 3056 et seq.);

(vi) career and technical education programs at the postsecondary level authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (20 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.);

(vii) activities authorized under chapter 2 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2271 et seq.);

(viii) activities authorized under chapter 41 of title 38;

(ix) employment and training activities carried out under the Community Services Block Grant Act (42 U.S.C. 9901 et seq.);

(x) employment and training activities carried out by the Department of Housing and Urban Development;

(xi) programs authorized under State unemployment compensation laws (in accordance with applicable Federal law);

(xii) programs authorized under section 17532 of title 42; and

(xiii) programs authorized under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), subject to subparagraph (C).

(C) Determination by the Governor

(i) In general

An entity that carries out a program referred to in subparagraph (B)(xiii) shall be included in the one-stop partners for the local area, as a required partner, for purposes of this Act and the other core program provisions that are not part of this Act, unless the Governor provides the notification described in clause (ii).

(ii) Notification

The notification referred to in clause (i) is a notification that—

(I) is made in writing of a determination by the Governor not to include such entity in the one-stop partners described in clause (i); and

(II) is provided to the Secretary of Labor (referred to in this part, and parts C through E, as the "Secretary") and the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(2) Additional partners

(A) In general

With the approval of the local board and chief elected official, in addition to the entities described in paragraph (1), other entities that carry out workforce development programs described in subparagraph (B) may be one-stop partners for the local area and carry out the responsibilities described in paragraph (1)(A).

(B) Programs

The programs referred to in subparagraph (A) may include—

(i) employment and training programs administered by the Social Security Administration, including the Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program established under section 1148 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1320b–19);

(ii) employment and training programs carried out by the Small Business Administration;

(iii) programs authorized under section 2015(d)(4) of title 7;

(iv) work programs authorized under section 2015(o) of title 7;

(v) programs carried out under section 112 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 732);

(vi) programs authorized under the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12501 et seq.); and

(vii) other appropriate Federal, State, or local programs, including employment, education, and training programs provided by public libraries or in the private sector.

(c) Memorandum of understanding

(1) Development

The local board, with the agreement of the chief elected official, shall develop and enter into a memorandum of understanding (between the local board and the one-stop partners), consistent with paragraph (2), concerning the operation of the one-stop delivery system in the local area.

(2) Contents

Each memorandum of understanding shall contain—

(A) provisions describing—

(i) the services to be provided through the one-stop delivery system consistent with the requirements of this section, including the manner in which the services will be coordinated and delivered through such system;

(ii) how the costs of such services and the operating costs of such system will be funded, including—

(I) funding through cash and in-kind contributions (fairly evaluated), which contributions may include funding from philanthropic organizations or other private entities, or through other alternative financing options, to provide a stable and equitable funding stream for ongoing one-stop delivery system operations; and

(II) funding of the infrastructure costs of one-stop centers in accordance with subsection (h);


(iii) methods of referral of individuals between the one-stop operator and the one-stop partners for appropriate services and activities;

(iv) methods to ensure the needs of workers and youth, and individuals with barriers to employment, including individuals with disabilities, are addressed in the provision of necessary and appropriate access to services, including access to technology and materials, made available through the one-stop delivery system; and

(v) the duration of the memorandum of understanding and the procedures for amending the memorandum during the duration of the memorandum, and assurances that such memorandum shall be reviewed not less than once every 3-year period to ensure appropriate funding and delivery of services; and


(B) such other provisions, consistent with the requirements of this subchapter, as the parties to the agreement determine to be appropriate.

(d) One-stop operators

(1) Local designation and certification

Consistent with paragraphs (2) and (3), the local board, with the agreement of the chief elected official, is authorized to designate or certify one-stop operators and to terminate for cause the eligibility of such operators.

(2) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive funds made available under this part to operate a one-stop center referred to in subsection (e), an entity (which may be a consortium of entities)—

(A) shall be designated or certified as a one-stop operator through a competitive process; and

(B) shall be an entity (public, private, or nonprofit), or consortium of entities (including a consortium of entities that, at a minimum, includes 3 or more of the one-stop partners described in subsection (b)(1)), of demonstrated effectiveness, located in the local area, which may include—

(i) an institution of higher education;

(ii) an employment service State agency established under the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.), on behalf of the local office of the agency;

(iii) a community-based organization, nonprofit organization, or intermediary;

(iv) a private for-profit entity;

(v) a government agency; and

(vi) another interested organization or entity, which may include a local chamber of commerce or other business organization, or a labor organization.

(3) Exception

Elementary schools and secondary schools shall not be eligible for designation or certification as one-stop operators, except that nontraditional public secondary schools and area career and technical education schools may be eligible for such designation or certification.

(4) Additional requirements

The State and local boards shall ensure that in carrying out activities under this subchapter, one-stop operators—

(A) disclose any potential conflicts of interest arising from the relationships of the operators with particular training service providers or other service providers;

(B) do not establish practices that create disincentives to providing services to individuals with barriers to employment who may require longer-term services, such as intensive employment, training, and education services; and

(C) comply with Federal regulations, and procurement policies, relating to the calculation and use of profits.

(e) Establishment of one-stop delivery system

(1) In general

There shall be established in each local area in a State that receives an allotment under section 3172(b) of this title a one-stop delivery system, which shall—

(A) provide the career services described in section 3174(c)(2) of this title;

(B) provide access to training services as described in section 3174(c)(3) of this title, including serving as the point of access to training services for participants in accordance with section 3174(c)(3)(G) of this title;

(C) provide access to the employment and training activities carried out under section 3174(d) of this title, if any;

(D) provide access to programs and activities carried out by one-stop partners described in subsection (b); and

(E) provide access to the data, information, and analysis described in section 15(a) of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49l–2(a)) and all job search, placement, recruitment, and other labor exchange services authorized under the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.).

(2) One-stop delivery

The one-stop delivery system—

(A) at a minimum, shall make each of the programs, services, and activities described in paragraph (1) accessible at not less than 1 physical center in each local area of the State; and

(B) may also make programs, services, and activities described in paragraph (1) available—

(i) through a network of affiliated sites that can provide 1 or more of the programs, services, and activities to individuals; and

(ii) through a network of eligible one-stop partners—

(I) in which each partner provides 1 or more of the programs, services, and activities to such individuals and is accessible at an affiliated site that consists of a physical location or an electronically or technologically linked access point; and

(II) that assures individuals that information on the availability of the career services will be available regardless of where the individuals initially enter the statewide workforce development system, including information made available through an access point described in subclause (I);


(C) may have specialized centers to address special needs, such as the needs of dislocated workers, youth, or key industry sectors or clusters; and

(D) as applicable and practicable, shall make programs, services, and activities accessible to individuals through electronic means in a manner that improves efficiency, coordination, and quality in the delivery of one-stop partner services.

(3) Colocation of Wagner-Peyser services

Consistent with section 3(d) of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49b(d)), and in order to improve service delivery, avoid duplication of services, and enhance coordination of services, including location of staff to ensure access to services in underserved areas, the employment service offices in each State shall be colocated with one-stop centers established under this subchapter.

(4) Use of common one-stop delivery system identifier

In addition to using any State or locally developed identifier, each one-stop delivery system shall include in the identification of products, programs, activities, services, facilities, and related property and materials, a common one-stop delivery system identifier. The identifier shall be developed by the Secretary, in consultation with heads of other appropriate departments and agencies, and representatives of State boards and local boards and of other stakeholders in the one-stop delivery system, not later than the beginning of the second full program year after July 22, 2014. Such common identifier may consist of a logo, phrase, or other identifier that informs users of the one-stop delivery system that such products, programs, activities, services, facilities, property, or materials are being provided through such system. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit one-stop partners, States, or local areas from having additional identifiers.

(f) Application to certain vocational rehabilitation programs

(1) Limitation

Nothing in this section shall be construed to apply to part C of title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 741).

(2) Client assistance

Nothing in this Act shall be construed to require that any entity carrying out a client assistance program authorized under section 112 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 732)—

(A) be included as a mandatory one-stop partner under subsection (b)(1); or

(B) if the entity is included as an additional one-stop partner under subsection (b)(2)—

(i) violate the requirement of section 112(c)(1)(A) of that Act (29 U.S.C. 732(c)(1)(A)) that the entity be independent of any agency that provides treatment, services, or rehabilitation to individuals under that Act; or

(ii) carry out any activity not authorized under section 112 of that Act (including appropriate Federal regulations).

(g) Certification and continuous improvement of one-stop centers

(1) In general

In order to be eligible to receive infrastructure funding described in subsection (h), the State board, in consultation with chief elected officials and local boards, shall establish objective criteria and procedures for use by local boards in assessing at least once every 3 years the effectiveness, physical and programmatic accessibility in accordance with section 3248 of this title, if applicable, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), and continuous improvement of one-stop centers and the one-stop delivery system, consistent with the requirements of section 3111(d)(6) of this title.

(2) Criteria

The criteria and procedures developed under this subsection shall include standards relating to service coordination achieved by the one-stop delivery system with respect to the programs administered by the one-stop partners at the one-stop centers. Such criteria and procedures shall—

(A) be developed in a manner that is consistent with the guidelines, guidance, and policies provided by the Governor and by the State board, in consultation with the chief elected officials and local boards, for such partners' participation under subsections (h)(1) and (i); and

(B) include such factors relating to the effectiveness, accessibility, and improvement of the one-stop delivery system as the State board determines to be appropriate, including at a minimum how well the one-stop center—

(i) supports the achievement of the negotiated local levels of performance for the indicators of performance described in section 3141(b)(2) of this title for the local area;

(ii) integrates available services; and

(iii) meets the workforce development and employment needs of local employers and participants.

(3) Local criteria

Consistent with the criteria developed under paragraph (1) by the State, a local board in the State may develop additional criteria (or higher levels of service coordination than required for the State-developed criteria) relating to service coordination achieved by the one-stop delivery system, for purposes of assessments described in paragraph (1), in order to respond to labor market, economic, and demographic, conditions and trends in the local area.

(4) Effect of certification

One-stop centers certified under this subsection shall be eligible to receive the infrastructure funding described in subsection (h).

(5) Review and update

The criteria and procedures established under this subsection shall be reviewed and updated by the State board or the local board, as the case may be, as part of the biennial process for review and modification of State and local plans described in sections 3112(c)(2) and 3123(a) of this title.

(h) Funding of one-stop infrastructure

(1) In general

(A) Options for infrastructure funding

(i) Local options

The local board, chief elected officials, and one-stop partners described in subsection (b)(1) in a local area may fund the costs of infrastructure of one-stop centers in the local area through—

(I) methods agreed on by the local board, chief elected officials, and one-stop partners (and described in the memorandum of understanding described in subsection (c)); or

(II) if no consensus agreement on methods is reached under subclause (I), the State infrastructure funding mechanism described in paragraph (2).

(ii) Failure to reach consensus agreement on funding methods

Beginning July 1, 2016, if the local board, chief elected officials, and one-stop partners described in subsection (b)(1) in a local area fail to reach consensus agreement on methods of sufficiently funding the costs of infrastructure of one-stop centers for a program year, the State infrastructure funding mechanism described in paragraph (2) shall be applicable to such local area for that program year and for each subsequent program year for which those entities and individuals fail to reach such agreement.

(B) Guidance for infrastructure funding

In addition to carrying out the requirements relating to the State infrastructure funding mechanism described in paragraph (2), the Governor, after consultation with chief elected officials, local boards, and the State board, and consistent with the guidance and policies provided by the State board under subparagraphs (B) and (C)(i) of section 3111(d)(7) of this title, shall provide, for the use of local areas under subparagraph (A)(i)(I)—

(i) guidelines for State-administered one-stop partner programs, for determining such programs' contributions to a one-stop delivery system, based on such programs' proportionate use of such system consistent with chapter II of title 2, Code of Federal Regulations (or any corresponding similar regulation or ruling), including determining funding for the costs of infrastructure, which contributions shall be negotiated pursuant to the memorandum of understanding under subsection (c); and

(ii) guidance to assist local boards, chief elected officials, and one-stop partners in local areas in determining equitable and stable methods of funding the costs of infrastructure of one-stop centers in such areas.

(2) State one-stop infrastructure funding

(A) Definition

In this paragraph, the term "covered portion", used with respect to funding for a fiscal year for a program described in subsection (b)(1), means a portion determined under subparagraph (C) of the Federal funds provided to a State (including local areas within the State) under the Federal law authorizing that program described in subsection (b)(1) for the fiscal year (taking into account the availability of funding for purposes related to infrastructure from philanthropic organizations, private entities, or other alternative financing options).

(B) Partner contributions

Subject to subparagraph (D), for local areas in a State that are not covered by paragraph (1)(A)(i)(I), the covered portions of funding for a fiscal year shall be provided to the Governor from the programs described in subsection (b)(1), to assist in paying the costs of infrastructure of one-stop centers in those local areas of the State not adequately funded under the option described in paragraph (1)(A)(i)(I).

(C) Determination of Governor

(i) In general

Subject to clause (ii) and subparagraph (D), the Governor, after consultation with chief elected officials, local boards, and the State board, shall determine the portion of funds to be provided under subparagraph (B) by each one-stop partner from each program described in subparagraph (B). In making such determination for the purpose of determining funding contributions, for funding pursuant to clause (i)(II) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(A) by each partner, the Governor shall calculate amounts for the proportionate use of the one-stop centers in the State, consistent with chapter II of title 2, Code of Federal Regulations (or any corresponding similar regulation or ruling), taking into account the costs of administration of the one-stop delivery system for purposes not related to one-stop centers, for each partner. The Governor shall exclude from such determination of funds the amounts for proportionate use of one-stop centers attributable to the programs of one-stop partners for those local areas of the State where the costs of infrastructure of one-stop centers are funded under the option described in paragraph (1)(A)(i)(I). The Governor shall also take into account the statutory requirements for each partner program and the partner program's ability to fulfill such requirements.

(ii) Special rule

In a State in which the State constitution or a State statute places policymaking authority that is independent of the authority of the Governor in an entity or official with respect to the funds provided for adult education and literacy activities authorized under subchapter II, postsecondary career and technical education activities authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (20 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.), or vocational rehabilitation services offered under a provision covered by section 3102(13)(D) of this title, the determination described in clause (i) with respect to the programs authorized under that subchapter, Act, or provision shall be made by the chief officer of the entity, or the official, with such authority in consultation with the Governor.

(D) Limitations

(i) Provision from administrative funds

(I) In general

Subject to subclause (II), the funds provided under this paragraph by each one-stop partner shall be provided only from funds available for the costs of administration under the program administered by such partner, and shall be subject to the program's limitations with respect to the portion of funds under such program that may be used for administration.

(II) Exceptions

Nothing in this clause shall be construed to apply to the programs carried out under this subchapter, or under title V of the Older Americans Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 3056 et seq.).

(ii) Cap on required contributions

For local areas in a State that are not covered by paragraph (1)(A)(i)(I), the following rules shall apply:

(I) WIA formula programs and employment service

The portion of funds required to be contributed under this paragraph from a program authorized under subpart 2 or 3, or the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.) shall not exceed 3 percent of the amount of Federal funds provided to carry out that program in the State for a fiscal year.

(II) Other one-stop partners

The portion of funds required to be contributed under this paragraph from a program described in subsection (b)(1) other than the programs described in subclause (I) shall not exceed 1.5 percent of the amount of Federal funds provided to carry out that program in the State for a fiscal year.

(III) Vocational rehabilitation

Notwithstanding subclauses (I) and (II), an entity administering a program described in subsection (b)(1)(B)(iv) shall not be required to provide from that program, under this paragraph, a portion that exceeds—

(aa) 0.75 percent of the amount of Federal funds provided to carry out such program in the State for the second full program year that begins after July 22, 2014;

(bb) 1.0 percent of the amount provided to carry out such program in the State for the third full program year that begins after such date;

(cc) 1.25 percent of the amount provided to carry out such program in the State for the fourth full program year that begins after such date; and

(dd) 1.5 percent of the amount provided to carry out such program in the State for the fifth and each succeeding full program year that begins after such date.

(iii) Federal direct spending programs

For local areas in a State that are not covered by paragraph (1)(A)(i)(I), an entity administering a program funded with direct spending as defined in section 900(c)(8) of title 2, as in effect on February 15, 2014 2 shall not be required to provide, for purposes of this paragraph, an amount in excess of the amount determined under subparagraph (C)(i) to be equivalent to the cost of the proportionate use of the one-stop centers for the one-stop partner for such program in the State.

(iv) Native American programs

One-stop partners for Native American programs established under section 3221 of this title shall not be subject to the provisions of this subsection (other than this clause) or subsection (i). For purposes of subsection (c)(2)(A)(ii)(II), the method for determining the appropriate portion of funds to be provided by such partners to pay for the costs of infrastructure of a one-stop center shall be determined as part of the development of the memorandum of understanding under subsection (c) for the one-stop center and shall be stated in the memorandum.

(E) Appeal by one-stop partners

The Governor shall establish a process, described under section 3112(b)(2)(D)(i)(IV) of this title, for a one-stop partner administering a program described in subsection (b)(1) to appeal a determination regarding the portion of funds to be provided under this paragraph. Such a determination may be appealed under the process on the basis that such determination is inconsistent with the requirements of this paragraph. Such process shall ensure prompt resolution of the appeal in order to ensure the funds are distributed in a timely manner, consistent with the requirements of section 3242(e) of this title.

(3) Allocation by Governor

(A) In general

From the funds provided under paragraph (1), the Governor shall allocate the funds to local areas described in subparagraph (B) in accordance with the formula established under subparagraph (B) for the purposes of assisting in paying the costs of infrastructure of one-stop centers.

(B) Allocation formula

The State board shall develop a formula to be used by the Governor to allocate the funds provided under paragraph (1) to local areas not funding costs of infrastructure under the option described in paragraph (1)(A)(i)(I). The formula shall be based on factors including the number of one-stop centers in a local area, the population served by such centers, the services provided by such centers, and other factors relating to the performance of such centers that the State board determines are appropriate.

(4) Costs of infrastructure

In this subsection, the term "costs of infrastructure", used with respect to a one-stop center, means the nonpersonnel costs that are necessary for the general operation of the one-stop center, including the rental costs of the facilities, the costs of utilities and maintenance, equipment (including assessment-related products and assistive technology for individuals with disabilities), and technology to facilitate access to the one-stop center, including the center's planning and outreach activities.

(i) Other funds

(1) In general

Subject to the memorandum of understanding described in subsection (c) for the one-stop delivery system involved, in addition to the funds provided to carry out subsection (h), a portion of funds made available under Federal law authorizing the programs described in subsection (b) and administered by one-stop partners, or the noncash resources available under such programs, shall be used to pay the additional costs relating to the operation of the one-stop delivery system that are not paid from the funds provided under subsection (h), as determined in accordance with paragraph (3), to the extent not inconsistent with the Federal law involved. Such costs shall include the costs of the provision of career services described in section 3174(c)(2) of this title applicable to each program and may include common costs that are not paid from the funds provided under subsection (h).

(2) Shared services

The costs described under paragraph (1) may include costs of services that are authorized for and may be commonly provided through the one-stop partner programs to any individual, such as initial intake, assessment of needs, appraisal of basic skills, identification of appropriate services to meet such needs, referrals to other one-stop partners, and other similar services.

(3) Determination and guidance

The method for determining the appropriate portion of funds and noncash resources to be provided by the one-stop partner for each program under paragraph (1) for a one-stop center shall be determined as part of the development of the memorandum of understanding under subsection (c) for the one-stop center and shall be stated in the memorandum. The State board shall provide guidance to facilitate the determination, for purposes of the memorandum of understanding, of an appropriate allocation of the funds and noncash resources in local areas, consistent with the requirements of section 3111(d)(6)(C) of this title.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §121, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1481.)

References in Text

The Wagner-Peyser Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(B)(ii), (d)(2)(B)(ii), (e)(1)(E), and (h)(2)(D)(ii)(I), is act June 6, 1933, ch. 49, 48 Stat. 113, which is classified generally to chapter 4B (§49 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 49 of this title and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(B)(iv) and (f), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§701 et seq.) of this title. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§720 et seq.) of chapter 16 of this title. Part C of title I of the Act is classified generally to part C (§741) of subchapter I of chapter 16 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

The Older Americans Act of 1965, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(B)(v) and (h)(2)(D)(i)(II), is Pub. L. 89–73, July 14, 1965, 79 Stat. 218, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title V of the Act, known as the Community Service Senior Opportunities Act, is classified generally to subchapter IX (§3056 et seq.) of chapter 35 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3001 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(B)(vi) and (h)(2)(C)(ii), is Pub. L. 88–210, Dec. 18, 1963, 77 Stat. 403, as amended generally by Pub. L. 109–270, §1(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 683, which is classified generally to chapter 44 (§2301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2301 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(B)(vii), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978. Chapter 2 of title II of the Act is classified generally to part 2 (§2271 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 12 of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 2101 of Title 19 and Tables.

The Community Services Block Grant Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ix), is subtitle B (§671 et seq.) of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 511, which is classified generally to chapter 106 (§9901 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short title note set out under section 9901 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(B)(xiii), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(C)(i) and (f)(2), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The National and Community Service Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(B)(vi), is Pub. L. 101–610, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3127, which is classified principally to chapter 129 (§12501 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12501 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

1 So in original. Another closing parenthesis probably should precede the semicolon.

2 So in original. Probably should be "2014,".

§3152. Identification of eligible providers of training services

(a) Eligibility

(1) In general

Except as provided in subsection (h), the Governor, after consultation with the State board, shall establish criteria, information requirements, and procedures regarding the eligibility of providers of training services to receive funds provided under section 3173(b) of this title for the provision of training services in local areas in the State.

(2) Providers

Subject to the provisions of this section, to be eligible to receive those funds for the provision of training services, the provider shall be—

(A) an institution of higher education that provides a program that leads to a recognized postsecondary credential;

(B) an entity that carries out programs registered under the Act of August 16, 1937 (commonly known as the "National Apprenticeship Act"; 50 Stat. 664, chapter 663; 29 U.S.C. 50 et seq.); or

(C) another public or private provider of a program of training services, which may include joint labor-management organizations, and eligible providers of adult education and literacy activities under subchapter II if such activities are provided in combination with occupational skills training.

(3) Inclusion in list of eligible providers

A provider described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of paragraph (2) shall comply with the criteria, information requirements, and procedures established under this section to be included on the list of eligible providers of training services described in subsection (d). A provider described in paragraph (2)(B) shall be included and maintained on the list of eligible providers of training services described in subsection (d) for so long as the corresponding program of the provider remains registered as described in paragraph (2)(B).

(b) Criteria and information requirements

(1) State criteria

In establishing criteria pursuant to subsection (a), the Governor shall take into account each of the following:

(A) The performance of providers of training services with respect to—

(i) the performance accountability measures and other matters for which information is required under paragraph (2); and

(ii) other appropriate measures of performance outcomes determined by the Governor for those participants receiving training services under this part (taking into consideration the characteristics of the population served and relevant economic conditions), and the outcomes of the program through which those training services were provided for students in general with respect to employment and earnings as defined under section 3141(b)(2) of this title.


(B) The need to ensure access to training services throughout the State, including in rural areas, and through the use of technology.

(C) Information reported to State agencies with respect to Federal and State programs involving training services (other than the program carried out under this part), including one-stop partner programs.

(D) The degree to which the training programs of such providers relate to in-demand industry sectors and occupations in the State.

(E) The requirements for State licensing of providers of training services, and the licensing status of providers of training services if applicable.

(F) Ways in which the criteria can encourage, to the extent practicable, the providers to use industry-recognized certificates or certifications.

(G) The ability of the providers to offer programs that lead to recognized postsecondary credentials.

(H) The quality of a program of training services, including a program of training services that leads to a recognized postsecondary credential.

(I) The ability of the providers to provide training services to individuals who are employed and individuals with barriers to employment.

(J) Such other factors as the Governor determines are appropriate to ensure—

(i) the accountability of the providers;

(ii) that the one-stop centers in the State will ensure that such providers meet the needs of local employers and participants;

(iii) the informed choice of participants among training services providers; and

(iv) that the collection of information required to demonstrate compliance with the criteria is not unduly burdensome or costly to providers.

(2) State information requirements

The information requirements established by the Governor shall require that a provider of training services submit appropriate, accurate, and timely information to the State, to enable the State to carry out subsection (d), with respect to participants receiving training services under this part in the applicable program, including—

(A) information on the performance of the provider with respect to the performance accountability measures described in section 3141 of this title for such participants (taking into consideration the characteristics of the population served and relevant economic conditions), and information specifying the percentage of such participants who entered unsubsidized employment in an occupation related to the program, to the extent practicable;

(B) information on recognized postsecondary credentials received by such participants;

(C) information on cost of attendance, including costs of tuition and fees, for participants in the program;

(D) information on the program completion rate for such participants; and

(E) information on the criteria described in paragraph (1).

(3) Local criteria and information requirements

A local board in the State may establish criteria and information requirements in addition to the criteria and information requirements established by the Governor, or may require higher levels of performance than required for the criteria established by the Governor, for purposes of determining the eligibility of providers of training services to receive funds described in subsection (a) for the provision of training services in the local area involved.

(4) Criteria and information requirements to establish initial eligibility

(A) Purpose

The purpose of this paragraph is to enable the providers of programs carried out under subpart 3 to offer the highest quality training services and be responsive to in-demand and emerging industries by providing training services for those industries.

(B) Initial eligibility

Providers may seek initial eligibility under this paragraph as providers of training services and may receive that initial eligibility for only 1 fiscal year for a particular program. The criteria and information requirements established by the Governor under this paragraph shall require that a provider who has not previously been an eligible provider of training services under this section (or section 122 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2842], as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014) provide the information described in subparagraph (C).

(C) Information

The provider shall provide verifiable program-specific performance information based on criteria established by the State as described in subparagraph (D) that supports the provider's ability to serve participants under this part.

(D) Criteria

The criteria described in subparagraph (C) shall include at least—

(i) a factor related to indicators described in section 3141 of this title;

(ii) a factor concerning whether the provider is in a partnership with business;

(iii) other factors that indicate high-quality training services, including the factor described in paragraph (1)(H); and

(iv) a factor concerning alignment of the training services with in-demand industry sectors and occupations, to the extent practicable.

(E) Provision

The provider shall provide the information described in subparagraph (C) to the Governor and the local board in a manner that will permit the Governor and the local board to make a decision on inclusion of the provider on the list of eligible providers described in subsection (d).

(F) Limitation

A provider that receives initial eligibility under this paragraph for a program shall be subject to the requirements under subsection (c) for that program after such initial eligibility expires.

(c) Procedures

(1) Application procedures

The procedures established under subsection (a) shall identify the application process for a provider of training services to become eligible to receive funds provided under section 3173(b) of this title for the provision of training services. The procedures shall identify the respective roles of the State and local areas in receiving and reviewing the applications and in making determinations of such eligibility based on the criteria, information, and procedures established under this section. The procedures shall also establish a process for a provider of training services to appeal a denial or termination of eligibility under this section that includes an opportunity for a hearing and prescribes appropriate time limits to ensure prompt resolution of the appeal.

(2) Renewal procedures

The procedures established by the Governor shall also provide for biennial review and renewal of eligibility under this section for providers of training services.

(d) List and information to assist participants in choosing providers

(1) In general

In order to facilitate and assist participants in choosing employment and training activities and in choosing providers of training services, the Governor shall ensure that an appropriate list of providers determined to be eligible under this section to offer a program in the State (and, as appropriate, in a local area), accompanied by information identifying the recognized postsecondary credential offered by the provider and other appropriate information, is prepared. The list shall be provided to the local boards in the State, and made available to such participants and to members of the public through the one-stop delivery system in the State.

(2) Accompanying information

The accompanying information shall—

(A) with respect to providers described in subparagraphs (A) and (C) of subsection (a)(2), consist of information provided by such providers, disaggregated by local areas served, as applicable, in accordance with subsection (b);

(B) with respect to providers described in subsection (b)(4), consist of information provided by such providers in accordance with subsection (b)(4); and

(C) such other information as the Governor determines to be appropriate.

(3) Availability

The list and the accompanying information shall be made available to such participants and to members of the public through the one-stop delivery system in the State, in a manner that does not reveal personally identifiable information about an individual participant.

(4) Limitation

In carrying out the requirements of this subsection, no personally identifiable information regarding a student, including a Social Security number, student identification number, or other identifier, may be disclosed without the prior written consent of the parent or student in compliance with section 1232g of title 20.

(e) Opportunity to submit comments

In establishing, under this section, criteria, information requirements, procedures, and the list of eligible providers described in subsection (d), the Governor shall provide an opportunity for interested members of the public to make recommendations and submit comments regarding such criteria, information requirements, procedures, and list.

(f) Enforcement

(1) In general

The procedures established under this section shall provide the following:

(A) Intentionally supplying inaccurate information

Upon a determination, by an individual or entity specified in the procedures, that a provider of training services, or individual providing information on behalf of the provider, violated this section (or section 122 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2842], as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014) by intentionally supplying inaccurate information under this section, the eligibility of such provider to receive funds under subpart 3 shall be terminated for a period of time that is not less than 2 years.

(B) Substantial violations

Upon a determination, by an individual or entity specified in the procedures, that a provider of training services substantially violated any requirement under this subchapter (or title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.], as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), the eligibility of such provider to receive funds under subpart 3 for the program involved shall be terminated for a period of not less than 2 years.

(C) Repayment

A provider of training services whose eligibility is terminated under subparagraph (A) or (B) shall be liable for the repayment of funds received under chapter 5 of subtitle B of title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2861 et seq.], as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014, or subpart 3 of this part during a period of violation described in such subparagraph.

(2) Construction

Paragraph (1) shall be construed to provide remedies and penalties that supplement, but shall not supplant, civil and criminal remedies and penalties specified in other provisions of law.

(g) Agreements with other States

States may enter into agreements, on a reciprocal basis, to permit eligible providers of training services to accept individual training accounts provided in another State.

(h) On-the-job training, customized training, incumbent worker training, and other training exceptions

(1) In general

Providers of on-the-job training, customized training, incumbent worker training, internships, and paid or unpaid work experience opportunities, or transitional employment shall not be subject to the requirements of subsections (a) through (f).

(2) Collection and dissemination of information

A one-stop operator in a local area shall collect such performance information from providers of on-the-job training, customized training, incumbent worker training, internships, paid or unpaid work experience opportunities, and transitional employment as the Governor may require, and use the information to determine whether the providers meet such performance criteria as the Governor may require. The one-stop operator shall disseminate information identifying such providers that meet the criteria as eligible providers, and the performance information, through the one-stop delivery system. Providers determined to meet the criteria shall be considered to be identified as eligible providers of training services.

(i) Transition period for implementation

The Governor and local boards shall implement the requirements of this section not later than 12 months after July 22, 2014. In order to facilitate early implementation of this section, the Governor may establish transition procedures under which providers eligible to provide training services under chapter 5 of subtitle B of title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2861 et seq.], as such chapter was in effect on the day before July 22, 2014, may continue to be eligible to provide such services until December 31, 2015, or until such earlier date as the Governor determines to be appropriate.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §122, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1492.)

References in Text

The National Apprenticeship Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B), is act Aug. 16, 1937, ch. 663, 50 Stat. 664, which is classified generally to chapter 4C (§50 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 50 of this title and Tables.

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsecs. (f)(1)(B), (C), and (i), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Title I of the Act was classified principally to chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title. Chapter 5 of subtitle B of title I of the Act was classified generally to part E (§2861 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 30 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3153. Eligible providers of youth workforce investment activities

(a) In general

From the funds allocated under section 3163(b) of this title to a local area, the local board for such area shall award grants or contracts on a competitive basis to providers of youth workforce investment activities identified based on the criteria in the State plan (including such quality criteria as the Governor shall establish for a training program that leads to a recognized postsecondary credential), and taking into consideration the ability of the providers to meet performance accountability measures based on primary indicators of performance for the youth program as described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title, as described in section 3112(b)(2)(D)(i)(V) of this title, and shall conduct oversight with respect to such providers.

(b) Exceptions

A local board may award grants or contracts on a sole-source basis if such board determines there is an insufficient number of eligible providers of youth workforce investment activities in the local area involved (such as a rural area) for grants and contracts to be awarded on a competitive basis under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §123, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1498.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

subpart 2—youth workforce investment activities

§3161. General authorization

The Secretary shall make an allotment under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title to each State that meets the requirements of section 3112 or 3113 of this title and a grant under section 3162(b)(1)(B) of this title to each outlying area that complies with the requirements of this subchapter, to assist the State or outlying area, and to enable the State or outlying area to assist local areas, for the purpose of providing workforce investment activities for eligible youth in the State or outlying area and in the local areas.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §126, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1498.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3162. State allotments

(a) In general

The Secretary shall—

(1) for each fiscal year for which the amount appropriated under section 3181(a) of this title exceeds $925,000,000, reserve 4 percent of the excess amount to provide youth workforce investment activities under section 3222 of this title (relating to migrant and seasonal farmworkers); and

(2) use the remainder of the amount appropriated under section 3181(a) of this title for a fiscal year to make allotments and grants in accordance with subsection (b).

(b) Allotment among States

(1) Youth workforce investment activities

(A) Native Americans

From the amount appropriated under section 3181(a) of this title for a fiscal year that is not reserved under subsection (a)(1), the Secretary shall reserve not more than 1½ percent of such amount to provide youth workforce investment activities under section 3221 of this title (relating to Native Americans).

(B) Outlying areas

(i) In general

From the amount appropriated under section 3181(a) of this title for each fiscal year that is not reserved under subsection (a)(1) and subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall reserve not more than ¼ of 1 percent of such amount to provide assistance to the outlying areas to carry out youth workforce investment activities and statewide workforce investment activities.

(ii) Limitation for outlying areas

(I) Competitive grants

The Secretary shall use funds reserved under clause (i) to award grants to outlying areas to carry out youth workforce investment activities and statewide workforce investment activities.

(II) Award basis

The Secretary shall award grants pursuant to subclause (I) on a competitive basis and pursuant to the recommendations of experts in the field of employment and training, working through the Pacific Region Educational Laboratory in Honolulu, Hawaii.

(III) Administrative costs

The Secretary may provide not more than 5 percent of the funds made available for grants under subclause (I) to pay the administrative costs of the Pacific Region Educational Laboratory in Honolulu, Hawaii, regarding activities assisted under this clause.

(iii) Additional requirement

The provisions of section 1469a of title 48, permitting the consolidation of grants by the outlying areas, shall not apply to assistance provided to those areas, including Palau, under this subparagraph.

(C) States

(i) In general

From the remainder of the amount appropriated under section 3181(a) of this title for a fiscal year that exists after the Secretary determines the amounts to be reserved under subsection (a)(1) and subparagraphs (A) and (B), the Secretary shall make allotments to the States in accordance with clause (ii) for youth workforce investment activities and statewide workforce investment activities.

(ii) Formula

Subject to clauses (iii) and (iv), of the remainder—

(I) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of unemployed individuals in areas of substantial unemployment in each State, compared to the total number of unemployed individuals in areas of substantial unemployment in all States;

(II) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative excess number of unemployed individuals in each State, compared to the total excess number of unemployed individuals in all States; and

(III) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of disadvantaged youth in each State, compared to the total number of disadvantaged youth in all States, except as described in clause (iii).

(iii) Calculation

In determining an allotment under clause (ii)(III) for any State in which there is an area that was designated as a local area as described in section 3122(c)(1)(C) of this title, the allotment shall be based on the higher of—

(I) the number of individuals who are age 16 through 21 in families with an income below the low-income level in such area; or

(II) the number of disadvantaged youth in such area.

(iv) Minimum and maximum percentages and minimum allotments

In making allotments under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall ensure the following:

(I) Minimum percentage and allotment

Subject to subclause (IV), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment for a fiscal year that is less than the greater of—

(aa) an amount based on 90 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year; or

(bb) 100 percent of the allotments of the State under section 127(b)(1)(C) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2852(b)(1)(C)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014) for fiscal year 2014.

(II) Small State minimum allotment

Subject to subclauses (I), (III), and (IV), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment under this subparagraph that is less than the total of—

(aa) 3/10 of 1 percent of $1,000,000,000 of the remainder described in clause (i) for the fiscal year; and

(bb) if the remainder described in clause (i) for the fiscal year exceeds $1,000,000,000, 2/5 of 1 percent of the excess.

(III) Maximum percentage

Subject to subclause (I), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment percentage for a fiscal year that is more than 130 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(IV) Minimum funding

In any fiscal year in which the remainder described in clause (i) does not exceed $1,000,000,000, the minimum allotments under subclauses (I) and (II) shall be calculated by the methodology specified in section 127(b)(1)(C)(iv)(IV) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2852(b)(1)(C)(iv)(IV)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014).

(2) Definitions

For the purpose of the formula specified in paragraph (1)(C):

(A) Allotment percentage

The term "allotment percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the remainder described in paragraph (1)(C)(i) that is received through an allotment made under paragraph (1)(C) for the fiscal year. The term, used with respect to fiscal year 2014, means the percentage of the amount allotted to States under section 127(b)(1)(C) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2852(b)(1)(C)] (as in effect on July 22, 2014) that is received under such section by the State involved for fiscal year 2014.

(B) Area of substantial unemployment

The term "area of substantial unemployment" means any area that is of sufficient size and scope to sustain a program of workforce investment activities carried out under this part and that has an average rate of unemployment of at least 6.5 percent for the most recent 12 months, as determined by the Secretary. For purposes of this subparagraph, determinations of areas of substantial unemployment shall be made once each fiscal year.

(C) Disadvantaged youth

Subject to paragraph (3), the term "disadvantaged youth" means an individual who is age 16 through 21 who received an income, or is a member of a family that received a total family income, that, in relation to family size, does not exceed the higher of—

(i) the poverty line; or

(ii) 70 percent of the lower living standard income level.

(D) Excess number

The term "excess number" means, used with respect to the excess number of unemployed individuals within a State, the higher of—

(i) the number that represents the number of unemployed individuals in excess of 4.5 percent of the civilian labor force in the State; or

(ii) the number that represents the number of unemployed individuals in excess of 4.5 percent of the civilian labor force in areas of substantial unemployment in such State.

(E) Low-income level

The term "low-income level" means $7,000 with respect to income in 1969, and for any later year means that amount that bears the same relationship to $7,000 as the Consumer Price Index for that year bears to the Consumer Price Index for 1969, rounded to the nearest $1,000.

(3) Special rule

For the purpose of the formula specified in paragraph (1)(C), the Secretary shall, as appropriate and to the extent practicable, exclude college students and members of the Armed Forces from the determination of the number of disadvantaged youth.

(c) Reallotment

(1) In general

The Secretary shall, in accordance with this subsection, reallot to eligible States amounts that are made available to States from allotments made under this section or a corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for youth workforce investment activities and statewide workforce investment activities (referred to individually in this subsection as a "State allotment") and that are available for reallotment.

(2) Amount

The amount available for reallotment for a program year is equal to the amount by which the unobligated balance of the State allotment, at the end of the program year prior to the program year for which the determination under this paragraph is made, exceeds 20 percent of such allotment for the prior program year.

(3) Reallotment

In making reallotments to eligible States of amounts available pursuant to paragraph (2) for a program year, the Secretary shall allot to each eligible State an amount based on the relative amount of the State allotment for the program year for which the determination is made, as compared to the total amount of the State allotments for all eligible States for such program year.

(4) Eligibility

For purposes of this subsection, an eligible State means a State that does not have an amount available for reallotment under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made.

(5) Procedures

The Governor shall prescribe uniform procedures for the obligation of funds by local areas within the State in order to avoid the requirement that funds be made available for reallotment under this subsection. The Governor shall further prescribe equitable procedures for making funds available from the State and local areas in the event that a State is required to make funds available for reallotment under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §127, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1498.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3163. Within State allocations

(a) Reservations for statewide activities

(1) In general

The Governor shall reserve not more than 15 percent of each of the amounts allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title and paragraphs (1)(B) and (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title for a fiscal year for statewide workforce investment activities.

(2) Use of funds

Regardless of whether the reserved amounts were allotted under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title, or under paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title, the Governor may use the reserved amounts to carry out statewide activities under section 3164(b) of this title or statewide employment and training activities, for adults or dislocated workers, under section 3174(a) of this title.

(b) Within State allocations

(1) Methods

The Governor, acting in accordance with the State plan, and after consulting with chief elected officials and local boards in the local areas, shall allocate the funds that are allotted to the State for youth activities and statewide workforce investment activities under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title and are not reserved under subsection (a), in accordance with paragraph (2) or (3).

(2) Formula allocation

(A) Youth activities

(i) Allocation

In allocating the funds described in paragraph (1) to local areas, a State may allocate—

(I) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in section 3162(b)(1)(C)(ii)(I) of this title;

(II) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in section 3162(b)(1)(C)(ii)(II) of this title; and

(III) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in clauses (ii)(III) and (iii) of section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title.

(ii) Minimum percentage

The local area shall not receive an allocation percentage for a fiscal year that is less than 90 percent of the average allocation percentage of the local area for the 2 preceding fiscal years. Amounts necessary for increasing such allocations to local areas to comply with the preceding sentence shall be obtained by ratably reducing the allocations to be made to other local areas under this subparagraph.

(iii) Definition

In this subparagraph, the term "allocation percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the funds referred to in clause (i), received through an allocation made under this subparagraph, for the fiscal year. The term, used with respect to fiscal year 2013 or 2014, means a percentage of the funds referred to in section 128(b)(1) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2853(b)(1)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), received through an allocation made under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 128(b) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (as so in effect), for the fiscal year 2013 or 2014, respectively.

(B) Application

For purposes of carrying out subparagraph (A)—

(i) references in section 3162(b) of this title to a State shall be deemed to be references to a local area;

(ii) references in section 3162(b) of this title to all States shall be deemed to be references to all local areas in the State involved; and

(iii) except as described in clause (i), references in section 3162(b)(1) of this title to the term "excess number" shall be considered to be references to the term as defined in section 3162(b)(2) of this title.

(3) Youth discretionary allocation

In lieu of making the allocation described in paragraph (2), in allocating the funds described in paragraph (1) to local areas, a State may distribute—

(A) a portion equal to not less than 70 percent of the funds in accordance with paragraph (2)(A); and

(B) the remaining portion of the funds on the basis of a formula that—

(i) incorporates additional factors (other than the factors described in paragraph (2)(A)) relating to—

(I) excess youth poverty in urban, rural, and suburban local areas; and

(II) excess unemployment above the State average in urban, rural, and suburban local areas; and


(ii) was developed by the State board and approved by the Secretary as part of the State plan.

(4) Local administrative cost limit

(A) In general

Of the amount allocated to a local area under this subsection and section 3173(b) of this title for a fiscal year, not more than 10 percent of the amount may be used by the local board involved for the administrative costs of carrying out local workforce investment activities under this subpart or subpart 3.

(B) Use of funds

Funds made available for administrative costs under subparagraph (A) may be used for the administrative costs of any of the local workforce investment activities described in this subpart or subpart 3, regardless of whether the funds were allocated under this subsection or section 3173(b) of this title.

(c) Reallocation among local areas

(1) In general

The Governor may, in accordance with this subsection and after consultation with the State board, reallocate to eligible local areas within the State amounts that are made available to local areas from allocations made under this section or a corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for youth workforce investment activities (referred to individually in this subsection as a "local allocation") and that are available for reallocation.

(2) Amount

The amount available for reallocation for a program year is equal to the amount by which the unobligated balance of the local allocation, at the end of the program year prior to the program year for which the determination under this paragraph is made, exceeds 20 percent of such allocation for the prior program year.

(3) Reallocation

In making reallocations to eligible local areas of amounts available pursuant to paragraph (2) for a program year, the Governor shall allocate to each eligible local area within the State an amount based on the relative amount of the local allocation for the program year for which the determination is made, as compared to the total amount of the local allocations for all eligible local areas in the State for such program year.

(4) Eligibility

For purposes of this subsection, an eligible local area means a local area that does not have an amount available for reallocation under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1502.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3164. Use of funds for youth workforce investment activities

(a) Youth participant eligibility

(1) Eligibility

(A) In general

To be eligible to participate in activities carried out under this subpart during any program year an individual shall, at the time the eligibility determination is made, be an out-of-school youth or an in-school youth.

(B) Out-of-school youth

In this subchapter, the term "out-of-school youth" means an individual who is—

(i) not attending any school (as defined under State law);

(ii) not younger than age 16 or older than age 24; and

(iii) one or more of the following:

(I) A school dropout.

(II) A youth who is within the age of compulsory school attendance, but has not attended school for at least the most recent complete school year calendar quarter.

(III) A recipient of a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent who is a low-income individual and is—

(aa) basic skills deficient; or

(bb) an English language learner.


(IV) An individual who is subject to the juvenile or adult justice system.

(V) A homeless individual (as defined in section 14043e–2(6) of title 42), a homeless child or youth (as defined in section 11434a(2) of title 42), a runaway, in foster care or has 1 aged out of the foster care system, a child eligible for assistance under section 677 of title 42, or in an out-of-home placement.

(VI) An individual who is pregnant or parenting.

(VII) A youth who is an individual with a disability.

(VIII) A low-income individual who requires additional assistance to enter or complete an educational program or to secure or hold employment.

(C) In-school youth

In this section, the term "in-school youth" means an individual who is—

(i) attending school (as defined by State law);

(ii) not younger than age 14 or (unless an individual with a disability who is attending school under State law) older than age 21;

(iii) a low-income individual; and

(iv) one or more of the following:

(I) Basic skills deficient.

(II) An English language learner.

(III) An offender.

(IV) A homeless individual (as defined in section 14043e–2(6) of title 42), a homeless child or youth (as defined in section 11434a(2) of title 42), a runaway, in foster care or has 1 aged out of the foster care system, a child eligible for assistance under section 677 of title 42, or in an out-of-home placement.

(V) Pregnant or parenting.

(VI) A youth who is an individual with a disability.

(VII) An individual who requires additional assistance to complete an educational program or to secure or hold employment.

(2) Special rule

For the purpose of this subsection, the term "low-income", used with respect to an individual, also includes a youth living in a high-poverty area.

(3) Exception and limitation

(A) Exception for persons who are not low-income individuals

(i) Definition

In this subparagraph, the term "covered individual" means an in-school youth, or an out-of-school youth who is described in subclause (III) or (VIII) of paragraph (1)(B)(iii).

(ii) Exception

In each local area, not more than 5 percent of the individuals assisted under this section may be persons who would be covered individuals, except that the persons are not low-income individuals.

(B) Limitation

In each local area, not more than 5 percent of the in-school youth assisted under this section may be eligible under paragraph (1) because the youth are in-school youth described in paragraph (1)(C)(iv)(VII).

(4) Out-of-school priority

(A) In general

For any program year, not less than 75 percent of the funds allotted under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title, reserved under section 3163(a) of this title, and available for statewide activities under subsection (b), and not less than 75 percent of funds available to local areas under subsection (c), shall be used to provide youth workforce investment activities for out-of-school youth.

(B) Exception

A State that receives a minimum allotment under section 3162(b)(1) of this title in accordance with section 3162(b)(1)(C)(iv) of this title or under section 3172(b)(1) of this title in accordance with section 3172(b)(1)(B)(iv) of this title may decrease the percentage described in subparagraph (A) to not less than 50 percent for a local area in the State, if—

(i) after an analysis of the in-school youth and out-of-school youth populations in the local area, the State determines that the local area will be unable to use at least 75 percent of the funds available for activities under subsection (c) to serve out-of-school youth due to a low number of out-of-school youth; and

(ii)(I) the State submits to the Secretary, for the local area, a request including a proposed percentage decreased to not less than 50 percent for purposes of subparagraph (A), and a summary of the analysis described in clause (i); and

(II) the request is approved by the Secretary.

(5) Consistency with compulsory school attendance laws

In providing assistance under this section to an individual who is required to attend school under applicable State compulsory school attendance laws, the priority in providing such assistance shall be for the individual to attend school regularly.

(b) Statewide activities

(1) Required statewide youth activities

Funds reserved by a Governor as described in sections 3163(a) and 3173(a)(1) of this title shall be used, regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title or under paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title for statewide activities, which shall include—

(A) conducting evaluations under section 3141(e) of this title of activities authorized under this subpart and subpart 3 in coordination with evaluations carried out by the Secretary under section 3224(a) of this title;

(B) disseminating a list of eligible providers of youth workforce investment activities, as determined under section 3153 of this title;

(C) providing assistance to local areas as described in subsections (b)(7) and (c)(2) of section 3121 of this title, for local coordination of activities carried out under this subchapter;

(D) operating a fiscal and management accountability information system under section 3141(i) of this title;

(E) carrying out monitoring and oversight of activities carried out under this subpart and subpart 3, which may include a review comparing the services provided to male and female youth; and

(F) providing additional assistance to local areas that have high concentrations of eligible youth.

(2) Allowable statewide youth activities

Funds reserved by a Governor as described in sections 3163(a) and 3173(a)(1) of this title may be used, regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title or under paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title, for statewide activities, which may include—

(A) conducting—

(i) research related to meeting the education and employment needs of eligible youth; and

(ii) demonstration projects related to meeting the education and employment needs of eligible youth;


(B) supporting the development of alternative, evidence-based programs and other activities that enhance the choices available to eligible youth and encourage such youth to reenter and complete secondary education, enroll in postsecondary education and advanced training, progress through a career pathway, and enter into unsubsidized employment that leads to economic self-sufficiency;

(C) supporting the provision of career services described in section 3174(c)(2) of this title in the one-stop delivery system in the State;

(D) supporting financial literacy, including—

(i) supporting the ability of participants to create household budgets, initiate savings plans, and make informed financial decisions about education, retirement, home ownership, wealth building, or other savings goals;

(ii) supporting the ability to manage spending, credit, and debt, including credit card debt, effectively;

(iii) increasing awareness of the availability and significance of credit reports and credit scores in obtaining credit, including determining their accuracy (and how to correct inaccuracies in the reports and scores), and their effect on credit terms;

(iv) supporting the ability to understand, evaluate, and compare financial products, services, and opportunities; and

(v) supporting activities that address the particular financial literacy needs of non-English speakers, including providing the support through the development and distribution of multilingual financial literacy and education materials; and


(E) providing technical assistance to, as appropriate, local boards, chief elected officials, one-stop operators, one-stop partners, and eligible providers, in local areas, which provision of technical assistance shall include the development and training of staff, the development of exemplary program activities, the provision of technical assistance to local areas that fail to meet local performance accountability measures described in section 3141(c) of this title, and the provision of technology to facilitate remote access to services provided through the one-stop delivery system in the State.

(3) Limitation

Not more than 5 percent of the funds allotted to a State under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title shall be used by the State for administrative activities carried out under this subsection or section 3174(a) of this title.

(c) Local elements and requirements

(1) Program design

Funds allocated to a local area for eligible youth under section 3163(b) of this title shall be used to carry out, for eligible youth, programs that—

(A) provide an objective assessment of the academic levels, skill levels, and service needs of each participant, which assessment shall include a review of basic skills, occupational skills, prior work experience, employability, interests, aptitudes (including interests and aptitudes for nontraditional jobs), supportive service needs, and developmental needs of such participant, for the purpose of identifying appropriate services and career pathways for participants, except that a new assessment of a participant is not required if the provider carrying out such a program determines it is appropriate to use a recent assessment of the participant conducted pursuant to another education or training program;

(B) develop service strategies for each participant that are directly linked to 1 or more of the indicators of performance described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title, and that shall identify career pathways that include education and employment goals (including, in appropriate circumstances, nontraditional employment), appropriate achievement objectives, and appropriate services for the participant taking into account the assessment conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A), except that a new service strategy for a participant is not required if the provider carrying out such a program determines it is appropriate to use a recent service strategy developed for the participant under another education or training program;

(C) provide—

(i) activities leading to the attainment of a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent, or a recognized postsecondary credential;

(ii) preparation for postsecondary educational and training opportunities;

(iii) strong linkages between academic instruction (based on challenging State academic standards established under section 6311(b)(1) of title 20 2 and occupational education that lead to the attainment of recognized postsecondary credentials;

(iv) preparation for unsubsidized employment opportunities, in appropriate cases; and

(v) effective connections to employers, including small employers, in in-demand industry sectors and occupations of the local and regional labor markets; and


(D) at the discretion of the local board, implement a pay-for-performance contract strategy for elements described in paragraph (2), for which the local board may reserve and use not more than 10 percent of the total funds allocated to the local area under section 3163(b) of this title.

(2) Program elements

In order to support the attainment of a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent, entry into postsecondary education, and career readiness for participants, the programs described in paragraph (1) shall provide elements consisting of—

(A) tutoring, study skills training, instruction, and evidence-based dropout prevention and recovery strategies that lead to completion of the requirements for a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent (including a recognized certificate of attendance or similar document for individuals with disabilities) or for a recognized postsecondary credential;

(B) alternative secondary school services, or dropout recovery services, as appropriate;

(C) paid and unpaid work experiences that have as a component academic and occupational education, which may include—

(i) summer employment opportunities and other employment opportunities available throughout the school year;

(ii) pre-apprenticeship programs;

(iii) internships and job shadowing; and

(iv) on-the-job training opportunities;


(D) occupational skill training, which shall include priority consideration for training programs that lead to recognized postsecondary credentials that are aligned with in-demand industry sectors or occupations in the local area involved, if the local board determines that the programs meet the quality criteria described in section 3153 of this title;

(E) education offered concurrently with and in the same context as workforce preparation activities and training for a specific occupation or occupational cluster;

(F) leadership development opportunities, which may include community service and peer-centered activities encouraging responsibility and other positive social and civic behaviors, as appropriate;

(G) supportive services;

(H) adult mentoring for the period of participation and a subsequent period, for a total of not less than 12 months;

(I) followup services for not less than 12 months after the completion of participation, as appropriate;

(J) comprehensive guidance and counseling, which may include drug and alcohol abuse counseling and referral, as appropriate;

(K) financial literacy education;

(L) entrepreneurial skills training;

(M) services that provide labor market and employment information about in-demand industry sectors or occupations available in the local area, such as career awareness, career counseling, and career exploration services; and

(N) activities that help youth prepare for and transition to postsecondary education and training.

(3) Additional requirements

(A) Information and referrals

Each local board shall ensure that each participant shall be provided—

(i) information on the full array of applicable or appropriate services that are available through the local board or other eligible providers or one-stop partners, including those providers or partners receiving funds under this part; and

(ii) referral to appropriate training and educational programs that have the capacity to serve the participant either on a sequential or concurrent basis.

(B) Applicants not meeting enrollment requirements

Each eligible provider of a program of youth workforce investment activities shall ensure that an eligible applicant who does not meet the enrollment requirements of the particular program or who cannot be served shall be referred for further assessment, as necessary, and referred to appropriate programs in accordance with subparagraph (A) to meet the basic skills and training needs of the applicant.

(C) Involvement in design and implementation

The local board shall ensure that parents, participants, and other members of the community with experience relating to programs for youth are involved in the design and implementation of the programs described in paragraph (1).

(4) Priority

Not less than 20 percent of the funds allocated to the local area as described in paragraph (1) shall be used to provide in-school youth and out-of-school youth with activities under paragraph (2)(C).

(5) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subpart shall be construed to require that each of the elements described in subparagraphs of paragraph (2) be offered by each provider of youth services.

(6) Prohibitions

(A) Prohibition against Federal control of education

No provision of this Act shall be construed to authorize any department, agency, officer, or employee of the United States to exercise any direction, supervision, or control over the curriculum, program of instruction, administration, or personnel of any educational institution, school, or school system, or over the selection of library resources, textbooks, or other printed or published instructional materials by any educational institution, school, or school system.

(B) Noninterference and nonreplacement of regular academic requirements

No funds described in paragraph (1) shall be used to provide an activity for eligible youth who are not school dropouts if participation in the activity would interfere with or replace the regular academic requirements of the youth.

(7) Linkages

In coordinating the programs authorized under this section, local boards shall establish linkages with local educational agencies responsible for services to participants as appropriate.

(8) Volunteers

The local board shall make opportunities available for individuals who have successfully participated in programs carried out under this section to volunteer assistance to participants in the form of mentoring, tutoring, and other activities.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §129, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1504; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(e)(2), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(yyy)(3), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2192.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(6)(A), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 114–18 substituted "subsections (b)(7) and (c)(2) of section 3121 of this title" for "subsections (b)(6) and (c)(2) of section 3121 of this title".

Subsec. (c)(1)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 114–95 substituted "(based on challenging State academic standards established under section 6311(b)(1) of title 20" for "(based on State academic content and student academic achievement standards established under section 6311 of title 20)".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–18 effective as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128], see §2(f) of Pub. L. 114–18, set out as a note under section 3112 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "who".

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.

subpart 3—adult and dislocated worker employment and training activities

§3171. General authorization

The Secretary shall make allotments under paragraphs (1)(B) and (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title to each State that meets the requirements of section 3112 or 3113 of this title and grants under paragraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of section 3172(b) of this title to each outlying area that complies with the requirements of this subchapter, to assist the State or outlying area, and to enable the State or outlying area to assist local areas, for the purpose of providing workforce investment activities for adults, and dislocated workers, in the State or outlying area and in the local areas.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §131, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1511.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Veterans Energy-Related Employment Program

Pub. L. 111–275, title I, §106, Oct. 13, 2010, 124 Stat. 2870, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Pilot Program.—To encourage the employment of eligible veterans in the energy industry, the Secretary of Labor, as part of the Veterans Workforce Investment Program, shall carry out a pilot program to be known as the 'Veterans Energy-Related Employment Program'. Under the pilot program, the Secretary shall award competitive grants to not more than three States for the establishment and administration of a State program to make grants to energy employers that provide covered training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes to eligible veterans. Such a program shall be known as a 'State Energy-Related Employment Program'.

"(b) Eligibility for Grants.—To be eligible to receive a grant under the pilot program, a State shall submit to the Secretary an application that includes each of the following:

"(1) A proposal for the expenditure of grant funds to establish and administer a public-private partnership program designed to provide covered training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes to a significant number of eligible veterans and ensure lasting and sustainable employment in well-paying jobs in the energy industry.

"(2) Evidence that the State has—

"(A) a population of eligible veterans of an appropriate size to carry out the State program;

"(B) a robust and diverse energy industry; and

"(C) the ability to carry out the State program described in the proposal under paragraph (1).

"(3) Such other information and assurances as the Secretary may require.

"(c) Use of Funds.—A State that is the recipient of a grant under this section shall use the grant for the following purposes:

"(1) Making grants to energy employers to reimburse such employers for the cost of providing covered training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes to eligible veterans who are first hired by the employer on or after November 1, 2010.

"(2) Conducting outreach to inform energy employers and veterans, including veterans in rural areas, of their eligibility or potential eligibility for participation in the State program.

"(d) Conditions.—Under the pilot program, each grant to a State shall be subject to the following conditions:

"(1) The State shall repay to the Secretary, on such date as shall be determined by the Secretary, any amount received under the pilot program that is not used for the purposes described in subsection (c).

"(2) The State shall submit to the Secretary, at such times and containing such information as the Secretary shall require, reports on the use of grant funds.

"(e) Employer Requirements.—In order to receive a grant made by a State under the pilot program, an energy employer shall—

"(1) submit to the administrator of the State Energy-Related Employment Program an application that includes—

"(A) the rate of pay, during and after training, for each eligible veteran proposed to be trained using grant funds;

"(B) the average rate of pay for an individual employed by the energy employer in a similar position who is not an eligible veteran; and

"(C) such other information and assurances as the administrator may require; and

"(2) agree to submit to the administrator, for each quarter, a report containing such information as the Secretary may specify.

"(f) Limitation.—None of the funds made available to an energy employer through a grant under the pilot program may be used to provide training of any kind to—

"(1) a person who is not an eligible veteran; or

"(2) an eligible veteran for whom the employer has received a grant, credit, or subsidy under any other provision of law.

"(g) Report to Congress.—Together with the report required to be submitted annually under section 4107(c) of title 38, United States Code, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the pilot program for the year covered by such report. The report on the pilot program shall include a detailed description of activities carried out under this section and an evaluation of the program.

"(h) Administrative and Reporting Costs.—Of the amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations under subsection (j), two percent shall be made available to the Secretary for administrative costs associated with implementing and evaluating the pilot program under this section and for preparing and submitting the report required under subsection (f). The Secretary shall determine the appropriate maximum amount of each grant awarded under this section that may be used by the recipient for administrative and reporting costs.

"(i) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

"(1) The term 'covered training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes' means training, on-job training, apprenticeships, and certification classes that are—

"(A) designed to provide the veteran with skills that are particular to an energy industry and not directly transferable to employment in another industry; and

"(B) approved as provided in paragraph (1) or (2), as appropriate, of subsection (a) of section 3687 of title 38, United States Code.

"(2) The term 'eligible veteran' means a veteran, as that term is defined in section 101(2) of title 38, United States Code, who is employed by an energy employer and enrolled or participating in a covered training, on-job training, apprenticeship, or certification class.

"(3) The term 'energy employer' means an entity that employs individuals in a trade or business in an energy industry.

"(4) The term 'energy industry' means any of the following industries:

"(A) The energy-efficient building, construction, or retrofits industry.

"(B) The renewable electric power industry, including the wind and solar energy industries.

"(C) The biofuels industry.

"(D) The energy efficiency assessment industry that serves the residential, commercial, or industrial sectors.

"(E) The oil and natural gas industry.

"(F) The nuclear industry.

"(j) Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2014, for the purpose of carrying out the pilot program under this section."

Coordination of Information and Assistance

Pub. L. 100–689, title IV, §402, Nov. 18, 1988, 100 Stat. 4178, as amended by Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(24), (f)(16)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-423, 2681-432, provided that:

"(a) Purpose.—It is the purpose of this section to ensure that veterans who are dislocated workers eligible for assistance under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.] or are otherwise unemployed receive, to the extent feasible, assistance (including information on vocational guidance or vocational counseling, or information on both vocational guidance or vocational counseling), including information on counseling, needed by such veterans—

"(1) to apply for services and benefits for which they are eligible as veterans, dislocated workers, or unemployed persons;

"(2) to obtain resolution of questions and problems relating to such services and benefit[s]; and

"(3) to initiate any authorized administrative appeals of determinations or other actions relating to such services and benefits.

"(b) Memorandum of Understanding.—(1) Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1988], the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs shall enter into a memorandum of understanding to carry out the purpose of this section. The memorandum shall include provisions that define the relationships and responsibilities of the Veterans' Administration, the Department of Labor, and State and local agencies with respect to the provision of the following information, forms, and assistance:

"(A) Information on services and benefits referred to in subsection (d).

"(B) All application forms and related forms necessary for individuals to apply for such services and to claim such benefits.

"(C) Assistance in resolving questions and problems relating to receipt of such services and benefits.

"(D) Assistance in contacting other Federal Government offices and State offices where such services or benefits are provided or administered.

"(2) The memorandum of understanding entered into pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include a provision for the periodic evaluation, by the Secretary of Labor and the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs, of the implementation of their respective responsibilities under such memorandum.

"(c) Coordination of Department of Labor Activities.—The Assistant Secretary of Labor for Veterans' Employment and Training, in consultation with the unit or office designated or created under section 322(b) of the Job Training Partnership Act [former 29 U.S.C. 1662a(b)] or any successor to such unit or office under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.], shall, except as the Secretary of Labor may otherwise direct, coordinate the activities of the components of the Department of Labor performing the responsibilities of the Secretary of Labor under this section.

"(d) Covered Services and Benefits.—This section applies with respect to the following services and benefits:

"(1) Employment assistance under—

"(A) title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.]; and

"(B) the Veterans' Job Training Act (97 Stat. 443; 29 U.S.C. 1721 note [now set out below]).

"(2) Employment and training activities for dislocated workers under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.].

"(3) Employment assistance and unemployment compensation under the trade adjustment assistance program provided in chapter 2 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974 (29 [19] U.S.C. 2271 et seq.) and under any other program administered by the Employment and Training Administration of the Department of Labor.

"(4) Educational assistance under—

"(A) the Adult Education Act ([former] 20 U.S.C. 1201 et seq.); and

"(B) chapters 30, 31, 32, 34, and 35 of title 38, United States Code, and chapter 106 of title 10, United States Code.

"(5) Certification of a veteran as a member of a targeted group eligible for the targeted jobs credit determined under section 51 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 51].

"(e) Definition.—In this section, the term 'veteran' has the meaning given such term in section 101(2) of title 38, United States Code."

Veterans' Job Training Act

Pub. L. 98–77, Aug. 15, 1983, 97 Stat. 443, as amended by Pub. L. 98–160, title VII, §704, Nov. 21, 1983, 97 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 98–543, title II, §212, Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2744; Pub. L. 99–108, §4, Sept. 30, 1985, 99 Stat. 481; Pub. L. 99–238, title II, §201(a)(1), (b)–(e), Jan. 13, 1986, 99 Stat. 1767, 1768; Pub. L. 100–77, title IX, §901, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 538; Pub. L. 100–227, title II, §201, Dec. 31, 1987, 101 Stat. 1555; Pub. L. 100–323, §§11(a)(1), (2), (3)(B), (4), (b)–(f), 15(b)(2), (c)(2), May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 567–570, 574; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §402(d)(2), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(25), (f)(17)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-423, 2681-432, provided that:

"short title

"Section 1. This Act may be cited as the 'Veterans' Job Training Act'.

"purpose

"Sec. 2. The purpose of this Act is to address the problem of severe and continuing unemployment among veterans by providing, in the form of payments to defray the costs of training, incentives to employers to hire and train certain wartime veterans who have been unemployed for long periods of time for stable and permanent positions that involve significant training.

"definitions

"Sec. 3. For the purposes of this Act:

"(1) The term 'Administrator' means the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs.

"(2) The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Labor.

"(3) The terms 'veteran', 'Korean conflict', 'compensation', 'service-connected', 'State', 'active military, naval, or air service', and 'Vietnam era', have the meanings given such terms in paragraphs (2), (9), (13), (16), (20), (24), and (29), respectively, of section 101 of title 38, United States Code.

"establishment of program

"Sec. 4. (a) The Administrator and, to the extent specifically provided by this Act, the Secretary shall carry out a program in accordance with this Act to assist eligible veterans in obtaining employment through training for employment in stable and permanent positions that involve significant training. The program shall be carried out through payments to employers who employ and train eligible veterans in such jobs in order to assist such employers in defraying the costs of necessary training.

"(b) The Secretary shall carry out the Secretary's responsibilities under this Act through the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Veterans' Employment and Training established under section 4102A of title 38, United States Code.

"eligibility for program; duration of assistance

"Sec. 5. (a)(1) To be eligible for participation in a job training program under this Act, a veteran must be a Korean conflict or Vietnam-era veteran who—

"(A) is unemployed at the time of applying for participation in a program under this Act; and

"(B) has been unemployed for at least 10 of the 15 weeks immediately preceding the date of such veteran's application for participation in a program under this Act.

"(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term 'Korean conflict or Vietnam-era veteran' means a veteran—

"(A) who served in the active military, naval, or air service for a period of more than one hundred and eighty days, any part of which was during the Korean conflict or the Vietnam era; or

"(B) who served in the active military, naval, or air service during the Korean conflict or the Vietnam era and—

"(i) was discharged or released therefrom for a service-connected disability; or

"(ii) is entitled to compensation (or but for the receipt of retirement pay would be entitled to compensation).

"(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), a veteran shall be considered to be unemployed during any period the veteran is without a job and wants and is available for work.

"(b)(1) A veteran who desires to participate in a program of job training under this Act shall submit to the Administrator an application for participation in such a program. Such an application—

"(A) shall include a certification by the veteran that the veteran is unemployed and meets the other criteria for eligibility prescribed by subsection (a); and

"(B) shall be in such form and contain such additional information as the Administrator may prescribe.

"(2)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the Administrator shall approve an application by a veteran for participation in a program of job training under this Act unless the Administrator finds that the veteran is not eligible to participate in a program of job training under this Act.

"(B) The Administrator may withhold approval of an application of a veteran under this Act if the Administrator determines that, because of limited funds available for the purpose of making payments to employers under this Act, it is necessary to limit the number of participants in programs under this Act.

"(3)(A) Subject to section 14(c), the Administrator shall certify as eligible for participation under this Act a veteran whose application is approved under this subsection and shall furnish the veteran with a certificate of that veteran's eligibility for presentation to an employer offering a program of job training under this Act. Any such certificate shall expire 90 days after it is furnished to the veteran. The date on which a certificate is furnished to a veteran under this paragraph shall be stated on the certificate.

"(B) A certificate furnished under this paragraph may, upon the veteran's application, be renewed in accordance with the terms and conditions of subparagraph (A).

"(c) The maximum period of training for which assistance may be provided on behalf of a veteran under this Act is—

"(1) fifteen months in the case of—

"(A) a veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 30 percent or more; or

"(B) a veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 10 percent or 20 percent who has been determined under section 3106 of title 38, United States Code, to have a serious employment handicap; and

"(2) nine months in the case of any other veteran.

"employer job training programs

"Sec. 6. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), in order to be approved as a program of job training under this Act, a program of job training of an employer approved under section 7 must provide training for a period of not less than six months in an occupation in a growth industry, in an occupation requiring the use of new technological skills, or in an occupation for which demand for labor exceeds supply.

"(2) A program of job training providing training for a period of at least three but less than six months may be approved if the Administrator determines (in accordance with standards which the Administrator shall prescribe) that the purpose of this Act would be met through that program.

"(b) Subject to section 10 and the other provisions of this Act, a veteran who has been approved for participation in a program of job training under this Act and has a current certificate of eligibility for such participation may enter a program of job training that has been approved under section 7 and that is offered to the veteran by the employer.

"approval of employer programs

"Sec. 7. (a)(1) An employer may be paid assistance under section 8(a) on behalf of an eligible veteran employed by such employer and participating in a program of job training offered by that employer only if the program is approved under this section and in accordance with such procedures as the Administrator may by regulation prescribe.

"(2) Except as provided in subsection (b), the Administrator shall approve a proposed program of job training of an employer unless the Administrator determines that the application does not contain a certification and other information meeting the requirements established under this Act or that withholding of approval is warranted under subsection (g).

"(b) The Administrator may not approve a program of job training—

"(1) for employment which consists of seasonal, intermittent, or temporary jobs;

"(2) for employment under which commissions are the primary source of income;

"(3) for employment which involves political or religious activities;

"(4) for employment with any department, agency, instrumentality, or branch of the Federal Government (including the United States Postal Service and the Postal Rate Commission [Postal Regulatory Commission]); or

"(5) if the training will not be carried out in a State.

"(c) An employer offering a program of job training that the employer desires to have approved for the purposes of this Act shall submit to the Administrator a written application for such approval. Such application shall be in such form as the Administrator shall prescribe.

"(d) An application under subsection (c) shall include a certification by the employer of the following:

"(1) That the employer is planning that, upon a veteran's completion of the program of job training, the employer will employ the veteran in a position for which the veteran has been trained and that the employer expects that such a position will be available on a stable and permanent basis to the veteran at the end of the training period.

"(2) That the wages and benefits to be paid to a veteran participating in the employer's program of job training will be not less than the wages and benefits normally paid to other employees participating in a comparable program of job training.

"(3) That the employment of a veteran under the program—

"(A) will not result in the displacement of currently employed workers (including partial displacement such as a reduction in the hours of nonovertime work, wages, or employment benefits); and

"(B) will not be in a job (i) while any other individual is on layoff from the same or any substantially equivalent job, or (ii) the opening for which was created as a result of the employer having terminated the employment of any regular employee or otherwise having reduced its work force with the intention of hiring a veteran in such job under this Act.

"(4) That the employer will not employ in the program of job training a veteran who is already qualified by training and experience for the job for which training is to be provided.

"(5) That the job which is the objective of the training program is one that involves significant training.

"(6) That the training content of the program is adequate, in light of the nature of the occupation for which training is to be provided and of comparable training opportunities in such occupation, to accomplish the training objective certified under clause (2) of subsection (e).

"(7) That each participating veteran will be employed full time in the program of job training.

"(8) That the training period under the proposed program is not longer than the training periods that employers in the community customarily require new employees to complete in order to become competent in the occupation or job for which training is to be provided.

"(9) That there are in the training establishment or place of employment such space, equipment, instructional material, and instructor personnel as needed to accomplish the training objective certified under clause (2) of subsection (e).

"(10) That the employer will keep records adequate to show the progress made by each veteran participating in the program and otherwise to demonstrate compliance with the requirements established under this Act.

"(11) That the employer will furnish each participating veteran, before the veteran's entry into training, with a copy of the employer's certification under this subsection and will obtain and retain the veteran's signed acknowledgment of having received such certification.

"(12) That, as applicable, the employer will provide each participating veteran with the full opportunity to participate in a personal interview pursuant to section 14(b)(1)(A) during the veteran's normal workday.

"(13) That the program meets such other criteria as the Administrator may determine are essential for the effective implementation of the program established by this Act.

"(e) A certification under subsection (d) shall include—

"(1) a statement indicating (A) the total number of hours of participation in the program of job training to be offered a veteran, (B) the length of the program of job training, and (C) the starting rate of wages to be paid to a participant in the program; and

"(2) a description of the training content of the program (including any agreement the employer has entered into with an educational institution under section 10) and of the objective of the training.

"(f)(1) Except as specified in paragraph (2), each matter required to be certified to in paragraphs (1) through (11) of subsection (d) shall be considered to be a requirement established under this Act.

"(2)(A) For the purposes of section 8(c), only matters required to be certified in paragraphs (1) through (10) of subsection (d) shall be so considered.

"(B) For the purposes of section 11, a matter required to be certified under paragraph (12) of subsection (d) shall also be so considered.

"(g) In accordance with regulations which the Administrator shall prescribe, the Administrator may withhold approval of an employer's proposed program of job training pending the outcome of an investigation under section 12 and, based on the outcome of such an investigation, may disapprove such program.

"(h) For the purposes of this section, approval of a program of apprenticeship or other on-job training for the purposes of section 3687 of title 38, United States Code, shall be considered to meet all requirements established under the provisions of this Act (other than subsections (b) and (d)(3)) for approval of a program of job training.

"payments to employers; overpayment

"Sec. 8. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3) and subsection (b) and subject to the provisions of section 9, the Administrator shall make quarterly payments to an employer of a veteran participating in an approved program of job training under this Act. Subject to section 5(c) and paragraph (2), the amount paid to an employer on behalf of a veteran for any period of time shall be 50 percent of the product of (A) the starting hourly rate of wages paid to the veteran by the employer (without regard to overtime or premium pay), and (B) the number of hours worked by the veteran during that period.

"(2) The total amount that may be paid to an employer on behalf of a veteran participating in a program of job training under this Act is $10,000.

"(3) In order to relieve financial burdens on business enterprises with relatively few numbers of employees, the Administrator may make payments under this Act on a monthly, rather than quarterly, basis to an employer with a number of employees less than a number which shall be specified in regulations which the Administrator shall prescribe for the purposes of this paragraph.

"(b) Payment may not be made to an employer for a period of training under this Act on behalf of a veteran until the Administrator has received—

"(1) from the veteran, a certification that the veteran was employed full time by the employer in a program of job training during such period; and

"(2) from the employer, a certification—

"(A) that the veteran was employed by the employer during that period and that the veteran's performance and progress during such period were satisfactory; and

"(B) of the number of hours worked by the veteran during that period.

With respect to the first such certification by an employer with respect to a veteran, the certification shall indicate the date on which the employment of the veteran began and the starting hourly rate of wages paid to the veteran (without regard to overtime or premium pay).

"(c)(1)(A) Whenever the Administrator finds that an overpayment under this Act has been made to an employer on behalf of a veteran as a result of a certification, or information contained in an application, submitted by an employer which was false in any material respect, the amount of such overpayment shall constitute a liability of the employer to the United States.

"(B) Whenever the Administrator finds that an employer has failed in any substantial respect to comply for a period of time with a requirement established under this Act (unless the employer's failure is the result of false or incomplete information provided by the veteran), each amount paid to the employer on behalf of a veteran for that period shall be considered to be an overpayment under this Act, and the amount of such overpayment shall constitute a liability of the employer to the United States.

"(2) Whenever the Administrator finds that an overpayment under this Act has been made to an employer on behalf of a veteran as a result of a certification by the veteran, or as a result of information provided to an employer or contained in an application submitted by the veteran, which was willfully or negligently false in any material respect, the amount of such overpayment shall constitute a liability of the veteran to the United States.

"(3) Any overpayment referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) may be recovered in the same manner as any other debt due the United States. Any overpayment recovered shall be credited to funds available to make payments under this Act. If there are no such funds, any overpayment recovered shall be deposited into the Treasury.

"(4) Any overpayment referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) may be waived, in whole or in part, in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in section 5302 of title 38, United States Code.

"entry into program of job training

"Sec. 9. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the Administrator may withhold or deny approval of a veteran's entry into an approved program of job training if the Administrator determines that funds are not available to make payments under this Act on behalf of the veteran to the employer offering that program. Before the entry of a veteran into an approved program of job training of an employer for purposes of assistance under this Act, the employer shall notify the Administrator of the employer's intention to employ that veteran. The veteran may begin such program of job training with the employer two weeks after the notice is transmitted to the Administrator unless within that time the employer has received notice from the Administrator that approval of the veteran's entry into that program of job training must be withheld or denied in accordance with this section.

"provision of training through educational institutions

"Sec. 10. An employer may enter into an agreement with an educational institution that has been approved for the enrollment of veterans under chapter 34 of title 38, United States Code, in order that such institution may provide a program of job training (or a portion of such a program) under this Act. When such an agreement has been entered into, the application of the employer under section 7 shall so state and shall include a description of the training to be provided under the agreement.

"discontinuance of approval of participation in certain employer programs

"Sec. 11. (a) If the Administrator finds at any time that a program of job training previously approved by the Administrator for the purposes of this Act thereafter fails to meet any of the requirements established under this Act, the Administrator may immediately disapprove further participation by veterans in that program. The Administrator shall provide to the employer concerned, and to each veteran participating in the employer's program, a statement of the reasons for, and an opportunity for a hearing with respect to, such disapproval. The employer and each such veteran shall be notified of such disapproval, the reasons for such disapproval, and the opportunity for a hearing. Notification shall be by a certified or registered letter, and a return receipt shall be secured.

"(b)(1) If the Administrator determines that the rate of veterans' successful completion of an employer's programs of job training previously approved by the Administrator for the purposes of this Act is disproportionately low because of deficiencies in the quality of such programs, the Administrator shall disapprove participation in such programs on the part of veterans who had not begun such participation on the date that the employer is notified of the disapproval. In determining whether any such rate is disproportionately low because of such deficiencies, the Administrator shall take into account appropriate data, including—

"(A) the quarterly data provided by the Secretary with respect to the number of veterans who receive counseling in connection with training under this Act, are referred to employers under this Act, participate in job training under this Act, complete such training or do not complete such training, and the reasons for noncompletion; and

"(B) data compiled through the particular employer's compliance surveys.

"(2) With respect to a disapproval under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall provide to the employer concerned the kind of statement, opportunity for hearing, and notice described in subsection (a).

"(3) A disapproval under paragraph (1) shall remain in effect until such time as the Administrator determines that adequate remedial action has been taken.

"inspection of records; investigations

"Sec. 12. (a) The records and accounts of employers pertaining to veterans on behalf of whom assistance has been paid under this Act, as well as other records that the Administrator determines to be necessary to ascertain compliance with the requirements established under this Act, shall be available at reasonable times for examination by authorized representatives of the Federal Government.

"(b) The Administrator may monitor employers and veterans participating in programs of job training under this Act to determine compliance with the requirements established under this Act.

"(c) The Administrator may investigate any matter the Administrator considers necessary to determine compliance with the requirements established under this Act. The investigations authorized by this subsection may include examining records (including making certified copies of records), questioning employees, and entering into any premises or onto any site where any part of a program of job training is conducted under this Act, or where any of the records of the employer offering or providing such program are kept.

"(d) The Administrator may administer functions under subsections (b) and (c) in accordance with an agreement between the Administrator and the Secretary providing for the administration of such subsections (or any portion of such subsections) by the Department of Labor. Under such an agreement, any entity of the Department of Labor specified in the agreement may administer such subsections, notwithstanding section 4(b).

"coordination with other programs

"Sec. 13. (a)(1) Assistance may not be paid under this Act to an employer on behalf of a veteran for any period of time described in paragraph (2) and to such veteran under chapter 31, 32, 34, 35, or 36 of title 38, United States Code, for the same period of time.

"(2) A period of time referred to in paragraph (1) is the period of time beginning on the date on which the veteran enters into an approved program of job training of an employer for purposes of assistance under this Act and ending on the last date for which such assistance is payable.

"(b) Assistance may not be paid under this Act to an employer on behalf of an eligible veteran for any period if the employer receives for that period any other form of assistance on account of the training or employment of the veteran, including assistance under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.] or a credit under section 44B of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 ([former] 26 U.S.C. 44B) (relating to credit for employment of certain new employees).

"(c) Assistance may not be paid under this Act on behalf of a veteran who has completed a program of job training under this Act.

"counseling

"Sec. 14. (a)(1) The Administrator and the Secretary may, upon request, provide employment counseling services to any veteran eligible to participate under this Act in order to assist such veteran in selecting a suitable program of job training under this Act.

"(2) The Administrator shall, after consultation with the Secretary, provide a program of job-readiness skills development and counseling services designed to assist veterans in need of such assistance in finding, applying for, and successfully participating in a suitable program of job training under this Act. As part of providing such services, the Administrator shall coordinate activities, to the extent practicable, with the readjustment counseling program described in section 1712A of title 38, United States Code. The Administrator shall advise veterans participating under this Act of the availability of such services and encourage them to request such services whenever appropriate.

"(b)(1) The Secretary shall provide for a program under which—

"(A) except as provided in paragraph (2), a disabled veteran's outreach program specialist appointed under section 4103A(a) of title 38, United States Code, is assigned as a case manager for each veteran participating in a program of job training under this Act;

"(B) the veteran has an in-person interview with the case manager not later than 60 days after entering into a program of training under this Act; and

"(C) periodic (not less frequent than monthly) contact is maintained with each such veteran for the purpose of (i) avoiding unnecessary termination of employment, (ii) referring the veteran to appropriate counseling, if necessary, (iii) facilitating the veteran's successful completion of such program, and (iv) following up with the employer and the veteran in order to determine the veteran's progress in the program and the outcome regarding the veteran's participation in and successful completion of the program.

"(2) No case manager shall be assigned pursuant to paragraph (1)(A)—

"(A) for a veteran if, on the basis of a recommendation made by a disabled veterans' outreach program specialist, the Secretary determines that there is no need for a case manager for such veteran; or

"(B) in the case of the employees of an employer, if the Secretary determines that—

"(i) the employer has an appropriate and effective employee assistance program that is available to all veterans participating in the employer's programs of job training under this Act; or

"(ii) the rate of veterans' successful completion of the employer's programs of job training under this Act, either cumulatively or during the previous program year, is 60 percent or higher.

"(3) The Secretary and the Administrator shall jointly provide, to the extent feasible—

"(A) a program of counseling or other services (to be provided pursuant to subchapter IV of chapter 3 [see chapter 63] of title 38, United States Code, and sections 1712A, 4103A, and 4104 of such title) designed to resolve difficulties that may be encountered by veterans during their training under this Act; and

"(B) a program of information services under which—

"(i) each veteran who enters into a program of job training under this Act and each employer participating under this Act is informed of the supportive services and resources available to the veteran (I) under clauses (A) and (B), (II) through Veterans' Administration counseling and career-development activities (especially, in the case of a Vietnam-era veteran, readjustment counseling services under section 1712A of such title) and under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.], and (III) through other appropriate agencies in the community; and

"(ii) veterans and employers are encouraged to request such services whenever appropriate.

"(c) Before a veteran who voluntarily terminates from a program of job training under this Act or is involuntarily terminated from such program by the employer may be eligible to be provided with a further certificate, or renewal of certification, of eligibility for participation under this Act, such veteran must be provided by the Secretary, after consultation with the Administrator, with a case manager.

"(d) Payments made under this Act pursuant to contracts entered into for the provision of job-readiness skills development and counseling services under subsection (a)(2) may only be paid out of the same account used to make payments under section 3104(a)(7) of title 38, United States Code, and the amount paid out of such account in any fiscal year for such services shall not exceed an amount equal to 5 percent of the amount obligated to carry out this Act for such fiscal year, except that for fiscal year 1988 the amount shall not exceed 5 percent of the amount available to carry out this Act on October 1, 1987.

"information and outreach; use of agency resources

"Sec. 15. (a)(1) The Administrator and the Secretary shall jointly provide for an outreach and public information program—

"(A) to inform veterans about the employment and job training opportunities available under this Act, under chapters 31, 34, 36, 41, and 42 of title 38, United States Code, and under other provisions of law; and

"(B) to inform private industry and business concerns (including small business concerns), public agencies and organizations, educational institutions, trade associations, and labor unions about the job training opportunities available under, and the advantages of participating in, the program established by this Act.

"(2) The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, shall promote the development of employment and job training opportunities for veterans by encouraging potential employers to make programs of job training under this Act available for eligible veterans, by advising other appropriate Federal departments and agencies of the program established by this Act, and by advising employers of applicable responsibilities under chapters 41 and 42 of title 38, United States Code, with respect to veterans.

"(b) The Administrator and the Secretary shall coordinate the outreach and public information program under subsection (a)(1), and job development activities under subsection (a)(2), with job counseling, placement, job development, and other services provided for under chapters 41 and 42 of title 38, United States Code, and with other similar services offered by other public agencies and organizations.

"(c)(1) The Administrator and the Secretary shall make available in regional and local offices of the Veterans' Administration and the Department of Labor such personnel as are necessary to facilitate the effective implementation of this Act.

"(2) In carrying out the responsibilities of the Secretary under this Act, the Secretary shall make maximum use of the services of Directors and Assistant Directors for Veterans' Employment and Training, disabled veterans' outreach program specialists, and employees of local offices appointed pursuant to sections 4103, 4103A, and 4104 of title 38, United States Code. The Secretary shall also use such resources as are available under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.]. To the extent that the Administrator withholds approval of veterans' applications under this Act pursuant to section 5(b)(2)(B), the Secretary shall take steps to assist such veterans in taking advantage of opportunities that may be available to them under title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [former 29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.] or under any other program carried out with funds provided by the Secretary.

"(d) The Secretary shall request and obtain from the Administrator of the Small Business Administration a list of small business concerns and shall, on a regular basis, update such list. Such list shall be used to identify and promote possible training and employment opportunities for veterans.

"(e) The Administrator and the Secretary shall assist veterans and employers desiring to participate under this Act in making application and completing necessary certifications.

"(f) The Secretary shall, on a not less frequent than quarterly basis, collect and compile from the heads of State employment services and Directors for Veterans' Employment and Training for each State information available to such heads and Directors, and derived from programs carried out in their respective States, with respect to the numbers of veterans who receive counseling services pursuant to section 14, who are referred to employers participating under this Act, who participate in programs of job training under this Act, and who complete such programs, and the reasons for veterans' noncompletion.

"authorization of appropriations

"Sec. 16. (a) There is authorized to be appropriated to the Veterans' Administration (1) $150,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1984 and 1985, (2) a total of $65,000,000 for fiscal years 1986, and 1987, and (3) $60,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1988 and 1989 for the purpose of making payments to employers under this Act and for the purpose of section 18 of this Act. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this section shall remain available until September 30, 1991.

"(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any funds appropriated under subsection (a) for any fiscal year which are obligated for the purpose of making payments under section 8 on behalf of a veteran (including funds so obligated which previously had been obligated for such purpose on behalf of another veteran and were thereafter deobligated) and are later deobligated shall immediately upon deobligation become available to the Administrator for obligation for such purpose. The further obligation of such funds by the Administrator for such purpose shall not be delayed, directly or indirectly, in any manner by any officer or employee in the executive branch.

"time periods for application and initiation of training

"Sec. 17. Assistance may not be paid to an employer under this Act—

"(1) on behalf of a veteran who initially applies for a program of job training under this Act after September 30, 1989; or

"(2) for any such program which begins after March 31, 1990.

"expansion of targeted delimiting date extension

"Sec. 18. (a) Subject to the limitation on the availability of funds set forth in subsection (b), an associate degree program which is predominantly vocational in content may be considered by the Administrator, for the purposes of section 3462(a)(3) of title 38, United States Code, to be a course with an approved vocational objective if such degree program meets the requirements established in such title for approval of such program.

"(b) Funds for the purpose of carrying out subsection (a) shall be derived only from amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorizations of appropriations in section 16. Not more than a total of $25,000,000 of amounts so appropriated for fiscal years 1984 and 1985 shall be available for that purpose.

"effective date

"Sec. 19. This Act shall take effect on October 1, 1983."

[Amendment of Pub. L. 98–77, set out above, by Pub. L. 100–323 effective on 60th day after May 20, 1988, see section 16(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–323, set out as a note under section 3104 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.]

[Pub. L. 99–238, title II, §201(f), Jan. 13, 1986, 99 Stat. 1768, provided that:

["(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending Pub. L. 98–77 above] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 13, 1986].

["(2) The amendment made by subsection (e)(2) [amending section 17(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–77 above] shall take effect on February 1, 1986."]

Coordination With Programs Under Other Laws

For provisions requiring coordination of programs under section 3116(b) of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, with programs under the Veterans' Job Training Act, Pub. L. 98–77, set out above, see section 202 of Pub. L. 99–238, set out as a note under section 3116 of Title 38.

§3172. State allotments

(a) In general

The Secretary shall—

(1) make allotments and grants from the amount appropriated under section 3181(b) of this title for a fiscal year in accordance with subsection (b)(1); and

(2)(A) reserve 20 percent of the amount appropriated under section 3181(c) of this title for the fiscal year for use under subsection (b)(2)(A), and under sections 3223(b) (relating to dislocated worker technical assistance), 3224(c) (relating to dislocated worker projects), and 3225 of this title (relating to national dislocated worker grants); and

(B) make allotments from 80 percent of the amount appropriated under section 3181(c) of this title for the fiscal year in accordance with subsection (b)(2)(B).

(b) Allotment among States

(1) Adult employment and training activities

(A) Reservation for outlying areas

(i) In general

From the amount made available under subsection (a)(1) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall reserve not more than ¼ of 1 percent of such amount to provide assistance to the outlying areas.

(ii) Applicability of additional requirements

From the amount reserved under clause (i), the Secretary shall provide assistance to the outlying areas for adult employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities in accordance with the requirements of section 3162(b)(1)(B) of this title.

(B) States

(i) In general

After determining the amount to be reserved under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall allot the remainder of the amount made available under subsection (a)(1) for that fiscal year to the States pursuant to clause (ii) for adult employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities.

(ii) Formula

Subject to clauses (iii) and (iv), of the remainder—

(I) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of unemployed individuals in areas of substantial unemployment in each State, compared to the total number of unemployed individuals in areas of substantial unemployment in all States;

(II) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative excess number of unemployed individuals in each State, compared to the total excess number of unemployed individuals in all States; and

(III) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of disadvantaged adults in each State, compared to the total number of disadvantaged adults in all States, except as described in clause (iii).

(iii) Calculation

In determining an allotment under clause (ii)(III) for any State in which there is an area that was designated as a local area as described in section 3122(c)(1)(C) of this title, the allotment shall be based on the higher of—

(I) the number of adults in families with an income below the low-income level in such area; or

(II) the number of disadvantaged adults in such area.

(iv) Minimum and maximum percentages and minimum allotments

In making allotments under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall ensure the following:

(I) Minimum percentage and allotment

Subject to subclause (IV), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment for a fiscal year that is less than an amount based on 90 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(II) Small State minimum allotment

Subject to subclauses (I), (III), and (IV), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment under this subparagraph that is less than the total of—

(aa) 3/10 of 1 percent of $960,000,000 of the remainder described in clause (i) for the fiscal year; and

(bb) if the remainder described in clause (i) for the fiscal year exceeds $960,000,000, 2/5 of 1 percent of the excess.

(III) Maximum percentage

Subject to subclause (I), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment percentage for a fiscal year that is more than 130 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(IV) Minimum funding

In any fiscal year in which the remainder described in clause (i) does not exceed $960,000,000, the minimum allotments under subclauses (I) and (II) shall be calculated by the methodology specified in section 132(b)(1)(B)(iv)(IV) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2862(b)(1)(B)(iv)(IV)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014).

(v) Definitions

For the purpose of the formula specified in this subparagraph:

(I) Adult

The term "adult" means an individual who is not less than age 22 and not more than age 72.

(II) Allotment percentage

The term "allotment percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the remainder described in clause (i) that is received through an allotment made under this subparagraph for the fiscal year. The term, used with respect to fiscal year 2014, means the percentage of the amount allotted to States under section 132(b)(1)(B) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2862(b)(1)(B)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014) that is received under such section by the State involved for fiscal year 2014.

(III) Area of substantial unemployment

The term "area of substantial unemployment" means any area that is of sufficient size and scope to sustain a program of workforce investment activities carried out under this part and that has an average rate of unemployment of at least 6.5 percent for the most recent 12 months, as determined by the Secretary. For purposes of this subclause, determinations of areas of substantial unemployment shall be made once each fiscal year.

(IV) Disadvantaged adult

Subject to subclause (V), the term "disadvantaged adult" means an adult who received an income, or is a member of a family that received a total family income, that, in relation to family size, does not exceed the higher of—

(aa) the poverty line; or

(bb) 70 percent of the lower living standard income level.

(V) Disadvantaged adult special rule

The Secretary shall, as appropriate and to the extent practicable, exclude college students and members of the Armed Forces from the determination of the number of disadvantaged adults.

(VI) Excess number

The term "excess number" means, used with respect to the excess number of unemployed individuals within a State, the higher of—

(aa) the number that represents the number of unemployed individuals in excess of 4.5 percent of the civilian labor force in the State; or

(bb) the number that represents the number of unemployed individuals in excess of 4.5 percent of the civilian labor force in areas of substantial unemployment in such State.

(VII) Low-income level

The term "low-income level" means $7,000 with respect to income in 1969, and for any later year means that amount that bears the same relationship to $7,000 as the Consumer Price Index for that year bears to the Consumer Price Index for 1969, rounded to the nearest $1,000.

(2) Dislocated worker employment and training activities

(A) Reservation for outlying areas

(i) In general

From the amount made available under subsection (a)(2)(A) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall reserve not more than ¼ of 1 percent of the amount appropriated under section 3181(c) of this title for the fiscal year to provide assistance to the outlying areas.

(ii) Applicability of additional requirements

From the amount reserved under clause (i), the Secretary shall provide assistance to the outlying areas for dislocated worker employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities in accordance with the requirements of section 3162(b)(1)(B) of this title.

(B) States

(i) In general

The Secretary shall allot the amount referred to in subsection (a)(2)(B) for a fiscal year to the States pursuant to clause (ii) for dislocated worker employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities.

(ii) Formula

Subject to clause (iii), of the amount—

(I) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of unemployed individuals in each State, compared to the total number of unemployed individuals in all States;

(II) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative excess number of unemployed individuals in each State, compared to the total excess number of unemployed individuals in all States; and

(III) 331/3 percent shall be allotted on the basis of the relative number of individuals in each State who have been unemployed for 15 weeks or more, compared to the total number of individuals in all States who have been unemployed for 15 weeks or more.

(iii) Minimum and maximum percentages and minimum allotments

In making allotments under this subparagraph, for fiscal year 2016 and each subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall ensure the following:

(I) Minimum percentage and allotment

The Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment for a fiscal year that is less than an amount based on 90 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(II) Maximum percentage

Subject to subclause (I), the Secretary shall ensure that no State shall receive an allotment percentage for a fiscal year that is more than 130 percent of the allotment percentage of the State for the preceding fiscal year.

(iv) Definitions

For the purpose of the formula specified in this subparagraph:

(I) Allotment percentage

The term "allotment percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the amount described in clause (i) that is received through an allotment made under this subparagraph for the fiscal year.

(II) Excess number

The term "excess number" means, used with respect to the excess number of unemployed individuals within a State, the number that represents the number of unemployed individuals in excess of 4.5 percent of the civilian labor force in the State.

(c) Reallotment

(1) In general

The Secretary shall, in accordance with this subsection, reallot to eligible States amounts that are made available to States from allotments made under this section or a corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities (referred to individually in this subsection as a "State allotment") and that are available for reallotment.

(2) Amount

The amount available for reallotment for a program year for programs funded under subsection (b)(1)(B) (relating to adult employment and training) or for programs funded under subsection (b)(2)(B) (relating to dislocated worker employment and training) is equal to the amount by which the unobligated balance of the State allotments for adult employment and training activities or dislocated worker employment and training activities, respectively, at the end of the program year prior to the program year for which the determination under this paragraph is made, exceeds 20 percent of such allotments for the prior program year.

(3) Reallotment

In making reallotments to eligible States of amounts available pursuant to paragraph (2) for a program year, the Secretary shall allot to each eligible State an amount based on the relative amount of the State allotment under paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B), respectively, of subsection (b) for the program year for which the determination is made, as compared to the total amount of the State allotments under paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B), respectively, of subsection (b) for all eligible States for such program year.

(4) Eligibility

For purposes of this subsection, an eligible State means—

(A) with respect to funds allotted through a State allotment for adult employment and training activities, a State that does not have an amount of such funds available for reallotment under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made; and

(B) with respect to funds allotted through a State allotment for dislocated worker employment and training activities, a State that does not have an amount of such funds available for reallotment under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made.

(5) Procedures

The Governor shall prescribe uniform procedures for the obligation of funds by local areas within the State in order to avoid the requirement that funds be made available for reallotment under this subsection. The Governor shall further prescribe equitable procedures for making funds available from the State and local areas in the event that a State is required to make funds available for reallotment under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §132, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(d), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 213.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iv)(I), (2)(B)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 114–18 inserted "less than" after "fiscal year that is".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–18 effective as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128], see §2(f) of Pub. L. 114–18, set out as a note under section 3112 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3173. Within State allocations

(a) Reservations for State activities

(1) Statewide workforce investment activities

The Governor shall make the reservation required under section 3163(a) of this title.

(2) Statewide rapid response activities

The Governor shall reserve not more than 25 percent of the total amount allotted to the State under section 3172(b)(2)(B) of this title for a fiscal year for statewide rapid response activities described in section 3174(a)(2)(A) of this title.

(b) Within State allocation

(1) Methods

The Governor, acting in accordance with the State plan, and after consulting with chief elected officials and local boards in the local areas, shall allocate—

(A) the funds that are allotted to the State for adult employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities under section 3172(b)(1)(B) of this title and are not reserved under subsection (a)(1), in accordance with paragraph (2) or (3); and

(B) the funds that are allotted to the State for dislocated worker employment and training activities and statewide workforce investment activities under section 3172(b)(2)(B) of this title and are not reserved under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2) Formula allocations

(A) Adult employment and training activities

(i) Allocation

In allocating the funds described in paragraph (1)(A) to local areas, a State may allocate—

(I) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in section 3172(b)(1)(B)(ii)(I) of this title;

(II) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in section 3172(b)(1)(B)(ii)(II) of this title; and

(III) 331/3 percent of the funds on the basis described in clauses (ii)(III) and (iii) of section 3172(b)(1)(B) of this title.

(ii) Minimum percentage

The local area shall not receive an allocation percentage for a fiscal year that is less than 90 percent of the average allocation percentage of the local area for the 2 preceding fiscal years. Amounts necessary for increasing such allocations to local areas to comply with the preceding sentence shall be obtained by ratably reducing the allocations to be made to other local areas under this subparagraph.

(iii) Definition

In this subparagraph, the term "allocation percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the funds referred to in clause (i), received through an allocation made under this subparagraph, for the fiscal year. The term, used with respect to fiscal year 2013 or 2014, means a percentage of the amount allocated to local areas under paragraphs (2)(A) and (3) of section 133(b) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2863(b)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), received through an allocation made under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of that section for fiscal year 2013 or 2014, respectively.

(B) Dislocated worker employment and training activities

(i) Allocation

In allocating the funds described in paragraph (1)(B) to local areas, a State shall allocate the funds based on an allocation formula prescribed by the Governor of the State. Such formula may be amended by the Governor not more than once for each program year. Such formula shall utilize the most appropriate information available to the Governor to distribute amounts to address the State's worker readjustment assistance needs.

(ii) Information

The information described in clause (i) shall include insured unemployment data, unemployment concentrations, plant closing and mass layoff data, declining industries data, farmer-rancher economic hardship data, and long-term unemployment data.

(iii) Minimum percentage

The local area shall not receive an allocation percentage for fiscal year 2016 or a subsequent fiscal year that is less than 90 percent of the average allocation percentage of the local area for the 2 preceding fiscal years. Amounts necessary for increasing such allocations to local areas to comply with the preceding sentence shall be obtained by ratably reducing the allocations to be made to other local areas under this subparagraph.

(iv) Definition

In this subparagraph, the term "allocation percentage", used with respect to fiscal year 2015 or a subsequent fiscal year, means a percentage of the funds referred to in clause (i), received through an allocation made under this subparagraph for the fiscal year. The term, used with respect to fiscal year 2014, means a percentage of the amount allocated to local areas under section 133(b)(2)(B) of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2863(b)(2)(B)] (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), received through an allocation made under that section for fiscal year 2014.

(C) Application

For purposes of carrying out subparagraph (A)—

(i) references in section 3172(b) of this title to a State shall be deemed to be references to a local area;

(ii) references in section 3172(b) of this title to all States shall be deemed to be references to all local areas in the State involved; and

(iii) except as described in clause (i), references in section 3172(b)(1) of this title to the term "excess number" shall be considered to be references to the term as defined in section 3172(b)(1) of this title.

(3) Adult employment and training discretionary allocations

In lieu of making the allocation described in paragraph (2)(A), in allocating the funds described in paragraph (1)(A) to local areas, a State may distribute—

(A) a portion equal to not less than 70 percent of the funds in accordance with paragraph (2)(A); and

(B) the remaining portion of the funds on the basis of a formula that—

(i) incorporates additional factors (other than the factors described in paragraph (2)(A)) relating to—

(I) excess poverty in urban, rural, and suburban local areas; and

(II) excess unemployment above the State average in urban, rural, and suburban local areas; and


(ii) was developed by the State board and approved by the Secretary as part of the State plan.

(4) Transfer authority

A local board may transfer, if such a transfer is approved by the Governor, up to and including 100 percent of the funds allocated to the local area under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), and up to and including 100 percent of the funds allocated to the local area under paragraph (2)(B), for a fiscal year between—

(A) adult employment and training activities; and

(B) dislocated worker employment and training activities.

(5) Allocation

(A) In general

The Governor shall allocate the funds described in paragraph (1) to local areas under paragraphs (2) and (3) for the purpose of providing a single system of employment and training activities for adults and dislocated workers in accordance with subsections (c) and (d) of section 3174 of this title.

(B) Additional requirements

(i) Adults

Funds allocated under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) shall be used by a local area to contribute to the costs of the one-stop delivery system described in section 3151(e) of this title as determined under section 3151(h) of this title and to pay for employment and training activities provided to adults in the local area, consistent with section 3174 of this title.

(ii) Dislocated workers

Funds allocated under paragraph (2)(B) shall be used by a local area to contribute to the costs of the one-stop delivery system described in section 3151(e) of this title as determined under section 3151(h) of this title and to pay for employment and training activities provided to dislocated workers in the local area, consistent with section 3174 of this title.

(c) Reallocation among local areas

(1) In general

The Governor may, in accordance with this subsection and after consultation with the State board, reallocate to eligible local areas within the State amounts that are made available to local areas from allocations made under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b) or a corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for adult employment and training activities, or under subsection (b)(2)(B) or a corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for dislocated worker employment and training activities (referred to individually in this subsection as a "local allocation") and that are available for reallocation.

(2) Amount

The amount available for reallocation for a program year—

(A) for adult employment and training activities is equal to the amount by which the unobligated balance of the local allocation under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b) for such activities, at the end of the program year prior to the program year for which the determination under this subparagraph is made, exceeds 20 percent of such allocation for the prior program year; and

(B) for dislocated worker employment and training activities is equal to the amount by which the unobligated balance of the local allocation under subsection (b)(2)(B) for such activities, at the end of the program year prior to the program year for which the determination under this subparagraph is made, exceeds 20 percent of such allocation for the prior program year.

(3) Reallocation

In making reallocations to eligible local areas of amounts available pursuant to paragraph (2) for a program year, the Governor shall allocate to each eligible local area within the State—

(A) with respect to such available amounts that were allocated under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b), an amount based on the relative amount of the local allocation under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b), as appropriate, for the program year for which the determination is made, as compared to the total amount of the local allocations under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b), as appropriate, for all eligible local areas in the State for such program year; and

(B) with respect to such available amounts that were allocated under subsection (b)(2)(B), an amount based on the relative amount of the local allocation under subsection (b)(2)(B) for the program year for which the determination is made, as compared to the total amount of the local allocations under subsection (b)(2)(B) for all eligible local areas in the State for such program year.

(4) Eligibility

For purposes of this subsection, an eligible local area means—

(A) with respect to funds allocated through a local allocation for adult employment and training activities, a local area that does not have an amount of such funds available for reallocation under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made; and

(B) with respect to funds allocated through a local allocation for dislocated worker employment and training activities, a local area that does not have an amount of such funds available for reallocation under paragraph (2) for the program year for which the determination under paragraph (2) is made.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §133, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1516.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3174. Use of funds for employment and training activities

(a) Statewide employment and training activities

(1) In general

Funds reserved by a Governor—

(A) as described in section 3173(a)(2) of this title shall be used to carry out the statewide rapid response activities described in paragraph (2)(A); and

(B) as described in sections 3163(a) and 3173(a)(1) of this title

(i) shall be used to carry out the statewide employment and training activities described in paragraph (2)(B); and

(ii) may be used to carry out any of the statewide employment and training activities described in paragraph (3),


regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1) of this title or under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 3172(b) of this title.

(2) Required statewide employment and training activities

(A) Statewide rapid response activities

(i) In general

A State shall carry out statewide rapid response activities using funds reserved by the Governor for the State under section 3173(a)(2) of this title, which activities shall include—

(I) provision of rapid response activities, carried out in local areas by the State or by an entity designated by the State, working in conjunction with the local boards and the chief elected officials for the local areas; and

(II) provision of additional assistance to local areas that experience disasters, mass layoffs, or plant closings, or other events that precipitate substantial increases in the number of unemployed individuals, carried out in local areas by the State, working in conjunction with the local boards and the chief elected officials for the local areas.

(ii) Use of unobligated funds

Funds reserved by a Governor under section 3173(a)(2) of this title, and section 2863(a)(2) of this title (as in effect on the day before July 22, 2014), to carry out this subparagraph that remain unobligated after the first program year for which such funds were allotted may be used by the Governor to carry out statewide activities authorized under subparagraph (B) or paragraph (3)(A), in addition to activities under this subparagraph.

(B) Statewide employment and training activities

Funds reserved by a Governor under sections 3163(a)(1) and 3173(a)(1) of this title and not used under paragraph (1)(A) (regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the States under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title or paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title) shall be used for statewide employment and training activities, including—

(i) providing assistance to—

(I) State entities and agencies, local areas, and one-stop partners in carrying out the activities described in the State plan, including the coordination and alignment of data systems used to carry out the requirements of this Act;

(II) local areas for carrying out the regional planning and service delivery efforts required under section 3121(c) of this title;

(III) local areas by providing information on and support for the effective development, convening, and implementation of industry or sector partnerships; and

(IV) local areas, one-stop operators, one-stop partners, and eligible providers, including the development and training of staff, which may include the development and training of staff to provide opportunities for individuals with barriers to employment to enter in-demand industry sectors or occupations and nontraditional occupations, the development of exemplary program activities, and the provision of technical assistance to local areas that fail to meet local performance accountability measures described in section 3141(c) of this title;


(ii) providing assistance to local areas as described in section 3121(b)(7) of this title;

(iii) operating a fiscal and management accountability information system in accordance with section 3141(i) of this title;

(iv) carrying out monitoring and oversight of activities carried out under this subpart and subpart 2;

(v) disseminating—

(I) the State list of eligible providers of training services, including eligible providers of nontraditional training services and eligible providers of apprenticeship programs described in section 3152(a)(2)(B) of this title;

(II) information identifying eligible providers of on-the-job training, customized training, incumbent worker training, internships, paid or unpaid work experience opportunities, or transitional jobs;

(III) information on effective outreach to, partnerships with, and services for, business;

(IV) information on effective service delivery strategies to serve workers and job seekers;

(V) performance information and information on the cost of attendance (including tuition and fees) for participants in applicable programs, as described in subsections (d) and (h) of section 3152 of this title; and

(VI) information on physical and programmatic accessibility, in accordance with section 3248 of this title, if applicable, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.), for individuals with disabilities; and


(vi) conducting evaluations under section 3141(e) of this title of activities authorized under this subpart and subpart 2 in coordination with evaluations carried out by the Secretary under section 3224(a) of this title.

(3) Allowable statewide employment and training activities

(A) In general

Funds reserved by a Governor under sections 3163(a)(1) and 3173(a)(1) of this title and not used under paragraph (1)(A) or (2)(B) (regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1)(C) of this title or paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) of section 3172(b) of this title) may be used to carry out additional statewide employment and training activities, which may include—

(i) implementing innovative programs and strategies designed to meet the needs of all employers (including small employers) in the State, which programs and strategies may include incumbent worker training programs, customized training, sectoral and industry cluster strategies and implementation of industry or sector partnerships, career pathway programs, microenterprise and entrepreneurial training and support programs, utilization of effective business intermediaries, layoff aversion strategies, activities to improve linkages between the one-stop delivery system in the State and all employers (including small employers) in the State, and other business services and strategies that better engage employers in workforce investment activities and make the workforce development system more relevant to the needs of State and local businesses, consistent with the objectives of this subchapter;

(ii) developing strategies for effectively serving individuals with barriers to employment and for coordinating programs and services among one-stop partners;

(iii) the development or identification of education and training programs that respond to real-time labor market analysis, that utilize direct assessment and prior learning assessment to measure and provide credit for prior knowledge, skills, competencies, and experiences, that evaluate such skills and competencies for adaptability, that ensure credits are portable and stackable for more skilled employment, and that accelerate course or credential completion;

(iv) implementing programs to increase the number of individuals training for and placed in nontraditional employment;

(v) carrying out activities to facilitate remote access to services, including training services described in subsection (c)(3), provided through a one-stop delivery system, including facilitating access through the use of technology;

(vi) supporting the provision of career services described in subsection (c)(2) in the one-stop delivery systems in the State;

(vii) coordinating activities with the child welfare system to facilitate provision of services for children and youth who are eligible for assistance under section 477 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 677);

(viii) activities—

(I) to improve coordination of workforce investment activities with economic development activities;

(II) to improve coordination of employment and training activities with—

(aa) child support services, and assistance provided by State and local agencies carrying out part D of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651 et seq.);

(bb) cooperative extension programs carried out by the Department of Agriculture;

(cc) programs carried out in local areas for individuals with disabilities, including programs carried out by State agencies relating to intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities, activities carried out by Statewide Independent Living Councils established under section 705 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 796d), programs funded under part B of chapter 1 of title VII of such Act (29 U.S.C. 796e et seq.), and activities carried out by centers for independent living, as defined in section 702 of such Act (29 U.S.C. 796a);

(dd) adult education and literacy activities, including those provided by public libraries;

(ee) activities in the corrections system that assist ex-offenders in reentering the workforce; and

(ff) financial literacy activities including those described in section 3164(b)(2)(D) of this title; and


(III) consisting of development and dissemination of workforce and labor market information;


(ix) conducting research and demonstration projects related to meeting the employment and education needs of adult and dislocated workers;

(x) implementing promising services for workers and businesses, which may include providing support for education, training, skill upgrading, and statewide networking for employees to become workplace learning advisors and maintain proficiency in carrying out the activities associated with such advising;

(xi) providing incentive grants to local areas for performance by the local areas on local performance accountability measures described in section 3141(c) of this title;

(xii) adopting, calculating, or commissioning for approval an economic self-sufficiency standard for the State that specifies the income needs of families, by family size, the number and ages of children in the family, and substate geographical considerations;

(xiii) developing and disseminating common intake procedures and related items, including registration processes, materials, or software; and

(xiv) providing technical assistance to local areas that are implementing pay-for-performance contract strategies, which technical assistance may include providing assistance with data collection, meeting data entry requirements, identifying levels of performance, and conducting evaluations of such strategies.

(B) Limitation

(i) In general

Of the funds allotted to a State under sections 3162(b) and 3172(b) of this title and reserved as described in sections 3163(a) and 3173(a)(1) of this title for a fiscal year—

(I) not more than 5 percent of the amount allotted under section 3162(b)(1) of this title;

(II) not more than 5 percent of the amount allotted under section 3172(b)(1) of this title; and

(III) not more than 5 percent of the amount allotted under section 3172(b)(2) of this title,


 may be used by the State for the administration of statewide youth workforce investment activities carried out under section 3164 of this title and statewide employment and training activities carried out under this section.

(ii) Use of funds

Funds made available for administrative costs under clause (i) may be used for the administrative cost of any of the statewide youth workforce investment activities or statewide employment and training activities, regardless of whether the funds were allotted to the State under section 3162(b)(1) of this title or paragraph (1) or (2) of section 3172(b) of this title.

(b) Local employment and training activities

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to a local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title

(1) shall be used to carry out employment and training activities described in subsection (c) for adults or dislocated workers, respectively; and

(2) may be used to carry out employment and training activities described in subsection (d) for adults or dislocated workers, respectively.

(c) Required local employment and training activities

(1) In general

(A) Allocated funds

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, shall be used—

(i) to establish a one-stop delivery system described in section 3151(e) of this title;

(ii) to provide the career services described in paragraph (2) to adults and dislocated workers, respectively, through the one-stop delivery system in accordance with such paragraph;

(iii) to provide training services described in paragraph (3) to adults and dislocated workers, respectively, described in such paragraph;

(iv) to establish and develop relationships and networks with large and small employers and their intermediaries; and

(v) to develop, convene, or implement industry or sector partnerships.

(B) Other funds

Consistent with subsections (h) and (i) of section 3151 of this title, a portion of the funds made available under Federal law authorizing the programs and activities described in section 3151(b)(1)(B) of this title, including the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C. 49 et seq.), shall be used as described in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A), to the extent not inconsistent with the Federal law involved.

(2) Career services

(A) Services provided

Funds described in paragraph (1) shall be used to provide career services, which shall be available to individuals who are adults or dislocated workers through the one-stop delivery system and shall, at a minimum, include—

(i) determinations of whether the individuals are eligible to receive assistance under this part;

(ii) outreach, intake (which may include worker profiling), and orientation to the information and other services available through the one-stop delivery system;

(iii) initial assessment of skill levels (including literacy, numeracy, and English language proficiency), aptitudes, abilities (including skills gaps), and supportive service needs;

(iv) labor exchange services, including—

(I) job search and placement assistance and, in appropriate cases, career counseling, including—

(aa) provision of information on in-demand industry sectors and occupations; and

(bb) provision of information on nontraditional employment; and


(II) appropriate recruitment and other business services on behalf of employers, including small employers, in the local area, which services may include services described in this subsection, such as providing information and referral to specialized business services not traditionally offered through the one-stop delivery system;


(v) provision of referrals to and coordination of activities with other programs and services, including programs and services within the one-stop delivery system and, in appropriate cases, other workforce development programs;

(vi) provision of workforce and labor market employment statistics information, including the provision of accurate information relating to local, regional, and national labor market areas, including—

(I) job vacancy listings in such labor market areas;

(II) information on job skills necessary to obtain the jobs described in subclause (I); and

(III) information relating to local occupations in demand and the earnings, skill requirements, and opportunities for advancement for such occupations; and


(vii) provision of performance information and program cost information on eligible providers of training services as described in section 3152 of this title, provided by program, and eligible providers of youth workforce investment activities described in section 3153 of this title, providers of adult education described in subchapter II, providers of career and technical education activities at the postsecondary level, and career and technical education activities available to school dropouts, under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (20 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.), and providers of vocational rehabilitation services described in title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.);

(viii) provision of information, in formats that are usable by and understandable to one-stop center customers, regarding how the local area is performing on the local performance accountability measures described in section 3141(c) of this title and any additional performance information with respect to the one-stop delivery system in the local area;

(ix)(I) provision of information, in formats that are usable by and understandable to one-stop center customers, relating to the availability of supportive services or assistance, including child care, child support, medical or child health assistance under title XIX or XXI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq. and 1397aa et seq.), benefits under the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), assistance through the earned income tax credit under section 32 of title 26, and assistance under a State program for temporary assistance for needy families funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and other supportive services and transportation provided through funds made available under such part, available in the local area; and

(II) referral to the services or assistance described in subclause (I), as appropriate;

(x) provision of information and assistance regarding filing claims for unemployment compensation;

(xi) assistance in establishing eligibility for programs of financial aid assistance for training and education programs that are not funded under this Act;

(xii) services, if determined to be appropriate in order for an individual to obtain or retain employment, that consist of—

(I) comprehensive and specialized assessments of the skill levels and service needs of adults and dislocated workers, which may include—

(aa) diagnostic testing and use of other assessment tools; and

(bb) in-depth interviewing and evaluation to identify employment barriers and appropriate employment goals;


(II) development of an individual employment plan, to identify the employment goals, appropriate achievement objectives, and appropriate combination of services for the participant to achieve the employment goals, including providing information on eligible providers of training services pursuant to paragraph (3)(F)(ii), and career pathways to attain career objectives;

(III) group counseling;

(IV) individual counseling;

(V) career planning;

(VI) short-term prevocational services, including development of learning skills, communication skills, interviewing skills, punctuality, personal maintenance skills, and professional conduct, to prepare individuals for unsubsidized employment or training;

(VII) internships and work experiences that are linked to careers;

(VIII) workforce preparation activities;

(IX) financial literacy services, such as the activities described in section 3164(b)(2)(D) of this title;

(X) out-of-area job search assistance and relocation assistance; or

(XI) English language acquisition and integrated education and training programs; and


(xiii) followup services, including counseling regarding the workplace, for participants in workforce investment activities authorized under this part who are placed in unsubsidized employment, for not less than 12 months after the first day of the employment, as appropriate.

(B) Use of previous assessments

A one-stop operator or one-stop partner shall not be required to conduct a new interview, evaluation, or assessment of a participant under subparagraph (A)(xii) if the one-stop operator or one-stop partner determines that it is appropriate to use a recent interview, evaluation, or assessment of the participant conducted pursuant to another education or training program.

(C) Delivery of services

The career services described in subparagraph (A) shall be provided through the one-stop delivery system—

(i) directly through one-stop operators identified pursuant to section 3151(d) of this title; or

(ii) through contracts with service providers, which may include contracts with public, private for-profit, and private nonprofit service providers, approved by the local board.

(3) Training services

(A) In general

(i) Eligibility

Except as provided in clause (ii), funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, shall be used to provide training services to adults and dislocated workers, respectively—

(I) who, after an interview, evaluation, or assessment, and career planning, have been determined by a one-stop operator or one-stop partner, as appropriate, to—

(aa) be unlikely or unable to obtain or retain employment, that leads to economic self-sufficiency or wages comparable to or higher than wages from previous employment, through the career services described in paragraph (2)(A)(xii);

(bb) be in need of training services to obtain or retain employment that leads to economic self-sufficiency or wages comparable to or higher than wages from previous employment; and

(cc) have the skills and qualifications to successfully participate in the selected program of training services;


(II) who select programs of training services that are directly linked to the employment opportunities in the local area or the planning region, or in another area to which the adults or dislocated workers are willing to commute or relocate;

(III) who meet the requirements of subparagraph (B); and

(IV) who are determined to be eligible in accordance with the priority system in effect under subparagraph (E).

(ii) Use of previous assessments

A one-stop operator or one-stop partner shall not be required to conduct a new interview, evaluation, or assessment of a participant under clause (i) if the one-stop operator or one-stop partner determines that it is appropriate to use a recent interview, evaluation, or assessment of the participant conducted pursuant to another education or training program.

(iii) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed to mean an individual is required to receive career services prior to receiving training services.

(B) Qualification

(i) Requirement

Notwithstanding section 479B of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087uu) and except as provided in clause (ii), provision of such training services shall be limited to individuals who—

(I) are unable to obtain other grant assistance for such services, including Federal Pell Grants established under subpart 1 of part A of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1070a et seq.); or

(II) require assistance beyond the assistance made available under other grant assistance programs, including Federal Pell Grants.

(ii) Reimbursements

Training services may be provided under this paragraph to an individual who otherwise meets the requirements of this paragraph while an application for a Federal Pell Grant is pending, except that if such individual is subsequently awarded a Federal Pell Grant, appropriate reimbursement shall be made to the local area from such Federal Pell Grant.

(iii) Consideration

In determining whether an individual requires assistance under clause (i)(II), a one-stop operator (or one-stop partner, where appropriate) may take into consideration the full cost of participating in training services, including the costs of dependent care and transportation, and other appropriate costs.

(C) Provider qualification

Training services shall be provided through providers identified in accordance with section 3152 of this title.

(D) Training services

Training services may include—

(i) occupational skills training, including training for nontraditional employment;

(ii) on-the-job training;

(iii) incumbent worker training in accordance with subsection (d)(4);

(iv) programs that combine workplace training with related instruction, which may include cooperative education programs;

(v) training programs operated by the private sector;

(vi) skill upgrading and retraining;

(vii) entrepreneurial training;

(viii) transitional jobs in accordance with subsection (d)(5);

(ix) job readiness training provided in combination with services described in any of clauses (i) through (viii);

(x) adult education and literacy activities, including activities of English language acquisition and integrated education and training programs, provided concurrently or in combination with services described in any of clauses (i) through (vii); and

(xi) customized training conducted with a commitment by an employer or group of employers to employ an individual upon successful completion of the training.

(E) Priority

With respect to funds allocated to a local area for adult employment and training activities under paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of section 3173(b) of this title, priority shall be given to recipients of public assistance, other low-income individuals, and individuals who are basic skills deficient for receipt of career services described in paragraph (2)(A)(xii) and training services. The appropriate local board and the Governor shall direct the one-stop operators in the local area with regard to making determinations related to such priority.

(F) Consumer choice requirements

(i) In general

Training services provided under this paragraph shall be provided in a manner that maximizes consumer choice in the selection of an eligible provider of such services.

(ii) Eligible providers

Each local board, through one-stop centers, shall make available the list of eligible providers of training services described in section 3152(d) of this title, and accompanying information, in accordance with section 3152(d) of this title.

(iii) Individual training accounts

An individual who seeks training services and who is eligible pursuant to subparagraph (A), may, in consultation with a career planner, select an eligible provider of training services from the list of providers described in clause (ii). Upon such selection, the one-stop operator involved shall, to the extent practicable, refer such individual to the eligible provider of training services, and arrange for payment for such services through an individual training account.

(iv) Coordination

Each local board may, through one-stop centers, coordinate funding for individual training accounts with funding from other Federal, State, local, or private job training programs or sources to assist the individual in obtaining training services.

(v) Additional information

Priority consideration shall, consistent with clause (i), be given to programs that lead to recognized postsecondary credentials that are aligned with in-demand industry sectors or occupations in the local area involved.

(G) Use of individual training accounts

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), training services provided under this paragraph shall be provided through the use of individual training accounts in accordance with this paragraph, and shall be provided to eligible individuals through the one-stop delivery system.

(ii) Training contracts

Training services authorized under this paragraph may be provided pursuant to a contract for services in lieu of an individual training account if—

(I) the requirements of subparagraph (F) are met;

(II) such services are on-the-job training, customized training, incumbent worker training, or transitional employment;

(III) the local board determines there are an insufficient number of eligible providers of training services in the local area involved (such as in a rural area) to accomplish the purposes of a system of individual training accounts;

(IV) the local board determines that there is a training services program of demonstrated effectiveness offered in the local area by a community-based organization or another private organization to serve individuals with barriers to employment;

(V) the local board determines that—

(aa) it would be most appropriate to award a contract to an institution of higher education or other eligible provider of training services in order to facilitate the training of multiple individuals in in-demand industry sectors or occupations; and

(bb) such contract does not limit customer choice; or


(VI) the contract is a pay-for-performance contract.

(iii) Linkage to occupations in demand

Training services provided under this paragraph shall be directly linked to an in-demand industry sector or occupation in the local area or the planning region, or in another area to which an adult or dislocated worker receiving such services is willing to relocate, except that a local board may approve training services for occupations determined by the local board to be in sectors of the economy that have a high potential for sustained demand or growth in the local area.

(iv) Rule of construction

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to preclude the combined use of individual training accounts and contracts in the provision of training services, including arrangements that allow individuals receiving individual training accounts to obtain training services that are contracted for under clause (ii).

(H) Reimbursement for on-the-job training

(i) Reimbursement level

For purposes of the provision of on-the-job training under this paragraph, the Governor or local board involved may increase the amount of the reimbursement described in section 3102(44) of this title to an amount of up to 75 percent of the wage rate of a participant for a program carried out under subpart 2 or this subpart, if, respectively—

(I) the Governor approves the increase with respect to a program carried out with funds reserved by the State under that subpart, taking into account the factors described in clause (ii); or

(II) the local board approves the increase with respect to a program carried out with funds allocated to a local area under such subpart, taking into account those factors.

(ii) Factors

For purposes of clause (i), the Governor or local board, respectively, shall take into account factors consisting of—

(I) the characteristics of the participants;

(II) the size of the employer;

(III) the quality of employer-provided training and advancement opportunities; and

(IV) such other factors as the Governor or local board, respectively, may determine to be appropriate, which may include the number of employees participating in the training, wage and benefit levels of those employees (at present and anticipated upon completion of the training), and relation of the training to the competitiveness of a participant.

(d) Permissible local employment and training activities

(1) In general

(A) Activities

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, may be used to provide, through the one-stop delivery system involved (and through collaboration with the local board, for the purpose of the activities described in clauses (vii) and (ix))—

(i) customized screening and referral of qualified participants in training services described in subsection (c)(3) to employers;

(ii) customized employment-related services to employers, employer associations, or other such organizations on a fee-for-service basis;

(iii) implementation of a pay-for-performance contract strategy for training services, for which the local board may reserve and use not more than 10 percent of the total funds allocated to the local area under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 3173(b) of this title;

(iv) customer support to enable individuals with barriers to employment (including individuals with disabilities) and veterans, to navigate among multiple services and activities for such populations;

(v) technical assistance for one-stop operators, one-stop partners, and eligible providers of training services, regarding the provision of services to individuals with disabilities in local areas, including the development and training of staff, the provision of outreach, intake, assessments, and service delivery, the coordination of services across providers and programs, and the development of performance accountability measures;

(vi) employment and training activities provided in coordination with—

(I) child support enforcement activities of the State and local agencies carrying out part D of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651 et seq.);

(II) child support services, and assistance, provided by State and local agencies carrying out part D of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 651 et seq.);

(III) cooperative extension programs carried out by the Department of Agriculture; and

(IV) activities to facilitate remote access to services provided through a one-stop delivery system, including facilitating access through the use of technology;


(vii) activities—

(I) to improve coordination between workforce investment activities and economic development activities carried out within the local area involved, and to promote entrepreneurial skills training and microenterprise services;

(II) to improve services and linkages between the local workforce investment system (including the local one-stop delivery system) and employers, including small employers, in the local area, through services described in this section; and

(III) to strengthen linkages between the one-stop delivery system and unemployment insurance programs;


(viii) training programs for displaced homemakers and for individuals training for nontraditional occupations, in conjunction with programs operated in the local area;

(ix) activities to provide business services and strategies that meet the workforce investment needs of area employers, as determined by the local board, consistent with the local plan under section 3123 of this title, which services—

(I) may be provided through effective business intermediaries working in conjunction with the local board, and may also be provided on a fee-for-service basis or through the leveraging of economic development, philanthropic, and other public and private resources in a manner determined appropriate by the local board; and

(II) may include—

(aa) developing and implementing industry sector strategies (including strategies involving industry partnerships, regional skills alliances, industry skill panels, and sectoral skills partnerships);

(bb) developing and delivering innovative workforce investment services and strategies for area employers, which may include career pathways, skills upgrading, skill standard development and certification for recognized postsecondary credential or other employer use, apprenticeship, and other effective initiatives for meeting the workforce investment needs of area employers and workers;

(cc) assistance to area employers in managing reductions in force in coordination with rapid response activities provided under subsection (a)(2)(A) and with strategies for the aversion of layoffs, which strategies may include early identification of firms at risk of layoffs, use of feasibility studies to assess the needs of and options for at-risk firms, and the delivery of employment and training activities to address risk factors; and

(dd) the marketing of business services offered under this subchapter, to appropriate area employers, including small and mid-sized employers;


(x) activities to adjust the economic self-sufficiency standards referred to in subsection (a)(3)(A)(xii) for local factors, or activities to adopt, calculate, or commission for approval, economic self-sufficiency standards for the local areas that specify the income needs of families, by family size, the number and ages of children in the family, and substate geographical considerations;

(xi) improved coordination between employment and training activities and programs carried out in the local area for individuals with disabilities, including programs carried out by State agencies relating to intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities, activities carried out by Statewide Independent Living Councils established under section 705 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 796d), programs funded under part B of chapter 1 of title VII of such Act (29 U.S.C. 796e et seq.), and activities carried out by centers for independent living, as defined in section 702 of such Act (29 U.S.C. 796a); and

(xii) implementation of promising services to workers and businesses, which may include support for education, training, skill upgrading, and statewide networking for employees to become workplace learning advisors and maintain proficiency in carrying out the activities associated with such advising.

(B) Work support activities for low-wage workers

(i) In general

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, may be used to provide, through the one-stop delivery system involved, work support activities designed to assist low-wage workers in retaining and enhancing employment. The one-stop partners of the system shall coordinate the appropriate programs and resources of the partners with the activities and resources provided under this subparagraph.

(ii) Activities

The work support activities described in clause (i) may include the provision of activities described in this section through the one-stop delivery system in a manner that enhances the opportunities of such workers to participate in the activities, such as the provision of activities described in this section during nontraditional hours and the provision of onsite child care while such activities are being provided.

(2) Supportive services

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, may be used to provide supportive services to adults and dislocated workers, respectively—

(A) who are participating in programs with activities authorized in paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (c); and

(B) who are unable to obtain such supportive services through other programs providing such services.

(3) Needs-related payments

(A) In general

Funds allocated to a local area for adults under paragraph (2)(A) or (3), as appropriate, of section 3173(b) of this title, and funds allocated to the local area for dislocated workers under section 3173(b)(2)(B) of this title, may be used to provide needs-related payments to adults and dislocated workers, respectively, who are unemployed and do not qualify for (or have ceased to qualify for) unemployment compensation for the purpose of enabling such individuals to participate in programs of training services under subsection (c)(3).

(B) Additional eligibility requirements

In addition to the requirements contained in subparagraph (A), a dislocated worker who has ceased to qualify for unemployment compensation may be eligible to receive needs-related payments under this paragraph only if such worker was enrolled in the training services—

(i) by the end of the 13th week after the most recent layoff that resulted in a determination of the worker's eligibility for employment and training activities for dislocated workers under this part; or

(ii) if later, by the end of the 8th week after the worker is informed that a short-term layoff will exceed 6 months.

(C) Level of payments

The level of a needs-related payment made to a dislocated worker under this paragraph shall not exceed the greater of—

(i) the applicable level of unemployment compensation; or

(ii) if such worker did not qualify for unemployment compensation, an amount equal to the poverty line, for an equivalent period, which amount shall be adjusted to reflect changes in total family income.

(4) Incumbent worker training programs

(A) In general

(i) Standard reservation of funds

The local board may reserve and use not more than 20 percent of the funds allocated to the local area involved under section 3173(b) of this title to pay for the Federal share of the cost of providing training through a training program for incumbent workers, carried out in accordance with this paragraph.

(ii) Determination of eligibility

For the purpose of determining the eligibility of an employer to receive funding under clause (i), the local board shall take into account factors consisting of—

(I) the characteristics of the participants in the program;

(II) the relationship of the training to the competitiveness of a participant and the employer; and

(III) such other factors as the local board may determine to be appropriate, which may include the number of employees participating in the training, the wage and benefit levels of those employees (at present and anticipated upon completion of the training), and the existence of other training and advancement opportunities provided by the employer.

(iii) Statewide impact

The Governor or State board involved may make recommendations to the local board for providing incumbent worker training that has statewide impact.

(B) Training activities

The training program for incumbent workers carried out under this paragraph shall be carried out by the local board in conjunction with the employers or groups of employers of such workers (which may include employers in partnership with other entities for the purposes of delivering training) for the purpose of assisting such workers in obtaining the skills necessary to retain employment or avert layoffs.

(C) Employer payment of non-Federal share

Employers participating in the program carried out under this paragraph shall be required to pay for the non-Federal share of the cost of providing the training to incumbent workers of the employers.

(D) Non-Federal share

(i) Factors

Subject to clause (ii), the local board shall establish the non-Federal share of such cost (taking into consideration such other factors as the number of employees participating in the training, the wage and benefit levels of the employees (at the beginning and anticipated upon completion of the training), the relationship of the training to the competitiveness of the employer and employees, and the availability of other employer-provided training and advancement opportunities.1

(ii) Limits

The non-Federal share shall not be less than—

(I) 10 percent of the cost, for employers with not more than 50 employees;

(II) 25 percent of the cost, for employers with more than 50 employees but not more than 100 employees; and

(III) 50 percent of the cost, for employers with more than 100 employees.

(iii) Calculation of employer share

The non-Federal share provided by an employer participating in the program may include the amount of the wages paid by the employer to a worker while the worker is attending a training program under this paragraph. The employer may provide the share in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated.

(5) Transitional jobs

The local board may use not more than 10 percent of the funds allocated to the local area involved under section 3173(b) of this title to provide transitional jobs under subsection (c)(3) that—

(A) are time-limited work experiences that are subsidized and are in the public, private, or nonprofit sectors for individuals with barriers to employment who are chronically unemployed or have an inconsistent work history;

(B) are combined with comprehensive employment and supportive services; and

(C) are designed to assist the individuals described in subparagraph (A) to establish a work history, demonstrate success in the workplace, and develop the skills that lead to entry into and retention in unsubsidized employment.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §134, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1520; Pub. L. 114–18, §2(e)(3), May 22, 2015, 129 Stat. 214.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(B)(i)(I) and (c)(2)(A)(xi), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(v)(VI), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(A)(viii)(II)(aa), (c)(2)(A)(ix)(I), and (d)(1)(A)(vi)(I), (II), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Titles XIX and XXI of the Act are classified generally to subchapters XIX (§1396 et seq.) and XXI (§1397aa et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Parts A and D of title IV of the Act are classified generally to parts A (§601 et seq.) and D (§651 et seq.), respectively, of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(A)(viii)(II)(cc), (c)(2)(A)(vii), and (d)(1)(A)(xi), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§720 et seq.) of chapter 16 of this title. Part B of chapter 1 of title VII of the Act is classified generally to subpart 2 (§796e et seq.) of part A of subchapter VII of chapter 16 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of this title and Tables.

The Wagner-Peyser Act, referred to in (c)(1)(B), is act June 6, 1933, ch. 49, 48 Stat. 113, which is classified generally to chapter 4B (§49 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 49 of this title and Tables.

The Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A)(vii), is Pub. L. 88–210, Dec. 18, 1963, 77 Stat. 403, as amended generally by Pub. L. 109–270, §1(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 683, which is classified generally to chapter 44 (§2301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2301 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ix)(I), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(B)(i)(I), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219. Subpart 1 of part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to subpart 1 (§1070a et seq.) of part A of subchapter IV of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 114–18 substituted "section 3121(b)(7)" for "section 3121(b)(6)".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–18 effective as if included in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [Pub. L. 113–128], see §2(f) of Pub. L. 114–18, set out as a note under section 3112 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

1 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should precede the period.

subpart 4—general workforce investment provisions

§3181. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Youth workforce investment activities

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the activities described in section 3162(a) of this title, $820,430,000 for fiscal year 2015, $883,800,000 for fiscal year 2016, $902,139,000 for fiscal year 2017, $922,148,000 for fiscal year 2018, $943,828,000 for fiscal year 2019, and $963,837,000 for fiscal year 2020.

(b) Adult employment and training activities

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the activities described in section 3172(a)(1) of this title, $766,080,000 for fiscal year 2015, $825,252,000 for fiscal year 2016, $842,376,000 for fiscal year 2017, $861,060,000 for fiscal year 2018, $881,303,000 for fiscal year 2019, and $899,987,000 for fiscal year 2020.

(c) Dislocated worker employment and training activities

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the activities described in section 3172(a)(2) of this title, $1,222,457,000 for fiscal year 2015, $1,316,880,000 for fiscal year 2016, $1,344,205,000 for fiscal year 2017, $1,374,019,000 for fiscal year 2018, $1,406,322,000 for fiscal year 2019, and $1,436,137,000 for fiscal year 2020.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §136, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1537.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Part C—Job Corps

Definition of "Secretary"

In this part, "Secretary" means the Secretary of Labor, see section 3151(b)(1)(C)(ii)(II) of this title.

§3191. Purposes

The purposes of this part are—

(1) to maintain a national Job Corps program, carried out in partnership with States and communities, to—

(A) assist eligible youth to connect to the labor force by providing them with intensive social, academic, career and technical education, and service-learning opportunities, in primarily residential centers, in order for such youth to obtain secondary school diplomas or recognized postsecondary credentials leading to—

(i) successful careers, in in-demand industry sectors or occupations or the Armed Forces, that will result in economic self-sufficiency and opportunities for advancement; or

(ii) enrollment in postsecondary education, including an apprenticeship program; and


(B) support responsible citizenship;


(2) to set forth standards and procedures for selecting individuals as enrollees in the Job Corps;

(3) to authorize the establishment of Job Corps centers in which enrollees will participate in intensive programs of activities described in this part; and

(4) to prescribe various other powers, duties, and responsibilities incident to the operation and continuing development of the Job Corps.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §141, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1537.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3192. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Applicable local board

The term "applicable local board" means a local board—

(A) that provides information for a Job Corps center on local employment opportunities and the job skills needed to obtain the opportunities; and

(B) that serves communities in which the graduates of the Job Corps center seek employment.

(2) Applicable one-stop center

The term "applicable one-stop center" means a one-stop center that provides services, such as referral, assessment, recruitment, and placement, to support the purposes of the Job Corps.

(3) Enrollee

The term "enrollee" means an individual who has voluntarily applied for, been selected for, and enrolled in the Job Corps program, and remains with the program, but has not yet become a graduate.

(4) Former enrollee

The term "former enrollee" means an individual who has voluntarily applied for, been selected for, and enrolled in the Job Corps program, but left the program prior to becoming a graduate.

(5) Graduate

The term "graduate" means an individual who has voluntarily applied for, been selected for, and enrolled in the Job Corps program and who, as a result of participation in the Job Corps program, has received a secondary school diploma or recognized equivalent, or completed the requirements of a career and technical education and training program that prepares individuals for employment leading to economic self-sufficiency or entrance into postsecondary education or training.

(6) Job Corps

The term "Job Corps" means the Job Corps described in section 3193 of this title.

(7) Job Corps center

The term "Job Corps center" means a center described in section 3197 of this title.

(8) Operator

The term "operator" means an entity selected under this part to operate a Job Corps center.

(9) Region

The term "region" means an area defined by the Secretary.

(10) Service provider

The term "service provider" means an entity selected under this part to provide services described in this part to a Job Corps center.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §142, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1538.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3193. Establishment

There shall be within the Department of Labor a "Job Corps".

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §143, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1539.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3193a. Transfer of administration of Job Corps program to Employment and Training Administration

The Secretary of Labor shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate a plan for the transfer of the administration of the Job Corps program authorized under title I–C of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 1 from the Office of the Secretary to the Employment and Training Administration. As of the date that is 30 days after the date of submission of such plan, the Secretary may transfer the administration and appropriated funds of the program from the Office of the Secretary and the provisions of section 2883a of this title shall no longer be applicable.

(Pub. L. 111–117, div. D, title I, §108, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3238.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Title I–C of the Act probably means subtitle C of title I of Pub. L. 105–220, which was classified generally to subchapter III (former §2881 et seq.) of former chapter 30 of this title. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, effective July 1, 2015. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Section 2883a of this title, referred to in text, was omitted from the Code pursuant to this section.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Labor Appropriations Act, 2010, and also as part of the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, and the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, and not as part of title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act which comprises this subchapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 2883b of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3194. Individuals eligible for the Job Corps

(a) In general

To be eligible to become an enrollee, an individual shall be—

(1) not less than age 16 and not more than age 21 on the date of enrollment, except that—

(A) not more than 20 percent of the individuals enrolled in the Job Corps may be not less than age 22 and not more than age 24 on the date of enrollment; and

(B) either such maximum age limitation may be waived by the Secretary, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, in the case of an individual with a disability;


(2) a low-income individual; and

(3) an individual who is one or more of the following:

(A) Basic skills deficient.

(B) A school dropout.

(C) A homeless individual (as defined in section 14043e–2(6) of title 42), a homeless child or youth (as defined in section 11434a(2) of title 42), a runaway, an individual in foster care, or an individual who was in foster care and has aged out of the foster care system.

(D) A parent.

(E) An individual who requires additional education, career and technical education or training, or workforce preparation skills to be able to obtain and retain employment that leads to economic self-sufficiency.

(F) A victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons (as defined in section 7102 of title 22). Notwithstanding paragraph (2), an individual described in this subparagraph shall not be required to demonstrate eligibility under such paragraph.

(b) Special rule for veterans

Notwithstanding the requirement of subsection (a)(2), a veteran shall be eligible to become an enrollee under subsection (a) if the individual—

(1) meets the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (3) of such subsection; and

(2) does not meet the requirement of subsection (a)(2) because the military income earned by such individual within the 6-month period prior to the individual's application for Job Corps prevents the individual from meeting such requirement.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §144, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1539; Pub. L. 114–22, title VI, §604, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 260.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(3)(F). Pub. L. 114–22 added subpar. (F).

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3195. Recruitment, screening, selection, and assignment of enrollees

(a) Standards and procedures

(1) In general

The Secretary shall prescribe specific standards and procedures for the recruitment, screening, and selection of eligible applicants for the Job Corps, after considering recommendations from Governors of States, local boards, and other interested parties.

(2) Methods

In prescribing standards and procedures under paragraph (1), the Secretary, at a minimum, shall—

(A) prescribe procedures for informing enrollees that drug tests will be administered to the enrollees and the results received within 45 days after the enrollees enroll in the Job Corps;

(B) establish standards for recruitment of Job Corps applicants;

(C) establish standards and procedures for—

(i) determining, for each applicant, whether the educational and career and technical education and training needs of the applicant can best be met through the Job Corps program or an alternative program in the community in which the applicant resides; and

(ii) obtaining from each applicant pertinent data relating to background, needs, and interests for determining eligibility and potential assignment;


(D) where appropriate, take measures to improve the professional capability of the individuals conducting screening of the applicants; and

(E) assure appropriate representation of enrollees from urban areas and from rural areas.

(3) Implementation

The standards and procedures shall be implemented through arrangements with—

(A) applicable one-stop centers;

(B) organizations that have a demonstrated record of effectiveness in serving at-risk youth and placing such youth into employment, including community action agencies, business organizations, or labor organizations; and

(C) child welfare agencies that are responsible for children and youth eligible for benefits and services under section 677 of title 42.

(4) Consultation

The standards and procedures shall provide for necessary consultation with individuals and organizations, including court, probation, parole, law enforcement, education, welfare, and medical authorities and advisers.

(5) Reimbursement

The Secretary is authorized to enter into contracts with and make payments to individuals and organizations for the cost of conducting recruitment, screening, and selection of eligible applicants for the Job Corps, as provided for in this section. The Secretary shall make no payment to any individual or organization solely as compensation for referring the names of applicants for the Job Corps.

(b) Special limitations on selection

(1) In general

No individual shall be selected as an enrollee unless the individual or organization implementing the standards and procedures described in subsection (a) determines that—

(A) there is a reasonable expectation that the individual considered for selection can participate successfully in group situations and activities, and is not likely to engage in behavior that would prevent other enrollees from receiving the benefit of the Job Corps program or be incompatible with the maintenance of sound discipline and satisfactory relationships between the Job Corps center to which the individual might be assigned and communities surrounding the Job Corps center;

(B) the individual manifests a basic understanding of both the rules to which the individual will be subject and of the consequences of failure to observe the rules, and agrees to comply with such rules; and

(C) the individual has passed a background check conducted in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary and with applicable State and local laws.

(2) Individuals on probation, parole, or supervised release

An individual on probation, parole, or supervised release may be selected as an enrollee only if release from the supervision of the probation or parole official involved is satisfactory to the official and the Secretary and does not violate applicable laws (including regulations). No individual shall be denied a position in the Job Corps solely on the basis of individual contact with the criminal justice system except for a disqualifying conviction as specified in paragraph (3).

(3) Individuals convicted of certain crimes

An individual shall not be selected as an enrollee if the individual has been convicted of a felony consisting of murder (as described in section 1111 of title 18), child abuse, or a crime involving rape or sexual assault.

(c) Assignment plan

(1) In general

Every 2 years, the Secretary shall develop and implement a plan for assigning enrollees to Job Corps centers. In developing the plan, the Secretary shall, based on the analysis described in paragraph (2), establish targets, applicable to each Job Corps center, for—

(A) the maximum attainable percentage of enrollees at the Job Corps center that reside in the State in which the center is located; and

(B) the maximum attainable percentage of enrollees at the Job Corps center that reside in the region in which the center is located, and in surrounding regions.

(2) Analysis

In order to develop the plan described in paragraph (1), every 2 years the Secretary, in consultation with operators of Job Corps centers, shall analyze relevant factors relating to each Job Corps center, including—

(A) the size of the population of individuals eligible to participate in Job 1 Corps in the State and region in which the Job Corps center is located, and in surrounding regions;

(B) the relative demand for participation in the Job Corps in the State and region, and in surrounding regions;

(C) the capacity and utilization of the Job Corps center, including the education, training, and supportive services provided through the center; and

(D) the performance of the Job Corps center relating to the expected levels of performance for the indicators described in section 3209(c)(1) of this title, and whether any actions have been taken with respect to such center pursuant to paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 3209(f) of this title.

(d) Assignment of individual enrollees

(1) In general

After an individual has been selected for the Job Corps in accordance with the standards and procedures of the Secretary under subsection (a), the enrollee shall be assigned to the Job Corps center that offers the type of career and technical education and training selected by the individual and, among the centers that offer such education and training, is closest to the home of the individual. The Secretary may waive this requirement if—

(A) the enrollee would be unduly delayed in participating in the Job Corps program because the closest center is operating at full capacity; or

(B) the parent or guardian of the enrollee requests assignment of the enrollee to another Job Corps center due to circumstances in the community of the enrollee that would impair prospects for successful participation in the Job Corps program.

(2) Enrollees who are younger than 18

An enrollee who is younger than 18 shall not be assigned to a Job Corps center other than the center closest to the home that offers the career and technical education and training desired by the enrollee pursuant to paragraph (1) if the parent or guardian of the enrollee objects to the assignment.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §145, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1539.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "the".

§3196. Enrollment

(a) Relationship between enrollment and military obligations

Enrollment in the Job Corps shall not relieve any individual of obligations under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.) [now 50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.].

(b) Period of enrollment

No individual may be enrolled in the Job Corps for more than 2 years, except—

(1) in a case in which completion of an advanced career training program under section 3198(c) of this title would require an individual to participate in the Job Corps for not more than one additional year;

(2) in the case of an individual with a disability who would reasonably be expected to meet the standards for a Job Corps graduate, as defined under section 3192(5) of this title, if allowed to participate in the Job Corps for not more than 1 additional year;

(3) in the case of an individual who participates in national service, as authorized by a Civilian Conservation Center program, who would be granted an enrollment extension in the Job Corps for the amount of time equal to the period of national service; or

(4) as the Secretary may authorize in a special case.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §146, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1542.)

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, which was classified principally to section 451 et seq. of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as chapter 49 (§3801 et seq.) of Title 50. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3197. Job Corps centers

(a) Operators and service providers

(1) Eligible entities

(A) Operators

The Secretary shall enter into an agreement with a Federal, State, or local agency, an area career and technical education school, a residential career and technical education school, or a private organization, for the operation of each Job Corps center.

(B) Providers

The Secretary may enter into an agreement with a local entity, or other entity with the necessary capacity, to provide activities described in this part to a Job Corps center.

(2) Selection process

(A) Competitive basis

Except as provided in subsections (a) and (b) of section 3304 of title 41, the Secretary shall select on a competitive basis an entity to operate a Job Corps center and entities to provide activities described in this part to the Job Corps center. In developing a solicitation for an operator or service provider, the Secretary shall consult with the Governor of the State in which the center is located, the workforce council for the Job Corps center (if established), and the applicable local board regarding the contents of such solicitation, including elements that will promote the consistency of the activities carried out through the center with the objectives set forth in the State plan or in a local plan.

(B) Recommendations and considerations

(i) Operators

In selecting an entity to operate a Job Corps center, the Secretary shall consider—

(I) the ability of the entity to coordinate the activities carried out through the Job Corps center with activities carried out under the appropriate State plan and local plans;

(II) the ability of the entity to offer career and technical education and training that has been proposed by the workforce council under section 3204(c) of this title, and the degree to which such education and training reflects employment opportunities in the local areas in which enrollees at the center intend to seek employment;

(III) the degree to which the entity demonstrates relationships with the surrounding communities, employers, labor organizations, State boards, local boards, applicable one-stop centers, and the State and region in which the center is located;

(IV) the performance of the entity, if any, relating to operating or providing activities described in this part to a Job Corps center, including information regarding the entity in any reports developed by the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Labor and the entity's demonstrated effectiveness in assisting individuals in achieving the primary indicators of performance for eligible youth described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title; and

(V) the ability of the entity to demonstrate a record of successfully assisting at-risk youth to connect to the workforce, including providing them with intensive academics and career and technical education and training.

(ii) Providers

In selecting a service provider for a Job Corps center, the Secretary shall consider the factors described in clause (i).

(3) Additional selection factors

To be eligible to operate a Job Corps center, an entity shall submit to the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may require, information related to additional selection factors, which shall include the following:

(A) A description of the program activities that will be offered at the center and how the academics and career and technical education and training reflect State and local employment opportunities, including opportunities in in-demand industry sectors and occupations recommended by the workforce council under section 3204(c)(2)(A) of this title.

(B) A description of the counseling, placement, and support activities that will be offered at the center, including a description of the strategies and procedures the entity will use to place graduates into unsubsidized employment or education leading to a recognized postsecondary credential upon completion of the program.

(C) A description of the demonstrated record of effectiveness that the entity has in placing at-risk youth into employment and postsecondary education, including past performance of operating a Job Corps center under this part or subtitle C of title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, and as appropriate, the entity's demonstrated effectiveness in assisting individuals in achieving the indicators of performance for eligible youth described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title.

(D) A description of the relationships that the entity has developed with State boards, local boards, applicable one-stop centers, employers, labor organizations, State and local educational agencies, and the surrounding communities in which the center is located, in an effort to promote a comprehensive statewide workforce development system.

(E) A description of the entity's ability to coordinate the activities carried out through the Job Corps center with activities carried out under the appropriate State plan and local plans.

(F) A description of the strong fiscal controls the entity has in place to ensure proper accounting of Federal funds, and a description of how the entity will meet the requirements of section 3209(a) of this title.

(G) A description of the steps to be taken to control costs in accordance with section 3209(a)(3) of this title.

(H) A detailed budget of the activities that will be supported using funds under this part and non-Federal resources.

(I) An assurance the entity is licensed to operate in the State in which the center is located.

(J) An assurance the entity will comply with basic health and safety codes, which shall include the disciplinary measures described in section 3202(b) of this title.

(K) Any other information on additional selection factors that the Secretary may require.

(b) High-performing centers

(1) In general

If an entity meets the requirements described in paragraph (2) as applied to a particular Job Corps center, such entity shall be allowed to compete in any competitive selection process carried out for an award to operate such center.

(2) High performance

An entity shall be considered to be an operator of a high-performing center if the Job Corps center operated by the entity—

(A) is ranked among the top 20 percent of Job Corps centers for the most recent preceding program year; and

(B) meets the expected levels of performance established under section 3209(c)(1) of this title and, with respect to each of the primary indicators of performance for eligible youth described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title

(i) for the period of the most recent preceding 3 program years for which information is available at the time the determination is made, achieved an average of 100 percent, or higher, of the expected level of performance established under section 3209(c)(1) of this title for the indicator; and

(ii) for the most recent preceding program year for which information is available at the time the determination is made, achieved 100 percent, or higher, of the expected level of performance established under such section for the indicator.

(3) Transition

If any of the program years described in paragraph (2)(B) precedes the implementation of the establishment of expected levels of performance under section 3209(c) of this title and the application of the primary indicators of performance for eligible youth described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title, an entity shall be considered an operator of a high-performing center during that period if the Job Corps center operated by the entity—

(A) meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(B) with respect to such preceding program years using the performance of the Job Corps center regarding the national goals or targets established by the Office of the Job Corps under the previous performance accountability system for—

(i) the 6-month follow-up placement rate of graduates in employment, the military, education, or training;

(ii) the 12–month follow-up placement rate of graduates in employment, the military, education, or training;

(iii) the 6-month follow-up average weekly earnings of graduates;

(iv) the rate of attainment of secondary school diplomas or their recognized equivalent;

(v) the rate of attainment of completion certificates for career and technical training;

(vi) average literacy gains; and

(vii) average numeracy gains; or


(B) is ranked among the top 5 percent of Job Corps centers for the most recent preceding program year.

(c) Character and activities

Job Corps centers may be residential or nonresidential in character, and shall be designed and operated so as to provide enrollees, in a well-supervised setting, with access to activities described in this part. In any year, no more than 20 percent of the individuals enrolled in the Job Corps may be nonresidential participants in the Job Corps.

(d) Civilian Conservation Centers

(1) In general

The Job Corps centers may include Civilian Conservation Centers, operated under an agreement between the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Agriculture, that are located primarily in rural areas. Such centers shall provide, in addition to academics, career and technical education and training, and workforce preparation skills training, programs of work experience to conserve, develop, or manage public natural resources or public recreational areas or to develop community projects in the public interest.

(2) Assistance during disasters

Enrollees in Civilian Conservation Centers may provide assistance in addressing national, State, and local disasters, consistent with current child labor laws (including regulations). The Secretary of Agriculture shall ensure that with respect to the provision of such assistance the enrollees are properly trained, equipped, supervised, and dispatched consistent with standards for the conservation and rehabilitation of wildlife established under the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 661 et seq.).

(3) National liaison

The Secretary of Agriculture shall designate a Job Corps National Liaison to support the agreement under this section between the Departments of Labor and Agriculture.

(e) Indian tribes

(1) General authority

The Secretary may enter into agreements with Indian tribes to operate Job Corps centers for Indians.

(2) Definitions

In this subsection, the terms "Indian" and "Indian tribe" have the meanings given such terms in subsections (d) and (e), respectively, of section 5304 of title 25.

(f) Length of agreement

The agreement described in subsection (a)(1)(A) shall be for not more than a 2-year period. The Secretary may exercise any contractual option to renew the agreement in 1-year increments for not more than 3 additional years, consistent with the requirements of subsection (g).

(g) Renewal conditions

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary shall not renew the terms of an agreement for any 1-year additional period described in subsection (f) for an entity to operate a particular Job Corps center if, for both of the 2 most recent preceding program years for which information is available at the time the determination is made, or if a second program year is not available, the preceding year for which information is available, such center—

(A) has been ranked in the lowest 10 percent of Job Corps centers; and

(B) failed to achieve an average of 50 percent or higher of the expected level of performance under section 3209(c)(1) of this title with respect to each of the primary indicators of performance for eligible youth described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title.

(2) Exception

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Secretary may exercise an option to renew the agreement for no more than 2 additional years if the Secretary determines such renewal would be in the best interest of the Job Corps program, taking into account factors including—

(A) significant improvements in program performance in carrying out a performance improvement plan under section 3209(f)(2) of this title;

(B) that the performance is due to circumstances beyond the control of the entity, such as an emergency or disaster, as defined in section 3225(a)(1) of this title;

(C) a significant disruption in the operations of the center, including in the ability to continue to provide services to students, or significant increase in the cost of such operations; or

(D) a significant disruption in the procurement process with respect to carrying out a competition for the selection of a center operator.

(3) Detailed explanation

If the Secretary exercises an option under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall provide, to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, a detailed explanation of the rationale for exercising such option.

(4) Additional considerations

The Secretary shall only renew the agreement of an entity to operate a Job Corps center if the entity—

(A) has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics;

(B) has adequate financial resources to perform the agreement;

(C) has the necessary organization, experience, accounting and operational controls, and technical skills; and

(D) is otherwise qualified and eligible under applicable laws and regulations, including that the contractor is not under suspension or debarred from eligibility for Federal contracts.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §147, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1542.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(C), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Subtitle C of title I of the Act was classified generally to subchapter III (§2881 et seq.) of chapter 30 of this title. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of this title, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is act Mar. 10, 1934, ch. 55, 48 Stat. 401, which is classified generally to sections 661 to 666c of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 661 of Title 16 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3198. Program activities

(a) Activities provided by Job Corps centers

(1) In general

Each Job Corps center shall provide enrollees with an intensive, well organized, and fully supervised program of education, including English language acquisition programs, career and technical education and training, work experience, work-based learning, recreational activities, physical rehabilitation and development, driver's education, and counseling, which may include information about financial literacy. Each Job Corps center shall provide enrollees assigned to the center with access to career services described in clauses (i) through (xi) of section 3174(c)(2)(A) of this title.

(2) Relationship to opportunities

The activities provided under this subsection shall be targeted to helping enrollees, on completion of their enrollment—

(A) secure and maintain meaningful unsubsidized employment;

(B) enroll in and complete secondary education or postsecondary education or training programs, including other suitable career and technical education and training, and apprenticeship programs; or

(C) satisfy Armed Forces requirements.

(3) Link to employment opportunities

The career and technical education and training provided shall be linked to employment opportunities in in-demand industry sectors and occupations in the State or local area in which the Job Corps center is located and, to the extent practicable, in the State or local area in which the enrollee intends to seek employment after graduation.

(b) Academic and career and technical education and training

The Secretary may arrange for career and technical education and training of enrollees through local public or private educational agencies, career and technical educational institutions, technical institutes, or national service providers, whenever such entities provide education and training substantially equivalent in cost and quality to that which the Secretary could provide through other means.

(c) Advanced career training programs

(1) In general

The Secretary may arrange for programs of advanced career training for selected enrollees in which the enrollees may continue to participate for a period of not to exceed 1 year in addition to the period of participation to which the enrollees would otherwise be limited. The advanced career training may be provided through the eligible providers of training services identified under section 3152 of this title.

(2) Benefits

During the period of participation in an advanced career training program, an enrollee shall be eligible for full Job Corps benefits, or a monthly stipend equal to the average value of the residential support, food, allowances, and other benefits provided to enrollees assigned to residential Job Corps centers.

(3) Demonstration

The Secretary shall develop standards by which any operator seeking to enroll additional enrollees in an advanced career training program shall demonstrate, before the operator may carry out such additional enrollment, that—

(A) participants in such program have achieved a satisfactory rate of completion and placement in training-related jobs; and

(B) for the most recently preceding 2 program years, such operator has, on average, met or exceeded the expected levels of performance under section 3209(c)(1) of this title for each of the primary indicators of performance for eligible youth described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title.

(d) Graduate services

In order to promote the retention of graduates in employment or postsecondary education, the Secretary shall arrange for the provision of job placement and support services to graduates for up to 12 months after the date of graduation. Multiple resources, including one-stop partners, may support the provision of these services, including services from the State vocational rehabilitation agency, to supplement job placement and job development efforts for Job Corps graduates who are individuals with disabilities.

(e) Child care

The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, provide child care at or near Job Corps centers, for individuals who require child care for their children in order to participate in the Job Corps.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §148, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1547.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3199. Counseling and job placement

(a) Assessment and counseling

The Secretary shall arrange for assessment and counseling for each enrollee at regular intervals to measure progress in the academic and career and technical education and training programs carried out through the Job Corps.

(b) Placement

The Secretary shall arrange for assessment and counseling for enrollees prior to their scheduled graduations to determine their capabilities and, based on their capabilities, shall place the enrollees in employment leading to economic self-sufficiency for which the enrollees are trained or assist the enrollees in participating in further activities described in this part. In arranging for the placement of graduates in jobs, the Secretary shall utilize the one-stop delivery system to the maximum extent practicable.

(c) Status and progress

The Secretary shall determine the status and progress of enrollees scheduled for graduation and make every effort to assure that their needs for further activities described in this part are met.

(d) Services to former enrollees

The Secretary may provide such services as the Secretary determines to be appropriate under this part to former enrollees.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §149, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1548.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3200. Support

(a) Personal allowances

The Secretary may provide enrollees assigned to Job Corps centers with such personal allowances as the Secretary may determine to be necessary or appropriate to meet the needs of the enrollees.

(b) Transition allowances

The Secretary shall arrange for a transition allowance to be paid to graduates. The transition allowance shall be incentive-based to reflect a graduate's completion of academic, career and technical education or training, and attainment of recognized postsecondary credentials.

(c) Transition support

The Secretary may arrange for the provision of 3 months of employment services for former enrollees.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §150, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1549.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3201. Operations

(a) Operating plan

The provisions of the contract between the Secretary and an entity selected to operate a Job Corps center shall, at a minimum, serve as an operating plan for the Job Corps center.

(b) Additional information

The Secretary may require the operator, in order to remain eligible to operate the Job Corps center, to submit such additional information as the Secretary may require, which shall be considered part of the operating plan.

(c) Availability

The Secretary shall make the operating plan described in subsections (a) and (b), excluding any proprietary information, available to the public.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §151, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1549.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3202. Standards of conduct

(a) Provision and enforcement

The Secretary shall provide, and directors of Job Corps centers shall stringently enforce, standards of conduct within the centers. Such standards of conduct shall include provisions forbidding the actions described in subsection (b)(2)(A).

(b) Disciplinary measures

(1) In general

To promote the proper behavioral standards in the Job Corps, the directors of Job Corps centers shall have the authority to take appropriate disciplinary measures against enrollees if such a director determines that an enrollee has committed a violation of the standards of conduct. The director shall dismiss the enrollee from the Job Corps if the director determines that the retention of the enrollee in the Job Corps will jeopardize the enforcement of such standards, threaten the safety of staff, students, or the local community, or diminish the opportunities of other enrollees.

(2) Zero tolerance policy and drug testing

(A) Guidelines

The Secretary shall adopt guidelines establishing a zero tolerance policy for an act of violence, for use, sale, or possession of a controlled substance, for abuse of alcohol, or for other illegal or disruptive activity.

(B) Drug testing

The Secretary shall require drug testing of all enrollees for controlled substances in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Secretary under section 3195(a) of this title.

(C) Definitions

In this paragraph:

(i) Controlled substance

The term "controlled substance" has the meaning given the term in section 802 of title 21.

(ii) Zero tolerance policy

The term "zero tolerance policy" means a policy under which an enrollee shall be automatically dismissed from the Job Corps after a determination by the director that the enrollee has carried out an action described in subparagraph (A).

(c) Appeal

A disciplinary measure taken by a director under this section shall be subject to expeditious appeal in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §152, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1549.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3203. Community participation

(a) Business and community participation

The director of each Job Corps center shall ensure the establishment and development of the mutually beneficial business and community relationships and networks described in subsection (b), including the use of local boards, in order to enhance the effectiveness of such centers.

(b) Networks

The activities carried out by each Job Corps center under this section shall include—

(1) establishing and developing relationships and networks with—

(A) local and distant employers, to the extent practicable, in coordination with entities carrying out other Federal and non-Federal programs that conduct similar outreach to employers;

(B) applicable one-stop centers and applicable local boards, for the purpose of providing—

(i) information to, and referral of, potential enrollees; and

(ii) job opportunities for Job Corps graduates; and


(C)(i) entities carrying out relevant apprenticeship programs and youth programs;

(ii) labor-management organizations and local labor organizations;

(iii) employers and contractors that support national training contractor programs; and

(iv) community-based organizations, non-profit organizations, and intermediaries providing workforce development-related services; and


(2) establishing and developing relationships with members of the community in which the Job Corps center is located, informing members of the community about the projects of the Job Corps center and changes in the rules, procedures, or activities of the center that may affect the community, and planning events of mutual interest to the community and the Job Corps center.

(c) New centers

The director of a Job Corps center that is not yet operating shall ensure the establishment and development of the relationships and networks described in subsection (b) at least 3 months prior to the date on which the center accepts the first enrollee at the center.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §153, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1550.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3204. Workforce councils

(a) In general

Each Job Corps center shall have a workforce council, appointed by the director of the center, in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary.

(b) Workforce council composition

(1) In general

A workforce council shall be comprised of—

(A) a majority of members who shall be owners of business concerns, chief executives or chief operating officers of nongovernmental employers, or other private sector employers, who—

(i) have substantial management, hiring, or policy responsibility; and

(ii) represent businesses with employment opportunities that reflect the employment opportunities of the applicable local areas in which enrollees will be seeking employment;


(B) representatives of labor organizations (where present) and representatives of employees; and

(C) enrollees and graduates of the Job Corps.

(2) Local board

The workforce council may include members of the applicable local boards who meet the requirements described in paragraph (1).

(3) Employers outside of local area

The workforce council for a Job Corps center may include, or otherwise provide for consultation with, employers from outside the local area who are likely to hire a significant number of enrollees from the Job Corps center.

(4) Special rule for single State local areas

In the case of a single State local area designated under section 3121(d) of this title, the workforce council shall include a representative of the State Board.

(c) Responsibilities

The responsibilities of the workforce council shall be—

(1) to work closely with all applicable local boards in order to determine, and recommend to the Secretary, appropriate career and technical education and training for the center;

(2) to review all the relevant labor market information, including related information in the State plan or the local plan, to—

(A) recommend the in-demand industry sectors or occupations in the area in which the Job Corps center operates;

(B) determine the employment opportunities in the local areas in which the enrollees intend to seek employment after graduation;

(C) determine the skills and education that are necessary to obtain the employment opportunities; and

(D) recommend to the Secretary the type of career and technical education and training that should be implemented at the center to enable the enrollees to obtain the employment opportunities; and


(3) to meet at least once every 6 months to reevaluate the labor market information, and other relevant information, to determine, and recommend to the Secretary, any necessary changes in the career and technical education and training provided at the center.

(d) New centers

The workforce council for a Job Corps center that is not yet operating shall carry out the responsibilities described in subsection (c) at least 3 months prior to the date on which the center accepts the first enrollee at the center.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §154, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1551.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3205. Advisory committees

The Secretary may establish and use advisory committees in connection with the operation of the Job Corps program, and the operation of Job Corps centers, whenever the Secretary determines that the availability of outside advice and counsel on a regular basis would be of substantial benefit in identifying and overcoming problems, in planning program or center development, or in strengthening relationships between the Job Corps and agencies, institutions, or groups engaged in related activities.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §155, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1552.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3206. Experimental projects and technical assistance

(a) Projects

The Secretary may carry out experimental, research, or demonstration projects relating to carrying out the Job Corps program. The Secretary may waive any provisions of this part that the Secretary finds would prevent the Secretary from carrying out the projects if the Secretary informs the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, in writing, not less than 90 days in advance of issuing such waiver.

(b) Technical assistance

From the funds provided under section 3212 of this title (for the purposes of administration), the Secretary may reserve ¼ of 1 percent to provide, directly or through grants, contracts, or other agreements or arrangements as the Secretary considers appropriate, technical assistance for the Job Corps program for the purpose of improving program quality. Such assistance shall include—

(1) assisting Job Corps centers and programs—

(A) in correcting deficiencies under, and violations of, this part;

(B) in meeting or exceeding the expected levels of performance under section 3209(c)(1) of this title for the indicators of performance described in section 3141(b)(2)(A) of this title;

(C) in the development of sound management practices, including financial management procedures; and


(2) assisting entities, including entities not currently operating a Job Corps center, in developing the additional selection factors information described in section 3197(a)(3) of this title.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §156, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1552.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3207. Application of provisions of Federal law

(a) Enrollees not considered to be Federal employees

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection and in section 8143(a) of title 5, enrollees shall not be considered to be Federal employees and shall not be subject to the provisions of law relating to Federal employment, including such provisions regarding hours of work, rates of compensation, leave, unemployment compensation, and Federal employee benefits.

(2) Provisions relating to taxes and social security benefits

For purposes of title 26 and title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.), enrollees shall be deemed to be employees of the United States and any service performed by an individual as an enrollee shall be deemed to be performed in the employ of the United States.

(3) Provisions relating to compensation to Federal employees for work injuries

For purposes of subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5 (relating to compensation to Federal employees for work injuries), enrollees shall be deemed to be civil employees of the Government of the United States within the meaning of the term "employee" as defined in section 8101 of title 5, and the provisions of such subchapter shall apply as specified in section 8143(a) of title 5.

(4) Federal tort claims provisions

For purposes of the Federal tort claims provisions in title 28, enrollees shall be considered to be employees of the Government.

(b) Adjustments and settlements

Whenever the Secretary finds a claim for damages to a person or property resulting from the operation of the Job Corps to be a proper charge against the United States, and the claim is not cognizable under section 2672 of title 28, the Secretary may adjust and settle the claim in an amount not exceeding $1,500.

(c) Personnel of the uniformed services

Personnel of the uniformed services who are detailed or assigned to duty in the performance of agreements made by the Secretary for the support of the Job Corps shall not be counted in computing strength under any law limiting the strength of such services or in computing the percentage authorized by law for any grade in such services.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §157, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1552.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3208. Special provisions

(a) Enrollment

The Secretary shall ensure that women and men have an equal opportunity to participate in the Job Corps program, consistent with section 3195 of this title.

(b) Studies, evaluations, proposals, and data

The Secretary shall assure that all studies, evaluations, proposals, and data produced or developed with Federal funds in the course of carrying out the Job Corps program shall become the property of the United States.

(c) Transfer of property

(1) In general

Notwithstanding chapter 5 of title 40, and any other provision of law, the Secretary and the Secretary of Education shall receive priority by the Secretary of Defense for the direct transfer, on a nonreimbursable basis, of the property described in paragraph (2) for use in carrying out programs under this Act or under any other Act.

(2) Property

The property described in this paragraph is real and personal property under the control of the Department of Defense that is not used by such Department, including property that the Secretary of Defense determines is in excess of current and projected requirements of such Department.

(d) Gross receipts

Transactions conducted by a private for-profit or nonprofit entity that is an operator or service provider for a Job Corps center shall not be considered to be generating gross receipts. Such an operator or service provider shall not be liable, directly or indirectly, to any State or subdivision of a State (nor to any person acting on behalf of such a State or subdivision) for any gross receipts taxes, business privilege taxes measured by gross receipts, or any similar taxes imposed on, or measured by, gross receipts in connection with any payments made to or by such entity for operating or providing services to a Job Corps center. Such an operator or service provider shall not be liable to any State or subdivision of a State to collect or pay any sales, excise, use, or similar tax imposed on the sale to or use by such operator or service provider of any property, service, or other item in connection with the operation of or provision of services to a Job Corps center.

(e) Management fee

The Secretary shall provide each operator and (in an appropriate case, as determined by the Secretary) service provider with an equitable and negotiated management fee of not less than 1 percent of the amount of the funding provided under the appropriate agreement specified in section 3197 of this title.

(f) Donations

The Secretary may accept on behalf of the Job Corps or individual Job Corps centers charitable donations of cash or other assistance, including equipment and materials, if such donations are available for appropriate use for the purposes set forth in this part.

(g) Sale of property

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the Administrator of General Services sells a Job Corps center facility, the Administrator shall transfer the proceeds from the sale to the Secretary, who shall use the proceeds to carry out the Job Corps program.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §158, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1553.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, known as the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3209. Management information

(a) Financial management information system

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that each operator, and each service provider, maintains a financial management information system that will provide—

(A) accurate, complete, and current disclosures of the costs of Job Corps operations; and

(B) sufficient data for the effective evaluation of activities carried out through the Job Corps program.

(2) Accounts

Each operator and service provider shall maintain funds received under this part in accounts in a manner that ensures timely and accurate reporting as required by the Secretary.

(3) Fiscal responsibility

Operators shall remain fiscally responsible and control costs, regardless of whether the funds made available for Job Corps centers are incrementally increased or decreased between fiscal years.

(b) Audit

(1) Access

The Secretary, the Inspector General of the Department of Labor, the Comptroller General of the United States, and any of their duly authorized representatives, shall have access to any books, documents, papers, and records of the operators and service providers described in subsection (a) that are pertinent to the Job Corps program, for purposes of conducting surveys, audits, and evaluations of the operators and service providers.

(2) Surveys, audits, and evaluations

The Secretary shall survey, audit, or evaluate, or arrange for the survey, audit, or evaluation of, the operators and service providers, using Federal auditors or independent public accountants. The Secretary shall conduct such surveys, audits, or evaluations not less often than once every 3 years.

(c) Information on indicators of performance

(1) Levels of performance and indicators

The Secretary shall annually establish expected levels of performance for a Job Corps center and the Job Corps program relating to each of the primary indicators of performance for eligible youth described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title.

(2) Performance of recruiters

The Secretary shall also establish performance indicators, and expected levels of performance on the performance indicators, for recruitment service providers serving the Job Corps program. The performance indicators shall relate to—

(A) the number of enrollees recruited, compared to the established goals for such recruitment, and the number of enrollees who remain committed to the program for 90 days after enrollment; and

(B) the measurements described in subparagraphs (I), (L), and (M) of subsection (d)(1).

(3) Performance of career transition service providers

The Secretary shall also establish performance indicators, and expected performance levels on the performance indicators, for career transition service providers serving the Job Corps program. The performance indicators shall relate to—

(A) the primary indicators of performance for eligible youth described in section 3141(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title; and

(B) the measurements described in subparagraphs (D), (E), (H), (J), and (K) of subsection (d)(1).

(4) Report

The Secretary shall collect, and annually submit to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, a report including—

(A) information on the performance of each Job Corps center, and the Job Corps program, based on the performance indicators described in paragraph (1), as compared to the expected level of performance established under such paragraph for each performance indicator; and

(B) information on the performance of the service providers described in paragraphs (2) and (3) on the performance indicators established under such paragraphs, as compared to the expected level of performance established for each performance indicator.

(d) Additional information

(1) In general

The Secretary shall also collect, and submit in the report described in subsection (c)(4), information on the performance of each Job Corps center, and the Job Corps program, regarding—

(A) the number of enrollees served;

(B) demographic information on the enrollees served, including age, race, gender, and education and income level;

(C) the number of graduates of a Job Corps center;

(D) the number of graduates who entered the Armed Forces;

(E) the number of graduates who entered apprenticeship programs;

(F) the number of graduates who received a regular secondary school diploma;

(G) the number of graduates who received a State recognized equivalent of a secondary school diploma;

(H) the number of graduates who entered unsubsidized employment related to the career and technical education and training received through the Job Corps program and the number who entered unsubsidized employment not related to the education and training received;

(I) the percentage and number of former enrollees, including the number dismissed under the zero tolerance policy described in section 3202(b) of this title;

(J) the percentage and number of graduates who enter postsecondary education;

(K) the average wage of graduates who enter unsubsidized employment—

(i) on the first day of such employment; and

(ii) on the day that is 6 months after such first day;


(L) the percentages of enrollees described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 3195(c)(1) of this title, as compared to the percentage targets established by the Secretary under such section for the center;

(M) the cost per enrollee, which is calculated by comparing the number of enrollees at the center in a program year to the total budget for such center in the same program year;

(N) the cost per graduate, which is calculated by comparing the number of graduates of the center in a program year compared to the total budget for such center in the same program year; and

(O) any additional information required by the Secretary.

(2) Rules for reporting of data

The disaggregation of data under this subsection shall not be required when the number of individuals in a category is insufficient to yield statistically reliable information or when the results would reveal personally identifiable information about an individual.

(e) Methods

The Secretary shall collect the information described in subsections (c) and (d), using methods described in section 3141(i)(2) of this title and consistent with State law, by entering into agreements with the States to access such data for Job Corps enrollees, former enrollees, and graduates.

(f) Performance assessments and improvements

(1) Assessments

The Secretary shall conduct an annual assessment of the performance of each Job Corps center. Based on the assessment, the Secretary shall take measures to continuously improve the performance of the Job Corps program.

(2) Performance improvement

With respect to a Job Corps center that fails to meet the expected levels of performance relating to the primary indicators of performance specified in subsection (c)(1), the Secretary shall develop and implement a performance improvement plan. Such a plan shall require action to be taken during a 1-year period, including—

(A) providing technical assistance to the center;

(B) changing the career and technical education and training offered at the center;

(C) changing the management staff of the center;

(D) replacing the operator of the center;

(E) reducing the capacity of the center;

(F) relocating the center; or

(G) closing the center.

(3) Additional performance improvement

In addition to the performance improvement plans required under paragraph (2), the Secretary may develop and implement additional performance improvement plans. Such a plan shall require improvements, including the actions described in such paragraph, for a Job Corps center that fails to meet criteria established by the Secretary other than the expected levels of performance described in such paragraph.

(4) Civilian Conservation Centers

With respect to a Civilian Conservation Center that fails to meet the expected levels of performance relating to the primary indicators of performance specified in subsection (c)(1) or fails to improve performance as described in paragraph (2) after 3 program years, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall select an entity to operate the Civilian Conservation Center on a competitive basis, in accordance with the requirements of section 3197 of this title.

(g) Participant health and safety

(1) Center

The Secretary shall ensure that a review by an appropriate Federal, State, or local entity of the physical condition and health-related activities of each Job Corps center occurs annually.

(2) Work-based learning locations

The Secretary shall require that an entity that has entered into a contract to provide work-based learning activities for any Job Corps enrollee under this part shall comply with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.) or, as appropriate, under the corresponding State Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 requirements in the State in which such activities occur.

(h) Buildings and facilities

The Secretary shall collect, and submit in the report described in subsection (c)(4), information regarding the state of Job Corps buildings and facilities. Such report shall include—

(1) a review of requested construction, rehabilitation, and acquisition projects, by each Job Corps center; and

(2) a review of new facilities under construction.

(i) National and community service

The Secretary shall include in the report described in subsection (c)(4) available information regarding the national and community service activities of enrollees, particularly those enrollees at Civilian Conservation Centers.

(j) Closure of Job Corps center

Prior to the closure of any Job Corps center, the Secretary shall ensure—

(1) that the proposed decision to close the center is announced in advance to the general public through publication in the Federal Register or other appropriate means;

(2) the establishment of a reasonable comment period, not to exceed 30 days, for interested individuals to submit written comments to the Secretary; and

(3) that the Member of Congress who represents the district in which such center is located is notified within a reasonable period of time in advance of any final decision to close the center.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title I, §159, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1554.)

References in Text

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), is Pub. L. 91–596, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1590, which is classified principally to chapter 15 (§651 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 651 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.