[USC07] CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT
Result 1 of 1
   
 

TITLE 34—CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

Subtitle I—Comprehensive Acts

Chap.
Sec.
101.
Justice System Improvement
10101
111.
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
11101
121.
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement
12101

        

Subtitle II—Protection of Children and Other Persons

201.
Victim Rights, Compensation, and Assistance
20101
203.
Victims of Child Abuse
20301
205.
AMBER Alert
20501
207.
Combating Domestic Trafficking in Persons
20701
209.
Child Protection and Safety
20901
211.
Combating Child Exploitation
21101
213.
Rape Survivor Child Custody
21301
215.
Advanced Notification of Traveling Sex Offenders
21501

        

Subtitle III—Prevention of Particular Crimes

301.
Computer Crimes and Intellectual Property Crimes
30101
303.
Prison Rape Elimination
30301
305.
Hate Crimes
30501

        

Subtitle IV—Criminal Records and Information

401.
Child Abuse Crime Information and Background Checks
40101
403.
Criminal Justice Identification, Information, and Communication
40301
405.
Reporting of Unidentified and Missing Persons
40501
407.
DNA Identification
40701
409.
National Instant Criminal Background Check System
40901
411.
Access to Criminal History and Identification Records
41101
413.
Crime Reports and Statistics
41301
415.
Resource Centers, Task Forces, Databases, and Programs
41501

        

Subtitle V—Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Personnel

501.
Emergency Federal Law Enforcement Assistance
50101
503.
Law Enforcement Congressional Badge of Bravery
50301
505.
National Blue Alert
50501

        

Subtitle VI—Other Crime Control and Law Enforcement Matters

601.
Prisons
60101
603.
Improving the Quality of Representation in State Capital Cases
60301
605.
Recidivism Prevention
60501

        

Prior Provisions

A prior Title 34, Navy, was repealed generally by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 1, which revised and codified the statutory provisions that related to the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and enacted those provisions into law as Title 10, Armed Forces. For distribution of provisions of former Title 34 in Title 10, see Table II, set out preceding the text of Title 10.

Disposition Table
(Showing disposition of provisions classified to the Code)
Former ClassificationNew Classification or Disposition
18:1 note prec (Ex. Ord. No. 11396, Feb. 7, 1968, 33 F.R. 2689) 34:10101 note prec
18:1 note (Pub. L. 111–84, div. E, §4701, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2835) 34:10101 note
18:249 note (Pub. L. 111–84, div. E, §4702, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2835) 34:30501
18:249 note (Pub. L. 111–84, div. E, §4709, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2841) 34:30505
18:249 note (Pub. L. 111–84, div. E, §4710, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2841) 34:30506
18:921 note prec (Memorandum of President of the United States, Jan. 16, 2013, 78 F.R. 4301) 34:40901 note
18:921 note prec (Memorandum of President of the United States, Jan. 4, 2016, 81 F.R. 719) 34:40901 note
18:922 note (Pub. L. 103–159, title I, §106(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1544) 34:40302
18:922 note (Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §603(i)(2), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3504) 34:40302 note
18:922 note (Pub. L. 103–159, title I, §103, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1541) 34:40901
18:922 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6213, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4360) 34:40901 note
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, §1, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2559) 34:10101 note
18:922 note (Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(h) [title VI, §655], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681-530) 34:40901 note
18:922 note (Pub. L. 106–58, title VI, §634, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 473) 34:40901 note
18:922 note (Pub. L. 112–55, div. B, title V, §511, Nov. 18, 2011, 125 Stat. 632) 34:40901 note
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, §2, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2559) 34:40902
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, §3, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2560) 34:40903
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title I, §101, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2561) 34:40911
18:922 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Jan. 16, 2013, 78 F.R. 4297) 34:40911 note
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title I, §102, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2564) 34:40912
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title I, §103, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2567) 34:40913
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title I, §104, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2568) 34:40914
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title I, §105, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2569) 34:40915
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title I, §106, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2570) 34:40916
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title I, §201, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2570) 34:40931
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title I, §301, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2571) 34:40941
18:922 note (Pub. L. 110–180, title IV, §401, Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2571) omitted
18:1832 note (Pub. L. 114–153, §4, May 11, 2016, 130 Stat. 382) 34:41310
18:3001 note prec (Pub. L. 89–197, §§1–11, Sept. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 828) 34:10101 note prec
18:4042 note (Pub. L. 105–370, §2(c), Nov. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 3375) 34:60101 note
18:4352 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6292, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4369) 34:10426
28:509 note (Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, §816, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 385) 34:30102
28:509 note (Pub. L. 101–162, title II, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 995) 34:41103
28:509 note (Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2539, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4884) 34:41501
28:509 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title I, §104, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1766) 34:41504
28:509 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1105, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3092) 34:41505
28:509 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1106, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3093) 34:41506
28:509 note (Ex. Ord. No. 13774, Feb. 9, 2017, 82 F.R. 10695) 34:50101 note prec
28:509 note (Ex. Ord. No. 13776, Feb. 9, 2017, 82 F.R. 10699) 34:60101 note prec
28:522 note (Pub. L. 98–292, §9, May 21, 1984, 98 Stat. 206) 34:41301
28:522 note (Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2546, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4885) 34:41306
28:531 note (Pub. L. 108–405, title II, §203(f), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2271) 34:40721
28:531 note (Pub. L. 105–314, title VII, §703(a)–(f), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2987–2989) 34:41502
28:534 note (Pub. L. 100–413, §1, Aug. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1101) 34:10101 note
28:534 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title IX, §905(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3080) 34:20903
28:534 note (Pub. L. 92–544, title II, Oct. 25, 1972, 86 Stat. 1115) 34:41101
28:534 note (Pub. L. 100–413, §2, Aug. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1101) 34:41102
28:534 note (Pub. L. 100–413, §3, Aug. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1101) 34:41102 note
28:534 note (Pub. L. 101–515, title II, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2112) 34:41104
28:534 note (Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title I, §124], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681-73) 34:41105
28:534 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6402, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3755) 34:41106
28:534 note (Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §233(b), July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2279) 34:41107
28:534 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7332, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4468) 34:41303
28:534 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7609, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4517) 34:41304
28:534 note (Pub. L. 101–275, §1, Apr. 23, 1990, 104 Stat. 140) 34:41305
28:534 note (Pub. L. 101–275, §2, Apr. 23, 1990, 104 Stat. 140) 34:41305 note
28:534 note (Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §237(a), (b), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5083) 34:41309
28:534 note (Pub. L. 114–255, div. B, title XIV, §14015, Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1306) 34:41311
28:534 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1107, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3093) 34:41507
28:566 note (Pub. L. 106–544, §6, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2718) 34:41503
42:3702 34:10262
42:3711 34:10101
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 90–351, §1, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 90–351, title XI, §1601, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 239) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 91–644, §1, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1880) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 93–83, §1, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 197) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 94–430, §1, Sept. 29, 1976, 90 Stat. 1346) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 94–503, §1, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2407) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 96–157, §1, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1167) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §601, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2077) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609I, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2102) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609AA, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2107) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1551, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–41) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title I, §10001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1807) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 104–238, §1, Oct. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 3114) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 105–180, §1, June 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 511) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 105–181, §1, June 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 512) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 105–390, §1, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3495) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 106–177, title I, §101, Mar. 10, 2000, 114 Stat. 35) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 106–515, §1, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2399) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 106–517, §1, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2407) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 106–561, §1, Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2787) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 106–572, §1, Dec. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 3058) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 107–196, §1, June 24, 2002, 116 Stat. 719) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title IV, §401, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1789) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title II, §2001, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1792) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11027(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1834) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12101, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1859) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 108–182, §1, Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2649) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 108–414, §1, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2327) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, §951, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3470) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 110–345, §1, Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3938) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 110–416, §1(a), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4352) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 110–421, §1, Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4778) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 112–189, §1, Oct. 5, 2012, 126 Stat. 1435) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1964) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 114–22, title X, §1001, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 266) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 114–155, §1, May 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 389) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 114–199, §1, July 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 780) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 114–324, §14(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1958) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 115–36, §1, June 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 849) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 115–37, §1, June 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 854) 34:10101 note
42:3711 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320701, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2121) omitted
42:3712 34:10102
42:3712a 34:10103
42:3712a note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1121(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3107) 34:10103 note
42:3712a note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1121(c), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3107) 34:10103 note
42:3712b 34:10104
42:3712c 34:10105
42:3712e 34:10106
42:3712e note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1159(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3117) 34:10106 note
42:3712f 34:10107
42:3712f note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1160(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3117) 34:10107 note
42:3712g 34:10108
42:3712g note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1161(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3118) 34:10108 note
42:3712h 34:10109
42:3712h note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1158(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3116) 34:10109 note
42:3713 34:30101
42:3713a 34:30103
42:3713b 34:30104
42:3713c 34:30105
42:3713d 34:30106
42:3714 6:603 note
42:3714a 34:41508
42:3715 34:10110
42:3715 note (Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(a)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-20) 34:10110 note
42:3715 note (Pub. L. 106–553, §1(a)(2) [title I, §108], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2762, 2762A-67) 34:10110 note
42:3715a 34:10111
42:3716 34:30503
42:3716 note (Pub. L. 111–84, div. E, §4703(b), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2836) 34:30502
42:3716a 34:30504
42:3721 34:10121
42:3721 note (Pub. L. 110–424, Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4819) 34:10121 note
42:3721 note (Pub. L. 101–515, title II, §211(B), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2122) omitted
42:3721 note (Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXIV, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4918) omitted
42:3721 note (Pub. L. 104–132, title VIII, §809, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1311) omitted
42:3722 34:10122
42:3722 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title II, §2201, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1793) omitted
42:3723 34:10123
42:3731 34:10131
42:3732 34:10132
42:3732 note (Pub. L. 105–301, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2838) 34:10132 note
42:3732 note (Pub. L. 106–534, §5, Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2557) 34:10132 note
42:3732 note (Pub. L. 106–534, §6, Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2557) 34:10132 note
42:3732 note (Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §251(c), July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2298) 34:10132 note
42:3732 note (Pub. L. 113–235, div. B, title II, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2191) 34:10132 note
42:3733 34:10133
42:3735 34:10134
42:3741 34:10141
42:3741 note (Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535 , 1501A–20) 34:10141 note
42:3742 34:10142
42:3743 34:20143
42:3750 34:10151
42:3750 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3102) 34:10151 note
42:3751 34:10152
42:3752 34:10153
42:3752 note (Pub. L. 114–255, div. B, title XIV, §14011, Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1297 34:10153 note
42:3752 note (Pub. L. 114–324, §14(c), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1959) 34:10153 note
42:3753 34:10154
42:3754 34:10155
42:3755 34:10156
42:3756 34:10157
42:3757 34:10158
42:3758 omitted
42:3762a 34:10171
42:3762b 34:10172
42:3763 34:10181
42:3764 34:10182
42:3765 34:10191
42:3766 34:10201
42:3766a 34:10202
42:3766b 34:10203
42:3771 34:10211
42:3771 note (Pub. L. 99–500, §101(b) [title II], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–39 , 1783–48, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(b) [title II], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–39, 3341-48) 34:10211 note
42:3771 note (Pub. L. 99–500, §101(b) [title II, §210], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–39 , 1783–56, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(b) [title II, §210], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–39, 3341-56) 34:10211 note
42:3771 note (Pub. L. 107–206, title I, §1202, Aug. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 887) 34:10211 note
42:3782 34:10221
42:3783 34:10222
42:3784 34:10223
42:3786 34:10224
42:3787 34:10225
42:3788 34:10226
42:3789 34:10227
42:3789d 34:10228
42:3789e 34:10229
42:3789f 34:10230
42:3789g 34:10231
42:3789i 34:10232
42:3789j 34:10233
42:3789k 34:10234
42:3789l 34:10235
42:3789m 34:10236
42:3789n 34:10237
42:3789p 34:10238
42:3791 34:10251
42:3791 note (Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(d), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1969) 34:10251 note
42:3791 note (Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 876) 34:10251 note
42:3791 note (Pub. L. 114–326, §2(c), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1973) 34:10251 note
42:3793 34:10261
42:3793 note (Pub. L. 96–132, §20(a), Nov. 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 1049) 34:10261 note
42:3793 note (Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(b)(1)(B)(ii)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-21) 34:10261 note
42:3793 note (Pub. L. 109–162, §4, as added by Pub. L. 109–271, §1(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 750) 34:10261 note
42:3793 note (Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title III, §1302(d), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1511) 34:20324 note
42:3793c 34:10263
42:3795 34:10271
42:3795a 34:10272
42:3795b 34:10273
42:3796 34:10281
42:3796 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6105(e), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4341) 34:10281 note
42:3796 note (Pub. L. 101–647, title XIII, §1303, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4835) 34:10281 note
42:3796 note (Pub. L. 102–520, §2, Oct. 25, 1992, 106 Stat. 3402) 34:10281 note
42:3796 note (Pub. L. 107–56, title VI, §613(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 370) 34:10281 note
42:3796 note (Pub. L. 107–196, §2(c), June 24, 2002, 116 Stat. 720) 34:10281 note
42:3796a 34:10282
42:3796a–1 34:10283
42:3796b 34:10284
42:3796b note (Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §305(b), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1574) 34:10284 note
42:3796c 34:10285
42:3796c–1 34:10286
42:3796c–2 34:10287
42:3796c–3 34:10288
42:3796d 34:10301
42:3796d–1 34:10302
42:3796d–2 34:10303
42:3796d–3 34:10304
42:3796d–4 34:10305
42:3796d–5 34:10306
42:3796d–5 note (Pub. L. 106–276, §1(b), Oct. 2, 2000, 114 Stat. 812) 34:10306 note
42:3796d–6 34:10307
42:3796d–7 34:10308
42:3796h 34:10321
42:3796h note (Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §252(b), July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2299) 34:10321 note
42:3796aa 34:10331
42:3796aa–1 34:10332
42:3796aa–2 34:10333
42:3796aa–3 34:10334
42:3796aa–5 34:10335
42:3796aa–6 34:10336
42:3796aa–8 34:10337
42:3796bb 34:10351
42:3796bb–1 34:10352
42:3796cc 34:10361
42:3796cc–1 34:10362
42:3796cc–2 34:10363
42:3796cc–3 34:10364
42:3796cc–4 34:10365
42:3796cc–5 34:10366
42:3796cc–6 34:10367
42:3796dd 34:10381
42:3796dd note (Pub. L. 103–322, title I, §10002, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1807) 34:10381 note
42:3796dd note (Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §247(a)–(d), July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2296 , 2297) 34:10381 note
42:3796dd–1 34:10382
42:3796dd–2 34:10383
42:3796dd–3 34:10384
42:3796dd–4 34:10385
42:3796dd–5 34:10386
42:3796dd–6 34:10387
42:3796dd–7 34:10388
42:3796dd–8 34:10389
42:3796ee 34:10401
42:3796ee note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12102(b), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1869) 34:10401 note
42:3796ee–1 34:10402
42:3796ee–2 34:10403
42:3796ee–2 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1168(b), as added by Pub. L. 109–271, §8(n)(5)(B), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 768) 34:10403 note
42:3796ee–3 34:10404
42:3796ee–4 34:10405
42:3796ee–5 34:10406
42:3796ee–6 34:10407
42:3796ee–7 34:10408
42:3796ee–8 34:10409
42:3796ee–9 34:10410
42:3796ee–10 omitted
42:3796ff 34:10421
42:3796ff–1 34:10422
42:3796ff–1 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1147, as added by Pub. L. 109–271, §8(n)(2)(A), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 767) 34:10422 note
42:3796ff–2 34:10423
42:3796ff–3 34:10424
42:3796ff–4 34:10425
42:3796gg 34:10441
42:3796gg note (Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1405, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1515) 34:10441 note
42:3796gg–0 34:10442
42:3796gg–0 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title IV, §403, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1791) 34:10442 note
42:3796gg–0a 34:10443
42:3796gg–0b 34:10444
42:3796gg–0c 34:10445
42:3796gg–0d omitted
42:3796gg–1 34:10446
42:3796gg–1 note (Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §310(b), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2276) 34:10446 note
42:3796gg–2 34:10447
42:3796gg–2 note (Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, §1002, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1491) 34:10447 note
42:3796gg–3 34:10448
42:3796gg–4 34:10449
42:3796gg–5 34:10450
42:3796gg–6 34:20121
42:3796gg–7 34:20122
42:3796gg–8 34:10451
42:3796gg–10 34:10452
42:3796gg–10 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title IX, §§901, 902, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3077 , 3078) 34:10452 note
42:3796gg–10 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title IX, §904(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3078) 34:10452 note
42:3796gg–11 34:10453
42:3796hh 34:10461
42:3796hh–1 34:10462
42:3796hh–2 34:10463
42:3796hh–3 34:10464
42:3796hh–4 34:10465
42:3796ii 34:10471
42:3796ii note (Pub. L. 106–515, §2, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2399) 34:10471 note
42:3796ii note (Pub. L. 114–255, div. B, title XIV, §14003, Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1289) 34:10471 note
42:3796ii note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11011, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1823) omitted
42:3796ii–1 34:10472
42:3796ii–2 34:10473
42:3796ii–3 34:10474
42:3796ii–4 34:10475
42:3796ii–5 34:10476
42:3796ii–6 34:10477
42:3796ii–7 34:10478
42:3796ii–8 34:10479
42:3796jj 34:10491
42:3796jj–1 34:10492
42:3796jj–2 34:10493
42:3796jj–3 34:10494
42:3796jj–4 34:10495
42:3796jj–5 34:10496
42:3796jj–6 34:10497
42:3796jj–7 34:10498
42:3796kk 34:10511
42:3796kk note (Pub. L. 103–322, title XXI, §210302(c)(4), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2068) 34:10511 note
42:3796kk–1 34:10512
42:3796kk–2 34:10513
42:3796kk–3 34:10514
42:3796kk–4 34:10515
42:3796kk–5 34:10516
42:3796kk–6 34:10517
42:3796ll 34:10531
42:3796ll note (Pub. L. 105–181, §2, June 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 512) 34:10531 note
42:3796ll note (Pub. L. 106–517, §2, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2407) 34:10531 note
42:3796ll–1 34:10532
42:3796ll–2 34:10533
42:3796ll–2 note (Pub. L. 106–517, §3(e), Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2408) 34:10533 note
42:3796ll–3 34:10534
42:3797 34:10541
42:3797a 34:10551
42:3797b 34:10552
42:3797c 34:10553
42:3797d 34:10554
42:3797e omitted
42:3797j 34:10561
42:3797k 34:10562
42:3797l 34:10563
42:3797m 34:10564
42:3797n 34:10565
42:3797o 34:10566
42:3797q 34:10581
42:3797s 34:10591
42:3797s–1 34:10592
42:3797s–2 34:10593
42:3797s–3 34:10594
42:3797s–4 34:10595
42:3797s–5 omitted
42:3797s–6 34:10596
42:3797u 34:10611
42:3797u note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title II, §2303, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1799) omitted
42:3797u–1 34:10612
42:3797u–1 note (Pub. L. 110–199, title I, §103(c), Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 668) 34:10612 note
42:3797u–2 34:10613
42:3797u–2 note (Pub. L. 110–199, title I, §103(b), Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 668) 34:10613 note
42:3797u–3 34:10614
42:3797u–4 34:10615
42:3797u–5 34:10616
42:3797u–6 34:10617
42:3797u–7 34:10618
42:3797u–8 34:10619
42:3797w 34:10631
42:3797w–1 34:10632
42:3797w–2 34:10633
42:3797y 34:10641
42:3797y–1 34:10642
42:3797y–2 34:10643
42:3797y–3 34:10644
42:3797y–4 omitted
42:3797aa 34:10651
42:3797aa note (Pub. L. 108–414, §2, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2327) 34:10651 note
42:3797aa note (Pub. L. 108–414, §3, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2328) 34:10651 note
42:3797aa note (Pub. L. 110–416, §2, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4352) 34:10651 note
42:3797aa–1 34:10652
42:3797aa–1 note (Pub. L. 114–255, div. B, title XIV, §14008, Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1296) 34:10652 note
42:3797aa–1 note (Pub. L. 114–255, div. B, title XIV, §14025, Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1310) 34:10652 note
42:3797cc 34:10661
42:3797cc–1 34:10662
42:3797cc–2 34:10663
42:3797cc–3 34:10664
42:3797cc–21 34:10671
42:3797dd 34:10681
42:3797dd–1 omitted
42:3797ee 34:10691
42:3797ee–1 34:16902
42:3797ff 34:10701
42:3797ff–1 34:10702
42:3797ff–2 34:10703
42:3797ff–3 34:10704
42:3797ff–4 34:10705
42:3797ff–5 34:10706
42:3797ff–6 34:10707
42:5101 note (Pub. L. 103–209, §1, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2490) 34:10101 note
42:5101 note (Pub. L. 105–251, title II, §221, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1885) 34:10101 note
42:5101 note (Pub. L. 110–296, §1, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2974, and Pub. L. 110–408, §1, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4301) 34:10101 note
42:5101 note (Pub. L. 111–143, §1, Mar. 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 41) 34:10101 note
42:5101 note (Pub. L. 111–341, §1, Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3606) 34:10101 note
42:5101 note (Pub. L. 99–401, title I, §105, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 906) 34:41302
42:5119 34:40101
42:5119 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320928(g), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2132) 34:40101 note
42:5119a 34:40102
42:5119a note (Pub. L. 108–21, title I, §108, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 655) 34:40102 note
42:5119b 34:40103
42:5119c 34:40104
42:5601 34:11101
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 93–415, §1, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1109) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 93–415, title III, §301, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1129) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 93–415, title IV, §401, as added by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §660, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2125) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 93–415, title V, §501, as added by Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12222(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1894) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 95–115, §1, Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1048) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 96–509, §1, Dec. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 2750) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §610, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2107) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7250(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4434) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 106–71, §1, Oct. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1032) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12201, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1869) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 108–96, §1, Oct. 10, 2003, 117 Stat. 1167) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 110–240, §1, June 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 1560) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 110–378, §1, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4068) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 113–38, §1, Sept. 30, 2013, 127 Stat. 527) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §116(a), May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 244) 34:10101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §670, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2129) 34:11101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7296, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4463) 34:11101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12223, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1896) 34:11101 note
42:5601 note (Pub. L. 108–21, title III, §361, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 665) 40:3101 note
42:5602 34:11102
42:5603 34:11103
42:5611 34:11111
42:5611 note (Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, subtitle A, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 631 , 632) 34:11111 note
42:5611 note (Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §119, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 247) 34:20710
42:5612 34:11112
42:5613 34:11113
42:5614 34:11114
42:5615 34:11115
42:5616 34:11116
42:5617 34:11117
42:5631 34:11131
42:5632 34:11132
42:5632 note (Pub. L. 95–115, §4(b)(2)(D), Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1051) 34:11132 note
42:5632 note (Pub. L. 95–115, §4(b)(4)(B), Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1051) 34:11132 note
42:5633 34:11133
42:5633 note (Pub. L. 95–115, §4(c)(3)(B), Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1052) 34:11133 note
42:5633 note (Pub. L. 95–115, §4(c)(6)(B), Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1053) 34:11133 note
42:5633 note (Pub. L. 102–586, §2(f)(3)(B), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 4994) 34:11133 note
42:5651 34:11141
42:5652 34:11142
42:5653 34:11143
42:5654 34:11144
42:5655 34:11145
42:5656 34:11146
42:5661 34:11161
42:5662 34:11162
42:5665 34:11171
42:5666 34:11172
42:5667 34:11173
42:5668 34:11174
42:5671 34:11181
42:5672 34:11182
42:5673 34:11183
42:5674 34:11184
42:5675 34:11185
42:5676 34:11186
42:5677 34:11187
42:5678 34:11188
42:5679 34:11189
42:5680 34:11190
42:5681 34:11191
42:5701 34:11201
42:5701 note (Pub. L. 108–96, title I, §118, Oct. 10, 2003, 117 Stat. 1170) omitted
42:5702 34:11202
42:5711 34:11211
42:5712 34:11212
42:5713 34:11213
42:5714 34:11214
42:5714–1 34:11221
42:5714–1 note (Pub. L. 108–96, title I, §119, Oct. 10, 2003, 117 Stat. 1170) omitted
42:5714–2 34:11222
42:5714–11 34:11231
42:5714–21 34:11241
42:5714–22 34:11242
42:5714–23 34:11243
42:5714–24 34:11244
42:5714–25 34:11245
42:5714–41 34:11261
42:5714a 34:11271
42:5714b 34:11272
42:5715 34:11273
42:5716 34:11274
42:5731 34:11275
42:5731a 34:11276
42:5732 34:11277
42:5732–1 34:11278
42:5732a 34:11279
42:5751 34:11280
42:5752 34:11281
42:5771 34:11291
42:5772 34:11292
42:5773 34:11293
42:5775 34:11294
42:5776 34:11295
42:5776a 34:11296
42:5777 34:11297
42:5779 34:41307
42:5780 34:41308
42:5780a 34:11298
42:5781 34:11311
42:5781 note (Pub. L. 102–586, §5(b), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5029) 34:11311 note
42:5781 note (Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12222(b), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1896) 34:11311 note
42:5782 34:11312
42:5783 34:11313
42:5784 omitted
42:5791 34:20501
42:5791a 34:20502
42:5791b 34:20503
42:5791c 34:20504
42:5791d 34:20505
42:5792 40:3101 note
42:5792a 40:3101 note
42:10420 34:12464
42:10501 34:50101
42:10502 34:50102
42:10503 34:50103
42:10504 34:50104
42:10505 34:50105
42:10506 34:50106
42:10507 34:50107
42:10508 34:50108
42:10510 34:50109
42:10511 34:50110
42:10512 34:50111
42:10513 34:50112
42:10601 34:20101
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1401, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2170) 34:10101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 101–647, title V, §501, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4820) 34:10101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §231, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1243) 34:10101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1409, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2178) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7129, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4423) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7130, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4423) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §109(b), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2457) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title VI, §620], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-55) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 106–177, title I, §104(b), Mar. 10, 2000, 114 Stat. 36) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 106–553, §1(a)(2) [title VI, §619], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2762, 2762A-107) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 107–56, title VI, §621(e), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 371) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 107–77, title VI, §619, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 802) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 108–7, div. B, title VI, §617, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 102) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 108–199, div. B, title VI, §618, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 95) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 108–447, div. B, title VI, §616, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2915) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 109–108, title VI, §612, Nov. 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 2336) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 110–161, div. B, title V, §513, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 1926) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 111–8, div. B, title V, §512, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 596) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 111–117, div. B, title V, §512, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3151) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 112–55, div. B, title V, §512, Nov. 18, 2011, 125 Stat. 632) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 113–6, div. B, title V, §510, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 271) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 113–76, div. B, title V, §510, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 79) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 113–235, div. B, title V, §510, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2210) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 114–113, div. B, title V, §510, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2324) 34:20101 note
42:10601 note (Pub. L. 115–31, div. B, title III, §510, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 221) 34:20101 note
42:10602 34:20102
42:10602 note (Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §233(d), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1245) 34:20102 note
42:10602 note (Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §234(a)(2), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1245) 34:20102 note
42:10603 34:20103
42:10603a 34:20104
42:10603b 34:20105
42:10603b note (Pub. L. 106–386, div. C, §2003(a)(2), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1544) 34:20105 note
42:10603b note (Pub. L. 106–386, div. C, §2003(a)(3), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1544) 34:20105 note
42:10603c 34:20106
42:10603d 34:20107
42:10603e 34:20108
42:10603f 34:20109
42:10604 34:20110
42:10604 note (Pub. L. 104–294, title I, §101(c), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3491) omitted
42:10605 34:20111
42:10607 34:20141
42:10608 34:20142
42:10609 34:20144
42:13001 34:20301
42:13001 note (Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §201, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4792) 34:10101 note
42:13001 note (Pub. L. 113–163, §1, Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1864) 34:10101 note
42:13001a 34:20302
42:13001b 34:20303
42:13002 34:20304
42:13003 34:20305
42:13004 34:20306
42:13005 34:20307
42:13011 34:20321
42:13012 34:20322
42:13013 34:20323
42:13013a omitted
42:13014 34:20324
42:13021 34:20331
42:13022 34:20332
42:13023 34:20333
42:13024 34:20334
42:13031 34:20341
42:13041 34:20351
42:13701 34:12101
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, §1, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31101, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1882) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31901, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1892) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40101, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1903) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40201, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1925) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40301, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1941) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40401, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1942) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title XX, §200101, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2049) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title XX, §200201, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2057) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title XXI, §210301, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2065) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 103–322, title XXII, §220001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2074) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 106–297, §1, Oct. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 1045) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, §1001, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1491) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 106–546, §1, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2726) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 106–560, §1, Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2784) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 108–405, §1(a), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2260) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 108–405, title II, §201, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2266) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §301, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2272) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 109–162, §1, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2960) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title X, §1001, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3084) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, §611, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 632) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 110–360, §1, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4008) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 112–253, §1, Jan. 10, 2013, 126 Stat. 2407) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 113–4, §1, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 54) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 113–4, title X, §1001, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 127) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 113–182, §1, Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1918) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 113–242, §1, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2860) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 114–12, §1, May 19, 2015, 129 Stat. 192) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 114–22, title IV, §401, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 256) 34:10101 note
42:13701 note (Pub. L. 114–324, §1, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1948) 34:10101 note
42:13702 34:12102
42:13703 34:12103
42:13703 note (Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(a) [title I], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009-14) 34:12103 note
42:13704 34:12104
42:13705 34:12105
42:13706 34:12106
42:13707 34:12107
42:13708 34:12108
42:13709 34:12109
42:13710 34:12110
42:13711 34:12111
42:13712 34:12112
42:13713 34:12113
42:13721 34:12121
42:13722 34:12122
42:13723 omitted
42:13724 34:12123
42:13725 34:12124
42:13726 34:60101
42:13726a 34:60102
42:13726b 34:60103
42:13726c 34:60104
42:13727 34:60105
42:13727a 18:4001 note
42:13741 34:12131
42:13742 34:12132
42:13743 34:12133
42:13744 omitted
42:13751 note (Pub. L. 104–294, title IV, §401, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3496) omitted
42:13751 note (Pub. L. 106–313, title I, §112, Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1260) 34:11313 note
42:13751 note (Pub. L. 106–367, Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1412) 34:11313 note
42:13751 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1199, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3132) 34:11313 note
42:13771 34:12141
42:13772 34:12142
42:13773 34:12143
42:13774 34:12144
42:13775 34:12145
42:13776 34:12146
42:13777 omitted
42:13791 34:12161
42:13793 omitted
42:13811 34:12171
42:13812 omitted
42:13821 34:12181
42:13822 34:12182
42:13823 34:12183
42:13824 34:12184
42:13825 34:12185
42:13826 34:12186
42:13841 34:12201
42:13842 34:12202
42:13851 34:12211
42:13852 omitted
42:13853 34:12212
42:13861 34:12221
42:13862 34:12222
42:13863 34:12223
42:13864 34:12224
42:13865 34:12225
42:13866 34:12226
42:13867 omitted
42:13868 34:12227
42:13881 34:12241
42:13882 34:12242
42:13883 omitted
42:13891 34:12251
42:13892 34:12252
42:13893 34:12253
42:13901 34:12261
42:13902 34:12262
42:13911 34:12271
42:13921 34:12281
42:13925 34:12291
42:13925 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title II, §201, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2993) 34:12291 note
42:13925 note (Pub. L. 109–162, title III, §301, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3003) 34:12291 note
42:13931 34:12301
42:13941 34:12311
42:13942 34:12312
42:13943 34:12313
42:13951 34:12321
42:13961 34:12331
42:13961 note (Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title IV, §1404, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1514) omitted
42:13962 34:12332
42:13963 34:12333
42:13971 34:12341
42:13975 34:12351
42:13981 34:12361
42:13991 34:12371
42:13992 34:12372
42:13993 34:12373
42:13994 omitted
42:14001 34:12381
42:14002 omitted
42:14011 34:12391
42:14012 omitted
42:14013 omitted
42:14014 omitted
42:14015 omitted
42:14016 34:12392
42:14031 34:12401
42:14032 34:12402
42:14033 34:12403
42:14034 34:12404
42:14035 34:12405
42:14036 34:12406
42:14037 34:12407
42:14038 34:12408
42:14039 34:12409
42:14039 note (Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §115(b)(2), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2467) 34:12409 note
42:14040 34:12410
42:14041 34:12421
42:14042 34:12431
42:14043b 34:12441
42:14043b–1 34:12442
42:14043b–2 34:12443
42:14043b–3 34:12444
42:14043b–4 omitted
42:14043c 34:12451
42:14043d 34:12461
42:14043d–1 34:12462
42:14043d–2 34:12463
42:14043e 34:12471
42:14043e–1 34:12472
42:14043e–2 34:12473
42:14043e–3 34:12474
42:14043e–4 34:12475
42:14043e–11 34:12491
42:14043f 34:12501
42:14043g 34:12511
42:14043g–1 34:12512
42:14043h 34:21301
42:14043h–1 34:21302
42:14043h–2 34:21303
42:14043h–3 34:21304
42:14043h–4 34:21305
42:14043h–5 34:21306
42:14043h–6 34:21307
42:14043h–7 34:21308
42:14044 34:20701
42:14044 note (Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §264, July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2300) 34:20701 note
42:14044a 34:20702
42:14044a note (Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1241(b), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 153) 34:20702 note
42:14044b 34:20703
42:14044b–1 34:20704
42:14044c 34:20705
42:14044d 34:20706
42:14044e 34:20707
42:14044f 34:20708
42:14044g 34:20709
42:14044g note (Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §110, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 239) 34:20709 note
42:14044h 34:20711
42:14045 34:20123
42:14045a 34:20124
42:14045b 34:20125
42:14045d 34:20126
42:14051 34:12521
42:14052 34:12522
42:14053 34:12523
42:14061 34:12531
42:14062 34:12532
42:14081 34:12541
42:14082 34:12542
42:14083 omitted
42:14091 34:12551
42:14092 34:12552
42:14093 34:12553
42:14094 34:12554
42:14095 34:12555
42:14096 34:12556
42:14097 34:12557
42:14098 34:12558
42:14099 34:12559
42:14101 omitted
42:14111 34:12571
42:14112 34:12572
42:14113 34:12573
42:14114 34:12574
42:14115 34:12575
42:14116 34:12576
42:14117 34:12577
42:14118 34:12578
42:14119 omitted
42:14131 note prec (Ex. Ord. No. 13684, Dec. 18, 2014, 79 F.R. 76865) 34:12591 note prec
42:14131 34:12591
42:14132 34:12592
42:14133 34:12593
42:14134 omitted
42:14135 34:40701
42:14135 note (Pub. L. 106–546, §11, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2735) 34:40701 note
42:14135 note (Pub. L. 106–561, §4, Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2791) 34:40701 note
42:14135 note (Pub. L. 113–4, title X, §1003, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 131) 34:40701 note
42:14135 note (Pub. L. 113–4, title X, §1005, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 132) 34:40701 note
42:14135 note (Pub. L. 113–4, title X, §1006, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 134) 34:40701 note
42:14135a 34:40702
42:14135b 34:40703
42:14135c 34:40704
42:14135d 34:40705
42:14135e 34:40706
42:14136 34:40722
42:14136 note (Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §413, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2285) 34:40722 note
42:14136a 34:40723
42:14136b 34:40724
42:14136c 34:40725
42:14136d 34:40726
42:14136e 34:40727
42:13136f 34:40728
42:14137 34:40741
42:14137a 34:40742
42:14137b 34:40743
42:14137c 34:40744
42:14141 34:12601
42:14142 34:12602
42:14163 34:60301
42:14163a 34:60302
42:14163b 34:60303
42:14163c 34:60304
42:14163d 34:60305
42:14163e 34:60306
42:14165 34:50501
42:14165a 34:50502
42:14165b 34:50503
42:14171 34:12611
42:14181 34:12621
42:14191 omitted
42:14192 omitted
42:14193 omitted
42:14194 omitted
42:14195 omitted
42:14196 omitted
42:14197 omitted
42:14198 omitted
42:14199 omitted
42:14211 34:12631
42:14213 34:12632
42:14214 34:12633
42:14221 34:12641
42:14222 34:12642
42:14223 34:12643
42:14601 34:40301
42:14601 note (Pub. L. 105–251, title I, §101, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1871) 34:10101 note
42:14601 note (Pub. L. 105–251, title II, §201, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1874) 34:10101 note
42:14601 note (Pub. L. 105–251, title II, §211, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1874) 34:10101 note
42:14611 34:40311
42:14612 34:40312
42:14613 34:40313
42:14614 34:40314
42:14615 34:40315
42:14616 34:40316
42:14661 34:40501
42:14661 note (Pub. L. 106–177, title II, §201, Mar. 10, 2000, 114 Stat. 36) 34:10101 note
42:14661 note (Pub. L. 106–468, §1, Nov. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 2027) 34:10101 note
42:14662 34:40502
42:14663 34:40503
42:14664 omitted
42:14665 34:40504
42:14665 note (Pub. L. 106–468, §3, Nov. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 2028) 34:40504 note
42:15231 34:50301
42:15231 note (Pub. L. 110–298, §1, July 31, 2008, 122 Stat. 2985) 34:10101 note
42:15241 34:50311
42:15242 34:50312
42:15243 34:50313
42:15244 34:50314
42:15251 34:50321
42:15252 34:50322
42:15253 34:50323
42:15254 34:50324
42:15261 34:50331
42:15601 34:30301
42:15601 note (Pub. L. 108–79, §1(a), Sept. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 972) 34:10101 note
42:15601 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, May 17, 2012, 77 F.R. 30873) 34:30301 note
42:15602 34:30302
42:15603 34:30303
42:15604 34:30304
42:15605 34:30305
42:15606 34:30306
42:15607 34:30307
42:15608 34:30308
42:15609 34:30309
42:16901 34:20901
42:16901 note (Pub. L. 109–248, §1(a), July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 587) 34:10101 note
42:16901 note (Pub. L. 109–248, title I, §101, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 590) 34:10101 note
42:16901 note (Pub. L. 110–400, §1, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4224) 34:10101 note
42:16901 note (Pub. L. 114–22, title V, §501, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 258) 34:10101 note
42:16901 note (Pub. L. 114–119, §1(a), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 15) 34:10101 note
42:16902 34:20902
42:16911 34:20911
42:16912 34:20912
42:16913 34:20913
42:16914 34:20914
42:16915 34:20915
42:16915a 34:20916
42:16915b 34:20917
42:16916 34:20918
42:16917 34:20919
42:16918 34:20920
42:16919 34:20921
42:16920 34:20922
42:16921 34:20923
42:16922 34:20924
42:16923 34:20925
42:16924 34:20926
42:16925 34:20927
42:16926 34:20928
42:16927 34:20929
42:16928 34:20930
42:16928a 34:20931
42:16929 34:20932
42:16935 34:21501
42:16935a 34:21502
42:16935b 34:21503
42:16935c 34:21504
42:16935d 34:21505
42:16935e 34:21506
42:16935f 34:21507
42:16935g 34:21508
42:16935h 34:21509
42:16935i 34:21510
42:16941 34:20941
42:16942 34:20942
42:16943 34:20943
42:16944 34:20944
42:16945 34:20945
42:16961 34:20961
42:16962 34:20962
42:16971 34:20971
42:16981 34:20981
42:16981 note (Pub. L. 110–400, §4(b), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4228) 34:20981 note
42:16982 34:20982
42:16983 34:20983
42:16984 34:20984
42:16985 34:20985
42:16986 34:20986
42:16987 34:20987
42:16988 34:20988
42:16989 34:20989
42:16990 34:20990
42:16991 34:20991
42:17501 34:60501
42:17501 note (Pub. L. 110–199, §1, Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 657) 34:10101 note
42:17501 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 29, 2016, 81 F.R. 26993) 34:60501 note
42:17502 34:60502
42:17503 34:60503
42:17504 34:60504
42:17511 34:60511
42:17521 34:60521
42:17531 34:60531
42:17532 34:60532
42:17533 34:60533
42:17534 34:60534
42:17541 34:60541
42:17551 34:60551
42:17552 34:60552
42:17553 34:60553
42:17554 34:60554
42:17555 omitted
42:17601 34:21101
42:17601 note (Pub. L. 110–401, §1(a), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4229) 34:10101 note
42:17611 34:21111
42:17612 34:21112
42:17613 34:21113
42:17614 34:21114
42:17615 34:21115
42:17616 34:21116
42:17617 34:21117
42:17631 34:21131

Subtitle I—Comprehensive Acts

 

CHAPTER 101—JUSTICE SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

SUBCHAPTER I—OFFICE OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS

Sec.
10101.
Establishment of Office of Justice Programs.
10102.
Duties and functions of Assistant Attorney General.
10103.
Office of Weed and Seed Strategies.
10104.
Weed and Seed strategies.
10105.
Inclusion of Indian tribes.
10106.
Community Capacity Development Office.
10107.
Division of Applied Law Enforcement Technology.
10108.
Availability of funds.
10109.
Office of Audit, Assessment, and Management.
10110.
Office of Justice Programs grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts.
10111.
Consolidation of financial management systems of Office of Justice Programs.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE

10121.
Statement of purpose.
10122.
National Institute of Justice.
10123.
Authority for 100 per centum grants.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

10131.
Statement of purpose.
10132.
Bureau of Justice Statistics.
10133.
Authority for 100 per centum grants.
10134.
Use of data.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—ESTABLISHMENT OF BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE

10141.
Establishment of Bureau of Justice Assistance.
10142.
Duties and functions of Director.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS

Part A—Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant Program

10151.
Name of program.
10152.
Description.
10153.
Applications.
10154.
Review of applications.
10155.
Rules.
10156.
Formula.
10157.
Reserved funds.
10158.
Interest-bearing trust funds.

        

Part B—Discretionary Grants

subpart 1—grants to public agencies

10171.
Correctional options grants.
10172.
Allocation of funds; administrative provisions.

        

subpart 2—general requirements

10181.
Application requirements.
10182.
Period of award.

        

subpart 3—grants to private entities

10191.
Crime prevention campaign grant.

        

Part C—Administrative Provisions

10201.
Evaluation.
10202.
General provisions.
10203.
Reports.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—FBI TRAINING OF STATE AND LOCAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE PERSONNEL

10211.
Training and manpower development.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

10221.
Rules, regulations, and procedures; consultations and establishment.
10222.
Notice and hearing on denial or termination of grant.
10223.
Finality of determinations.
10224.
Delegation of functions.
10225.
Subpoena power; employment of hearing officers; authority to hold hearings.
10226.
Personnel and administrative authority.
10227.
Title to personal property.
10228.
Prohibition of Federal control over State and local criminal justice agencies; prohibition of discrimination.
10229.
Report to President and Congress.
10230.
Other administrative provisions.
10231.
Confidentiality of information.
10232.
Administration of juvenile delinquency programs.
10233.
Prohibition on land acquisition.
10234.
Prohibition on use of Central Intelligence Agency services.
10235.
Indian liability waiver.
10236.
District of Columbia matching fund source.
10237.
Limitation on civil justice matters.
10238.
Accountability and oversight.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—DEFINITIONS

10251.
General provisions.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—FUNDING

10261.
Authorization of appropriations.
10262.
State and local governments to consider courts.
10263.
Oversight and accountability.

        

SUBCHAPTER X—CRIMINAL PENALTIES

10271.
Misuse of Federal assistance.
10272.
Falsification or concealment of facts.
10273.
Conspiracy to commit offense against United States.

        

SUBCHAPTER XI—PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICERS' DEATH BENEFITS

Part A—Death Benefits

10281.
Payment of death benefits.
10282.
Limitations on benefits.
10283.
National programs for families of public safety officers who have sustained fatal or catastrophic injury in the line of duty.
10284.
Definitions.
10285.
Administrative provisions.
10286.
Expedited payment for public safety officers involved in the prevention, investigation, rescue, or recovery efforts related to a terrorist attack.
10287.
Funds available for appeals and expenses of representation of hearing examiners.
10288.
Due diligence in paying benefit claims.

        

Part B—Educational Assistance to Dependents of Civilian Federal Law Enforcement Officers Killed or Disabled in Line of Duty

10301.
Purposes.
10302.
Basic eligibility.
10303.
Applications; approval.
10304.
Regulations.
10305.
Discontinuation for unsatisfactory conduct or progress.
10306.
Special rule.
10307.
Definitions.
10308.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER XII—REGIONAL INFORMATION SHARING SYSTEMS

10321.
Regional information sharing systems grants.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIII—GRANTS FOR CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISING OF TESTIMONY OF CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF ABUSE

10331.
Function of Director.
10332.
Description of grant program.
10333.
Applications to receive grants.
10334.
Review of applications.
10335.
Reports.
10336.
Expenditure of grants; records.
10337.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIV—RURAL DRUG ENFORCEMENT

10351.
Rural drug enforcement assistance.
10352.
Other requirements.

        

SUBCHAPTER XV—CRIMINAL CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT

10361.
Grant authorization.
10362.
State applications.
10363.
Review of State applications.
10364.
Local applications.
10365.
Distribution of funds.
10366.
Evaluation.
10367.
"Local entity" defined.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVI—PUBLIC SAFETY AND COMMUNITY POLICING; "COPS ON THE BEAT"

10381.
Authority to make public safety and community policing grants.
10382.
Applications.
10383.
Renewal of grants.
10384.
Limitation on use of funds.
10385.
Performance evaluation.
10386.
Revocation or suspension of funding.
10387.
Access to documents.
10388.
General regulatory authority.
10389.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVII—JUVENILE ACCOUNTABILITY BLOCK GRANTS

10401.
Program authorized.
10402.
Tribal grant program authorized.
10403.
Grant eligibility.
10404.
Allocation and distribution of funds.
10405.
Guidelines.
10406.
Payment requirements.
10407.
Utilization of private sector.
10408.
Administrative provisions.
10409.
Assessment reports.
10410.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVIII—RESIDENTIAL SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT FOR STATE PRISONERS

10421.
Grant authorization.
10422.
State applications.
10423.
Review of State applications.
10424.
Allocation and distribution of funds.
10425.
Evaluation.
10426.
National training center for prison drug rehabilitation program personnel.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIX—GRANTS TO COMBAT VIOLENT CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN

10441.
Purpose of program and grants.
10442.
Establishment of Violence Against Women Office.
10443.
Director of Violence Against Women Office.
10444.
Duties and functions of Director of Violence Against Women Office.
10445.
Staff of Violence Against Women Office.
10446.
State grants.
10447.
Definitions and grant conditions.
10448.
General terms and conditions.
10449.
Rape exam payments.
10450.
Costs for criminal charges and protection orders.
10451.
Polygraph testing prohibition.
10452.
Grants to Indian tribal governments.
10453.
Tribal Deputy.

        

SUBCHAPTER XX—GRANTS TO ENCOURAGE ARREST POLICIES AND ENFORCEMENT OF PROTECTION ORDERS

10461.
Grants.
10462.
Applications.
10463.
Reports.
10464.
Regulations or guidelines.
10465.
Definitions and grant conditions.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXI—MENTAL HEALTH COURTS

10471.
Grant authority.
10472.
Definitions.
10473.
Administration.
10474.
Applications.
10475.
Federal share.
10476.
Geographic distribution.
10477.
Report.
10478.
Technical assistance, training, and evaluation.
10479.
Mental health responses in the judicial system.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXII—FAMILY SUPPORT

10491.
Duties.
10492.
General authorization.
10493.
Uses of funds.
10494.
Applications.
10495.
Award of grants; limitation.
10496.
Discretionary research grants.
10497.
Reports.
10498.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXIII—DNA IDENTIFICATION GRANTS

10511.
Grant authorization.
10512.
Applications.
10513.
Application requirements.
10514.
Administrative provisions.
10515.
Restrictions on use of funds.
10516.
Reports.
10517.
Expenditure records.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXIV—MATCHING GRANT PROGRAM FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ARMOR VESTS

10531.
Program authorized.
10532.
Applications.
10533.
Definitions.
10534.
James Guelff and Chris McCurley Body Armor Act of 2002.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXV—TRANSITION; EFFECTIVE DATE; REPEALER

10541.
Continuation of rules, authorities, and proceedings.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXVI—MATCHING GRANT PROGRAM FOR SCHOOL SECURITY

10551.
Program authorized.
10552.
Applications.
10553.
Annual report to Congress.
10554.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXVII—PAUL COVERDELL FORENSIC SCIENCES IMPROVEMENT GRANTS

10561.
Grant authorization.
10562.
Applications.
10563.
Allocation.
10564.
Use of grants.
10565.
Administrative provisions.
10566.
Reports.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXVIII—MENTAL HEALTH AND DRUG TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES TO INCARCERATION PROGRAMS

10581.
Mental health and drug treatment alternatives to incarceration programs.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXIX—GRANTS FOR FAMILY-BASED SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT

10591.
Grants authorized.
10592.
Use of grant funds.
10593.
Program requirements.
10594.
Applications.
10595.
Reports.
10596.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXX—DRUG COURTS

10611.
Grant authority.
10612.
Prohibition of participation by violent offenders.
10613.
Definition.
10614.
Administration.
10615.
Applications.
10616.
Federal share.
10617.
Distribution and allocation.
10618.
Report.
10619.
Technical assistance, training, and evaluation.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXXI—OFFENDER REENTRY AND COMMUNITY SAFETY

10631.
Adult and juvenile offender State and local reentry demonstration projects.
10632.
State reentry project evaluation.
10633.
State, Tribal, and local reentry courts.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXXII—CRIME FREE RURAL STATE GRANTS

10641.
Grant authority.
10642.
Use of funds.
10643.
Statewide strategic prevention plan.
10644.
Requirements.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXXIII—ADULT AND JUVENILE COLLABORATION PROGRAM GRANTS

10651.
Adult and juvenile collaboration programs.
10652.
National criminal justice and mental health training and technical assistance.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXXIV—CONFRONTING USE OF METHAMPHETAMINE

10661.
Authority to make grants to address public safety and methamphetamine manufacturing, sale, and use in hot spots.
10662.
Funding.
10663.
Grants for programs for drug-endangered children.
10664.
Authority to award competitive grants to address methamphetamine use by pregnant and parenting women offenders.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXXV—LOAN REPAYMENT FOR PROSECUTORS AND PUBLIC DEFENDERS

10671.
Grant authorization.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXXVI—GRANT PROGRAM TO EVALUATE AND IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL METHODS AT PRISONS, JAILS, AND JUVENILE FACILITIES

10681.
Grant program to evaluate and improve educational methods at prisons, jails, and juvenile facilities.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXXVII—SEX OFFENDER APPREHENSION GRANTS; JUVENILE SEX OFFENDER TREATMENT GRANTS

10691.
Sex offender apprehension grants.
10692.
Juvenile sex offender treatment grants.

        

SUBCHAPTER XXXVIII—COMPREHENSIVE OPIOID ABUSE GRANT PROGRAM

10701.
Description.
10702.
Applications.
10703.
Review of applications.
10704.
Equitable distribution of funds.
10705.
Definitions.
10706.
Grant accountability.
10707.
Evaluation of performance of Department of Justice programs.

        

Codification

Title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, comprising this chapter, was originally enacted by Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197, and amended by Pub. L. 91–644, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1880; Pub. L. 93–83, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 93–415, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1109; Pub. L. 94–237, Mar. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 241; Pub. L. 94–273, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 94–430, Sept. 29, 1976, 90 Stat. 1346; Pub. L. 94–503, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2407; Pub. L. 95–115, Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1048. Such title is shown herein, however, as having been added by Pub. L. 96–157, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1167, without reference to such intervening amendments because of the extensive revision of the title's provisions by Pub. L. 96–157.

Title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 was formerly classified to chapter 46 (§3701 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this chapter.

Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965

Pub. L. 89–197, §§1–11, Sept. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 828, as amended by Pub. L. 89–798, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1503, was repealed by Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §405, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 204, subject to the provisions of former section 3745 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See section 10101 et seq. (chapter 101) of this title. Such Act had provided for grants and contracts for improvement of quality of state and local personnel through professional training; grants and contracts to improve state and local law enforcement techniques; delegation and redelegation of powers; contributions to program by recipients, rules and regulations, necessary stipends, and allowances; studies by Attorney General and technical assistance to states; prohibition against control over local agencies; advisory committees, compensation, and expenses; term of program; appropriations; and reports to President and Congress.

Ex. Ord. No. 11396. Coordination By Attorney General of Federal Law Enforcement and Crime Prevention Programs

Ex. Ord. No. 11396, Feb. 7, 1968, 33 F.R. 2689, provided:

WHEREAS the problem of crime in America today presents the Nation with a major challenge calling for maximum law enforcement efforts at every level of Government;

WHEREAS coordination of all Federal Criminal law enforcement activities and crime prevention programs is desirable in order to achieve more effective results;

WHEREAS the Federal Government has acknowledged the need to provide assistance to State and local law enforcement agencies in the development and administration of programs directed to the prevention and control of crime:

WHEREAS to provide such assistance the Congress has authorized various departments and agencies of the Federal Government to develop programs which may benefit State and local efforts directed at the prevention and control of crime, and the coordination of such programs is desirable to develop and administer them most effectively; and

WHEREAS the Attorney General, as the chief law officer of the Federal Government, is charged with the responsibility for all prosecutions for violations of the Federal criminal statutes and is authorized under the Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965 (79 Stat. 828) [Pub. L. 89–197; see note above] to cooperate with and assist State, local, or other public or private agencies in matters relating to law enforcement organization, techniques and practices, and the prevention and control of crime.

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in the President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Attorney General is hereby designated to facilitate and coordinate (1) the criminal law enforcement activities and crime prevention programs of all Federal departments and agencies, and (2) the activities of such departments, and agencies relating to the development and implementation of Federal programs which are designed, in whole or in substantial part, to assist State and local law enforcement agencies and crime prevention activities. The Attorney General may promulgate such rules and regulations and take such actions as he shall deem necessary or appropriate to carry out his functions under this Order.

Sec. 2. Each Federal department and agency is directed to cooperate with the Attorney General in the performance of his functions under this Order and shall, to the extent permitted by law and within the limits of available funds, furnish him such reports, information, and assistance as he may request.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

SUBCHAPTER I—OFFICE OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS

§10101. Establishment of Office of Justice Programs

There is hereby established an Office of Justice Programs within the Department of Justice under the general authority of the Attorney General. The Office of Justice Programs (hereinafter referred to in this chapter as the "Office") shall be headed by an Assistant Attorney General (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the "Assistant Attorney General") appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §101, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §603(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2077.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added by Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1167, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3711 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 101 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1170, established Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, prior to the general amendment of part A of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 98–473.

Another prior section 101 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 198; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §2, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1881; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §§102, 103, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2407, established Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and Office of Community Anti-Crime Programs, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609AA, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2107, provided that:

"(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), this division and the amendments made by this title [probably means division, see Short Title of 1984 Act note below] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this joint resolution [Oct. 12, 1984] or October 1, 1984, whichever is later.

"(b)(1) The amendment made by section 609F [amending sections 10281, 10282, 10284, and 10285 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1984, and shall not apply with respect to injuries sustained before October 1, 1984.

"(2) Section 609Z [repealing section 204 of Pub. L. 98–411, which had amended sections 10281, 10282, and 10284 of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 10281 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1984."

Short Title of 2017 Act

Pub. L. 115–50, §1, Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1001, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 12591, 12592, 40702, and 40703 of this title] may be cited as the 'Rapid DNA Act of 2017'."

Pub. L. 115–37, §1, June 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 854, provided that: "This Act [amending section 10381 of this title] may be cited as the 'American Law Enforcement Heroes Act of 2017'."

Pub. L. 115–36, §1, June 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 849, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 10288 of this title, amending sections 10282, 10285, and 10302 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10282 of this title] may be cited as the 'Public Safety Officers' Benefits Improvement Act of 2017'."

Short Title of 2016 Act

Pub. L. 114–324, §1, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1948, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Justice for All Reauthorization Act of 2016'."

Pub. L. 114–324, §14(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1958, provided that: "This section [amending section 10153 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10153 of this title] may be cited as the 'Effective Administration of Criminal Justice Act of 2016'."

Pub. L. 114–199, §1, July 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 780, provided that: "This Act [amending section 10381 of this title] may be cited as the 'Protecting Our Lives by Initiating COPS Expansion Act of 2016' or the 'POLICE Act of 2016'."

Pub. L. 114–155, §1, May 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 389, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 10202, 10261, and 10531 of this title] may be cited as the 'Bulletproof Vest Partnership Grant Program Reauthorization Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–119, §1(a), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 15, provided that: "This Act [enacting chapter 215 of this title and section 212b of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and amending section 20914 of this title and section 2250 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] may be cited as the 'International Megan's Law to Prevent Child Exploitation and Other Sexual Crimes Through Advanced Notification of Traveling Sex Offenders'."

Short Title of 2015 Act

Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §116(a), May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 244, provided that: "This section [amending section 41308 of this title] may be cited as the 'Bringing Missing Children Home Act'."

Pub. L. 114–22, title IV, §401, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 256, provided that: "This title [enacting chapter 213 of this title] may be cited as the 'Rape Survivor Child Custody Act'."

Pub. L. 114–22, title V, §501, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 258, provided that: "This title [enacting section 20931 of this title] may be cited as the 'Military Sex Offender Reporting Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–22, title X, §1001, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 266, provided that: "This title [amending section 10381 of this title] may be cited as the 'Human Trafficking Survivors Relief and Empowerment Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–12, §1, May 19, 2015, 129 Stat. 192, provided that: "This Act [enacting chapter 505 of this title] may be cited as the 'Rafael Ramos and Wenjian Liu National Blue Alert Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2014 Act

Pub. L. 113–242, §1, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2860, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 60105 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 4001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] may be cited as the 'Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013'."

Pub. L. 113–182, §1, Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1918, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 40701, 40722, and 40723 of this title] may be cited as the 'Debbie Smith Reauthorization Act of 2014'."

Pub. L. 113–163, §1, Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1864, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 20307 of this title and amending sections 20101 and 20306 of this title] may be cited as the 'Victims of Child Abuse Act Reauthorization Act of 2013'."

Short Title of 2013 Act

Pub. L. 113–38, §1, Sept. 30, 2013, 127 Stat. 527, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 11296 of this title and amending sections 11291, 11293, 11294, and 11297 of this title] may be cited as the 'E. Clay Shaw, Jr. Missing Children's Assistance Reauthorization Act of 2013'."

Pub. L. 113–4, §1, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 54, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013'."

Pub. L. 113–4, title X, §1001, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 127, provided that: "This title [amending section 40701 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 40701 of this title] may be cited as the 'Sexual Assault Forensic Evidence Reporting Act of 2013' or the 'SAFER Act of 2013'."

Pub. L. 112–253, §1, Jan. 10, 2013, 126 Stat. 2407, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 40741 to 40744 of this title and amending section 40701 of this title] may be cited as the 'Katie Sepich Enhanced DNA Collection Act of 2012'."

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1964, provided that: "This section [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Dale Long Public Safety Officers' Benefits Improvements Act of 2012'."

Short Title of 2012 Act

Pub. L. 112–189, §1, Oct. 5, 2012, 126 Stat. 1435, provided that: "This Act [amending section 10516 of this title and repealing section 14102 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Reporting Efficiency Improvement Act'."

Short Title of 2010 Act

Pub. L. 111–341, §1, Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3606, provided that: "This Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 40102 of this title] may be cited as the 'Criminal History Background Checks Pilot Extension Act of 2010'."

Pub. L. 111–143, §1, Mar. 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 41, provided that: "This Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 40102 of this title] may be cited as the 'Criminal History Background Checks Pilot Extension Act of 2009'."

Short Title of 2009 Act

Pub. L. 111–84, div. E, §4701, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2835, provided that: "This division [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act'."

Short Title of 2008 Act

Pub. L. 110–421, §1, Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4778, provided that: "This Act [amending section 10261 of this title] may be cited as the 'Bulletproof Vest Partnership Grant Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–416, §1(a), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4352, provided that: "This Act [amending section 10651 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10651 of this title] may be cited as the 'Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Reauthorization and Improvement Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–401, §1(a), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4229, provided that: "This Act [enacting chapter 211 of this title and sections 2258A to 2258E of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending sections 2251, 2252A, 2256, 2260, and 2702 of Title 18, repealing section 13032 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2251 of Title 18] may be cited as the 'Providing Resources, Officers, and Technology To Eradicate Cyber Threats to Our Children Act of 2008' or the 'PROTECT Our Children Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–400, §1, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4224, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 20916 and 20917 of this title, amending section 20981 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 20981 of this title] may be cited as the 'Keeping the Internet Devoid of Sexual Predators Act of 2008' or the 'KIDS Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–378, §1, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4068, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 11245 and 11278 of this title and amending sections 11201, 11211, 11212, 11222, 11243, 11261, 11279, and 11280 of this title] may be cited as the 'Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–360, §1, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4008, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 40701, 40722, and 40723 of this title] may be cited as the 'Debbie Smith Reauthorization Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–345, §1, Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3938, provided that: "This Act [amending section 10663 of this title] may be cited as the 'Drug Endangered Children Act of 2007'."

Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, §951, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3470, provided that: "This part [part E (§§951, 952) of title IX of Pub. L. 110–315, enacting subchapter XXXV of this chapter] may be cited as the 'John R. Justice Prosecutors and Defenders Incentive Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–298, §1, July 31, 2008, 122 Stat. 2985, provided that: "This Act [enacting chapter 503 of this title] may be cited as the 'Law Enforcement Congressional Badge of Bravery Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–296, §1, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2974, and Pub. L. 110–408, §1, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4301, provided that: "This Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 40102 of this title] may be cited as the 'Criminal History Background Checks Pilot Extension Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–240, §1, June 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 1560, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 11291, 11293, and 11297 of this title and repealing section 5776a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Protecting Our Children Comes First Act of 2007'."

Pub. L. 110–199, §1, Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 657, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Second Chance Act of 2007: Community Safety Through Recidivism Prevention' or the 'Second Chance Act of 2007'."

Pub. L. 110–180, §1(a), Jan. 8, 2008, 121 Stat. 2559, provided that: "This Act [enacting chapter 409 of this title] may be cited as the 'NICS Improvement Amendments Act of 2007'."

Short Title of 2006 Act

Pub. L. 109–248, §1(a), July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 587, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006'."

Pub. L. 109–248, title I, §101, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 590, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act'."

Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, §611, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 632, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle B (§§611–617) of title VI of Pub. L. 109–248, amending provisions set out as a note under section 11313 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Police Athletic League Youth Enrichment Reauthorization Act of 2006'."

Pub. L. 109–162, §1, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2960, as amended by Pub. L. 109–271, §1(a), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 750, provided that:

"(a) In General.—This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005'.

"(b) Separate Short Titles.—Section 3 and titles I through IX of this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2005'. Title XI of this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act of 2005'."

Pub. L. 109–162, title X, §1001, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3084, provided that: "This title [amending sections 12592, 40701, and 40702 of this title and sections 3142 and 3297 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] may be cited as the 'DNA Fingerprint Act of 2005'."

Short Title of 2004 Act

Pub. L. 108–414, §1, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2327, provided that: "This Act [enacting subchapter XXXIII of this chapter and provisions set out as notes under section 10651 of this title] may be cited as the 'Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act of 2004'."

Pub. L. 108–405, §1(a), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2260, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Justice for All Act of 2004'."

Pub. L. 108–405, title II, §201, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2266, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Debbie Smith Act of 2004'."

Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §301, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2272, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 40722 to 40726 of this title, amending sections 10261, 10441 to 10450, 10562, 10564, 12592, and 40706 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10446 of this title] may be cited as the 'DNA Sexual Assault Justice Act of 2004'."

Short Title of 2003 Act

Pub. L. 108–182, §1, Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2649, provided that: "This Act [amending section 10281 of this title] may be cited as the 'Hometown Heroes Survivors Benefits Act of 2003'."

Pub. L. 108–96, §1, Oct. 10, 2003, 117 Stat. 1167, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 11281 of this title, amending sections 11201, 11211, 11212, 11222, 11241, 11243, 11244, 11279, 11280, 11291, 11293, and 11297 of this title, repealing section 5714–25 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 11201 of this title and provisions formerly set out as a note under section 5714–1 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Runaway, Homeless, and Missing Children Protection Act'."

Pub. L. 108–79, §1(a), Sept. 4, 2003, 117 Stat. 972, provided that: "This Act [enacting chapter 303 of this title] may be cited as the 'Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003'."

Short Title of 2002 Act

Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title IV, §401, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1789, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Violence Against Women Office Act'."

Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title II, §2001, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1792, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Drug Abuse Education, Prevention, and Treatment Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11027(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1834, provided that: "This section [enacting subchapter XXXII of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Crime-Free Rural States Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12101, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1859, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§12101, 12102) of title II of div. C of Pub. L. 107–273, enacting subchapter XVII of this chapter and provisions set out as a note under section 10401 of this title] may be cited as the 'Consequences for Juvenile Offenders Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12201, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1869, provided that: "This subtitle [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–196, §1, June 24, 2002, 116 Stat. 719, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 10281 and 10284 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10281 of this title] may be cited as the 'Mychal Judge Police and Fire Chaplains Public Safety Officers' Benefit Act of 2002'."

Short Title of 2000 Act

Pub. L. 106–572, §1, Dec. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 3058, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 30101 of this title] may be cited as the 'Computer Crime Enforcement Act'."

Pub. L. 106–561, §1, Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2787, provided that: "This Act [enacting subchapter XXVII of this chapter, amending sections 10152, 10154, 10261, and 40301 of this title and section 983 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 40701 of this title and section 983 of Title 18] may be cited as the 'Paul Coverdell National Forensic Sciences Improvement Act of 2000'."

Pub. L. 106–560, §1, Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2784, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 60101 to 60104 of this title] may be cited as the 'Interstate Transportation of Dangerous Criminals Act of 2000' or 'Jeanna's Act'."

Pub. L. 106–546, §1, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2726, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000'."

Pub. L. 106–517, §1, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2407, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 10261 and 10531 to 10533 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 10531 and 10533 of this title] may be cited as the 'Bulletproof Vest Partnership Grant Act of 2000'."

Pub. L. 106–515, §1, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2399, provided that: "This Act [enacting subchapter XXI of this chapter, amending section 10261 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10471 of this title] may be cited as the 'America's Law Enforcement and Mental Health Project'."

Pub. L. 106–468, §1, Nov. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 2027, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 40504 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 40504 of this title] may be cited as 'Kristen's Act'."

Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, §1001, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1491, provided that: "This division [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Violence Against Women Act of 2000'."

Pub. L. 106–297, §1, Oct. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 1045, provided that: "This Act [amending section 12104 of this title] may be cited as the 'Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2000'."

Pub. L. 106–177, title I, §101, Mar. 10, 2000, 114 Stat. 35, provided that: "This title [amending sections 10152, 20101, and 40301 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 20101 of this title] may be cited as the 'Child Abuse Prevention and Enforcement Act'."

Pub. L. 106–177, title II, §201, Mar. 10, 2000, 114 Stat. 36, provided that: "This title [enacting chapter 405 of this title] may be cited as 'Jennifer's Law'."

Short Title of 1999 Act

Pub. L. 106–71, §1, Oct. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1032, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 11245, 11261, 11276, and 11279 of this title, amending sections 11201, 11211, 11212, 11213, 11221 to 11241, 11243, 11244, 11271 to 11275, 11277, 11280 to 11293, 11294, and 11297 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 7101 of Title 20, Education] may be cited as the 'Missing, Exploited, and Runaway Children Protection Act'."

Short Title of 1998 Act

Pub. L. 105–390, §1, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3495, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 10301, 10302, 10304, 10306, and 10307 of this title] may be cited as the 'Police, Fire, and Emergency Officers Educational Assistance Act of 1998'."

Pub. L. 105–251, title I, §101, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1871, provided that: "This title [enacting section 40301 of this title] may be cited as the 'Crime Identification Technology Act of 1998'."

Pub. L. 105–251, title II, §201, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1874, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter II of chapter 403 of this title, amending sections 40102 and 40103 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'National Criminal History Access and Child Protection Act'."

Pub. L. 105–251, title II, §211, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1874, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§211–217) of title II of Pub. L. 105–251, enacting subchapter II of chapter 403 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998'."

Pub. L. 105–251, title II, §221, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1885, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle B (§§221, 222) of title II of Pub. L. 105–251, amending sections 40102 and 40103 of this title] may be cited as the 'Volunteers for Children Act'."

Pub. L. 105–181, §1, June 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 512, provided that: "This Act [enacting subchapter XXIV of this chapter, amending sections 10261 and 10541 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10531 of this title] may be cited as the 'Bulletproof Vest Partnership Grant Act of 1998'."

Pub. L. 105–180, §1, June 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 511, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 10283 and 10285 of this title] may be cited as the 'Care for Police Survivors Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1996 Act

Pub. L. 104–238, §1, Oct. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 3114, provided that: "This Act [enacting part B of subchapter XI of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Federal Law Enforcement Dependents Assistance Act of 1996'."

Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §231, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1243, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle C (§§231–236) of title II of Pub. L. 104–132, enacting sections 20105 and 20142 of this title, amending this section and sections 20102 and 20103 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 20102 of this title] may be cited as the 'Justice for Victims of Terrorism Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1994 Act

Pub. L. 103–322, §1, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1796, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title I, §10001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1807, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter XVI of this chapter, amending sections 10261 and 10541 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10381 of this title] may be cited as the 'Public Safety Partnership and Community Policing Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31101, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1882, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle K (§§31101–31133) of title III of Pub. L. 103–322, enacting part E (§12181 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 121 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Community Economic Partnership Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title III, §31901, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1892, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle S (§§31901–31922) of title III of Pub. L. 103–322, enacting part G (§12241 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 121 of this title] may be cited as the 'Family Unity Demonstration Project Act'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1902, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Violence Against Women Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40101, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1903, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§40101–40156) of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Safe Streets for Women Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40201, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1925, provided that: "This title [probably should be "subtitle", meaning subtitle B (§§40201–40295) of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Safe Homes for Women Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40301, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1941, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle C (§§40301–40304) of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, enacting part C (§12361) of subchapter III of chapter 121 of this title and amending section 1988 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and section 1445 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the 'Civil Rights Remedies for Gender-Motivated Violence Act'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40401, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1942, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle D (§§40401–40422) of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, enacting part D (§12371 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 121 of this title] may be cited as the 'Equal Justice for Women in the Courts Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title XX, §200101, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2049, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§200101–200113) of title XX of Pub. L. 103–322, enacting part A (§12551 et seq.) of subchapter VII of chapter 121 of this title] may be cited as the 'Police Corps Act'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title XX, §200201, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2057, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle B (§§200201–200210) of title XX of Pub. L. 103–322, enacting part B (§12571 et seq.) of subchapter VII of chapter 121 of this title] may be cited as the 'Law Enforcement Scholarships and Recruitment Act'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title XXI, §210301, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2065, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle C (§§210301–210306) of title XXI of Pub. L. 103–322, enacting part A (§12591 et seq.) of subchapter VIII of chapter 121 of this title and sections 10511 to 10517 of this title, amending sections 10152, 10154, 10261, and 10541 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 10152 of this title] may be cited as the 'DNA Identification Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–322, title XXII, §220001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2074, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter IX (§12611) of chapter 121 of this title and section 511A of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and amending section 511 of Title 18] may be cited as the 'Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act'."

Short Title of 1993 Act

Pub. L. 103–209, §1, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2490, provided that: "This Act [enacting chapter 401 of this title and amending section 3759 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'National Child Protection Act of 1993'."

Short Title of 1990 Act

Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §201, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4792, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–647, title V, §501, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4820, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Victims' Rights and Restitution Act of 1990'."

Short Title of 1988 Act

Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7250(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4434, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle F (§§7250–7296) of title VII of Pub. L. 100–690, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Amendments of 1988'."

Pub. L. 100–413, §1, Aug. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1101, provided that "This Act [enacting section 41102 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 41102 of this title] may be cited as the 'Parimutuel Licensing Simplification Act of 1988'."

Short Title of 1986 Act

Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1551, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–41, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle K (§§1551, 1552) of title I of Pub. L. 99–570, enacting subchapter XII of this chapter and amending sections 10141, 10221, 10222, 10227, 10261, and 10541 of this title] may be cited as the 'State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1986'."

Short Title of 1984 Act

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §601, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2077, provided that: "This division [division I (§§601–609AA) of chapter VI of title II of Pub. L. 98–473, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Justice Assistance Act of 1984'."

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §610, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2107, provided that: "This Division [division II (§§610–670) of chapter VI of title II of Pub. L. 98–473, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Juvenile Justice, Runaway Youth, and Missing Children's Act Amendments of 1984'."

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1401, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2170, provided that: "This chapter [chapter XIV (§§1401–1411) of title II of Pub. L. 98–473, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Victims of Crime Act of 1984'."

Short Title of 1980 Act

Pub. L. 96–509, §1, Dec. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 2750, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Juvenile Justice Amendments of 1980'."

Short Title of 1979 Act

Pub. L. 96–157, §1, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1167, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Justice System Improvement Act of 1979'."

Short Title of 1977 Act

Pub. L. 95–115, §1, Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1048, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Juvenile Justice Amendments of 1977'."

Short Title of 1976 Act

Pub. L. 94–503, §1, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2407, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Crime Control Act of 1976'."

Pub. L. 94–430, §1, Sept. 29, 1976, 90 Stat. 1346, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Public Safety Officers' Benefits Act of 1976'."

Short Title of 1974 Act

Pub. L. 93–415, §1, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1109, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974'."

Pub. L. 93–415, title III, §301, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1129, as amended by Pub. L. 96–509, §18(b), Dec. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 2762, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter III of chapter 111 of this title] may be cited as the 'Runaway and Homeless Youth Act'."

Pub. L. 93–415, title IV, §401, as added by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §660, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2125, as amended by Pub. L. 101–204, title X, §1004(1), Dec. 7, 1990, 103 Stat. 1828, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter IV of chapter 111 of this title] may be cited as the 'Missing Children's Assistance Act'."

Pub. L. 93–415, title V, §501, as added by Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12222(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1894, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter V of chapter 111 of this title] may be cited as the 'Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs Act of 2002'."

A prior section 501 of title V of Pub. L. 93–415, as added by Pub. L. 102–586, §5(a), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5027, provided that title V (enacting subchapter V of chapter 72 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare) could be cited as the "Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs Act", prior to the general amendment of title V of Pub. L. 93–415 by Pub. L. 107–273, §12222(a).

Another section 501 of Pub. L. 93–415, title V, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1133, amended section 5031 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Short Title of 1973 Act

Pub. L. 93–83, §1, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 197, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Crime Control Act of 1973'."

Short Title of 1970 Act

Pub. L. 91–644, §1, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1880, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1970'."

Short Title of 1968 Act

Pub. L. 90–351, §1, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968'."

Separability

Pub. L. 90–351, title XI, §1601, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 239, provided that: "If the provisions of any part of this Act [see Short Title of 1968 Act note above] or any amendments made thereby or the application thereof to any person or circumstances be held invalid, the provisions of the other parts and their application to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby." [Another section 1601 of Pub. L. 90–351 is classified to section 10361 of this title.]

References in Other Laws

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609I, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2102, provided that:

"(a) Any reference to the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, or to the Administrator of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, in any law other than this Act [see Short Title of 1984 Act note set out above] and the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out above], applicable to activities, functions, powers, and duties that after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1984] are carried out by the Bureau of Justice Assistance shall be deemed to be a reference to the Bureau of Justice Assistance, or to the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, as the case may be.

"(b) Any reference to the Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics, or to the Director of the Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics, in any law other than this Act and the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, applicable to activities, functions, powers, and duties that after the date of the enactment of this Act are carried out by the Office of Justice Programs, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, or the Office of Juvenile Justice [and] Delinquency Prevention shall be deemed to be a reference to the Office of Justice Programs, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Institute of Justice, or Office of Juvenile Justice [and] Delinquency Prevention, or to the Director of the Office of Justice Programs, the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Director of the National Institute of Justice, or the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, as the case may be."

§10102. Duties and functions of Assistant Attorney General

(a) Specific, general and delegated powers

The Assistant Attorney General shall—

(1) publish and disseminate information on the conditions and progress of the criminal justice systems;

(2) maintain liaison with the executive and judicial branches of the Federal and State governments in matters relating to criminal justice;

(3) provide information to the President, the Congress, the judiciary, State and local governments, and the general public relating to criminal justice;

(4) maintain liaison with public and private educational and research institutions, State and local governments, and governments of other nations relating to criminal justice;

(5) coordinate and provide staff support to coordinate the activities of the Office and the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Office for Victims of Crime, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; and

(6) exercise such other powers and functions as may be vested in the Assistant Attorney General pursuant to this chapter or by delegation of the Attorney General, including placing special conditions on all grants, and determining priority purposes for formula grants.

(b) Annual report to President and Congress

The Assistant Attorney General shall submit an annual report to the President and to the Congress not later than March 31 of each year.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §603(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2078; amended Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §236, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2162; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1152, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3113.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(6), was in the original "this title", meaning title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added by Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1167, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3712 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 102 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1170, described duties and functions of Administrator of Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, prior to the general amendment of part A of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 109–162, §1152(a), inserted "the Office for Victims of Crime," after "the Bureau of Justice Statistics,".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 109–162, §1152(b), inserted ", including placing special conditions on all grants, and determining priority purposes for formula grants" before period at end.

2002—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 107–296 inserted "coordinate and" before "provide".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 10101 of this title.

§10103. Office of Weed and Seed Strategies

(a) Establishment

There is established within the Office an Office of Weed and Seed Strategies, headed by a Director appointed by the Attorney General.

(b) Assistance

The Director may assist States, units of local government, and neighborhood and community-based organizations in developing Weed and Seed strategies, as provided in section 10104 of this title.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2006, and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2007, 2008, and 2009, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1121(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3104.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3712a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1121(c), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3107, as amended by Pub. L. 109–271, §8(n)(1), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 767, provided that: "This section [enacting this section and sections 10104 and 10105 of this title and provisions set out as a note below] and the amendments made by this section take effect with respect to appropriations for fiscal year 2007 and for each fiscal year thereafter."

Abolishment of Executive Office of Weed and Seed; Transfers of Functions

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1121(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3107, provided that:

"(1) Abolishment.—The Executive Office of Weed and Seed is abolished.

"(2) Transfer.—There are hereby transferred to the Office of Weed and Seed Strategies all functions and activities performed immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 5, 2006] by the Executive Office of Weed and Seed Strategies."

§10104. Weed and Seed strategies

(a) In general

From amounts made available under section 10103(c) of this title, the Director of the Office of Weed and Seed Strategies may implement strategies, to be known as Weed and Seed strategies, to prevent, control, and reduce violent crime, criminal drug-related activity, and gang activity in designated Weed-and-Seed communities. Each such strategy shall involve both of the following activities:

(1) Weeding

Activities, to be known as Weeding activities, which shall include promoting and coordinating a broad spectrum of community efforts (especially those of law enforcement agencies and prosecutors) to arrest, and to sanction or incarcerate, persons in that community who participate or engage in violent crime, criminal drug-related activity, and other crimes that threaten the quality of life in that community.

(2) Seeding

Activities, to be known as Seeding activities, which shall include promoting and coordinating a broad spectrum of community efforts (such as drug abuse education, mentoring, and employment counseling) to provide—

(A) human services, relating to prevention, intervention, or treatment, for at-risk individuals and families; and

(B) community revitalization efforts, including enforcement of building codes and development of the economy.

(b) Guidelines

The Director shall issue guidelines for the development and implementation of Weed and Seed strategies under this section. The guidelines shall ensure that the Weed and Seed strategy for a community referred to in subsection (a) shall—

(1) be planned and implemented through and under the auspices of a steering committee, properly established in the community, comprised of—

(A) in a voting capacity, representatives of—

(i) appropriate law enforcement agencies; and

(ii) other public and private agencies, and neighborhood and community-based organizations, interested in criminal justice and community-based development and revitalization in the community; and


(B) in a voting capacity, both—

(i) the Drug Enforcement Administration's special agent in charge for the jurisdiction encompassing the community; and

(ii) the United States Attorney for the District encompassing the community;


(2) describe how law enforcement agencies, other public and private agencies, neighborhood and community-based organizations, and interested citizens are to cooperate in implementing the strategy; and

(3) incorporate a community-policing component that shall serve as a bridge between the Weeding activities under subsection (a)(1) and the Seeding activities under subsection (a)(2).

(c) Designation

For a community to be designated as a Weed-and-Seed community for purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) the United States Attorney for the District encompassing the community must certify to the Director that—

(A) the community suffers from consistently high levels of crime or otherwise is appropriate for such designation;

(B) the Weed and Seed strategy proposed, adopted, or implemented by the steering committee has a high probability of improving the criminal justice system within the community and contains all the elements required by the Director; and

(C) the steering committee is capable of implementing the strategy appropriately; and


(2) the community must agree to formulate a timely and effective plan to independently sustain the strategy (or, at a minimum, a majority of the best practices of the strategy) when assistance under this section is no longer available.

(d) Application

An application for designation as a Weed-and-Seed community for purposes of subsection (a) shall be submitted to the Director by the steering committee of the community in such form, and containing such information and assurances, as the Director may require. The application shall propose—

(1) a sustainable Weed and Seed strategy that includes—

(A) the active involvement of the United States Attorney for the District encompassing the community, the Drug Enforcement Administration's special agent in charge for the jurisdiction encompassing the community, and other Federal law enforcement agencies operating in the vicinity;

(B) a significant community-oriented policing component; and

(C) demonstrated coordination with complementary neighborhood and community-based programs and initiatives; and


(2) a methodology with outcome measures and specific objective indicia of performance to be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy.

(e) Grants

(1) In general

In implementing a strategy for a community under subsection (a), the Director may make grants to that community.

(2) Uses

For each grant under this subsection, the community receiving that grant may not use any of the grant amounts for construction, except that the Assistant Attorney General may authorize use of grant amounts for incidental or minor construction, renovation, or remodeling.

(3) Limitations

A community may not receive grants under this subsection (or fall within such a community)—

(A) for a period of more than 10 fiscal years;

(B) for more than 5 separate fiscal years, except that the Assistant Attorney General may, in single increments and only upon a showing of extraordinary circumstances, authorize grants for not more than 3 additional separate fiscal years; or

(C) in an aggregate amount of more than $1,000,000, except that the Assistant Attorney General may, upon a showing of extraordinary circumstances, authorize grants for not more than an additional $500,000.

(4) Distribution

In making grants under this subsection, the Director shall ensure that—

(A) to the extent practicable, the distribution of such grants is geographically equitable and includes both urban and rural areas of varying population and area; and

(B) priority is given to communities that clearly and effectively coordinate crime prevention programs with other Federal programs in a manner that addresses the overall needs of such communities.

(5) Federal share

(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the Federal share of a grant under this subsection may not exceed 75 percent of the total costs of the projects described in the application for which the grant was made.

(B) The requirement of subparagraph (A)—

(i) may be satisfied in cash or in kind; and

(ii) may be waived by the Assistant Attorney General upon a determination that the financial circumstances affecting the applicant warrant a finding that such a waiver is equitable.

(6) Supplement, not supplant

To receive a grant under this subsection, the applicant must provide assurances that the amounts received under the grant shall be used to supplement, not supplant, non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for programs or services provided in the community.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1121(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3104.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3712b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Effective Date

Section effective with respect to appropriations for fiscal year 2007 and for each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1121(c) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10103 of this title.

§10105. Inclusion of Indian tribes

For purposes of sections 10103 and 10104 of this title, the term "State" includes an Indian tribal government.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §105, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1121(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3107.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3712c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Another section 105 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 109 and is classified to section 10109 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective with respect to appropriations for fiscal year 2007 and for each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1121(c) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10103 of this title.

§10106. Community Capacity Development Office

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

There is established within the Office a Community Capacity Development Office, headed by a Director appointed by the Attorney General. In carrying out the functions of the Office, the Director shall be subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Attorney General. Such authority, direction, and control may be delegated only to the Assistant Attorney General, without redelegation.

(2) Purpose

The purpose of the Office shall be to provide training to actual and prospective participants under programs covered by section 10103(b) 1 of this title to assist such participants in understanding the substantive and procedural requirements for participating in such programs.

(3) Exclusivity

The Office shall be the exclusive element of the Department of Justice performing functions and activities for the purpose specified in paragraph (2). There are hereby transferred to the Office all functions and activities for such purpose performed immediately before January 5, 2006, by any other element of the Department. This does not preclude a grant-making office from providing specialized training and technical assistance in its area of expertise.

(b) Means

The Director shall, in coordination with the heads of the other elements of the Department, carry out the purpose of the Office through the following means:

(1) Promoting coordination of public and private efforts and resources within or available to States, units of local government, and neighborhood and community-based organizations.

(2) Providing information, training, and technical assistance.

(3) Providing support for inter- and intra-agency task forces and other agreements and for assessment of the effectiveness of programs, projects, approaches, or practices.

(4) Providing in the assessment of the effectiveness of neighborhood and community-based law enforcement and crime prevention strategies and techniques, in coordination with the National Institute of Justice.

(5) Any other similar means.

(c) Locations

Training referred to in subsection (a) shall be provided on a regional basis to groups of such participants. In a case in which remedial training is appropriate, as recommended by the Director or the head of any element of the Department, such training may be provided on a local basis to a single such participant.

(d) Best practices

The Director shall—

(1) identify grants under which clearly beneficial outcomes were obtained, and the characteristics of those grants that were responsible for obtaining those outcomes; and

(2) incorporate those characteristics into the training provided under this section.

(e) Availability of funds

not 2 to exceed 3 percent of all funding made available for a fiscal year for the programs covered by section 10103(b) 1 of this title shall be reserved for the Community Capacity Development Office for the activities authorized by this section.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1159(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3116; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §8(f), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 766.)

References in Text

Section 10103(b) of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (e), probably should be a reference to section 10109(b) of this title because section 10103(b) relates to Director assistance and section 10109(b) specifically sets out covered programs.

January 5, 2006, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), was in the original "the date of the enactment of this Act" and was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–162, which enacted this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3712e of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2006—Subsecs. (a)(2), (e). Pub. L. 109–217 substituted "section 3712a(b)" for "section 3712d(b)".

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1159(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3117, provided that: "This section [enacting this section] and the amendment made by this section take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 5, 2006]."

1 See References in Text Note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§10107. Division of Applied Law Enforcement Technology

(a) Establishment

There is established within the Office of Science and Technology, the Division of Applied Law Enforcement Technology, headed by an individual appointed by the Attorney General. The purpose of the Division shall be to provide leadership and focus to those grants of the Department of Justice that are made for the purpose of using or improving law enforcement computer systems.

(b) Duties

In carrying out the purpose of the Division, the head of the Division shall—

(1) establish clear minimum standards for computer systems that can be purchased using amounts awarded under such grants; and

(2) ensure that recipients of such grants use such systems to participate in crime reporting programs administered by the Department, such as Uniform Crime Reports or the National Incident-Based Reporting System.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §107, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1160(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3117.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3712f of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1160(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3117, as amended by Pub. L. 109–271, §8(n)(4)(A), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 768, provided that: "This section [enacting this section] and the amendment made by this section take effect on October 1, 2006."

§10108. Availability of funds

(a) Period for awarding grant funds

(1) In general

Unless otherwise specifically provided in an authorization, DOJ grant funds for a fiscal year shall remain available to be awarded and distributed to a grantee only in that fiscal year and the three succeeding fiscal years, subject to paragraphs (2) and (3). DOJ grant funds not so awarded and distributed shall revert to the Treasury.

(2) Treatment of reprogrammed funds

DOJ grant funds for a fiscal year that are reprogrammed in a later fiscal year shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (1) as DOJ grant funds for such later fiscal year.

(3) Treatment of deobligated funds

If DOJ grant funds were obligated and then deobligated, the period of availability that applies to those grant funds under paragraph (1) shall be extended by a number of days equal to the number of days from the date on which those grant funds were obligated to the date on which those grant funds were deobligated.

(b) Period for expending grant funds

DOJ grant funds for a fiscal year that have been awarded and distributed to a grantee may be expended by that grantee only in the period permitted under the terms of the grant. DOJ grant funds not so expended shall be deobligated.

(c) Definition

In this section, the term "DOJ grant funds" means, for a fiscal year, amounts appropriated for activities of the Department of Justice in carrying out grant programs for that fiscal year.

(d) Applicability

This section applies to DOJ grant funds for fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 2006.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §108, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1161(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3118; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §8(g), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 767.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3712g of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–271 substituted "be deobligated" for "revert to the Treasury".

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1161(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3118, as amended by Pub. L. 109–271, §8(n)(4)(B), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 768, provided that: "This section [enacting this section] and the amendment made by this section take effect on October 1, 2006."

§10109. Office of Audit, Assessment, and Management

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

There is established within the Office an Office of Audit, Assessment, and Management, headed by a Director appointed by the Attorney General. In carrying out the functions of the Office, the Director shall be subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Attorney General. Such authority, direction, and control may be delegated only to the Assistant Attorney General, without redelegation.

(2) Purpose

The purpose of the Office shall be to carry out and coordinate program assessments of, take actions to ensure compliance with the terms of, and manage information with respect to, grants under programs covered by subsection (b). The Director shall take special conditions of the grant into account and consult with the office that issued those conditions to ensure appropriate compliance.

(3) Exclusivity

The Office shall be the exclusive element of the Department of Justice, other than the Inspector General, performing functions and activities for the purpose specified in paragraph (2). There are hereby transferred to the Office all functions and activities, other than functions and activities of the Inspector General, for such purpose performed immediately before January 5, 2006, by any other element of the Department.

(b) Covered programs

The programs referred to in subsection (a) are the following:

(1) The program under subchapter XVI of this chapter.

(2) Any grant program carried out by the Office of Justice Programs.

(3) Any other grant program carried out by the Department of Justice that the Attorney General considers appropriate.

(c) Program assessments required

(1) In general

The Director shall select grants awarded under the programs covered by subsection (b) and carry out program assessments on such grants. In selecting such grants, the Director shall ensure that the aggregate amount awarded under the grants so selected represent not less than 10 percent of the aggregate amount of money awarded under all such grant programs.

(2) Relationship to NIJ evaluations

This subsection does not affect the authority or duty of the Director of the National Institute of Justice to carry out overall evaluations of programs covered by subsection (b), except that such Director shall consult with the Director of the Office in carrying out such evaluations.

(3) Timing of program assessments

The program assessment required by paragraph (1) of a grant selected under paragraph (1) shall be carried out—

(A) not later than the end of the grant period, if the grant period is not more than 1 year; and

(B) at the end of each year of the grant period, if the grant period is more than 1 year.

(d) Compliance actions required

The Director shall take such actions to ensure compliance with the terms of a grant as the Director considers appropriate with respect to each grant that the Director determines (in consultation with the head of the element of the Department of Justice concerned), through a program assessment under subsection (a) or other means, is not in compliance with such terms. In the case of a misuse of more than 1 percent of the grant amount concerned, the Director shall, in addition to any other action to ensure compliance that the Director considers appropriate, ensure that the entity responsible for such misuse ceases to receive any funds under any program covered by subsection (b) until such entity repays to the Attorney General an amount equal to the amounts misused. The Director may, in unusual circumstances, grant relief from this requirement to ensure that an innocent party is not punished.

(e) Grant management system

The Director shall establish and maintain, in consultation with the chief information officer of the Office, a modern, automated system for managing all information relating to the grants made under the programs covered by subsection (b).

(f) Availability of funds

Not to exceed 3 percent of all funding made available for a fiscal year for the programs covered by subsection (b) shall be reserved for the Office of Audit, Assessment and Management for the activities authorized by this section.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §109, formerly §105, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1158(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3114; renumbered §109, Pub. L. 109–271, §8(e), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 766.)

References in Text

January 5, 2006, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), was in the original "the date of the enactment of this Act" and was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–162, which enacted this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3712h of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was also formerly classified to section 3712d of Title 42 prior to renumbering by Pub. L. 109–271 and transfer to section 3712h of Title 42.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1158(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3116, as amended by Pub. L. 109–271, §8(n)(3), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 768, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), section 109 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3712d [3712h]) [now 34 U.S.C. 10109] shall take effect on April 5, 2006.

"(2) Certain provisions.—Subsections (c), (d), and (e) of section 109 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3712d [3712h]) [now 34 U.S.C. 10109] shall take effect on October 1, 2006."

§10110. Office of Justice Programs grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, during any fiscal year the Attorney General—

(1) may make grants, or enter into cooperative agreements and contracts, for the Office of Justice Programs and the component organizations of that Office (including, notwithstanding any contrary provision of law (unless the same should expressly refer to this section), any organization that administers any program established in title 1 of Public Law 90–351); 1 and

(2) shall have final authority over all functions, including any grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts made, or entered into, for the Office of Justice Programs and the component organizations of that Office (including, notwithstanding any contrary provision of law (unless the same should expressly refer to this section), any organization that administers any program established in title 1 of Public Law 90–351).1

(Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title I, §112], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681-67; Pub. L. 107–56, title VI, §614, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 370; Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title II, §205(d), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1778.)

References in Text

Public Law 90–351, referred to in pars. (1) and (2), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197, known as the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. Title 1 of Public Law 90–351 probably means title I of the Act which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Justice Appropriations Act, 1999, and also as part of the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999, and not as part of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 3715 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was also formerly classified as a note under section 3712 of Title 42 prior to transfer to section 3715 of Title 42.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "any fiscal year the Attorney General—" for "fiscal year 1999, the Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs of the Department of Justice—" in introductory provisions.

2001—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–56, §614(1), inserted "(including, notwithstanding any contrary provision of law (unless the same should expressly refer to this section), any organization that administers any program established in title 1 of Public Law 90–351)" after "that Office".

Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–56, §614, inserted "functions, including any" after "all" and "(including, notwithstanding any contrary provision of law (unless the same should expressly refer to this section), any organization that administers any program established in title 1 of Public Law 90–351)" after "that Office".

Office of Justice Programs Grants, Cooperative Agreements, and Contracts

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(a)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-20, as amended by Pub. L. 107–56, title VI, §614, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 370, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for fiscal year 2000, the Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs of the Department of Justice—

"(1) may make grants, or enter into cooperative agreements and contracts, for the Office of Justice Programs and the component organizations of that Office (including, notwithstanding any contrary provision of law (unless the same should expressly refer to this section), any organization that administers any program established in title 1 of Public Law 90–351 [see References in Text note above]); and

"(2) shall have final authority over all functions, including any grants, cooperative agreements and contracts made, or entered into, for the Office of Justice Programs and the component organizations of that Office (including, notwithstanding any contrary provision of law (unless the same should expressly refer to this section), any organization that administers any program established in title 1 of Public Law 90–351 [see References in Text note above]), except for grants made under the provisions of sections 201, 202, 301, and 302 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10121, 10122, 10131, 10132], as amended; and sections 204(b)(3), 241(e)(1), 243(a)(1), 243(a)(14) and 287A(3) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 [34 U.S.C. 11114(b)(3) and former 42 U.S.C. 5651(e)(1), 5653(a)(1), (14), 5667d–1(3)], as amended."

[Pub. L. 106–553, §1(a)(2) [title I, §108], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2762, 2762A-67, provided that: "Section 108(a) of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000 (as enacted into law by section 1000(a)(1) of Public Law 106–113) [set out above] shall apply for fiscal year 2001 and thereafter."]

1 See References in Text note below.

§10111. Consolidation of financial management systems of Office of Justice Programs

(a) Consolidation of accounting activities and procurement activities

The Assistant Attorney General of the Office of Justice Programs, in coordination with the Chief Information Officer and Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Justice, shall ensure that—

(1) all accounting activities for all elements of the Office of Justice Programs are carried out under the direct management of the Office of the Comptroller; and

(2) all procurement activities for all elements of the Office are carried out under the direct management of the Office of Administration.

(b) Further consolidation of procurement activities

The Assistant Attorney General, in coordination with the Chief Information Officer and Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Justice, shall ensure that, on and after September 30, 2008—

(1) all procurement activities for all elements of the Office are carried out through a single management office; and

(2) all contracts and purchase orders used in carrying out those activities are processed through a single procurement system.

(c) Consolidation of financial management systems

The Assistant Attorney General, in coordination with the Chief Information Officer and Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Justice, shall ensure that, on and after September 30, 2010, all financial management activities (including human resources, payroll, and accounting activities, as well as procurement activities) of all elements of the Office are carried out through a single financial management system.

(d) Achieving compliance

(1) Schedule

The Assistant Attorney General shall undertake a scheduled consolidation of operations to achieve compliance with the requirements of this section.

(2) Specific requirements

With respect to achieving compliance with the requirements of—

(A) subsection (a), the consolidation of operations shall be initiated not later than 90 days after January 5, 2006; and

(B) subsections (b) and (c), the consolidation of operations shall be initiated not later than September 30, 2006, and shall be carried out by the Office of Administration, in consultation with the Chief Information Officer and the Office of Audit, Assessment, and Management.

(Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1162, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3118.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 3715a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

SUBCHAPTER II—NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE

§10121. Statement of purpose

It is the purpose of this subchapter to establish a National Institute of Justice, which shall provide for and encourage research and demonstration efforts for the purpose of—

(1) improving Federal, State, and local criminal justice systems and related aspects of the civil justice system;

(2) preventing and reducing crimes;

(3) insuring citizen access to appropriate dispute-resolution forums; and

(4) identifying programs of proven effectiveness, programs having a record of proven success, or programs which offer a high probability of improving the functioning of the criminal justice system.


The Institute shall have authority to engage in and encourage research and development to improve and strengthen the criminal justice system and related aspects of the civil justice system and to disseminate the results of such efforts to Federal, State, and local governments, to evaluate the effectiveness of programs funded under this chapter, to develop and demonstrate new or improved approaches and techniques, to improve and strengthen the administration of justice, and to identify programs or projects carried out under this chapter which have demonstrated success in improving the quality of justice systems and which offer the likelihood of success if continued or repeated. In carrying out the provisions of this subchapter, the Institute shall give primary emphasis to the problems of State and local justice systems and shall insure that there is a balance between basic and applied research.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §201, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1172; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §604(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2078.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added by Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1167, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3721 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 201 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 198; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §104, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2408, set out Congressional statement of purpose in providing for a program of planning grants, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473 redesignated par. (5) as (4), struck out former par. (4) relating to improvement of efforts to detect, investigate, prosecute, and otherwise combat and prevent white-collar crime and public corruption, and in closing provisions struck out "to develop alternatives to judicial resolution of disputes," after "local governments,", and inserted "and demonstrate" after "to develop".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

National Training Program for State and Local Prosecutors

Pub. L. 110–424, Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4819, provided that:

"SECTION 1. TRAINING FOR STATE AND LOCAL PROSECUTORS.

"The Attorney General is authorized to award a grant to a national nonprofit organization (such as the National District Attorneys Association) to conduct a national training program for State and local prosecutors for the purpose of improving the professional skills of State and local prosecutors and enhancing the ability of Federal, State, and local prosecutors to work together.

"SEC. 2. COMPREHENSIVE CONTINUING LEGAL EDUCATION.

"The Attorney General may provide assistance to the grantee under section 1 to carry out the training program described in such section, including comprehensive continuing legal education in the areas of trial practice, substantive legal updates, support staff training, and any other assistance the Attorney General determines to be appropriate.

"SEC. 3. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There are authorized to be appropriated to the Attorney General to carry out this Act $4,750,000 for each of the fiscal years 2009 through 2012, to remain available until expended."

§10122. National Institute of Justice

(a) Establishment; general authority of Attorney General over Institute

There is established within the Department of Justice, under the general authority of the Attorney General, a National Institute of Justice (hereinafter referred to in this subchapter as the "Institute").

(b) Director of Institute; appointment by President; authority; restrictions

The Institute shall be headed by a Director appointed by the President. The Director shall have had experience in justice research. The Director shall report to the Attorney General through the Assistant Attorney General. The Director shall have final authority over all grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts awarded by the Institute. The Director shall not engage in any other employment than that of serving as Director; nor shall the Director hold any office in, or act in any capacity for, any organization, agency, or institution with which the Institute makes any contract or other arrangement under this chapter.

(c) Duties and functions

The Institute is authorized to—

(1) make grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements or contracts with, public agencies, institutions of higher education, private organizations, or individuals to conduct research, demonstrations, or special projects pertaining to the purposes described in this subchapter, and provide technical assistance and training in support of tests, demonstrations, and special projects;

(2) conduct or authorize multiyear and short-term research and development concerning the criminal and civil justice systems in an effort—

(A) to identify alternative programs for achieving system goals;

(B) to provide more accurate information on the causes and correlates of crime;

(C) to analyze the correlates of crime and juvenile delinquency and provide more accurate information on the causes and correlates of crime and juvenile delinquency;

(D) to improve the functioning of the criminal justice system;

(E) to develop new methods for the prevention and reduction of crime, including the development of programs to facilitate cooperation among the States and units of local government, the detection and apprehension of criminals, the expeditious, efficient, and fair disposition of criminal and juvenile delinquency cases, the improvement of police and minority relations, the conduct of research into the problems of victims and witnesses of crime, the feasibility and consequences of allowing victims to participate in criminal justice decisionmaking, the feasibility and desirability of adopting procedures and programs which increase the victim's participation in the criminal justice process, the reduction in the need to seek court resolution of civil disputes, and the development of adequate corrections facilities and effective programs of correction; and

(F) to develop programs and projects to improve and expand the capacity of States and units of local government and combinations of such units, to detect, investigate, prosecute, and otherwise combat and prevent white-collar crime and public corruption, to improve and expand cooperation among the Federal Government, States, and units of local government in order to enhance the overall criminal justice system response to white-collar crime and public corruption, and to foster the creation and implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to prevent and combat white-collar crime and public corruption.


In carrying out the provisions of this subsection, the Institute may request the assistance of both public and private research agencies;

(3) evaluate the effectiveness, including cost effectiveness where practical, of projects or programs carried out under this chapter;

(4) make recommendations for action which can be taken by Federal, State, and local governments and by private persons and organizations to improve and strengthen criminal and civil justice systems;

(5) provide research fellowships and clinical internships and carry out programs of training and special workshops for the presentation and dissemination of information resulting from research, demonstrations, and special projects including those authorized by this subchapter;

(6) collect and disseminate information obtained by the Institute or other Federal agencies, public agencies, institutions of higher education, and private organizations relating to the purposes of this subchapter;

(7) serve as a national and international clearinghouse for the exchange of information with respect to the purposes of this subchapter;

(8) after consultation with appropriate agencies and officials of States and units of local government, make recommendations for the designation of programs or projects which will be effective in improving the functioning of the criminal justice system, for funding as discretionary grants under subchapter V;

(9) encourage, assist, and serve in a consulting capacity to Federal, State, and local justice system agencies in the development, maintenance, and coordination of criminal and civil justice programs and services; and

(10) research and development of tools and technologies relating to prevention, detection, investigation, and prosecution of crime; and

(11) support research, development, testing, training, and evaluation of tools and technology for Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.

(d) Criminal and civil justice research

To insure that all criminal and civil justice research is carried out in a coordinated manner, the Director is authorized to—

(1) utilize, with their consent, the services, equipment, personnel, information, and facilities of other Federal, State, local, and private agencies and instrumentalities with or without reimbursement therefor;

(2) confer with and avail itself of the cooperation, services, records, and facilities of State or of municipal or other local agencies;

(3) request such information, data, and reports from any Federal agency as may be required to carry out the purposes of this section, and the agencies shall provide such information to the Institute as required to carry out the purposes of this subchapter;

(4) seek the cooperation of the judicial branches of Federal and State Government in coordinating civil and criminal justice research and development; and

(5) exercise the powers and functions set out in subchapter VII.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §202, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1172; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §604(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2078; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(h)(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2139; Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §237, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2162; Pub. L. 112–166, §2(h)(3), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1285.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3722 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 202 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 198; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 198, provided for making of grants to State planning agencies, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–166 struck out ", by and with the advice and consent of the Senate" before period at end of first sentence.

2002—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 107–296, §237(1), inserted ", including cost effectiveness where practical," after "evaluate the effectiveness".

Subsec. (c)(10), (11). Pub. L. 107–296, §237(2), added pars. (10) and (11).

1994—Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted "crime," for "crime,,".

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473, §604(b)(1), required Director to report to Attorney General through Assistant Attorney General.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–473, §604(b)(2)(A)(i), struck out ", including programs authorized by section 3713 of this title" after "system goals".

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 98–473, §604(b)(2)(A)(ii), struck out "the prevention and reduction of parental kidnaping" after "reduction of crime,".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98–473, §604(b)(2)(B), substituted "chapter" for "subchapter".

Subsec. (c)(4) to (7). Pub. L. 98–473, §604(b)(2)(C), (F), redesignated pars. (5) to (8) as (4) to (7), respectively, and struck out former par. (4) relating to evaluation of programs and projects under other subchapters of this chapter to determine their impact upon criminal and civil justice systems and achievement of purposes and policies of this chapter and for dissemination of information.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 98–473, §604(b)(2)(D)(i), (ii), (F), redesignated par. (10) as (8) and, in par. (8) as so designated, struck out "nationality priority grants under subchapter V of this chapter and" after "for funding as" and substituted "subchapter V" for "subchapter VI". Former par. (8) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 98–473, §604(b)(2)(E), (F), redesignated par. (11) as (9), and struck out former par. (9) relating to a biennial report to President and Congress on state of justice research.

Subsec. (c)(10), (11). Pub. L. 98–473, §604(b)(2)(F), redesignated pars. (10) and (11) as (8) and (9), respectively.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–166 effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 2012, and applicable to appointments made on and after that effective date, including any nomination pending in the Senate on that date, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 112–166, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

§10123. Authority for 100 per centum grants

A grant authorized under this subchapter may be up to 100 per centum of the total cost of each project for which such grant is made. The Institute shall require, whenever feasible, as a condition of approval of a grant under this subchapter, that the recipient contribute money, facilities, or services to carry out the purposes for which the grant is sought.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §203, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1174.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3723 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 203 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 199; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §3(a)–(c), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1881; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 198; Pub. L. 93–415, title V, §542, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1142; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §105, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2408; Pub. L. 95–115, §9(b), Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1061, provided for establishment of State planning agencies, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

SUBCHAPTER III—BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

§10131. Statement of purpose

It is the purpose of this subchapter to provide for and encourage the collection and analysis of statistical information concerning crime, juvenile delinquency, and the operation of the criminal justice system and related aspects of the civil justice system and to support the development of information and statistical systems at the Federal, State, and local levels to improve the efforts of these levels of government to measure and understand the levels of crime, juvenile delinquency, and the operation of the criminal justice system and related aspects of the civil justice system. The Bureau shall utilize to the maximum extent feasible State governmental organizations and facilities responsible for the collection and analysis of criminal justice data and statistics. In carrying out the provisions of this subchapter, the Bureau shall give primary emphasis to the problems of State and local justice systems.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §301, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1176; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §605(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2079.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3731 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 301 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 199; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §4(1)–(4), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1882; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 199; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §§109, 128(b), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2411, 2424, related to purposes and categories of grants for law enforcement and criminal justice purposes, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473 struck out "(including white-collar crime and public corruption)" after "information concerning crime" and "(including crimes against the elderly, white-collar crime, and public corruption)" after "levels of crime".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

§10132. Bureau of Justice Statistics

(a) Establishment

There is established within the Department of Justice, under the general authority of the Attorney General, a Bureau of Justice Statistics (hereinafter referred to in this subchapter as "Bureau").

(b) Appointment of Director; experience; authority; restrictions

The Bureau shall be headed by a Director appointed by the President. The Director shall have had experience in statistical programs. The Director shall have final authority for all grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts awarded by the Bureau. The Director shall be responsible for the integrity of data and statistics and shall protect against improper or illegal use or disclosure. The Director shall report to the Attorney General through the Assistant Attorney General. The Director shall not engage in any other employment than that of serving as Director; nor shall the Director hold any office in, or act in any capacity for, any organization, agency, or institution with which the Bureau makes any contract or other arrangement under this Act.

(c) Duties and functions of Bureau

The Bureau is authorized to—

(1) make grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements or contracts with public agencies, institutions of higher education, private organizations, or private individuals for purposes related to this subchapter; grants shall be made subject to continuing compliance with standards for gathering justice statistics set forth in rules and regulations promulgated by the Director;

(2) collect and analyze information concerning criminal victimization, including crimes against the elderly, and civil disputes;

(3) collect and analyze data that will serve as a continuous and comparable national social indication of the prevalence, incidence, rates, extent, distribution, and attributes of crime, juvenile delinquency, civil disputes, and other statistical factors related to crime, civil disputes, and juvenile delinquency, in support of national, State, tribal, and local justice policy and decisionmaking;

(4) collect and analyze statistical information, concerning the operations of the criminal justice system at the Federal, State, tribal, and local levels;

(5) collect and analyze statistical information concerning the prevalence, incidence, rates, extent, distribution, and attributes of crime, and juvenile delinquency, at the Federal, State, tribal, and local levels;

(6) analyze the correlates of crime, civil disputes and juvenile delinquency, by the use of statistical information, about criminal and civil justice systems at the Federal, State, tribal, and local levels, and about the extent, distribution and attributes of crime, and juvenile delinquency, in the Nation and at the Federal, State, tribal, and local levels;

(7) compile, collate, analyze, publish, and disseminate uniform national statistics concerning all aspects of criminal justice and related aspects of civil justice, crime, including crimes against the elderly, juvenile delinquency, criminal offenders, juvenile delinquents, and civil disputes in the various States and in Indian country;

(8) recommend national standards for justice statistics and for insuring the reliability and validity of justice statistics supplied pursuant to this chapter;

(9) maintain liaison with the judicial branches of the Federal Government and State and tribal governments in matters relating to justice statistics, and cooperate with the judicial branch in assuring as much uniformity as feasible in statistical systems of the executive and judicial branches;

(10) provide information to the President, the Congress, the judiciary, State, tribal, and local governments, and the general public on justice statistics;

(11) establish or assist in the establishment of a system to provide State, tribal, and local governments with access to Federal informational resources useful in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs under this Act;

(12) conduct or support research relating to methods of gathering or analyzing justice statistics;

(13) provide for the development of justice information systems programs and assistance to the States, Indian tribes, and units of local government relating to collection, analysis, or dissemination of justice statistics;

(14) develop and maintain a data processing capability to support the collection, aggregation, analysis and dissemination of information on the incidence of crime and the operation of the criminal justice system;

(15) collect, analyze and disseminate comprehensive Federal justice transaction statistics (including statistics on issues of Federal justice interest such as public fraud and high technology crime) and to provide technical assistance to and work jointly with other Federal agencies to improve the availability and quality of Federal justice data;

(16) provide for the collection, compilation, analysis, publication and dissemination of information and statistics about the prevalence, incidence, rates, extent, distribution and attributes of drug offenses, drug related offenses and drug dependent offenders and further provide for the establishment of a national clearinghouse to maintain and update a comprehensive and timely data base on all criminal justice aspects of the drug crisis and to disseminate such information;

(17) provide for the collection, analysis, dissemination and publication of statistics on the condition and progress of drug control activities at the Federal, State, tribal, and local levels with particular attention to programs and intervention efforts demonstrated to be of value in the overall national anti-drug strategy and to provide for the establishment of a national clearinghouse for the gathering of data generated by Federal, State, tribal, and local criminal justice agencies on their drug enforcement activities;

(18) provide for the development and enhancement of State, tribal, and local criminal justice information systems, and the standardization of data reporting relating to the collection, analysis or dissemination of data and statistics about drug offenses, drug related offenses, or drug dependent offenders;

(19) provide for improvements in the accuracy, quality, timeliness, immediate accessibility, and integration of State and tribal criminal history and related records, support the development and enhancement of national systems of criminal history and related records including the National Instant Criminal Background Check System, the National Incident-Based Reporting System, and the records of the National Crime Information Center, facilitate State and tribal participation in national records and information systems, and support statistical research for critical analysis of the improvement and utilization of criminal history records;

(20) maintain liaison with State, tribal, and local governments and governments of other nations concerning justice statistics;

(21) cooperate in and participate with national and international organizations in the development of uniform justice statistics;

(22) ensure conformance with security and privacy requirement of section 10231 of this title and identify, analyze, and participate in the development and implementation of privacy, security and information policies which impact on Federal, tribal, and State criminal justice operations and related statistical activities; and

(23) exercise the powers and functions set out in subchapter VII.

(d) Justice statistical collection, analysis, and dissemination

(1) In general

To ensure that all justice statistical collection, analysis, and dissemination is carried out in a coordinated manner, the Director is authorized to—

(A) utilize, with their consent, the services, equipment, records, personnel, information, and facilities of other Federal, State, local, and private agencies and instrumentalities with or without reimbursement therefor, and to enter into agreements with such agencies and instrumentalities for purposes of data collection and analysis;

(B) confer and cooperate with State, municipal, and other local agencies;

(C) request such information, data, and reports from any Federal agency as may be required to carry out the purposes of this chapter;

(D) seek the cooperation of the judicial branch of the Federal Government in gathering data from criminal justice records;

(E) encourage replication, coordination and sharing among justice agencies regarding information systems, information policy, and data; and

(F) confer and cooperate with Federal statistical agencies as needed to carry out the purposes of this subchapter, including by entering into cooperative data sharing agreements in conformity with all laws and regulations applicable to the disclosure and use of data.

(2) Consultation with Indian tribes

The Director, acting jointly with the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs (acting through the Office of Justice Services) and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, shall work with Indian tribes and tribal law enforcement agencies to establish and implement such tribal data collection systems as the Director determines to be necessary to achieve the purposes of this section.

(e) Furnishing of information, data, or reports by Federal agencies

Federal agencies requested to furnish information, data, or reports pursuant to subsection (d)(1)(C) shall provide such information to the Bureau as is required to carry out the purposes of this section.

(f) Consultation with representatives of State, tribal, and local government and judiciary

In recommending standards for gathering justice statistics under this section, the Director shall consult with representatives of State, tribal, and local government, including, where appropriate, representatives of the judiciary.

(g) Reports

Not later than 1 year after July 29, 2010, and annually thereafter, the Director shall submit to Congress a report describing the data collected and analyzed under this section relating to crimes in Indian country.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §302, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1176; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §605(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2079; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6092(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4339; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(h)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2139; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1115(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3103; Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §251(b), July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2297; Pub. L. 112–166, §2(h)(1), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1285.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c)(11), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197, known as the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3732 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 302 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 200; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §110, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2412, related to establishment of State planning agencies to develop comprehensive State plans for grants for law enforcement and criminal justice purposes, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–166 struck out ", by and with the advice and consent of the Senate" before period at end of first sentence.

2010—Subsec. (c)(3) to (6). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(A), inserted "tribal," after "State," wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(B), inserted "and in Indian country" after "States".

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(C), substituted "Federal Government and State and tribal governments" for "Federal and State Governments".

Subsec. (c)(10), (11). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(D), inserted ", tribal," after "State".

Subsec. (c)(13). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(E), inserted ", Indian tribes," after "States".

Subsec. (c)(17). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(F), substituted "activities at the Federal, State, tribal, and local" for "activities at the Federal, State and local" and "generated by Federal, State, tribal, and local" for "generated by Federal, State, and local".

Subsec. (c)(18). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(G), substituted "State, tribal, and local" for "State and local".

Subsec. (c)(19). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(H), inserted "and tribal" after "State" in two places.

Subsec. (c)(20). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(I), inserted ", tribal," after "State".

Subsec. (c)(22). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(1)(J), inserted ", tribal," after "Federal".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, substituted "To ensure" for "To insure", redesignated former pars. (1) to (6) as subpars. (A) to (F), respectively, of par. (1), realigned margins, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(3), substituted "subsection (d)(1)(C)" for "subsection (d)(3)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(4)(B), inserted ", tribal," after "State".

Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(4)(A), which directed insertion of ", tribal," after "State" in heading, was executed editorially but could not be executed in original because heading had been editorially supplied.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–211, §251(b)(5), added subsec. (g).

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–162, §1115(a)(1), inserted after third sentence "The Director shall be responsible for the integrity of data and statistics and shall protect against improper or illegal use or disclosure."

Subsec. (c)(19). Pub. L. 109–162, §1115(a)(2), amended par. (19) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (19) read as follows: "provide for research and improvements in the accuracy, completeness, and inclusiveness of criminal history record information, information systems, arrest warrant, and stolen vehicle record information and information systems and support research concerning the accuracy, completeness, and inclusiveness of other criminal justice record information;".

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 109–162, §1115(a)(3), added par. (6).

1994—Subsec. (c)(19). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted a semicolon for period at end.

1988—Subsec. (c)(16) to (23). Pub. L. 100–690 added pars. (16) to (19) and redesignated former pars. (16) to (19) as (20) to (23), respectively.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(1), inserted provision requiring Director to report to Attorney General through Assistant Attorney General.

Subsec. (c)(13). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(2)(A), (C), added par. (13) and struck out former par. (13) relating to provision of financial and technical assistance to States and units of local government relating to collection, analysis, or dissemination of justice statistics.

Subsec. (c)(14), (15). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(2)(C), added pars. (14) and (15). Former pars. (14) and (15) redesignated (16) and (17), respectively.

Subsec. (c)(16). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(2)(A), (B), redesignated par. (14) as (16) and struck out former par. (16) relating to insuring conformance with security and privacy regulations issued under section 10231 of this title.

Subsec. (c)(17). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(2)(B), redesignated par. (15) as (17). Former par. (17) redesignated (19).

Subsec. (c)(18). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(2)(D), added par. (18).

Subsec. (c)(19). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(2)(B), redesignated former par. (17) as (19).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(3)(A), inserted ", and to enter into agreements with such agencies and instrumentalities for purposes of data collection and analysis".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 98–473, §605(b)(3)(B)–(D), added par. (5).

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–166 effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 2012, and applicable to appointments made on and after that effective date, including any nomination pending in the Senate on that date, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 112–166, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

Construction of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §251(c), July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2298, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section and section 41507 of this title] or any amendment made by this section—

"(1) allows the grant to be made to, or used by, an entity for law enforcement activities that the entity lacks jurisdiction to perform; or

"(2) has any effect other than to authorize, award, or deny a grant of funds to a federally recognized Indian tribe for the purposes described in the relevant grant program."

[For definition of "Indian tribe" as used in section 251(c) of Pub. L. 111–211, set out above, see section 203(a) of Pub. L. 111–211, set out as a note under section 2801 of Title 25, Indians.]

Inclusion of Honor Violence in National Crime Victimization Survey

Pub. L. 113–235, div. B, title II, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2191, provided in part: "That beginning not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [div. B of Pub. L. 113–235, Dec. 16, 2014], as part of each National Crime Victimization Survey, the Attorney General shall include statistics relating to honor violence".

Study of Crimes Against Seniors

Pub. L. 106–534, §5, Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2557, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Attorney General shall conduct a study relating to crimes against seniors, in order to assist in developing new strategies to prevent and otherwise reduce the incidence of those crimes.

"(b) Issues Addressed.—The study conducted under this section shall include an analysis of—

"(1) the nature and type of crimes perpetrated against seniors, with special focus on—

"(A) the most common types of crimes that affect seniors;

"(B) the nature and extent of telemarketing, sweepstakes, and repair fraud against seniors; and

"(C) the nature and extent of financial and material fraud targeted at seniors;

"(2) the risk factors associated with seniors who have been victimized;

"(3) the manner in which the Federal and State criminal justice systems respond to crimes against seniors;

"(4) the feasibility of States establishing and maintaining a centralized computer database on the incidence of crimes against seniors that will promote the uniform identification and reporting of such crimes;

"(5) the effectiveness of damage awards in court actions and other means by which seniors receive reimbursement and other damages after fraud has been established; and

"(6) other effective ways to prevent or reduce the occurrence of crimes against seniors."

Inclusion of Seniors in National Crime Victimization Survey

Pub. L. 106–534, §6, Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2557, provided that: "Beginning not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 22, 2000], as part of each National Crime Victimization Survey, the Attorney General shall include statistics relating to—

"(1) crimes targeting or disproportionately affecting seniors;

"(2) crime risk factors for seniors, including the times and locations at which crimes victimizing seniors are most likely to occur; and

"(3) specific characteristics of the victims of crimes who are seniors, including age, gender, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status."

Crime Victims With Disabilities Awareness

Pub. L. 105–301, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2838, as amended by Pub. L. 106–402, title IV, §401(b)(10), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1739, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Crime Victims With Disabilities Awareness Act'.

"SEC. 2. FINDINGS; PURPOSES.

"(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—

"(1) although research conducted abroad demonstrates that individuals with developmental disabilities are at a 4 to 10 times higher risk of becoming crime victims than those without disabilities, there have been no significant studies on this subject conducted in the United States;

"(2) in fact, the National Crime Victim's Survey, conducted annually by the Bureau of Justice Statistics of the Department of Justice, does not specifically collect data relating to crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities;

"(3) studies in Canada, Australia, and Great Britain consistently show that victims with developmental disabilities suffer repeated victimization because so few of the crimes against them are reported, and even when they are, there is sometimes a reluctance by police, prosecutors, and judges to rely on the testimony of a disabled individual, making individuals with developmental disabilities a target for criminal predators;

"(4) research in the United States needs to be done to—

"(A) understand the nature and extent of crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities;

"(B) describe the manner in which the justice system responds to crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities; and

"(C) identify programs, policies, or laws that hold promises for making the justice system more responsive to crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities; and

"(5) the National Academy of Science Committee on Law and Justice of the National Research Council is a premier research institution with unique experience in developing seminal, multidisciplinary studies to establish a strong research base from which to make public policy.

"(b) Purposes.—The purposes of this Act are—

"(1) to increase public awareness of the plight of victims of crime who are individuals with developmental disabilities;

"(2) to collect data to measure the extent of the problem of crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities; and

"(3) to develop a basis to find new strategies to address the safety and justice needs of victims of crime who are individuals with developmental disabilities.

"SEC. 3. DEFINITION OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY.

"In this Act, the term 'developmental disability' has the meaning given the term in section 102 of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 [42 U.S.C. 15002].

"SEC. 4. STUDY.

"(a) In General.—The Attorney General shall conduct a study to increase knowledge and information about crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities that will be useful in developing new strategies to reduce the incidence of crimes against those individuals.

"(b) Issues Addressed.—The study conducted under this section shall address such issues as—

"(1) the nature and extent of crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities;

"(2) the risk factors associated with victimization of individuals with developmental disabilities;

"(3) the manner in which the justice system responds to crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities; and

"(4) the means by which States may establish and maintain a centralized computer database on the incidence of crimes against individuals with disabilities within a State.

"(c) National Academy of Sciences.—In carrying out this section, the Attorney General shall consider contracting with the Committee on Law and Justice of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to provide research for the study conducted under this section.

"(d) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1998], the Attorney General shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report describing the results of the study conducted under this section.

"SEC. 5. NATIONAL CRIME VICTIM'S SURVEY.

"Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, as part of each National Crime Victim's Survey, the Attorney General shall include statistics relating to—

"(1) the nature of crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities; and

"(2) the specific characteristics of the victims of those crimes."

§10133. Authority for 100 per centum grants

A grant authorized under this subchapter may be up to 100 per centum of the total cost of each project for which such grant is made. The Bureau shall require, whenever feasible as a condition of approval of a grant under this subchapter, that the recipient contribute money, facilities, or services to carry out the purposes for which the grant is sought.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §303, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1178.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3733 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 303 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §4(5), (6), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1883; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 93–415, title V, §543, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1142; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §111, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2413; Pub. L. 96–181, §15(b), Jan. 2, 1980, 93 Stat. 1316, set out requirements of State plans in order to qualify for grants for law enforcement and criminal justice purposes, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

§10134. Use of data

Data collected by the Bureau shall be used only for statistical or research purposes, and shall be gathered in a manner that precludes their use for law enforcement or any purpose relating to a private person or public agency other than statistical or research purposes.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §304, formerly §305, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1179; renumbered §304, Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §605(d), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2080; amended Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1115(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3104.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3735 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 304 of Pub. L. 90–351, as added by Pub. L. 96–157, was classified to section 3734 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §605(c), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2080.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "private person or public agency" for "particular individual".

SUBCHAPTER IV—ESTABLISHMENT OF BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE

Prior Provisions

This subchapter is comprised of part D (§401 et seq.) of title I of Pub. L. 90–351. A prior part D related to block grants by Bureau of Justice Assistance, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328. For similar provisions, see part A (§10151 et seq.) of subchapter V of this chapter.

§10141. Establishment of Bureau of Justice Assistance

(a) There is established within the Department of Justice, under the general authority of the Attorney General, a Bureau of Justice Assistance (hereafter in this subchapter referred to as the "Bureau").

(b) The Bureau shall be headed by a Director (hereafter in this subchapter referred to as the "Director") who shall be appointed by the President. The Director shall report to the Attorney General through the Assistant Attorney General. The Director shall have final authority for all grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts awarded by the Bureau. The Director shall not engage in any employment other than that of serving as the Director, nor shall the Director hold any office in, or act in any capacity for, any organization, agency, or institution with which the Bureau makes any contract or other arrangement under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §401, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328; amended Pub. L. 112–166, §2(h)(2), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1285.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3741 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 401 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §606, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2080; amended Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1552(b)(1), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–46, related to establishment of Bureau of Justice Assistance, appointment of Director, and authority and restrictions with regard to Director, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior section 401 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1179, described formula grant program, prior to the general amendment of part D of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 98–473.

Another prior section 401 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 203; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 205, set out the Congressional statement of purposes in making provision for training, education, research, demonstration, and special grants, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–166 struck out ", by and with the advice and consent of the Senate" before period at end of first sentence.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–166 effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 2012, and applicable to appointments made on and after that effective date, including any nomination pending in the Senate on that date, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 112–166, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Transfer of Functions

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-20, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, effective August 1, 2000, all functions of the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 3742(3) through (6) [now 34 U.S.C. 10142(3)–(6)], are transferred to the Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs."

§10142. Duties and functions of Director

The Director shall have the following duties:

(1) Providing funds to eligible States, units of local government, and nonprofit organizations pursuant to subchapters V and XIII.

(2) Establishing programs in accordance with part B of subchapter V and, following public announcement of such programs, awarding and allocating funds and technical assistance in accordance with the criteria of part B of subchapter V, and on terms and conditions determined by the Director to be consistent with part B of subchapter V.

(3) Cooperating with and providing technical assistance to States, units of local government, and other public and private organizations or international agencies involved in criminal justice activities.

(4) Providing for the development of technical assistance and training programs for State and local criminal justice agencies and fostering local participation in such activities.

(5) Encouraging the targeting of State and local resources on efforts to reduce the incidence of drug abuse and crime and on programs relating to the apprehension and prosecution of drug offenders.

(6) Establishing and carrying on a specific and continuing program of cooperation with the States and units of local government designed to encourage and promote consultation and coordination concerning decisions made by the Bureau affecting State and local drug control and criminal justice priorities.

(7) Preparing recommendations on the State and local drug enforcement component of the National Drug Control Strategy which shall be submitted to the Associate Director of the Office on National Drug Control Policy. In making such recommendations, the Director shall review the statewide strategies submitted by such States under subchapter V, and shall obtain input from State and local drug enforcement officials. The recommendations made under this paragraph shall be provided at such time and in such form as the Director of National Drug Control Policy shall require.

(8) Exercising such other powers and functions as may be vested in the Director pursuant to this chapter or by delegation of the Attorney General or Assistant Attorney General.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §402, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §241(b)(1), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4813.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3742 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 402 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §606, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2080, related to duties and functions of Director, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior section 402 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1181, related to eligibility provisions for formula grants, prior to the general amendment of part D of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 98–473.

Another prior section 402 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 203; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §117, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2416, provided for creation of a National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

1990—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted "subchapters V and XII–B" for "subchapter V".

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in pars. (3) to (6) of this section, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER V—BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS

Prior Provisions

This subchapter is comprised of part E (§500 et seq.) of title I of Pub. L. 90–351. A prior part E (formerly part F) related to discretionary grants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior part E (§501 et seq.) of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 related to national priority grants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §607, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086.

Part A—Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant Program

Prior Provisions

This part is comprised of subpart 1 (§501 et seq.) of part E of title I of Pub. L. 90–351. A prior subpart 1 (§501 et seq.) related to the drug control and system improvement grant program, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), (d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094, 3102, applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter.

§10151. Name of program

(a) In general

The grant program established under this part shall be known as the "Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant Program".

(b) References to former programs

(1) Any reference in a law, regulation, document, paper, or other record of the United States to the Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs, or to the Local Government Law Enforcement Block Grants program, shall be deemed to be a reference to the grant program referred to in subsection (a).

(2) Any reference in a law, regulation, document, paper, or other record of the United States to section 506 of this Act as such section was in effect on the date of the enactment of the Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2006 through 2009,1 shall be deemed to be a reference to section 505(a) of this Act as amended by the Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2006 through 2009.1

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §500, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4329; amended Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(2)(B), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197, known as the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. Former section 506 of the Act was classified to section 3756 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094. Section 505(a) of the Act is classified to section 10156(a) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

The Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2006 through 2009, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), probably means the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–162, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2960, which repealed former section 3756 of this title and enacted section 10156 of this title. See note above.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3750 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "Name of program" for "Name of programs" in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The grant programs established under this subchapter shall be known as the 'Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs'."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3102, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall apply with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 5, 2006] and each fiscal year thereafter."

1 See References in Text note below.

§10152. Description

(a) Grants authorized

(1) In general

From amounts made available to carry out this part, the Attorney General may, in accordance with the formula established under section 10156 of this title, make grants to States and units of local government, for use by the State or unit of local government to provide additional personnel, equipment, supplies, contractual support, training, technical assistance, and information systems for criminal justice, including for any one or more of the following programs:

(A) Law enforcement programs.

(B) Prosecution and court programs.

(C) Prevention and education programs.

(D) Corrections and community corrections programs.

(E) Drug treatment and enforcement programs.

(F) Planning, evaluation, and technology improvement programs.

(G) Crime victim and witness programs (other than compensation).

(H) Mental health programs and related law enforcement and corrections programs, including behavioral programs and crisis intervention teams.

(2) Rule of construction

Paragraph (1) shall be construed to ensure that a grant under that paragraph may be used for any purpose for which a grant was authorized to be used under either or both of the programs specified in section 10151(b) of this title, as those programs were in effect immediately before January 5, 2006.

(b) Contracts and subawards

A State or unit of local government may, in using a grant under this part for purposes authorized by subsection (a), use all or a portion of that grant to contract with or make one or more subawards to one or more—

(1) neighborhood or community-based organizations that are private and nonprofit; or

(2) units of local government.

(c) Program assessment component; waiver

(1) Each program funded under this part shall contain a program assessment component, developed pursuant to guidelines established by the Attorney General, in coordination with the National Institute of Justice.

(2) The Attorney General may waive the requirement of paragraph (1) with respect to a program if, in the opinion of the Attorney General, the program is not of sufficient size to justify a full program assessment.

(d) Prohibited uses

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, no funds provided under this part may be used, directly or indirectly, to provide any of the following matters:

(1) Any security enhancements or any equipment to any nongovernmental entity that is not engaged in criminal justice or public safety.

(2) Unless the Attorney General certifies that extraordinary and exigent circumstances exist that make the use of such funds to provide such matters essential to the maintenance of public safety and good order—

(A) vehicles (excluding police cruisers), vessels (excluding police boats), or aircraft (excluding police helicopters);

(B) luxury items;

(C) real estate;

(D) construction projects (other than penal or correctional institutions); or

(E) any similar matters.

(e) Administrative costs

Not more than 10 percent of a grant made under this part may be used for costs incurred to administer such grant.

(f) Period

The period of a grant made under this part shall be four years, except that renewals and extensions beyond that period may be granted at the discretion of the Attorney General.

(g) Rule of construction

Subparagraph (d)(1) shall not be construed to prohibit the use, directly or indirectly, of funds provided under this part to provide security at a public event, such as a political convention or major sports event, so long as such security is provided under applicable laws and procedures.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §501, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(2)(C), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3095; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §8(h), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 767; Pub. L. 114–255, div. B, title XIV, §14001(a), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1287.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197, known as the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3751 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 501 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added and amended Pub. L. 100–690, title V, §5104, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4301, 4329; Pub. L. 101–647, title VI, §601(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4823; Pub. L. 103–322, title X, §100003, title XIV, §140004, title XV, §150003, title XXI, §210302(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1996, 2032, 2035, 2065; Pub. L. 104–132, title VIII, §822(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1317; Pub. L. 106–177, title I, §103, Mar. 10, 2000, 114 Stat. 35; Pub. L. 106–310, div. B, title XXXVI, §3621(b), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1231; Pub. L. 106–561, §2(a), Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2787, related to description of drug control and system improvement grant program, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), (d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094, 3102, applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter.

Another prior section 501 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, formerly §601, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1195; renumbered §501 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §608(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086, related to Congressional statement of purpose regarding discretionary grants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior section 501 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1192, set out Congressional statement of purpose of national priority grants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §607, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086.

Another prior section 501 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §120, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2418, related to administrative rules, regulations, and procedures, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 114–255 added subpar. (H).

2006—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–271 struck out par. (3) which read as follows: "tribal governments."

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 10151 of this title.

§10153. Applications

(A1 In general

To request a grant under this part, the chief executive officer of a State or unit of local government shall submit an application to the Attorney General within 120 days after the date on which funds to carry out this part are appropriated for a fiscal year, in such form as the Attorney General may require. Such application shall include the following:

(1) A certification that Federal funds made available under this part will not be used to supplant State or local funds, but will be used to increase the amounts of such funds that would, in the absence of Federal funds, be made available for law enforcement activities.

(2) An assurance that, not fewer than 30 days before the application (or any amendment to the application) was submitted to the Attorney General, the application (or amendment) was submitted for review to the governing body of the State or unit of local government (or to an organization designated by that governing body).

(3) An assurance that, before the application (or any amendment to the application) was submitted to the Attorney General—

(A) the application (or amendment) was made public; and

(B) an opportunity to comment on the application (or amendment) was provided to citizens and to neighborhood or community-based organizations, to the extent applicable law or established procedure makes such an opportunity available.


(4) An assurance that, for each fiscal year covered by an application, the applicant shall maintain and report such data, records, and information (programmatic and financial) as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

(5) A certification, made in a form acceptable to the Attorney General and executed by the chief executive officer of the applicant (or by another officer of the applicant, if qualified under regulations promulgated by the Attorney General), that—

(A) the programs to be funded by the grant meet all the requirements of this part;

(B) all the information contained in the application is correct;

(C) there has been appropriate coordination with affected agencies; and

(D) the applicant will comply with all provisions of this part and all other applicable Federal laws.


(6) A comprehensive Statewide plan detailing how grants received under this section will be used to improve the administration of the criminal justice system, which shall—

(A) be designed in consultation with local governments, and representatives of all segments of the criminal justice system, including judges, prosecutors, law enforcement personnel, corrections personnel, and providers of indigent defense services, victim services, juvenile justice delinquency prevention programs, community corrections, and reentry services;

(B) include a description of how the State will allocate funding within and among each of the uses described in subparagraphs (A) through (G) of section 10152(a)(1) of this title;

(C) describe the process used by the State for gathering evidence-based data and developing and using evidence-based and evidence-gathering approaches in support of funding decisions;

(D) describe the barriers at the State and local level for accessing data and implementing evidence-based approaches to preventing and reducing crime and recidivism; and

(E) be updated every 5 years, with annual progress reports that—

(i) address changing circumstances in the State, if any;

(ii) describe how the State plans to adjust funding within and among each of the uses described in subparagraphs (A) through (G) of section 10152(a)(1) of this title;

(iii) provide an ongoing assessment of need;

(iv) discuss the accomplishment of goals identified in any plan previously prepared under this paragraph; and

(v) reflect how the plan influenced funding decisions in the previous year.

(b) Technical assistance

(1) Strategic planning

Not later than 90 days after December 16, 2016, the Attorney General shall begin to provide technical assistance to States and local governments requesting support to develop and implement the strategic plan required under subsection (a)(6). The Attorney General may enter into agreements with 1 or more non-governmental organizations to provide technical assistance and training under this paragraph.

(2) Protection of constitutional rights

Not later than 90 days after December 16, 2016, the Attorney General shall begin to provide technical assistance to States and local governments, including any agent thereof with responsibility for administration of justice, requesting support to meet the obligations established by the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall include—

(A) public dissemination of practices, structures, or models for the administration of justice consistent with the requirements of the Sixth Amendment; and

(B) assistance with adopting and implementing a system for the administration of justice consistent with the requirements of the Sixth Amendment.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

For each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021, of the amounts appropriated to carry out this subpart, not less than $5,000,000 and not more than $10,000,000 shall be used to carry out this subsection.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §502, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(2)(C), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3096; amended Pub. L. 109–271, §8(i), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 767; Pub. L. 114–324, §14(b), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1958.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3752 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 502 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4331, related to eligibility of a State for financial assistance, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), (d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094, 3102, applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter.

Another prior section 502 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, formerly §602, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1195; renumbered §502 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §608(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086, related to percentage of appropriation for discretionary grant program, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior section 502 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1192, prescribed percentage of appropriation for national priority grant program, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §607, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086.

Another prior section 502 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 211, made provision for delegation of functions of Law Enforcement Assistance Administration to other officers of Department of Justice, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–324 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 114–324, §14(b)(2), added par. (6).

2006—Pub. L. 109–271 substituted "120 days" for "90 days" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 10151 of this title.

Applicability of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–324, §14(c), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1959, provided that: "The requirement to submit a strategic plan under section 501(a)(6) [probably should be "502(a)(6)"] of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10153(a)(6)], as added by subsection (b), shall apply to any application submitted under such section 501 [502] for a grant for any fiscal year beginning after the date that is 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 16, 2016]."

Active-Shooter Training for Law Enforcement

Pub. L. 114–255, div. B, title XIV, §14011, Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1297, provided that: "The Attorney General, as part of the Preventing Violence Against Law Enforcement and Ensuring Officer Resilience and Survivability Initiative (VALOR) of the Department of Justice, may provide safety training and technical assistance to local law enforcement agencies, including active-shooter response training."

1 So in original. Probably should be "(a)".

§10154. Review of applications

The Attorney General shall not finally disapprove any application (or any amendment to that application) submitted under this part without first affording the applicant reasonable notice of any deficiencies in the application and opportunity for correction and reconsideration.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §503, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(2)(C), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3097.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3753 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 503 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4331; amended Pub. L. 101–649, title V, §507(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5050; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §306(a)(6), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1751; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXI, §210302(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2065; Pub. L. 106–546, §8(a), Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2734; Pub. L. 106–561, §2(b), Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2787; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title V, §5001(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1813, related to State applications, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), (d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094, 3102, applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter. See section 10153 of this title.

Another prior section 503 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, formerly §603, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1196; renumbered §503 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §608(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086, related to procedure for establishing discretionary programs, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior section 503 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1192, prescribed procedure for designating national priority programs, including periodic and joint designations by Director of Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics and Administrator of Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and requests to outside agencies for suggestions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §607, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086.

Another prior section 503 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 211, required specific Congressional authorization to transfer functions, powers, and duties of Law Enforcement Assistance Administration within the Department of Justice, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 10151 of this title.

§10155. Rules

The Attorney General shall issue rules to carry out this part. The first such rules shall be issued not later than one year after the date on which amounts are first made available to carry out this part.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §504, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(2)(C), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3097.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3754 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 504 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4333; amended Pub. L. 101–162, title II, §211, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1006; Pub. L. 101–515, title II, §207, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2119; Pub. L. 101–647, title VI, §601(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4823; Pub. L. 102–140, title I, §§108, 109, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 794; Pub. L. 103–322, title XV, §150009, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2036; Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title II, §203(a)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1775, related to grant limitations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), (d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094, 3102, applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter.

Another prior section 504 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, formerly §604, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1197; renumbered §504 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §608(b), (f), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2087, related to application requirements for discretionary grants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior section 504 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1193, prescribed application requirements, including contents of applications, certifications, review by State criminal justice councils, and private nonprofit organizations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §607, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086.

Another prior section 504 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 211, provided for place for holding of hearings, signing and issuance of subpenas, administering of oaths, the examination of witnesses, and reception of evidence by Administration personnel, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 10151 of this title.

§10156. Formula

(a) Allocation among States

(1) In general

Of the total amount appropriated for this part, the Attorney General shall, except as provided in paragraph (2), allocate—

(A) 50 percent of such remaining amount to each State in amounts that bear the same ratio of—

(i) the total population of a State to—

(ii) the total population of the United States; and


(B) 50 percent of such remaining amount to each State in amounts that bear the same ratio of—

(i) the average annual number of part 1 violent crimes of the Uniform Crime Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation reported by such State for the three most recent years reported by such State to—

(ii) the average annual number of such crimes reported by all States for such years.

(2) Minimum allocation

If carrying out paragraph (1) would result in any State receiving an allocation less than 0.25 percent of the total amount (in this paragraph referred to as a "minimum allocation State"), then paragraph (1), as so carried out, shall not apply, and the Attorney General shall instead—

(A) allocate 0.25 percent of the total amount to each State; and

(B) using the amount remaining after carrying out subparagraph (A), carry out paragraph (1) in a manner that excludes each minimum allocation State, including the population of and the crimes reported by such State.

(b) Allocation between States and units of local government

Of the amounts allocated under subsection (a)—

(1) 60 percent shall be for direct grants to States, to be allocated under subsection (c); and

(2) 40 percent shall be for grants to be allocated under subsection (d).

(c) Allocation for State governments

(1) In general

Of the amounts allocated under subsection (b)(1), each State may retain for the purposes described in section 10152 of this title an amount that bears the same ratio of—

(A) total expenditures on criminal justice by the State government in the most recently completed fiscal year to—

(B) the total expenditure on criminal justice by the State government and units of local government within the State in such year.

(2) Remaining amounts

Except as provided in subsection (e)(1), any amounts remaining after the allocation required by paragraph (1) shall be made available to units of local government by the State for the purposes described in section 10152 of this title.

(d) Allocations to local governments

(1) In general

Of the amounts allocated under subsection (b)(2), grants for the purposes described in section 10152 of this title shall be made directly to units of local government within each State in accordance with this subsection, subject to subsection (e).

(2) Allocation

(A) In general

From the amounts referred to in paragraph (1) with respect to a State (in this subsection referred to as the "local amount"), the Attorney General shall allocate to each unit of local government an amount which bears the same ratio to such share as the average annual number of part 1 violent crimes reported by such unit to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the 3 most recent calendar years for which such data is available bears to the number of part 1 violent crimes reported by all units of local government in the State in which the unit is located to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for such years.

(B) Transitional rule

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), for fiscal years 2006, 2007, and 2008, the Attorney General shall allocate the local amount to units of local government in the same manner that, under the Local Government Law Enforcement Block Grants program in effect immediately before January 5, 2006, the reserved amount was allocated among reporting and nonreporting units of local government.

(3) Annexed units

If a unit of local government in the State has been annexed since the date of the collection of the data used by the Attorney General in making allocations pursuant to this section, the Attorney General shall pay the amount that would have been allocated to such unit of local government to the unit of local government that annexed it.

(4) Resolution of disparate allocations

(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, if—

(i) the Attorney General certifies that a unit of local government bears more than 50 percent of the costs of prosecution or incarceration that arise with respect to part 1 violent crimes reported by a specified geographically constituent unit of local government; and

(ii) but for this paragraph, the amount of funds allocated under this section to—

(I) any one such specified geographically constituent unit of local government exceeds 150 percent of the amount allocated to the unit of local government certified pursuant to clause (i); or

(II) more than one such specified geographically constituent unit of local government exceeds 400 percent of the amount allocated to the unit of local government certified pursuant to clause (i),


then in order to qualify for payment under this subsection, the unit of local government certified pursuant to clause (i), together with any such specified geographically constituent units of local government described in clause (ii), shall submit to the Attorney General a joint application for the aggregate of funds allocated to such units of local government. Such application shall specify the amount of such funds that are to be distributed to each of the units of local government and the purposes for which such funds are to be used. The units of local government involved may establish a joint local advisory board for the purposes of carrying out this paragraph.

(B) In this paragraph, the term "geographically constituent unit of local government" means a unit of local government that has jurisdiction over areas located within the boundaries of an area over which a unit of local government certified pursuant to clause (i) has jurisdiction.

(e) Limitation on allocations to units of local government

(1) Maximum allocation

No unit of local government shall receive a total allocation under this section that exceeds such unit's total expenditures on criminal justice services for the most recently completed fiscal year for which data are available. Any amount in excess of such total expenditures shall be allocated proportionally among units of local government whose allocations under this section do not exceed their total expenditures on such services.

(2) Allocations under $10,000

If the allocation under this section to a unit of local government is less than $10,000 for any fiscal year, the direct grant to the State under subsection (c) shall be increased by the amount of such allocation, to be distributed (for the purposes described in section 10152 of this title) among State police departments that provide criminal justice services to units of local government and units of local government whose allocation under this section is less than $10,000.

(3) Non-reporting units

No allocation under this section shall be made to a unit of local government that has not reported at least three years of data on part 1 violent crimes of the Uniform Crime Reports to the Federal Bureau of Investigation within the immediately preceding 10 years.

(f) Funds not used by the State

If the Attorney General determines, on the basis of information available during any grant period, that any allocation (or portion thereof) under this section to a State for such grant period will not be required, or that a State will be unable to qualify or receive funds under this part, or that a State chooses not to participate in the program established under this part, then such State's allocation (or portion thereof) shall be awarded by the Attorney General to units of local government, or combinations thereof, within such State, giving priority to those jurisdictions with the highest annual number of part 1 violent crimes of the Uniform Crime Reports reported by the unit of local government to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the three most recent calendar years for which such data are available.

(g) Special rules for Puerto Rico

(1) All funds set aside for Commonwealth government

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the amounts allocated under subsection (a) to Puerto Rico, 100 percent shall be for direct grants to the Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico.

(2) No local allocations

Subsections (c) and (d) shall not apply to Puerto Rico.

(h) Units of local government in Louisiana

In carrying out this section with respect to the State of Louisiana, the term "unit of local government" means a district attorney or a parish sheriff.

(i) Part 1 violent crimes to include human trafficking

For purposes of this section, the term "part 1 violent crimes" shall include severe forms of trafficking in persons (as defined in section 7102 of title 22).

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §505, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(2)(C), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3097; amended Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §107, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 238.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3755 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 505 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4333, related to review of State applications, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), (d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094, 3102, applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter.

Another prior section 505 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, formerly §605, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1197; renumbered §505 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §608(c), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2087, related to criteria for award, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior section 505 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1194, set out criteria for award of national priority grants, including establishment of reasonable requirements, maximum per centum of grant funds, funds reserved or set aside but not used in the fiscal year, and three-year period for financial aid and assistance and extension or renewal of period, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §607, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2086.

Another prior section 505 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 205, amended section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 114–22 added subsec. (i).

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 10151 of this title.

§10157. Reserved funds

(a) Of the total amount made available to carry out this part for a fiscal year, the Attorney General shall reserve not more than—

(1) $20,000,000, for use by the National Institute of Justice in assisting units of local government to identify, select, develop, modernize, and purchase new technologies for use by law enforcement, of which $1,000,000 shall be for use by the Bureau of Justice Statistics to collect data necessary for carrying out this part; and

(2) $20,000,000, to be granted by the Attorney General to States and units of local government to develop and implement antiterrorism training programs.


(b) Of the total amount made available to carry out this part for a fiscal year, the Attorney General may reserve not more than 5 percent, to be granted to 1 or more States or units of local government, for 1 or more of the purposes specified in section 10152 of this title, pursuant to his determination that the same is necessary—

(1) to combat, address, or otherwise respond to precipitous or extraordinary increases in crime, or in a type or types of crime; or

(2) to prevent, compensate for, or mitigate significant programmatic harm resulting from operation of the formula established under section 10156 of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §506, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(2)(C), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3100.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3756 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 506 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4334; amended Pub. L. 101–162, title II, §212, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 998, 1006; Pub. L. 101–302, title III, §320(c)(1), May 25, 1990, 104 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 101–647, title XVIII, §1804, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4851; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2138; Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title II, §203(a)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1775, related to allocation and distribution of funds under formula grants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), (d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094, 3102, applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter. See section 10156(a) of this title.

Another prior section 506 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, formerly §606, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1197; renumbered §506 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §608(d), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2087, related to period for award of discretionary grants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4328.

Another prior section 506 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 205, amended section 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 10151 of this title.

§10158. Interest-bearing trust funds

(a) Trust fund required

A State or unit of local government shall establish a trust fund in which to deposit amounts received under this part.

(b) Expenditures

(1) In general

Each amount received under this part (including interest on such amount) shall be expended before the date on which the grant period expires.

(2) Repayment

A State or unit of local government that fails to expend an entire amount (including interest on such amount) as required by paragraph (1) shall repay the unexpended portion to the Attorney General not later than 3 months after the date on which the grant period expires.

(3) Reduction of future amounts

If a State or unit of local government fails to comply with paragraphs (1) and (2), the Attorney General shall reduce amounts to be provided to that State or unit of local government accordingly.

(c) Repaid amounts

Amounts received as repayments under this section shall be subject to section 10108 of this title as if such amounts had not been granted and repaid. Such amounts shall be deposited in the Treasury in a dedicated fund for use by the Attorney General to carry out this part. Such funds are hereby made available to carry out this part.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §507, as added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(2)(C), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3100.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3757 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 507 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4335, related to designation and purposes of a State office, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(a)(1), (d), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3094, 3102, applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter.

Another prior section 507 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §§119(b), 121, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2417, 2418, related to officers, employees, and hearing examiners, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 10151 of this title.

Part B—Discretionary Grants

subpart 1—grants to public agencies

§10171. Correctional options grants

(a) Authority to make grants

The Director, in consultation with the Director of the National Institute of Corrections, may make—

(1) 4 grants in each fiscal year, in various geographical areas throughout the United States, to public agencies for correctional options (including the cost of construction) that provide alternatives to traditional modes of incarceration and offender release programs—

(A) to provide more appropriate intervention for youthful offenders who are not career criminals, but who, without such intervention, are likely to become career criminals or more serious offenders;

(B) to provide a degree of security and discipline appropriate for the offender involved;

(C) to provide diagnosis, and treatment and services (including counseling, substance abuse treatment, education, job training and placement assistance while under correctional supervision, and linkage to similar outside services), to increase the success rate of offenders who decide to pursue a course of lawful and productive conduct after release from legal restraint;

(D) to reduce criminal recidivism by offenders who receive punishment through such alternatives;

(E) to reduce the cost of correctional services and facilities by reducing criminal recidivism; and

(F) to provide work that promotes development of industrial and service skills in connection with a correctional option;


(2) grants to private nonprofit organizations—

(A) for any of the purposes specified in subparagraphs (A) through (F) of paragraph (1);

(B) to undertake educational and training programs for criminal justice personnel;

(C) to provide technical assistance to States and local units of government; and

(D) to carry out demonstration projects which, in view of previous research or experience, are likely to be a success in more than one jurisdiction;


in connection with a correctional option (excluding the cost of construction);

(3) grants to public agencies to establish, operate, and support boot camp prisons; and

(4) grants to State courts to improve security for State and local court systems.

(b) Selection of grantees

The selection of applicants to receive grants under paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) shall be based on their potential for developing or testing various innovative alternatives to traditional modes of incarceration and offender release programs. In selecting the applicants to receive grants under subsection (a)(3), the Director shall—

(1) consider the overall quality of an applicant's shock incarceration program, including the existence of substance abuse treatment, drug testing, counseling literacy education, vocational education, and job training programs during incarceration or after release; and

(2) give priority to public agencies that clearly demonstrate that the capacity of their correctional facilities is inadequate to accommodate the number of individuals who are convicted of offenses punishable by a term of imprisonment exceeding 1 year.


Priority shall be given to State court applicants under subsection (a)(4) that have the greatest demonstrated need to provide security in order to administer justice.

(c) Consultations

The Director shall consult with the Commission on Alternative Utilization of Military Facilities created by Public Law 100–456 in order to identify military facilities that may be used as sites for correctional programs receiving assistance under this subpart.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §515, as added Pub. L. 101–647, title XVIII, §1801(a)(7), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4847; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(b)(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2138; Pub. L. 110–177, title III, §302(a), Jan. 7, 2008, 121 Stat. 2539.)

References in Text

The Commission on Alternative Utilization of Military Facilities, referred to in subsec. (c), was created by section 2819 of Pub. L. 100–456, which was set out as a note under section 2391 of Title 10, Armed Forces, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1031(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2123.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3762a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 515 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 207; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §7(4), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1887; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §124, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2421, provided for functions, powers, and duties of Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 110–177, §302(a)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–177, §302(a)(2), inserted concluding provisions.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, in introductory provisions substituted "paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a)" for "subsection (a)(1) and (2)", and in par. (2) substituted "public agencies" for "States".

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

§10172. Allocation of funds; administrative provisions

(a) Allocation of funds

Of the total amount appropriated for this subpart in any fiscal year, 70 percent shall be used to make grants under section 10171(a)(1) of this title, 10 percent shall be used to make grants under section 10171(a)(2) of this title, 10 percent shall be used to make grants under section 10171(a)(3) of this title, and 10 percent for section 10171(a)(4) of this title.

(b) Limit on grant share of cost

A grant made under paragraph (1) or (3) of section 10171(a) of this title may be made for an amount up to 75 percent of the cost of the correctional option contained in the approved application.

(c) Rules; report; request for applications

The Director shall—

(1) not later than 90 days after funds are first appropriated to carry out this subpart, issue rules to carry out this subpart; and

(2) not later than 180 days after funds are first appropriated to carry out this subpart—

(A) submit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate, a report describing such rules; and

(B) request applications for grants under this subpart.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §516, as added Pub. L. 101–647, title XVIII, §1801(a)(7), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4848; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(b)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2138; Pub. L. 110–177, title III, §302(b), Jan. 7, 2008, 121 Stat. 2539.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3762b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 516 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 207; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §7(5), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1887; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 213, provided for making of payments under title I of Pub. L. 90–351, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–177 substituted "70" for "80" and "3762a(a)(2) of this title, 10" for "3762a(a)(2) of this title, and 10" and inserted ", and 10 percent for section 3762a(a)(4) of this title" before period at end.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §330001(b)(2)(A), substituted "10 percent shall be used to make grants under section" for "10 percent for section" in two places.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §330001(b)(2)(B), substituted "paragraph (1) or (3) of section 3762a(a)" for "section 3762a(a)(1) or (a)(3)".

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

subpart 2—general requirements

§10181. Application requirements

(a) No grant may be made under this part unless an application has been submitted to the Director in which the applicant—

(1) sets forth a program or project which is eligible for funding pursuant to section 10171 of this title;

(2) describes the services to be provided, performance goals, and the manner in which the program is to be carried out;

(3) describes the method to be used to evaluate the program or project in order to determine its impact and effectiveness in achieving the stated goals; and

(4) agrees to conduct such evaluation according to the procedures and terms established by the Bureau.


(b) Each applicant for funds under this part shall certify that its program or project meets all the applicable requirements of this section, that all the applicable information contained in the application is correct, and that the applicant will comply with all the applicable provisions of this part and all other applicable Federal laws. Such certification shall be made in a form acceptable to the Director.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §517, formerly §513, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4336; renumbered §517 and amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XVIII, §1801(a)(4), (6), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4847; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(c)(2)(A), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3101.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3763 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 517 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 207; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §7(6), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1887; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 213, provided for personnel of Administration, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157..

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "pursuant to section 3762a" for "pursuant to section 3761 or 3762a".

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–647, §1801(a)(4)(A), inserted "or 3762a" after "3761".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §1801(a)(4)(B), inserted "applicable" after "all the" in three places.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10151 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

§10182. Period of award

The Bureau may provide financial aid and assistance to programs or projects under this part for a period of not to exceed 4 years. Grants made pursuant to this part may be extended or renewed by the Bureau for an additional period of up to 2 years if—

(1) an evaluation of the program or project indicates that it has been effective in achieving the stated goals or offers the potential for improving the functioning of the criminal justice system; and

(2) the applicant that conducts such program or project agrees to provide at least one-half of the total cost of such program or project from any source of funds, including Federal grants, available to the eligible jurisdiction.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §518, formerly §514, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4336; renumbered §518 and amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XVIII, §1801(a)(5), (6), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4847.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3764 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 518 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 214; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §122(b), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2418, prohibited certain constructions of provisions of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

1990—Par. (2). Pub. L. 101–647, §1801(a)(5), substituted "applicant that conducts such program or project" for "public agency or private nonprofit organization within which the program or project has been conducted".

subpart 3—grants to private entities

Codification

Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, §626, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 636, which directed amendment of "subpart 2 of part E of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Street Act of 1968" by adding chapter 4 at end, was treated as meaning chapter D, which was changed to subpart 4 for purposes of codification, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Subpart 4 was subsequently editorially reclassified as subpart 3 of part B of subchapter V of this chapter.

§10191. Crime prevention campaign grant

(a) Grant authorization

The Attorney General may provide a grant to a national private, nonprofit organization that has expertise in promoting crime prevention through public outreach and media campaigns in coordination with law enforcement agencies and other local government officials, and representatives of community public interest organizations, including schools and youth-serving organizations, faith-based, and victims' organizations and employers.

(b) Application

To request a grant under this section, an organization described in subsection (a) shall submit an application to the Attorney General in such form and containing such information as the Attorney General may require.

(c) Use of funds

An organization that receives a grant under this section shall—

(1) create and promote national public communications campaigns;

(2) develop and distribute publications and other educational materials that promote crime prevention;

(3) design and maintain web sites and related web-based materials and tools;

(4) design and deliver training for law enforcement personnel, community leaders, and other partners in public safety and hometown security initiatives;

(5) design and deliver technical assistance to States, local jurisdictions, and crime prevention practitioners and associations;

(6) coordinate a coalition of Federal, national, and statewide organizations and communities supporting crime prevention;

(7) design, deliver, and assess demonstration programs;

(8) operate McGruff-related programs, including McGruff Club;

(9) operate the Teens, Crime, and Community Program; and

(10) evaluate crime prevention programs and trends.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

(1) for fiscal year 2007, $7,000,000;

(2) for fiscal year 2008, $8,000,000;

(3) for fiscal year 2009, $9,000,000; and

(4) for fiscal year 2010, $10,000,000.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §519, as added Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, §626, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 636.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3765 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 519 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §7(7), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1888; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 214; Pub. L. 94–273, §5(5), Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 377; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §125, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2422; Pub. L. 95–115, §9(a), Oct. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 1060, related to annual reports to President and Congress, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Part C—Administrative Provisions

§10201. Evaluation

(a) Guidelines and comprehensive evaluations

To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of programs funded under this subchapter, the National Institute of Justice shall—

(1) develop guidelines, in cooperation with the Bureau of Justice Assistance, to assist State and local units of government to conduct program evaluations; and

(2) conduct a reasonable number of comprehensive evaluations of programs funded under section 10156 (formula grants) and section 10171 (discretionary grants) of this title.

(b) Criteria for selecting programs for review

In selecting programs for review, the Director of the National Institute of Justice should consider—

(1) whether the program establishes or demonstrates a new and innovative approach to drug or crime control;

(2) the cost of the program to be evaluated and the number of similar programs funded under section 10156 (formula grants) of this title;

(3) whether the program has a high potential to be replicated in other jurisdictions; and

(4) whether there is substantial public awareness and community involvement in the program. Routine auditing, monitoring, and internal assessment of a State and local drug control program's progress shall be the sole responsibility of the Bureau of Justice Assistance.

(c) Annual report

The Director of the National Institute of Justice shall annually report to the President, the Attorney General, and the Congress on the nature and findings of the evaluation and research and development activities funded under this section.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §520, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4337; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XVIII, §1801(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4848; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(c)(2)(B), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3101.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3766 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 520 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 90–462, §1, Aug. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 638; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §7(8), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1888; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 214; Pub. L. 93–415, title V, §544, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1142; Pub. L. 94–430, §3, Sept. 29, 1976, 90 Stat. 1348; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §126, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2423, related to authorization of appropriations, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §1111(c)(2)(B)(i), substituted "program evaluations" for "the program evaluations as required by section 3751(c) of this title".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §1111(c)(2)(B)(ii), substituted "evaluations of programs funded under section 3755 (formula grants) and section 3762a (discretionary grants) of this title" for "evaluations of programs funded under section 3756 (formula grants) and sections 3761 and 3762a (discretionary grants) of this title".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §1111(c)(2)(B)(iii), substituted "programs funded under section 3755 (formula grants)" for "programs funded under section 3756 (formula grants) and section 3761 (discretionary grants)".

1990—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted "sections 3761 and 3762a" for "section 3761".

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10151 of this title.

§10202. General provisions

(a) The Bureau shall prepare both a "Program Brief" and "Implementation Guide" document for proven programs and projects to be funded under this subchapter.

(b) The functions, powers, and duties specified in this subchapter to be carried out by the Bureau shall not be transferred elsewhere in the Department of Justice unless specifically hereafter authorized by the Congress by law.

(c)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a grantee that uses funds made available under this subchapter to purchase an armor vest or body armor shall—

(A) comply with any requirements established for the use of grants made under subchapter XXIV;

(B) have a written policy requiring uniformed patrol officers to wear an armor vest or body armor; and

(C) use the funds to purchase armor vests or body armor that meet any performance standards established by the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance.


(2) In this subsection, the terms "armor vest"and "body armor" have the meanings given such terms in section 10533 of this title.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §521, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4337; amended Pub. L. 114–155, §6, May 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 390.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3766a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 521 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 208; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §7(9), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1888; Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 215; Pub. L. 94–503, title I, §§127, 128(a), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2424, related to recordkeeping requirements, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–155 added subsec. (c).

§10203. Reports

(a) Each State which receives a grant under section 10156 of this title shall submit to the Director, for each year in which any part of such grant is expended by a State or unit of local government, a report which contains—

(1) a summary of the activities carried out with such grant and an assessment of the impact of such activities on meeting the purposes of part A;

(2) a summary of the activities carried out in such year with any grant received under part B by such State;

(3) the evaluation result of programs and projects;

(4) an explanation of how the Federal funds provided under this subchapter were coordinated with State agencies receiving Federal funds for drug abuse education, prevention, treatment, and research activities; and

(5) such other information as the Director may require by rule.


Such report shall be submitted in such form and by such time as the Director may require by rule.

(b) Not later than 180 days after the end of each fiscal year for which grants are made under this subchapter, the Director shall submit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President pro tempore of the Senate a report that includes with respect to each State—

(1) the aggregate amount of grants made under part A and part B to such State for such fiscal year;

(2) the amount of such grants awarded for each of the purposes specified in part A;

(3) a summary of the information provided in compliance with paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a);

(4) an explanation of how Federal funds provided under this subchapter have been coordinated with Federal funds provided to States for drug abuse education, prevention, treatment, and research activities; and

(5) evaluation results of programs and projects and State strategy implementation.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §522, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6091(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4337; amended Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(c)(2)(C), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3101.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3766b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 522 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 208, amended section 3334 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "section 3755" for "section 3756" in introductory provisions and "an assessment of the impact of such activities on meeting the purposes of part A" for "an assessment of the impact of such activities on meeting the needs identified in the State strategy submitted under section 3753 of this title" in par. (1).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10151 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER VI—FBI TRAINING OF STATE AND LOCAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE PERSONNEL

§10211. Training and manpower development

(a) Functions, powers, and duties of Director of Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized to—

(1) establish and conduct training programs at the Federal Bureau of Investigation National Academy at Quantico, Virginia, to provide, at the request of a State, unit of local government, or rail carrier, training for State and local criminal justice personnel, including railroad police officers;

(2) develop new or improved approaches, techniques, systems, equipment, and devices to improve and strengthen criminal justice; and

(3) assist in conducting, at the request of a State, unit of local government, or rail carrier, local and regional training programs for the training of State and local criminal justice personnel engaged in the investigation of crime and the apprehension of criminals. Training for rural criminal justice personnel shall include, when appropriate, effective use of regional resources and methods to improve coordination among criminal justice personnel in different areas and in different levels of government. Such training shall be provided only for persons actually employed as State police or highway patrol, police of a unit of local government, sheriffs, and their deputies, railroad police officer,1 and other persons as the State, unit of local government, or rail carrier may nominate for police training while such persons are actually employed as officers of such State, unit of local government, or rail carrier.

(b) General authority of Attorney General over Director

In the exercise of the functions, powers, and duties established under this section the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall be under the general authority of the Attorney General.

(c) Training programs for State and local personnel at Federal Training Center

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to establish, develop, and conduct training programs at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center at Glynco, Georgia, to provide, at the request of a State or unit of local government, training for State and local criminal justice personnel provided that such training does not interfere with the Center's mission to train Federal law enforcement personnel.

(d) Rail carrier costs

No Federal funds may be used for any travel, transportation, or subsistence expenses incurred in connection with the participation of a railroad police officer in a training program conducted under subsection (a).

(e) Definitions

In this section—

(1) the terms "rail carrier" and "railroad" have the meanings given such terms in section 20102 of title 49; and

(2) the term "railroad police officer" means a peace officer who is commissioned in his or her State of legal residence or State of primary employment and employed by a rail carrier to enforce State laws for the protection of railroad property, personnel, passengers, or cargo.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §701, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609A(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2090; amended Pub. L. 106–110, §1, Nov. 24, 1999, 113 Stat. 1497.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3771 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Another section 701 of Pub. L. 90–351, title II, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 210, enacted sections 3501 and 3502 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 701 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1198, contained Congressional statement of purpose for training and manpower development, prior to the general amendment of part G of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 98–473.

Another prior section 701 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 94–430, §2, Sept. 29, 1976, 90 Stat. 1346, provided for payments of Public safety officers' death benefits and was classified to former section 3796 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to the general amendment of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–110, §1(a)(1), substituted "State, unit of local government, or rail carrier" for "State or unit of local government" and inserted ", including railroad police officers" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 106–110, §1(a)(2), substituted "State, unit of local government, or rail carrier" for "State or unit of local government", "State or such unit", and "State or unit" and inserted "railroad police officer," after "deputies,".

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 106–110, §1(b), (c), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 10101 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of the Treasury to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(4), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Employment of Annuitants by Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

Pub. L. 107–206, title I, §1202, Aug. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 887, as amended by Pub. L. 109–295, title IV, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1374; Pub. L. 110–161, div. E, title IV, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2068; Pub. L. 110–329, div. D, title IV, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3677; Pub. L. 111–83, title IV, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2166; Pub. L. 112–74, div. D, title IV, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 966; Pub. L. 113–6, div. D, title IV, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 364; Pub. L. 113–76, div. F, title IV, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 266; Pub. L. 114–4, title IV, Mar. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 114–113, div. F, title IV, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2509, provided that:

"(a) The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center may, for a period ending not later than December 31, 2018, appoint and maintain a cadre of up to 350 Federal annuitants: (1) without regard to any provision of title 5, United States Code, which might otherwise require the application of competitive hiring procedures; and (2) who shall not be subject to any reduction in pay (for annuity allocable to the period of actual employment) under the provisions of section 8344 or 8468 of such title 5 or similar provision of any other retirement system for employees. A reemployed Federal annuitant as to whom a waiver of reduction under paragraph (2) applies shall not, for any period during which such waiver is in effect, be considered an employee for purposes of subchapter III of chapter 83 or chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, or such other retirement system (referred to in paragraph (2)) as may apply.

"(b) No appointment under this section may be made which would result in the displacement of any employee.

"(c) For purposes of this section—

"(1) the term 'Federal annuitant' means an employee who has retired under the Civil Service Retirement System, the Federal Employees' Retirement System, or any other retirement system for employees;

"(2) the term 'employee' has the meaning given such term by section 2105 of such title 5; and

"(3) the counting of Federal annuitants shall be done on a full time equivalent basis."

Annual Outstanding Student Award

Pub. L. 107–67, title I, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 516, and similar provisions authorizing the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center to use gifts of property for authorized purposes, including funding of an annual gift to the outstanding student who graduated from a basic training program at the Center during the previous fiscal year, were transferred to a note set out under section 464 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Travel and Subsistence Expenses of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers Attending Meetings, Courses, Etc., at FBI National Academy

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(b) [title II], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–39, 1783-48, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(b) [title II], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–39, 3341-48, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 1345 of title 31, United States Code, funds made available to the Drug Enforcement Administration in any fiscal year may be used for travel, transportation, and subsistence expenses of State, county, and local law enforcement officers attending conferences, meetings, and training courses at the FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia."

Fees To Provide Training for State and Local Law Enforcement Officers at FBI National Academy; Prohibition; Reimbursement

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(b) [title II, §210], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–39, 1783-56, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(b) [title II, §210], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–39, 3341-56, provided that: "The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall not establish and collect fees to provide training to State and local law enforcement officers at the FBI National Academy. Any fees collected for training of State and local law enforcement officers, which occurred at the National Academy on or after October 1, 1986, shall be reimbursed to the appropriate official or agency. In addition, the Director of the National Institute of Corrections shall not establish and collect fees to provide training to State and local officers which was not provided on a reimbursable basis prior to October 1, 1986."

1 So in original. Probably should be "officers,".

SUBCHAPTER VII—ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

§10221. Rules, regulations, and procedures; consultations and establishment

(a) General authorization of certain Federal agencies

The Office of Justice Programs, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and the National Institute of Justice are authorized, after appropriate consultation with representatives of States and units of local government, to establish such rules, regulations, and procedures as are necessary to the exercise of their functions, and as are consistent with the stated purposes of this chapter.

(b) Continuing evaluation of selected programs or projects; cost, effectiveness, impact value, and comparative considerations; annual performance report; assessment of activity effectiveness; suspension of funds for nonsubmission of report

The Bureau of Justice Assistance shall, after consultation with the National Institute of Justice, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, State and local governments, and the appropriate public and private agencies, establish such rules and regulations as are necessary to assure the continuing evaluation of selected programs or projects conducted pursuant to subchapters V, XII, XIII, XIV, and XX, in order to determine—

(1) whether such programs or projects have achieved the performance goals stated in the original application, are of proven effectiveness, have a record of proven success, or offer a high probability of improving the criminal justice system;

(2) whether such programs or projects have contributed or are likely to contribute to the improvement of the criminal justice system and the reduction and prevention of crime;

(3) their cost in relation to their effectiveness in achieving stated goals;

(4) their impact on communities and participants; and

(5) their implication for related programs.


In conducting evaluations described in this subsection, the Bureau of Justice Assistance shall, when practical, compare the effectiveness of programs conducted by similar applicants and different applicants. The Bureau of Justice Assistance shall also require applicants under part A of subchapter V to submit an annual performance report concerning activities carried out pursuant to part A of subchapter V together with an assessment by the applicant of the effectiveness of those activities in achieving the purposes of such part A and the relationships of those activities to the needs and objectives specified by the applicant in the application submitted pursuant to section 10153 of this title. Such report shall include details identifying each applicant that used any funds to purchase any cruiser, boat, or helicopter and, with respect to such applicant, specifying both the amount of funds used by such applicant for each purchase of any cruiser, boat, or helicopter and a justification of each such purchase (and the Bureau of Justice Assistance shall submit to the Committee of the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee of the Judiciary of the Senate, promptly after preparation of such report a written copy of the portion of such report containing the information required by this sentence). The Bureau shall suspend funding for an approved application under part A of subchapter V if an applicant fails to submit such an annual performance report.

(c) Procedures for paperwork minimization and prevention of duplication and delays in award and expenditure of funds

The procedures established to implement the provisions of this chapter shall minimize paperwork and prevent needless duplication and unnecessary delays in award and expenditure of funds at all levels of government.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §801, formerly §802, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1201; renumbered §801 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1552(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–46; Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §241(b)(2), title VIII, §801(c)(1), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4813, 4826; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40231(d)(1), title XXXIII, §330001(h)(7), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1934, 2139; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(c)(2)(D), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3102.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3782 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Another section 801 of Pub. L. 90–351, title III, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 211, is set out as a note under section 2510 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 801 of Pub. L. 90–351 was classified to section 3781 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by section 609B(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "the purposes of such part A" for "the purposes of section 3751 of this title" and "the application submitted pursuant to section 3752 of this title. Such report shall include details identifying each applicant that used any funds to purchase any cruiser, boat, or helicopter and, with respect to such applicant, specifying both the amount of funds used by such applicant for each purchase of any cruiser, boat, or helicopter and a justification of each such purchase (and the Bureau of Justice Assistance shall submit to the Committee of the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee of the Judiciary of the Senate, promptly after preparation of such report a written copy of the portion of such report containing the information required by this sentence)" for "the application submitted pursuant to section 3753 of this title" in concluding provisions.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, in introductory provisions substituted "subchapters" for "subchapters IV," and "XII–C, and XII–I" for "and XII–C", and in concluding provisions substituted "part A of subchapter V" for "subchapter IV" wherever appearing, "3751" for "3743(a)", and "3753" for "3743".

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §801(c)(1), substituted "XII–B, and XII–C" for "and XII–B".

Pub. L. 101–647, §241(b)(2), substituted "XII–A, and XII–B" for "and XII–A".

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–570 inserted reference to subchapter XII–A of this chapter in introductory provisions.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473 in amending subsec. (a) generally, substituted "Office of Justice Programs" for "Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics" and "Bureau of Justice Assistance" for "Law Enforcement Assistance Administration" and also included authority for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention to establish rules, regulations, and procedures for exercise of its functions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473 in amending subsec. (b) generally, substituted "Bureau of Justice Assistance" for "Law Enforcement Assistance Administration" wherever appearing; provided for consultations with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; and struck out provisions respecting: rules, regulations, and procedures affecting national priority grant programs or projects; evaluations in addition to the requirements of former sections 3743 and 3744 of this title; and requirement for comparison of effectiveness of formula grant programs or projects of States or local units of government with similar national priority and discretionary grant programs or projects.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473 in amending section generally, reenacted subsec. (c) without change.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

§10222. Notice and hearing on denial or termination of grant

Whenever, after reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record in accordance with section 554 of title 5, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics finds that a recipient of assistance under this chapter has failed to comply substantially with—

(1) any provisions of this chapter;

(2) any regulations or guidelines promulgated under this chapter; or

(3) any application submitted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, or the provisions of any other applicable Federal Act;


the Director involved shall, until satisfied that there is no longer any such failure to comply, terminate payments to the recipient under this chapter, reduce payments to the recipient under this chapter by an amount equal to the amount of such payments which were not expended in accordance with this chapter, or limit the availability of payments under this chapter to programs, projects, or activities not affected by such failure to comply.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §802, formerly §803, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1202; renumbered §802 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1552(b)(3), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–46; Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §241(b)(3), title VIII, §801(c)(2), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4813, 4826; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40231(d)(2), title XXXIII, §330001(c), (h)(8), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1934, 2138, 2139; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11012, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1823; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1155(1), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3113.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3783 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Another section 802 of Pub. L. 90–351, title III, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 212–223, enacted sections 2510 to 2520 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 802 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 801 and is classified to section 10221 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 struck out subsec. (a) designation before "Whenever, after reasonable notice", struck out subsec. (b) which related to notice of and reasons for action, hearing or investigation, and finality of findings and determinations, and struck out subsec. (c) which related to rehearing, regulations and procedures, and presentation of additional information.

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–273, which directed amendment of subsec. (b) by substituting "T," for "U," in the original, was executed by substituting "XII–H" for "XII–I" in text to reflect the probable intent of Congress, notwithstanding that "U" was not followed by a comma in the original.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted "part A of subchapter V of this chapter or under subchapter XII–A, XII–B, XII–C, or XII–I" for "subchapter IV, XII–A,, XII–B, or XII–C".

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §801(c)(2), substituted ", XII–B, or XII–C" for "or XII–B".

Pub. L. 101–647, §241(b)(3), substituted ", XII–A, or XII–B" for "or XII–A".

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–570 inserted reference to subchapter XII–A of this chapter.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473 in amending subsec. (a) generally, included provision for finding of noncompliance by the Bureau of Justice Assistance and excluded similar provision for Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, substituted "the Director involved shall, until satisfied that there is no longer any such failure to comply," for "they, until satisfied that there is no longer any such failure to comply, shall—", and struck out designations "(A)" before "terminate payment", "(B)" before "reduce payments", and "(C)" before "limit the availability of payments".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473 in amending subsec. (b) generally, substituted "If any grant application submitted under subchapter IV of this chapter has been denied, or any grant under this chapter has been terminated" for "If a State grant application filed under subchapter IV of this chapter or any grant application filed under any other subchapter of this chapter has been rejected or a State applicant under subchapter IV of this chapter or applicant under any other subchapter of this chapter has been denied a grant or has had a grant, or any portion of a grant, discontinued, terminated or has been given a grant in a lesser amount that such applicant believes appropriate under the provisions of this chapter" struck out "or grantee" after "notify the applicant" and before "requests a hearing"; substituted requirement for notice by the Bureau of Justice Assistance rather than the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration; and inserted provisions for taking final action without hearing but requiring a more detailed statement of reasons for agency action to be made available to the applicant.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473 in amending subsec. (c) generally, substituted provisions for findings and rehearings by the Bureau of Justice Assistance for similar provisions for Law Enforcement Assistance Administration; and substituted description of the party as "applicant" for prior designation as "recipient".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

§10223. Finality of determinations

In carrying out the functions vested by this chapter in the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, or the National Institute of Justice, their determinations, findings, and conclusions shall be final and conclusive upon all applications.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §803, formerly §804, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1203; renumbered §803 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(c), (f), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1155(2), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3113.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3784 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Another section 803 of Pub. L. 90–351, title III, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 223, amended section 605 of Title 47, Telecommunications.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 803 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 802 and is classified to section 10222 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 struck out ", after reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing," after "conclusions shall" and ", except as otherwise provided herein" before period at end.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, §609B(c), substituted "Bureau of Justice Assistance" for "Law Enforcement Assistance Administration".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 609B(c) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

§10224. Delegation of functions

The Attorney General, the Assistant Attorney General, the Director of the National Institute of Justice, the Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance may delegate to any of their respective officers or employees such functions under this chapter as they deem appropriate.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §805, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(g), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3786 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 805 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 804 and was classified to section 3785 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 10101 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

§10225. Subpoena power; employment of hearing officers; authority to hold hearings

The Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics may appoint such hearing examiners or administrative law judges or request the use of such administrative law judges selected by the Office of Personnel Management pursuant to section 3344 of title 5, as shall be necessary to carry out their respective powers and duties under this chapter. The Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics or upon authorization, any member thereof or any hearing examiner or administrative law judge assigned to or employed thereby shall have the power to hold hearings and issue subpoenas, administer oaths, examine witnesses, and receive evidence at any place in the United States they respectively may designate.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §806, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(g), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2094.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3787 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 806 of Pub. L. 90–351 was classified to section 3786 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Provisions similar to this section were contained in part in section 3788 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal of such section by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 10101 of this title.

§10226. Personnel and administrative authority

(a) Officers and employees of certain Federal agencies; employment; compensation

The Assistant Attorney General, the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Director of the Institute, and the Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics are authorized to select, appoint, employ, and fix compensation of such officers and employees as shall be necessary to carry out the powers and duties of the Office, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, respectively, under this chapter.

(b) Use of available services; reimbursement

The Office, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics are authorized, on a reimbursable basis when appropriate, to use the available services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of Federal, State, and local agencies to the extent deemed appropriate after giving due consideration to the effectiveness of such existing services, equipment, personnel, and facilities.

(c) Other Federal agency performance of functions under this chapter; reimbursement

The Office, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics may arrange with and reimburse the heads of other Federal departments and agencies for the performance of any of the functions under this chapter.

(d) Experts and consultants; compensation

The Office, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics may procure the services of experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, relating to appointments in the Federal service, at rates of compensation for individuals not to exceed the daily equivalent of the rate of pay payable from time to time for GS–18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5.

(e) Advisory committees; compensation and travel expenses of committee members

The Office, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics are authorized to appoint, without regard to the provisions of title 5, advisory committees to advise them with respect to the administration of this chapter as they deem necessary. Such committees shall be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.). Members of such committees not otherwise in the employ of the United States, while engaged in advising or attending meetings of such committees, shall be compensated at rates to be fixed by the Office but not to exceed the daily equivalent of the rate of pay payable from time to time for GS–18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, and while away from home or regular place of business they may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as authorized by section 5703 of such title 5 for persons in the Government service employed intermittently.

(f) Payments; installments; advances or reimbursement; transportation and subsistence expenses for attendance at conferences or other assemblages

Payments under this chapter may be made in installments, and in advance or by way of reimbursement, as may be determined by the Office, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, or the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and may be used to pay the transportation and subsistence expenses of persons attending conferences or other assemblages notwithstanding section 1345 of title 31.

(g) Voluntary services; status as Federal employees; exceptions

The Office, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics are authorized to accept and employ, in carrying out the provisions of this chapter, voluntary and uncompensated services notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31. Such individuals shall not be considered Federal employees except for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5 with respect to job-incurred disability and title 28 with respect to tort claims.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §807, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(g), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2094.)

References in Text

Provisions of title 5 relating to appointments, referred to in subsec. (c), are classified to section 3301 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3788 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 807 of Pub. L. 90–351 was classified to section 3787 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Provisions similar to subsecs. (b), (c), (d) to (f), and (g) of this section were contained in sections 3789, 3789b(a), 3789c(a) to (c), and 3789h of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, respectively, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 10101 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§10227. Title to personal property

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, title to all expendable and nonexpendable personal property purchased with funds made available under this chapter, including such property purchased with funds made available under this chapter as in effect before October 12, 1984, shall vest in the criminal justice agency or nonprofit organization that purchased the property if it certifies to the State office responsible for the trust fund required by section 10158 of this title, or the State office described in section 1408 1,,2 as the case may be, that it will use the property for criminal justice purposes. If such certification is not made, title to the property shall vest in the State office, which shall seek to have the property used for criminal justice purposes elsewhere in the State prior to using it or disposing of it in any other manner.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §808, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(g), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2095; amended Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1552(b)(4), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–46; Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §241(b)(4), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4813; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(h)(10), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2139; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1111(c)(2)(E), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3102.)

References in Text

Section 1408, referred to in text, is section 1408 of Pub. L. 90–351, which was classified to section 3796aa–7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40156(c)(8), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1924.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 808 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1204, amended section 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "the State office responsible for the trust fund required by section 3757 of this title, or the State office described in section 3796aa–7 of this title," for "the State office described in section 3757 or 3796aa–7 of this title".

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted "3757" for "3748, 3796o,".

1990—Pub. L. 101–647 substituted ", 3796o, or 3796aa–7 of this title" for "or 3796o of this title".

1986—Pub. L. 99–570 inserted reference to section 3796o of this title and ", as the case may be,".

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–162 applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10151 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 10101 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original.

§10228. Prohibition of Federal control over State and local criminal justice agencies; prohibition of discrimination

(a) General rule

Nothing in this chapter or any other Act shall be construed to authorize any department, agency, officer, or employee of the United States to exercise any direction, supervision, or control over any police force or any other criminal justice agency of any State or any political subdivision thereof.

(b) Racial imbalance requirement restriction

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to authorize the National Institute of Justice, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, or the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration—

(1) to require, or condition the availability or amount of a grant upon the adoption by an applicant or grantee under this chapter of a percentage ratio, quota system, or other program to achieve racial balance in any criminal justice agency; or

(2) to deny or discontinue a grant because of the refusal of an applicant or grantee under this chapter to adopt such a ratio, system, or other program.

(c) Discrimination prohibited; notice of non-compliance; suspension and restoration of payments; hearing; civil action by Attorney General; private action, attorney fees, intervention by Attorney General

(1) No person in any State shall on the ground of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under or denied employment in connection with any programs or activity funded in whole or in part with funds made available under this chapter.

(2)(A) Whenever there has been—

(i) receipt of notice of a finding, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, by a Federal court (other than in an action brought by the Attorney General) or State court, or by a Federal or State administrative agency, to the effect that there has been a pattern or practice of discrimination in violation of paragraph (1); or

(ii) a determination after an investigation by the Office of Justice Programs (prior to a hearing under subparagraph (F) but including an opportunity for the State government or unit of local government to make a documentary submission regarding the allegation of discrimination with respect to such program or activity, with funds made available under this chapter) that a State government or unit of local government is not in compliance with paragraph (1);


the Office of Justice Programs shall, within ten days after such occurrence, notify the chief executive of the affected State, or the State in which the affected unit of local government is located, and the chief executive of such unit of local government, that such program or activity has been so found or determined not to be in compliance with paragraph (1), and shall request each chief executive, notified under this subparagraph with respect to such violation, to secure compliance. For purposes of clause (i) a finding by a Federal or State administrative agency shall be deemed rendered after notice and opportunity for a hearing if it is rendered pursuant to procedures consistent with the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.

(B) In the event the chief executive secures compliance after notice pursuant to subparagraph (A), the terms and conditions with which the affected State government or unit of local government agrees to comply shall be set forth in writing and signed by the chief executive of the State, by the chief executive of such unit (in the event of a violation by a unit of local government), and by the Office of Justice Programs. On or prior to the effective date of the agreement, the Office of Justice Programs shall send a copy of the agreement to each complainant, if any, with respect to such violation. The chief executive of the State, or the chief executive of the unit (in the event of a violation by a unit of local government) shall file semiannual reports with the Office of Justice Programs detailing the steps taken to comply with the agreement. These reports shall cease to be filed upon the determination of the Office of Justice Programs that compliance has been secured, or upon the determination by a Federal or State court that such State government or local governmental unit is in compliance with this section. Within fifteen days of receipt of such reports, the Office of Justice Programs shall send a copy thereof to each such complainant.

(C) If, at the conclusion of ninety days after notification under subparagraph (A)—

(i) compliance has not been secured by the chief executive of that State or the chief executive of that unit of local government; and

(ii) an administrative law judge has not made a determination under subparagraph (F) that it is likely the State government or unit of local government will prevail on the merits; the Office of Justice Programs shall notify the Attorney General that compliance has not been secured and caused to have suspended further payment of any funds under this chapter to that program or activity. Such suspension shall be limited to the specific program or activity cited by the Office of Justice Programs in the notice under subparagraph (A). Such suspension shall be effective for a period of not more than one hundred and twenty days, or, if there is a hearing under subparagraph (G), not more than thirty days after the conclusion of such hearing, unless there has been an express finding by the Office of Justice Programs, after notice and opportunity for such a hearing, that the recipient is not in compliance with paragraph (1).


(D) Payment of the suspended funds shall resume only if—

(i) such State government or unit of local government enters into a compliance agreement approved by the Office of Justice Programs and the Attorney General in accordance with subparagraph (B);

(ii) such State government or unit of local government complies fully with the final order or judgment of a Federal or State court, or by a Federal or State administrative agency if that order or judgment covers all the matters raised by the Office of Justice Programs in the notice pursuant to subparagraph (A), or is found to be in compliance with paragraph (1) by such court; or

(iii) after a hearing the Office of Justice Programs pursuant to subparagraph (F) finds that noncompliance has not been demonstrated.


(E) Whenever the Attorney General files a civil action alleging a pattern or practice of discriminatory conduct on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex in any program or activity of a State government or unit of local government which State government or unit of local government receives funds made available under this chapter, and the conduct allegedly violates the provisions of this section and neither party within forty-five days after such filing has been granted such preliminary relief with regard to the suspension or payment of funds as may be otherwise available by law, the Office of Justice Programs shall cause to have suspended further payment of any funds under this chapter to that specific program or activity alleged by the Attorney General to be in violation of the provisions of this subsection until such time as the court orders resumption of payment.

(F) Prior to the suspension of funds under subparagraph (C), but within the ninety-day period after notification under subparagraph (C), the State government or unit of local government may request an expedited preliminary hearing on the record in accordance with section 554 of title 5, in order to determine whether it is likely that the State government or unit of local government would, at a full hearing under subparagraph (G), prevail on the merits on the issue of the alleged noncompliance. A finding under this subparagraph by the administrative law judge in favor of the State government or unit of local government shall defer the suspension of funds under subparagraph (C) pending a finding of noncompliance at the conclusion of the hearing on the merits under subparagraph (G).

(G)(i) At any time after notification under subparagraph (A), but before the conclusion of the one-hundred-and-twenty-day period referred to in subparagraph (C), a State government or unit of local government may request a hearing on the record in accordance with section 554 of title 5, which the Office of Justice Programs shall initiate within sixty days of such request.

(ii) Within thirty days after the conclusion of the hearing, or, in the absence of a hearing, at the conclusion of the one-hundred-and-twenty-day period referred to in subparagraph (C), the Office of Justice Programs shall make a finding of compliance or noncompliance. If the Office of Justice Programs makes a finding of noncompliance, the Office of Justice Programs shall notify the Attorney General in order that the Attorney General may institute a civil action under paragraph (3), cause to have terminated the payment of funds under this chapter, and, if appropriate, seek repayment of such funds.

(iii) If the Office of Justice Programs makes a finding of compliance, payment of the suspended funds shall resume as provided in subparagraph (D).

(H) Any State government or unit of local government aggrieved by a final determination of the Office of Justice Programs under subparagraph (G) may appeal such determination as provided in section 804 1.

(3) Whenever the Attorney General has reason to believe that a State government or unit of local government has engaged in or is engaging in a pattern or practice in violation of the provisions of this section, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in an appropriate United States district court. Such court may grant as relief any temporary restraining order, preliminary or permanent injunction, or other order, as necessary or appropriate to insure the full enjoyment of the rights described in this section, including the suspension, termination, or repayment of such funds made available under this chapter as the court may deem appropriate, or placing any further such funds in escrow pending the outcome of the litigation.

(4)(A) Whenever a State government or unit of local government, or any officer or employee thereof acting in an official capacity, has engaged or is engaging in any act or practice prohibited by this subsection, a civil action may be instituted after exhaustion of administrative remedies by the person aggrieved in an appropriate United States district court or in a State court of general jurisdiction. Administrative remedies shall be deemed to be exhausted upon the expiration of sixty days after the date the administrative complaint was filed with the Office of Justice Programs or any other administrative enforcement agency, unless within such period there has been a determination by the Office of Justice Programs or the agency on the merits of the complaint, in which case such remedies shall be deemed exhausted at the time the determination becomes final.

(B) In any civil action brought by a private person to enforce compliance with any provision of this subsection, the court may grant to a prevailing plaintiff reasonable attorney fees, unless the court determines that the lawsuit is frivolous, vexatious, brought for harassment purposes, or brought principally for the purpose of gaining attorney fees.

(C) In any action instituted under this section to enforce compliance with paragraph (1), the Attorney General, or a specially designated assistant for or in the name of the United States, may intervene upon timely application if he certifies that the action is of general public importance. In such action the United States shall be entitled to the same relief as if it had instituted the action.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §809, formerly §815, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1206; renumbered §809 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), (h)), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093, 2095; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(h)(11), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2139.)

References in Text

Section 804, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(H), is section 804 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, which was classified to section 3785 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1155(3), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3114.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789d of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in former section 3766 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

A prior section 809 of Pub. L. 90–351, title I, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1204, amended section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (c)(2)(H). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted "804" for "805".

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, §609B(h)(2), struck out "contained" after "Nothing".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473, §609B(h)(3), substituted "Office of Justice Programs" for "Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 609B(h) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§10229. Report to President and Congress

Not later than April 1 of each year, the Assistant Attorney General, the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and the Director of the National Institute of Justice shall each submit a report to the President and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the Senate, on their activities under this chapter during the fiscal year next preceding such date.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §810, formerly §816, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1209; renumbered §810 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), (i), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093, 2095.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789e of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 810 of Pub. L. 90–351 was classified to section 3788 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, §609B(i), substituted requirement of individual reports by certain officials of listed agencies to the President and the Speaker of the House and President of the Senate for former subsec. (a) through (e) provisions which included requirement of an annual report on or before March 31 of each year to the President and Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House, including description of scope of coverage; report covering receipt and compilation of evaluations, statistics, and performance reports, comprehensive statistics, analyses, and findings respecting attainment of described objectives; plan for collection, analysis, and evaluation of data for measurement of progress in prescribed and additional areas, definition of "comprehensive statistics" and "reasonably expected contribution"; attainment of reasonably expected contribution in prescribed and added areas; and data collection, including minimum duplication.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 609B(i) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

§10230. Other administrative provisions

(a) Recordkeeping requirement; scope of disclosure; other sources of funds

Each recipient of funds under this chapter shall keep such records as the Office of Justice Programs shall prescribe, including records which fully disclose the amount and disposition by such recipient of the funds, the total cost of the project or undertaking for which such funds are used, and the amount of that portion of the cost of the project or undertaking supplied by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an effective audit.

(b) Access to records for audit and examination

The Office of Justice Programs or any of its duly authorized representatives, shall have access for purpose of audit and examination of any books, documents, papers, and records of the recipients of funds under this chapter which in the opinion of the Office of Justice Programs may be related or pertinent to the grants, contracts, subcontracts, subgrants, or other arrangements referred to under this chapter.

(c) Audit and examination period after completion of program or project

The Comptroller General of the United States or any of his duly authorized representatives, shall, until the expiration of three years after the completion of the program or project with which the assistance is used, have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records of recipients of Federal funds under this chapter which in the opinion of the Comptroller General may be related or pertinent to the grants, contracts, subcontracts, subgrants, or other arrangements referred to under this chapter.

(d) Recipients of assistance subject to provisions of section

The provisions of this section shall apply to all recipients of assistance under this chapter, whether by direct grant, cooperative agreement, or contract under this chapter or by subgrant or subcontract from primary grantees or contractors under this chapter.

(e) Revolving fund for acquisition of stolen goods and property within Bureau of Justice Assistance

There is hereby established within the Bureau of Justice Assistance a revolving fund for the purpose of supporting projects that will acquire stolen goods and property in an effort to disrupt illicit commerce in such goods and property. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any income or royalties generated from such projects together with income generated from any sale or use of such goods or property, where such goods or property are not claimed by their lawful owner, shall be paid into the revolving fund. Where a party establishes a legal right to such goods or property, the Administrator of the fund may in his discretion assert a claim against the property or goods in the amount of Federal funds used to purchase such goods or property. Proceeds from such claims shall be paid into the revolving fund. The Administrator is authorized to make disbursements by appropriate means, including grants, from the fund for the purpose of this section.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §811, formerly §817, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1212; renumbered §811 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), (j), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093, 2096; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(h)(12), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2139.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789f of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 811 of Pub. L. 90–351 was classified to section 3789 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted "Bureau of Justice Assistance" for "Law Enforcement Assistance Administration".

1984—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 98–473, §609B(j)(1), substituted "Office of Justice Programs" for "Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics" wherever appearing.

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 98–473, §609B(j)(2), (3), redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (d) and (e), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (d) relating to civil rights regulations and conforming changes of the regulations.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 609B(j) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

§10231. Confidentiality of information

(a) Research or statistical information; immunity from process; prohibition against admission as evidence or use in any proceedings

No officer or employee of the Federal Government, and no recipient of assistance under the provisions of this chapter shall use or reveal any research or statistical information furnished under this chapter by any person and identifiable to any specific private person for any purpose other than the purpose for which it was obtained in accordance with this chapter. Such information and copies thereof shall be immune from legal process, and shall not, without the consent of the person furnishing such information, be admitted as evidence or used for any purpose in any action, suit, or other judicial, legislative, or administrative proceedings.

(b) Criminal history information; disposition and arrest data; procedures for collection, storage, dissemination, and current status; security and privacy; availability for law enforcement, criminal justice, and other lawful purposes; automated systems: review, challenge, and correction of information

All criminal history information collected, stored, or disseminated through support under this chapter shall contain, to the maximum extent feasible, disposition as well as arrest data where arrest data is included therein. The collection, storage, and dissemination of such information shall take place under procedures reasonably designed to insure that all such information is kept current therein; the Office of Justice Programs shall assure that the security and privacy of all information is adequately provided for and that information shall only be used for law enforcement and criminal justice and other lawful purposes. In addition, an individual who believes that criminal history information concerning him contained in an automated system is inaccurate, incomplete, or maintained in violation of this chapter, shall, upon satisfactory verification of his identity, be entitled to review such information and to obtain a copy of it for the purpose of challenge or correction.

(c) Criminal intelligence systems and information; prohibition against violation of privacy and constitutional rights of individuals

All criminal intelligence systems operating through support under this chapter shall collect, maintain, and disseminate criminal intelligence information in conformance with policy standards which are prescribed by the Office of Justice Programs and which are written to assure that the funding and operation of these systems furthers the purpose of this chapter and to assure that such systems are not utilized in violation of the privacy and constitutional rights of individuals.

(d) Violations; fine as additional penalty

Any person violating the provisions of this section, or of any rule, regulation, or order issued thereunder, shall be fined not to exceed $10,000, in addition to any other penalty imposed by law.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §812, formerly §818, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1213; renumbered §812 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), (k), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093, 2096; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1115(c), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3104.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789g of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 812 of Pub. L. 90–351 was classified to section 3789a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "No" for "Except as provided by Federal law other than this chapter, no".

1984—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 98–473, 609B(k), substituted "Office of Justice Programs" for "Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 609B(k) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

Construction

Terms "this chapter" and "this section", as such terms appear in this section, deemed to be references to chapter 501 and section 50105 of this title, respectively, and reference to the Office of Justice Programs in this section deemed to be a reference to the Attorney General, see section 50105 of this title.

§10232. Administration of juvenile delinquency programs

The Director of the National Institute of Justice and the Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics shall work closely with the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in developing and implementing programs in the juvenile justice and delinquency prevention field.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §813, formerly §820, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1214; renumbered §813 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), (m), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093, 2096.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789i of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 813 of Pub. L. 90–351 was classified to section 3789b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, §609B(m), struck out subsec. (a) relating to programs concerned with juvenile delinquency and administered by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and struck out subsec. (b) designation.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 609B(m) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

§10233. Prohibition on land acquisition

No funds under this chapter shall be used for land acquisition.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §814, formerly §821, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1214; renumbered §814, Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789j of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 814 of Pub. L. 90–351 was classified to section 3789c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by section 609B(e) of Pub. L. 98–473.

§10234. Prohibition on use of Central Intelligence Agency services

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no use will be made of services, facilities, or personnel of the Central Intelligence Agency.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §815, formerly §822, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1214; renumbered §815, Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789k of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 815 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 809 and is classified to section 10228 of this title.

§10235. Indian liability waiver

Where a State does not have an adequate forum to enforce grant provisions imposing liability on Indian tribes, the Assistant Attorney General is authorized to waive State liability and may pursue such legal remedies as are necessary.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §816, formerly §823, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1214; renumbered §816 and amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), (n), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093, 2096.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789l of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 816 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 810 and is classified to section 10229 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, §609B(n), substituted "Assistant Attorney General" for "Administration".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 609B(n) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

§10236. District of Columbia matching fund source

Funds appropriated by the Congress for the activities of any agency of the District of Columbia government or the United States Government performing law enforcement functions in and for the District of Columbia may be used to provide the non-Federal share of the cost of programs or projects funded under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §817, formerly §824, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1214; renumbered §817, Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789m of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 817 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 811 and is classified to section 10230 of this title.

§10237. Limitation on civil justice matters

Authority of any entity established under this chapter shall extend to civil justice matters only to the extent that such civil justice matters bear directly and substantially upon criminal justice matters or are inextricably intertwined with criminal justice matters.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §818, formerly §825, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1214; renumbered §818, Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609B(f), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2093.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3789n of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 818 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 812 and is classified to section 10231 of this title.

§10238. Accountability and oversight

(a) Report by grant recipients

The Attorney General or Secretary of Health and Human Services, as applicable, shall require grantees under any program authorized or reauthorized by this division or an amendment made by this division to report on the effectiveness of the activities carried out with amounts made available to carry out that program, including number of persons served, if applicable, numbers of persons seeking services who could not be served and such other information as the Attorney General or Secretary may prescribe.

(b) Report to Congress

The Attorney General or Secretary of Health and Human Services, as applicable, shall report biennially to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate on the grant programs described in subsection (a), including the information contained in any report under that subsection.

(Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, §1003, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1491.)

References in Text

This division, referred to in subsec. (a), is division B of Pub. L. 106–386, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1491, known as the Violence Against Women Act of 2000. For complete classification of division B to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Violence Against Women Act of 2000, and also as part of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, and not as part of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 3789p of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

SUBCHAPTER VIII—DEFINITIONS

§10251. General provisions

(a) Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(1) "criminal justice" means activities pertaining to crime prevention, control, or reduction, or the enforcement of the criminal law, including, but not limited to, police efforts to prevent, control, or reduce crime or to apprehend criminals, including juveniles, activities of courts having criminal jurisdiction, and related agencies (including but not limited to prosecutorial and defender services, juvenile delinquency agencies and pretrial service or release agencies), activities of corrections, probation, or parole authorities and related agencies assisting in the rehabilitation, supervision, and care of criminal offenders, and programs relating to the prevention, control, or reduction of narcotic addiction and juvenile delinquency;

(2) "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands: Provided, That for the purposes of section 10156(a) of this title, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall be considered as one state 1 and that for these purposes 67 per centum of the amounts allocated shall be allocated to American Samoa, and 33 per centum to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.2

(3) "unit of local government" means—

(A) any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State;

(B) any law enforcement district or judicial enforcement district that—

(i) is established under applicable State law; and

(ii) has the authority to, in a manner independent of other State entities, establish a budget and impose taxes;


(C) an Indian Tribe that performs law enforcement functions, as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or

(D) for the purposes of assistance eligibility, any agency of the government of the District of Columbia or the Federal Government that performs law enforcement functions in and for—

(i) the District of Columbia; or

(ii) any Trust Territory of the United States;


(4) "construction" means the erection, acquisition, renovation, repairs, remodeling, or expansion of new or existing buildings or other physical facilities, and the acquisition or installation of initial equipment therefor;

(5) "combination" as applied to States or units of local government means any grouping or joining together of such States or units for the purpose of preparing, developing, or implementing a criminal justice program, plan, or project;

(6) "public agency" means any State, unit of local government, combination of such States or units, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of any of the foregoing;

(7) "correctional facility" means any place for the confinement or rehabilitation of offenders or individuals charged with or convicted of criminal offenses;

(8) "correctional facility project" means a project for the construction, replacement, alteration or expansion of a prison or jail for the purpose of relieving overcrowding or substandard conditions;

(9) "criminal history information" includes records and related data, contained in an automated or manual criminal justice informational system, compiled by law enforcement agencies for the purpose of identifying criminal offenders and alleged offenders and maintaining as to such persons records of arrests, the nature and disposition of criminal charges, sentencing, confinement, rehabilitation, and release;

(10) "evaluation" means the administration and conduct of studies and analyses to determine the impact and value of a project or program in accomplishing the statutory objectives of this chapter;

(11) "neighborhood or community-based organizations" means organizations, including faith-based, that are representative of communities or significant segments of communities;

(12) "chief executive" means the highest official of a State or local jurisdiction;

(13) "cost of construction" means all expenses found by the Director to be necessary for the construction of the project, including architect and engineering fees, but excluding land acquisition costs;

(14) "population" means total resident population based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time;

(15) "Attorney General" means the Attorney General of the United States or his designee;

(16) "court of last resort" means that State court having the highest and final appellate authority of the State. In States having two or more such courts, court of last resort shall mean that State court, if any, having highest and final appellate authority, as well as both administrative responsibility for the State's judicial system and the institutions of the State judicial branch and rulemaking authority. In other States having two or more courts with highest and final appellate authority, court of last resort shall mean the highest appellate court which also has either rulemaking authority or administrative responsibility for the State's judicial system and the institutions of the State judicial branch. Except as used in the definition of the term "court of last resort" the term "court" means a tribunal recognized as a part of the judicial branch of a State or of its local government units;

(17) "institution of higher education" means any such institution as defined by section 1001 of title 20, subject, however, to such modifications and extensions as the Office may determine to be appropriate;

(18) "white-collar crime" means an illegal act or series of illegal acts committed by nonphysical means and by concealment or guile, to obtain money or property, to avoid the payment or loss of money or property, or to obtain business or personal advantage;

(19) "proven effectiveness" means that a program, project, approach, or practice has been shown by analysis of performance and results to make a significant contribution to the accomplishment of the objectives for which it was undertaken or to have a significant effect in improving the condition or problem it was undertaken to address;

(20) "record of proven success" means that a program, project, approach, or practice has been demonstrated by evaluation or by analysis of performance data and information to be successful in a number of jurisdictions or over a period of time in contributing to the accomplishment of objectives or to improving conditions identified with the problem, to which it is addressed;

(21) "high probability of improving the criminal justice system" means that a prudent assessment of the concepts and implementation plans included in a proposed program, project, approach, or practice, together with an assessment of the problem to which it is addressed and of data and information bearing on the problem, concept, and implementation plan, provides strong evidence that the proposed activities would result in identifiable improvements in the criminal justice system if implemented as proposed;

(22) "correctional option" includes community-based incarceration, weekend incarceration, boot camp prison, electronic monitoring of offenders, intensive probation, and any other innovative punishment designed to have the greatest impact on offenders who can be punished more effectively in an environment other than a traditional correctional facility;

(23) "boot camp prison" includes a correctional facility in which inmates are required to participate in a highly regimented program that provides strict discipline, physical training, and hard labor, together with extensive rehabilitative activities and with educational, job training, and drug treatment support;

(24) the term "young offender" means a non-violent first-time offender or a non-violent offender with a minor criminal record who is 22 years of age or younger (including juveniles);

(25) the term "residential substance abuse treatment program" means a course of individual and group activities, lasting between 6 and 12 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population—

(A) directed at the substance abuse problems of the prisoner; and

(B) intended to develop the prisoner's cognitive, behavioral, social, vocational, and other skills so as to solve the prisoner's substance abuse and related problems;


(26) the term "Indian Tribe" has the meaning given the term "Indian tribe" in section 5304(e) of title 25;

(27) the term "private person" means any individual (including an individual acting in his official capacity) and any private partnership, corporation, association, organization, or entity (or any combination thereof); and

(28) the term "hearing examiner" includes any medical or claims examiner.

(b) Data basis for definitions; reflection of technical changes or modifications

Where appropriate, the definitions in subsection (a) shall be based, with respect to any fiscal year, on the most recent data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and the latest published reports of the Office of Management and Budget available ninety days prior to the beginning of such fiscal year. The Office may by regulation change or otherwise modify the meaning of the terms defined in subsection (a) in order to reflect any technical change or modification thereof made subsequent to such date by the United States Bureau of the Census or the Office of Management and Budget.

(c) Designation of public agencies for undertaking a program or project

One or more public agencies, including existing local public agencies, may be designated by the chief executive officer of a State or a unit of local government to undertake a program or project in whole or in part.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §901, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1216; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609C, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2096; Pub. L. 99–396, §7, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6092(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4339; Pub. L. 101–219, title II, §206, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 101–647, title XVIII, §1801(c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4849; Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20201(c), title III, §32101(c), title XXXIII, §330001(d), (h)(13), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1822, 1900, 2138, 2140; Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(13)(D), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1620; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title I, §129(b)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681-76; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §§1111(c)(2)(F), 1156, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3102, 3114; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(1)(A), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1964.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3791 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Another section 901 of Pub. L. 90–351, title IV, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 225, is classified as a note under section 921 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(28). Pub. L. 112–239 added par. (28).

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §1111(c)(2)(F), which directed the substitution of "for the purposes of section 3755(a) of this title" for "for the purposes of section 3756(a) of this title", was executed by making the substitution for "for the purpose of section 3756(a) of this title", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 109–162, §1156(1), struck out "(as that term is defined in section 5603 of this title)" after "an Indian Tribe".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 109–162, §1156(2), substituted "program, plan, or project" for "program or project".

Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 109–162, §1156(3), substituted ", including faith-based, that" for "which".

Subsec. (a)(26), (27). Pub. L. 109–162, §1156(4), added pars. (26) and (27).

1998—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–277, which directed the general amendment of par. (3) of this section, was executed to subsec. (a)(3) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a)(3) read as follows: " 'unit of local government' means any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State, an Indian tribe which performs law enforcement functions as determined by the Secretary of the Interior, or, for the purpose of assistance eligibility, any agency of the District of Columbia government or the United States Government performing law enforcement functions in and for the District of Columbia, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands;".

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 105–244, which directed amendment of par. (17) of this section by substituting "1001" for "1141(a)", was executed to subsec. (a)(17) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–322, §330001(h)(13), substituted "Columbia, and" for "Columbia and,".

Subsec. (a)(21). Pub. L. 103–322, §§20201(c)(1), 330001(d), amended par. (21) identically, inserting a semicolon at end.

Subsec. (a)(22). Pub. L. 103–322, §20201(c)(2), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 103–322, §32101(c)(1), which directed the striking out of "and" at end of par. (23), could not be executed because the word "and" did not appear at end of par. (23).

Pub. L. 103–322, §20201(c)(3), substituted a semicolon for period at end.

Subsec. (a)(24). Pub. L. 103–322, §32101(c)(2), substituted "; and" for period at end.

Pub. L. 103–322, §20201(c)(4), added par. (24).

Subsec. (a)(25). Pub. L. 103–322, §32101(c)(3), added par. (25).

1990—Subsec. (a)(22), (23). Pub. L. 101–647 added pars. (22) and (23).

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–219 substituted "Provided, That for the purpose of section 3756(a) of this title, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall be considered as one state and that for these purposes 67 per centum of the amounts allocated shall be allocated to American Samoa, and 33 per centum to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands." for "Provided, That for the purposes of section 3756(a) of this title American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands shall be considered as one State and that, for these purposes, 33 per centum of the amounts allocated shall be allocated to American Samoa, 50 per centum to Guam, and 17 per centum to the Northern Mariana Islands;".

1988—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–690 substituted "section 3756(a)" for "section 3747(a)".

1986—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–396, §7(1), included American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands in definition of "State" and inserted proviso directing that for purposes of section 3747(a) of this title American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands shall be considered as one State.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–396, §7(2), substituted "and" for ", Guam, American Samoa" after "in and for the District of Columbia" and struck out ", or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands" after "Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands".

1984—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98–473, §609C(b)(1), struck out references to Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–473, §609C(b)(2), inserted references to Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 98–473, §609C(b)(3), extended definition of "construction" to include renovation, repairs, and remodeling and struck out previous exclusion of such items from definition.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 98–473, §609C(b)(4), substituted "correctional facility" for "correctional institution or facility".

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 98–473, §609C(b)(5), substituted definition of "correctional facility project" for "comprehensive".

Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 98–473, §609C(b)(6), substituted definition of "cost of construction" for "municipality".

Subsecs. (a)(17), (b). Pub. L. 98–473, §609C(a), substituted "Office" for "Administration".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(d), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1969, as amended by Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(b)(7), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 114–326, §2(c), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1973, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall—

"(A) take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013]; and

"(B) apply to any matter pending, before the Bureau of Justice Assistance or otherwise, on the date of enactment of this Act, or filed (consistent with pre-existing effective dates) or accruing after that date.

"(2) Exceptions.—

"(A) Rescue squads and ambulance crews.—For a member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew (as defined in section 1204(7) of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10284(7)], as amended by this section), the amendments made to section 1204 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796b) [now 34 U.S.C. 10284] by this Act shall apply to injuries sustained on or after June 1, 2009.

"(B) Heart attacks, strokes, and vascular ruptures.—Section 1201(k) of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10281(k)], as amended by this section, shall apply to heart attacks, strokes, and vascular ruptures sustained on or after December 15, 2003."

[Pub. L. 114–326, §2(c)(1)(A), and Pub. L. 113–66, §1091(b)(7), made identical amendments to section 1086(d) of Pub. L. 112–239 by substituting "paragraph (2)" for "paragraph (1)" in par. (1), effective on the same date. See below.]

[Pub. L. 114–326, §2(c), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1973, provided in part that the amendment made by section 2(c) is effective as if enacted on Jan. 2, 2013.]

[Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 876, provided in part that the amendment made by section 1091(b)(7) is effective as of Jan. 2, 2013, and as if included in Pub. L. 112–239 as enacted.]

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 1111(c)(2)(F) of Pub. L. 109–162 applicable with respect to the first fiscal year beginning after Jan. 5, 2006, and each fiscal year thereafter, see section 1111(d) of Pub. L. 109–162, set out as a note under section 10151 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

2 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

SUBCHAPTER IX—FUNDING

§10261. Authorization of appropriations

(a)(1) There is authorized to be appropriated $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1992 and $33,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1994 and 1995 to carry out the functions of the Bureau of Justice Statistics.

(2) There is authorized to be appropriated $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1992 and $33,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1994 and 1995 to carry out the functions of the National Institute of Justice.

(3) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992 and $28,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1994 and 1995 to carry out the remaining functions of the Office of Justice Programs and the Bureau of Justice Assistance other than functions under subchapters IV, V, part F,1 subchapters VI, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, part V,1 subchapters XXII, and XXIII or 2 XXX.

(4) There are authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to carry out subchapter XI of this chapter.

(5) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992 and $1,000,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1994 and 1995 to carry out the programs under subchapters IV and V (other than subpart 2 of part B) 3 (other than subpart 1 of part B of subchapter V) of this chapter.

(6) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992, $245,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 4 1994 and 1995 to carry out subpart 1 of part B of subchapter V of this chapter.

(7) There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XIII $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2005.

(8) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992, $16,500,000 for fiscal year 1993, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 4 1994 and 1995.

(9) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XIV—

(A) $24,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(B) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

(C) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

(D) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

(E) $66,000,000 for fiscal year 2000.


(10) There are 5 authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1994, 1995, and 1996 to carry out projects under subchapter XV.

(11)(A) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XVI, to remain available until expended $1,047,119,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2009.

(B) Of funds available under subchapter XVI in any fiscal year, up to 3 percent may be used for technical assistance under section 10381(d) of this title or for evaluations or studies carried out or commissioned by the Attorney General in furtherance of the purposes of subchapter XVI. Of the remaining funds, 50 percent shall be allocated for grants pursuant to applications submitted by units of local government or law enforcement agencies having jurisdiction over areas with populations exceeding 150,000 or by public and private entities that serve areas with populations exceeding 150,000, and 50 percent shall be allocated for grants pursuant to applications submitted by units of local government or law enforcement agencies having jurisdiction over areas with populations 150,000 or less or by public and private entities that serve areas with populations 150,000 or less. In view of the extraordinary need for law enforcement assistance in Indian country, an appropriate amount of funds available under subchapter XVI shall be made available for grants to Indian tribal governments or tribal law enforcement agencies.

(16) 6 There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out projects under subchapter XVII—

(A) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(B) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

(C) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

(D) $35,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

(E) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2000.


(17) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the projects under subchapter XVIII—

(A) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(B) $36,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

(C) $63,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

(D) $72,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

(E) $72,000,000 for fiscal year 2000.


(18) There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XIX $222,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(19) There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XX $73,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018. Funds appropriated under this paragraph shall remain available until expended.

(20) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out part V,1 $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2004.

(21) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XXII—

(1) 7 $2,500,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(2) 7 $4,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

(3) 7 $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

(4) 7 $6,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

(5) 7 $7,500,000 for fiscal year 2000.


(22) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XXIII—

(1) 7 $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

(2) 7 $3,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

(3) 7 $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

(4) 7 $13,500,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

(5) 7 $17,500,000 for fiscal year 2000.


(23) There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XXIV, $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2016 through 2020.

(24) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XXVII, to remain available until expended—

(A) $35,000,000 for fiscal year 2001;

(B) $85,400,000 for fiscal year 2002;

(C) $134,733,000 for fiscal year 2003;

(D) $128,067,000 for fiscal year 2004;

(E) $56,733,000 for fiscal year 2005;

(F) $42,067,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(G) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(H) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(I) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and

(J) $13,500,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(K) $18,500,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(L) $19,000,000 for fiscal year 2019;

(M) $21,000,000 for fiscal year 2020; and

(N) $23,000,000 for fiscal year 2021.


(25)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), there are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XXX—

(i) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2002;

(ii) $54,000,000 for fiscal year 2003;

(iii) $58,000,000 for fiscal year 2004; and 8

(iv) $60,000,000 for fiscal year 2005.9

(v) 10 $70,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008.11

(v) 10 $70,000,000 for fiscal year 2006.


(B) The Attorney General shall reserve not less than 1 percent and not more than 4.5 percent of the sums appropriated for this program in each fiscal year for research and evaluation of this program.

(C) No funds made available to carry out subchapter XXX shall be expended if the Attorney General fails to submit the report required to be submitted under section 2401(c) of title II of Division B of the 21st Century Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act.1

(26) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XXVIII $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 and 2010.

(27) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XXXVIII $103,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021.

(b) Funds appropriated for any fiscal year may remain available for obligation until expended.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no funds appropriated under this section for subchapter V of this chapter may be transferred or reprogrammed for carrying out any activity which is not authorized under such subchapter.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1001, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1218; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609D(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2097; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1552(c), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–46; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6093, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4339; Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §241(c), title VIII, §801(b), title XVIII, §1801(e), title XXVIII, §2801, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4814, 4826, 4849, 4912; Pub. L. 102–521, §4(c), Oct. 25, 1992, 106 Stat. 3406; Pub. L. 102–534, §1, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3524; Pub. L. 103–322, title I, §10003(c), title II, §20201(d), title III, §32101(d), title IV, §§40121(c), 40156(c)(1), 40231(c), title V, §50001(c), title XVIII, §180101(a), title XXI, §§210201(c), 210302(c)(3), 210601, title XXXIII, §330001(b)(3), (h)(14), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1814, 1823, 1901, 1916, 1923, 1934, 1958, 2045, 2064, 2068, 2073, 2138, 2140; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(b)(1)(B)(i)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-21; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 105–181, §3(b), June 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 515; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title I, §§1103(a), 1104, title III, §1302(c), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1495, 1497, 1511; Pub. L. 106–515, §3(c), Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2403; Pub. L. 106–517, §3(f), Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2409; Pub. L. 106–561, §2(c)(2)(A), Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2791; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title II, §2302, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1798; Pub. L. 108–372, §4, Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1755; Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §311(c), (d), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2277; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §§101(a), 102(a), title XI, §§1116, 1142(b), 1163(c), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2972, 2975, 3104, 3110, 3120; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §752, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 110–199, title I, §112(b), Apr. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 674; Pub. L. 110–421, §2, Oct. 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 4778; Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §§101(1), 102(b), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 64, 73; Pub. L. 114–155, §2, May 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 114–198, title II, §201(a)(2), July 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 114–324, §9(b), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1955.)

References in Text

Part F, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), is part F of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, which was classified to subchapter VI (§§3769 to 3769d) of chapter 46 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1154(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3113.

Part V, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), (20), is former part V of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, which was classified to former subchapter XII–J (§§3796ii to 3796ii–8) of chapter 46 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(b)(1)(A)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-21; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327. Subsequently, a new Part V was enacted by Pub. L. 106–515, §3(a), Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2399, and is classified to subchapter XXI of this chapter.

Section 2401(c) of title II of Division B of the 21st Century Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(25)(C), probably means section 2301(c) of title II of div. B of Pub. L. 107–273, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1798, which is not classified to the Code. Pub. L. 107–273 does not contain a section 2401.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3793 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Another section 1001 of Pub. L. 90–351 enacted section 7313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 114–155 amended par. (23) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (23) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XII–M of this chapter, $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2001, and $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2002 through 2012."

Subsec. (a)(24)(J) to (N). Pub. L. 114–324 added subpars. (J) to (N).

Subsec. (a)(27). Pub. L. 114–198 added par. (27).

2013—Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 113–4, §101(1), substituted "$222,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$225,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011".

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 113–4, §102(b), substituted "$73,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018." for "$75,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011." and struck out second period at end.

2008—Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 110–421 substituted "2012" for "2009".

Subsec. (a)(26). Pub. L. 110–199 added par. (26).

2006—Subsec. (a)(11)(A). Pub. L. 109–162, §1163(c)(1), substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years 2006 through 2009 for provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years 1995 through 2000.

Subsec. (a)(11)(B). Pub. L. 109–162, §1163(c)(2), substituted "section 3796dd(d) of this title" for "section 3796dd(f) of this title" and struck out "Of the funds available in relation to grants under subchapter XII–E of this chapter, at least 85 percent shall be applied to grants for the purposes specified in section 3796dd(b) of this title, and no more than 15 percent may be applied to other grants in furtherance of the purposes of subchapter XII–E of this chapter." after second sentence.

Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 109–162, §101(a), substituted "$225,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011" for "$185,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2005".

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 109–162, §102(a), substituted "$75,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011. Funds appropriated under this paragraph shall remain available until expended." for "$65,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2005".

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 109–162, §1116, substituted "2009" for "2007".

Subsec. (a)(25)(A)(v). Pub. L. 109–177, which directed amendment of par. (25)(A) of this section by adding cl. (v), relating to fiscal year 2006, at end, was executed by adding that cl. (v) at end of subsec. (a)(25)(A) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–162, §1142(b), which directed amendment of par. (25)(A) of this section by adding cl. (v), relating to fiscal years 2007 and 2008, at end, was executed by adding cl. (v) at end of subsec. (a)(25)(A) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2004—Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 108–372 substituted "2007" for "2004".

Subsec. (a)(24). Pub. L. 108–405, §311(d), realigned margins.

Subsec. (a)(24)(G) to (I). Pub. L. 108–405, §311(c), added subpars. (G) to (I).

Subsec. (a)(25). Pub. L. 108–405, §311(d), realigned margins.

2002—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–273, §2302(1), inserted "or XVI" after "and XII–L".

Subsec. (a)(25). Pub. L. 107–273, §2302(2), added par. (25).

2000—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 106–386, §1302(c), added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XII–B of this chapter—

"(A) $250,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(B) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

"(C) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

"(D) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

"(E) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2000."

Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 106–386, §1103(a), added par. (18) and struck out former par. (18) which read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XII–H of this chapter—

"(A) $26,000,000 for fiscal year 1995;

"(B) $130,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(C) $145,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

"(D) $160,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

"(E) $165,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

"(F) $174,000,000 for fiscal year 2000."

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 106–386, §1104, added par. (19) and struck out former par. (19) which read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XII–I of this chapter—

"(A) $28,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(B) $33,000,000 for fiscal year 1997; and

"(C) $59,000,000 for fiscal year 1998."

Subsec. (a)(20). Pub. L. 106–515 added par. (20).

Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 106–517 inserted ", and $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2002 through 2004" before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(24). Pub. L. 106–561 added par. (24).

1998—Subsec. (a)(23). Pub. L. 105–181 added par. (23).

1996—Subsec. (a)(20). Pub. L. 104–134 struck out par. (20) which read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subchapter XII–J of this chapter—

"(A) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 1995;

"(B) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(C) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

"(D) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

"(E) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

"(F) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2000."

1994—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–322, §210601(1), (2), substituted "1994 and 1995" for "1993 and 1994".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–322, §210601(3), substituted "1994 and 1995" for "1993 and 1994".

Pub. L. 103–322, §210302(c)(3)(A), which directed the substitution of "XII–K, and XII–L" for "and XII–K" in par. (3) of this section, was executed by making the substitution in par. (3) of subsec. (a) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 103–322, §210201(c)(1), substituted "XII–J, and XII–K" for "and XII–J".

Pub. L. 103–322, §50001(c)(1), substituted "XII–I, and XII–J" for "and XII–I".

Pub. L. 103–322, §40231(c)(1), substituted "XII–H, and XII–I" for "and XII–H".

Pub. L. 103–322, §40121(c)(1), which directed the substitution of "XII–G, and XII–H" for "and XII–G", was executed by making the substitution for "or XII–G", to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See below.

Pub. L. 103–322, §32101(d)(1), which directed the substitution of "XII–F, or XII–G" for "and XII–F", was executed by making the substitution for "or XII–F" to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See below.

Pub. L. 103–322, §20201(d)(1), substituted "XII–E, or XII–F" for "and XII–E".

Pub. L. 103–322, §10003(c)(1), substituted "XII–C, XII–D, and XII–E" for "and XII–C".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 103–322, §330001(b)(3), inserted "(other than subpart 2 of part B)" after "and V".

Pub. L. 103–322, §210601(4), substituted "1994 and 1995" for "1993 and 1994".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 103–322, §210601(5), inserted "and 1995" after "1994".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 103–322, §210601(6), which directed the substitution of "1994 and 1995" for "1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994,", could not be executed because "1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994," did not appear in text of par. (7). See below.

Pub. L. 103–322, §40156(c)(1), amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "There is authorized to be appropriated $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994 to carry out the programs under subchapter XII–B of this chapter."

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 103–322, §210601(7), inserted "and 1995" after "1994".

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 103–322, §210601(8), which directed the insertion of "and 1995" after "1994", could not be executed because "1994" did not appear in text subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 103–322, §180101(a). See below.

Pub. L. 103–322, §180101(a), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (9) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992, $22,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1994 to carry out subchapter XII–C of this chapter."

Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 103–322, §10003(c)(2), added par. (11).

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 103–322, §20201(d)(2), added par. (16).

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 103–322, §32101(d)(2), added par. (17).

Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 103–322, §40121(c)(2), added par. (18).

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 103–322, §40231(c)(2), added par. (19).

Subsec. (a)(20). Pub. L. 103–322, §50001(c)(2), added par. (20).

Subsec. (a)(21). Pub. L. 103–322, §210201(c)(2), added par. (21).

Subsec. (a)(22). Pub. L. 103–322, §210302(c)(3)(B), which directed amendment of this section by adding at the end a new par. (22), was executed by adding par. (22) at the end of subsec. (a) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–322, §330001(h)(14), substituted "such subchapter" for "such subchapters".

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–534, §1(2), substituted "fiscal year 1992 and $33,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1993 and 1994" for "each of the fiscal years 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–534, §1(3), substituted "fiscal year 1992 and $33,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1993 and 1994" for "each of the fiscal years 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–534, §1(4), substituted "such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992 and $28,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1993 and 1994 to carry out the remaining functions of the Office of Justice Programs and the Bureau of Justice Assistance other than functions under subchapters IV, V, VI, VII, XII, XII–A, XII–B, and XII–C" for "$25,500,000 for fiscal year 1989 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1990, 1991, and 1992 to carry out the remaining functions of the Office of Justice Programs and the Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than functions under subchapters IV, V, VI, VII, XII, XII–A, and XII–B".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–534, §1(5), substituted "such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992 and $1,000,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1993 and 1994 to carry out the programs under subchapters IV and V (other than subpart 2 of part B of subchapter V)" for "$900,000,000 for fiscal year 1991 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992 to carry out the programs under subchapters IV and V".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 102–534, §1(6), substituted "such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992, $245,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1994" for "$220,000,000 for fiscal year 1991 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 102–534, §1(7), substituted "1992, 1993, and 1994" for "1991, 1992, and 1993".

Pub. L. 102–521, §4(c)(1), and Pub. L. 102–534, §1(1), amended subsec. (a) identically, redesignating par. (6), relating to authorization of appropriations for subchapter XII–B of this chapter, as (7). Former pars. (7) redesignated (8) and (9).

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 102–534, §1(8), substituted "such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992, $16,500,000 for fiscal year 1993, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1994" for "$15,000,000 for fiscal year 1989 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1990, 1991, and 1992 to carry out the programs under subchapter XII–A of this chapter".

Pub. L. 102–521, §4(c)(1), and Pub. L. 102–534, §1(1), amended subsec. (a) identically, redesignating par. (7), relating to authorization of appropriations for subchapter XII–A of this chapter, as (8).

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 102–534, §1(9)(C), which directed the amendment of subsec. (a)(9) by substituting "such subchapter" for "such subchapters" in "subsection (c)", could not be executed because "such subchapters" did not appear in text of subsec. (a)(9).

Pub. L. 102–534, §1(9)(A), (B), substituted "such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992, $22,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1994" for "$20,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 1992 and 1993,".

Pub. L. 102–521, §4(c)(1), and Pub. L. 102–534, §1(1), amended subsec. (a) identically, redesignating par. (7), relating to authorization of appropriations for subchapter XII–C of this chapter, as (9).

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 102–521, §4(c)(2), added par. (10).

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–647, §241(c)(1)(A), substituted "XII–A, and XII–B" for "and XII–A".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–647, §2801, amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated $275,000,000 for fiscal year 1989; $350,000,000 for fiscal year 1990; $400,000,000 for fiscal year 1991; and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1992 to carry out the programs under subchapters IV and V of this chapter."

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 101–647, §1801(e), added par. (6) relating to authorization of appropriations for subpart 2 of part B of subchapter V of this chapter.

Pub. L. 101–647, §241(c)(1)(C), added par. (6) relating to authorization of appropriations for subchapter XII–B of this chapter. Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 101–647, §801(b), added par. (7) relating to authorization of appropriations for subchapter XII–C of this chapter.

Pub. L. 101–647, §241(c)(1)(B), redesignated par. (6), relating to authorization of appropriations for subchapter XII–A of this chapter, as (7).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §241(c)(2), which directed substitution of "XII–A, and XII–B" for "and XII–A", could not be executed because the words "and XII–A" did not appear.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 amended section generally, substituting provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years 1989 through 1992 for provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years 1984 through 1988.

1986—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–570, §1552(c)(1)(A), inserted reference to subchapter XII–A of this chapter.

Subsec. (a)(6), (7). Pub. L. 99–570, §1552(c)(1)(B), (C), added par. (6) and redesignated former par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–570, §1552(c)(2), inserted reference to subchapter XII–A of this chapter.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, in amending section generally, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted appropriations authorization of necessary sums for fiscal years 1984 through 1988 for authorizations for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1980, through 1983, struck out provisions authorizing appropriations for subchapter VIII and for carrying out remaining functions of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–162, §4, as added by Pub. L. 109–271, §1(b), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 750, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act or any other law, sections 101, 102 (except the amendment to section 2101(d) of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10461(d)] included in that section), 103, 121, 203, 204, 205, 304, 306, 602, 906, and 907 of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall not take effect until the beginning of fiscal year 2007."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 210302(c)(3) of Pub. L. 103–322 effective 60 days after Sept. 13, 1994, see section 210302(c)(4) of Pub. L. 103–322, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

Construction of 2008 Amendment

For construction of amendments by Pub. L. 110–199 and requirements for grants made under such amendments, see section 60504 of this title.

Use of Funds Available Under Former Subsection (a)(20)

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title I, §114(b)(1)(B)(ii)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-21, provided that: "Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (A) [repealing sections 3796ii to 3796ii–8 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare], any funds that remain available to an applicant under paragraph (20) of [section 1001(a) of] title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [former 42 U.S.C. 3793(a)(20)] shall be used in accordance with part V of [title I of] such Act [former 42 U.S.C. 3796ii to 3796ii–8] as if [sic] such Act [part] was in effect on the day preceding the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 26, 1996]."

Financial Support for Programs, etc., Devoted to International Aspects of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

Pub. L. 96–132, §20(a), Nov. 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 1049, provided that: "The National Institute of Justice, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration are authorized to use funds, and to authorize States to use funds, for programs, projects or events devoted to the international aspects of crime prevention and criminal justice."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original.

3 So in original. Phrase "(other than subpart 2 of part B)" probably should not appear.

4 So in original. Probably should be "years".

5 So in original. Probably should be "is".

6 So in original. No pars. (12) to (15) have been enacted.

7 Numbering so in original.

8 So in original. The word "and" probably should not appear.

9 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

10 So in original. Two cls. (v) have been enacted.

11 So in original. The period probably should be "; and".

§10262. State and local governments to consider courts

The Attorney General may require, as appropriate, that whenever a State or unit of local government or Indian tribe applies for a grant from the Department of Justice, the State, unit, or tribe demonstrate that, in developing the application and distributing funds, the State, unit, or tribe—

(1) considered the needs of the judicial branch of the State, unit, or tribe, as the case may be;

(2) consulted with the chief judicial officer of the highest court of the State, unit, or tribe, as the case may be; and

(3) consulted with the chief law enforcement officer of the law enforcement agency responsible for the security needs of the judicial branch of the State, unit, or tribe, as the case may be.

(Pub. L. 110–177, title III, §302(c), Jan. 7, 2008, 121 Stat. 2539.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Court Security Improvement Act of 2007, and not as part of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 3702 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§10263. Oversight and accountability

All grants awarded by the Department of Justice that are authorized under this Act shall be subject to the following:

(1) Audit requirement

Beginning in fiscal year 2016, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice shall conduct audits of recipients of grants under this Act to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse of funds by grantees. The Inspector General shall determine the appropriate number of grantees to be audited each year.

(2) Mandatory exclusion

A recipient of grant funds under this Act that is found to have an unresolved audit finding shall not be eligible to receive grant funds under this Act during the 2 fiscal years beginning after the 12-month period described in paragraph (5).

(3) Priority

In awarding grants under this Act, the Attorney General shall give priority to eligible entities that, during the 3 fiscal years before submitting an application for a grant under this Act, did not have an unresolved audit finding showing a violation in the terms or conditions of a Department of Justice grant program.

(4) Reimbursement

If an entity is awarded grant funds under this Act during the 2-fiscal-year period in which the entity is barred from receiving grants under paragraph (2), the Attorney General shall—

(A) deposit an amount equal to the grant funds that were improperly awarded to the grantee into the General Fund of the Treasury; and

(B) seek to recoup the costs of the repayment to the fund from the grant recipient that was erroneously awarded grant funds.

(5) Defined term

In this section, the term "unresolved audit finding" means an audit report finding in the final audit report of the Inspector General of the Department of Justice that the grantee has utilized grant funds for an unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost that is not closed or resolved within a 12-month period beginning on the date when the final audit report is issued.

(6) Nonprofit organization requirements

(A) Definition

For purposes of this section and the grant programs described in this Act, the term "nonprofit organization" means an organization that is described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such title.

(B) Prohibition

The Attorney General shall not award a grant under any grant program described in this Act to a nonprofit organization that holds money in offshore accounts for the purpose of avoiding paying the tax described in section 511(a) of title 26.

(C) Disclosure

Each nonprofit organization that is awarded a grant under a grant program described in this Act and uses the procedures prescribed in regulations to create a rebuttable presumption of reasonableness for the compensation of its officers, directors, trustees and key employees, shall disclose to the Attorney General, in the application for the grant, the process for determining such compensation, including the independent persons involved in reviewing and approving such compensation, the comparability data used, and contemporaneous substantiation of the deliberation and decision. Upon request, the Attorney General shall make the information disclosed under this subsection available for public inspection.

(7) Administrative expenses

Unless otherwise explicitly provided in authorizing legislation, not more than 7.5 percent of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under this Act may be used by the Attorney General for salaries and administrative expenses of the Department of Justice.

(8) Conference expenditures

(A) Limitation

No amounts authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Justice under this Act may be used by the Attorney General or by any individual or organization awarded discretionary funds through a cooperative agreement under this Act, to host or support any expenditure for conferences that uses more than $20,000 in Department funds, unless the Deputy Attorney General or the appropriate Assistant Attorney General, Director, or principal deputy as the Deputy Attorney General may designate, provides prior written authorization that the funds may be expended to host a conference.

(B) Written approval

Written approval under subparagraph (A) shall include a written estimate of all costs associated with the conference, including the cost of all food and beverages, audio/visual equipment, honoraria for speakers, and any entertainment.

(C) Report

The Deputy Attorney General shall submit an annual report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives on all conference expenditures approved by operation of this paragraph.

(9) Prohibition on lobbying activity

(A) In general

Amounts authorized to be appropriated under this Act may not be utilized by any grant recipient to—

(i) lobby any representative of the Department of Justice regarding the award of grant funding; or

(ii) lobby any representative of a Federal, State, local, or tribal government regarding the award of grant funding.

(B) Penalty

If the Attorney General determines that any recipient of a grant under this Act has violated subparagraph (A), the Attorney General shall—

(i) require the grant recipient to repay the grant in full; and

(ii) prohibit the grant recipient from receiving another grant under this Act for not less than 5 years.

(10) Preventing duplicative grants

(A) In general

Before the Attorney General awards a grant to an applicant under this Act, the Attorney General shall compare potential grant awards with other grants awarded under this Act to determine whether duplicate grants are awarded for the same purpose.

(B) Report

If the Attorney General awards duplicate grants to the same applicant for the same purpose, the Attorney General shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report that includes—

(i) a list of all duplicate grants awarded, including the total dollar amount of any duplicate grants awarded; and

(ii) the reason the Attorney General awarded the duplicate grants.

(Pub. L. 114–324, §15, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1959.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 114–324, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1948, known as the Justice for All Reauthorization Act of 2016. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2016 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

This section was enacted as part of the Justice for All Reauthorization Act of 2016, and not as part of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 3793c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

SUBCHAPTER X—CRIMINAL PENALTIES

§10271. Misuse of Federal assistance

Whoever embezzles, willfully misapplies, steals, or obtains by fraud or endeavors to embezzle, willfully misapply, steal, or obtain by fraud any funds, assets, or property which are the subject of a grant or contract or other form of assistance pursuant to this chapter, whether received directly or indirectly from the Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, or whoever receives, conceals, or retains such funds, assets or property with intent to convert such funds, assets or property to his use or gain, knowing such funds, assets, or property has been embezzled, willfully misapplied, stolen or obtained by fraud, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1101, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1219; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609E(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2097.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3795 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Another section 1101 of Pub. L. 90–351, title VI, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 236, is classified as a note under section 532 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473 substituted "Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance" for "Law Enforcement Assistance Administration".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

§10272. Falsification or concealment of facts

Whoever knowingly and willfully falsifies, conceals, or covers up by trick, scheme, or device, any material fact in any application for assistance submitted pursuant to this chapter or in any records required to be maintained pursuant to this chapter shall be subject to prosecution under the provisions of section 1001 of title 18.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1102, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1219.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3795a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in former section 3792 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

§10273. Conspiracy to commit offense against United States

Any law enforcement or criminal justice program or project underwritten, in whole or in part, by any grant, or contract or other form of assistance pursuant to this chapter, whether received directly or indirectly from the Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, or the Bureau of Justice Statistics shall be subject to the provisions of section 371 of title 18.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1103, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1219; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609E(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2098.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3795b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in former section 3793 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 96–157.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473 substituted "Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance" for "Law Enforcement Assistance Administration".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Oct. 12, 1984, see section 609AA(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10101 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER XI—PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICERS' DEATH BENEFITS

Part A—Death Benefits

§10281. Payment of death benefits

(a) Amount; recipients

In any case in which the Bureau of Justice Assistance (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the "Bureau") determines, under regulations issued pursuant to this subchapter, that a public safety officer has died as the direct and proximate result of a personal injury sustained in the line of duty, the Bureau shall pay a benefit of $250,000, adjusted in accordance with subsection (h), as follows (if the payee indicated is living on the date on which the determination is made)—

(1) if there is no child who survived the public safety officer, to the surviving spouse of the public safety officer;

(2) if there is at least 1 child who survived the public safety officer and a surviving spouse of the public safety officer, 50 percent to the surviving child (or children, in equal shares) and 50 percent to the surviving spouse;

(3) if there is no surviving spouse of the public safety officer, to the surviving child (or children, in equal shares);

(4) if there is no surviving spouse of the public safety officer and no surviving child—

(A) to the surviving individual (or individuals, in shares per the designation, or, otherwise, in equal shares) designated by the public safety officer to receive benefits under this subsection in the most recently executed designation of beneficiary of the public safety officer on file at the time of death with the public safety agency, organization, or unit; or

(B) if there is no individual qualifying under subparagraph (A), to the surviving individual (or individuals, in equal shares) designated by the public safety officer to receive benefits under the most recently executed life insurance policy of the public safety officer on file at the time of death with the public safety agency, organization, or unit;


(5) if there is no individual qualifying under paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4), to the surviving parent (or parents, in equal shares) of the public safety officer; or

(6) if there is no individual qualifying under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5), to the surviving individual (or individuals, in equal shares) who would qualify under the definition of the term "child" under section 10284 of this title but for age.

(b) Benefits for permanent and total disability

In accordance with regulations issued pursuant to this subchapter, in any case in which the Bureau determines that a public safety officer has become permanently and totally disabled as the direct and proximate result of a personal injury sustained in the line of duty, the Bureau shall pay the same benefit to the public safety officer (if living on the date on which the determination is made) that is payable under subsection (a) with respect to the date on which the catastrophic injury occurred, as adjusted in accordance with subsection (h): Provided, That for the purposes of making these benefit payments, there are authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary: Provided further, That the amount payable under this subsection shall be the amount payable as of the date of catastrophic injury of such public safety officer.

(c) Interim benefit payment

Whenever the Bureau determines upon showing of need and prior to final action that the death of a public safety officer is one with respect to which a benefit will probably be paid, the Bureau may make an interim benefit payment not exceeding $3,000 to the individual entitled to receive a benefit under subsection (a) of this section.

(d) Deduction of interim payment

The amount of an interim payment under subsection (c) shall be deducted from the amount of any final benefit paid to such individual.

(e) Repayment of interim payment; waiver

Where there is no final benefit paid, the recipient of any interim payment under subsection (c) shall be liable for repayment of such amount. The Bureau may waive all or part of such repayment, considering for this purpose the hardship which would result from such repayment.

(f) Reductions from final benefit payment

The benefit payable under this subchapter shall be in addition to any other benefit that may be due from any other source, except—

(1) payments authorized by section 12(k) of the Act of September 1, 1916;

(2) benefits authorized by section 8191 of title 5, such that beneficiaries shall receive only such benefits under such section 8191 as are in excess of the benefits received under this subchapter; or

(3) payments under the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001 (49 U.S.C. 40101 note; Public Law 107–42).

(g) Execution or attachment prohibited

No benefit paid under this subchapter shall be subject to execution or attachment.

(h) Consumer Price Index adjustment

On October 1 of each fiscal year beginning after June 1, 1988, the Bureau shall adjust the level of the benefit payable immediately before such October 1 under subsection (a), to reflect the annual percentage change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, occurring in the 1-year period ending on June 1 immediately preceding such October 1.

(i) Amount payable determined as of date of death

The amount payable under subsection (a) with respect to the death of a public safety officer shall be the amount payable under subsection (a) as of the date of death of such officer.

(j) Limitations on benefits

(1) No benefit is payable under this subchapter with respect to the death of a public safety officer if a benefit is paid under this subchapter with respect to the disability of such officer.

(2) No benefit is payable under this subchapter with respect to the disability of a public safety officer if a benefit is payable under this subchapter with respect to the death of such public safety officer.

(k) Death by heart attack, stroke, or vascular rupture; presumption

As determined by the Bureau, a heart attack, stroke, or vascular rupture suffered by a public safety officer shall be presumed to constitute a personal injury within the meaning of subsection (a), sustained in the line of duty by the officer and directly and proximately resulting in death, if—

(1) the public safety officer, while on duty—

(A) engages in a situation involving nonroutine stressful or strenuous physical law enforcement, fire suppression, rescue, hazardous material response, emergency medical services, prison security, disaster relief, or other emergency response activity; or

(B) participates in a training exercise involving nonroutine stressful or strenuous physical activity;


(2) the heart attack, stroke, or vascular rupture commences—

(A) while the officer is engaged or participating as described in paragraph (1);

(B) while the officer remains on that duty after being engaged or participating as described in paragraph (1); or

(C) not later than 24 hours after the officer is engaged or participating as described in paragraph (1); and


(3) the heart attack, stroke, or vascular rupture directly and proximately results in the death of the public safety officer,


unless competent medical evidence establishes that the heart attack, stroke, or vascular rupture was unrelated to the engagement or participation or was directly and proximately caused by something other than the mere presence of cardiovascular-disease risk factors.

(l) Definition

For purposes of subsection (k), "nonroutine stressful or strenuous physical" excludes actions of a clerical, administrative, or nonmanual nature.

(m) Suspension or end of collection action

The Bureau may suspend or end collection action on an amount disbursed pursuant to a statute enacted retroactively or otherwise disbursed in error under subsection (a) or (c), where such collection would be impractical, or would cause undue hardship to a debtor who acted in good faith.

(n) Confidentiality

The public safety agency, organization, or unit responsible for maintaining on file an executed designation of beneficiary or executed life insurance policy for purposes of subsection (a)(4) shall maintain the confidentiality of the designation or policy in the same manner as the agency, organization, or unit maintains personnel or other similar records of the public safety officer.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1201, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609F, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2098; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6105(a)–(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4341; Pub. L. 101–647, title XIII, §1301(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4834; Pub. L. 102–520, §1, Oct. 25, 1992, 106 Stat. 3402; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(e)(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2138; Pub. L. 107–56, title VI, §613(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 107–196, §2(b), June 24, 2002, 116 Stat. 719; Pub. L. 108–182, §2, Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2649; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1164(c)–(e), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3120, 3121; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1964.)

References in Text

Section 12 of the Act of September 1, 1916, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), is section 12 of act Sept. 1, 1916, ch. 433, 39 Stat. 718, which is not classified to the Code.

The September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), is title IV of Pub. L. 107–42, Sept. 22, 2001, 115 Stat. 237, which is set out in a note under section 40101 of Title 49, Transportation.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3796 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1201 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1219; amended Pub. L. 98–411, title II, §204(a)(1), Aug. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 1561; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609Z, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2107, contained provisions similar to this section, prior to the general amendment of part L of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by section 609F of Pub. L. 98–473.

Another prior section 1201 of Pub. L. 90–351, title VII, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 236, was set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–308, §104(b), May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 459.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(B)(i), substituted "follows (if the payee indicated is living on the date on which the determination is made)—" for "follows:" in introductory provisions, added pars. (1) to (6), and struck out former pars. (1) to (6) which listed a succession of beneficiaries.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(B)(ii), substituted "direct and proximate result of a personal injury sustained in the line of duty, the Bureau shall pay the same benefit to the public safety officer (if living on the date on which the determination is made) that is payable under subsection (a) of this section with respect to the date on which the catastrophic injury occurred, as adjusted in accordance with subsection (h) of this section:" for "direct result of a catastrophic injury sustained in the line of duty, the Bureau shall pay, to the extent that appropriations are provided, the same benefit in any year that is payable under subsection (a) of this section in such year, adjusted in accordance with subsection (h) of this section, to such officer:", "That for the purposes" for "That the total annual benefits paid under this subsection may not exceed $5,000,000. For the purposes", and "That the amount payable under this subsection shall be the amount payable as of the date of catastrophic injury of such public safety officer." for "That these benefit payments are subject to the availability of appropriations and that each beneficiary's payment shall be reduced by a proportionate share to the extent that sufficient funds are not appropriated."

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(B)(iii)(I), substituted semicolon at end for ", as amended (D.C. Code, sec. 4–622); or".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(B)(iii)(II), substituted ", such that beneficiaries shall receive only such benefits under such section 8191 as are in excess of the benefits received under this subchapter; or" for ". Such beneficiaries shall only receive benefits under such section 8191 that are in excess of the benefits received under this subchapter."

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(B)(iii)(III), added par. (3).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(B)(iv), amended subsec. (k) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (k) related to presumption with respect to death by heart attack or stroke.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(B)(v), added subsec. (n).

2006—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 109–162, §1164(d), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "if there is no surviving spouse or surviving child, to the individual designated by such officer as beneficiary under such officer's most recently executed life insurance policy, provided that such individual survived such officer; or".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 109–162, §1164(e), which directed amendment of section 1201(1)(a) of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796(a)) by adding par. (6) at end, was executed by adding par. (6) at end of subsec. (a) of this section to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 109–162, §1164(c), added subsec. (m).

2003—Subsecs. (k), (l). Pub. L. 108–182 added subsecs. (k) and (l).

2002—Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 107–196 added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–56 substituted "$250,000" for "$100,000" in introductory provisions.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §330001(e)(1)(A), substituted "subsection (h) of this section," for "subsection (g) of this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §330001(e)(1)(B), substituted "catastrophic injury" for "catastrophic personal injury", "subsection (h)" for "subsection (g)", and "benefits paid under this subsection" for "benefits paid under this section".

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–520 substituted "the same benefit in any year that is payable under subsection (a) of this section in such year," for "a benefit of up to $100,000,".

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §1301(a)(3), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647, §1301(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 101–647, §1301(a)(1), (2), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively, and substituted "(c)" for "(b)". Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsecs. (f) to (i). Pub. L. 101–647, §1301(a)(2), redesignated former subsecs. (e) to (h) as (f) to (i), respectively.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–647, §1301(a)(4), added subsec. (j).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–690, §6105(a), substituted "$100,000, adjusted in accordance with subsection (g) of this section" for "$50,000".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100–690, §6105(c), struck out "dependent" before "parent".

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 100–690, §6105(b), added subsecs. (g) and (h).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–239 effective Jan. 2, 2013, and applicable to matters pending on Jan. 2, 2013, or filed or accruing after that date, with certain exceptions, see section 1086(d) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out as a note under section 10251 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–196, §2(c), June 24, 2002, 116 Stat. 720, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 10284 of this title] shall take effect on September 11, 2001, and shall apply to injuries or deaths that occur in the line of duty on or after such date."

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–56, title VI, §613(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 370, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any death or disability occurring on or after January 1, 2001."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–520, §2, Oct. 25, 1992, 106 Stat. 3402, provided that: "The amendments made by section 1 of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to injuries occurring on or after November 29, 1990, using the calculation method used to determine benefits under section 1201(a) of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10281(a)]."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–647, title XIII, §1303, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4835, provided that: "The amendments made by this title [amending this section and sections 10282 and 10284 of this title] shall take effect upon enactment [Nov. 29, 1990] and shall not apply with respect to injuries occurring before the effective date of such amendments."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6105(e), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4341, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 10284 of this title] shall take effect on June 1, 1988."

Effective Date

Subchapter effective Oct. 1, 1984, and inapplicable with respect to injuries sustained before Oct. 1, 1984, see section 609AA(b)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 10101 of this title.

§10282. Limitations on benefits

(a) In general

No benefit shall be paid under this subchapter—

(1) if the fatal or catastrophic injury was caused by the intentional misconduct of the public safety officer or by such officer's intention to bring about his death, disability, or injury;

(2) if the public safety officer was voluntarily intoxicated at the time of his fatal or catastrophic injury;

(3) if the public safety officer was performing his duties in a grossly negligent manner at the time of his fatal or catastrophic injury;

(4) to any individual who would otherwise be entitled to a benefit under this subchapter if such individual's actions were a substantial contributing factor to the fatal or catastrophic injury of the public safety officer; or

(5) with respect to any individual employed in a capacity other than a civilian capacity.

(b) Presumption

In determining whether a benefit is payable under this subchapter, the Bureau—

(1) shall presume that none of the limitations described in subsection (a) apply; and

(2) shall not determine that a limitation described in subsection (a) applies, absent clear and convincing evidence.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1202, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609F, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2099; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XIII, §1301(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4834; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1164(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3120; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(1)(C), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1966; Pub. L. 115–36, §5, June 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 852.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3796a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1202 of title I of Pub. L. 90–351, as added Pub. L. 96–157, §2, Dec. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 1220; amended Pub. L. 98–411, title II, §204(a)(2), Aug. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 1561; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609Z, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2107, contained provisions similar to this section, prior to the general amendment of part L of title I of Pub. L. 90–351 by section 609F of Pub. L. 98–473.

Another prior section 1202 of Pub. L. 90–351, title VII, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 236, was set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–308, §104(b), May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 459.

Amendments

2017—Pub. L. 115–36 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

2013—Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(C)(i), substituted "fatal" for "death" wherever appearing except in par. (1) following "bring about his".

Par. (1). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(C)(ii), substituted "bring about his death, disability, or injury" for "bring about his death or catastrophic injury".

2006—Par. (5). Pub. L. 109–162 inserted "with respect" before "to any individual".

1990—Pars. (1) to (4). Pub. L. 101–647 inserted "or catastrophic injury" after "death" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–36, §6, June 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 852, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [enacting section 10288 of this title and amending this section and sections 10285 and 10302 of this title] shall—

"(1) take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [June 2, 2017]; and

"(2) apply to any benefit claim or application under part L of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796 et seq.) [now 34 U.S.C. 10281 et seq.] that is—

"(A) pending before the Bureau of Justice Assistance on the date of enactment; or

"(B) received by the Bureau on or after the date of enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–239 effective Jan. 2, 2013, and applicable to matters pending on Jan. 2, 2013, or filed or accruing after that date, with certain exceptions, see section 1086(d) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out as a note under section 10251 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–647 effective Nov. 29, 1990, and not applicable with respect to injuries occurring before Nov. 29, 1990, see section 1303 of Pub. L. 101–647, set out as a note under section 10281 of this title.

§10283. National programs for families of public safety officers who have sustained fatal or catastrophic injury in the line of duty

The Director is authorized to use no less than $150,000 of the funds appropriated for this subchapter to maintain and enhance national peer support and counseling programs to assist families of public safety officers who have sustained fatal or catastrophic injury in the line of duty.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1203, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6106(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4341; amended Pub. L. 105–180, §2(a), June 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(1)(D), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1966.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3796a–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1203 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 1204 and is classified to section 10284 of this title.

Another prior section 1203 of Pub. L. 90–351, title VII, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 237, was set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–308, §104(b), May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 459.

Amendments

2013—Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "who have sustained fatal or catastrophic injury in the line of duty" for "who have died in the line of duty" in section catchline and text.

1998—Pub. L. 105–180 amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Director is authorized and directed to use up to $150,000 of the funds appropriated for this subchapter to establish national programs to assist the families of public safety officers who have died in the line of duty."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–239 effective Jan. 2, 2013, and applicable to matters pending on Jan. 2, 2013, or filed or accruing after that date, with certain exceptions, see section 1086(d) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out as a note under section 10251 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 10142(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, §108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 10141 of this title.

§10284. Definitions

As used in this subchapter—

(1) "catastrophic injury" means an injury, the direct and proximate consequences of which permanently prevent an individual from performing any gainful work;

(2) "chaplain" includes any individual serving as an officially recognized or designated member of a legally organized volunteer fire department or legally organized police department, or an officially recognized or designated public employee of a legally organized fire or police department who was responding to a fire, rescue, or police emergency;

(3) "child" means any natural, illegitimate, adopted, or posthumous child or stepchild of a deceased or permanently and totally disabled public safety officer who, at the time of the public safety officer's fatal or catastrophic injury, is—

(A) 18 years of age or under;

(B) over 18 years of age and a student as defined in section 8101 of title 5; or

(C) over 18 years of age and incapable of self-support because of physical or mental disability;


(4) "firefighter" includes an individual serving as an officially recognized or designated member of a legally organized volunteer fire department;

(5) "intoxication" means a disturbance of mental or physical faculties resulting from the introduction of alcohol into the body as evidenced by—

(A) a post-injury blood alcohol level of .20 per centum or greater; or

(B) a post-injury blood alcohol level of at least .10 per centum but less than .20 per centum unless the Bureau receives convincing evidence that the public safety officer was not acting in an intoxicated manner immediately prior to his fatal or catastrophic injury;


or resulting from drugs or other substances in the body;

(6) "law enforcement officer" means an individual involved in crime and juvenile delinquency control or reduction, or enforcement of the criminal laws (including juvenile delinquency).,1 including, but not limited to, police, corrections, probation, parole, and judicial officers;

(7) "member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew" means an officially recognized or designated employee or volunteer member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew (including a ground or air ambulance service) that—

(A) is a public agency; or

(B) is (or is a part of) a nonprofit entity serving the public that—

(i) is officially authorized or licensed to engage in rescue activity or to provide emergency medical services; and

(ii) engages in rescue activities or provides emergency medical services as part of an official emergency response system;


(8) "public agency" means the United States, any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States, or any unit of local government, department, agency, or instrumentality of any of the foregoing; and

(9) "public safety officer" means—

(A) an individual serving a public agency in an official capacity, with or without compensation, as a law enforcement officer, as a firefighter, or as a chaplain;

(B) an employee of the Federal Emergency Management Agency who is performing official duties of the Agency in an area, if those official duties—

(i) are related to a major disaster or emergency that has been, or is later, declared to exist with respect to the area under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.); and

(ii) are determined by the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to be hazardous duties;


(C) an employee of a State, local, or tribal emergency management or civil defense agency who is performing official duties in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency in an area, if those official duties—

(i) are related to a major disaster or emergency that has been, or is later, declared to exist with respect to the area under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.); and

(ii) are determined by the head of the agency to be hazardous duties; or


(D) a member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew who, as authorized or licensed by law and by the applicable agency or entity, is engaging in rescue activity or in the provision of emergency medical services.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1204, formerly §1203, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609F, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2099; amended Pub. L. 99–500, §101(b) [title II, §207], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–39, 1783-56, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(b) [title II, §207], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–39, 3341-56; renumbered §1204 and amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6105(d), 6106(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4341; Pub. L. 101–647, title XIII, §§1301(c), 1302, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4834; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330001(e)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2139; Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §305(a), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1573; Pub. L. 107–196, §2(a), June 24, 2002, 116 Stat. 719; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1164(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3120; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(1)(E), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1967.)

References in Text

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in par. (9), is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, which is classified principally to chapter 68 (§5121 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3796b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1204 of Pub. L. 90–351 was renumbered section 1205 and is classified to section 10285 of this title.

Amendments

2013—Par. (1). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(E)(i), substituted "an injury, the direct and proximate consequences of which" for "consequences of an injury that".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(E)(ii), inserted "or permanently and totally disabled" after "deceased" and substituted "fatal or catastrophic injury" for "death" in introductory provisions and redesignated cls. (i) to (iii) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(E)(iii)(II), (III), redesignated cls. (i) and (ii) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and, in subpar. (B), substituted "fatal or catastrophic injury" for "death".

Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(E)(iii)(I), substituted "post-injury" for "post-mortem" in cls. (i) and (ii).

Par. (7). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(E)(iv), substituted "employee or volunteer member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew (including a ground or air ambulance service) that—" for "public employee member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew;" and added subpars. (A) and (B).

Par. (9)(A). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(E)(v)(I), substituted "or as a chaplain;" for "as a chaplain, or as a member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew;".

Par. (9)(D). Pub. L. 112–239, §1086(b)(1)(E)(v)(II)–(IV), added subpar. (D).

2006—Par. (4). Pub. L. 109–162, §1164(a)(3), struck out "and an officially recognized or designated public employee member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew" before semicolon at end.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 109–162, §1164(a)(4), substituted "enforcement of the criminal laws (including juvenile delinquency)." for "enforcement of the laws".

Pars. (7) to (9). Pub. L. 109–162, §1164(a)(1), (2), added par. (7) and redesignated former pars. (7) and (8) as (8) and (9), respectively.

2002—Pars. (2) to (7). Pub. L. 107–196, §2(a)(1), (2), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) to (6) as (3) to (7), respectively. Former par. (7) redesignated (8).

Par. (8). Pub. L. 107–196, §2(a)(1), (3), redesignated par. (7) as (8) and inserted "as a chaplain," after "firefighter," in subpar. (A).

2000—Par. (7). Pub. L. 106–390 added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: " 'public safety officer' means an individual serving a public agency in an official capacity, with or without compensation, as a law enforcement officer, a firefighter, or rescue squad or ambulance crew".

1994—Par. (3). Pub. L. 103–322 struck out before semicolon at end "who was responding to a fire, rescue or police emergency".

1990—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–647, §1301(c), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated (2).

Par. (2). Pub. L. 101–647, §1302, which directed amendment of par. (2) by inserting a period after "ambulance crew" and striking out "who was responding to a fire, rescue or police emergency.", could not be executed because the phrases "ambulance crew" and "who was responding to a fire, rescue or police emergency." did not appear in text of par. (2).

Pub. L. 101–647, §1301(c)(1), redesignated par. (1) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Pars. (3) to (7). Pub. L. 101–647, §1301(c)(1), redesignated pars. (2) to (6) as (3) to (7), respectively.

1988—Pars. (2) to (7). Pub. L. 100–690, §6105(d), redesignated pars. (3) to (7) as (2) to (6), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) defining a "dependent" as any individual substantially reliant for support upon income of deceased public safety officer.

1986—Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591 inserted "and an officially recognized or designated public employee member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew who was responding to a fire, rescue or police emergency" in par. (3), and substituted ", a firefighter, or rescue squad or ambulance crew" for "or a firefighter." in par. (7).

Change of Name

"Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" substituted for "Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency" in par. (9)(B)(ii) on authority of section 612(c) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6, Domestic Security. Any reference to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in title VI of Pub. L. 109–295 or an amendment by title VI to be considered to refer and apply to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency until Mar. 31, 2007, see section 612(f)(2) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of Title 6.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–239 effective Jan. 2, 2013, and applicable to matters pending on Jan. 2, 2013, or filed or accruing after that date, with certain exceptions, see section 1086(d) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out as a note under section 10251 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–196 effective Sept. 11, 2001, and applicable to injuries or deaths that occur in the line of duty on or after such date, see section 2(c) of Pub. L. 107–196, set out as a note under section 10281 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–390, title III, §305(b), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1574, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] applies only to employees described in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 1204(7) of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 [34 U.S.C. 10284(7)(B), (C)] (as amended by subsection (a)) who are injured or who die in the line of duty on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–647 effective Nov. 29, 1990, and not applicable with respect to injuries occurring before Nov. 29, 1990, see section 1303 of Pub. L. 101–647, set out as a note under section 10281 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 6105(d) of Pub. L. 100–690 effective June 1, 1988, see section 6105(e) of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as a note under section 10281 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

1 So in original. The period probably should not appear.

§10285. Administrative provisions

(a) Rules, regulations, and procedures

The Bureau is authorized to establish such rules, regulations, and procedures as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subchapter. Such rules, regulations, and procedures will be determinative of conflict of laws issues arising under this subchapter. Rules, regulations, and procedures issued under this subchapter may include regulations governing the recognition of agents or other persons representing claimants under this subchapter before the Bureau. Rules, regulations, and procedures issued under this subchapter may include regulations based on standards developed by another Federal agency for programs related to public safety officer death or disability claims. The Bureau may prescribe the maximum fees which may be charged for services performed in connection with any claim under this subchapter before the Bureau, and any agreement in violation of such rules and regulations shall be void.

(b) Use of State and local administrative and investigative assistance

(1) In making determinations under section 10281 of this title, the Bureau may utilize such administrative and investigative assistance as may be available from State and local agencies. Responsibility for making final determinations shall rest with the Bureau.

(2) In making a determination under section 10281 of this title, the Bureau shall give substantial weight to the evidence and all findings of fact presented by a State, local, or Federal administrative or investigative agency regarding eligibility for death or disability benefits.

(3) If the head of a State, local, or Federal administrative or investigative agency, in consultation with the principal legal officer of the agency, provides a certification of facts regarding eligibility for death or disability benefits, the Bureau shall adopt the factual findings, if the factual findings are supported by substantial evidence.

(c) Use of appropriated funds to conduct appeals

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Bureau is authorized to use appropriated funds to conduct appeals of public safety officers' death and disability claims.

(d) References to provisions outside this subchapter

Unless expressly provided otherwise, any reference in this subchapter to any provision of law not in this subchapter shall be understood to constitute a general reference under the doctrine of incorporation by reference, and thus to include any subsequent amendments to the provision.

(e) Reports on claims under this subchapter

(1)(A) Not later than 30 days after June 2, 2017, the Bureau shall make available on the public website of the Bureau information on all death, disability, and educational assistance claims submitted under this subchapter that are pending as of the date on which the information is made available.

(B) Not less frequently than once per week, the Bureau shall make available on the public website of the Bureau updated information with respect to all death, disability, and educational assistance claims submitted under this subchapter that are pending as of the date on which the information is made available.

(C) The information made available under this paragraph shall include—

(i) for each pending claim—

(I) the date on which the claim was submitted to the Bureau;

(II) the State of residence of the claimant;

(III) an anonymized, identifying claim number; and

(IV) the nature of the claim; and


(ii) the total number of pending claims that were submitted to the Bureau more than 1 year before the date on which the information is made available.


(2) Not later than 180 days after June 2, 2017, the Bureau shall publish on the public website of the Bureau a report, and shall update such report on such website not less than once every 180 days thereafter, containing—

(A) the total number of claims for which a final determination has been made during the 180-day period preceding the report;

(B) the amount of time required to process each claim for which a final determination has been made during the 180-day period preceding the report;

(C) as of the last day of the 180-day period preceding the report, the total number of claims submitted to the Bureau on or before that date for which a final determination has not been made;

(D) as of the last day of the 180-day period preceding the report, the total number of claims submitted to the Bureau on or before the date that is 1 year before that date for which a final determination has not been made;

(E) for each claim described in subparagraph (D), a detailed description of the basis for delay;

(F) as of the last day of the 180-day period preceding the report, the total number of claims submitted to the Bureau on or before that date relating to exposure due to the September 11th, 2001, terrorism attacks for which a final determination has not been made;

(G) as of the last day of the 180-day period preceding the report, the total number of claims submitted to the Bureau on or before the date that is 1 year before that date relating to exposure due to the September 11th, 2001, terrorism attacks for which a final determination has not been made;

(H) for each claim described in subparagraph (G), a detailed description of the basis for delay;

(I) the total number of claims submitted to the Bureau relating to exposure due to the September 11th, 2001, terrorism attacks for which a final determination was made during the 180-day period preceding the report, and the average award amount for any such claims that were approved;

(J) the result of each claim for which a final determination was made during the 180-day period preceding the report, including the number of claims rejected and the basis for any denial of benefits;

(K) the number of final determinations which were appealed during the 180-day period preceding the report, regardless of when the final determination was first made;

(L) the average number of claims processed per reviewer of the Bureau during the 180-day period preceding the report;

(M) for any claim submitted to the Bureau that required the submission of additional information from a public agency, and for which the public agency completed providing all of the required information during the 180-day period preceding the report, the average length of the period beginning on the date the public agency was contacted by the Bureau and ending on the date on which the public agency submitted all required information to the Bureau;

(N) for any claim submitted to the Bureau for which the Bureau issued a subpoena to a public agency during the 180-day period preceding the report in order to obtain information or documentation necessary to determine the claim, the name of the public agency, the date on which the subpoena was issued, and the dates on which the public agency was contacted by the Bureau before the issuance of the subpoena; and

(O) information on the compliance of the Bureau with the obligation to offset award amounts under section 10281(f)(3) of this title, including—

(i) the number of claims that are eligible for compensation under both this subchapter and the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001 (49 U.S.C. 40101 note; Public Law 107–42) (commonly referred to as the "VCF");

(ii) for each claim described in clause (i) for which compensation has been paid under the VCF, the amount of compensation paid under the VCF;

(iii) the number of claims described in clause (i) for which the Bureau has made a final determination; and

(iv) the number of claims described in clause (i) for which the Bureau has not made a final determination.


(3) Not later than 2 years after June 2, 2017, and 2 years thereafter, the Comptroller General of the United States shall—

(A) conduct a study on the compliance of the Bureau with the obligation to offset award amounts under section 10281(f)(3) of this title; and

(B) submit to Congress a report on the study conducted under subparagraph (A) that includes an assessment of whether the Bureau has provided the information required under subparagraph (B)(ix) 1 of paragraph (2) of this subsection in each report required under that paragraph.


(4) In this subsection, the term "nature of the claim" means whether the claim is a claim for—

(A) benefits under this part with respect to the death of a public safety officer;

(B) benefits under this part with respect to the disability of a public safety officer; or

(C) education assistance under part B.

(Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §1205, formerly §1204, as added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §609F, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2100; renumbered §1205, Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6106(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4341; amended Pub. L. 105–180, §2(b), June 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(1)(F), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1967; Pub. L. 115–36, §2, June 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 849.)

The September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001, referred to in subsec. (e)(2)(O)(i), is title IV of Pub. L. 107–42, Sept. 22, 2001, 115 Stat. 237, which is set out in a note under section 40101 of Title 49, Transportation.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 3796c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–36, §2(1), inserted "Rules, regulations, and procedures issued under this subchapter may include regulations based on standards developed by another Federal agency for programs related to public safety officer death or disability claims." before "The Bureau may prescribe".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–36, §2(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–36, §2(3), added subsec. (e).

2013—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–239 added subsec. (d).

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–180 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–36 effective June 2, 2017, and applicable to any benefit claim or application under this subchapter pending before the Bureau of Justice Assistance on such date or received by the Bureau on or after such date, see section 6 of Pub. L. 115–36, set out as a note under section 10282 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–239 effective Jan. 2, 2013, and applicable to matters pending on Jan. 2, 2013, or filed or accruing after that date, with certain exceptions, see section 1086(d) of Pub. L. 112–239, set out as a note under section 10251 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably means subpar. (I) of par. (2).

§10286. Expedited payment for public safety officers involved in the prevention, investigation, rescue, or recovery efforts related to a terrorist attack

(a) In general

Notwithstanding the limitations of subsection (b) of section 1201 or the provisions of subsections (c), (d), and (e) of such section or section 1202 of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796, 3796a),1 upon certification (containing identification of all eligible payees of benefits pursuant to section 1201 of such Act) by a public agency that a public safety officer employed by such agency or an entity described in section 1204(7)(B) of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796b(7)(B)) 1 was killed or suffered a catastrophic injury producing permanent and total disability as a direct and proximate result of a personal injury sustained in the line of duty as described in section 1201 of such Act in connection with prevention, investigation, rescue, or recovery efforts related to a terrorist attack, the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance shall authorize payment to qualified beneficiaries, said payment to be made not later than 30 days after receipt of such certification, benefits described under subpart 1 of part L of such Act (42 U.S.C. 3796 et seq.).1

(b) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the terms "catastrophic injury", "public agency", and "public safety officer" have the same meanings given such terms in section 1204 of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3796b).1

(Pub. L. 107–56, title VI, §611, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1086(b)(2), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1968.)

References in Text

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197. The reference to subpart 1 of part L of the Act probably means subpart 1 of part L of title I of the Act, which was classified to part A (§3796 et seq.) of subchapter XII of chapter 46 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as this part. Sections 1201, 1202, and 1204 of the Act were classified to sections 3796, 3796a, and 3796b, respectively, of Title 42 prior to editorial reclassification as sections 10281, 10282, and 10284, respectively, of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 or USA PATRIOT Act, and not as part of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 3796c–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–239 inserted "or an entity described in section 1204(7)(B) of the Omnibus Crime Control and S