[USC07] 46 USC Subtitle V: Merchant Marine
Result 1 of 1
   
 
46 USC Subtitle V: Merchant Marine
From Title 46—SHIPPING

Subtitle V—Merchant Marine

Part A—General

Chapter
Sec.
501.
Policy, Studies, and Reports
50101
503.
Administrative
50301
505.
Other General Provisions
50501

        

Part B—Merchant Marine Service

511.
General
51101
513.
United States Merchant Marine Academy
51301
515.
State Maritime Academy Support Program
51501
517.
Other Support for Merchant Marine Training
51701
519.
Merchant Marine Awards
51901
521.
Miscellaneous
52101

        

Part C—Financial Assistance Programs

531.
Maritime Security Fleet
53101
533.
Construction Reserve Funds
53301
535.
Capital Construction Funds
53501
537.
Loans and Guarantees
53701
539.
War Risk Insurance
53901
541.
Miscellaneous
54101

        

Part D—Promotional Programs

551.
Coastwise Trade
55101
553.
Passenger and Cargo Preferences
55301
555.
Miscellaneous
55501
556.
Short Sea Transportation
55601

        

Part E—Control of Merchant Marine Capabilities

561.
Restrictions on Transfers
56101
563.
Emergency Acquisition of Vessels
56301
565.
Essential Vessels Affected by Neutrality Act
56501

        

Part F—Government-Owned Merchant Vessels

571.
General Authority
57101
573.
Vessel Trade-In Program
57301
575.
Construction, Charter, and Sale of Vessels
57501

        

Part G—Restrictions and Penalties

581.
Restrictions and Penalties
58101

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(6)(E), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 600, added item for chapter 541.

2007Pub. L. 110–140, title XI, §1121(b), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1762, added item for chapter 556.

2006Pub. L. 109–304, §8(a), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1555, amended subtitle analysis generally. Prior to amendment, analysis consisted of item for chapter 531 "Maritime Security Fleet".

Part A—General

CHAPTER 501—POLICY, STUDIES, AND REPORTS

Sec.
50101.
Objectives and policy.
50102.
Survey of merchant marine.
50103.
Determinations of essential services.
50104.
Studies of general maritime problems.
50105.
Studies and cooperation relating to the construction of vessels.
50106.
Studies on the operation of vessels.
50107.
Studies on marine insurance.
50108.
Studies on cargo carriage and cargo containers.
50109.
Miscellaneous studies.
50110.
Securing preference to vessels of the United States.
50111.
Submission of annual MARAD authorization request.
50112.
National Maritime Enhancement Institutes.
50113.
Use and performance reports by operators of vessels.

        

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, §1074(c)(2), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 997, substituted "Submission of annual MARAD authorization request" for "Reports to Congress" in item 50111.

§50101. Objectives and policy

(a) Objectives.—It is necessary for the national defense and the development of the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States that the United States have a merchant marine—

(1) sufficient to carry the waterborne domestic commerce and a substantial part of the waterborne export and import foreign commerce of the United States and to provide shipping service essential for maintaining the flow of the waterborne domestic and foreign commerce at all times;

(2) capable of serving as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency;

(3) owned and operated as vessels of the United States by citizens of the United States;

(4) composed of the best-equipped, safest, and most suitable types of vessels constructed in the United States and manned with a trained and efficient citizen personnel; and

(5) supplemented by efficient facilities for building and repairing vessels.


(b) Policy.—It is the policy of the United States to encourage and aid the development and maintenance of a merchant marine satisfying the objectives described in subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1556; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3511, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2722.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50101 46 App.:861. June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §1, 41 Stat. 988; Exec. Order No. 6166, June 10, 1933, §12; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(33), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 156.
  46 App.:891. May 22, 1928, ch. 675, §1, 45 Stat. 689.
  46 App.:1101. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title I, §101, 49 Stat. 1985; Pub. L. 91–469, §1, Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018.

This section consolidates the source provisions to eliminate repetition.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111–84 inserted "constructed in the United States" after "vessels".

§50102. Survey of merchant marine

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall survey the merchant marine of the United States to determine whether replacements and additions are required to carry out the objectives and policy of section 50101 of this title. The Secretary shall study, perfect, and adopt a long-range program for replacements and additions that will result, as soon as practicable, in—

(1) an adequate and well-balanced merchant fleet, including vessels of all types, that will provide shipping service essential for maintaining the flow of foreign commerce by vessels designed to be readily and quickly convertible into transport and supply vessels in a time of national emergency;

(2) ownership and operation of the fleet by citizens of the United States insofar as practicable;

(3) vessels designed to afford the best and most complete protection for passengers and crew against fire and all marine perils; and

(4) an efficient capacity for building and repairing vessels in the United States with an adequate number of skilled personnel to provide an adequate mobilization base.


(b) Cooperation With Secretary of Navy.—In carrying out subsection (a)(1), the Secretary of Transportation shall cooperate closely with the Secretary of the Navy as to national defense requirements.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1557.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50102 46 App.:1120. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §210, 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§3, 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub.L. 97–31, §12(67) (related to §210), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.

§50103. Determinations of essential services

(a) Essential Services, Routes, and Lines.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the ocean services, routes, and lines from ports in the United States, or in the territories and possessions of the United States, to foreign markets, which the Secretary determines to be essential for the promotion, development, expansion, and maintenance of the foreign commerce of the United States. In making such a determination, the Secretary shall consider and give due weight to—

(A) the cost of maintaining each line;

(B) the probability that a line cannot be maintained except at a heavy loss disproportionate to the benefit to foreign trade;

(C) the number of voyages and types of vessels that should be employed in a line;

(D) the intangible benefit of maintaining a line to the foreign commerce of the United States, the national defense, and other national requirements; and

(E) any other facts and conditions a prudent business person would consider when dealing with the person's own business.


(2) Saint lawrence seaway.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall establish services, routes, and lines that reflect the seasonal closing of the Saint Lawrence Seaway and provide for alternate routing of vessels through a different range of ports during that closing to maintain continuity of service on a year-round basis.


(b) Bulk Cargo Carrying Services.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the bulk cargo carrying services that should be provided by vessels of the United States (whether or not operating on particular services, routes, or lines) for the promotion, development, expansion, and maintenance of the foreign commerce of the United States and the national defense or other national requirements.

(c) Types of Vessels.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the type, size, speed, method of propulsion, and other requirements of the vessels, including express-liner or super-liner vessels, that should be employed in—

(1) the services, routes, or lines described in subsection (a), and the frequency and regularity of the voyages of the vessels, with a view to furnishing adequate, regular, certain, and permanent service; and

(2) the bulk cargo carrying services described in subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1557.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50103(a)(1) 46 App.:1121(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(a)–(c), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4, 35(a), (b), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50103(a)(2) 46 App.:1213(a) (3d sentence related to 1121(a)). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title VIII, §809(a) (3d sentence related to 211(a)), as added Pub. L. 97–35, title XVI, §1604, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 751.
50103(b) 46 App.:1121(b).
50103(c) 46 App.:1121(c).

§50104. Studies of general maritime problems

The Secretary of Transportation shall study all maritime problems arising in carrying out the policy in section 50101 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1558.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50104 46 App.:1122(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(a), 49 Stat. 1990; Aug. 6, 1981, Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), 95 Stat. 159.

§50105. Studies and cooperation relating to the construction of vessels

(a) Relative Costs and New Designs.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of—

(1) the relative cost of construction of comparable vessels in the United States and in foreign countries; and

(2) new designs, new methods of construction, and new types of equipment for vessels.


(b) Rules, Classifications, and Ratings.—The Secretary shall examine the rules under which vessels are constructed abroad and in the United States and the methods of classifying and rating the vessels.

(c) Collaboration With Owners and Builders.—The Secretary shall collaborate with vessel owners and shipbuilders in developing plans for the economical construction of vessels and their propelling machinery, of most modern economical types, giving thorough consideration to all well-recognized means of propulsion and taking into account the benefits from standardized production where practicable and desirable.

(d) Express-Liner and Super-Liner Vessels.—The Secretary shall study and cooperate with vessel owners in devising means by which there may be constructed, by or with the aid of the United States Government, express-liner or super-liner vessels comparable to those of other nations, especially with a view to their use in a national emergency, and the use of transoceanic aircraft service in connection with or in lieu of those vessels.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1558.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50105(a)(1) 46 App.:811 (1st sentence words before 1st comma). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (1st sentence words before 1st comma, 2d sentence words before 2d comma), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.
  46 App.:1121(d). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(d), (j) (words before 1st semicolon), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4(2), 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50105(a)(2) 46 App.:1121(j) (words before 1st semicolon).
50105(b) 46 App.:811 (2d sentence words before 2d comma).
50105(c) 46 App.:1122(c). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(b)(2), (c), 49 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50105(d) 46 App.:1122(b)(2).

§50106. Studies on the operation of vessels

(a) Relative Costs.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the relative cost of marine insurance, maintenance, repairs, wages and subsistence of officers and crews, and all other items of expense, in the operation of comparable vessels under the laws and regulations of the United States and those of the foreign countries whose vessels are substantial competitors of American vessels.

(b) Shipyards.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the number, location, and efficiency of shipyards in the United States.

(c) Navigation Laws.—The Secretary shall examine the navigation laws and regulations of the United States and make such recommendations to Congress as the Secretary considers proper for the amendment, improvement, and revision of those laws and for the development of the merchant marine of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50106(a) 46 App.:811 (1st sentence words after 1st comma). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (1st sentence words after 1st comma, 3d sentence), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.
  46 App.:1121(e). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(e), (g), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4(2), 5, 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50106(b) 46 App.:1121(g).
50106(c) 46 App.:811 (3d sentence).

In subsection (b), the words "existing on June 29, 1936, or thereafter built" are omitted as obsolete.

§50107. Studies on marine insurance

The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) examine into the subject of marine insurance, the number of companies in the United States, domestic and foreign, engaging in marine insurance, the extent of the insurance on hulls and cargoes placed or written in the United States, and the extent of reinsurance of American maritime risks in foreign companies; and

(2) ascertain what steps may be necessary to develop an ample marine insurance system as an aid in the development of the merchant marine of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50107 46 App.:811 (2d sentence words after 2d comma). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (2d sentence words after 2d comma), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.

§50108. Studies on cargo carriage and cargo containers

(a) Studies.—The Secretary of Transportation shall study—

(1) the methods of encouraging the development and implementation of new concepts for the carriage of cargo in the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States; and

(2) the economic and technological aspects of the use of cargo containers as a method of carrying out the policy in section 50101 of this title.


(b) Restriction.—In carrying out subsection (a) and the policy in section 50101 of this title, the United States Government may not give preference as between carriers based on the length, height, or width of cargo containers or the length, height, or width of cargo container cells. This restriction applies to all existing container vessels and any container vessel to be constructed or rebuilt.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50108 46 App.:1122(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(f); as added Pub. L. 90–268, §1, Mar. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 98–237, §20(c), Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 90.

§50109. Miscellaneous studies

(a) Foreign Subsidies.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the extent and character of the governmental aid and subsidies granted by foreign governments to their merchant marine.

(b) Laws Applicable to Aircraft.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the provisions of law relating to shipping that should be made applicable to aircraft engaged in foreign commerce to further the policy in section 50101 of this title, and any appropriate legislation in this regard.

(c) Aid for Cotton, Coal, Lumber, and Cement.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the advisability of enactment of suitable legislation authorizing the Secretary, in an economic or commercial emergency, to aid farmers and producers of cotton, coal, lumber, and cement in any section of the United States in the transportation and landing of their products in any foreign port, which products can be carried in dry-cargo vessels by reducing rates, by supplying additional tonnage to any American operator, or by operation of vessels directly by the Secretary, until the Secretary considers the special rate reduction and operation unnecessary for the benefit of those farmers and producers.

(d) Intercoastal and Inland Water Transportation.—The Secretary shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of intercoastal and inland water transportation, including their relation to transportation by land and air.

(e) Obsolete Tonnage and Tramp Service.—The Secretary shall make studies and reports to Congress on—

(1) the scrapping or removal from service of old or obsolete merchant tonnage owned by the United States Government or in use in the merchant marine; and

(2) tramp shipping service and the advisability of citizens of the United States participating in that service with vessels under United States registry.


(f) Mortgage Loans.—The Secretary shall investigate the legal status of mortgage loans on vessel property, with a view to the means of improving the security of those loans and of encouraging investment in American shipping.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50109(a) 46 App.:1121(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(f), (h), (i), (j) (words after 2d semicolon), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4(2), 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50109(b) 46 App.:1121(h).
50109(c) 46 App.:1121(i).
50109(d) 46 App.:1121(j) (words after 2d semicolon).
50109(e) 46 App.:1123. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §213, 49 Stat. 1991; Pub. L. 87–877, §2(c), (d), Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1201; Pub. L. 94–273, §27, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(71), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXVI, §3602, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2075.
50109(f) 46 App.:811 (4th sentence). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (4th sentence), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.

§50110. Securing preference to vessels of the United States

(a) Possibilities of Promoting Carriage.—The Secretary of Transportation shall investigate, determine, and keep current records of the possibilities of promoting the carriage of United States foreign trade in vessels of the United States.

(b) Inducements to Importers and Exporters.—The Secretary shall study and cooperate with vessel owners in devising means by which the importers and exporters of the United States can be induced to give preference to vessels of the United States.

(c) Liaison With Agencies and Organizations.—The Secretary shall establish and maintain liaison with such other agencies of the United States Government, and with such representative trade organizations throughout the United States, as may be concerned, directly or indirectly, with any movement of commodities in the waterborne export and import foreign commerce of the United States, for the purpose of securing preference to vessels of the United States in the shipment of those commodities.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1560.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50110(a) 46 App.:1121(j) (words between 1st and 2d semicolons). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §211(j) (words between 1st and 2d semicolons), 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§4(2), 35(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
50110(b) 46 App.:1122(b)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(b)(1), (d), 49 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 98–237, §20(c), Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 90.
50110(c) 46 App.:1122(d).

§50111. Submission of annual MARAD authorization request

(a) Submission of Legislative Proposal.—Not later than 30 days after the date on which the President submits to Congress a budget for a fiscal year pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate the Maritime Administration authorization request for that fiscal year.

(b) Maritime Administration Request Defined.—In this section, the term "Maritime Administration authorization request" means a proposal for legislation that, for a fiscal year—

(1) recommends authorizations of appropriations for the Maritime Administration for that fiscal year, including with respect to matters described in subsection 1 109(j) of title 49 or authorized in subtitle V of this title; and

(2) addresses any other matter with respect to the Maritime Administration that the Secretary determines is appropriate.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1560; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, §1074(c)(1), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 996.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50111(a) 46 App.:811 (last sentence). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §12 (last sentence), 39 Stat. 732; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(27), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155.
  46 App.:1118 (related to Secretary). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §208 (related to Secretary), 49 Stat. 1988; Pub. L. 94–273, §36, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(65), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
  46 App.:1160(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title V, §510(f), as added Aug. 4, 1939, ch. 417, §7, 53 Stat. 1184; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(91)(A)–(C), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 161.
  46 App.:1291. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XII, §1211, as added Sept. 7, 1950, ch. 906, 64 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 89–348, §1(7), Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1310.
50111(b) 46 App.:1118 note. Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXV, §3506], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-494.
50111(c) 46 App.:1122(g). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(g), 49 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 90–268, §1, Mar. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 98–237, §20(c), Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 90.

In subsection (a), the words "on or before the 1st day of December in each year" in 46 App. U.S.C. 811 (last sentence) are omitted for consistency with the April 1 date in 46 App.:1118. The words "and of the operations of any corporation in which the United States is a stockholder, and the names and compensation of all persons employed by the Secretary of Transportation" in 46 App. U.S.C. 811 (last sentence) are omitted because the provision originally applied to the United States Shipping Board (which was abolished in 1933) and presumably is not intended to apply to the Secretary.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–92 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to annual reports to Congress.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§50112. National Maritime Enhancement Institutes

(a) Designation.—The Secretary of Transportation may designate National Maritime Enhancement Institutes.

(b) Activities.—Activities undertaken by an institute may include—

(1) conducting research about methods to improve the performance of maritime industries;

(2) enhancing the competitiveness of domestic maritime industries in international trade;

(3) forecasting trends in maritime trade;

(4) assessing technological advancements;

(5) developing management initiatives and training;

(6) analyzing economic and operational impacts of regulatory policies and international negotiations or agreements pending before international bodies;

(7) assessing the compatibility of domestic maritime infrastructure systems with overseas transport systems;

(8) fostering innovations in maritime transportation pricing; and

(9) improving maritime economics and finance.


(c) Application for Designation.—An institution seeking designation as a National Maritime Enhancement Institute shall submit an application under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Criteria for Designation.—The Secretary shall designate an institute under this section on the basis of the following criteria:

(1) The demonstrated research and extension resources available to the applicant for carrying out the activities specified in subsection (b).

(2) The ability of the applicant to provide leadership in making national and regional contributions to the solution of both long-range and immediate problems of the domestic maritime industry.

(3) The existence of an established program of the applicant encompassing research and training directed to enhancing maritime industries.

(4) The demonstrated ability of the applicant to assemble and evaluate pertinent information from national and international sources and to disseminate results of maritime industry research and educational programs through a continuing education program.

(5) The qualification of the applicant as a nonprofit institution of higher learning.


(e) Financial Awards.—The Secretary may make awards on an equal matching basis to an institute designated under subsection (a) from amounts appropriated. The aggregate annual amount of the Federal share of the awards by the Secretary may not exceed $500,000.

(f) University Transportation Research Funds.—The Secretary may make a grant under section 5505 of title 49 to an institute designated under subsection (a) for maritime and maritime intermodal research under that section as if the institute were a university transportation center. In making a grant, the Secretary, through the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation, shall advise the Maritime Administration on the availability of funds for the grants and consult with the Administration on making the grants.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1561; Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title I, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 574.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50112 46 App.:1121–2. Pub. L. 101–115, §8, Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 694; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §702, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2994; Pub. L. 102–241, §47, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2227; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXV, §3504], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-493; Pub. L. 108–426, Nov. 30, 2004, §2(c)(4), 118 Stat. 2424.

Change of Name

"Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation" substituted for "Research and Innovative Technology Administration" in subsec. (f) on authority of title I of div. L of Pub. L. 113–76, set out in part as a note under former section 112 of Title 49, Transportation.

§50113. Use and performance reports by operators of vessels

(a) Filing Requirement.—The Secretary of Transportation by regulation may require the operator of a vessel in the waterborne foreign commerce of the United States to file such report, account, record, or memorandum on the use and performance of the vessel as the Secretary considers desirable to assist in carrying out this subtitle. The report, account, record, or memorandum shall be signed and verified, and be filed at the times and in the manner, as provided by regulation.

(b) Civil Penalty.—An operator not filing a report, account, record, or memorandum required by the Secretary under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $50 for each day of the violation. A penalty imposed under this section on the operator of a vessel constitutes a lien on the vessel involved in the violation. A civil action in rem to enforce the lien may be brought in the district court of the United States for any district in which the vessel is found. The Secretary may remit or mitigate any penalty imposed under this section.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1562.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50113 46 App.:1122a. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(A), as added June 25, 1956, ch. 437, 70 Stat. 332; Aug. 6, 1981, Pub. L. 97–31, §12(70), 95 Stat. 159.

CHAPTER 503—ADMINISTRATIVE

Sec.
50301.
Vessel Operations Revolving Fund.
50302.
Port development.
50303.
Operating property and extending term of notes.
50304.
Sale and transfer of property.
50305.
Appointment of trustee or receiver and operation of vessels.
50306.
Requiring testimony and records in investigations.
50307.
Maritime environmental and technical assistance program.

        

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–213, title IV, §403(b), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1570, added item 50307.

§50301. Vessel Operations Revolving Fund

(a) In General.—There is a "Vessel Operations Revolving Fund" for use by the Secretary of Transportation in carrying out duties and powers related to vessel operations, including charter, operation, maintenance, repair, reconditioning, and improvement of merchant vessels under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. The Fund has a working capital of $20,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(b) Relationship to Other Laws.—Notwithstanding any other law, rates for shipping services provided under the Fund shall be prescribed by the Secretary and the Fund shall be credited with receipts from vessel operations conducted under the Fund. Sections 1(a) and (c), 3(c), and 4 of the Act of March 24, 1943 (50 App. U.S.C. 1291(a), (c), 1293(c), 1294),1 apply to those operations and to seamen employed through general agents as employees of the United States Government. Notwithstanding any other law on the employment of persons by the Government, the seamen may be employed in accordance with customary commercial practices in the maritime industry.

(c) Advancements.—With the approval of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Secretary may advance amounts the Secretary considers necessary, but not more than 2 percent of vessel operating expenses, from the Fund to the appropriation "Salaries and Expenses" in carrying out duties and powers related to vessel operations, without regard to the limitations on amounts stated in that appropriation.

(d) Transfers.—The unexpended balances of working funds or of allocation accounts established after January 1, 1951, for the activities provided for in subsection (a), and receipts received from those activities, may be transferred to the Fund, which shall be available for the purposes of those working funds or allocation accounts.

(e) Limitation.—

(1) In general.—Amounts made available to the Secretary for maritime activities by this section or any other law may not be used to pay for a vessel described in paragraph (2) unless the compensation to be paid is computed under section 56303 of this title as that section is interpreted by the Comptroller General.

(2) Applicable vessels.—Paragraph (1) applies to a vessel—

(A) the title to which is acquired by the Government by requisition or purchase;

(B) the use of which is taken by requisition or agreement; or

(C) lost while insured by the Government.


(3) Nonapplicable vessels.—Paragraph (1) does not apply to a vessel under a construction-differential subsidy contract.


(f) Availability for Additional Purposes.—The Fund is available for—

(1) necessary expenses incurred in the protection, preservation, maintenance, acquisition, or use of vessels involved in mortgage foreclosure or forfeiture proceedings instituted by the Government, including payment of prior claims and liens, expenses of sale, or other related charges;

(2) necessary expenses incident to the redelivery and lay-up, in the United States, of vessels chartered as of June 20, 1956, under agreements not calling for their return to the Government;

(3) the activation, repair, and deactivation of merchant vessels chartered for limited emergency purposes during fiscal year 1957 under the jurisdiction of the Secretary; and

(4) payment of expenses of custody and maintenance of Government-owned vessels not in the National Defense Reserve Fleet.


(g) Expenses and Receipts Related to Charter Operations.—The Fund is available for expenses incurred in activating, repairing, and deactivating merchant vessels chartered under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. Receipts from charter operations of Government-owned vessels under the jurisdiction of the Secretary shall be credited to the Fund.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1562.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50301(a) 46 App.:1241a (1st sentence). June 2, 1951, ch. 121 (pars. under heading "Vessel Operations Revolving Fund"), 65 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(128), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.
50301(b) 46 App.:1241a (2d sentence words before 2d proviso).
50301(c) 46 App.:1241a (2d sentence 2d proviso).
50301(d) 46 App.:1241a (2d sentence last proviso).
50301(e) 46 App.:1241a (last sentence).
50301(f) 46 App.:1241b. June 20, 1956, ch. 415, title I, §101 (4th complete par. on p. 319), 70 Stat. 319; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(129), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165.
  46 App.:1241b note.
50301(g) 46 App.:1241c. Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 846, 70 Stat. 897; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(130), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165.

In subsection (c), the words "Director of the Office of Management and Budget" are substituted for "Bureau of the Budget" in the Act of June 2, 1951 (ch. 121, 65 Stat. 59), because of sections 101 and 102 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (5 App. U.S.C.) and 31 U.S.C. ch. 5. The words "for the purposes of that appropriation" are omitted for clarity and for consistency in the subsection.

In subsection (d), the words "notwithstanding any other provisions of law" and "and consolidated with" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (e), in paragraph (1), the words "Comptroller General" are substituted for "Government Accountability Office" for consistency in the revised title. Paragraph (3) is substituted for "(except in cases where section 1212 of this Appendix is applicable)" because section 1212 applies to all vessels under a construction-differential subsidy contract.

In subsection (f), the words "On and after June 20, 1956", and the last proviso in the 4th complete par. at 70 Stat. 319 (46 App. U.S.C. 1241b note), are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (g), the words "beginning July 1, 1956" and "after July 1, 1956" are omitted as obsolete.

References in Text

Sections 1(a) and (c), 3(c), and 4 of the Act of March 24, 1943 (50 App. U.S.C. 1291(a), (c), 1293(c), 1294), referred to in subsec. (b), are sections 1(a) and (c), 3(c), and 4 of act Mar. 24, 1943, ch. 26, 57 Stat. 45, 47, 49, 51, which were formerly classified to sections 1291(a), (c), 1293(c), and 1294 of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification as sections 4701(a), (c), 4703(c), and 4704, respectively, of Title 50.

1 See References in Text note below.

§50302. Port development

(a) General Requirements.—With the objective of promoting, encouraging, and developing ports and transportation facilities in connection with water commerce over which the Secretary of Transportation has jurisdiction, the Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of the Army, shall—

(1) investigate territorial regions and zones tributary to ports, taking into consideration the economies of transportation by rail, water, and highway and the natural direction of the flow of commerce;

(2) investigate the causes of congestion of commerce at ports and applicable remedies;

(3) investigate the subject of water terminals, including the necessary docks, warehouses, and equipment, to devise and suggest the types most appropriate for different locations and for the most expeditious and economical transfer or interchange of passengers or property between water carriers and rail carriers;

(4) consult with communities on the appropriate location and plan of construction of wharves, piers, and water terminals;

(5) investigate the practicability and advantages of harbor, river, and port improvements in connection with foreign and coastwise trade; and

(6) investigate any other matter that may tend to promote and encourage the use by vessels of ports adequate to care for the freight that naturally would pass through those ports.


(b) Submission of Findings to Surface Transportation Board.—After an investigation under subsection (a), if the Secretary of Transportation believes that the rates or practices of a rail carrier subject to the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board are detrimental to the objective specified in subsection (a), or that new rates or practices, new or additional port terminal facilities, or affirmative action by a rail carrier is necessary to promote that objective, the Secretary may submit findings to the Board for action the Board considers appropriate under existing law.

(c) Port Infrastructure Development Program.—

(1) Establishment of program.—The Secretary of Transportation, through the Maritime Administrator, shall establish a port infrastructure development program for the improvement of port facilities as provided in this subsection.

(2) Authority of the administrator.—In order to carry out any project under the program established under paragraph (1), the Administrator may—

(A) receive funds provided for the project from Federal, non-Federal, and private entities that have a specific agreement or contract with the Administrator to further the purposes of this subsection;

(B) coordinate with other Federal agencies to expedite the process established under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) for the improvement of port facilities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system, to increase port security, or to provide greater access to port facilities;

(C) seek to coordinate all reviews or requirements with appropriate local, State, and Federal agencies; and

(D) provide such technical assistance and financial assistance, including grants, to port authorities or commissions or their subdivisions and agents as needed for project planning, design, and construction.


(3) Port infrastructure development fund.—

(A) Establishment.—There is a Port Infrastructure Development Fund for use by the Administrator in carrying out projects under the port infrastructure development program. The Fund shall be available to the Administrator—

(i) to administer and carry out projects under the program;

(ii) to receive Federal, non-Federal, and private funds from entities which have specific agreements or contracts with the Administrator; and

(iii) to make refunds for projects that will not be completed.


(B) Credits.—There may be deposited into the Fund—

(i) funds from Federal, non-Federal, and private entities which have agreements or contracts with the Administrator and which shall remain in the Fund until expended or refunded; and

(ii) such amounts as may be appropriated or transferred, subject to subparagraph (C), to the Fund under this subsection.


(C) Transfers.—

(i) In general.—Subject to clauses (ii) and (iii), amounts appropriated or otherwise made available for any fiscal year for a marine facility or intermodal facility that includes maritime transportation may be transferred, at the option of the recipient of such amounts, to the Fund and administered by the Administrator as a component of a project under the program.

(ii) Prohibition on transfers.—Except as provided in clause (iii), no funds appropriated or made available under title 23 or chapter 53 of title 49, United States Code, including funds from the Highway Trust Fund (section 9503(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), funds from the Mass Transit Account of the Highway Trust Fund (section 9503(e) of Internal Revenue Code of 1986), and funds provided for public transportation programs within the mass transit category (as defined in section 250(c)(4)(C) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985), shall be transferred into the Fund.

(iii) Exception.—

(I) In general.—Amounts described in subclause (II) are eligible for transfer into the Fund if—

(aa) the recipient of the amounts has a specific agreement or contract with the Administrator;

(bb) the Department of Transportation agency that administers the amounts to be transferred has granted project approval for each component of the project that is to be funded using such amounts;

(cc) the Department of Transportation agency that administers the amounts to be transferred and the Maritime Administration agree to the transfer through a signed Memorandum of Understanding; and

(dd) the amounts will be used only to carry out the project for which funds were approved, and in accordance with any conditions governing the amounts under title 23 or chapter 53 of title 49, United States Code.


(II) Amounts described.—The amounts referred to in subclause (I) are amounts appropriated or made available—

(aa) for loans, loan guarantees, or lines of credit under chapter 6 of title 23, United States Code, for a project eligible under such chapter to facilitate direct intermodal exchange, transfer, and access into and out of a port as defined under section 601(a)(8)(D)(iii) of such title, as in effect on the date of enactment of this subsection; or

(bb) for projects under title XII of division A of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111–5).


(D) Limitation on statutory construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter or otherwise affect existing authorities to conduct port infrastructure programs in Hawaii (as authorized by section 9008 of Public Law 109–59), Alaska (as authorized by section 10205 of Public Law 109–59), or Guam (as authorized by section 3512 of Public Law 110–417).


(4) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Fund such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program, taking into account amounts received under paragraph (3)(A)(ii).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1564; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3512, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2722; Pub. L. 113–66, div. C, title XXXV, §3505(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 1086.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50302(a) 46 App.:867 (words before proviso). June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §8, 41 Stat. 992; Exec. Order No. 6166, June 10, 1933, §12; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(40), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 156; Pub. L. 104–88, §321(1), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 949.
50302(b) 46 App.:867 (proviso).

In subsection (a), before paragraph (1), the words "Secretary of the Army" are substituted for "Secretary of War" in section 8 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 992) because of section 205(a) of the National Security Act of 1947 (ch. 343, 61 Stat. 501). See 10 U.S.C. 3011 et seq. In paragraph (3), the words "apparatus" and "appliances" are omitted as unnecessary. In paragraph (4), the words "consult with" are substituted for "advise with" as being more grammatical.

In subsection (b), the words "rates or practices" are substituted for "rates, charges, rules, or regulations" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 9503 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(C)(ii), is classified to section 9503 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 250 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(C)(ii), is classified to section 900 of Title 2, The Congress.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(C)(iii)(II)(aa), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 111–84, which was approved Oct. 28, 2009.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(C)(iii)(II)(bb), is Pub. L. 111–5, Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 115. The provisions of title XII of div. A of the Act making appropriations are not classified to the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2009 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and Tables.

Section 9008 of Public Law 109–59, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(D), is section 9008 of Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1926, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 10205 of Public Law 109–59, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(D), is section 10205 of Pub. L. 109–59, title X, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1934, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 3512 of Public Law 110–417, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(D), is classified to section 1421r of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–66 inserted "and financial assistance, including grants," after "technical assistance".

2009—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–84 added subsec. (c).

Strategic Seaports

Pub. L. 113–66, div. C, title XXXV, §3505(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 1086, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Under the port infrastructure development program established under section 50302(c) of title 46, United States Code, the Maritime Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, may give priority to providing funding to strategic seaports in support of national security requirements.

"(2) Strategic seaport defined.—In this subsection the term 'strategic seaport' means a military port or and [sic] commercial port that is subject to a port planning order or Basic Ordering Agreement (or both) that is projected to be used for the deployment of forces and shipment of ammunition or sustainment supplies in support of military operations."

§50303. Operating property and extending term of notes

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) operate or lease docks, wharves, piers, vessels, or real property under the Secretary's control, except that the prior consent of the Secretary of Defense for such use shall be required with respect to any vessel in the Ready Reserve Force or in the National Defense Reserve Fleet which is maintained in a retention status for the Department of Defense; and

(2) make extensions and accept renewals of—

(A) promissory notes and other evidences of indebtedness on property; and

(B) mortgages and other contracts securing the property.


(b) Terms of Transactions.—A transaction under subsection (a) shall be on terms the Secretary considers necessary to carry out the purposes of this subtitle, but consistent with sound business practice.

(c) Availability of Amounts.—Amounts received by the Secretary from a transaction under this section are available for expenditure by the Secretary as provided in this subtitle.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1564; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3512, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 594.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50303 46 App.:1112. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §202, 49 Stat. 1986; Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 822, §1, 50 Stat. 839; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §1, 52 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(60), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 158.

In subsection (a), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" are omitted as unnecessary. In paragraph (1), the word "lands" is omitted as included in "real property". In paragraph (2)(A), the word "promissory" is added for clarity. The words "hereby transferred", referring to the transfer under the first sentence of section 202 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (repealed by section 12(60)(A) of Public Law 97–31), are omitted as obsolete.

Subsection (b) is substituted for "in accordance with good business methods and on such terms and conditions as he determines to effectuate the policy of this chapter" and "upon such terms and conditions as he may prescribe in accordance with sound business practice" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–181 inserted "vessels," after "piers," and substituted "control, except that the prior consent of the Secretary of Defense for such use shall be required with respect to any vessel in the Ready Reserve Force or in the National Defense Reserve Fleet which is maintained in a retention status for the Department of Defense;" for "control;".

§50304. Sale and transfer of property

(a) Authority To Sell.—The Secretary of Transportation may sell property (other than vessels transferred under section 4 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 990)) on terms the Secretary considers appropriate.

(b) Transfers From Military to Civilian Control.—When the President considers it in the interest of the United States, the President may transfer to the Secretary of Transportation possession and control of property described in the second paragraph of section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted, that is possessed and controlled by the Secretary of a military department.

(c) Transfers From Civilian to Military Control.—When the President considers it necessary, the President by executive order may transfer to the Secretary of a military department possession and control of property described in section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted, that is possessed and controlled by the Secretary of Transportation. The President's order shall state the need for the transfer and the period of the need. When the President decides that the need has ended, the possession and control shall revert to the Secretary of Transportation. The property may not be sold except as provided by law.

(d) Vessel Charters to Other Departments.—On a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary may charter or otherwise make available a vessel under the jurisdiction of the Secretary to any other department, upon the request by the Secretary of the Department that receives the vessel. The prior consent of the Secretary of Defense for such use shall be required with respect to any vessel in the Ready Reserve Force or in the National Defense Reserve Fleet which is maintained in a retention status for the Department of Defense.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1565; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3515, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 595.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50304(a) 46 App.:872. June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §§13, 17, 41 Stat. 993, 994; Exec. Order No. 6166, June 10, 1933, §12; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(44), (45), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 157.
50304(b) 46 App.:875 (1st par.).
50304(c) 46 App.:875 (last par.).

In subsections (b) and (c), the words "property described in the second paragraph of section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted" are substituted for "such other docks, piers, warehouses, wharves and terminal equipment and facilities or parts thereof, including all leasehold easements, rights of way, riparian rights and other rights, estates or interests therein or appurtenant thereto which were acquired . . . for military or naval purposes during the war emergency", and the words "property described in section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted" are substituted for "property taken over by or transferred to . . . under this section", because the first paragraph of section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, was repealed in 1981 and reference to that paragraph is necessary for a complete understanding of these provisions. The words "Secretary of a military department" are substituted for "War Department or the Navy Department" and "Department of the Army, Department of the Air Force, or Department of the Navy" for consistency with other titles of the United States Code. For redesignation of the Department of War to the Department of the Army, and for transfer of certain functions to newly established Department of the Air Force, see sections 205(a) and 207(a) and (f) of the National Security Act of 1947 (ch. 343, 61 Stat. 501, 502, 503).

In subsection (b), the words "possessed and controlled by" are substituted for "acquired by" for clarity and for consistency in the section. The word "best" is omitted as unnecessary.

References in Text

Section 4 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, referred to in subsec. (a), is section 4 of act June 5, 1920, ch. 250, 41 Stat. 990, which was classified to section 863 of former Title 46, Shipping, and was repealed by Pub. L. 100–710, title II, §202(4), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4753.

Section 17 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994), as originally enacted, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), is section 17 of act June 5, 1920, ch. 250, 41 Stat. 994, which was classified to section 875 of the former Appendix to this title, was subsequently amended, and as amended, was repealed and restated in subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8(b), 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1556, 1710.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–181 added subsec. (d).

§50305. Appointment of trustee or receiver and operation of vessels

(a) Appointment of Trustees and Receivers.—

(1) Appointment of secretary.—In a proceeding in a court of the United States in which a trustee or receiver may be appointed for a corporation operating a vessel of United States registry between the United States and a foreign country, on which the United States Government holds a mortgage, the court may appoint the Secretary of Transportation as the sole trustee or receiver (subject to the direction of the court) if—

(A) the court finds that the appointment will—

(i) inure to the advantage of the estate and the parties in interest; and

(ii) tend to carry out the purposes of this subtitle; and


(B) the Secretary expressly consents to the appointment.


(2) Appointment of other person.—The appointment of another person as trustee or receiver without a hearing becomes effective when ratified by the Secretary, but the Secretary may demand a hearing.


(b) Operation of Vessels.—

(1) In general.—If the court is unwilling to allow the trustee or receiver to operate the vessel in foreign commerce without financial aid from the Government pending termination of the proceeding, and the Secretary certifies to the court that the continued operation of the vessel is essential to the foreign commerce of the United States and is reasonably calculated to carry out the purposes of this subtitle, the court may allow the Secretary to operate the vessel, either directly or through a managing agent or operator employed by the Secretary. The Secretary must agree to comply with terms imposed by the court sufficient to protect the parties in interest. The Secretary also must agree to pay all operating losses resulting from the operation. The operation shall be for the account of the trustee or receiver.

(2) Payment of operating losses and other amounts.—The Secretary has no claim against the corporation, its estate, or its assets for operating losses paid by the Secretary, but the Secretary may pay amounts for depreciation the Secretary considers reasonable and other amounts the court considers just. The payment of operating losses and the other amounts and compliance with terms imposed by the court shall be in satisfaction of any claim against the Secretary resulting from the operation of the vessel.

(3) Deemed operation by government.—A vessel operated by the Secretary under this subsection is deemed to be a vessel operated by the United States under chapter 309 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1565.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50305 46 App.:1247. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title IX, §908, as added Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §334, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2680; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(134), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 165.

In subsection (a)(1), before subparagraph (A), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" and "bankruptcy, equity, or admiralty" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "but the Secretary may demand a hearing" are substituted for "unless the Secretary shall deem a hearing necessary" for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "subject to the orders of the court" and "comply with the terms imposed by the court" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "operating losses paid by the Secretary" are substituted for "the amount of such payments" for clarity.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "vessel operated by the United States" are substituted for "vessel of the United States" for clarity and consistency with chapter 309.

§50306. Requiring testimony and records in investigations

(a) In General.—In conducting an investigation that the Secretary of Transportation considers necessary and proper to carry out this subtitle, the Secretary may administer oaths, take evidence, and subpoena persons to testify and produce documents relevant to the matter under investigation. Persons may be required to attend or produce documents from any place in the United States at any designated place of hearing.

(b) Fees and Mileage.—Persons subpoenaed by the Secretary under subsection (a) shall be paid the same fees and mileage paid to witnesses in the courts of the United States.

(c) Enforcement of Subpoenas.—If a person disobeys a subpoena issued under subsection (a), the Secretary may seek an order enforcing the subpoena from the district court of the United States for the district in which the person resides or does business. Process may be served in the judicial district in which the person resides or is found. The court may issue an order to obey the subpoena and punish a refusal to obey as a contempt of court.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1566.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50306 46 App.:1124. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §214, 49 Stat. 1991; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §3, 52 Stat. 954; Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §241, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(72), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 98–237, §20(a), Mar. 20, 1984, 98 Stat. 89; Pub. L. 98–595, §2, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3132.

In subsection (a), the word "affirmations" is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "oath" in 1 U.S.C. 1. The words "or any territory, district, or possession thereof" are omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "United States" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

Subsection (c) is substituted for the source provision to eliminate unnecessary words.

§50307. Maritime environmental and technical assistance program

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation may engage in the environmental study, research, development, assessment, and deployment of emerging marine technologies and practices related to the marine transportation system through the use of public vessels under the control of the Maritime Administration or private vessels under United States registry, and through partnerships and cooperative efforts with academic, public, private, and nongovernmental entities and facilities.

(b) Components.—Under this section, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) identify, study, evaluate, test, demonstrate, or improve emerging marine technologies and practices that are likely to achieve environmental improvements by—

(A) reducing air emissions, water emissions, or other ship discharges;

(B) increasing fuel economy or the use of alternative fuels and alternative energy (including the use of shore power); or

(C) controlling aquatic invasive species; and


(2) coordinate with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Coast Guard, and other Federal, State, local, or tribal agencies, as appropriate.


(c) Coordination.—Coordination under subsection (b)(2) may include—

(1) activities that are associated with the development or approval of validation and testing regimes; and

(2) certification or validation of emerging technologies or practices that demonstrate significant environmental benefits.


(d) Assistance.—The Secretary of Transportation may accept gifts, or enter into cooperative agreements, contracts, or other agreements with academic, public, private, and nongovernmental entities and facilities to carry out the activities authorized under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 112–213, title IV, §403(a), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1569.)

CHAPTER 505—OTHER GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
50501.
Entities deemed citizens of the United States.
50502.
Applicability to receivers, trustees, successors, and assigns.
50503.
Oceanographic research vessels.
50504.
Sailing school vessels.

        

§50501. Entities deemed citizens of the United States

(a) In General.—In this subtitle, a corporation, partnership, or association is deemed to be a citizen of the United States only if the controlling interest is owned by citizens of the United States. However, if the corporation, partnership, or association is operating a vessel in the coastwise trade, at least 75 percent of the interest must be owned by citizens of the United States.

(b) Additional Requirements for Corporations.—In this subtitle, a corporation is deemed to be a citizen of the United States only if, in addition to satisfying the requirements in subsection (a)—

(1) it is incorporated under the laws of the United States or a State;

(2) its chief executive officer, by whatever title, and the chairman of its board of directors are citizens of the United States; and

(3) no more of its directors are noncitizens than a minority of the number necessary to constitute a quorum.


(c) Determination of Controlling Corporate Interest.—The controlling interest in a corporation is owned by citizens of the United States under subsection (a) only if—

(1) title to the majority of the stock in the corporation is vested in citizens of the United States free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of a person not a citizen of the United States;

(2) the majority of the voting power in the corporation is vested in citizens of the United States;

(3) there is no contract or understanding by which the majority of the voting power in the corporation may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of a person not a citizen of the United States; and

(4) there is no other means by which control of the corporation is given to or permitted to be exercised by a person not a citizen of the United States.


(d) Determination of 75 Percent Corporate Interest.—At least 75 percent of the interest in a corporation is owned by citizens of the United States under subsection (a) only if—

(1) title to at least 75 percent of the stock in the corporation is vested in citizens of the United States free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of a person not a citizen of the United States;

(2) at least 75 percent of the voting power in the corporation is vested in citizens of the United States;

(3) there is no contract or understanding by which more than 25 percent of the voting power in the corporation may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of a person not a citizen of the United States; and

(4) there is no other means by which control of more than 25 percent of any interest in the corporation is given to or permitted to be exercised by a person not a citizen of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1566.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50501(a) 46 App.:802(a) (words before 3d comma and after 11th comma). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §2(a)–(c), 39 Stat. 729; July 15, 1918, ch. 152, §2, 40 Stat. 900; June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §38, 41 Stat. 1008; Pub. L. 86–327, §3, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 597; Pub. L. 105–383, title IV, §421, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3439.
  46 App.:1244(c). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title IX, §905(c), 49 Stat. 2016; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §39(b), 52 Stat. 964; Pub. L. 86–327, §4, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 597.
50501(b) 46 App.:802(a) (words between 3d and 11th commas).
50501(c) 46 App.:802(b).
50501(d) 46 App.:802(c).

In subsection (a), the words "and with respect to a corporation under subchapter VI of this chapter, all directors of the corporation are citizens of the United States" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1244(c) are omitted because part A of subchapter VI contains the operating-differential subsidy program which, under 46 App. U.S.C. 1185a, is being phased out, and part B of subchapter VI contains the Maritime Security Fleet program which is being repealed (effective October 1, 2005) and replaced by chapter 531 of title 46 as enacted by the Maritime Security Act of 2003. Thus, subchapter VI is being omitted from the revised title and will instead appear as a note under section 53101. The words "and, in the case of a corporation, partnership, or association operating a vessel on the Great Lakes, or on bays, sounds, rivers, harbors, or inland lakes of the United States the amount of interest required to be owned by a citizen of the United States shall be not less than 75 per centum" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1244(c) are omitted as covered by the 75 percent ownership requirement for operation in the coastwise trade.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "Territory, District, or possession thereof" are omitted because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

§50502. Applicability to receivers, trustees, successors, and assigns

This subtitle applies to receivers, trustees, successors, and assigns of any person to whom this subtitle applies.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1567.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50502 46 App.:803. Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §2(d), 39 Stat. 729; June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §38, 41 Stat. 1008.

§50503. Oceanographic research vessels

An oceanographic research vessel (as defined in section 2101 of this title) is deemed not to be engaged in trade or commerce.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1567.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50503 46 App.:441. Pub. L. 89–99, §§1, 3, 4, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 424.
  46 App.:443.
  46 App.:444.

The definitions of "oceanographic research vessel" and "scientific personnel" in 46 App. U.S.C. 441 are omitted because substantially the same definitions are already in 46 U.S.C. 2101.

The text of 46 App. U.S.C. 444 is omitted because section 10101(3) of title 46, which defines "seaman" for purposes of part G of subtitle II of title 46, already contains an exception for scientific personnel. Title 53 of the Revised Statutes, referred to [in] 46 App. U.S.C. 444, was previously codified principally in part G of subtitle II of title 46.

§50504. Sailing school vessels

(a) Definitions.—In this section, the terms "sailing school instructor", "sailing school student", and "sailing school vessel" have the meaning given those terms in section 2101 of this title.

(b) Not Seamen.—A sailing school student or sailing school instructor is deemed not to be a seaman under—

(1) parts B, F, and G of subtitle II of this title; or

(2) the maritime law doctrines of maintenance and cure or warranty of seaworthiness.


(c) Not Merchant Vessel or Engaged in Trade or Commerce.—A sailing school vessel is deemed not to be—

(1) a merchant vessel under section 11101(a)–(c) of this title; or

(2) a vessel engaged in trade or commerce.


(d) Evidence of Financial Responsibility.—The owner or charterer of a sailing school vessel shall maintain evidence of financial responsibility to meet liability for death or injury to sailing school students and sailing school instructors on a voyage on the vessel. The amount of financial responsibility shall be at least $50,000 for each student and instructor. Financial responsibility under this subsection may be evidenced by insurance or other adequate financial resources.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1568.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
50504(a) 46 App.:446c. Pub. L. 97–322, title II, §§204, 205, 207, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1589.
50504(b) 46 App.:446.
50504(c) 46 App.:446b. Pub. L. 97–322, title II, §206, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1590; Pub. L. 98–557, §34(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2876.
50504(d) 46 App.:446a.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "parts B, F, and G of subtitle II of this title" are substituted for "the provisions of titles 52 and 53 of the Revised Statutes of the United States and any Act amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto" because the relevant provisions of titles 52 and 53 of the Revised Statutes were previously codified in parts B, F, and G of subtitle II of title 46.

In subsection (c), references to 46 App. U.S.C. 291 and 883 are omitted for consistency with section 50503 of the revised title.

Part B—Merchant Marine Service

CHAPTER 511—GENERAL

Sec.
51101.
Policy.
51102.
Definitions.
51103.
General authority of Secretary of Transportation.
51104.
General authority of Secretary of the Navy.

        

§51101. Policy

It is the policy of the United States that merchant marine vessels of the United States should be operated by highly trained and efficient citizens of the United States and that the United States Navy and the merchant marine of the United States should work closely together to promote the maximum integration of the total seapower forces of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1568.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51101 46 App.:1126–1(a) (1st sentence). Pub. L. 94–361, title VI, §603(a) (1st sentence), July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 929.
  46 App.:1295 (1st sentence). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1301 (1st sentence), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997.

§51102. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Academy.—The term "Academy" means the United States Merchant Marine Academy located at Kings Point, New York, and maintained under chapter 513 of this title.

(2) Cost of education provided.—The term "cost of education provided" means the financial costs incurred by the United States Government for providing training or financial assistance to students at the Academy and the State maritime academies, including direct financial assistance, room, board, classroom academics, and other training activities.

(3) Merchant marine officer.—The term "merchant marine officer" means an individual issued a license by the Coast Guard authorizing service as—

(A) a master, mate, or pilot on a documented vessel that—

(i) is of at least 1,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title; and

(ii) operates on the oceans or the Great Lakes; or


(B) an engineer officer on a documented vessel propelled by machinery of at least 4,000 horsepower.


(4) State maritime academy.—The term "State maritime academy" means—

(A) a State maritime academy or college sponsored by a State and assisted under chapter 515 of this title; and

(B) a regional maritime academy or college sponsored by a group of States and assisted under chapter 515 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1568.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51102 46 App.:1295a. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1302, as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(143), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 104–324, title VII, §708, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3934; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1792.

The definition of "Secretary" is omitted as unnecessary because the full title is used the first time the term appears in each section.

In the definition of "merchant marine office", the words "documented vessel" are substituted for "vessel . . . which is documented under the laws of the United States" because of the definition of "documented vessel" in 46 U.S.C. 2101, which is being moved to chapter 1 of the revised title.

In the definition of "State maritime academy", the words "or territory of the United States" and "or territories of the United States" are omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

§51103. General authority of Secretary of Transportation

(a) Education and Training.—The Secretary of Transportation may provide for the education and training of citizens of the United States for the safe and efficient operation of the merchant marine of the United States at all times, including operation as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency.

(b) Property for Instructional Purposes.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may cooperate with and assist the institutions named in paragraph (2) by making vessels, fuel, shipboard equipment, and other marine equipment, owned by the United States Government and determined by the entity having custody and control of such property to be excess or surplus, available to those institutions for instructional purposes, by gift, loan, sale, lease, or charter on terms and conditions the Secretary considers appropriate. The consent of the Secretary of the Navy shall be obtained with respect to any property from National Defense Reserve Fleet vessels, if such vessels are either Ready Reserve Force vessels or other National Defense Reserve Fleet vessels determined to be of sufficient value to the Navy to warrant their further preservation and retention.

(2) Institutions.—The institutions referred to in paragraph (1) are—

(A) the United States Merchant Marine Academy;

(B) a State maritime academy; and

(C) a nonprofit training institution or a training institution that is an instrumentality of a State, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, or a unit of local government thereof jointly approved by the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating as offering training courses that meet Federal regulations for maritime training.


(c) Assistance From Other Agencies.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation may secure directly from an agency, on a reimbursable basis, information, facilities, and equipment necessary to carry out this part.

(2) Detailing personnel.—At the request of the Secretary, the head of an agency (including a military department) may detail, on a reimbursable basis, personnel from the agency to the Secretary to assist in carrying out this part.


(d) Academy Personnel.—To carry out this part, the Secretary may—

(1) employ an individual as a professor, lecturer, or instructor at the Academy, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service; and

(2) pay the individual without regard to chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5.


(e) Donation for Historical Purposes.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may convey the right, title, and interest of the United States Government in any property administered by the Maritime Administration, except real estate or vessels, if—

(A) the Secretary determines that such property is not needed by the Maritime Administration; and

(B) the recipient—

(i) is a nonprofit organization, a State, or a political subdivision of a State;

(ii) agrees to hold the Government harmless for any claims arising from exposure to hazardous materials, including asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, or lead paint, after conveyance of the property;

(iii) provides a description and explanation of the intended use of the property to the Secretary for approval;

(iv) has provided to the Secretary proof, as determined by the Secretary, of resources sufficient to accomplish the intended use provided under clause (iii) and to maintain the property;

(v) agrees that when the recipient no longer requires the property, the recipient shall—

(I) return the property to the Secretary, at the recipient's expense and in the same condition as received except for ordinary wear and tear; or

(II) subject to the approval of the Secretary, retain, sell, or otherwise dispose of the property in a manner consistent with applicable law; and


(vi) agrees to any additional terms the Secretary considers appropriate.


(2) Reversion.—The Secretary shall include in any conveyance under this subsection terms under which all right, title, and interest conveyed by the Secretary shall revert to the Government if the Secretary determines the property has been used other than as approved by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(B)(iii).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1569; Pub. L. 112–213, title IV, §404, Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1570; Pub. L. 113–281, title III, §302, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3042.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51103(a) 46 App.:1295 (last sentence cl. (1)). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1301 (last sentence cl. (1)), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(142)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.
51103(b) 46 App.:1295g(b). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1308(b)–(d), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2007.
51103(c) 46 App.:1295g(c).
51103(d) 46 App.:1295g(d).

In subsection (c), the word "department" is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "agency" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–281 added subsec. (e).

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–213, §404(1), struck out "Surplus" before "Property" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 112–213, §404(2), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary may cooperate with and assist the institutions named in paragraph (2) by making vessels, shipboard equipment, and other marine equipment, owned by the United States Government and determined to be excess or surplus, available to those institutions for instructional purposes, by gift, loan, sale, lease, or charter on terms the Secretary considers appropriate."

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 112–213, §404(3), inserted "or a training institution that is an instrumentality of a State, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, or a unit of local government thereof" after "a nonprofit training institution".

§51104. General authority of Secretary of the Navy

The Secretary of the Navy, in cooperation with the Maritime Administrator and the head of each State maritime academy, shall ensure that—

(1) the training of future merchant marine officers at the United States Merchant Marine Academy and at State maritime academies includes programs for naval science training in the operation of merchant vessels as a naval and military auxiliary; and

(2) naval officer training programs for future officers, insofar as possible, are maintained at designated maritime academies consistent with Navy standards and needs.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1570.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51104 46 App.:1126–1(a) (last sentence), (b). Pub. L. 94–361, title VI, §603(a) (last sentence), (b), July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(76), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 160.
  46 App.:1295 (last sentence cl. (2)). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1301 (last sentence cl. (2)), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(142)(B), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.

CHAPTER 513—UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY

Sec.
51301.
Maintenance of the Academy.
51302.
Nomination and competitive appointment of cadets.
51303.
Non-competitive appointments.
51304.
Additional appointments from particular areas.
51305.
Prohibited basis for appointment.
51306.
Cadet commitment agreements.
51307.
Places of training.
51308.
Uniforms, textbooks, and transportation allowances.
51309.
Academic degree.
51310.
Deferment of service obligation under cadet commitment agreements.
51311.
Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve.
51312.
Board of Visitors.
51313.
Advisory Board.
51314.
Limitation on charges and fees for attendance.
51315.
Gifts to the Merchant Marine Academy.
51316.
Temporary appointments to the Academy.
51317.
Adjunct professors.
51318.
Policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking.
51319.
Sexual assault response coordinators and sexual assault victim advocates.
51320.
Acceptance of guarantees with gifts for major projects.
51321.
Grants for scientific and educational research.
51322.
Protection of cadets from sexual assault onboard vessels.

        

Amendments

2017Pub. L. 115–91, div. C. title XXXV, §§3510(b), 3512(b), 3514(d)(2), 3516(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1918, 1919, 1923, 1928, added items 51318 and 51320 to 51322 and struck out former item 51318 "Policy on sexual harassment and sexual assault".

2016Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §§3510(b), 3511(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2785, 2786, added items 51318 and 51319.

2011Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d)(25), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4374, amended Pub. L. 111–84, §3503(b)(1). See 2009 Amendment note below.

2009Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(b)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2719, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d)(25), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4374, added item 51317.

2008Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(g)(2), (h)(2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4765, added items 51315 and 51316.

Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in item 51311.

§51301. Maintenance of the Academy

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall maintain the United States Merchant Marine Academy as an institution of higher education to provide instruction to individuals to prepare them for service in the merchant marine of the United States, to conduct research with respect to maritime-related matters, and to provide such other appropriate academic support, assistance, training, and activities in accordance with the provisions of this chapter as the Secretary may authorize.

(b) Recruitment.—The Secretary of Transportation may, subject to the availability of appropriations, expend funds available for United States Merchant Marine Academy operating expenses for recruiting activities, including advertising, in order to obtain recruits for the Academy and cadet applicants.

(c) Superintendent.—

(1) In general.—The immediate command of the United States Merchant Marine Academy shall be in the Superintendent of the Academy, subject to the direction of the Maritime Administrator under the general supervision of the Secretary of Transportation.

(2) Appointment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall appoint as the Superintendent—

(A) an individual who has—

(i) attained a general or flag officer rank in the Navy, Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and

(ii) served at sea in any rank;


(B) an individual who has—

(i)(I) served at sea in the Navy, Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; or

(II) held a valid Coast Guard merchant mariner credential; and

(ii) demonstrated exemplary leadership in the education of individuals in the Armed Forces or United States merchant marine; or


(C) if a qualified individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B) does not apply for the position, an individual who has—

(i) attained the grade of captain or above in the Navy, Coast Guard, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or colonel or above in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps; and

(ii) served at sea in any grade.


(3) Rule of construction.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the Secretary of Transportation may appoint an individual who is the best qualified candidate, even if such individual does not fully meet the criteria described in paragraph (2).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1570; Pub. L. 111–383, div. C, title XXXV, §3504, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4518; Pub. L. 112–81, div. C, title XXXV, §3503, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1716; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(i), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1955; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2777.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51301 46 App.:1295b(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(a), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1998.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328 added subsec. (c).

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "In General" for "IN General" in heading.

2011Pub. L. 112–81 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

Pub. L. 111–383 inserted "as an institution of higher education" after "Academy" and substituted "States, to conduct research with respect to maritime-related matters, and to provide such other appropriate academic support, assistance, training, and activities in accordance with the provisions of this chapter as the Secretary may authorize." for "States."

Savings Clause

Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2777, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section] may be construed to require any change to the current leadership of the United States Merchant Marine Academy."

Class Profiles

Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3516(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2789, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Not later than August 31 of each year, the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy shall post on the Academy's public website a profile of each class at the Academy.

"(2) Contents.—Each profile posted under paragraph (1) shall include, for the incoming class of the Academy and for the 4 classes that preceded that class at the Academy, the number and percentage of students by—

"(A) State;

"(B) country;

"(C) gender;

"(D) race and ethnicity; and

"(E) prior military service."

§51302. Nomination and competitive appointment of cadets

(a) Requirements.—An individual may be nominated for a competitive appointment as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy only if the individual—

(1) is a citizen or national of the United States; and

(2) meets the minimum requirements that the Secretary of Transportation shall establish.


(b) Nominators.—Nominations for competitive appointments for the positions allocated under subsection (c) may be made as follows:

(1) A Senator may nominate residents of the State represented by that Senator.

(2) A Member of the House of Representatives may nominate residents of the State in which the congressional district represented by that Member is located.

(3) A Delegate to the House of Representatives from the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, or American Samoa may nominate residents of the jurisdiction represented by that Delegate.

(4) The Resident Commissioner to the United States from Puerto Rico may nominate residents of Puerto Rico.

(5) The Panama Canal Commission may nominate—

(A) residents, or sons or daughters of residents, of an area or installation in Panama and made available to the United States under the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977, the agreements relating to and implementing that Treaty, signed September 7, 1977, and the Agreement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Panama Concerning Air Traffic Control and Related Services, concluded January 8, 1979; and

(B) sons or daughters of personnel of the United States Government and the Panama Canal Commission residing in Panama.


(c) Allocation of Positions.—Positions for competitive appointments shall be allocated each year as follows:

(1) Positions shall be allocated for residents of each State nominated by the Members of Congress from that State in proportion to the representation in Congress from that State.

(2) Four positions shall be allocated for residents of the District of Columbia nominated by the Delegate to the House of Representatives from the District of Columbia.

(3) One position each shall be allocated for residents of the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa nominated by the Delegates to the House of Representatives from the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa, respectively.

(4) One position shall be allocated for a resident of Puerto Rico nominated by the Resident Commissioner to the United States from Puerto Rico.

(5) One position shall be allocated for a resident of the Northern Mariana Islands nominated by the Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(6) Two positions shall be allocated for individuals nominated by the Panama Canal Commission.


(d) Competitive System for Appointment.—

(1) Establishment of system.—The Secretary shall establish a competitive system for selecting individuals nominated under subsection (b) to fill the positions allocated under subsection (c). The system must determine the relative merit of each individual based on competitive examinations, an assessment of the individual's academic background, and other effective indicators of motivation and probability of successful completion of training at the Academy.

(2) Appointments by jurisdiction.—The Secretary shall appoint individuals to fill the positions allocated under subsection (c) for each jurisdiction in the order of merit of the individuals nominated from that jurisdiction.

(3) Remaining unfilled positions.—If positions remain unfilled after the appointments are made under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall appoint individuals to fill the positions in the order of merit of the remaining individuals nominated from all jurisdictions.


(e) Congressional Notification in Advance of Appointments.—When a nominee of a Senator, Representative, or Delegate is selected for appointment as a cadet, the Senator, Representative, or Delegate shall be notified at least 48 hours before the official notification or announcement of the appointment is made.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1570; Pub. L. 111–383, div. C, title XXXV, §3503, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4518; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title V, §566(d), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2139.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51302(a) 46 App.:1295b(b) (1)(A). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(1)–(3)(A), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1998; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §708(1), (2), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2995.
  46 App.:1295b(b)(2) (A) (related to nominations).
51302(b) 46 App.:1295b(b)(1) (less cl. (A)).
  46 App.:1295b(b)(3) (A)(ii) (related to who may be nominated).
51302(c) 46 App.:1295b(b)(3) (A) (less (ii) (related to who may be nominated)).
51302(d) 46 App.:1295b(b)(2) (A) (related to selection), (B), (3)(B), (C).

In subsection (b)(6)(A), the words "residents, or sons or daughters of residents, of an area or installation" are substituted for "a resident of the area or installation" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(b)(1)(B) and "sons or daughters of residents of any area or installation" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(b)(3)(A)(ii) to resolve an inconsistency in the source law and to conform to the probable intent of Congress. Although 46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(b)(1)(B) provides that a nominee must be a resident, 46 App. U.S.C. 1295b(b)(3)(A)(ii) allocates positions only for sons or daughters of residents.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–328 added subsec. (e).

2011—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 111–383, §3503(1), inserted "the Northern Mariana Islands," after "Guam,".

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 111–383, §3503(2), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "The Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands may nominate residents of the Northern Mariana Islands."

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 applicable with respect to the appointment of cadets and midshipmen to the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, and the United States Merchant Marine Academy for classes entering these service academies after Jan. 1, 2018, see section 566(e) of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 4342 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§51303. Non-competitive appointments

The Secretary of Transportation may appoint each year without competition as cadets at the United States Merchant Marine Academy not more than 50 qualified individuals with qualities the Secretary considers to be of special value to the Academy. In making these appointments, the Secretary shall try to achieve a national demographic balance at the Academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1572; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3516(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2789.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51303 46 App.:1295b(b) (3)(D). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(3)(D), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1999.

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "50" for "40".

§51304. Additional appointments from particular areas

(a) Other Countries in Western Hemisphere.—The President may appoint individuals from countries in the Western Hemisphere other than the United States to receive instruction at the United States Merchant Marine Academy. Not more than 12 individuals may receive instruction under this subsection at the same time, and not more than 2 individuals from the same country may receive instruction under this subsection at the same time.

(b) Other Countries Generally.—

(1) Appointment.—The Secretary of Transportation, with the approval of the Secretary of State, may appoint individuals from countries other than the United States to receive instruction at the Academy. Not more than 30 individuals may receive instruction under this subsection at the same time.

(2) Reimbursement.—The Secretary of Transportation shall ensure that the country from which an individual comes under this subsection will reimburse the Secretary for the cost (as determined by the Secretary) of the instruction and allowances received by the individual.


(c) Panama.—

(1) Appointment.—The Secretary of Transportation, with the approval of the Secretary of State, may appoint individuals from Panama to receive instruction at the Academy. Individuals appointed under this subsection are in addition to those appointed under any other provision of this chapter.

(2) Reimbursement.—The Secretary of Transportation shall be reimbursed for the cost (as determined by the Secretary) of the instruction and allowances received by an individual appointed under this subsection.


(d) Allowances and Regulations.—Individuals receiving instruction under this section are entitled to the same allowances and are subject to the same regulations on admission, attendance, discipline, resignation, discharge, dismissal, and graduation, as cadets at the Academy appointed from the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1572.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51304(a) 46 App.:1295b(b) (5)(A), (B). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(5)–(7), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1999; Pub. L. 99–368, §5, Aug. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §708(3), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2995.
51304(b) 46 App.:1295b(b) (6)(A)–(C).
51304(c) 46 App.:1295b(b) (7)(A), (B).
51304(d) 46 App.:1295b(b) (5)(C), (6)(D), (7)(C).

The word "appoint" is substituted for "designate" and "permit" for consistency in the chapter.

§51305. Prohibited basis for appointment

Preference may not be given to an individual for appointment as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy because one or more members of the individual's immediate family are alumni of the Academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1572.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51305 46 App.:1295b(b) (3)(E). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(3)(E), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1999.

§51306. Cadet commitment agreements

(a) Agreement Requirements.—A citizen of the United States appointed as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy shall sign, as a condition of the appointment, an agreement to—

(1) complete the course of instruction at the Academy;

(2) obtain a merchant mariner license, unlimited as to horsepower or tonnage, issued by the Coast Guard as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certifications required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages, without limitation, before graduation from the Academy;

(3) for at least 6 years after graduation from the Academy, maintain—

(A) a valid merchant mariner license, unlimited as to horsepower or tonnage, issued by the Coast Guard as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certifications required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages, without limitation;

(B) a valid transportation worker identification credential; and

(C) a Coast Guard medical certificate;


(4) apply for, and accept if tendered, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserve (including the Strategic Sealift Officer Program, Navy Reserve), the Coast Guard Reserve, or any other reserve component of an armed force of the United States, and, if tendered the appointment, to serve, meet the participation requirements, and maintain active status in good standing, as determined by the program manager of the appropriate military service, for at least 8 years after the date of commissioning;

(5) serve the foreign and domestic commerce and the national defense of the United States for at least 5 years after graduation from the Academy—

(A) as a merchant marine officer on a documented vessel or a vessel owned and operated by the United States Government or by a State;

(B) as an employee in a United States maritime-related industry, profession, or marine science (as determined by the Secretary of Transportation), if the Secretary determines that service under subparagraph (A) is not available to the individual;

(C) as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed force of the United States, as a commissioned officer in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or in other maritime-related Federal employment which serves the national security interests of the United States, as determined by the Secretary; or

(D) by a combination of the service alternatives referred to in subparagraphs (A)–(C); and


(6) report to the Secretary on compliance with this subsection.


(b) Failure To Complete Course of Instruction.—

(1) Active duty.—If the Secretary of Transportation determines that an individual who has attended the Academy for at least 2 years has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement described in subsection (a)(1), the individual may be ordered by the Secretary of Defense to serve on active duty in one of the armed forces of the United States for a period of not more than 2 years. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part.

(2) Recovery of cost.—If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order an individual to serve on active duty under paragraph (1), or if the Secretary of Transportation determines that reimbursement of the cost of education provided would better serve the interests of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may recover from the individual the cost of education provided by the Government.


(c) Failure To Carry Out Other Requirements.—

(1) Active duty.—If the Secretary of Transportation determines that an individual has failed to fulfill any part of the agreement described in subsection (a)(2)–(6), the individual may be ordered to serve on active duty for a period of at least 3 years but not more than the unexpired period (as determined by the Secretary) of the service required by subsection (a)(5). The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall determine in which service the individual shall serve. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part.

(2) Recovery of cost.—If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order an individual to serve on active duty under paragraph (1), or if the Secretary of Transportation determines that reimbursement of the cost of education provided would better serve the interests of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may recover from the individual the cost of education provided. The Secretary may reduce the amount to be recovered to reflect partial performance of service obligations and other factors the Secretary determines merit a reduction.


(d) Actions To Recover Cost.—To aid in the recovery of the cost of education provided by the Government under a commitment agreement under this section, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) request the Attorney General to bring a civil action against the individual; and

(2) make use of the Federal debt collection procedures in chapter 176 of title 28 or other applicable administrative remedies.


(e) Alternative Service.—

(1) Service as commissioned officer.—An individual who, for the 5-year period following graduation from the Academy, serves as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed force of the United States or as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service shall be excused from the requirements of paragraphs (3) through (5) of subsection (a).

(2) Modification or waiver.—The Secretary may modify or waive any of the terms and conditions set forth in subsection (a) through the imposition of alternative service requirements.


(f) Service Obligation Performance Reporting Requirement.—

(1) In general.—Subject to any otherwise applicable restrictions on disclosure in section 552a of title 5, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service—

(A) shall report the status of obligated service of an individual graduate of the Academy upon request of the Secretary; and

(B) may, in their discretion, notify the Secretary of any failure of the graduate to perform the graduate's duties, either on active duty or in the Ready Reserve component of their respective service, or as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service, respectively.


(2) Information to be provided.—A report or notice under paragraph (1) shall identify any graduate determined to have failed to comply with service obligation requirements and provide all required information as to why such graduate failed to comply.

(3) Considered as in default.—Upon receipt of such a report or notice, such graduate may be considered to be in default of the graduate's service obligations by the Secretary, and subject to all remedies the Secretary may have with respect to such a default.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1572; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2)(A), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §§3505(a), 3506(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2516, 2517; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §§3523(a)(1), (b), 3526(b)(1), (c)(1), (g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, 600-602; Pub. L. 114–92, div. C, title XXXV, §3506, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1220.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51306(a) 46 App.:1295b(e)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(e)(1)–(4), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2000; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(144)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §707(a), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2995; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1792.
51306(b) 46 App.:1295b(e)(2).
51306(c) 46 App.:1295b(e)(3).
51306(d) 46 App.:1295b(e)(4).

In subsection (a), before paragraph (1), the words "after the date occurring 6 months after October 1, 1981" are omitted as obsolete. In paragraph (2), the words "before graduating" are substituted for "on or before the date of graduation" to eliminate unnecessary words. In paragraph (5)(A), the words "or territories" are omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

In subsection (d), the words "bring a civil action" are substituted for "begin court proceedings" for consistency in the revised title and with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–92, §3506(1), substituted "shall sign" for "must sign" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114–92, §3506(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "fulfill the requirements for a license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States before graduation from the Academy;".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 114–92, §3506(3), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "maintain a valid license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States for at least 6 years after graduation from the Academy, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certification required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages;".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 114–92, §3506(4), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "apply for, and accept if tendered, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve), the Coast Guard Reserve, or any other reserve unit of an armed force of the United States, and, if tendered the appointment, to serve for at least 6 years after graduation from the Academy;".

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g), repealed Pub. L. 109–364, §§3505(a) and 3506(a). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in two places. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(b)(1), (c)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendments by Pub. L. 109–364, §§3505(a), 3506(a), into this section by adding subsecs. (e) and (f). See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–364, §§3505(a), 3506(a), which directed the amendment of section 1295b(e) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, were repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g). See 2008 Amendment note for subsecs. (e) and (f) and Historical and Revision notes above.

Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), which directed the amendment of section 1295b of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (a)(4) and Historical and Revision notes above.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(b)(2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 601, provided that: "Section 51306(e) of title 46, United States Code, as added by paragraph (1), applies only to an individual who enrolls as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy, and signs an agreement under section 51306(a) of title 46, after October 17, 2006."

Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(c)(2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602, provided that: "Section 51306(f) of title 46, United States Code, as added by paragraph (1), does not apply with respect to an agreement entered into under section 51306(a) of title 46, United States Code, before October 17, 2006."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3505(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2517, which provided that par. (6) of section 1295b(e) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, applied only to an individual who enrolled as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy and signed an agreement under par. (1) of that section after Oct. 17, 2006, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602.

Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2517, which provided that the enactment of par. (7) of section 1295b(e) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, did not apply with respect to an agreement entered into under section 1295b(e) before Oct. 17, 2006, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602.

§51307. Places of training

The Secretary of Transportation may provide for the training of cadets at the United States Merchant Marine Academy—

(1) on vessels owned or subsidized by the United States Government;

(2) on other documented vessels, with the permission of the owner;

(3) in shipyards or plants and with industrial or educational organizations; and

(4) on any other vessel considered by the Secretary to be necessary or appropriate or in the national interest.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1574; Pub. L. 109–241, title III, §307, July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3525(a)(3), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 600, 601.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51307 46 App.:1295b(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(f), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2002.

In paragraph (2), the words "with the permission of the owner" are substituted for "if the owner . . . cooperates in such use" for clarity.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3525(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–241, §307. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 110–181, §3525(a)(3), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–241, §307, into this section by adding par. (4). See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–241, §307, which directed the amendment of section 1295b(f) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3525(b). See 2008 Amendment note for par. (4) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51308. Uniforms, textbooks, and transportation allowances

The Secretary of Transportation shall provide cadets at the United States Merchant Marine Academy—

(1) all required uniforms and textbooks; and

(2) allowances for transportation (including reimbursement of traveling expenses) when traveling under orders as a cadet.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1574.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51308 46 App.:1295b(d). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(d), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2000.

§51309. Academic degree

(a) Bachelor's Degree.—

(1) In general.—The Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy may confer the degree of bachelor of science on an individual who—

(A) has met the conditions prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation; and

(B) if a citizen of the United States, has passed the examination for a merchant marine officer's license.


(2) Effect of physical disqualification.—An individual not allowed to take the examination for a merchant marine officer's license only because of physical disqualification may not be denied a degree for not taking the examination.


(b) Master's Degree.—The Superintendent of the Academy may confer a master's degree on an individual who has met the conditions prescribed by the Secretary. A master's degree program may be funded through non-appropriated funds. To maintain the appropriate academic standards, the program shall be accredited by the appropriate accreditation body. Nonappropriated funds received for this purpose shall be credited to the Maritime Administration's Operations and Training appropriation, to remain available until expended, for those expenses directly related to the purpose of such receipts. The Superintendent shall maintain a separate and detailed accounting of nonappropriated fund receipts and all associated expenses. The Secretary may prescribe regulations necessary to administer such a program.

(c) Graduation Not Entitlement To Hold License.—Graduation from the Academy does not entitle an individual to hold a license authorizing service on a merchant vessel.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1574; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3514, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2724.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51309(a) 46 App.:1295b(g)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(g), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2002; restated Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1794.
51309(b) 46 App.:1295b(g)(2).
51309(c) 46 App.:1295b(b)(8). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(8), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 99–368, §5, Aug. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 776.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–84 inserted before last sentence "Nonappropriated funds received for this purpose shall be credited to the Maritime Administration's Operations and Training appropriation, to remain available until expended, for those expenses directly related to the purpose of such receipts. The Superintendent shall maintain a separate and detailed accounting of nonappropriated fund receipts and all associated expenses."

§51310. Deferment of service obligation under cadet commitment agreements

The Secretary of Transportation may defer the service commitment of an individual under section 51306(a)(5) of this title (as specified in the cadet commitment agreement) for not more than 2 years if the individual is engaged in a graduate course of study approved by the Secretary. However, deferment of service as a commissioned officer under section 51306(a)(5) must be approved by the Secretary of the military department that has jurisdiction over the service or by the Secretary of Commerce for service with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1575.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51310 46 App.:1295b(e)(5). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(e)(5), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2001; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(144)(B), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(b)(6), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1793.

§51311. Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve

(a) Application Requirement.—Before being appointed as a cadet at the United States Merchant Marine Academy, a citizen of the United States must agree to apply for midshipman status in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve).

(b) Appointment.—

(1) In general.—A citizen of the United States appointed as a cadet at the Academy shall be appointed by the Secretary of the Navy as a midshipman in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve).

(2) Rights and privileges.—The Secretary of the Navy shall provide for cadets of the Academy who are midshipmen in the United States Navy Reserve to be—

(A) issued an identification card (referred to as a "military ID card"); and

(B) entitled to all rights and privileges in accordance with the same eligibility criteria as apply to other members of the Ready Reserve of the reserve components of the armed forces.


(3) Coordination.—The Secretary of the Navy shall carry out paragraphs (1) and (2) in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(1), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51311(a) 46 App.:1295b(b) (3)(F). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(b)(3)(F), (c), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 1999, 2000; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §568, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2031; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(b)(5), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 772.
51311(b) 46 App.:1295b(c).

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" wherever appearing in section catchline and text. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2), which directed the amendment of section 1295b of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (2) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51312. Board of Visitors

(a) In General.—There shall be a Board of Visitors to the United States Merchant Marine Academy (referred to in this section as the "Board" and the "Academy", respectively) to provide independent advice and recommendations on matters relating to the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

(b) Membership.—

(1) In general.—The Board shall be composed of—

(A) 2 Senators appointed by the Chairman of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate in consultation with the ranking member of such Committee;

(B) 3 Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives in consultation with the ranking member of such Committee;

(C) 1 Senator appointed by the Vice President, who shall be a member of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;

(D) 2 Members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, in consultation with the Minority Leader, at least 1 of whom shall be a member of the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives;

(E) 5 individuals appointed by the President; and

(F) as ex officio members—

(i) the Commander of the Military Sealift Command;

(ii) the Deputy Commandant for Operations of the Coast Guard;

(iii) the chairman of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate;

(iv) the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives;

(v) the chairman of the Advisory Board to the Academy established under section 51313; and

(vi) the Member of the House of Representatives for the congressional district in which the Academy is located, as a nonvoting member, unless such Member of the House of Representatives is appointed as a voting member of the Board under subparagraph (B) or (D).


(2) Presidential appointees.—Of the individuals appointed by the President under paragraph (1)(E)—

(A) at least 2 shall be graduates of the Academy;

(B) at least 1 shall be a senior corporate officer from a United States maritime shipping company that participates in the Maritime Security Program, or in any Maritime Administration program providing incentives for companies to register their vessels in the United States, and this appointment shall rotate biennially among such companies; and

(C) 1 or more may be a Senate-confirmed Presidential appointee, a member of the Senior Executive Service, or an officer of flag-rank who from 1 the Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or any of the military services that commission graduates of the Academy, other than the individuals who are members of the Board under clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (1)(F).


(3) Term of service.—

(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), each member of the Board, other than an ex officio member under paragraph (1)(F), shall serve for a term of 2 years commencing at the beginning of each Congress.

(B) Continuation of service.—Any member described in subparagraph (A) whose term on the Board has expired, other than a member appointed under any of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1) who is no longer a Member of Congress, shall continue to serve until a successor is appointed.


(4) Vacancies.—If a member of the Board is no longer able to serve on the Board or resigns, the Designated Federal Officer selected under subsection (g)(2) shall immediately notify the person who appointed such member. Not later than 60 days after that notification, such person shall designate a replacement to serve the remainder of such member's term.

(5) Designation and responsibility of substitute board members.—

(A) Authority to designate.—A member of the Board under clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(F) or appointed under subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (2) may, if unable to attend or participate in an activity described in subsection (d), (e), or (f), designate another individual to serve as a substitute member of the Board, on a temporary basis, to attend or participate in such activity.

(B) Requirements.—A substitute member of the Board designated under subparagraph (A) shall be—

(i) an individual serving in a position for which the individual was appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate;

(ii) a member of the Senior Executive Service; or

(iii) an officer of flag-rank who is employed by—

(I) the Coast Guard; or

(II) the Military Sealift Command.


(C) Participation.—A substitute member of the Board designated under subparagraph (A)—

(i) shall be permitted by the Board to fully participate in the proceedings and activities of the Board;

(ii) shall report to the member that designated the substitute member on the Board's activities not later than 15 days following the substitute member's participation in such activities; and

(iii) shall be permitted by the Board to participate in the preparation of reports described in paragraph 2 (j) related to any proceedings or activities of the Board in which such substitute member participates.


(c) Chairperson.—

(1) In general.—On a biennial basis and subject to paragraph (2), the Board shall select from among its members a Member of the House of Representatives or a Senator to serve as the Chairperson.

(2) Rotation.—A Member of the House of Representatives and a Member of the Senate shall alternately be selected as the Chairperson of the Board.

(3) Term.—An individual may not serve as Chairperson for consecutive terms.


(d) Meetings.—

(1) In general.—The Board shall meet as provided for in the Charter adopted under paragraph (2)(B), including at least 1 meeting held at the Academy.

(2) Chairperson and charter.—The Designated Federal Officer selected under subsection (g)(2) shall organize a meeting of the Board for the purposes of—

(A) selecting a Chairperson under subsection (c); and

(B) adopting an official Charter for the Board, which shall establish the schedule of meetings of the Board.


(e) Visiting the Academy.—

(1) Annual visit.—The Board shall visit the Academy annually on a date selected by the Board, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Superintendent of the Academy.

(2) Other visits.—In cooperation with the Superintendent, the Board or its members may make other visits to the Academy in connection with the duties of the Board.

(3) Access.—While visiting the Academy under this subsection, members of the Board shall have reasonable access to the grounds, facilities, midshipmen, faculty, staff, and other personnel of the Academy for the purpose of carrying out the duties of the Board.


(f) Responsibility.—The Board shall inquire into the state of morale and discipline, the curriculum, instruction, physical equipment, fiscal affairs, and academic methods of the Academy, and other matters relating to the Academy that the Board decides to consider.

(g) Department of Transportation Support.—The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) provide support as deemed necessary by the Board for the performance of the Board's functions;

(2) select a Designated Federal Officer to support the performance of the Board's functions; and

(3) in cooperation with the Maritime Administrator and the Superintendent of the Academy, advise the Board of any institutional issues, consistent with applicable laws concerning the disclosure of information.


(h) Staff.—Each of the chairman of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives may designate staff members of such Committee to serve, without additional reimbursement (except as provided in subsection (i)), as staff for the Board.

(i) Travel Expenses.—While serving away from his or her home or regular place of business, a member of the Board or a staff member designated under subsection (h) shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized under section 5703 of title 5, United States Code.

(j) Reports.—

(1) Annual report.—Not later than 60 days after each annual visit required under subsection (e)(1), the Board shall submit to the President a written report of its actions, views, and recommendations pertaining to the Academy.

(2) Other reports.—If the members of the Board visit the Academy under subsection (e)(2), the Board may—

(A) prepare a report on such visit; and

(B) if approved by a majority of the members of the Board, submit such report to the President not later than 60 days after the date of the approval.


(3) Advisors.—The Board may call in advisers—

(A) for consultation regarding the execution of the Board's responsibility under subsection (f); or

(B) to assist in the preparation of a report described in paragraph (1) or (2).


(4) Submission.—A report submitted to the President under paragraph (1) or (2) shall be concurrently submitted to—

(A) the Secretary of Transportation;

(B) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; and

(C) the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 113–291, div. C, title XXXV, §3504(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3905.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51312 46 App.:1295b(h). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(h), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2002; Pub. L. 97–35, title XVI, §1607, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 752; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §703, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2994.

The words "Committee on Armed Services" are substituted for "Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries" to reflect changes in committee structure made by the 104th Congress.

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–291 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to the Board of Visitors and consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) relating to establishment of the Board, appointment of board members, designation of staff members to the board, and travel expenses, respectively.

Deadlines; Continuation of Service

Pub. L. 113–291, div. C, title XXXV, §3504(b), (c), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3909, provided that:

"(b) Deadlines.—

"(1) Selection of designated federal officer.—The Secretary of Transportation shall select a Designated Federal Officer under subsection (g)(2) of section 51312 of title 46, United States Code, as amended by this Act, by not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014].

"(2) Appointment of members.—Appointments under subsection (b)(1) of such section shall be completed by not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(3) Organization of first meeting.—Such Designated Federal Officer shall organize a meeting of the Board under section (d)(2) of such section by not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(c) Continuation of Service of Current Members.—Each member of the Board of Visitors serving as a member of the Board on the date of the enactment of this Act shall continue to serve on the Board for the remainder of such member's term."

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be "subsection".

§51313. Advisory Board

(a) In General.—An Advisory Board to the United States Merchant Marine Academy shall be established to visit the Academy at least once during each academic year, for the purpose of examining the course of instruction and management of the Academy and advising the Maritime Administrator and the Superintendent of the Academy.

(b) Appointment and Terms.—The Board shall be composed of not more than 7 individuals appointed by the Secretary of Transportation. The individuals must be distinguished in education and other fields related to the Academy. Members of the Board shall be appointed for terms of not more than 3 years and may be reappointed. The Secretary shall designate one of the members as chairman.

(c) Travel Expenses.—When serving away from home or regular place of business, a member of the Board shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5.

(d) Relationship to Other Law.—The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.) does not apply to the Board.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1576.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51313 46 App.:1295b(i). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(i), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2002; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(144)(C), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166.

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§51314. Limitation on charges and fees for attendance

(a) Prohibition.—Except as provided in subsection (b), no charge or fee for tuition, room, or board for attendance at the United States Merchant Marine Academy may be imposed unless the charge or fee is specifically authorized by a law enacted after October 5, 1994.

(b) Exception.—The prohibition specified in subsection (a) does not apply with respect to any item or service provided to cadets for which a charge or fee is imposed as of October 5, 1994, or for calculators, computers, personal and academic supplies, midshipman services such as barber, tailor, or laundry services, and Coast Guard license fees. The Secretary of Transportation shall notify Congress of any change made by the Academy in the amount of a charge or fee authorized under this subsection. Such fees shall be credited to the Maritime Administration's Operations and Training appropriation, to remain available until expended, for those expenses directly related to the purposes of the fees. Fees collected in excess of actual expenses may be refunded to the Midshipmen through a mechanism approved by the Secretary. The Academy shall maintain a separate and detailed accounting of fee revenue and all associated expenses.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1576; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3510, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2722; Pub. L. 111–117, div. A, title I, §176, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3068.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51314 46 App.:1295b(j). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1303(j), as added Pub. L. 108–375, Oct. 28, 2004, div. A, title V, §545(e), 118 Stat. 1909.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–117 inserted at end "Such fees shall be credited to the Maritime Administration's Operations and Training appropriation, to remain available until expended, for those expenses directly related to the purposes of the fees. Fees collected in excess of actual expenses may be refunded to the Midshipmen through a mechanism approved by the Secretary. The Academy shall maintain a separate and detailed accounting of fee revenue and all associated expenses."

Pub. L. 111–84 substituted "1994, or for calculators, computers, personal and academic supplies, midshipman services such as barber, tailor, or laundry services, and Coast Guard license fees." for "1994."

§51315. Gifts to the Merchant Marine Academy

(a) In General.—The Maritime Administrator may accept and use conditional or unconditional gifts of money or property for the benefit of the United States Merchant Marine Academy, including acceptance and use for non-appropriated fund instrumentalities of the Merchant Marine Academy. The Maritime Administrator may accept a gift of services in carrying out the Administrator's duties and powers. Property accepted under this section and proceeds from that property must be used, as nearly as possible, in accordance with the terms of the gift.

(b) Establishment of Academy Gift Fund.—There is established in the Treasury a fund, to be known as the "Academy Gift Fund". Disbursements from the Fund shall be made on order of the Maritime Administrator. Unless otherwise specified by the terms of the gift, the Maritime Administrator may use monies in the Fund for appropriated or non-appropriated purposes at the Academy. The Fund consists of—

(1) gifts of money;

(2) income from donated property accepted under this section;

(3) proceeds from the sale of donated property; and

(4) income from securities under subsection (c) of this section.


(c) Investment of Fund Balances.—On request of the Maritime Administrator, the Secretary of the Treasury may invest and reinvest amounts in the Fund in securities of, or in securities the principal and interest of which is guaranteed by, the United States Government.

(d) Disbursement Authority.—There are hereby authorized to be disbursed from the Fund such sums as may be on deposit, to remain available until expended.

(e) Deductibility of Gifts.—Gifts accepted under this section are a gift to or for the use of the Government under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(f) Payment of Expenses.—The Maritime Administrator may pay all necessary expenses in connection with the conveyance or transfer of a gift, devise, or bequest accepted under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(g)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4764; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3511, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1918.)

References in Text

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (e), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–91 added subsec. (f).

§51316. Temporary appointments to the Academy

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Maritime Administrator may appoint any present employee of the United States Merchant Marine Academy non-appropriated fund instrumentality to a position on the General Schedule of comparable pay. Eligible personnel shall be engaged in work permissibly funded by annual appropriations, and such appointments to the Civil Service shall be without regard to competition, for a term not to exceed 2 years.

(Added Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(h)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4765.)

References in Text

The General Schedule, referred to in text, is set out under section 5332 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§51317. Adjunct professors

(a) In General.—The Maritime Administrator may establish a program for the purpose of contracting with individuals as personal services contractors to provide services as adjunct professors at the Academy, if the Maritime Administrator determines that there is a need for adjunct professors and the need is not of permanent duration.

(b) Contract Requirements.—Each contract under the program—

(1) must be approved by the Maritime Administrator;

(2) shall be for a duration, including options, of not to exceed one year unless the Maritime Administrator finds that exceptional circumstances justify an extension of up to one additional year; and

(3) shall be subject to the availability of appropriations.

(Added Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(a), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2719; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3509, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1916.)

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–91, §3509(1)(A), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–91, §3509(1)(B), substituted "; and" for period at end.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 115–91, §3509(2), struck out subsecs. (c) and (d) which related to limitation on number of contractors and reporting requirements, respectively.

§51318. Policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking

(a) Required Policy.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall direct the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy to prescribe a policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking applicable to the cadets and other personnel of the Academy.

(2) Matters to be specified in policy.—The policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking prescribed under this subsection shall include—

(A) a program to promote awareness of the incidence of rape, acquaintance rape, domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, and other sexual offenses of a criminal nature that involve cadets or other Academy personnel;

(B) procedures that a cadet or other Academy personnel should follow in the case of an occurrence of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including—

(i) specifying the person or persons to whom an alleged occurrence of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking should be reported by the victim and the options for confidential reporting;

(ii) specifying any other person whom the victim should contact; and

(iii) procedures on the preservation of evidence potentially necessary for proof of a criminal sexual offense;


(C) a procedure for disciplinary action in cases of alleged criminal sexual assault involving a cadet or other Academy personnel;

(D) any other sanction authorized to be imposed in a substantiated case of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking involving a cadet or other Academy personnel in rape, acquaintance rape, or any other criminal sexual offense, whether forcible or nonforcible;

(E) procedures through which—

(i) questions regarding sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking can be confidentially asked and confidentially answered;

(ii) victims can report incidents of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking confidentially; and

(iii) the privacy of victims of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking will be protected; and


(F) required training on the policy for all cadets and other Academy personnel, including the specific training required for personnel who process allegations of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking involving Academy personnel.


(3) Minimum training requirements for certain individuals regarding sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking.—

(A) Requirement.—The Maritime Administrator shall direct the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy to develop a mandatory training program at the Academy for each individual who is involved in implementing the Academy's student disciplinary grievance procedures, including each individual who is responsible for—

(i) resolving complaints of reported sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(ii) resolving complaints of reported violations of the sexual misconduct policy of the Academy; or

(iii) conducting an interview with a victim of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.


(B) Consultation.—The Superintendent shall develop the training program described in subparagraph (A) in consultation with national, State, or local sexual assault, dating violence, domestic violence, or stalking victim advocacy, victim services, or prevention organizations.

(C) Elements.—The training required by subparagraph (A) shall include the following:

(i) Information on working with and interviewing persons subjected to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(ii) Information on particular types of conduct that would constitute sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking, regardless of gender, including same-sex sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(iii) Information on consent and the effect that drugs or alcohol may have on an individual's ability to consent.

(iv) Information on the effects of trauma, including the neurobiology of trauma.

(v) Training regarding the use of trauma-informed interview techniques, which means asking questions of an individual who has been a victim of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking in a manner that is focused on the experience of the victim, does not judge or blame the victim, and is informed by evidence-based research on the neurobiology of trauma.

(vi) Training on cultural awareness regarding how dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking may impact midshipmen differently depending on their cultural background.

(vii) Information on sexual assault dynamics, sexual assault perpetrator behavior, and barriers to reporting.


(D) Implementation.—

(i) Development and approval schedule.—The training program required by subparagraph (A) shall be developed not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018.

(ii) Completion of training.—Each individual who is required to complete the training described in subparagraph (A) shall complete such training not later than—

(I) 270 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018; or

(II) 180 days after starting a position with responsibilities that include the activities described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A).


(4) Availability of policy.—The Secretary shall ensure that the policy developed under this subsection is available to—

(A) all cadets and employees of the Academy; and

(B) the public.


(5) Consultation and assistance.—In developing the policy under this subsection, the Secretary may consult with or receive assistance from such Federal, State, local, and national organizations and subject matter experts as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(6) Consistency with the higher education act of 1965.—The Secretary shall ensure that the policy developed under this subsection meets the requirements set out in section 485(f)(8) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1092(f)(8)).


(b) Development Program.—

(1) In general.—The Maritime Administrator shall ensure that the development program of the Academy includes a section that—

(A) describes the relationship between honor, respect, and character development and the prevention of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking at the Academy;

(B) includes a brief history of the problem of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking in the merchant marine, in the Armed Forces, and at the Academy; and

(C) includes information relating to reporting sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking, victims' rights, and dismissal for offenders.


(2) Minimum requirements to combat retaliation.—

(A) Requirement for plan.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the Maritime Administrator shall direct the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy to implement and maintain a plan to combat retaliation against cadets at the Academy who report sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(B) Violation of code of conduct.—The Superintendent shall consider an act of retaliation against a cadet at the Academy who reports sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking as a Class I violation of the Midshipman Regulations of the Academy or equivalent code of conduct.

(C) Retaliation definition.—The Superintendent shall work with the sexual assault prevention and response staff of the Academy to define "retaliation" for purposes of this subsection.


(3) Minimum resource requirements.—

(A) In general.—The Maritime Administrator shall ensure the staff at the Academy are provided adequate and appropriate sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking prevention and response training materials and resources. Such resources shall include staff as follows:

(i) Sexual assault response coordinator.

(ii) Prevention educator.

(iii) Civil rights officer.

(iv) Staff member to oversee Sea Year.


(B) Communication.—The Director of the Office of Civil Rights of the Maritime Administration shall create and maintain a direct line of communication to the sexual assault response staff of the Academy that is outside of the chain of command of the Academy.


(4) Minimum training requirements.—The Superintendent shall ensure that all cadets receive training on the sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking prevention and response sections of the development program of the Academy, as described in paragraph (1), as follows:

(A) An initial training session, which shall occur not later than 7 days after a cadet's initial arrival at the Academy.

(B) Additional training sessions, which shall occur biannually following the cadet's initial training session until the cadet graduates or leaves the Academy.


(c) Annual Assessment.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary, in cooperation with the Superintendent, shall conduct an assessment at the Academy, during each Academy program year, to determine the effectiveness of the policies, procedures, and training program of the Academy with respect to sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel.

(2) Biennial survey.—For each assessment of the Academy under paragraph (1) during an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year, the Secretary shall conduct a survey of cadets and other Academy personnel—

(A) to measure—

(i) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual assault events involving cadets or other Academy personnel, on or off the Academy campus, that have been reported to officials of the Academy; and

(ii) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual assault events involving cadets or other Academy personnel, on or off the Academy campus, that have not been reported to officials of the Academy; and


(B) to assess the perceptions of cadets and other Academy personnel on—

(i) the policies, procedures, and training programs of the Academy on sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel;

(ii) the enforcement of the policies described in clause (i);

(iii) the incidence of sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel; and

(iv) any other issues relating to sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel.


(3) Focus groups for years when survey not required.—In any year in which the Secretary is not required to conduct the survey described in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall conduct focus groups at the Academy for the purposes of ascertaining information relating to sexual assault and sexual harassment issues at the Academy.


(d) Annual Report.—

(1) In general.—For each Academy program year, the Superintendent shall submit to the Secretary a report that provides information about sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets or other Academy personnel.

(2) Contents.—Each report submitted under paragraph (1) shall include, for the Academy program year covered by the report—

(A) the number of sexual assaults, rapes, and other sexual offenses involving cadets or other Academy personnel that have been reported to Academy officials;

(B) the number of the reported cases described in subparagraph (A) that have been substantiated;

(C) the policies, procedures, and training implemented by the Superintendent and the leadership of the Academy in response to incidents of sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets and other Academy personnel; and

(D) a plan for the actions that will be taken in the following Academy program year regarding prevention of, and response to, incidents of sexual harassment and sexual assault involving cadets and other Academy personnel.


(3) Survey and focus group results.—

(A) Survey results.—Each report under paragraph (1) for an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year shall include the results of the survey conducted in that program year under subsection (c)(2).

(B) Focus group results.—Each report under paragraph (1) for an Academy program year in which the Secretary is not required to conduct the survey described in subsection (c)(2) shall include the results of the focus group conducted in that program year under subsection (c)(3).


(4) Reporting requirement.—

(A) By the superintendent.—For each incident of sexual harassment or sexual assault reported to the Superintendent, the Superintendent shall provide to the Secretary and the Board of Visitors of the Academy a report that includes—

(i) the facts surrounding the incident, except for any details that would reveal the identities of the people involved; and

(ii) the Academy's response to the incident.


(B) By the secretary.—The Secretary shall submit a copy of each report received under subparagraph (A) and the Secretary's comments on the report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.


(e) Data for Aggregate Reporting.—

(1) In general.—No requirement related to confidentiality in this section or section 51319 of this title may be construed to prevent a sexual assault response coordinator from providing information for any report required by law regarding sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(2) Identity protection.—Any information provided for a report referred to in paragraph (1) shall be provided in a manner that protects the identity of the victim or witness.


(f) Definitions.—In this section and section 51319 of this title:

(1) Dating violence; domestic violence; stalking.—The terms "dating violence", "domestic violence", and "stalking" have the meanings given those terms is 1 section 40002(a) of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (42 U.S.C. 13925(a)).2

(2) Sexual assault.—The term "sexual assault" means an offense classified as a forcible or nonforcible sex offense under the uniform crime reporting system of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2782; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3514(a)–(d)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1920–1923.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(D)(i), (ii)(I) and (b)(2)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–91, which was approved Dec. 12, 2017.

Section 40002 of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), is section 40002 of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, which was classified as section 13925 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as section 12291 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.

Amendments

2017Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(d)(1), substituted "Policy on sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking" for "Policy on sexual harassment and sexual assault" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(1), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking" for "harassment and sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(A), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking" for "harassment and sexual assault" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(B), inserted "domestic violence, dating violence, stalking," after "acquaintance rape,".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(C)(i), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking," for "harassment or sexual assault," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(C)(ii), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment or sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(C)(iii), substituted "a criminal sexual offense" for "criminal sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(D), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment or sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(E)(i). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(E)(i), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment or sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(E)(ii), substituted "sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(E)(iii), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment and sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(2)(F). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(2)(F), substituted "harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking" for "harassment or sexual assault".

Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(3), (4), added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(a)(5), added par. (6).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to development program and minimum training requirements regarding the prevention of sexual harassment and sexual assault.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 115–91, §3514(c), added subsecs. (e) and (f).

Access of Academy Cadets to DOD SAFE or Equivalent Helpline

Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3515(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1926, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall arrange for cadets at the United States Merchant Marine Academy to have access to, and use of, the Department of Defense SAFE Helpline or an equivalent helpline to report incidents of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

"(2) Training.—The training provided to personnel of the helpline to which cadets at the Academy are given access shall include training on the resources available to cadets at the Academy in connection with sexual assault, sexual harassment, domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking.

"(3) Definitions.—In this section, the terms 'dating violence', 'domestic violence', 'sexual assault', and 'stalking' have the meanings given those terms in section 51318 of title 46, United States Code."

Sea Year Compliance

Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3514, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2788, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3513, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1919, provided that:

"(a) Vessel Operator Requirements.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Maritime Administrator, in consultation with operators of commercial vessels of the United States, shall establish—

"(1) criteria that vessel operators must meet in order to participate in the Sea Year program of the United States Merchant Marine Academy that addresses sexual harassment, sexual assault, and other inappropriate conduct; and

"(2) a process for verifying compliance with the criteria.

"(b) Provision of Satellite Phone.—

"(1) In general.—The Maritime Administrator shall ensure that each cadet from the United States Merchant Marine Academy who is participating in the Sea Year program is provided a functional satellite communication device. A cadet may not be denied from using the device whenever the student determines that use of the device is necessary to prevent or report sexual harassment or sexual assault.

"(2) Check-in.—Not less often than once each week during a cadet's participation in the Sea Year program, the cadet shall check-in with designated personnel at the Academy via the satellite communication device provided under paragraph (1). A text message sent via the satellite device shall meet the requirement for a weekly check-in for purposes of this paragraph."

Actions To Address Sexual Harassment and Violence at the United States Merchant Marine Academy

Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3507, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4765, provided that:

"(a) Required Policy.—The Secretary of Transportation shall direct the Superintendent of the United States Merchant Marine Academy to prescribe a policy on sexual harassment and sexual violence applicable to the cadets and other personnel of the Academy.

"(b) Matters To Be Specified in Policy.—The policy on sexual harassment and sexual violence prescribed under this section shall include—

"(1) a program to promote awareness of the incidence of rape, acquaintance rape, and other sexual offenses of a criminal nature that involve cadets or other Academy personnel;

"(2) procedures that a cadet should follow in the case of an occurrence of sexual harassment or sexual violence, including—

"(A) a specification of the person or persons to whom an alleged occurrence of sexual harassment or sexual violence should be reported by a cadet and the options for confidential reporting;

"(B) a specification of any other person whom the victim should contact; and

"(C) procedures on the preservation of evidence potentially necessary for proof of criminal sexual assault;

"(3) a procedure for disciplinary action in cases of alleged criminal sexual assault involving a cadet or other Academy personnel;

"(4) any other sanction authorized to be imposed in a substantiated case of sexual harassment or sexual violence involving a cadet or other Academy personnel in rape, acquaintance rape, or any other criminal sexual offense, whether forcible or nonforcible; and

"(5) required training on the policy for all cadets and other Academy personnel, including the specific training required for personnel who process allegations of sexual harassment or sexual violence involving Academy personnel.

"(c) Annual Assessment.—

"(1) The Secretary shall direct the Superintendent to conduct an assessment at the Academy during each Academy program year, to be administered by the Department of Transportation, to determine the effectiveness of the policies, training, and procedures of the Academy with respect to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving Academy personnel.

"(2) For the assessment at the Academy under paragraph (1) with respect to an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year, the Superintendent shall conduct a survey, to be administered by the Department, of Academy personnel—

"(A) to measure—

"(i) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual violence events, on or off the Academy reservation, that have been reported to officials of the Academy; and

"(ii) the incidence, during that program year, of sexual harassment and sexual violence events, on or off the Academy reservation, that have not been reported to officials of the Academy; and

"(B) to assess the perceptions of Academy personnel of—

"(i) the policies, training, and procedures on sexual harassment and sexual violence involving Academy personnel;

"(ii) the enforcement of such policies;

"(iii) the incidence of sexual harassment and sexual violence involving Academy personnel; and

"(iv) any other issues relating to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving Academy personnel.

"(d) Annual Report.—

"(1) The Secretary shall direct the Superintendent of the Academy to submit to the Secretary a report on sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other personnel at the Academy for each Academy program year.

"(2) Each report under paragraph (1) shall include, for the Academy program year covered by the report, the following:

"(A) The number of sexual assaults, rapes, and other sexual offenses involving cadets or other Academy personnel that have been reported to Academy officials during the program year and, of those reported cases, the number that have been substantiated.

"(B) The policies, procedures, and processes implemented by the Superintendent and the leadership of the Academy in response to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel during the program year.

"(C) A plan for the actions that are to be taken in the following Academy program year regarding prevention of and response to sexual harassment and sexual violence involving cadets or other Academy personnel.

"(3) Each report under paragraph (1) for an Academy program year that begins in an odd-numbered calendar year shall include the results of the survey conducted in that program year under subsection (c)(2).

"(4)(A) The Superintendent shall transmit to the Secretary, and to the Board of Visitors of the Academy, each report received by the Superintendent under this subsection, together with the Superintendent's comments on the report.

"(B) The Secretary shall transmit each such report, together with the Secretary's comments on the report, to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure."

1 So in original. Probably should be "in".

2 See References in Text note below.

§51319. Sexual assault response coordinators and sexual assault victim advocates

(a) Sexual Assault Response Coordinators.—

(1) Requirement for coordinators.—The United States Merchant Marine Academy shall employ or contract with at least 1 full-time sexual assault response coordinator who shall reside at or near the Academy. The Secretary of Transportation may assign additional full-time or part-time sexual assault response coordinators at the Academy as necessary.

(2) Selection criteria.—Each sexual assault response coordinator shall be selected based on—

(A) experience and a demonstrated ability to effectively provide victim services related to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(B) protection of the individual under applicable law to provide privileged communication.


(3) Confidentiality.—A sexual assault response coordinator shall, to the extent authorized under applicable law, provide confidential services to a cadet at the Academy who reports being a victim of, or witness to, sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(4) Training.—

(A) Verification.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the Maritime Administrator, in consultation with the Director of the Maritime Administration Office of Civil Rights, shall develop a process to verify that each sexual assault response coordinator has completed proper training.

(B) Training requirements.—The training referred to in subparagraph (A) shall include training in—

(i) working with victims of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking;

(ii) the policies, procedures, and resources of the Academy related to responding to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking; and

(iii) national, State, and local victim services and resources available to victims of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking.


(C) Completion of training.—A sexual assault response coordinator shall complete the training referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) not later than—

(i) 270 days after enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018; or

(ii) 180 days after starting in the role of sexual assault response coordinator.


(5) Duties.—A sexual assault response coordinator shall—

(A) confidentially receive a report from a victim of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) inform the victim of—

(i) the victim's rights under applicable law;

(ii) options for reporting an incident of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking to the Academy and law enforcement;

(iii) how to access available services, including emergency medical care, medical forensic or evidentiary examinations, legal services, services provided by rape crisis centers and other victim service providers, services provided by the volunteer sexual assault victim advocates at the Academy, and crisis intervention counseling and ongoing counseling;

(iv) such coordinator's ability to assist in arranging access to such services, with the consent of the victim;

(v) available accommodations, such as allowing the victim to change living arrangements and obtain accessibility services;

(vi) such coordinator's ability to assist in arranging such accommodations, with the consent of the victim;

(vii) the victim's rights and the Academy's responsibilities regarding orders of protection, no contact orders, restraining orders, or similar lawful orders issued by the Academy or a criminal, civil, or tribal court; and

(viii) privacy limitations under applicable law;


(C) represent the interests of any cadet at the Academy who reports being a victim of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking, even if such interests are in conflict with the interests of the Academy;

(D) advise the victim of, and provide written materials regarding, the information described in subparagraph (B);

(E) liaise with appropriate staff at the Academy, with the victim's consent, to arrange reasonable accommodations through the Academy to allow the victim to change living arrangements, obtain accessibility services, or access other accommodations;

(F) maintain the privacy and confidentiality of the victim, and shall not notify the Academy or any other authority of the identity of the victim or the alleged circumstances surrounding the reported incident unless—

(i) otherwise required by applicable law;

(ii) requested to do so by the victim who has been fully and accurately informed about what procedures shall occur if the information is shared; or

(iii) notwithstanding clause (i) or clause (ii), there is risk of imminent harm to other individuals;


(G) assist the victim in contacting and reporting an incident of sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking to the Academy or law enforcement, if requested to do so by the victim who has been fully and accurately informed about what procedures shall occur if information is shared; and

(H) submit to the Director of the Maritime Administration Office of Civil Rights an annual report summarizing how the resources supplied to the coordinator were used during the prior year, including the number of victims assisted by the coordinator.


(b) Oversight.—

(1) In general.—

(A) Reporting.—Each sexual assault response coordinator shall—

(i) report directly to the Superintendent; and

(ii) have concurrent reporting responsibility to the Executive Director of the Maritime Administration on matters related to the Maritime Administration and the Department of Transportation and upon belief that the Academy leadership is acting inappropriately regarding sexual assault prevention and response matters.


(B) Support.—The Maritime Administration Office of Civil Rights shall provide support to the sexual assault response coordinator at the Academy on all sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking prevention matters.


(2) Prohibition on investigation by the academy.—Any request by a victim for an accommodation, as described in subsection (a)(5)(E), made by a sexual assault response coordinator shall not trigger an investigation by the Academy, even if such coordinator deals only with matters relating to sexual harassment, dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(3) Prohibition on retaliation.—A sexual assault response coordinator, victim advocate, or companion may not be disciplined, penalized, or otherwise retaliated against by the Academy for representing the interests of the victim, even if such interests are in conflict with the interests of the Academy.


(c) Volunteer Sexual Assault Victim Advocates.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary, acting through the Superintendent of the Academy, shall designate from among volunteers 1 or more permanent employees of the Academy to serve as advocates for victims of sexual assaults involving cadets of the Academy or other Academy personnel.

(2) Training; other duties.—Each victim advocate designated under this subsection shall—

(A) have or receive training in matters relating to sexual assault and the comprehensive policy developed under section 51318; and

(B) serve as a victim advocate voluntarily, in addition to the individual's other duties as an employee of the Academy.


(3) Primary duties.—While performing the duties of a victim advocate under this subsection, a designated employee shall—

(A) support victims of sexual assault by informing them of the rights and resources available to them as victims;

(B) identify additional resources to ensure the safety of victims of sexual assault; and

(C) connect victims of sexual assault to companions, as described in paragraph (4).


(4) Companions.—

(A) In general.—At least 1 victim advocate designated under this subsection, or a sexual assault response coordinator designated under subsection (a), while performing the duties of a victim advocate, shall act as a companion to a victim described in paragraph (1) in navigating investigative, medical, mental, and emotional health, and recovery processes relating to sexual assault.

(B) Alternate victim advocates.—If requested by the victim, an alternate victim advocate shall be designated under this subsection to act as a companion to the victim, as described in subparagraph (A).


(5) Formal relationships with other entities.—The Secretary may enter into formal relationships with other entities to make available additional victim advocates or to implement paragraphs (3) and (4).

(Added Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3511(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2785; amended Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3515(a), (c), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1924, 1927.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 and enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, referred to in subsec. (a)(4)(A), (C)(i), are the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–91, which was approved Dec. 12, 2017.

Amendments

2017—Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 115–91, §3515(a), added subsecs. (a) and (b), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c), and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: "Sexual Assault Response Coordinators.—The United States Merchant Marine Academy shall employ or contract with at least 1 full-time sexual assault response coordinator who shall reside at or near the Academy. The Secretary of Transportation may assign additional full-time or part-time sexual assault response coordinators at the Academy as necessary."

Subsec. (c)(5), (6). Pub. L. 115–91, §3515(c), redesignated par. (6) as (5), substituted "paragraphs (3) and (4)" for "paragraphs (3), (4), and (5)", and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "Hotline.—The Secretary shall establish a 24-hour hotline through which the victim of a sexual assault described in paragraph (1) can receive victim support services."

§51320. Acceptance of guarantees with gifts for major projects

(a) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Major project.—The term "major project" means a project estimated to cost at least $1,000,000 for—

(A) the purchase or other procurement of real or personal property; or

(B) the construction, renovation, or repair of real or personal property.


(2) Major united states commercial bank.—The term "major United States commercial bank" means a commercial bank that—

(A) is an insured bank (as defined in section 3(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(h)));

(B) is headquartered in the United States; and

(C) has total net assets of an amount considered by the Maritime Administrator to qualify the bank as a major bank.


(3) Major united states investment management firm.—The term "major United States investment management firm" means—

(A) any broker or dealer (as such terms are defined in section 3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c));

(B) any investment adviser or provider of investment supervisory services (as such terms are defined in section 202 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80b–2)); or

(C) a major United States commercial bank that—

(i) is headquartered in the United States; and

(ii) holds for the account of others investment assets in a total amount considered by the Maritime Administrator to qualify the bank as a major investment management firm.


(4) Qualified guarantee.—The term "qualified guarantee", with respect to a major project, means a guarantee that—

(A) is made by 1 or more persons in connection with a donation for the project of a total amount in cash or securities that the Maritime Administrator determines is sufficient to defray a substantial portion of the total cost of the project;

(B) is made to facilitate or expedite the completion of the project in reasonable anticipation that other donors will contribute sufficient funds or other resources in amounts sufficient to pay for completion of the project;

(C) is set forth as a written agreement providing that the donor will furnish in cash or securities, in addition to the donor's other gift or gifts for the project, any additional amount that may become necessary for paying the cost of completing the project by reason of a failure to obtain from other donors or sources funds or other resources in amounts sufficient to pay the cost of completing the project; and

(D) is accompanied by—

(i) an irrevocable and unconditional standby letter of credit for the benefit of the United States Merchant Marine Academy that is in the amount of the guarantee and is issued by a major United States commercial bank; or

(ii) a qualified account control agreement.


(5) Qualified account control agreement.—The term "qualified account control agreement", with respect to a guarantee of a donor, means an agreement among the donor, the Maritime Administrator, and a major United States investment management firm that—

(A) ensures the availability of sufficient funds or other financial resources to pay the amount guaranteed during the period of the guarantee;

(B) provides for the perfection of a security interest in the assets of the account for the United States for the benefit of the United States Merchant Marine Academy with the highest priority available for liens and security interests under applicable law;

(C) requires the donor to maintain in an account with the investment management firm assets having a total value that is not less than 130 percent of the amount guaranteed; and

(D) requires the investment management firm, whenever the value of the account is less than the value required to be maintained under subparagraph (C), to liquidate any noncash assets in the account and reinvest the proceeds in Treasury bills issued under section 3104 of title 31.


(b) Acceptance Authority.—Subject to subsection (d), the Maritime Administrator may accept a qualified guarantee from a donor or donors for the completion of a major project for the benefit of the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

(c) Obligation Authority.—The amount of a qualified guarantee accepted under this section shall be considered as contract authority to provide obligation authority for purposes of Federal fiscal and contractual requirements. Funds available for a project for which such a guarantee has been accepted may be obligated and expended for the project without regard to whether the total amount of funds and other resources available for the project (not taking into account the amount of the guarantee) is sufficient to pay for completion of the project.

(d) Notice.—The Maritime Administrator may not accept a qualified guarantee under this section for the completion of a major project until 30 days after the date on which a report of the facts concerning the proposed guarantee is submitted to Congress.

(e) Prohibition on Commingling Funds.—The Maritime Administrator may not enter into any contract or other transaction involving the use of a qualified guarantee and appropriated funds in the same contract or transaction.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1916.)

§51321. Grants for scientific and educational research

(a) Defined Term.—In this section, the term "qualifying research grant" is a grant that—

(1) is awarded on a competitive basis by the Federal Government (except for the Department of Transportation), a State, a corporation, a fund, a foundation, an educational institution, or a similar entity that is organized and operated primarily for scientific or educational purposes; and

(2) is to be used to carry out a research project with a scientific or educational purpose.


(b) Acceptance of Qualifying Research Grants.—The United States Merchant Marine Academy may compete for and accept qualifying research grants if the work under the grant is to be carried out by a professor or instructor of the United States Merchant Marine Academy.

(c) Administration of Grant Funds.—

(1) Establishment of account.—The Maritime Administrator shall establish a separate account for administering funds received from research grants under this section.

(2) Use of grant funds.—The Superintendent shall use grant funds deposited into the account established pursuant to paragraph (1) in accordance with applicable regulations and the terms and conditions of the respective grants.


(d) Related Expenses.—Subject to such limitations as may be provided in appropriations Acts, appropriations available for the United States Merchant Marine Academy may be used to pay expenses incurred by the Academy in applying for, and otherwise pursuing, a qualifying research grant.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3512(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1918.)

§51322. Protection of cadets from sexual assault onboard vessels

(a) Riding Gangs.—

(1) Certification of compliance.—The Maritime Administrator shall require the owner or operator of any commercial vessel that is carrying a cadet from the United States Merchant Marine Academy to certify compliance of the vessel with the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (32 UST 47) and section 8106 of this title.

(2) Information for cadets.—The Maritime Administrator shall ensure that the Academy informs cadets preparing for Sea Year of the obligations that vessel owners and operators have to provide for the security of individuals aboard a vessel under United States law, including chapter 81 and section 70103(c) of this title.


(b) Checks of Commercial Vessels.—

(1) Requirement.—Not less frequently than biennially, staff of the Academy or staff of the Maritime Administration shall conduct both random and targeted unannounced checks of not less than 10 percent of the commercial vessels that host a cadet from the Academy.

(2) Removal of students.—If staff of the Academy or staff of the Maritime Administration determine that a commercial vessel is in violation of the sexual assault policy developed by the Academy through a check conducted under paragraph (1), the staff may—

(A) remove any cadet of the Academy from the vessel; and

(B) report the violation to the owner or operator of the vessel.


(c) Maintenance of Sexual Assault Training Records.—The Maritime Administrator shall require the owner or operator of a commercial vessel, or the seafarer union for a commercial vessel, to maintain records of sexual assault training for the crew and passengers of any vessel hosting a cadet from the Academy.

(d) Sea Year Survey.—

(1) Requirement.—The Maritime Administrator shall require each cadet from the Academy, upon completion of the cadet's Sea Year, to complete a survey regarding the environment and conditions during the Sea Year of the vessel to which the cadet was assigned.

(2) Availability.—The Maritime Administrator shall make available to the public for each year—

(A) the questions used in the survey required by paragraph (1); and

(B) the aggregated data received from such surveys.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3516(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1927.)

CHAPTER 515—STATE MARITIME ACADEMY SUPPORT PROGRAM

Sec.
51501.
General support program.
51502.
Detailing of personnel.
51503.
Regional maritime academies.
51504.
Use of training vessels.
51505.
Annual payments for maintenance and support.
51506.
Conditions to receiving payments and use of vessels.
51507.
Places of training.
51508.
Allowances for students.
51509.
Student incentive payment agreements.
51510.
Deferment of service obligation under student incentive payment agreements.
51511.
Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve.

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in item 51511.

§51501. General support program

(a) Assistance to State Maritime Academies.—The Secretary of Transportation shall cooperate with and assist State maritime academies in providing instruction to individuals to prepare them for service in the merchant marine of the United States.

(b) Course Development.—The Secretary shall provide to each State maritime academy guidance and assistance in developing courses on the operation and maintenance of new vessels, on equipment, and on innovations being introduced to the merchant marine of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1577.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51501(a) 46 App.:1295c(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(a), (d)(2), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003, 2004.
51501(b) 46 App.:1295c(d)(2).

§51502. Detailing of personnel

At the request of the Governor of a State, the President may detail, without reimbursement, personnel of the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Maritime Service to a State maritime academy to serve as a superintendent, professor, lecturer, or instructor at the academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1577.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51502 46 App.:1295c(e). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(e), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004.

The reference to territories is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

§51503. Regional maritime academies

The Governors of the States cooperating to sponsor a regional maritime academy shall designate in writing one of those States to conduct the affairs of that academy. A regional maritime academy is eligible for assistance from the United States Government on the same basis as a State maritime academy sponsored by a single State.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1577.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51503 46 App.:1295c(b). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(b), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003.

The reference to territories is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

§51504. Use of training vessels

(a) Applications To Use Vessels.—The Governor of a State sponsoring a State maritime academy (or the Governor of the State designated to conduct the affairs of a regional maritime academy) may apply in writing to the Secretary of Transportation to obtain the use of a training vessel for the academy. A vessel provided under this section remains the property of the United States Government.

(b) General Authority.—Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary may provide to a State maritime academy, for use as a training vessel, a suitable vessel under the control of the Secretary or made available to the Secretary under subsection (e). If a suitable vessel is not available, the Secretary may build and provide a suitable vessel.

(c) Approval Requirements.—The Secretary may provide a vessel under this section only if—

(1) an application has been made under subsection (a);

(2) the State maritime academy satisfies section 51506(a) of this title; and

(3) a suitable port will be available for the safe mooring of the vessel while the academy is using the vessel.


(d) Preparation and Maintenance.—A vessel provided under this section shall be—

(1) repaired, reconditioned, and equipped (with all apparel, charts, books, and instruments of navigation) as necessary for use as a training vessel; and

(2) maintained in good repair by the Secretary.


(e) Agency Vessels.—An agency may provide to the Secretary, for use by a State maritime academy, a vessel (including equipment) that—

(1) is suitable for training purposes; and

(2) can be provided without detriment to the service to which the vessel is assigned.


(f) Fuel Costs.—

(1) In general.—Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall pay to each State maritime academy the costs of fuel used by a vessel provided under this section while used for training.

(2) Maximum amounts.—The amount of the payment to a State maritime academy under paragraph (1) may not exceed—

(A) $100,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(B) $200,000 for fiscal year 2007; and

(C) $300,000 for fiscal year 2008 and each fiscal year thereafter.


(g) Removing Vessels From Service and Vessel Sharing.—The Secretary may not—

(1) take a vessel, currently in use as a training vessel under this section, out of service to implement an alternative program (including vessel sharing) unless the vessel is incapable of being maintained in good repair as required by subsection (d); or

(2) implement a program requiring a State maritime academy to share its training vessel with another State maritime academy, except with the express consent of Congress.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1577; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(b), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3548; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(2), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51504(a) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(ii), (v). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(c)(1), (2), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003.
51504(b) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A) (1st sentence words before "meeting the requirements").
51504(c)(1) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(ii).
51504(c)(2) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A) (1st sentence words beginning with "meeting the requirements").
51504(c)(3) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(iii).
51504(d)(1) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(i).
51504(d)(2) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (A)(iv).
51504(e) 46 App.:1295c(c)(1) (B).
51504(f) 46 App.:1295c(c)(2).
51504(g) 46 App.:1295c note. Pub. L. 101–115, §4, Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 692; Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §705, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2994.

In subsection (a), the reference to territories is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

In subsection (e), before paragraph (1), the word "agency" is substituted for "department or agency of the United States" because of the definition of "agency" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

In subsection (g), the 1st–3d sentences of section 4 of Public Law 101–115 are omitted as obsolete.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(b). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(2), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(b), by amending heading and text of subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary may pay to a State maritime academy the costs of fuel used by a vessel provided under this section while used for training." See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(b), which directed the amendment of section 1295c(c)(2) of the former Appendix to this title from which subsec. (f) of this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (f) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51505. Annual payments for maintenance and support

(a) Payment Agreements.—The Secretary of Transportation may make an agreement (effective for not more than 4 years) with the following academies to provide annual payments to those academies for their maintenance and support:

(1) One State maritime academy in each State that satisfies section 51506(a) of this title.

(2) Each regional maritime academy that satisfies section 51506(a) of this title.


(b) Payments.—

(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2), an annual payment to an academy under subsection (a) shall be at least equal to the amount given to the academy for its maintenance and support by the State in which it is located, or, for a regional maritime academy, by all States cooperating to sponsor the academy.

(2) Maximum.—The amount under paragraph (1) may not be more than $25,000. However, if the academy satisfies section 51506(b) of this title, the amount shall be—

(A) $100,000 for a State maritime academy; and

(B) $300,000 for fiscal year 2006, $400,000 for fiscal year 2007, and $500,000 for fiscal year 2008 and each fiscal year thereafter for a regional maritime academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1578; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3547; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(3), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51505 46 App.:1295c(d)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(d)(1), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004; Pub. L. 101–115, §5, Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 693.

In subsection (b)(1), the reference to territories is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "State" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(a). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(3), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(a), into this section by substituting "$300,000 for fiscal year 2006, $400,000 for fiscal year 2007, and $500,000 for fiscal year 2008 and each fiscal year thereafter" for "$200,000". See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §3502(a), which directed the amendment of section 1295c(d)(1) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (b)(2)(B) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51506. Conditions to receiving payments and use of vessels

(a) General Conditions.—As conditions of receiving an annual payment or the use of a vessel under this chapter, a State maritime academy shall—

(1) provide courses of instruction on navigation, marine engineering (including steam and diesel propulsion), the operation and maintenance of new vessels and equipment, and innovations being introduced to the merchant marine of the United States;

(2) agree in writing to conform to the standards for courses, training facilities, admissions, and instruction that the Secretary of Transportation may establish after consultation with the superintendents of State maritime academies;

(3) agree in writing to require, as a condition for graduation, that each individual who is a citizen of the United States and who is attending the academy in a merchant marine officer preparation program pass the examination required for the issuance of a license under section 7101 of this title; and

(4) agree that any individual enrolled at such State maritime academy in a merchant marine officer preparation program—

(A) shall, not later than 9 months after such individual's date of enrollment, pass an examination in form and substance satisfactory to the Secretary that demonstrates that such individual meets the medical and physical requirements—

(i) required for the issuance of an original license under section 7101; or

(ii) set by the Coast Guard for issuing merchant mariners' documentation under section 7302, with no limit to the individual's operational authority;


(B) following passage of the examination under subparagraph (A), shall continue to meet the requirements described in subparagraph (A) throughout the remainder of the individual's enrollment at the State maritime academy; and

(C) if the individual has a medical or physical condition that disqualifies the individual from meeting the requirements referred to in subparagraph (A), shall be transferred to a program other than a merchant marine officer preparation program, or otherwise appropriately disenrolled from such State maritime academy, until the individual demonstrates to the Secretary that the individual meets such requirements.


(b) Additional Condition to Payments of More Than $25,000.—As a condition of receiving an annual payment of more than $25,000 under section 51505 of this title, a State maritime academy also must agree to admit each year a number of citizens of the United States who meet its admission requirements and reside in a State not supporting that academy. The Secretary shall determine the number of individuals to be admitted by each academy under this subsection. The number may not be more than one-third of the total number of individuals attending the academy at any time.

(c) Secretarial Waiver Authority.—The Secretary may modify or waive any of the terms set forth in subsection (a)(4) with respect to any individual or State maritime academy.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1579; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3515, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2788.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51506 46 App.:1295c(f). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(f), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004; Pub. L. 101–115, §3(a), Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 692.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "administered by the Coast Guard" are omitted as unnecessary.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328, §3515(1)(A), substituted "shall" for "must" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 114–328, §3515(1)(B)–(D), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328, §3515(2), added subsec. (c).

§51507. Places of training

The Secretary of Transportation may provide for the training of students attending a State maritime academy—

(1) on vessels owned or subsidized by the United States Government;

(2) on other documented vessels, with the permission of the owner; and

(3) in shipyards or plants and with industrial or educational organizations.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1579.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51507 46 App.:1295c(c) (3)(A). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(c)(3)(A), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2003.

In paragraph (2), the words "with the permission of the owner" are substituted for "if the owner . . . cooperates in such use" for clarity.

§51508. Allowances for students

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation, a student at a State maritime academy shall receive from the Secretary allowances for transportation (including reimbursement of traveling expenses) when traveling under orders to receive training under section 51507 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1579.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51508 46 App.:1295c(c) (3)(B). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(c)(3)(B), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004.

§51509. Student incentive payment agreements

(a) General Authority.—If a State maritime academy has an agreement with the Secretary of Transportation under section 51505 of this title, the Secretary may make an agreement with a student at the academy who is a citizen of the United States to make student incentive payments to the individual. An agreement with a student may not be effective for more than 4 academic years. The Secretary shall allocate payments under this section among the various State maritime academies in an equitable manner.

(b) Payments.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), payments under an agreement under this section shall be equal to $8,000 each academic year and be paid in such installments as the Secretary shall determine while the individual is attending the academy, as prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Exception.—The Secretary may modify the payments made to an individual under paragraph (1), but the total amount of payments to that individual may not exceed $32,000.

(3) Authorized uses.—The payments shall be used for uniforms, tuition, books, and subsistence.


(c) Enlisted Reserve Status.—An agreement under this section shall require the student to accept enlisted reserve status in the Navy Reserve (including the Strategic Sealift Officer Program, Navy Reserve) or the Coast Guard Reserve before receiving any payments under the agreement.

(d) Agreement Requirements.—An agreement under this section shall require the student to—

(1) complete the course of instruction at the academy the individual is attending;

(2) obtain a merchant mariner license, without limitation as to tonnage or horsepower, from the Coast Guard as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certification required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages, without limitation, within three months of completion of the course of instruction at the academy the individual is attending;

(3) for at least 6 years after graduation from the academy, maintain—

(A) a valid merchant mariner license, unlimited as to horsepower or tonnage, issued by the Coast Guard as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certifications required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages, without limitation;

(B) a valid transportation worker identification credential; and

(C) a Coast Guard medical certificate;


(4) apply for, and accept, if tendered, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserve (including the Strategic Sealift Officer Program, Navy Reserve), the Coast Guard Reserve, or any other reserve component of an armed force of the United States, and, if tendered the appointment, to serve and meet the participation requirements and to maintain active status in good standing, as determined by the program manager of the appropriate military service, for at least 8 years after the date of commissioning;

(5) serve the foreign and domestic commerce and the national defense of the United States for at least 3 years after graduation from the academy—

(A) as a merchant marine officer on a documented vessel or a vessel owned and operated by the United States Government or by a State;

(B) as an employee in a United States maritime-related industry, profession, or marine science (as determined by the Secretary), if the Secretary determines that service under subparagraph (A) is not available to the individual;

(C) as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed force of the United States, as a commissioned officer in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or in other maritime-related Federal employment which serves the national security interests of the United States, as determined by the Secretary; or

(D) by a combination of the service alternatives referred to in subparagraphs (A)–(C); and


(6) report to the Secretary on compliance with this subsection.


(e) Failure To Complete Course of Instruction.—

(1) Active duty.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary of Defense may order an individual to serve on active duty in the armed forces of the United States for a period of not more than 2 years if—

(i) the individual has attended an academy under this section for more than 2 academic years, but less than 3 academic years;

(ii) the individual has accepted the payments described in subsection (b) in an amount totaling at least $8,000; and

(iii) the Secretary of Transportation has determined that the individual has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement described in subsection (d)(1).


(B) 3 or more years.—The Secretary of Defense may order an individual to serve on active duty in the armed forces of the United States for a period of not more than 3 years if—

(i) the individual has attended an academy under this section for 3 or more academic years;

(ii) the individual has accepted the payments described in subsection (b) in an amount totaling at least $16,000; and

(iii) the Secretary of Transportation has determined that the individual has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement described in subsection (d)(1).


(C) Hardship waiver.—In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part.


(2) Recovery of cost.—If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order an individual to serve on active duty under paragraph (1), or if the Secretary of Transportation determines that reimbursement of the cost of education provided would better serve the interests of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may recover from the individual the amount of student incentive payments, plus interest and attorney fees. The Secretary may reduce the amount to be recovered to reflect partial performance of service obligations and other factors the Secretary determines merit a reduction.


(f) Failure To Carry Out Other Requirements.—

(1) Active duty.—If the Secretary of Transportation determines that an individual has failed to fulfill any part of the agreement described in subsection (d)(2)–(6), the individual may be ordered to serve on active duty for a period of at least 2 years but not more than the unexpired period (as determined by the Secretary) of the service required by subsection (d)(5). The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall determine in which service the individual shall serve. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part.

(2) Recovery of cost.—If the Secretary of Defense is unable or unwilling to order an individual to serve on active duty under paragraph (1), or if the Secretary of Transportation determines that reimbursement of the cost of education provided would better serve the interests of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation may recover from the individual the amount of student incentive payments, plus interest and attorney fees. The Secretary may reduce the amount to be recovered to reflect partial performance of service obligations and other factors the Secretary determines merit a reduction.


(g) Actions To Recover Cost.—To aid in the recovery of the cost of education provided by the Government under a commitment agreement under this section, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) request the Attorney General to bring a civil action against the individual; and

(2) make use of the Federal debt collection procedures in chapter 176 of title 28 or other applicable administrative remedies.


(h) Alternative Service.—

(1) Service as commissioned officer.—An individual who, for the 5-year period following graduation from an academy, serves as a commissioned officer on active duty in an armed force of the United States or as a commissioned officer of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service shall be excused from the requirements of paragraphs (3) through (5) of subsection (d).

(2) Modification or waiver.—The Secretary may modify or waive any of the terms and conditions set forth in subsection (d) through the imposition of alternative service requirements.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1579; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2)(A), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3508, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2517; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §§3523(a)(1), (b), 3526(d), (g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, 600, 602; Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3503, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4762; Pub. L. 111–8, div. I, title I, §177, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3507, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 114–92, div. C, title XXXV, §3507, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1221.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51509(a) 46 App.:1295c(g)(1) (words before 5th comma, cl. (A)), (8). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(g)(1)–(5), (8), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2004, 2006; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(145)(A), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 101–115, §2(a)–(d), Oct. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 691; Pub. L. 102–587, title VI, §6201(a)(1), (b), (c), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5093; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(d), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1794.
51509(b) 46 App.:1295c(g)(1) (words between 5th comma and dash, cls. (B), (C)).
51509(c) 46 App.:1295c(g)(2)
51509(d) 46 App.:1295c(g)(3)
51509(e) 46 App.:1295c(g)(4)
51509(f) 46 App.:1295c(g)(5)
51509(g) 46 App.:1295c(g)(6)

In subsection (a), the text of 46 App. U.S.C. 1295c(g)(8) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (g), the words "bring a civil action" are substituted for "begin court proceedings" for consistency in the revised title and with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(1), designated first sentence as par. (1) and last sentence as par. (3), inserted headings, realigned margins, in par. (1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), payments" for "Payments", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(2), substituted "Strategic Sealift Officer Program" for "Merchant Marine Reserve".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(3)(A), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "take the examination for a license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States before graduation from the academy and fulfill the requirements for such a license within 3 months after graduation from the academy;".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(3)(B), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "maintain a valid license as an officer in the merchant marine of the United States for at least 6 years after graduation from the academy, accompanied by the appropriate national and international endorsements and certification required by the Coast Guard for service aboard vessels on domestic and international voyages;".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(3)(C), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "accept, if tendered, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve), the Coast Guard Reserve, or any other reserve unit of an armed force of the United States, and, if tendered the appointment, to serve for at least 6 years after graduation from the academy;".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(4), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If the Secretary of Transportation determines that an individual who has accepted the payments described in subsection (b) for a minimum of 2 academic years has failed to fulfill the part of the agreement described in subsection (d)(1), the individual may be ordered by the Secretary of Defense to serve on active duty in the armed forces of the United States for a period of not more than 2 years. In cases of hardship as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation may waive this paragraph in whole or in part."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–92, §3507(5), added subsec. (h).

2009Pub. L. 111–84, §3507(a), substituted "and be paid in such installments as the Secretary shall determine" for "and be paid before the start of each academic year, as prescribed by the Secretary," and "academy, as prescribed by the Secretary." for "academy.".

Pub. L. 111–8, §177, which directed amendment identical to that made by Pub. L. 110–417, §3503(1), (2), was repealed by Pub. L. 111–84, §3507(b), with Pub. L. 111–8, §177, to have no force or effect. See 2008 Amendment note below.

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g), repealed Pub. L. 109–364, §3508. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–417, §3503(3), inserted "before the start of each academic year" after "and be paid".

Pub. L. 110–417, §3503(1), (2), substituted "$8,000" for "$4,000" and inserted "tuition," after "uniforms,".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(d), incorporated the substance of the amendments by Pub. L. 109–364, §3508, into this section by striking out "Midshipman and" before "Enlisted" in heading and "midshipman and" before "enlisted" in text and inserting "or the Coast Guard Reserve" after "Reserve)". See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendments by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in two places. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendments by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" in two places. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–364, §3508, which directed the amendment of section 1295c(g)(2) of the former Appendix to this title from which subsec. (c) of this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (c) and Historical and Revision notes above.

Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2)(A), which directed the amendment of section 1295c of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment notes for subsecs. (c) and (d)(4) and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51510. Deferment of service obligation under student incentive payment agreements

The Secretary of Transportation may defer the service commitment of an individual under section 51509(d)(5) of this title (as specified in the agreement under section 51509) for not more than 2 years if the individual is engaged in a graduate course of study approved by the Secretary. However, deferment of service as a commissioned officer on active duty must be approved by the Secretary of the affected military department (or the Secretary of Commerce, for service with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1581.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51510 46 App.:1295c(g)(7). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(g)(7), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(145)(B), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(d)(7), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1795.

The words "affected military department" are substituted for "military department . . . which has jurisdiction over such service" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

§51511. Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve

A citizen of the United States attending a State maritime academy may be appointed by the Secretary of the Navy as a midshipman in the Navy Reserve (including the Merchant Marine Reserve, Navy Reserve).

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(1), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 598, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51511 46 App.:1295c(h). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1304(h), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(1), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2), into this section by substituting "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve" wherever appearing in section catchline and text. See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §515(g)(2), which directed the amendment of section 1295c of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment notes and Historical and Revision notes above.

CHAPTER 517—OTHER SUPPORT FOR MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING

Sec.
51701.
United States Maritime Service.
51702.
Civilian nautical schools.
51703.
Additional training.
51704.
Training for maritime oil pollution prevention, response, and clean-up.
51705.
Training program for use of force against piracy.1

        

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–213, title V, §502(c), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1575, added item 51705.

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§51701. United States Maritime Service

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may establish and maintain a voluntary organization, to be known as the United States Maritime Service, for the training of citizens of the United States to serve on merchant vessels of the United States and to perform functions to assist the United States merchant marine, as determined necessary by the Secretary.

(b) Specific Authority.—The Secretary may—

(1) determine the number of individuals to be enrolled for training and reserve purposes in the Service;

(2) fix the rates of pay and allowances of the individuals without regard to chapter 51 or subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5;

(3) prescribe the course of study and the periods of training for the Service; and

(4) prescribe the uniform of the Service and the rules on providing and wearing the uniform.


(c) Ranks, Grades, and Ratings.—The ranks, grades, and ratings for personnel of the Service shall be the same as those prescribed for personnel of the Coast Guard.

(d) Medals and Awards.—The Secretary may establish and maintain a medals and awards program to recognize distinguished service, superior achievement, professional performance, and other commendable achievement by personnel of the Service.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1582; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3509, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3557; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(d)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2520; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(4), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51701 46 App.:1295e. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1306, as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3515(e), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1795.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §3509. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(4), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §3509, into this section by substituting "of the United States and to perform functions to assist the United States merchant marine, as determined necessary by the Secretary." for "of the United States." See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §3509, as amended by Pub. L. 109–364, §3510(d)(1), which directed the amendment of section 1295e(a) of the former Appendix to this title from which subsec. (a) of this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (a) and Historical and Revision notes above.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(d)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2521, provided that: "This subsection [amending section 3509 of Pub. L. 109–163 which had amended section 1295e(a) of the former Appendix to this title, from which subsec. (a) of this section is derived] shall be effective immediately after section 3509 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 (119 Stat. 3557) [Pub. L. 109–163] takes effect [Jan. 6, 2006]."

§51702. Civilian nautical schools

(a) Definition.—In this section, the term "civilian nautical school" means a school operated in the United States (except the United States Merchant Marine Academy, a State maritime academy, or another school operated by the United States Government) that offers instruction to individuals quartered on a vessel primarily to train them for service in the merchant marine.

(b) Inspection.—Each civilian nautical school is subject to inspection by the Secretary of Transportation.

(c) Rating and Certification.—The Secretary may, under regulations the Secretary may prescribe, provide for the rating and certification of civilian nautical schools as to the adequacy of their course of instruction, the competence of their instructors, and the suitability of the equipment used in their course of instruction.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1582.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51702 46 App.:1295f. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1307, as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2007; Pub. L. 98–89, §4(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 603.

The text of 46 App. U.S.C. 1295f(d) is omitted because it apparently was intended to apply to former 46 App. U.S.C. 1295f(c), which was repealed in 1983.

§51703. Additional training

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may provide additional training on maritime subjects to supplement other training opportunities and make the training available to the personnel of the merchant marine of the United States and individuals preparing for a career in the merchant marine of the United States.

(b) Equipment, Supplies, and Contracts.—The Secretary may—

(1) prepare or buy equipment or supplies required for the additional training; and

(2) without regard to section 6101(b) to (d) of title 41, make contracts for services the Secretary considers necessary to prepare the equipment and supplies and to supervise and administer the additional training.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(n), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3853.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51703 46 App.:1295d(a), (b). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1305(a), (b), as added Pub. L. 96–453, §2, Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2006.

In subsection (a), before paragraph (1), the words "as the Secretary deems necessary" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (b), the words "with any person, partnership, firm, association, or corporation" and "the performance of" are omitted as unnecessary.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "section 6101(b) to (d) of title 41" for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5)".

§51704. Training for maritime oil pollution prevention, response, and clean-up

(a) Assistance in Establishing Program.—The Secretary of Transportation shall assist maritime training institutions approved by the Secretary in establishing a training program for maritime oil pollution prevention, response, and clean-up.

(b) Providing Training Vessels.—Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary may provide, with title free of all liens, to maritime training institutions that have a program established under subsection (a), offshore supply vessels and tug/supply vessels that were built in the United States and are in the possession of the Maritime Administration because of a default on a loan guaranteed under chapter 537 of this title.

(c) Requirements.—In addition to any other requirements the Secretary considers appropriate, the following requirements apply to vessels provided under this section:

(1) The vessel shall be offered to the institution at a location selected by the Secretary.

(2) The institution shall use the vessel to train students and appropriate maritime industry personnel in oil spill prevention, response, clean-up, and related skills.

(3) The institution shall make the vessel and qualified students available to appropriate Federal, State, and local oil spill response authorities when there is a maritime oil spill.

(4) The institution may not sell, trade, charter, donate, scrap, or in any way alter or dispose of the vessel without prior approval of the Secretary.

(5) The institution may not use the vessel in competition with a privately-owned vessel documented under chapter 121 of this title or titled under the law of a State, unless necessary to carry out this section.

(6) When the institution can no longer use the vessel for its training program, the institution shall return the vessel to the Secretary. The Secretary shall take possession at the institution and thereafter may provide the vessel to another institution under this section or dispose of the vessel.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1583.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51704(a) 46 App.:1295d(c)(1). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title XIII, §1305(c), as added Pub. L. 101–595, title VII, §712, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2998.
51704(b) 46 App.:1295d(c) (2)(A), (4).
51704(c) 46 App.:1295d(c) (2)(B), (3).

In subsection (c)(5), the words "or titled under the law of a State" are substituted for "documented under the laws of . . . any State" for consistency with the terminology in 46 U.S.C. 2101(46) (which is being moved to chapter 1 of the revised title) and 46 U.S.C. ch. 125.

§51705. Training for use of force against piracy

The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, shall certify a training curriculum for United States mariners on the use of force against pirates. The curriculum shall include—

(1) information on waters designated as high-risk waters by the Commandant of the Coast Guard;

(2) information on current threats and patterns of attack by pirates;

(3) tactics for defense of a vessel, including instruction on the types, use, and limitations of security equipment;

(4) standard rules for the use of force for self-defense as developed by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating under section 912(c) of the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010 (Public Law 111–281; 46 U.S.C. 8107 note), including instruction on firearm safety for crewmembers of vessels carrying cargo under section 55305 of this title; and

(5) procedures to follow to improve crewmember survivability if captured and taken hostage by pirates.

(Added Pub. L. 112–213, title V, §502(a), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1574.)

Deadline

Pub. L. 112–213, title V, §502(b), Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1575, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation shall certify the curriculum required under the amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2012]."

CHAPTER 519—MERCHANT MARINE AWARDS

Sec.
51901.
Awards for individual acts or service.
51902.
Gallant Ship Award.
51903.
Multiple awards.
51904.
Presentation to representatives.
51905.
Flags and grave markers.
51906.
Special certificates for civilian service to armed forces.
51907.
Provision of decorations, medals, and replacements 1

        

51908.
Prohibition against unauthorized manufacture, sale, possession, or display of awards.

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(5)(B), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, substituted "Provision of decorations, medals, and replacements" for "Manufacture and sale of awards and replacements." in item 51907.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§51901. Awards for individual acts or service

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation may award decorations and medals of appropriate design (including ribbons, ribbon bars, emblems, rosettes, miniature facsimiles, plaques, citations, or other suitable devices or insignia) for individual acts or service in the merchant marine of the United States. The design may be similar to the design of a decoration or medal authorized for members of the armed forces for similar acts or service.

(b) Specific Authority.—The Secretary may award—

(1) a Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal to an individual for outstanding acts, conduct, or valor beyond the line of duty;

(2) a Merchant Marine Meritorious Service Medal to an individual for meritorious acts, conduct, or valor in the line of duty, but not of the outstanding character that would warrant the award of the Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal;

(3) a decoration or medal to an individual for service during a war, national emergency proclaimed by the President or Congress, or operations by the armed forces outside the continental United States under conditions of danger to life and property; and

(4) a decoration or medal to an individual for other acts or service of conspicuous gallantry, intrepidity, and extraordinary heroism under conditions of danger to life and property that would warrant a similar decoration or medal for a member of the armed forces.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1584.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51901(a) 46 App.:2001. Pub. L. 100–324, §§2, 3, 5(d), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576, 577.
  46 App.:2004(d).
51901(b) 46 App.:2002.

§51902. Gallant Ship Award

(a) Awards to Vessels.—The Secretary of Transportation may award a Gallant Ship Award and a citation to a vessel (including a foreign vessel) participating in outstanding or gallant action in a marine disaster or other emergency to save life or property at sea. The Secretary may award a plaque to the vessel, and a replica of the plaque may be preserved as a permanent historical record.

(b) Awards to Crews.—The Secretary of Transportation may award an appropriate citation ribbon bar to the master and each individual serving, at the time of the action, on a vessel issued an award under subsection (a).

(c) Consultation.—The Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the Secretary of State before awarding an award or citation to a foreign vessel or its crew under this section.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1584.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51902 46 App.:2003. Pub. L. 100–324, §4, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576.

In subsection (a), the words "a vessel (including a foreign vessel)" are substituted for "a United States vessel or to a foreign-flag vessel" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§51903. Multiple awards

An individual may not be awarded more than one of any type of decoration or medal under this chapter. For each succeeding act or service justifying the same decoration or medal, a suitable device may be awarded to be worn with the decoration or medal.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51903 46 App.:2004(a). Pub. L. 100–324, §5(a), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 576.

§51904. Presentation to representatives

If an individual to be issued an award under this chapter is unable to accept the award personally, the Secretary of Transportation may present the award to an appropriate representative.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51904 46 App.:2004(b). Pub. L. 100–324, §5(b), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

§51905. Flags and grave markers

Except as authorized under another law, the Secretary of Transportation may issue, at no cost, a flag of the United States and a grave marker to the family or personal representative of a deceased individual who served in the merchant marine of the United States in support of the armed forces of the United States or its allies during a war or national emergency.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51905 46 App.:2005. Pub. L. 100–324, §6, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

§51906. Special certificates for civilian service to armed forces

(a) General Authority.—The Maritime Administrator may issue a special certificate to an individual, or the personal representative of an individual, in recognition of service of that individual in the merchant marine of the United States, if the service has been determined to be active duty under section 401 of the GI Bill Improvement Act of 1977 (Public Law 95–202; 38 U.S.C. 106 note).

(b) Relationship to Other Laws.—Issuance of a certificate under subsection (a) does not entitle an individual to any rights, privileges, or benefits under a law of the United States.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51906 46 App.:2006. Pub. L. 100–324, §7, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

§51907. Provision of decorations, medals, and replacements

The Secretary of Transportation may provide—

(1) the decorations and medals authorized by this chapter and replacements for those decorations and medals; and

(2) replacements for decorations and medals issued under a prior law.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3510, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3557; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3523(a)(5)(A), (b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 599, 600.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51907 46 App.:2004(c). Pub. L. 100–324, §5(c), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

The Secretary's authority to provide decorations and medals at cost, or to authorize the sale of decorations and medals at reasonable prices, is restated to apply only to replacement awards because Congress probably did not intend that recipients being honored would pay for their decorations and medals.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b), repealed Pub. L. 109–163, §3510. See 2006 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(a)(5)(A), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–163, §3510, into this section by amending section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary of Transportation may—

"(1) authorize private persons to manufacture decorations and medals authorized under this chapter or a prior law; and

"(2) provide at cost, or authorize private persons to sell at reasonable prices, replacements for those decorations and medals."

See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–163, §3510, which directed the amendment of section 2004(c) of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3523(b). See 2008 Amendment notes and Historical and Revision notes above.

§51908. Prohibition against unauthorized manufacture, sale, possession, or display of awards

(a) Prohibition.—Except as authorized by this chapter or the Secretary of Transportation, a person may not manufacture, sell, possess, or display a decoration or medal provided for in this chapter.

(b) Civil Penalty.—A person violating this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $2,000.

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3510(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2520; Pub. L. 110–181, div. C, title XXXV, §3526(e), (g), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 602.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
51908 46 App.:2007. Pub. L. 100–324, §8, May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 577.

In subsection (b), the words "not more than" are added for clarity and for consistency in the revised title.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g), repealed Pub. L. 109–364, §3510(b). See 2006 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(e), incorporated the substance of the amendment by Pub. L. 109–364, §3510(b), into this section by substituting "by this chapter or the Secretary of Transportation" for "under this chapter". See 2006 Amendment note below and section 18(a) of Pub. L. 109–304, set out as a Legislative Purpose and Construction note preceding section 101 of this title.

2006Pub. L. 109–364, §3510(b), which directed the amendment of section 2007 of the former Appendix to this title from which this section was derived, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–181, §3526(g). See 2008 Amendment note for subsec. (a) and Historical and Revision notes above.

CHAPTER 521—MISCELLANEOUS

Sec.
52101.
Reemployment rights for certain merchant seamen.

        

§52101. Reemployment rights for certain merchant seamen

(a) In General.—An individual who is certified by the Secretary of Transportation under subsection (c) shall be entitled to reemployment rights and other benefits substantially equivalent to the rights and benefits provided for by chapter 43 of title 38 for any member of a reserve component of the armed forces of the United States who is ordered to active duty.

(b) Time for Application.—An individual may submit an application for certification under subsection (c) to the Secretary not later than 45 days after the date the individual completes a period of employment described in subsection (c)(1)(A) with respect to which the application is submitted.

(c) Certification Determination.—Not later than 20 days after the date the Secretary receives from an individual an application for certification under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(1) determine whether the individual—

(A) was employed in the activation or operation of a vessel—

(i) in the National Defense Reserve Fleet maintained under section 57100 in a period in which the vessel was in use or being activated for use under subsection (b) of that section;

(ii) requisitioned or purchased under chapter 563 of this title; or

(iii) owned, chartered, or controlled by the United States Government and used by the Government for a war, armed conflict, national emergency, or maritime mobilization need (including for training purposes or testing for readiness and suitability for mission performance); and


(B) during the period of that employment, possessed a valid license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner's document issued under chapter 71 or 73 of this title; and


(2) if the Secretary makes affirmative determinations under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1), certify that individual under this subsection.


(d) Equivalence to Military Selective Service Act Certificate.—For purposes of reemployment rights and benefits provided by this section, a certification under subsection (c) shall be considered to be the equivalent of a certificate described in section 9(a) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 459(a)).1

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 115–91, div. C, title XXXV, §3502(b)(4), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1910.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
52101 46 App.:1132. June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title III, §302, as added Pub. L. 104–239, §10(a), Oct. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3133.

In subsection (c)(1)(B), the words "(as applicable)" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (d), the words "certificate described in section 9(a) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 459(a))" are substituted for "certificate referred to in paragraph (1) of section 4301(a) of title 38" because section 4301 of title 38 was amended generally by section 2(a) of Public Law 103–353, and before the amendment section 4301(a)(1) referred to a certificate described in section 9(a) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 459(a)).

References in Text

Section 9(a) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 459(a)), referred to in subsec. (d), is section 9(a) of act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 614, which was classified to section 459(a) of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as section 3808(a) of Title 50.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "section 57100" for "section 11 of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 (50 App. U.S.C. 1744)".

Part C—Financial Assistance Programs

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–304, §8(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1586, inserted "Part C—Financial Assistance Programs".

CHAPTER 531—MARITIME SECURITY FLEET

Sec.
53101.
Definitions.
53102.
Establishment of Maritime Security Fleet.
53103.
Award of operating agreements.
53104.
Effectiveness of operating agreements.
53105.
Obligations and rights under operating agreements.
53106.
Payments.
53107.
National security requirements.
53108.
Regulatory relief.
53109.
Special rule regarding age of participating fleet vessel.1

        

53110.
Regulations.
53111.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

1 Section repealed by Pub. L. 112–239 without corresponding amendment of chapter analysis.

§53101. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) Bulk cargo.—The term "bulk cargo" means cargo that is loaded and carried in bulk without mark or count.

(2) Contractor.—The term "contractor" means an owner or operator of a vessel that enters into an operating agreement for the vessel with the Secretary under section 53103.

(3) Fleet.—The term "Fleet" means the Maritime Security Fleet established under section 53102(a).

(4) Foreign commerce.—The term "foreign commerce" means—

(A) commerce or trade between the United States, its territories or possessions, or the District of Columbia, and a foreign country; and

(B) commerce or trade between foreign countries.


(5) Participating fleet vessel.—The term "participating fleet vessel" means any vessel that—

(A) on October 1, 2015—

(i) meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of section 53102(c); and

(ii) is less than 20 years of age if the vessel is a tank vessel, or is less than 25 years of age for all other vessel types; and


(B) on December 31, 2014, is covered by an operating agreement under this chapter.


(6) Person.—The term "person" includes corporations, partnerships, and associations existing under or authorized by the laws of the United States, or any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, or of any foreign country.

(7) Product tank vessel.—The term "product tank vessel" means a double hulled tank vessel capable of carrying simultaneously more than 2 separated grades of refined petroleum products.

(8) Secretary.—The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation.

(9) Tank vessel.—The term "tank vessel" has the meaning that term has under section 2101 of this title.

(10) United states.—The term "United States" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands.

(11) United states citizen trust.—(A) Subject to subparagraph (C), the term "United States citizen trust" means a trust that is qualified under this paragraph.

(B) A trust is qualified under this paragraph with respect to a vessel only if—

(i) each of the trustees is a citizen of the United States; and

(ii) the application for documentation of the vessel under chapter 121 of this title includes the affidavit of each trustee stating that the trustee is not aware of any reason involving a beneficiary of the trust that is not a citizen of the United States, or involving any other person that is not a citizen of the United States, as a result of which the beneficiary or other person would hold more than 25 percent of the aggregate power to influence or limit the exercise of the authority of the trustee with respect to matters involving any ownership or operation of the vessel that may adversely affect the interests of the United States.


(C) If any person that is not a citizen of the United States has authority to direct or participate in directing a trustee for a trust in matters involving any ownership or operation of the vessel that may adversely affect the interests of the United States or in removing a trustee for a trust without cause, either directly or indirectly through the control of another person, the trust is not qualified under this paragraph unless the trust instrument provides that persons who are not citizens of the United States may not hold more than 25 percent of the aggregate authority to so direct or remove a trustee.

(D) This paragraph shall not be considered to prohibit a person who is not a citizen of the United States from holding more than 25 percent of the beneficial interest in a trust.

(12) United states-documented vessel.—The term "United States-documented vessel" means a vessel documented under chapter 121 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3531(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1803; amended Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2223.)

Amendments

2013—Par. (4). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(a)(1), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) defined "foreign commerce".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(a)(4), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) defined "participating fleet vessel".

Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out former par. (5). Prior to amendment, text of par. (5) read as follows: "The term 'LASH vessel' means a lighter aboard ship vessel."

Pars. (6) to (13). Pub. L. 112–239, §3508(a)(3), redesignated pars. (7) to (13) as (6) to (12), respectively. Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. C, title XXXV, §3508(j), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2226, provided that: "The amendments made by—

"(1) paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of subsection (a) [amending this section] take effect on December 31, 2014; and

"(2) subsection (f)(2) [amending section 53106 of this title] take effect on December 31, 2014."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXV, §3537, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1819, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), this subtitle [subtitle C (§§3531–3537) of title XXXV of div. C of Pub. L. 108–136, enacting this chapter, amending section 12102 of this title and sections 808 and 1162 of the former Appendix to this title, repealing sections 1187 to 1187e and 1222 of the former Appendix to this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 53110 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 53102 of this title] shall take effect October 1, 2004."

"(b) Repeals and Conforming Amendments.—Section 3534 [amending section 12102 of this title, repealing sections 1187 to 1187e and 1222 of the former Appendix to this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1187 of the former Appendix to this title] shall take effect October 1, 2005."

"(c) Other Provisions.—Sections 3533 [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 53110 of this title], 3535 [not classified to the Code], and this section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 24, 2003]."

Temporary Program Authorizing Contracts With Adjunct Professors at the United States Merchant Marine Academy and for Other Purposes

Pub. L. 110–417, div. C, title XXXV, §3506(a)–(f), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4763, 4764, which authorized establishment of a temporary program for the purpose of contracting with not more than 25 individuals as personal services contractors to provide services as adjunct professors at the United States Merchant Marine Academy, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3503(b)(2), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2719. See section 51317 of this title.

Assistance for Small Shipyards and Maritime Communities

Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXV, §3506, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3553, formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred to and renumbered as section 54101 of this title by