16 USC Ch. 44A: ANTARCTIC MARINE LIVING RESOURCES CONVENTION
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16 USC Ch. 44A: ANTARCTIC MARINE LIVING RESOURCES CONVENTION
From Title 16—CONSERVATION

CHAPTER 44A—ANTARCTIC MARINE LIVING RESOURCES CONVENTION

Sec.
2431.
Findings and purpose.
2432.
Definitions.
2433.
Representatives.
2434.
Conservation measures; system of observation and inspection.
2435.
Unlawful activities.
2436.
Regulations.
2437.
Civil penalties.
2438.
Criminal offenses.
2439.
Enforcement.
2440.
Jurisdiction of courts.
2441.
Federal agency cooperation.
2442.
Relationship to existing treaties and statutes.
2443.
Authorization of appropriations.
2444.
Severability.

        

§2431. Findings and purpose

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources establishes international mechanisms and creates legal obligations necessary for the protection and conservation of Antarctic marine living resources;

(2) the Convention incorporates an innovative ecosystem approach to the management of Antarctic marine living resources, including standards designed to ensure the health of the individual populations and species and to maintain the health of the Antarctic marine ecosystem as a whole;

(3) the Convention serves important United States environmental and resource management interests;

(4) the Convention represents an important contribution to United States long term legal and political objectives of maintenance of Antarctica as an area of peaceful international cooperation;

(5) United States basic and directed research programs concerning the marine living resources of the Antarctic are essential to achieve the United States goal of effective implementation of the objectives of the Convention; and

(6) the United States has important security, economic, and environmental interests in developing and maintaining a fleet of icebreaking vessels capable of operating effectively in the heavy ice regions of Antarctica.

(b) Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to provide the legislative authority necessary to implement, with respect to the United States, the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §302, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3398.)

Short Title

Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §301, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3398, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Antarctic Marine Living Resources Convention Act of 1984'."

§2432. Definitions

For purposes of this chapter—

(1) Antarctic Convergence

The term "Antarctic Convergence" means a line joining the following points along the parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude: 50 degrees south, 0 degrees; 50 degrees south, 30 degrees east; 45 degrees south, 30 degrees east; 45 degrees south, 80 degrees east; 55 degrees south, 80 degrees east; 55 degrees south, 150 degrees east; 60 degrees south, 150 degrees east; 60 degrees south; 1 50 degrees west; 50 degrees south, 50 degrees west; and 50 degrees south, 0 degrees.

(2) Antarctic marine living resources

The term "Antarctic marine living resources" means the population of finfish, molluscs, crustaceans and all other species of living organisms, including birds, found south of the Antarctic Convergence.

(3) Commission

The term "Commission" means the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources established pursuant to article VII of the Convention.

(4) Convention

The term "Convention" means the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, done at Canberra, Australia, May 7, 1980, and entered into force with respect to the United States on April 7, 1982.

(5) Harvesting or other associated activities

The terms "harvesting" and "harvesting or other associated activities" mean—

(A) the harassing, molesting, harming, pursuing, hunting, shooting, wounding, killing, trapping, or capturing of Antarctic marine living resources;

(B) attempting to engage in any activity set forth in subparagraph (A);

(C) any other activity which can reasonably be expected to result in any activity described in subparagraph (A); and

(D) any operations at sea in support of, or in preparation for, any activity described in subparagraphs (A) through (C).

(6) Harvest

The term "harvest" means to engage in harvesting or other associated activities.

(7) Import

The term "import" means to land on, bring into, or introduce into, or attempt to land on, bring into, or introduce into, any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, whether or not such landing constitutes an importation within the meaning of the customs laws of the United States.

(8) Person

The term "person" means an individual, partnership, corporation, trust, association, and any other entity subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(9) Scientific Committee

The term "Scientific Committee" means the Scientific Committee for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources established pursuant to article XIV of the Convention.

(10) Vessel of the United States

The term "vessel of the United States" means—

(A) a vessel documented under chapter 121 of title 46 or a vessel numbered as provided in chapter 123 of that title;

(B) a vessel owned in whole or in part by—

(i) the United States or a territory, commonwealth, or possession of the United States;

(ii) a State or political subdivision thereof;

(iii) a citizen or national of the United States; or

(iv) a corporation created under the laws of the United States or any State, the District of Columbia, or any territory, commonwealth, or possession of the United States;


unless the vessel has been granted the nationality of a foreign nation in accordance with Article 5 of the 1958 Convention on the High Seas; and

(C) a vessel that was once documented under the laws of the United States and, in violation of the laws of the United States, was either sold to a person not a citizen of the United States or placed under foreign registry or a foreign flag, whether or not the vessel has been granted the nationality of a foreign nation in accordance with Article 5 of the 1958 Convention on the High Seas.

(11) Vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States

The term "vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States" includes a vessel without nationality or a vessel assimilated to a vessel without nationality, in accordance with paragraph (2) of Article 6 of the 1958 Convention on the High Seas.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §303, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3398.)

1 So in original. Probably should be a comma.

§2433. Representatives

(a) Representative to the Commission

The Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the National Science Foundation, shall appoint an officer or employee of the United States as the United States representative to the Commission.

(b) Representative to the Scientific Committee

The Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the National Science Foundation, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, shall designate the United States representative to the Scientific Committee.

(c) Compensation

The United States representatives to the Commission and the Scientific Committee shall receive no additional compensation by reason of their services as such representatives.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §304, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3400.)

§2434. Conservation measures; system of observation and inspection

(a) Conservation measures

(1) The Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the National Science Foundation, is authorized—

(A) to decide on behalf of the United States whether the United States is unable to accept or can no longer accept a conservation measure adopted by the Commission pursuant to article IX of the Convention, and

(B) to notify the Commission of any such decision in accordance with article IX of the Convention.


(2) The Secretary of State shall—

(A) publish in the Federal Register, if practicable, timely notice of each proposed decision under paragraph (1) and invite written public comment regarding it; and

(B) publish in the Federal Register notice of each notification made to the Commission under paragraph (1).

(b) System of observation and inspection

The Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Commerce, the Director of the National Science Foundation and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, is authorized to agree on behalf of the United States to the establishment of a system of observation and inspection, and to interim arrangements pending establishment of such a system, pursuant to article XXIV of the Convention.

(c) Communications from the Commission

The Secretary of State is further authorized to receive, on behalf of the United States Government, reports, requests, and other communications from the Commission and to take appropriate action on them, either directly or by reference to the appropriate authority.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §305, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3400.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2435. Unlawful activities

It is unlawful for any person—

(1) to engage in harvesting or other associated activities in violation of the provisions of the Convention or in violation of a conservation measure in force with respect to the United States pursuant to article IX of the Convention;

(2) to violate any regulation promulgated under this chapter;

(3) to ship, transport, offer for sale, sell, purchase, import, export, or have custody, control or possession of, any Antarctic marine living resource (or part or product thereof) which he knows, or reasonably should have known, was harvested in violation of a conservation measure in force with respect to the United States pursuant to article IX of the Convention or in violation of any regulation promulgated under this chapter, without regard to the citizenship of the person that harvested, or vessel that was used in the harvesting of, the Antarctic marine living resource (or part or product thereof);

(4) to refuse to permit any authorized officer or employee of the United States to board a vessel of the United States or a vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States for purposes of conducting any search or inspection in connection with the enforcement of the Convention, this chapter, or any regulations promulgated under this chapter;

(5) to assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, or interfere with any authorized officer or employee of the United States in the conduct of any search or inspection described in paragraph (4);

(6) to resist a lawful arrest or detention for any act prohibited by this section; or

(7) to interfere with, delay, or prevent, by any means, the apprehension, arrest, or detention of another person, knowing that such other person has committed any act prohibited by this section.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §306, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3401.)

§2436. Regulations

The Secretary of Commerce, after consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, and the heads of other appropriate departments or agencies of the United States, shall promulgate such regulations as are necessary and appropriate to implement the provisions of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §307, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3401.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§2437. Civil penalties

(a) Assessment of penalties

(1) Any person who is found by the Secretary of Commerce, after notice and opportunity for a hearing in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, to have committed any act prohibited by section 2435 of this title shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty. The amount of the civil penalty shall not exceed $5,000 for each violation unless the prohibited act was knowingly committed, in which case the amount of the civil penalty shall not exceed $10,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation for purposes of this subsection. The amount of any civil penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary of Commerce by written notice. In determining the amount of such penalty, the Secretary of Commerce shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed, and, with respect to the person committing the violation, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and such other matters as justice may require, to the extent that such information is reasonably available to the Secretary.

(2) The Secretary of Commerce may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which is subject to imposition or which has been imposed under this section, until such time as the matter is referred to the Attorney General under subsection (c) of this section.

(b) Hearings

Hearings for the assessment of civil penalties under subsection (a) of this section shall be conducted in accordance with section 554 of title 5. For the purposes of conducting any such hearing, the Secretary of Commerce may issue subpoenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents, and may administer oaths. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid to witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpoena served upon any person pursuant to this subsection, the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found, resides, or transacts business, upon application by the Attorney General of the United States and after notice to such person, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony before the Secretary of Commerce or to appear and produce documents before the Secretary of Commerce, or both, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

(c) Review of civil penalty

Any person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under subsection (a) of this section may obtain review thereof in the appropriate district court of the United States by filing a notice of appeal in such court within 30 days from the date of such order and by simultaneously sending a copy of such notice by certified mail to the Secretary of Commerce, the Attorney General, and the appropriate United States Attorney. The Secretary of Commerce shall promptly refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United States, who shall file in such court a certified copy of the record upon which the violation was found or such penalty imposed, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. The court shall set aside the findings and order of the Secretary if the findings and order are found to be unsupported by substantial evidence, as provided in section 706(2)(E) of title 5.

(d) Recovery of civil penalties

The Attorney General of the United States may seek to recover in any appropriate district court of the United States (1) any civil penalty imposed under this section that has become a final and unappealable order and has been referred to the Attorney General by the Secretary of Commerce or (2) any final judgment rendered under this section in favor of the United States by an appropriate Court.

(e) Penalties under other laws

The assessment of a civil penalty under subsection (a) of this section for any act shall not be deemed to preclude the assessment of a civil penalty for such act under any other law.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §308, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3401.)

§2438. Criminal offenses

(a) Offenses

A person is guilty of an offense if that person commits any act prohibited by paragraph (4), (5), (6), or (7) of section 2435 of this title.

(b) Punishment

Any offense described in subsection (a) of this section is punishable by a fine of $50,000, or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both.

(c) Offenses under other laws

A conviction under subsection (a) of this section for any act shall not be deemed to preclude a conviction for such act under any other law.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §309, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3403.)

§2439. Enforcement

(a) Responsibility

The provisions of this chapter shall be enforced by the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. Such Secretaries may utilize by agreement, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, the personnel, services, and facilities of any other department or agency of the United States in the performance of such duties.

(b) Powers of authorized officers and employees

Any officer or employee of the United States who is authorized (by the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, or the head of any department or agency of the United States which has entered into an agreement with either Secretary under subsection (a) of this section) to enforce the provisions of this chapter and of any regulation promulgated under this chapter may, in enforcing such provisions—

(1) secure, execute, and serve any order, warrant, subpoena, or other process, which is issued under the authority of the United States;

(2) search without warrant any person, place, vehicle or aircraft subject to the jurisdiction of the United States where there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person has committed or is attempting to commit an act prohibited by section 2435 of this title;

(3) with or without a warrant board and search or inspect any vessel of the United States or vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States;

(4) seize without warrant—

(A) any evidentiary item where there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person has committed or is attempting to commit an act prohibited by section 2435 of this title,

(B) any Antarctic marine living resources (or part of 1 product thereof) with respect to which such an act is committed,

(C) any vessel of the United States (including its gear, furniture, appurtenances, stores, and cargo), any vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States (including its gear, furniture, appurtenances, stores, and cargo), and any vehicle, aircraft, or other means of transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the United States used in connection with such an act, and

(D) any guns, traps, nets, or equipment used in connection with such an act;


(5) offer and pay rewards for services or information which may lead to the apprehension of persons violating such provisions;

(6) make inquiries, and administer to, or take from, any person an oath, affirmation, or affidavit, concerning any matter which is related to the enforcement of such provisions;

(7) in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury, detain for inspection and inspect any package, crate, or other container, including its contents, and all accompanying documents, upon importation into, or exportation from, the United States;

(8) make an arrest with or without a warrant with respect to any act prohibited by paragraph (4), (5), (6), or (7) of section 2435 of this title if such officer or employee has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested is committing such act in his or her presence or view or has committed such act;

(9) exercise enforcement powers conferred on such officer or employee under a system of observation and inspection, or interim arrangements pending the establishment of such a system, which the Secretary of State has agreed to on behalf of the United States pursuant to section 2434(b) of this title; and

(10) exercise any other authority which such officer or employee is permitted by law to exercise.

(c) Seizure

Subject to the succeeding provisions of this subsection, any property or item seized pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be held by any officer or employee of the United States, who is authorized by the Secretary of Commerce or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, pending the disposition of civil or criminal proceedings concerning the violation relating to the property or item, or the institution of an action in rem for the forfeiture of such property or item. Such authorized officer or employee may, upon the order of a court of competent jurisdiction, either release such seized property or item to the wild or destroy such property or item, when the cost of maintenance of the property or item pending the disposition of the case is greater than the legitimate market value of the property or item. Such authorized officer or employee and all officers or employees acting by or under his or her direction shall be indemnified from any penalties or actions for damages for so releasing or destroying such property or item. Such authorized officer or employee may, in lieu of holding such property or item, permit the owner or consignee thereof to post a bond or other satisfactory surety.

(d) Forfeiture

(1) Any Antarctic marine living resource (or part or product thereof) with respect to which an act prohibited by section 2435 of this title is committed, any vessel of the United States (including its gear, furniture, appurtenances, stoves, and cargo), vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States (including its gear, furniture, appurtenances, stoves, and cargo), or vessel, vehicle, or aircraft or other means of transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, which is used in connection with an act prohibited by section 2435 of this title, and all guns, traps, nets, and other equipment used in connection with such act, shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States.

(2) Upon the forfeiture to the United States of any property or item described in paragraph (1), or upon the abandonment or waiver of any claim to any such property or item, it shall be disposed of by the Secretary of Commerce, or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, as the case may be, in such a manner, consistent with the purposes of this chapter, as may be prescribed by regulation.

(e) Application of customs laws

All provisions of law relating to the seizure, forfeiture, and condemnation of property (including vessels) for violation of the customs laws, the disposition of such property or the proceeds from the sale thereof, and the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, shall apply to the seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, and the compromise of claims, under the provisions of this chapter, insofar as such provisions of law are applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter; except that all powers, rights, and duties conferred or imposed by the customs laws upon any officer or employee of the Customs Service may, for the purposes of this chapter, also be exercised or performed by the Secretary of Commerce or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, or by such officers or employees of the United States as each Secretary may designate.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §310, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3403.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 So in original. Probably should be "or".

§2440. Jurisdiction of courts

The district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction over any case or controversy arising under the provisions of this chapter or of any regulation promulgated under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §311, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3405.)

§2441. Federal agency cooperation

(a) Responsibilities

(1) For the purpose of carrying out the policies and objectives of the Convention or to implement any decision of the Commission—

(A) the Director of the National Science Foundation, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the heads of other appropriate departments and agencies of the United States, shall continue to support basic research investigations of the Antarctic marine ecosystem as a part of the United States Antarctic Program;

(B) the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Secretary of State and the heads of other appropriate Federal agencies, shall design and conduct the program of directed scientific research as set forth in paragraph 2 supplemental to and coordinated with the United States Antarctic Program; and

(C) the Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the National Science Foundation, in consultation with the Secretary of State, may furnish facilities and personnel to the Commission in order to assist the Commission in carrying out its functions.


(2)(A) The Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Director of the National Science Foundation, and other appropriate Federal officials, shall prepare a plan, which shall be updated annually, for conducting the directed research program required under paragraph (1)(B) for each period of three consecutive fiscal years occurring during the period beginning on October 1, 1985, and ending on September 30, 1991. The plan shall—

(i) describe priority directed research needs for the implementation of the Convention;

(ii) identify which of those needs are to be fulfilled by the United States; and

(iii) specify the design of the research referred to in paragraph (1)(B) and the funds, personnel, and facilities required for the research, including, in particular, the need for the cost of enhanced ship capacity.


(B) In preparing the plan referred to in subparagraph (A), the Secretary of Commerce shall take into account, in addition to any other matters the Secretary considers appropriate, the possibilities of securing productive results, the minimization of duplication, and the methods for monitoring and evaluating a project.

(C) The Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the Congress each year the plan required under subparagraph (A). That part of the plan covering fiscal years 1986 through 1988 shall be submitted not later than October 1, 1985. That part of the plan covering each 3-fiscal-year period thereafter shall be submitted not later than the February 1 occurring before the beginning of the first fiscal year covered by that part of the plan.

(b) Consultation with other agencies

In carrying out their functions under this section, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Director of the National Science Foundation shall consult, as appropriate, with the Marine Mammal Commission and with other departments and agencies of the United States.

(c) Icebreaking

The Department of Homeland Security shall facilitate planning for the design, procurement, maintenance, deployment, and operation of icebreakers needed to provide a platform for Antarctic research. All funds necessary to support icebreaking operations, except for recurring incremental costs associated with specific projects, shall be allocated to the United States Coast Guard.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §312, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3405; Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, §902(h)(2), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 567.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–241 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

§2442. Relationship to existing treaties and statutes

(a) In general

Nothing in this chapter 1 shall be construed as contravening or superseding (1) the provisions of any international treaty, convention, or agreement, if such treaty, convention or agreement is in force with respect to the United States on Nov. 8, 1984, or (2) the provisions of any statute which implements any such treaty, convention, or agreement. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as contravening or superseding the provisions of any statute enacted before Nov. 8, 1984, which may otherwise apply to Antarctic marine living resources.

(b) Application of more restrictive provisions

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the application of provisions of the Convention, conservation measures adopted by the Commission pursuant to article IX of the Convention, or regulations promulgated under this chapter, which are more restrictive than the provisions of, measures adopted under, or regulations promulgated under, the treaties or statutes described in subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §313, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3406.)

Codification

This chapter, the first time it appears in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act" and was translated as reading "this title", as the probable intent of Congress.

1 See Codification note below.

§2443. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary for carrying out the provisions of this chapter, including, but not limited to—

(1) necessary travel expenses of the United States representatives referred to in section 2433 of this title, alternate United States representatives, and authorized advisers and experts, in accordance with sections 5701 through 5708, 5731, and 5733 of title 5 and the regulations issued under those sections;

(2) the United States contribution to the budget of the Commission as provided in article XIX of the Convention; and

(3) the directed research program and the furnishing of facilities and personnel to the Commission referred to in section 2441 of this title.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §314, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3406.)

§2444. Severability

If any provision of this chapter or the application of this chapter to any person or circumstance is held invalid, neither the remainder of this chapter nor the application of that provision to other persons or circumstances shall be affected thereby.

(Pub. L. 98–623, title III, §315, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3407.)