[USC07] 21 USC 360j: General provisions respecting control of devices intended for human use
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21 USC 360j: General provisions respecting control of devices intended for human use Text contains those laws in effect on November 23, 2017
From Title 21-FOOD AND DRUGSCHAPTER 9-FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACTSUBCHAPTER V-DRUGS AND DEVICESPart A-Drugs and Devices

§360j. General provisions respecting control of devices intended for human use

(a) General rule

Any requirement authorized by or under section 351, 352, 360, or 360i of this title applicable to a device intended for human use shall apply to such device until the applicability of the requirement to the device has been changed by action taken under section 360c, 360d, or 360e of this title or under subsection (g) of this section, and any requirement established by or under section 351, 352, 360, or 360i of this title which is inconsistent with a requirement imposed on such device under section 360d or 360e of this title or under subsection (g) of this section shall not apply to such device.

(b) Custom devices

(1) In general

The requirements of sections 360d and 360e of this title shall not apply to a device that-

(A) is created or modified in order to comply with the order of an individual physician or dentist (or any other specially qualified person designated under regulations promulgated by the Secretary after an opportunity for an oral hearing);

(B) in order to comply with an order described in subparagraph (A), necessarily deviates from an otherwise applicable performance standard under section 360d of this title or requirement under section 360e of this title;

(C) is not generally available in the United States in finished form through labeling or advertising by the manufacturer, importer, or distributor for commercial distribution;

(D) is designed to treat a unique pathology or physiological condition that no other device is domestically available to treat;

(E)(i) is intended to meet the special needs of such physician or dentist (or other specially qualified person so designated) in the course of the professional practice of such physician or dentist (or other specially qualified person so designated); or

(ii) is intended for use by an individual patient named in such order of such physician or dentist (or other specially qualified person so designated);

(F) is assembled from components or manufactured and finished on a case-by-case basis to accommodate the unique needs of individuals described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (E); and

(G) may have common, standardized design characteristics, chemical and material compositions, and manufacturing processes as commercially distributed devices.

(2) Limitations

Paragraph (1) shall apply to a device only if-

(A) such device is for the purpose of treating a sufficiently rare condition, such that conducting clinical investigations on such device would be impractical;

(B) production of such device under paragraph (1) is limited to no more than 5 units per year of a particular device type, provided that such replication otherwise complies with this section; and

(C) the manufacturer of such device notifies the Secretary on an annual basis, in a manner prescribed by the Secretary, of the manufacture of such device.

(3) Guidance

Not later than 2 years after July 9, 2012, the Secretary shall issue final guidance on replication of multiple devices described in paragraph (2)(B).

(c) Trade secrets

Any information reported to or otherwise obtained by the Secretary or his representative under section 360c, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360h, 360i, or 374 of this title or under subsection (f) or (g) of this section which is exempt from disclosure pursuant to subsection (a) of section 552 of title 5 by reason of subsection (b)(4) of such section shall be considered confidential and shall not be disclosed and may not be used by the Secretary as the basis for the reclassification of a device from class III to class II or class I or as the basis for the establishment or amendment of a performance standard under section 360d of this title for a device reclassified from class III to class II, except (1) in accordance with subsection (h), and (2) that such information may be disclosed to other officers or employees concerned with carrying out this chapter or when relevant in any proceeding under this chapter (other than section 360c or 360d of this title).

(d) Notices and findings

Each notice of proposed rulemaking under section 360c, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360h, or 360i of this title, or under this section, any other notice which is published in the Federal Register with respect to any other action taken under any such section and which states the reasons for such action, and each publication of findings required to be made in connection with rulemaking under any such section shall set forth-

(1) the manner in which interested persons may examine data and other information on which the notice or findings is based, and

(2) the period within which interested persons may present their comments on the notice or findings (including the need therefor) orally or in writing, which period shall be at least sixty days but may not exceed ninety days unless the time is extended by the Secretary by a notice published in the Federal Register stating good cause therefor.

(e) Restricted devices

(1) The Secretary may by regulation require that a device be restricted to sale, distribution, or use-

(A) only upon the written or oral authorization of a practitioner licensed by law to administer or use such device, or

(B) upon such other conditions as the Secretary may prescribe in such regulation,


if, because of its potentiality for harmful effect or the collateral measures necessary to its use, the Secretary determines that there cannot otherwise be reasonable assurance of its safety and effectiveness. No condition prescribed under subparagraph (B) may restrict the use of a device to persons with specific training or experience in its use or to persons for use in certain facilities unless the Secretary determines that such a restriction is required for the safe and effective use of the device. No such condition may exclude a person from using a device solely because the person does not have the training or experience to make him eligible for certification by a certifying board recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties or has not been certified by such a Board. A device subject to a regulation under this subsection is a restricted device.

(2) The label of a restricted device shall bear such appropriate statements of the restrictions required by a regulation under paragraph (1) as the Secretary may in such regulation prescribe.

(f) Good manufacturing practice requirements

(1)(A) The Secretary may, in accordance with subparagraph (B), prescribe regulations requiring that the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the manufacture, pre-production design validation (including a process to assess the performance of a device but not including an evaluation of the safety or effectiveness of a device), packing, storage, and installation of a device conform to current good manufacturing practice, as prescribed in such regulations, to assure that the device will be safe and effective and otherwise in compliance with this chapter.

(B) Before the Secretary may promulgate any regulation under subparagraph (A) he shall-

(i) afford the advisory committee established under paragraph (3) an opportunity to submit recommendations to him with respect to the regulation proposed to be promulgated;

(ii) afford opportunity for an oral hearing; and

(iii) ensure that such regulation conforms, to the extent practicable, with internationally recognized standards defining quality systems, or parts of the standards, for medical devices.


The Secretary shall provide the advisory committee a reasonable time to make its recommendation with respect to proposed regulations under subparagraph (A).

(2)(A) Any person subject to any requirement prescribed by regulations under paragraph (1) may petition the Secretary for an exemption or variance from such requirement. Such a petition shall be submitted to the Secretary in such form and manner as he shall prescribe and shall-

(i) in the case of a petition for an exemption from a requirement, set forth the basis for the petitioner's determination that compliance with the requirement is not required to assure that the device will be safe and effective and otherwise in compliance with this chapter,

(ii) in the case of a petition for a variance from a requirement, set forth the methods proposed to be used in, and the facilities and controls proposed to be used for, the manufacture, packing, storage, and installation of the device in lieu of the methods, facilities, and controls prescribed by the requirement, and

(iii) contain such other information as the Secretary shall prescribe.


(B) The Secretary may refer to the advisory committee established under paragraph (3) any petition submitted under subparagraph (A). The advisory committee shall report its recommendations to the Secretary with respect to a petition referred to it within sixty days of the date of the petition's referral. Within sixty days after-

(i) the date the petition was submitted to the Secretary under subparagraph (A), or

(ii) if the petition was referred to an advisory committee, the expiration of the sixty-day period beginning on the date the petition was referred to the advisory committee,


whichever occurs later, the Secretary shall by order either deny the petition or approve it.

(C) The Secretary may approve-

(i) a petition for an exemption for a device from a requirement if he determines that compliance with such requirement is not required to assure that the device will be safe and effective and otherwise in compliance with this chapter, and

(ii) a petition for a variance for a device from a requirement if he determines that the methods to be used in, and the facilities and controls to be used for, the manufacture, packing, storage, and installation of the device in lieu of the methods, controls, and facilities prescribed by the requirement are sufficient to assure that the device will be safe and effective and otherwise in compliance with this chapter.


An order of the Secretary approving a petition for a variance shall prescribe such conditions respecting the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the manufacture, packing, storage, and installation of the device to be granted the variance under the petition as may be necessary to assure that the device will be safe and effective and otherwise in compliance with this chapter.

(D) After the issuance of an order under subparagraph (B) respecting a petition, the petitioner shall have an opportunity for an informal hearing on such order.

(3) The Secretary shall establish an advisory committee for the purpose of advising and making recommendations to him with respect to regulations proposed to be promulgated under paragraph (1)(A) and the approval or disapproval of petitions submitted under paragraph (2). The advisory committee shall be composed of nine members as follows:

(A) Three of the members shall be appointed from persons who are officers or employees of any State or local government or of the Federal Government.

(B) Two of the members shall be appointed from persons who are representative of interests of the device manufacturing industry; two of the members shall be appointed from persons who are representative of the interests of physicians and other health professionals; and two of the members shall be representative of the interests of the general public.


Members of the advisory committee who are not officers or employees of the United States, while attending conferences or meetings of the committee or otherwise engaged in its business, shall be entitled to receive compensation at rates to be fixed by the Secretary, which rates may not exceed the daily equivalent of the rate in effect for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule, for each day (including traveltime) they are so engaged; and while so serving away from their homes or regular places of business each member may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons in the Government service employed intermittently. The Secretary shall designate one of the members of the advisory committee to serve as its chairman. The Secretary shall furnish the advisory committee with clerical and other assistance. Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act shall not apply with respect to the duration of the advisory committee established under this paragraph.

(g) Exemption for devices for investigational use

(1) It is the purpose of this subsection to encourage, to the extent consistent with the protection of the public health and safety and with ethical standards, the discovery and development of useful devices intended for human use and to that end to maintain optimum freedom for scientific investigators in their pursuit of that purpose.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall, within the one hundred and twenty-day period beginning on May 28, 1976, by regulation prescribe procedures and conditions under which devices intended for human use may upon application be granted an exemption from the requirements of section 352, 360, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360i, or 379e of this title or subsection (e) or (f) of this section or from any combination of such requirements to permit the investigational use of such devices by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to investigate the safety and effectiveness of such devices.

(B) The conditions prescribed pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall include the following:

(i) A requirement that an application be submitted to the Secretary before an exemption may be granted and that the application be submitted in such form and manner as the Secretary shall specify.

(ii) A requirement that the person applying for an exemption for a device assure the establishment and maintenance of such records, and the making of such reports to the Secretary of safety or effectiveness data obtained as a result of the investigational use of the device during the exemption, as the Secretary determines will enable him to assure compliance with such conditions, review the progress of the investigation, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the device.

(iii) Such other requirements as the Secretary may determine to be necessary for the protection of the public health and safety.


(C) Procedures and conditions prescribed pursuant to subparagraph (A) for an exemption may appropriately vary depending on (i) the scope and duration of clinical testing to be conducted under such exemption, (ii) the number of human subjects that are to be involved in such testing, (iii) the need to permit changes to be made in the device subject to the exemption during testing conducted in accordance with a clinical testing plan required under paragraph (3)(A), and (iv) whether the clinical testing of such device is for the purpose of developing data to obtain approval for the commercial distribution of such device.

(3) Procedures and conditions prescribed pursuant to paragraph (2)(A) shall require, as a condition to the exemption of any device to be the subject of testing involving human subjects, that the person applying for the exemption-

(A) submit a plan for any proposed clinical testing of the device and a report of prior investigations of the device (including, where appropriate, tests on animals) adequate to justify the proposed clinical testing-

(i) to the institutional review committee established in accordance with regulations of the Secretary to supervise clinical testing of devices in the facilities where the proposed clinical testing is to be conducted, or

(ii) to the Secretary, if-

(I) no such committee exists, or

(II) the Secretary finds that the process of review by such committee is inadequate (whether or not the plan for such testing has been approved by such committee),


for review for adequacy to justify the commencement of such testing; and, unless the plan and report are submitted to the Secretary, submit to the Secretary a summary of the plan and a report of prior investigations of the device (including, where appropriate, tests on animals);


(B) promptly notify the Secretary (under such circumstances and in such manner as the Secretary prescribes) of approval by an institutional review committee of any clinical testing plan submitted to it in accordance with subparagraph (A);

(C) in the case of a device to be distributed to investigators for testing, obtain signed agreements from each of such investigators that any testing of the device involving human subjects will be under such investigator's supervision and in accordance with subparagraph (D) and submit such agreements to the Secretary; and

(D) assure that informed consent will be obtained from each human subject (or his representative) of proposed clinical testing involving such device, except where, subject to such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe-

(i) the proposed clinical testing poses no more than minimal risk to the human subject and includes appropriate safeguards to protect the rights, safety, and welfare of the human subject; or

(ii) the investigator conducting or supervising the proposed clinical testing of the device determines in writing that there exists a life threatening situation involving the human subject of such testing which necessitates the use of such device and it is not feasible to obtain informed consent from the subject and there is not sufficient time to obtain such consent from his representative.


The determination required by subparagraph (D)(ii) shall be concurred in by a licensed physician who is not involved in the testing of the human subject with respect to which such determination is made unless immediate use of the device is required to save the life of the human subject of such testing and there is not sufficient time to obtain such concurrence.

(4)(A) An application, submitted in accordance with the procedures prescribed by regulations under paragraph (2), for an exemption for a device (other than an exemption from section 360f of this title) shall be deemed approved on the thirtieth day after the submission of the application to the Secretary unless on or before such day the Secretary by order disapproves the application and notifies the applicant of the disapproval of the application.

(B) The Secretary may disapprove an application only if he finds that the investigation with respect to which the application is submitted does not conform to procedures and conditions prescribed under regulations under paragraph (2). Such a notification shall contain the order of disapproval and a complete statement of the reasons for the Secretary's disapproval of the application and afford the applicant opportunity for an informal hearing on the disapproval order.

(C) Consistent with paragraph (1), the Secretary shall not disapprove an application under this subsection because the Secretary determines that-

(i) the investigation may not support a substantial equivalence or de novo classification determination or approval of the device;

(ii) the investigation may not meet a requirement, including a data requirement, relating to the approval or clearance of a device; or

(iii) an additional or different investigation may be necessary to support clearance or approval of the device.


(5) The Secretary may by order withdraw an exemption granted under this subsection for a device if the Secretary determines that the conditions applicable to the device under this subsection for such exemption are not met. Such an order may be issued only after opportunity for an informal hearing, except that such an order may be issued before the provision of an opportunity for an informal hearing if the Secretary determines that the continuation of testing under the exemption with respect to which the order is to be issued will result in an unreasonable risk to the public health.

(6)(A) Not later than 1 year after November 21, 1997, the Secretary shall by regulation establish, with respect to a device for which an exemption under this subsection is in effect, procedures and conditions that, without requiring an additional approval of an application for an exemption or the approval of a supplement to such an application, permit-

(i) developmental changes in the device (including manufacturing changes) that do not constitute a significant change in design or in basic principles of operation and that are made in response to information gathered during the course of an investigation; and

(ii) changes or modifications to clinical protocols that do not affect-

(I) the validity of data or information resulting from the completion of an approved protocol, or the relationship of likely patient risk to benefit relied upon to approve a protocol;

(II) the scientific soundness of an investigational plan submitted under paragraph (3)(A); or

(III) the rights, safety, or welfare of the human subjects involved in the investigation.


(B) Regulations under subparagraph (A) shall provide that a change or modification described in such subparagraph may be made if-

(i) the sponsor of the investigation determines, on the basis of credible information (as defined by the Secretary) that the applicable conditions under subparagraph (A) are met; and

(ii) the sponsor submits to the Secretary, not later than 5 days after making the change or modification, a notice of the change or modification.


(7)(A) In the case of a person intending to investigate the safety or effectiveness of a class III device or any implantable device, the Secretary shall ensure that the person has an opportunity, prior to submitting an application to the Secretary or to an institutional review committee, to submit to the Secretary, for review, an investigational plan (including a clinical protocol). If the applicant submits a written request for a meeting with the Secretary regarding such review, the Secretary shall, not later than 30 days after receiving the request, meet with the applicant for the purpose of reaching agreement regarding the investigational plan (including a clinical protocol). The written request shall include a detailed description of the device, a detailed description of the proposed conditions of use of the device, a proposed plan (including a clinical protocol) for determining whether there is a reasonable assurance of effectiveness, and, if available, information regarding the expected performance from the device.

(B) Any agreement regarding the parameters of an investigational plan (including a clinical protocol) that is reached between the Secretary and a sponsor or applicant shall be reduced to writing and made part of the administrative record by the Secretary. Any such agreement shall not be changed, except-

(i) with the written agreement of the sponsor or applicant; or

(ii) pursuant to a decision, made in accordance with subparagraph (C) by the director of the office in which the device involved is reviewed, that a substantial scientific issue essential to determining the safety or effectiveness of the device involved has been identified.


(C) A decision under subparagraph (B)(ii) by the director shall be in writing, and may be made only after the Secretary has provided to the sponsor or applicant an opportunity for a meeting at which the director and the sponsor or applicant are present and at which the director documents the scientific issue involved.

(8)(A) At any time, the Secretary may prohibit the sponsor of an investigation from conducting the investigation (referred to in this paragraph as a "clinical hold") if the Secretary makes a determination described in subparagraph (B). The Secretary shall specify the basis for the clinical hold, including the specific information available to the Secretary which served as the basis for such clinical hold, and confirm such determination in writing.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), a determination described in this subparagraph with respect to a clinical hold is a determination that-

(i) the device involved represents an unreasonable risk to the safety of the persons who are the subjects of the clinical investigation, taking into account the qualifications of the clinical investigators, information about the device, the design of the clinical investigation, the condition for which the device is to be investigated, and the health status of the subjects involved; or

(ii) the clinical hold should be issued for such other reasons as the Secretary may by regulation establish.


(C) Any written request to the Secretary from the sponsor of an investigation that a clinical hold be removed shall receive a decision, in writing and specifying the reasons therefor, within 30 days after receipt of such request. Any such request shall include sufficient information to support the removal of such clinical hold.

(h) Release of information respecting safety and effectiveness

(1) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations under which a detailed summary of information respecting the safety and effectiveness of a device which information was submitted to the Secretary and which was the basis for-

(A) an order under section 360e(d)(1)(A) of this title approving an application for premarket approval for the device or denying approval of such an application or an order under section 360e(e) of this title withdrawing approval of such an application for the device,

(B) an order under section 360e(f)(6)(A) of this title revoking an approved protocol for the device, an order under section 360e(f)(6)(B) of this title declaring a protocol for the device completed or not completed, or an order under section 360e(f)(7) of this title revoking the approval of the device, or

(C) an order approving an application under subsection (g) for an exemption for the device from section 360f of this title or an order disapproving, or withdrawing approval of, an application for an exemption under such subsection for the device,


shall be made available to the public upon issuance of the order. Summaries of information made available pursuant to this paragraph respecting a device shall include information respecting any adverse effects on health of the device.

(2) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations under which each advisory committee established under section 360e(g)(2)(B) of this title shall make available to the public a detailed summary of information respecting the safety and effectiveness of a device which information was submitted to the advisory committee and which was the basis for its recommendation to the Secretary made pursuant to section 360e(g)(2)(A) of this title. A summary of information upon which such a recommendation is based shall be made available pursuant to this paragraph only after the issuance of the order with respect to which the recommendation was made and each summary shall include information respecting any adverse effect on health of the device subject to such order.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (4), any information respecting a device which is made available pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection (A) may not be used to establish the safety or effectiveness of another device for purposes of this chapter by any person other than the person who submitted the information so made available, and (B) shall be made available subject to subsection (c) of this section.

(4)(A) Subject to subparagraph (C), any information contained in an application for premarket approval filed with the Secretary pursuant to section 360e(c) of this title (including information from clinical and preclinical tests or studies that demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a device, but excluding descriptions of methods of manufacture and product composition and other trade secrets) shall be available, 6 years after the application has been approved by the Secretary, for use by the Secretary in-

(i) approving another device;

(ii) determining whether a product development protocol has been completed, under section 360e of this title for another device;

(iii) establishing a performance standard or special control under this chapter; or

(iv) classifying or reclassifying another device under section 360c of this title and subsection (l)(2).


(B) The publicly available detailed summaries of information respecting the safety and effectiveness of devices required by paragraph (1)(A) shall be available for use by the Secretary as the evidentiary basis for the agency actions described in subparagraph (A).

(C) No information contained in an application for premarket approval filed with the Secretary pursuant to section 360e(c) of this title may be used to approve or clear any application submitted under section 360e or 360(k) of this title or to classify a product under section 360c(f)(2) of this title for a combination product containing as a constituent part an approved drug (as defined in section 353(g)(5)(B) of this title) unless-

(i) the application includes the certification or statement referenced in section 353(g)(5)(A) of this title;

(ii) the applicant provides notice as described in section 353(g)(5)(A) of this title; and

(iii) the Secretary's approval of such application is subject to the provisions in section 353(g)(5)(C) of this title.

(i) Proceedings of advisory panels and committees

Each panel under section 360c of this title and each advisory committee established under section 360d(b)(5)(B) or 360e(g) of this title or under subsection (f) of this section shall make and maintain a transcript of any proceeding of the panel or committee. Each such panel and committee shall delete from any transcript made pursuant to this subsection information which under subsection (c) of this section is to be considered confidential.

(j) Traceability

Except as provided in section 360i(e) of this title, no regulation under this chapter may impose on a type or class of device requirements for the traceability of such type or class of device unless such requirements are necessary to assure the protection of the public health.

(k) Research and development

The Secretary may enter into contracts for research, testing, and demonstrations respecting devices and may obtain devices for research, testing, and demonstration purposes without regard to section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41.

(l) Transitional provisions for devices considered as new drugs

(1) Any device intended for human use-

(A) for which on May 28, 1976 (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "enactment date") an approval of an application submitted under section 355(b) of this title was in effect;

(B) for which such an application was filed on or before the enactment date and with respect to which application no order of approval or refusing to approve had been issued on such date under subsection (c) or (d) of such section;

(C) for which on the enactment date an exemption under subsection (i) of such section was in effect;

(D) which is within a type of device described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) and is substantially equivalent to another device within that type;

(E) which the Secretary in a notice published in the Federal Register before the enactment date has declared to be a new drug subject to section 355 of this title; or

(F) with respect to which on the enactment date an action is pending in a United States court under section 332, 333, or 334 of this title for an alleged violation of a provision of section 331 of this title which enforces a requirement of section 355 of this title or for an alleged violation of section 355(a) of this title,


is classified in class III unless the Secretary in response to a petition submitted under paragraph (2) has classified such device in class I or II.

(2) The Secretary may initiate the reclassification of a device classified into class III under paragraph (1) of this subsection or the manufacturer or importer of a device classified under paragraph (1) may petition the Secretary (in such form and manner as he shall prescribe) for the issuance of an order classifying the device in class I or class II. Within thirty days of the filing of such a petition, the Secretary shall notify the petitioner of any deficiencies in the petition which prevent the Secretary from making a decision on the petition. Except as provided in paragraph (3)(D)(ii), within one hundred and eighty days after the filing of a petition under this paragraph, the Secretary shall, after consultation with the appropriate panel under section 360c of this title, by order either deny the petition or order the classification, in accordance with the criteria prescribed by section 360c(a)(1)(A) of this title or 360c(a)(1)(B) of this title, of the device in class I or class II.

(3)(A) In the case of a device which is described in paragraph (1)(A) and which is in class III-

(i) such device shall on the enactment date be considered a device with an approved application under section 360e of this title, and

(ii) the requirements applicable to such device before the enactment date under section 355 of this title shall continue to apply to such device until changed by the Secretary as authorized by this chapter.


(B) In the case of a device which is described in paragraph (1)(B) and which is in class III, an application for such device shall be considered as having been filed under section 360e of this title on the enactment date. The period in which the Secretary shall act on such application in accordance with section 360e(d)(1) of this title shall be one hundred and eighty days from the enactment date (or such greater period as the Secretary and the applicant may agree upon after the Secretary has made the finding required by section 360e(d)(1)(B)(i) of this title) less the number of days in the period beginning on the date an application for such device was filed under section 355 of this title and ending on the enactment date. After the expiration of such period such device is required, unless exempt under subsection (g), to have in effect an approved application under section 360e of this title.

(C) A device which is described in paragraph (1)(C) and which is in class III shall be considered a new drug until the expiration of the ninety-day period beginning on the date of the promulgation of regulations under subsection (g) of this section. After the expiration of such period such device is required, unless exempt under subsection (g), to have in effect an approved application under section 360e of this title.

(D)(i) Except as provided in clauses (ii) and (iii), a device which is described in subparagraph (D), (E), or (F) of paragraph (1) and which is in class III is required, unless exempt under subsection (g) of this section, to have on and after sixty days after the enactment date in effect an approved application under section 360e of this title.

(ii) If-

(I) a petition is filed under paragraph (2) for a device described in subparagraph (D), (E), or (F) of paragraph (1), or

(II) an application for premarket approval is filed under section 360e of this title for such a device,


within the sixty-day period beginning on the enactment date (or within such greater period as the Secretary, after making the finding required under section 360e(d)(1)(B) of this title, and the petitioner or applicant may agree upon), the Secretary shall act on such petition or application in accordance with paragraph (2) or section 360e of this title except that the period within which the Secretary must act on the petition or application shall be within the one hundred and twenty-day period beginning on the date the petition or application is filed. If such a petition or application is filed within such sixty-day (or greater) period, clause (i) of this subparagraph shall not apply to such device before the expiration of such one hundred and twenty-day period, or if such petition is denied or such application is denied approval, before the date of such denial, whichever occurs first.

(iii) In the case of a device which is described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1), which the Secretary in a notice published in the Federal Register after March 31, 1976, declared to be a new drug subject to section 355 of this title, and which is in class III-

(I) the device shall, after eighteen months after the enactment date, have in effect an approved application under section 360e of this title unless exempt under subsection (g) of this section, and

(II) the Secretary may, during the period beginning one hundred and eighty days after the enactment date and ending eighteen months after such date, restrict the use of the device to investigational use by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to investigate the safety and effectiveness of such device, and to investigational use in accordance with the requirements applicable under regulations under subsection (g) of this section to investigational use of devices granted an exemption under such subsection.


If the requirements under subsection (g) of this section are made applicable to the investigational use of such a device, they shall be made applicable in such a manner that the device shall be made reasonably available to physicians meeting appropriate qualifications prescribed by the Secretary.

(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §125(b)(2)(E), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325 .

(5)(A) Before December 1, 1991, the Secretary shall by order require manufacturers of devices described in paragraph (1), which are subject to revision of classification under subparagraph (B), to submit to the Secretary a summary of and citation to any information known or otherwise available to the manufacturers respecting the devices, including adverse safety or effectiveness information which has not been submitted under section 360i of this title. The Secretary may require a manufacturer to submit the adverse safety or effectiveness data for which a summary and citation were submitted, if such data are available to the manufacturer.

(B) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), after the issuance of an order under subparagraph (A) but before December 1, 1992, the Secretary shall publish a regulation in the Federal Register for each device which is classified in class III under paragraph (1) revising the classification of the device so that the device is classified into class I or class II, unless the regulation requires the device to remain in class III. In determining whether to revise the classification of a device or to require a device to remain in class III, the Secretary shall apply the criteria set forth in section 360c(a) of this title. Before the publication of a regulation requiring a device to remain in class III or revising its classification, the Secretary shall publish a proposed regulation respecting the classification of a device under this subparagraph and provide an opportunity for the submission of comments on any such regulation. No regulation under this subparagraph requiring a device to remain in class III or revising its classification may take effect before the expiration of 90 days from the date of the publication in the Federal Register of the proposed regulation.

(C) The Secretary may by notice published in the Federal Register extend the period prescribed by subparagraph (B) for a device for an additional period not to exceed 1 year.

(m) Humanitarian device exemption

(1) To the extent consistent with the protection of the public health and safety and with ethical standards, it is the purpose of this subsection to encourage the discovery and use of devices intended to benefit patients in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases or conditions that affect not more than 8,000 individuals in the United States.

(2) The Secretary may grant a request for an exemption from the effectiveness requirements of sections 360d and 360e of this title for a device for which the Secretary finds that-

(A) the device is designed to treat or diagnose a disease or condition that affects not more than 8,000 individuals in the United States,

(B) the device would not be available to a person with a disease or condition referred to in subparagraph (A) unless the Secretary grants such an exemption and there is no comparable device, other than under this exemption, available to treat or diagnose such disease or condition, and

(C) the device will not expose patients to an unreasonable or significant risk of illness or injury and the probable benefit to health from the use of the device outweighs the risk of injury or illness from its use, taking into account the probable risks and benefits of currently available devices or alternative forms of treatment.


The request shall be in the form of an application submitted to the Secretary and such application shall include the certification required under section 282(j)(5)(B) of title 42 (which shall not be considered an element of such application). Not later than 75 days after the date of the receipt of the application, the Secretary shall issue an order approving or denying the application.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (6), no person granted an exemption under paragraph (2) with respect to a device may sell the device for an amount that exceeds the costs of research and development, fabrication, and distribution of the device.

(4) Devices granted an exemption under paragraph (2) may only be used-

(A) in facilities in which clinical testing of devices is supervised by an institutional review committee established in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary; and

(B) if, before the use of a device, an institutional review committee or an appropriate local committee approves the use in the treatment or diagnosis of a disease or condition referred to in paragraph (2)(A), unless a physician determines in an emergency situation that approval from an institutional review committee or an appropriate local committee can not be obtained in time to prevent serious harm or death to a patient.


In a case described in subparagraph (B) in which a physician uses a device without an approval from an institutional review committee or an appropriate local committee, the physician shall, after the use of the device, notify the chairperson of the institutional review committee or an appropriate local committee of such use. Such notification shall include the identification of the patient involved, the date on which the device was used, and the reason for the use.

(5) The Secretary may require a person granted an exemption under paragraph (2) to demonstrate continued compliance with the requirements of this subsection if the Secretary believes such demonstration to be necessary to protect the public health, if the Secretary has reason to believe that the requirements of paragraph (6) are no longer met, or if the Secretary has reason to believe that the criteria for the exemption are no longer met. If the person granted an exemption under paragraph (2) fails to demonstrate continued compliance with the requirements of this subsection, the Secretary may suspend or withdraw the exemption from the effectiveness requirements of sections 360d and 360e of this title for a humanitarian device only after providing notice and an opportunity for an informal hearing.

(6)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (D), the prohibition in paragraph (3) shall not apply with respect to a person granted an exemption under paragraph (2) if each of the following conditions apply:

(i) The device with respect to which the exemption is granted-

(I) is intended for the treatment or diagnosis of a disease or condition that occurs in pediatric patients or in a pediatric subpopulation, and such device is labeled for use in pediatric patients or in a pediatric subpopulation in which the disease or condition occurs; or

(II) is intended for the treatment or diagnosis of a disease or condition that does not occur in pediatric patients or that occurs in pediatric patients in such numbers that the development of the device for such patients is impossible, highly impracticable, or unsafe.


(ii) During any calendar year, the number of such devices distributed during that year under each exemption granted under this subsection does not exceed the annual distribution number for such device. In this paragraph, the term "annual distribution number" means the number of such devices reasonably needed to treat, diagnose, or cure a population of 8,000 individuals in the United States. The Secretary shall determine the annual distribution number when the Secretary grants such exemption.

(iii) Such person immediately notifies the Secretary if the number of such devices distributed during any calendar year exceeds the annual distribution number referred to in clause (ii).

(iv) The request for such exemption is submitted on or before October 1, 2022.


(B) The Secretary may inspect the records relating to the number of devices distributed during any calendar year of a person granted an exemption under paragraph (2) for which the prohibition in paragraph (3) does not apply.

(C) A person may petition the Secretary to modify the annual distribution number determined by the Secretary under subparagraph (A)(ii) with respect to a device if additional information arises, and the Secretary may modify such annual distribution number.

(D) If a person notifies the Secretary, or the Secretary determines through an inspection under subparagraph (B), that the number of devices distributed during any calendar year exceeds the annual distribution number, as required under subparagraph (A)(iii), and modified under subparagraph (C), if applicable, then the prohibition in paragraph (3) shall apply with respect to such person for such device for any sales of such device after such notification.

(E)(i) In this subsection, the term "pediatric patients" means patients who are 21 years of age or younger at the time of the diagnosis or treatment.

(ii) In this subsection, the term "pediatric subpopulation" means 1 of the following populations:

(I) Neonates.

(II) Infants.

(III) Children.

(IV) Adolescents.


(7) The Secretary shall refer any report of an adverse event regarding a device described in paragraph (6)(A)(i)(I) for which the prohibition under paragraph (3) does not apply pursuant to paragraph (6)(A) that the Secretary receives to the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics, established under section 393a of this title. In considering the report, the Director of the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics, in consultation with experts in the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, shall provide for periodic review of the report by the Pediatric Advisory Committee, including obtaining any recommendations of such committee regarding whether the Secretary should take action under this chapter in response to the report.

(8) The Secretary, acting through the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, shall provide for an annual review by the Pediatric Advisory Committee of all devices described in paragraph (6)(A)(i)(I) to ensure that the exemption under paragraph (2) remains appropriate for the pediatric populations for which it is granted.

(n) Regulation of contact lenses as devices

(1) All contact lenses shall be deemed to be devices under section 321(h) of this title.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall not be construed as bearing on or being relevant to the question of whether any product other than a contact lens is a device as defined by section 321(h) of this title or a drug as defined by section 321(g) of this title.

(o) Regulation of medical and certain decisions support software

(1) The term device,1 as defined in section 321(h) of this title, shall not include a software function that is intended-

(A) for administrative support of a health care facility, including the processing and maintenance of financial records, claims or billing information, appointment schedules, business analytics, information about patient populations, admissions, practice and inventory management, analysis of historical claims data to predict future utilization or cost-effectiveness, determination of health benefit eligibility, population health management, and laboratory workflow;

(B) for maintaining or encouraging a healthy lifestyle and is unrelated to the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, prevention, or treatment of a disease or condition;

(C) to serve as electronic patient records, including patient-provided information, to the extent that such records are intended to transfer, store, convert formats, or display the equivalent of a paper medical chart, so long as-

(i) such records were created, stored, transferred, or reviewed by health care professionals, or by individuals working under supervision of such professionals;

(ii) such records are part of health information technology that is certified under section 300jj–11(c)(5) of title 42; and

(iii) such function is not intended to interpret or analyze patient records, including medical image data, for the purpose of the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, prevention, or treatment of a disease or condition;


(D) for transferring, storing, converting formats, or displaying clinical laboratory test or other device data and results, findings by a health care professional with respect to such data and results, general information about such findings, and general background information about such laboratory test or other device, unless such function is intended to interpret or analyze clinical laboratory test or other device data, results, and findings; or

(E) unless the function is intended to acquire, process, or analyze a medical image or a signal from an in vitro diagnostic device or a pattern or signal from a signal acquisition system, for the purpose of-

(i) displaying, analyzing, or printing medical information about a patient or other medical information (such as peer-reviewed clinical studies and clinical practice guidelines);

(ii) supporting or providing recommendations to a health care professional about prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease or condition; and

(iii) enabling such health care professional to independently review the basis for such recommendations that such software presents so that it is not the intent that such health care professional rely primarily on any of such recommendations to make a clinical diagnosis or treatment decision regarding an individual patient.


(2) In the case of a product with multiple functions that contains-

(A) at least one software function that meets the criteria under paragraph (1) or that otherwise does not meet the definition of device under section 321(h) of this title; and

(B) at least one function that does not meet the criteria under paragraph (1) and that otherwise meets the definition of a device under section 321(h) of this title,


the Secretary shall not regulate the software function of such product described in subparagraph (A) as a device. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, when assessing the safety and effectiveness of the device function or functions of such product described in subparagraph (B), the Secretary may assess the impact that the software function or functions described in subparagraph (A) have on such device function or functions.

(3)(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a software function described in subparagraph (C), (D), or (E) of paragraph (1) shall not be excluded from the definition of device under section 321(h) of this title if-

(i) the Secretary makes a finding that use of such software function would be reasonably likely to have serious adverse health consequences; and

(ii) the software function has been identified in a final order issued by the Secretary under subparagraph (B).


(B) Subparagraph (A) shall apply only if the Secretary-

(i) publishes a notification and proposed order in the Federal Register;

(ii) includes in such notification the Secretary's finding, including the rationale and identification of the evidence on which such finding was based, as described in subparagraph (A)(i); and

(iii) provides for a period of not less than 30 calendar days for public comment before issuing a final order or withdrawing such proposed order.


(C) In making a finding under subparagraph (A)(i) with respect to a software function, the Secretary shall consider-

(i) the likelihood and severity of patient harm if the software function were to not perform as intended;

(ii) the extent to which the software function is intended to support the clinical judgment of a health care professional;

(iii) whether there is a reasonable opportunity for a health care professional to review the basis of the information or treatment recommendation provided by the software function; and

(iv) the intended user and user environment, such as whether a health care professional will use a software function of a type described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1).


(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as limiting the authority of the Secretary to-

(A) exercise enforcement discretion as to any device subject to regulation under this chapter;

(B) regulate software used in the manufacture and transfusion of blood and blood components to assist in the prevention of disease in humans; or

(C) regulate software as a device under this chapter if such software meets the criteria under section 360c(a)(1)(C) of this title.

(p) Diagnostic imaging devices intended for use with contrast agents

(1) In general

The Secretary may, subject to the succeeding provisions of this subsection, approve an application (or a supplement to such an application) submitted under section 360e of this title with respect to an applicable medical imaging device, or, in the case of an applicable medical imaging device for which a notification is submitted under section 360(k) of this title, may make a substantial equivalence determination with respect to an applicable medical imaging device, or may grant a request submitted under section 360c(f)(2) of this title for an applicable medical imaging device, if such application, notification, or request involves the use of a contrast agent that is not-

(A) in a concentration, rate of administration, or route of administration that is different from those described in the approved labeling of the contrast agent, except that the Secretary may approve such application, make such substantial equivalence determination, or grant such request if the Secretary determines that such differences in concentration, rate of administration, or route of administration exist but do not adversely affect the safety and effectiveness of the contrast agent when used with the device;

(B) in a region, organ, or system of the body that is different from those described in the approved labeling of the contrast agent, except that the Secretary may approve such application, make such substantial equivalence determination, or grant such request if the Secretary determines that such differences in region, organ, or system of the body exist but do not adversely affect the safety and effectiveness of the contrast agent when used with the device;

(C) in a patient population that is different from those described in the approved labeling of the contrast agent, except that the Secretary may approve such application, make such substantial equivalence determination, or grant such request if the Secretary determines such differences in patient population exist but do not adversely affect the safety and effectiveness of the contrast agent when used with the device; or

(D) in an imaging modality that is different from those described in the approved labeling of the contrast agent.

(2) Premarket review

The agency center charged with premarket review of devices shall have primary jurisdiction with respect to the review of an application, notification, or request described in paragraph (1). In conducting such review, such agency center may-

(A) consult with the agency center charged with the premarket review of drugs or biological products; and

(B) review information and data provided to the Secretary by the sponsor of a contrast agent in an application submitted under section 355 of this title or section 262 of title 42, so long as the sponsor of such contrast agent has provided to the sponsor of the applicable medical imaging device that is the subject of such review a right of reference and the application is submitted in accordance with this subsection.

(3) Applicable requirements

An application submitted under section 360e of this title, a notification submitted under section 360(k) of this title, or a request submitted under section 360c(f)(2) of this title, as described in paragraph (1), with respect to an applicable medical imaging device shall be subject to the requirements of such respective section. Such application, notification, or request shall only be subject to the requirements of this chapter applicable to devices.

(4) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection-

(A) the term "applicable medical imaging device" means a device intended to be used in conjunction with a contrast agent (or class of contrast agents) for an imaging use that is not described in the approved labeling of such contrast agent (or the approved labeling of any contrast agent in the same class as such contrast agent); and

(B) the term "contrast agent" means a drug that is approved under section 355 of this title or licensed under section 262 of title 42, is intended for use in conjunction with an applicable medical imaging device, and-

(i) is a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, as defined in section 315.2 and 601.31 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations); or

(ii) is a diagnostic agent that improves the visualization of structure or function within the body by increasing the relative difference in signal intensity within the target tissue, structure, or fluid.

(q) Regulation of over-the-counter hearing aids

(1) Definition

(A) In general

In this subsection, the term "over-the-counter hearing aid" means a device that-

(i) uses the same fundamental scientific technology as air conduction hearing aids (as defined in section 874.3300 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations) (or any successor regulation) or wireless air conduction hearing aids (as defined in section 874.3305 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations) (or any successor regulation);

(ii) is intended to be used by adults age 18 and older to compensate for perceived mild to moderate hearing impairment;

(iii) through tools, tests, or software, allows the user to control the over-the-counter hearing aid and customize it to the user's hearing needs;

(iv) may-

(I) use wireless technology; or

(II) include tests for self-assessment of hearing loss; and


(v) is available over-the-counter, without the supervision, prescription, or other order, involvement, or intervention of a licensed person, to consumers through in-person transactions, by mail, or online.

(B) Exception

Such term does not include a personal sound amplification product intended to amplify sound for nonhearing impaired consumers in situations including hunting and bird-watching.

(2) Regulation

An over-the-counter hearing aid shall be subject to the regulations promulgated in accordance with section 709(b) of the FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017 and shall be exempt from sections 801.420 and 801.421 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §520, as added Pub. L. 94–295, §2, May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 565 ; amended Pub. L. 101–629, §§3(b)(2), 4(b)(2), 5(c)(2), 6(b)(2), 11, 14(a), 18(e), (f), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4514 , 4516, 4518, 4519, 4522, 4524, 4529; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(10), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499 ; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §125(b)(2)(E), title II, §§201(a), 203, 216(a)(1), title IV, §410(a), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325 , 2332, 2334, 2349, 2372; Pub. L. 109–96, §1, Nov. 9, 2005, 119 Stat. 2119 ; Pub. L. 110–85, title III, §303(a), title VIII, §801(b)(3)(E), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 860 , 921; Pub. L. 112–144, title V, §507(c), title VI, §§601, 606, 613(a), 617, July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1045 , 1051, 1054, 1060, 1062; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, §§3024(a), 3038(b), 3052(a), 3056, 3060(a), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1099 , 1110, 1124, 1128, 1130; Pub. L. 115–52, title V, §502(b), title VII, §§706(a), 709(a), Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1037, 1058, 1065.)

References in Text

July 9, 2012, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), was in the original "the date of enactment of this section", which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–144, which amended subsec. (b) generally, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), is section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section 709(b) of the FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017, referred to in subsec. (q)(2), is section 709(b) of Pub. L. 115–52, which is set out as a note below.

Codification

In subsec. (k), "section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "sections 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 529, 41 U.S.C. 5)" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067 , which Act enacted Title 31, Money and Finance, and Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854 , which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Amendments

2017-Subsec. (m)(4). Pub. L. 115–52, §502(b)(1)(B), inserted "or an appropriate local committee" after "review committee" in two places in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (m)(4)(B). Pub. L. 115–52, §502(b)(1)(A), inserted "or an appropriate local committee" after "review committee" in two places.

Subsec. (m)(6)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 115–52, §502(b)(2), substituted "2022" for "2017".

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 115–52, §706(a), added subsec. (p).

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 115–52, §709(a), added subsec. (q). Amendment was executed to this section as amended by section 706(a) of Pub. L. 115–52, notwithstanding directory language referring to section as amended by section 708 of Pub. L. 115–52, which did not amend this section.

2016-Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 114–255, §3024(a)(2), substituted "subparagraph (D)(ii)" for "subparagraph (D)" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (g)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 114–255, §3056(1)(A), struck out "local" before "institutional review committee" and "which has been" before "established in accordance with".

Subsec. (g)(3)(B). Pub. L. 114–255, §3056(1)(B), substituted "an institutional" for "a local institutional".

Subsec. (g)(3)(D). Pub. L. 114–255, §3024(a)(1), substituted "except where, subject to such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe-" for "except where subject to such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe,", added cl. (i), and inserted cl. (ii) designation before "the investigator".

Subsec. (h)(4)(A). Pub. L. 114–255, §3038(b)(1), substituted "Subject to subparagraph (C), any information" for "Any information" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(4)(C). Pub. L. 114–255, §3038(b)(2), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 114–255, §3052(a)(1), substituted "not more than 8,000" for "fewer than 4,000".

Subsec. (m)(2)(A). Pub. L. 114–255, §3052(a)(2), substituted "not more than 8,000" for "fewer than 4,000".

Subsec. (m)(4). Pub. L. 114–255, §3056(2)(C), struck out "local" after "chairperson of the" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (m)(4)(A). Pub. L. 114–255, §3056(2)(A), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "in facilities that have established, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, a local institutional review committee to supervise clinical testing of devices in the facilities, and".

Subsec. (m)(4)(B). Pub. L. 114–255, §3056(2)(B), substituted "an institutional" for "a local institutional".

Subsec. (m)(6)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 114–255, §3052(a)(3), substituted "8,000" for "4,000".

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 114–255, §3060(a), added subsec. (o).

2012-Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–144, §617, amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to custom devices.

Subsec. (g)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 112–144, §601(1), inserted "safety or effectiveness" before "data obtained".

Subsec. (g)(4)(C). Pub. L. 112–144, §601(2), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (g)(8). Pub. L. 112–144, §606, added par. (8).

Subsec. (m)(6)(A)(i). Pub. L. 112–144, §613(a)(1)(A)(i), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows:

"(i)(I) The device with respect to which the exemption is granted is intended for the treatment or diagnosis of a disease or condition that occurs in pediatric patients or in a pediatric subpopulation, and such device is labeled for use in pediatric patients or in a pediatric subpopulation in which the disease or condition occurs.

"(II) The device was not previously approved under this subsection for the pediatric patients or the pediatric subpopulation described in subclause (I) prior to September 27, 2007."

Subsec. (m)(6)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 112–144, §613(a)(1)(A)(ii), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "During any calendar year, the number of such devices distributed during that year does not exceed the annual distribution number specified by the Secretary when the Secretary grants such exemption. The annual distribution number shall be based on the number of individuals affected by the disease or condition that such device is intended to treat, diagnose, or cure, and of that number, the number of individuals likely to use the device, and the number of devices reasonably necessary to treat such individuals. In no case shall the annual distribution number exceed the number identified in paragraph (2)(A)."

Subsec. (m)(6)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 112–144, §507(c), substituted "2017" for "2012".

Subsec. (m)(6)(C). Pub. L. 112–144, §613(a)(1)(B), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "A person may petition the Secretary to modify the annual distribution number specified by the Secretary under subparagraph (A)(ii) with respect to a device if additional information on the number of individuals affected by the disease or condition arises, and the Secretary may modify such number but in no case shall the annual distribution number exceed the number identified in paragraph (2)(A)."

Subsec. (m)(7). Pub. L. 112–144, §613(a)(2), substituted "regarding a device described in paragraph (6)(A)(i)(I)" for "regarding a device".

Subsec. (m)(8). Pub. L. 112–144, §613(a)(3), substituted "of all devices described in paragraph (6)(A)(i)(I)" for "of all devices described in paragraph (6)".

2007-Subsec. (m)(2). Pub. L. 110–85, §801(b)(3)(E), inserted before period at end of first sentence of concluding provisions "and such application shall include the certification required under section 282(j)(5)(B) of title 42 (which shall not be considered an element of such application)".

Subsec. (m)(3). Pub. L. 110–85, §303(a)(1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (6), no" for "No".

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 110–85, §303(a)(2), inserted ", if the Secretary has reason to believe that the requirements of paragraph (6) are no longer met," after "public health" and inserted at end "If the person granted an exemption under paragraph (2) fails to demonstrate continued compliance with the requirements of this subsection, the Secretary may suspend or withdraw the exemption from the effectiveness requirements of sections 360d and 360e of this title for a humanitarian device only after providing notice and an opportunity for an informal hearing."

Subsec. (m)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 110–85, §303(a)(3), added pars. (6) to (8) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "The Secretary may suspend or withdraw an exemption from the effectiveness requirements of sections 360d and 360e of this title for a humanitarian device only after providing notice and an opportunity for an informal hearing."

2005-Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 109–96 added subsec. (n).

1997-Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 105–115, §410(a), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (g)(6), (7). Pub. L. 105–115, §201(a), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 105–115, §216(a)(1), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) related to premarket approval of devices.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(E), struck out "or antibiotic drugs" after "new drugs" in heading.

Subsec. (l)(4). Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(E), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "Any device intended for human use which on the enactment date was subject to the requirements of section 357 of this title shall be subject to such requirements as follows:

"(A) In the case of such a device which is classified into class I, such requirements shall apply to such device until the effective date of the regulation classifying the device into such class.

"(B) In the case of such a device which is classified into class II, such requirements shall apply to such device until the effective date of a performance standard applicable to the device under section 360d of this title.

"(C) In the case of such a device which is classified into class III, such requirements shall apply to such device until the date on which the device is required to have in effect an approved application under section 360e of this title."

Subsec. (m)(2). Pub. L. 105–115, §203(1), inserted at end "The request shall be in the form of an application submitted to the Secretary. Not later than 75 days after the date of the receipt of the application, the Secretary shall issue an order approving or denying the application."

Subsec. (m)(4). Pub. L. 105–115, §203(2)(B), inserted at end "In a case described in subparagraph (B) in which a physician uses a device without an approval from an institutional review committee, the physician shall, after the use of the device, notify the chairperson of the local institutional review committee of such use. Such notification shall include the identification of the patient involved, the date on which the device was used, and the reason for the use."

Subsec. (m)(4)(B). Pub. L. 105–115, §203(2)(A), inserted before period at end ", unless a physician determines in an emergency situation that approval from a local institutional review committee can not be obtained in time to prevent serious harm or death to a patient".

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 105–115, §203(3), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "An exemption under paragraph (2) shall be for a term of 18 months and may only be initially granted in the 5-year period beginning on the date regulations under paragraph (6) take effect. The Secretary may extend such an exemption for a period of 18 months if the Secretary is able to make the findings set forth in paragraph (2) and if the applicant supplies information demonstrating compliance with paragraph (3). An exemption may be extended more than once and may be extended after the expiration of such 5-year period."

Subsec. (m)(6). Pub. L. 105–115, §203(4), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: "Within one year of November 28, 1990, the Secretary shall issue regulations to implement this subsection."

1992-Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted "379e" for "376".

1990-Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–629, §11(1), substituted "from class III to class II or class I" for "under section 360c of this title from class III to class II" and inserted "(1) in accordance with subsection (h), and (2)" after "except".

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–629, §18(e), inserted "pre-production design validation (including a process to assess the performance of a device but not including an evaluation of the safety or effectiveness of a device)," after "manufacture,".

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 101–629, §11(2)(A), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (4), any" for "Any".

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 101–629, §11(2)(B), added par. (4).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–629, §6(b)(2), substituted "section 360d(b)(5)(B)" for "section 360d(g)(5)(B)".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–629, §3(b)(2), substituted "Except as provided in section 360i(e) of this title, no" for "No".

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 101–629, §18(f), struck out "and after affording the petitioner an opportunity for an informal hearing" after "under this paragraph".

Pub. L. 101–629, §5(c)(2), substituted "The Secretary may initiate the reclassification of a device classified into class III under paragraph (1) of this subsection or the manufacturer" for "The manufacturer".

Subsec. (l)(5). Pub. L. 101–629, §4(b)(2), added par. (5).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 101–629, §14(a), added subsec. (m).

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by sections 201(a), 203, 216(a)(1), and 410(a) of Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–629, §14(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4525 , provided that: "Subsection (m) of section 520 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 360j(m)], as added by the amendment made by subsection (a), shall take effect on the effective date of the regulations issued by the Secretary under paragraph (6) of such subsection."

Regulations and Guidance Concerning Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids

Pub. L. 115–52, title VII, §709(b), (c), Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1066, 1067, provided that:

"(b) Regulations To Establish Category.-

"(1) In general.-The Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this section [amending this section and enacting this note] as the 'Secretary'), not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 18, 2017], shall promulgate proposed regulations to establish a category of over-the-counter hearing aids, as defined in subsection (q) of section 520 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360j) as amended by subsection (a), and, not later than 180 days after the date on which the public comment period on the proposed regulations closes, shall issue such final regulations.

"(2) Requirements.-In promulgating the regulations under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall-

"(A) include requirements that provide reasonable assurances of the safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter hearing aids;

"(B) include requirements that establish or adopt output limits appropriate for over-the-counter hearing aids;

"(C) include requirements for appropriate labeling of over-the-counter hearing aids, including requirements that such labeling include a conspicuous statement that the device is only intended for adults age 18 and older, information on how consumers may report adverse events, information on any contraindications, conditions, or symptoms of medically treatable causes of hearing loss, and advisements to consult promptly with a licensed health care practitioner; and

"(D) describe the requirements under which the sale of over-the-counter hearing aids is permitted, without the supervision, prescription, or other order, involvement, or intervention of a licensed person, to consumers through in-person transactions, by mail, or online.

"(3) Premarket notification.-The Secretary shall make findings under section 510(m) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360(m)) to determine whether over-the-counter hearing aids (as defined in section 520(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360j[(q)]), as amended by subsection (a)) require a report under section 510(k) [21 U.S.C. 360(k)] to provide reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness.

"(4) Effect on state law.-No State or local government shall establish or continue in effect any law, regulation, order, or other requirement specifically related to hearing products that would restrict or interfere with the servicing, marketing, sale, dispensing, use, customer support, or distribution of over-the-counter hearing aids (as defined in section 520(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360j[(q)]), as amended by subsection (a)) through in-person transactions, by mail, or online, that is different from, in addition to, or otherwise not identical to, the regulations promulgated under this subsection, including any State or local requirement for the supervision, prescription, or other order, involvement, or intervention of a licensed person for consumers to access over-the-counter hearing aids.

"(5) No effect on private remedies.-Nothing in this section shall be construed to modify or otherwise affect the ability of any person to exercise a private right of action under any State or Federal product liability, tort, warranty, contract, or consumer protection law.

"(c) New Guidance Issued.-Not later than the date on which final regulations are issued under subsection (b), the Secretary shall update and finalize the draft guidance of the Department of Health and Human Services entitled 'Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products', issued on November 7, 2013. Such updated and finalized guidance shall clarify which products, on the basis of claims or other marketing, advertising, or labeling material, meet the definition of a device in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321) and which products meet the definition of a personal sound amplification product, as set forth in such guidance."

Guidance Document on Probable Benefit

Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, §3052(b), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1125 , provided that: "Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 2016], the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall publish a draft guidance that defines the criteria for establishing 'probable benefit' as that term is used in section 520(m)(2)(C) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360j(m)(2)(C))."

Reports

Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, §3060(b), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1132 , provided that: "The Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this subsection as the 'Secretary'), after consultation with agencies and offices of the Department of Health and Human Services involved in health information technology, shall publish a report, not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 2016] and every 2 years thereafter, that-

"(1) includes input from outside experts, such as representatives of patients, consumers, health care providers, startup companies, health plans or other third-party payers, venture capital investors, information technology vendors, health information technology vendors, small businesses, purchasers, employers, and other stakeholders with relevant expertise, as determined by the Secretary;

"(2) examines information available to the Secretary on any risks and benefits to health associated with software functions described in section 520(o)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360j[(o)(1)]) (as amended by subsection (a)); and

"(3) summarizes findings regarding the impact of such software functions on patient safety, including best practices to promote safety, education, and competency related to such functions."

Applicability to Existing Devices

Pub. L. 112–144, title VI, §613(b), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1061 , provided that: "A sponsor of a device for which an exemption was approved under paragraph (2) of section 520(m) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360j(m)) before the date of enactment of this Act [July 9, 2012] may seek a determination under subclause (I) or (II) of section 520(m)(6)(A)(i) (as amended by subsection (a)). If the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that such subclause (I) or (II) applies with respect to a device, clauses (ii), (iii), and (iv) of subparagraph (A) and subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (6) of such section 520(m) shall apply to such device, and the Secretary shall determine the annual distribution number for purposes of clause (ii) of such subparagraph (A) when making the determination under this subsection."

Guidance

Pub. L. 110–85, title III, §303(c), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 862 , provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 2007], the Commissioner of Food and Drugs shall issue guidance for institutional review committees on how to evaluate requests for approval for devices for which a humanitarian device exemption under section 520(m)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360j(m)(2)) has been granted."

Pub. L. 107–250, title II, §213, Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1614 , provided that: "Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 2002], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue guidance on the following:

"(1) The type of information necessary to provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of medical devices intended for use in pediatric populations.

"(2) Protections for pediatric subjects in clinical investigations of the safety or effectiveness of such devices."

Report on Humanitarian Device Exemptions

Pub. L. 101–629, §14(c), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4525 , directed Secretary of Health and Human Services, within 4 years after issuance of regulations under 21 U.S.C. 360j(m)(6), to report to Congress on types of devices exempted, an evaluation of effects of such section, and a recommendation on extension of the section.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

1 So in original. Probably should be "The term 'device',".