42 USC 247d-5: Combating antimicrobial resistance
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42 USC 247d-5: Combating antimicrobial resistance Text contains those laws in effect on March 24, 2017
From Title 42-THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 6A-PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICESUBCHAPTER II-GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIESPart B-Federal-State Cooperation

§247d–5. Combating antimicrobial resistance

(a) Task force

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish an Antimicrobial Resistance Task Force to provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary and coordinate Federal programs relating to antimicrobial resistance. The Secretary may appoint or select a committee, or other organization in existence as of November 13, 2000, to serve as such a task force, if such committee, or other organization meets the requirements of this section.

(2) Members of task force

The task force described in paragraph (1) shall be composed of representatives from such Federal agencies, and shall seek input from public health constituencies, manufacturers, veterinary and medical professional societies and others, as determined to be necessary by the Secretary, to develop and implement a comprehensive plan to address the public health threat of antimicrobial resistance.

(3) Agenda

(A) In general

The task force described in paragraph (1) shall consider factors the Secretary considers appropriate, including-

(i) public health factors contributing to increasing antimicrobial resistance;

(ii) public health needs to detect and monitor antimicrobial resistance;

(iii) detection, prevention, and control strategies for resistant pathogens;

(iv) the need for improved information and data collection;

(v) the assessment of the risk imposed by pathogens presenting a threat to the public health; and

(vi) any other issues which the Secretary determines are relevant to antimicrobial resistance.

(B) Detection and control

The Secretary, in consultation with the task force described in paragraph (1) and State and local public health officials, shall-

(i) develop, improve, coordinate or enhance participation in a surveillance plan to detect and monitor emerging antimicrobial resistance; and

(ii) develop, improve, coordinate or enhance participation in an integrated information system to assimilate, analyze, and exchange antimicrobial resistance data between public health departments.

(4) Meetings

The task force described under paragraph (1) shall convene not less than twice a year, or more frequently as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(b) Research and development of new antimicrobial drugs and diagnostics

The Secretary and the Director of Agricultural Research Services, consistent with the recommendations of the task force established under subsection (a), shall directly or through awards of grants or cooperative agreements to public or private entities provide for the conduct of research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, and studies in the health sciences that are related to-

(1) the development of new therapeutics, including vaccines and antimicrobials, against resistant pathogens;

(2) the development or testing of medical diagnostics to detect pathogens resistant to antimicrobials;

(3) the epidemiology, mechanisms, and pathogenesis of antimicrobial resistance;

(4) the sequencing of the genomes, or other DNA analysis, or other comparative analysis, of priority pathogens (as determined by the Director of the National Institutes of Health in consultation with the task force established under subsection (a)), in collaboration and coordination with the activities of the Department of Defense and the Joint Genome Institute of the Department of Energy; and

(5) other relevant research areas.

(c) Education of medical and public health personnel

The Secretary, after consultation with the Assistant Secretary for Health, the Surgeon General, the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, members of the task force described in subsection (a), professional organizations and societies, and such other public health officials as may be necessary, shall-

(1) develop and implement educational programs to increase the awareness of the general public with respect to the public health threat of antimicrobial resistance and the appropriate use of antibiotics;

(2) develop and implement educational programs to instruct health care professionals in the prudent use of antibiotics; and

(3) develop and implement programs to train laboratory personnel in the recognition or identification of resistance in pathogens.

(d) Grants

(1) In general

The Secretary shall award competitive grants to eligible entities to enable such entities to increase the capacity to detect, monitor, and combat antimicrobial resistance.

(2) Eligible entities

Eligible entities for grants under paragraph (1) shall be State or local public health agencies, Indian tribes or tribal organizations, or other public or private nonprofit entities.

(3) Use of funds

An eligible entity receiving a grant under paragraph (1) shall use funds from such grant for activities that are consistent with the factors identified by the task force under subsection (a)(3), which may include activities that-

(A) provide training to enable such entity to identify patterns of resistance rapidly and accurately;

(B) develop, improve, coordinate or enhance participation in information systems by which data on resistant infections can be shared rapidly among relevant national, State, and local health agencies and health care providers; and

(C) develop and implement policies to control the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

(e) Grants for demonstration programs

(1) In general

The Secretary shall award competitive grants to eligible entities to establish demonstration programs to promote judicious use of antimicrobial drugs or control the spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.

(2) Eligible entities

Eligible entities for grants under paragraph (1) may include hospitals, clinics, institutions of long-term care, professional medical societies, schools or programs that train medical laboratory personnel, or other public or private nonprofit entities.

(3) Technical assistance

The Secretary shall provide appropriate technical assistance to eligible entities that receive grants under paragraph (1).

(f) Monitoring at Federal health care facilities

The Secretary shall encourage reporting on aggregate antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance to antimicrobial drugs and the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs by health care facilities of the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Indian Health Service and shall provide technical assistance to the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, as appropriate and upon request.

(g) Report on antimicrobial resistance in humans and use of antimicrobial drugs

Not later than 1 year after December 13, 2016, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall prepare and make publicly available data and information concerning-

(1) aggregate national and regional trends of antimicrobial resistance in humans to antimicrobial drugs, including such drugs approved under section 356(h) of title 21;

(2) antimicrobial stewardship, which may include summaries of State efforts to address antimicrobial resistance in humans to antimicrobial drugs and antimicrobial stewardship; and

(3) coordination between the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Commissioner of Food and Drugs with respect to the monitoring of-

(A) any applicable resistance under paragraph (1); and

(B) drugs approved under section 356(h) of title 21.

(h) Information related to antimicrobial stewardship programs

The Secretary shall, as appropriate, disseminate guidance, educational materials, or other appropriate materials related to the development and implementation of evidence-based antimicrobial stewardship programs or practices at health care facilities, such as nursing homes and other long-term care facilities, ambulatory surgical centers, dialysis centers, outpatient clinics, and hospitals, including community and rural hospitals.

(i) Supporting State-based activities to combat antimicrobial resistance

The Secretary shall continue to work with State and local public health departments on statewide or regional programs related to antimicrobial resistance. Such efforts may include activities to related to-

(1) identifying patterns of bacterial and fungal resistance in humans to antimicrobial drugs;

(2) preventing the spread of bacterial and fungal infections that are resistant to antimicrobial drugs; and

(3) promoting antimicrobial stewardship.

(j) Antimicrobial resistance and stewardship activities

(1) In general

For the purposes of supporting stewardship activities, examining changes in antimicrobial resistance, and evaluating the effectiveness of section 356(h) of title 21, the Secretary shall-

(A) provide a mechanism for facilities to report data related to their antimicrobial stewardship activities (including analyzing the outcomes of such activities); and

(B) evaluate-

(i) antimicrobial resistance data using a standardized approach; and

(ii) trends in the utilization of drugs approved under such section 356(h) of title 21 with respect to patient populations.

(2) Use of systems

The Secretary shall use available systems, including the National Healthcare Safety Network or other systems identified by the Secretary, to fulfill the requirements or conduct activities under this section.

(k) Antimicrobial

For purposes of subsections (f) through (j), the term "antimicrobial" includes any antibacterial or antifungal drugs, and may include drugs that eliminate or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms, as appropriate.

(l) Supplement not supplant

Funds appropriated under this section shall be used to supplement and not supplant other Federal, State, and local public funds provided for activities under this section.

(m) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2002 and 2003, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2004 through 2006.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §319E, as added Pub. L. 106–505, title I, §102, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2318 ; amended Pub. L. 107–188, title I, §109, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 610 ; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, §3041(a), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1111.)

Amendments

2016-Subsecs. (f) to (m). Pub. L. 114–255 added subsecs. (f) to (k) and redesignated former subsecs. (f) and (g) as (l) and (m), respectively.

2002-Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–188, §109(1)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted "shall directly or through awards of grants or cooperative agreements to public or private entities provide for the conduct of" for "shall conduct and support".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–188, §109(1)(B), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "the sequencing of the genomes of priority pathogens as determined by the Director of the National Institutes of Health in consultation with the task force established under subsection (a) of this section; and".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 107–188, §109(2), inserted "schools or programs that train medical laboratory personnel," after "professional medical societies,".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 107–188, §109(3), substituted "$25,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2002 and 2003, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2004 through 2006" for "and such sums as may be necessary for each subsequent fiscal year through 2006".

Construction of 2016 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 114–255 to be construed to restrict the prescribing of antimicrobial drugs or other products, including drugs approved under section 356(h) of Title 21, Food and Drugs, by health care professionals, or to limit the practice of health care, see section 3043 of Pub. L. 114–255, set out as a note under section 356 of Title 21.

Availability of Data

Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, §3041(b), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1112, provided that: "The Secretary shall make the data collected pursuant to this subsection [probably refers to the amendments made to this section by section 3041(a) of Pub. L. 114–255] public. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as authorizing the Secretary to disclose any information that is a trade secret or confidential information subject to section 552(b)(4) of title 5, United States Code, or section 1905 of title 18, United States Code."

Ex. Ord. No. 13676. Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

Ex. Ord. No. 13676, Sept. 18, 2014, 79 F.R. 56931, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby order as follows:

Section 1. Policy. The discovery of antibiotics in the early 20th century fundamentally transformed human and veterinary medicine. Antibiotics save millions of lives each year in the United States and around the world. The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, however, represents a serious threat to public health and the economy. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) estimates that annually at least two million illnesses and 23,000 deaths are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the United States alone.

Detecting, preventing, and controlling antibiotic resistance requires a strategic, coordinated, and sustained effort. It also depends on the engagement of governments, academia, industry, healthcare providers, the general public, and the agricultural community, as well as international partners. Success in this effort will require significant efforts to: minimize the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria; preserve the efficacy of new and existing antibacterial drugs; advance research to develop improved methods for combating antibiotic resistance and conducting antibiotic stewardship; strengthen surveillance efforts in public health and agriculture; develop and promote the use of new, rapid diagnostic technologies; accelerate scientific research and facilitate the development of new antibacterial drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other novel therapeutics; maximize the dissemination of the most up-to-date information on the appropriate and proper use of antibiotics to the general public and healthcare providers; work with the pharmaceutical industry to include information on the proper use of over-the-counter and prescription antibiotic medications for humans and animals; and improve international collaboration and capabilities for prevention, surveillance, stewardship, basic research, and drug and diagnostics development.

The Federal Government will work domestically and internationally to detect, prevent, and control illness and death related to antibiotic-resistant infections by implementing measures that reduce the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help ensure the continued availability of effective therapeutics for the treatment of bacterial infections.

Sec. 2. Oversight and Coordination. Combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a national security priority. The National Security Council staff, in collaboration with the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Domestic Policy Council, and the Office of Management and Budget, shall coordinate the development and implementation of Federal Government policies to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including the activities, reports, and recommendations of the Task Force for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria established in section 3 of this order.

Sec. 3. Task Force for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. There is hereby established the Task Force for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (Task Force), to be co-chaired by the Secretaries of Defense, Agriculture, and HHS.

(a) Membership. In addition to the Co-Chairs, the Task Force shall consist of representatives from:

(i) the Department of State;

(ii) the Department of Justice;

(iii) the Department of Veterans Affairs;

(iv) the Department of Homeland Security;

(v) the Environmental Protection Agency;

(vi) the United States Agency for International Development;

(vii) the Office of Management and Budget;

(viii) the Domestic Policy Council;

(ix) the National Security Council staff;

(x) the Office of Science and Technology Policy;

(xi) the National Science Foundation; and

(xii) such executive departments, agencies, or offices as the Co-Chairs may designate.

Each executive department, agency, or office represented on the Task Force (Task Force agency) shall designate an employee of the Federal Government to perform the functions of the Task Force. In performing its functions, the Task Force may make use of existing interagency task forces on antibiotic resistance.

(b) Mission. The Task Force shall identify actions that will provide for the facilitation and monitoring of implementation of this order and the National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (Strategy).

(c) Functions.

(i) By February 15, 2015, the Task Force shall submit a 5-year National Action Plan (Action Plan) to the President that outlines specific actions to be taken to implement the Strategy. The Action Plan shall include goals, milestones, and metrics for measuring progress, as well as associated timelines for implementation. The Action Plan shall address recommendations made by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology regarding combating antibiotic resistance.

(ii) Within 180 days of the release of the Action Plan and each year thereafter, the Task Force shall provide the President with an update on Federal Government actions to combat antibiotic resistance consistent with this order, including progress made in implementing the Strategy and Action Plan, plans for addressing any barriers preventing full implementation of the Strategy and Action Plan, and recommendations for new or modified actions. Annual updates shall include specific goals, milestones, and metrics for all proposed actions and recommendations. The Task Force shall take Federal Government resources into consideration when developing these proposed actions and recommendations.

(iii) In performing its functions, the Task Force shall review relevant statutes, regulations, policies, and programs, and shall consult with relevant domestic and international organizations and experts, as necessary.

(iv) The Task Force shall conduct an assessment of progress made towards achieving the milestones and goals outlined in the Strategy in conjunction with the Advisory Council established pursuant to section 4 of this order.

Sec. 4. Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. (a) The Secretary of HHS (Secretary), in consultation with the Secretaries of Defense and Agriculture, shall establish the Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (Advisory Council). The Advisory Council shall be composed of not more than 30 members to be appointed or designated by the Secretary.

(b) The Secretary shall designate a chairperson from among the members of the Advisory Council.

(c) The Advisory Council shall provide advice, information, and recommendations to the Secretary regarding programs and policies intended to: preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics by optimizing their use; advance research to develop improved methods for combating antibiotic resistance and conducting antibiotic stewardship; strengthen surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections; prevent the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections; advance the development of rapid point-of-care and agricultural diagnostics; further research on new treatments for bacterial infections; develop alternatives to antibiotics for agricultural purposes; maximize the dissemination of up-to-date information on the appropriate and proper use of antibiotics to the general public and human and animal healthcare providers; and improve international coordination of efforts to combat antibiotic resistance. The Secretary shall provide the President with all written reports created by the Advisory Council.

(d) Task Force agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the Advisory Council with such information as it may require for purposes of carrying out its functions.

(e) To the extent permitted by law, and subject to the availability of appropriations, HHS shall provide the Advisory Council with such funds and support as may be necessary for the performance of its functions.

Sec. 5. Improved Antibiotic Stewardship. (a) By the end of calendar year 2016, HHS shall review existing regulations and propose new regulations or other actions, as appropriate, that require hospitals and other inpatient healthcare delivery facilities to implement robust antibiotic stewardship programs that adhere to best practices, such as those identified by the CDC. HHS shall also take steps to encourage other healthcare facilities, such as ambulatory surgery centers and dialysis facilities, to adopt antibiotic stewardship programs.

(b) Task Force agencies shall, as appropriate, define, promulgate, and implement stewardship programs in other healthcare settings, including office-based practices, outpatient settings, emergency departments, and institutional and long-term care facilities such as nursing homes, pharmacies, and correctional facilities.

(c) By the end of calendar year 2016, the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) shall review their existing regulations and, as appropriate, propose new regulations and other actions that require their hospitals and long-term care facilities to implement robust antibiotic stewardship programs that adhere to best practices, such as those defined by the CDC. DoD and the VA shall also take steps to encourage their other healthcare facilities, such as ambulatory surgery centers and outpatient clinics, to adopt antibiotic stewardship programs.

(d) Task Force agencies shall, as appropriate, monitor improvements in antibiotic use through the National Healthcare Safety Network and other systems.

(e) The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in HHS, in coordination with the Department of Agriculture (USDA), shall continue taking steps to eliminate the use of medically important classes of antibiotics for growth promotion purposes in food-producing animals.

(f) USDA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and FDA shall strengthen coordination in common program areas, such as surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance patterns in food-producing animals, inter-species disease transmissibility, and research findings.

(g) DoD, HHS, and the VA shall review existing regulations and propose new regulations and other actions, as appropriate, to standardize the collection and sharing of antibiotic resistance data across all their healthcare settings.

Sec. 6. Strengthening National Surveillance Efforts for Resistant Bacteria. (a) The Task Force shall ensure that the Action Plan includes procedures for creating and integrating surveillance systems and laboratory networks to provide timely, high-quality data across healthcare and agricultural settings, including detailed genomic and other information, adequate to track resistant bacteria across diverse settings. The network-integrated surveillance systems and laboratory networks shall include common information requirements, repositories for bacteria isolates and other samples, a curated genomic database, rules for access to samples and scientific data, standards for electronic health record-based reporting, data transparency, budget coordination, and international coordination.

(b) Task Force agencies shall, as appropriate, link data from Federal Government sample isolate repositories for bacteria strains to an integrated surveillance system, and, where feasible, the repositories shall enhance their sample collections and further interoperable data systems with national surveillance efforts.

(c) USDA, EPA, and FDA shall work together with stakeholders to monitor and report on changes in antibiotic use in agriculture and their impact on the environment.

(d) Task Force agencies shall, as appropriate, monitor antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings through the National Healthcare Safety Network and related systems.

Sec. 7. Preventing and Responding to Infections and Outbreaks with Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms. (a) Task Force agencies shall, as appropriate, utilize the enhanced surveillance activities described in section 6 of this order to prevent antibiotic-resistant infections by: actively identifying and responding to antibiotic-resistant outbreaks; preventing outbreaks and transmission of antibiotic-resistant infections in healthcare, community, and agricultural settings through early detection and tracking of resistant organisms; and identifying and evaluating additional strategies in the healthcare and community settings for the effective prevention and control of antibiotic-resistant infections.

(b) Task Force agencies shall take steps to implement the measures and achieve the milestones outlined in the Strategy and Action Plan.

(c) DoD, HHS, and the VA shall review and, as appropriate, update their hospital and long-term care infectious disease protocols for identifying, isolating, and treating antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection cases.

Sec. 8. Promoting New and Next Generation Antibiotics and Diagnostics. (a) As part of the Action Plan, the Task Force shall describe steps that agencies can take to encourage the development of new and next-generation antibacterial drugs, diagnostics, vaccines, and novel therapeutics for both the public and agricultural sectors, including steps to develop infrastructure for clinical trials and options for attracting greater private investment in the development of new antibiotics and rapid point-of-care diagnostics. Task Force agency efforts shall focus on addressing areas of unmet medical need for individuals, including those antibiotic-resistant bacteria CDC has identified as public and agricultural health threats.

(b) Together with the countermeasures it develops for biodefense threats, the Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority in HHS shall develop new and next-generation countermeasures that target antibiotic-resistant bacteria that present a serious or urgent threat to public health.

(c) The Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise in HHS shall, as appropriate, coordinate with Task Force agencies' efforts to promote new and next-generation countermeasures to target antibiotic-resistant bacteria that present a serious or urgent threat to public health.

Sec. 9. International Cooperation. Within 30 days of the date of this order, the Secretaries of State, USDA, and HHS shall designate representatives to engage in international action to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including the development of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for Antimicrobial Resistance with the WHO, Member States, and other relevant organizations. The Secretaries of State, USDA, and HHS shall conduct a review of international collaboration activities and partnerships, and identify and pursue opportunities for enhanced prevention, surveillance, research and development, and policy engagement. All Task Force agencies with research and development activities related to antibiotic resistance shall, as appropriate, expand existing bilateral and multilateral scientific cooperation and research pursuant to the Action Plan.

Sec. 10. General Provisions. (a) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(d) Insofar as the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.) (the "Act"), may apply to the Advisory Council, any functions of the President under the Act, except for that of reporting to the Congress, shall be performed by the Secretary in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Administrator of General Services.

Barack Obama.      

Extension of Term of Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

Term of Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria extended until Sept. 30, 2017, by Ex. Ord. No. 13708, Sept. 30, 2015, 80 F.R. 60271, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.