[USC02] 50 USC 4601: Congressional findings
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50 USC 4601: Congressional findings Text contains those laws in effect on May 28, 2017
From Title 50-WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSECHAPTER 56-EXPORT ADMINISTRATION

§4601. Congressional findings

The Congress makes the following findings:

(1) The ability of United States citizens to engage in international commerce is a fundamental concern of United States policy.

(2) Exports contribute significantly to the economic well-being of the United States and the stability of the world economy by increasing employment and production in the United States, and by earning foreign exchange, thereby contributing favorably to the trade balance. The restriction of exports from the United States can have serious adverse effects on the balance of payments and on domestic employment, particularly when restrictions applied by the United States are more extensive than those imposed by other countries.

(3) It is important for the national interest of the United States that both the private sector and the Federal Government place a high priority on exports, consistent with the economic, security, and foreign policy objectives of the United States.

(4) The availability of certain materials at home and abroad varies so that the quantity and composition of United States exports and their distribution among importing countries may affect the welfare of the domestic economy and may have an important bearing upon fulfillment of the foreign policy of the United States.

(5) Exports of goods or technology without regard to whether they make a significant contribution to the military potential of individual countries or combinations of countries may adversely affect the national security of the United States.

(6) Uncertainty of export control policy can inhibit the efforts of United States business and work to the detriment of the overall attempt to improve the trade balance of the United States.

(7) Unreasonable restrictions on access to world supplies can cause worldwide political and economic instability, interfere with free international trade, and retard the growth and development of nations.

(8) It is important that the administration of export controls imposed for national security purposes give special emphasis to the need to control exports of technology (and goods which contribute significantly to the transfer of such technology) which could make a significant contribution to the military potential of any country or combination of countries which would be detrimental to the national security of the United States.

(9) Minimization of restrictions on exports of agricultural commodities and products is of critical importance to the maintenance of a sound agricultural sector, to a positive contribution to the balance of payments, to reducing the level of Federal expenditures for agricultural support programs, and to United States cooperation in efforts to eliminate malnutrition and world hunger.

(10) It is important that the administration of export controls imposed for foreign policy purposes give 1 special emphasis to the need to control exports of goods and substances hazardous to the public health and the environment which are banned or severely restricted for use in the United States, and which, if exported, could affect the international reputation of the United States as a responsible trading partner.

(11) Availability to controlled countries of goods and technology from foreign sources is a fundamental concern of the United States and should be eliminated through negotiations and other appropriate means whenever possible.

(12) Excessive dependence of the United States, its allies, or countries sharing common strategic objectives with the United States, on energy and other critical resources from potential adversaries can be harmful to the mutual and individual security of all those countries.

( Pub. L. 96–72, §2, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503 ; Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §102, July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 120 ; Pub. L. 103–199, title II, §201(a), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2320 .)

Termination Date

For termination of authority granted by this chapter, see section 4622 of this title.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 2401 of the former Appendix to this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

A prior section 2401 of the former Appendix to this title, Pub. L. 91–184, §2, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 841 ; Pub. L. 92–412, title I, §102, Aug. 29, 1972, 86 Stat. 644 ; Pub. L. 93–500, §4(a), Oct. 29, 1974, 88 Stat. 1553 , set forth findings of Congress with respect to the Export Administration Act of 1969, prior to the expiration of this Act on Sept. 30, 1979.

Amendments

1993-Pars. (11) to (13). Pub. L. 103–199 redesignated pars. (12) and (13) as (11) and (12), respectively, and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: "The acquisition of national security sensitive goods and technology by the Soviet Union and other countries the actions or policies of which run counter to the national security interests of the United States, has led to the significant enhancement of Soviet bloc military-industrial capabilities. This enhancement poses a threat to the security of the United States, its allies, and other friendly nations, and places additional demands on the defense budget of the United States."

1985-Par. (2). Pub. L. 99–64, §102(1), substituted "by earning foreign exchange, thereby contributing favorably to the trade balance" for "by strengthening the trade balance and the value of the United States dollar, thereby reducing inflation".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 99–64, §102(2), substituted "consistent with the economic, security, and foreign policy objectives of the United States" for "which would strengthen the Nation's economy".

Par. (6). Pub. L. 99–64, §102(3), amended par. (6) generally, substituting "inhibit the efforts of United States business and work" for "curtail the efforts of American business".

Par. (9). Pub. L. 99–64, §102(4), substituted "a positive contribution to the balance of payments" for "achievement of a positive balance of payments".

Pars. (10) to (13). Pub. L. 99–64, §102(5), added pars. (10) to (13).

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2441, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1364 , provided that: "This part [part II (§§2441–2447) of subtitle D of title II of Pub. L. 100–418, enacting section 4611 of this title, amending sections 4604 and 4616 of this title and section 1864 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and enacting provisions formerly set out as notes under section 2410a of the former Appendix to this title] may be cited as the 'Multilateral Export Control Enhancement Amendments Act'."

Short Title of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–64, §1, July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 120 , provided that: "Titles I and II of this Act [enacting sections 4051 to 4053 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 1864 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and section 466c of Title 46, Appendix, Shipping, amending this section and sections 4602 to 4606, 4609, 4610, 4614, 4615 to 4620, and 4622 of this title, sections 5314 and 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 2304 and 2778 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 185 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4604, 4605, and 4617 of this title and section 5314 of Title 5] may be cited as the 'Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985'."

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–145, §1, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1727 , provided: "That this Act [amending sections 4605, 4610, 4614, and 4620 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4605, 4610, and 4620 of this title] may be cited as the 'Export Administration Amendments Act of 1981'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 96–72, §1, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503 , provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter, amending section 1732 of Title 7, Agriculture, sections 2778 and 3108 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, section 993 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and sections 6212 and 6274 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 4606 and 4609 of this title and section 3108 of Title 22] may be cited as the 'Export Administration Act of 1979'."

Director of National Intelligence Support for Reviews of International Traffic in Arms Regulations and Export Administration Regulations

Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §415, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2727 , provided that: "The Director of National Intelligence may provide support for any review conducted by a department or agency of the United States Government of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations or Export Administration Regulations, including a review of technologies and goods on the United States Munitions List and Commerce Control List that may warrant controls that are different or additional to the controls such technologies and goods are subject to at the time of such review."

Ex. Ord. No. 12131. President's Export Council

Ex. Ord. No. 12131, May 4, 1979, 44 F.R. 26841, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12551, Feb. 21, 1986, 21 F.R. 6509; Ex. Ord. No. 12991, Mar. 6, 1996, 61 F.R. 9587; Ex. Ord. No. 13138, §5, Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 53880; Ex. Ord. No. 13316, §5, Sept. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 55256; Ex. Ord. No. 13596, §1, Dec. 19, 2011, 76 F.R. 80725, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, and in order to expand the membership of the President's Export Council, in accord with the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–1. Establishment and Membership

1–101. There is established the President's Export Council.

1–102. The membership of the Council shall be as follows:

(a) The heads of the following executive departments, agencies, or offices, or their representatives:

(1) Department of State.

(2) Department of the Treasury.

(3) Department of Agriculture.

(4) Department of Commerce.

(5) Department of Labor.

(6) Department of Energy.

(7) Department of Transportation.

(8) Department of Homeland Security.

(9) Office of United States Trade Representative.

(10) Export-Import Bank of the United States.

(11) Small Business Administration.

(12) United States Trade and Development Agency.

(13) Overseas Private Investment Corporation.

(14) Council of Economic Advisers.

(15) Office of Management and Budget.

(16) National Economic Council.

(17) National Security Staff.

(b) In their discretion, the heads of the following organizations or their designees:

(1) National Governors Association.

(2) United States Conference of Mayors.

(c) Five members of the United States Senate, designated by the President of the Senate, and five members of the United States House of Representatives, designated by the Speaker of the House, to serve for a two-year term.

(d) Not to exceed 28 citizens appointed by the President. These individuals shall be selected from those who are not full-time Federal officers or employees. They shall include representatives of business and industry, agriculture, and labor.

1–103. The President shall designate a Chairman and a Vice Chairman from among the members appointed by the President.

1–104. The Secretary of Commerce, with the concurrence of the Chairman, shall appoint an Executive Director.

1–2. Functions

1–201. The Council shall serve as a national advisory body on matters relating to United States export trade, including advice on the implementation of the President's National Export Policy, which was announced on September 26, 1978. It shall, through the Secretary of Commerce, report to the President on its activities and on its recommendations for expanding United States exports.

1–202. The Council should survey and evaluate the export expansion activities of the communities represented by the membership. It should identify and examine specific problems which business, industrial, and agricultural practices may cause for export trade, and examine the needs of business, industry, and agriculture to expand their efforts. The Council should recommend specific solutions to these problems and needs.

1–203. The Council may act as liaison among the communities represented by the membership; and, may provide a forum for those communities on current and emerging problems and issues in the field of export expansion. The Council should encourage the business, industrial, and agricultural communities to enter new foreign markets and to expand existing export programs.

1–204. The Council shall provide advice on Federal plans and actions that affect export expansion policies which have an impact on those communities represented by the membership.

1–205. The Council may establish, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Commerce, an executive committee and such other subordinate committees it considers necessary for the performance of its functions. The Chairman of a subordinate committee shall be designated, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Commerce, by the Chairman of the Council from among the membership of the Council. Members of subordinate committees shall be appointed by the Secretary of Commerce.

1–3. Administrative Provisions

1–301. The Secretary of Commerce shall, to the extent permitted by law, provide the Council, including its executive and subordinate committees, with administrative and staff services, support and facilities as may be necessary for the effective performance of its functions.

1–302. Each member of the Council, including its executive and subordinate committees, who is not otherwise paid a salary by the Federal Government, shall receive no compensation from the United States by virtue of their service on the Council, but all members may receive the transportation and travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, authorized by law (5 U.S.C. 5702 and 5703).

1–4. General Provisions

1–401. Notwithstanding the provisions of any other Executive order, the functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), except that of reporting annually to the Congress, which are applicable to the Council, shall be performed by the Secretary of Commerce in accordance with guidelines and procedures established by the Administrator of General Services.

1–402. Executive Order No. 11753 is revoked; however, nothing in this Order shall be deemed to require new charters for the Council, including its executive and subordinate committees, which were current immediately prior to the issuance of this Order.

1–403. The Council shall terminate on December 31, 1980, unless sooner extended.

[Reference to the National Security Staff deemed to be a reference to the National Security Council Staff, see Ex. Ord. No. 13657, set out as a note under section 3021 of this title.]

Extension of Term of President's Export Council

Term of President's Export Council extended until Sept. 30, 2017, by Ex. Ord. No. 13708, Sept. 30, 2015, 80 F.R. 60271, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5.

Previous extensions of term of President's Export Council were contained in the following prior Executive Orders:

Ex. Ord. No. 13652, Sept. 30, 2013, 78 F.R. 61817, extended term until Sept. 30, 2015.

Ex. Ord. No. 13585, Sept. 30, 2011, 76 F.R. 62281, extended term until Sept. 30, 2013.

Ex. Ord. No. 13511, Sept. 29, 2009, 74 F.R. 50909, extended term until Sept. 30, 2011.

Ex. Ord. No. 13446, Sept. 28, 2007, 72 F.R. 56175, extended term until Sept. 30, 2009.

Ex. Ord. No. 13385, Sept. 29, 2005, 70 F.R. 57989, extended term until Sept. 30, 2007.

Ex. Ord. No. 13316, Sept. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 55255, extended term until Sept. 30, 2005.

Ex. Ord. No. 13225, Sept. 28, 2001, 66 F.R. 50291, extended term until Sept. 30, 2003.

Ex. Ord. No. 13138, Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 53879, extended term until Sept. 30, 2001.

Ex. Ord. No. 13062, §1(m), Sept. 29, 1997, 62 F.R. 51755, extended term until Sept. 30, 1999.

Ex. Ord. No. 12974, Sept. 29, 1995, 60 F.R. 51875, extended term until Sept. 30, 1997.

Ex. Ord. No. 12869, Sept. 30, 1993, 58 F.R. 51751, extended term until Sept. 30, 1995.

Ex. Ord. No. 12774, Sept. 27, 1991, 56 F.R. 49835, extended term until Sept. 30, 1993.

Ex. Ord. No. 12692, Sept. 29, 1989, 54 F.R. 40627, extended term until Sept. 30, 1991.

Ex. Ord. No. 12610, Sept. 30, 1987, 52 F.R. 36901, extended term until Sept. 30, 1989.

Ex. Ord. No. 12534, Sept. 30, 1985, 50 F.R. 40319, extended term until Sept. 30, 1987.

Ex. Ord. No. 12489, Sept. 28, 1984, 49 F.R. 38927, extended term until Sept. 30, 1985.

Ex. Ord. No. 12399, Dec. 31, 1982, 48 F.R. 379, extended term until Sept. 30, 1984.

Ex. Ord. No. 12258, §1–101(l), Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1251, extended term until Dec. 31, 1982.

Ex. Ord. No. 13558. Export Enforcement Coordination Center

Ex. Ord. No. 13558, Nov. 9, 2010, 75 F.R. 69573, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to advance United States foreign policy and protect the national and economic security of the United States through strengthened and coordinated enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to achieving our national security and foreign policy goals. To enhance our enforcement efforts and minimize enforcement conflicts, executive departments and agencies must coordinate their efforts to detect, prevent, disrupt, investigate, and prosecute violations of U.S. export control laws, and must share intelligence and law enforcement information related to these efforts to the maximum extent possible, consistent with national security and applicable law.

Sec. 2. Establishment. (a) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish, within the Department of Homeland Security for administrative purposes, an interagency Federal Export Enforcement Coordination Center (Center).

(b) The Center shall coordinate on matters relating to export enforcement among the following:

(i) the Department of State;

(ii) the Department of the Treasury;

(iii) the Department of Defense;

(iv) the Department of Justice;

(v) the Department of Commerce;

(vi) the Department of Energy;

(vii) the Department of Homeland Security;

(viii) the Office of the Director of National Intelligence; and

(ix) other executive branch departments, agencies, or offices as the President, from time to time, may designate.

(c) The Center shall have a Director, who shall be a full-time senior officer or employee of the Department of Homeland Security, designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security. The Center shall have two Deputy Directors, who shall be full-time senior officers or employees of the Department of Commerce and the Department of Justice, designated by the Secretary of Commerce and the Attorney General, respectively, detailed to the Center and reporting to the Director. The Center shall also have an Intelligence Community Liaison, who shall be a full-time senior officer or employee of the Federal Government, designated by the Director of National Intelligence, and detailed or assigned to the Center.

(d) The Center shall have a full-time staff reporting to the Director. To the extent permitted by law, executive departments and agencies enumerated in subsection (b) of this section are encouraged to detail or assign their employees to the Center without reimbursement.

Sec. 3. Functions. The Center shall:

(a) serve as the primary forum within the Federal Government for executive departments and agencies to coordinate and enhance their export control enforcement efforts and identify and resolve conflicts that have not been otherwise resolved in criminal and administrative investigations and actions involving violations of U.S. export control laws;

(b) serve as a conduit between Federal law enforcement agencies and the U.S. Intelligence Community for the exchange of information related to potential U.S. export control violations;

(c) serve as a primary point of contact between enforcement authorities and agencies engaged in export licensing;

(d) coordinate law enforcement public outreach activities related to U.S. export controls; and

(e) establish Government-wide statistical tracking capabilities for U.S. criminal and administrative export control enforcement activities, to be conducted by the Department of Homeland Security with information provided by and shared with all relevant departments and agencies participating in the Center.

Sec. 4. Administration. (a) The Department of Homeland Security shall operate and provide funding and administrative support for the Center to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) The Director of the Center shall convene and preside at the Center's meetings, determine its agenda, direct the work of the Center, and, as appropriate to particular subject matters, organize and coordinate subgroups of the Center's members.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. (a) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) authority granted by law, regulation, Executive Order, or Presidential Directive to an executive department, agency, or head thereof; or

(ii) functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(c) Nothing in this order shall be construed to provide exclusive or primary investigative authority to any agency. Agencies shall continue to investigate criminal and administrative export violations consistent with their existing authorities, jointly or separately, with coordination through the Center to enhance enforcement efforts and minimize potential for conflict.

(d) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Barack Obama.      

1 So in original. Probably should be "gives".