[USC03] 12 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER II: MORTGAGE INSURANCE
Result 1 of 1
   
 
12 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER II: MORTGAGE INSURANCE
From Title 12—BANKS AND BANKINGCHAPTER 13—NATIONAL HOUSING

SUBCHAPTER II—MORTGAGE INSURANCE

§1707. Definitions

As used in section 1709 of this title

(a) The term "mortgage" means (A) a first mortgage on real estate, in fee simple, (B) a first mortgage on a leasehold on real estate (i) under a lease for not less than ninety-nine years which is renewable, or (ii) under a lease having a period of not less than ten years to run beyond the maturity date of the mortgage, or (C) a first mortgage given to secure the unpaid purchase price of a fee interest in, or long-term leasehold interest in, real estate consisting of a one-family unit in a multifamily project, including a project in which the dwelling units are attached, or are manufactured housing units, semi-detached, or detached, and an undivided interest in the common areas and facilities which serve the project; and the term "first mortgage" means such classes of first liens as are commonly given to secure advances on, or the unpaid purchase price of, real estate, under the laws of the State, in which the real estate is located, together with the credit instruments, if any, secured thereby.

(b) The term "mortgagee" includes the original lender under a mortgage, and his successors and assigns approved by the Secretary; and the term "mortgagor" includes the original borrower under a mortgage and his successors and assigns.

(c) The term "maturity date" means the date on which the mortgage indebtedness would be extinguished if paid in accordance with periodic payments provided for in the mortgage.

(d) The term "State" includes the several States, and Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.

(e) The term "family member" means, with respect to a mortgagor under such section, a child, parent, or grandparent of the mortgagor (or the mortgagor's spouse). In determining whether any of the relationships referred to in the preceding sentence exist, a legally adopted son or daughter of an individual (and a child who is a member of an individual's household, if placed with such individual by an authorized placement agency for legal adoption by such individual), and a foster child of an individual, shall be treated as a child of such individual by blood.

(f) The term "child" means, with respect to a mortgagor under such section, a son, stepson, daughter, or stepdaughter of such mortgagor.

(g) The term "real estate" means land and all natural resources and structures permanently affixed to the land, including residential buildings and stationary manufactured housing. The Secretary may not require, for treatment of any land or other property as real estate for purposes of this subchapter, that such land or property be treated as real estate for purposes of State taxation.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §201, 48 Stat. 1247; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 9; Mar. 28, 1941, ch. 31, §4(a), 55 Stat. 61; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §122, 64 Stat. 59; July 14, 1952, ch. 723, §10(a)(2), 66 Stat. 603; Pub. L. 86–70, §10(a), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 142; Pub. L. 86–624, §6, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 91–152, title IV, §403(c)(1), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 395; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §306, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1640; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §407(b)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1211; Pub. L. 104–204, title IV, §425(b), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2928; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §§2117(b), (c), 2120(c), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2833, 2835.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–289, §2117(b), inserted "(A)" before "a first mortgage", substituted "(B) a first mortgage on a leasehold on real estate (i)" for "or on a leasehold (1)" and ", or (ii)" for "or (2)", and inserted ", or (C) a first mortgage given to secure the unpaid purchase price of a fee interest in, or long-term leasehold interest in, real estate consisting of a one-family unit in a multifamily project, including a project in which the dwelling units are attached, or are manufactured housing units, semi-detached, or detached, and an undivided interest in the common areas and facilities which serve the project" before semicolon.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–289, §2120(c), substituted "the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands" for "the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–289, §2117(c), added subsec. (g).

1996—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 104–204 added subsecs. (e) and (f).

1983—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–181 inserted "American Samoa," after "Pacific Islands,".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted "ten years to run beyond the maturity date of the mortgage" for "fifty years to run from the date the mortgage was executed".

1969—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–152 inserted "the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands" after "Guam".

1967—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner".

1960—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–624 struck out "Hawaii," before "Puerto Rico".

1959—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–70 struck out "Alaska," before "Hawaii".

1952—Subsec. (d). Act July 14, 1952, inserted "Guam," after "District of Columbia".

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator".

1941—Subsec. (a). Act Mar. 28, 1941, §4(a)(1), struck out "district, or Territory".

Subsec. (d). Act Mar. 28, 1941, §4(a)(2), added subsec. (d).

1938—Subsec. (a)(2). Act Feb. 3, 1938, struck out "upon which there is located a dwelling for not more than four families which is used in whole or in part for residential purposes, irrespective of whether such dwelling has a party wall or is otherwise physically connected with another dwelling" after "executed".

Subsec. (c). Act Feb. 3, 1938, added subsec. (c).

Improvement of Financing for Multifamily Housing

Pub. L. 102–550, title V, subtitle C, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3794, which related to improvement of financing for multifamily housing and was formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred or omitted as follows:

Section 541 of Pub. L. 102–550 was transferred and is set out as a note under section 1701 of this title;

Section 542 of Pub. L. 102–550 was transferred to section 1715z–22 of this title;

Section 543 of Pub. L. 102–550, as amended by Pub. L. 111–203, title III, §371, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1565, was omitted from the Code;

Section 544 of Pub. L. 102–550 was transferred to section 1715z–22a of this title.

§1708. Federal Housing Administration operations

(a) Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund

(1) Establishment

Subject to the provisions of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 [2 U.S.C. 661 et seq.], there is hereby created a Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund (in this subchapter referred to as the "Fund"), which shall be used by the Secretary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter with respect to mortgages insured under section 1709 of this title. The Secretary may enter into commitments to guarantee, and may guarantee, such insured mortgages.

(2) Limit on loan guarantees

The authority of the Secretary to enter into commitments to guarantee such insured mortgages shall be effective for any fiscal year only to the extent that the aggregate original principal loan amount under such mortgages, any part of which is guaranteed, does not exceed the amount specified in appropriations Acts for such fiscal year.

(3) Fiduciary responsibility

The Secretary has a responsibility to ensure that the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund remains financially sound.

(4) Annual independent actuarial study

The Secretary shall provide for an independent actuarial study of the Fund to be conducted annually, which shall analyze the financial position of the Fund. The Secretary shall submit a report annually to the Congress describing the results of such study and assessing the financial status of the Fund. The report shall recommend adjustments to underwriting standards, program participation, or premiums, if necessary, to ensure that the Fund remains financially sound. The report shall also include an evaluation of the quality control procedures and accuracy of information utilized in the process of underwriting loans guaranteed by the Fund. Such evaluation shall include a review of the risk characteristics of loans based not only on borrower information and performance, but on risks associated with loans originated or funded by various entities or financial institutions.

(5) Quarterly reports

During each fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress for each calendar quarter, which shall specify for mortgages that are obligations of the Fund—

(A) the cumulative volume of loan guarantee commitments that have been made during such fiscal year through the end of the quarter for which the report is submitted;

(B) the types of loans insured, categorized by risk;

(C) any significant changes between actual and projected claim and prepayment activity;

(D) projected versus actual loss rates; and

(E) updated projections of the annual subsidy rates to ensure that increases in risk to the Fund are identified and mitigated by adjustments to underwriting standards, program participation, or premiums, and the financial soundness of the Fund is maintained.


The first quarterly report under this paragraph shall be submitted on the last day of the first quarter of fiscal year 2008, or on the last day of the first full calendar quarter following July 30, 2008, whichever is later.

(6) Adjustment of premiums

If, pursuant to the independent actuarial study of the Fund required under paragraph (4), the Secretary determines that the Fund is not meeting the operational goals established under paragraph (7) or there is a substantial probability that the Fund will not maintain its established target subsidy rate, the Secretary may either make programmatic adjustments under this subchapter as necessary to reduce the risk to the Fund, or make appropriate premium adjustments.

(7) Operational goals

The operational goals for the Fund are—

(A) to minimize the default risk to the Fund and to homeowners by among other actions instituting fraud prevention quality control screening not later than 18 months after July 30, 2008; and

(B) to meet the housing needs of the borrowers that the single family mortgage insurance program under this subchapter is designed to serve.

(b) Advisory Board

There is created a Federal Housing Administration Advisory Board ("Board") that shall review operation of the Federal Housing Administration, including the activities of the Mortgagee Review Board, and shall provide advice to the Federal Housing Commissioner with respect to the formulation of general policies of the Federal Housing Administration and such other matters as the Federal Housing Commissioner may deem appropriate. The Advisory Board shall, in all other respects, be subject to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act.

(1) The Advisory Board shall be composed of 15 members to be appointed from among individuals who have substantial expertise and broad experience in housing and mortgage lending of whom—

(A) 9 shall be appointed by the Secretary;

(B) 3 shall be appointed by the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of the Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate; and

(C) 3 shall be appointed by the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of the Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development of the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives.


(2) Membership on the Advisory Board shall include—

(A) not less than 4 persons with distinguished private sector careers in housing finance, lending, management, development or insurance;

(B) not less than 4 persons with outstanding reputations as licensed actuaries, experts in actuarial science, or economics related to housing;

(C) not less than 4 persons with backgrounds of leadership in representing the interests of housing consumers;

(D) not less than 1 person with significant experience and a distinguished reputation for work in the enforcement, advocacy, or development of fair housing or civil rights legislation; and

(E) not less than 1 person with a background of leadership representing rural housing interests.


(3) Members of the Advisory Board shall be selected to ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, geographical representation or every region of the country.

(4) Not more than 8 members of the Advisory Board may be from any one political party.

(5) Membership of the Advisory Board shall not include any person who, during the previous 24-month period, was required to register with the Secretary under section 3537b(c) 1 of title 42 or employed a person for purposes that required such person to so register.

(6) Of the members of the Advisory Board first appointed, 5 shall have terms of l year, and 5 shall have terms of 2 years. Their successors and all other appointees shall have terms of 3 years.

(7) The Advisory Board is empowered to confer with, request information of, and make recommendations to the Federal Housing Commissioner. The Commissioner shall promptly provide the Advisory Board with such information as the Board determines to be necessary to carry out its review of the activities and policies of the Federal Housing Administration.

(8) The Board shall, not later than December 31 of each year, submit to the Secretary and the Congress a report of its assessment of the activities of the Federal Housing Administration, including the soundness of underwriting procedures, the adequacy of information systems, the appropriateness of staffing patterns, the effectiveness of the Mortgagee Review Board, and other matters related to the Federal Housing Administration's ability to serve the nation's homebuyers and renters. Such report shall contain the Board's recommendations for improvement and include any minority views.

(9) The Board shall meet in Washington, D.C., not less than twice annually, or more frequently if requested by the Federal Housing Commissioner or a majority of the members. The Board shall elect a chair, vice-chair and secretary and adopt methods of procedure. The Board may establish committees and subcommittees as needed.

(10) Subject to the provisions of Section 7 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, all members of the Board may be compensated and shall be entitled to reimbursement from the Department for traveling expenses incurred in attendance at meetings of the Board.

(11) The Board shall terminate on January 1, 1995.

(c) Mortgagee Review Board

(1) Establishment

There is established within the Federal Housing Administration the Mortgagee Review Board ("Board"). The Board is empowered to initiate the issuance of a letter of reprimand, the probation, suspension or withdrawal of any mortgagee found to be engaging in activities in violation of Federal Housing Administration requirements or the nondiscrimination requirements of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act [15 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], the Fair Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.], or Executive Order 11063.

(2) Composition

The Board shall consist of—

(A) the Assistant Secretary of Housing/Federal Housing Commissioner;

(B) the General Counsel of the Department;

(C) the President of the Government National Mortgage Association;

(D) the Assistant Secretary for Administration;

(E) the Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing Enforcement (in cases involving violations of nondiscrimination requirements); and

(F) the Chief Financial Officer of the Department or their designees.

(3) Actions authorized

When any report, audit, investigation, or other information before the Board discloses that a basis for an administrative action against a mortgagee exists, the Board shall take one of the following administrative actions:

(A) Letter of reprimand

The Board may issue a letter of reprimand only once to a mortgagee without taking action under subparagraphs 2 (B), (C), or (D) of this section. A letter of reprimand shall explain the violation and describe actions the mortgagee should take to correct the violation.

(B) Probation

The Board may place a mortgagee on probation for a specified period of time not to exceed 6 months for the purpose of evaluating the mortgagee's compliance with Federal Housing Administration requirements, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act [15 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], the Fair Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.], Executive Order 11063, or orders of the Board. During the probation period, the Board may impose reasonable additional requirements on a mortgagee including supervision of the mortgagee's activities by the Federal Housing Administration, periodic reporting to the Federal Housing Commissioner, or submission to Federal Housing Administration audits of internal financial statements, audits by an independent certified public accountant or other audits.

(C) Suspension

The Board may issue an order temporarily suspending a mortgagee's approval for doing business with the Federal Housing Administration if (i) there exists adequate evidence of a violation or violations and (ii) continuation of the mortgagee's approval, pending or at the completion of any audit, investigation, or other review, or such administrative or other legal proceedings as may ensue, would not be in the public interest or in the best interests of the Department. Notwithstanding paragraph (4)(A), a suspension shall be effective upon issuance by the Board if the Board determines that there exists adequate evidence that immediate action is required to protect the financial interests of the Department or the public. A suspension shall last for not less than 6 months, and for not longer than 1 year. The Board may extend the suspension for an additional 6 months if it determines the extension is in the public interest. If the Board and the mortgagee agree, these time limits may be extended. During the period of suspension, the Federal Housing Administration shall not commit to insure any mortgage originated by the suspended mortgagee.

(D) Withdrawal

The Board may issue an order withdrawing a mortgagee if the Board has made a determination of a serious violation or repeated violations by the mortgagee. The Board shall determine the terms of such withdrawal, but the term shall be not less than 1 year. Where the Board has determined that the violation is egregious or willful, the withdrawal shall be permanent.

(E) Settlements

The Board may at any time enter into a settlement agreement with a mortgagee to resolve any outstanding grounds for an action. Agreements may include provisions such as—

(i) cessation of any violation;

(ii) correction or mitigation of the effects of any violation;

(iii) repayment of any sums of money wrongfully or incorrectly paid to the mortgagee by a mortgagor, by a seller or by the Federal Housing Administration;

(iv) actions to collect sums of money wrongfully or incorrectly paid by the mortgagee to a third party;

(v) indemnification of the Federal Housing Administration for mortgage insurance claims on mortgages originated in violation of Federal Housing Administration requirements;

(vi) modification of the length of the penalty imposed; or

(vii) implementation of other corrective measures acceptable to the Secretary.


Material failure to comply with the provisions of a settlement agreement shall be sufficient cause for suspension or withdrawal.

(4) Notice and hearing

(A) The Board shall issue a written notice to the mortgagee at least 30 days prior to taking any action against the mortgagee under subparagraph (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (3). The notice shall state the specific violations which have been alleged, and shall direct the mortgagee to reply in writing to the Board within 30 days. If the mortgagee fails to reply during such period, the Board may make a determination without considering any comments of the mortgagee.

(B) If the Board takes action against a mortgagee under subparagraph (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (3), the Board shall promptly notify the mortgagee in writing of the nature, duration, and specific reasons for the action. If, within 30 days of receiving the notice, the mortgagee requests a hearing, the Board shall hold a hearing on the record regarding the violations within 30 days of receiving the request. If a mortgagee fails to request a hearing within such 30-day period, the right of the mortgagee to a hearing shall be considered waived.

(C) In any case in which the notification of the Board does not result in a hearing (including any settlement by the Board and a mortgagee), any information regarding the nature of the violation and the resolution of the action shall be available to the public.

(5) Publication

The Secretary shall establish and publish in the Federal Register a description of and the cause for administrative action against a mortgagee.

(6) Cease-and-desist orders

(A) Whenever the Secretary, upon request of the Mortgagee Review Board, determines that there is reasonable cause to believe that a mortgagee is violating, has violated, or is about to violate, a law, rule or regulation or any condition imposed in writing by the Secretary or the Board, and that such violation could result in significant cost to the Federal Government or the public, the Secretary may issue a temporary order requiring the mortgagee to cease and desist from any such violation and to take affirmative action to prevent such violation or a continuation of such violation pending completion of proceedings of the Board with respect to such violation. Such order shall include a notice of charges in respect thereof and shall become effective upon service to the mortgagee. Such order shall remain effective and enforceable for a period not to exceed 30 days pending the completion of proceedings of the Board with respect to such violation, unless such order is set aside, limited, or suspended by a court in proceedings authorized by subparagraph (B) of this paragraph. The Board shall provide the mortgagee an opportunity for a hearing on the record, as soon as practicable but not later than 20 days after the temporary cease-and-desist order has been served.

(B) Within 10 days after the mortgagee has been served with a temporary cease-and-desist order, the mortgagee may apply to the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of the mortgagee is located, or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an injunction setting aside, limiting of suspending the enforcement, operation, or effectiveness of such order pending the completion of the administrative proceedings pursuant to the notice of charges served upon the mortgagee, and such court shall have jurisdiction to issue such injunction.

(C) In the case of violation or threatened violation of, or failure to obey, a temporary cease-and-desist order issued pursuant to this paragraph, the Secretary may apply to the United States district court, or the United States court of any territory, within the jurisdiction of which the home office of the mortgagee is located, for an injunction to enforce such order, and, if the court shall determine that there has been such violation or threatened violation or failure to obey, it shall be the duty of the court to issue such injunction.

(7) "Mortgagee" defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term "mortgagee" means—

(A) a mortgagee approved under this chapter;

(B) a lender or a loan correspondent approved under subchapter I of this chapter;

(C) a branch office or subsidiary of the mortgagee, lender, or loan correspondent; or

(D) a director, officer, employee, agent, or other person participating in the conduct of the affairs of the mortgagee, lender, or loan correspondent.

(8) Report required

The Board, in consultation with the Federal Housing Administration Advisory Board, shall annually recommend to the Secretary such amendments to statute or regulation as the Board determines to be appropriate to ensure the long term financial strength of the Federal Housing Administration fund and the adequate support for home mortgage credit.

(9) Prohibition against limitations on Mortgagee Review Board's power to take action against mortgagees

No State or local law, and no Federal law (except a Federal law enacted expressly in limitation of this subsection after the effective date of this sentence), shall preclude or limit the exercise by the Board of its power to take any action authorized under paragraphs (3) and (6) of this subsection against any mortgagee.

(d) Limitations on participation in origination and mortgagee approval

(1) Requirement

Any person or entity that is not approved by the Secretary to serve as a mortgagee, as such term is defined in subsection (c)(7), shall not participate in the origination of an FHA-insured loan except as authorized by the Secretary.

(2) Eligibility for approval

In order to be eligible for approval by the Secretary, an applicant mortgagee shall not be, and shall not have any officer, partner, director, principal, manager, supervisor, loan processor, loan underwriter, or loan originator of the applicant mortgagee who is—

(A) currently suspended, debarred, under a limited denial of participation (LDP), or otherwise restricted under part 25 of title 24 of the Code of Federal Regulations, 2 Code of Federal Regulations, part 180 as implemented by part 2424, or any successor regulations to such parts, or under similar provisions of any other Federal agency;

(B) under indictment for, or has been convicted of, an offense that reflects adversely upon the applicant's integrity, competence or fitness to meet the responsibilities of an approved mortgagee;

(C) subject to unresolved findings contained in a Department of Housing and Urban Development or other governmental audit, investigation, or review;

(D) engaged in business practices that do not conform to generally accepted practices of prudent mortgagees or that demonstrate irresponsibility;

(E) convicted of, or who has pled guilty or nolo contendre 3 to, a felony related to participation in the real estate or mortgage loan industry—

(i) during the 7-year period preceding the date of the application for licensing and registration; or

(ii) at any time preceding such date of application, if such felony involved an act of fraud, dishonesty, or a breach of trust, or money laundering;


(F) in violation of provisions of the S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 (12 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.) or any applicable provision of State law; or

(G) in violation of any other requirement as established by the Secretary.

(3) Rulemaking and implementation

The Secretary shall conduct a rulemaking to carry out this subsection. The Secretary shall implement this subsection not later than the expiration of the 60-day period beginning upon May 20, 2009, by notice, mortgagee letter, or interim final regulations, which shall take effect upon issuance.

(e) Coordination of GNMA and FHA withdrawal action

(1) Whenever the Federal Housing Administration or Government National Mortgage Association initiates proceedings that could lead to withdrawing the mortgagee from participating in the program, the initiating agency shall—

(A) within 24 hours notify the other agency in writing of the action taken;

(B) provide to the other agency the factual basis for the action taken; and

(C) if a mortgagee is withdrawn, publish its decision in the Federal Register.


(2) Within 60 days of receipt of a notification of action that could lead to withdrawal under subsection 4 (1), the Federal Housing Administration or the Government National Mortgage Association shall—

(A) conduct and complete its own investigation;

(B) provide written notification to the other agency of its decision, including the factual basis for its decision; and

(C) if a mortgagee is withdrawn, publish its decision in the Federal Register.

(f) Suspension or revocation of approval of mortgagee; notice and statement of reasons

Whenever the Secretary has taken any discretionary action to suspend or revoke the approval of any mortgagee to participate in any mortgage insurance program under this subchapter, the Secretary shall provide prompt notice of the action and a statement of the reasons for the action to—

(1) the Secretary of Veterans Affairs;

(2) the chief executive officer of the Federal National Mortgage Association;

(3) the chief executive officer of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation;

(4) the Secretary of Agriculture;

(5) if the mortgagee is a national bank, a subsidiary or affiliate of such bank, a Federal savings association or a subsidiary or affiliate of a savings association, the Comptroller of the Currency;

(6) if the mortgagee is a State bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System or a subsidiary or affiliate of such a bank, or a bank holding company or a subsidiary or affiliate of such a company, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; and

(7) if the mortgagee is a State bank or State savings association that is not a member of the Federal Reserve System or is a subsidiary or affiliate of such a bank, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

(g) Appraisal standards

(1) The Secretary shall prescribe standards for the appraisal of all property to be insured by the Federal Housing Administration. Such appraisals shall be performed in accordance with uniform standards, by individuals who have demonstrated competence and whose professional conduct is subject to effective supervision. These standards shall require at a minimum—

(A) that the appraisals of properties to be insured by the Federal Housing Administration shall be performed in accordance with generally accepted appraisal standards, such as the appraisal standards promulgated by the Appraisal Foundation a not-for-profit corporation established on November 30, 1987 under the laws of Illinois; and

(B) that each appraisal be a written statement used in connection with a real estate transaction that is independently an 5 impartially prepared by a licensed or certified appraiser setting forth an opinion of defined value of an adequately described property as of a specific date, supported by presentation and analysis of relevant market information.


(2) The Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council shall include the Secretary or his designee.

(3) Direct Endorsement Program.—

(A) Any mortgagee that is authorized by the Secretary to process mortgages as a direct endorsement mortgagee (pursuant to the single-family home mortgage direct endorsement program established by the Secretary) may contract with an appraiser chosen at the discretion of the mortgagee for the performance of appraisals in connection with such mortgages. Such appraisers may include appraisal companies organized as corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships.

(B) Any appraisal conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall be conducted by an individual who complies with the qualifications or standards for appraisers established by the Secretary pursuant to this subsection.

(C) In conducting an appraisal, such individual may utilize the assistance of others, who shall be under the direct supervision of the individual responsible for the appraisal. The individual responsible for the appraisal shall personally approve and sign any appraisal report.


(4) Fee Panel Appraisers.—

(A) Any individual who is an employee of an appraisal company (including any company organized as a corporation, partnership, or sole proprietorship) and who meets the qualifications or standards for appraisers and inclusion on appraiser fee panels established by the Secretary, shall be eligible for assignment to conduct appraisals for mortgages under this subchapter in the same manner and on the same basis as other approved appraisers.

(B) With respect to any employee of an appraisal company described in subparagraph (A) who is offered an appraisal assignment in connection with a mortgage under this subchapter, the person utilizing the appraiser may contract directly with the appraisal company employing the appraiser for the furnishing of the appraisal services.


(5) Additional appraiser standards.—Beginning on July 30, 2008, any appraiser chosen or approved to conduct appraisals for mortgages under this subchapter shall—

(A) be certified—

(i) by the State in which the property to be appraised is located; or

(ii) by a nationally recognized professional appraisal organization; and


(B) have demonstrated verifiable education in the appraisal requirements established by the Federal Housing Administration under this subsection.

(h) Use of name

The Secretary shall, by regulation, require each mortgagee approved by the Secretary for participation in the FHA mortgage insurance programs of the Secretary—

(1) to use the business name of the mortgagee that is registered with the Secretary in connection with such approval in all advertisements and promotional materials, as such terms are defined by the Secretary, relating to the business of such mortgagee in such mortgage insurance programs; and

(2) to maintain copies of all such advertisements and promotional materials, in such form and for such period as the Secretary requires.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §202, 48 Stat. 1248; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 10; June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §5, 53 Stat. 805; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §122, 64 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §142, Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2030; Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §322, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4134; Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §§502, 518, 519, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3778, 3792; Pub. L. 105–65, title V, §551, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1412; Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(c)], Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1441, 1441A-25; Pub. L. 110–289, div. A, title IV, §1404, div. B, title I, §§2116(1), (3), 2118(a), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2810, 2832, 2833; Pub. L. 111–22, div. A, title II, §203(a), (b), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1643; Pub. L. 111–203, title III, §373, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1566.)

References in Text

The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is title V of Pub. L. 93–344, as added by Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13201(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–609, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§661 et seq.) of chapter 17A of Title 2, The Congress. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 621 of Title 2 and Tables.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section 3537b(c) of title 42, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), was in the original "section 112(c) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989", meaning section 112 of Pub. L. 101–235, which does not contain a subsec. (c), but enacted section 13 of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act, which was classified to section 3537b of title 42 prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–65, §11(b)(1), Dec. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 701, and which contained a subsec. (c) relating to registration with the Secretary.

The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), (3)(B), is title VII of Pub. L. 90–321, as added by Pub. L. 93–495, title V, §503, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1521, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§1691 et seq.) of chapter 41 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Fair Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), (3)(B), is title VIII of Pub. L. 90–284, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 81, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§3601 et seq.) of chapter 45 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of Title 42 and Tables.

Executive Order 11063, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), (3)(B), is set out as a note under section 1982 of Title 42.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(A), was in the original "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1701 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The effective date of this sentence, referred to in subsec. (c)(9), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 111–22, which enacted par. (9) and was approved May 20, 2009.

The S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(F), is title V of div. A of Pub. L. 110–289, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2810, also known as the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§5101 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section 1709(s) of this title, which was transferred and redesignated as subsec. (e) of this section by Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2116(3), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2832, was based on act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §203(s), as added Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §135, Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2028; amended Pub. L. 108–386, §8(b), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2231; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2116(2), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2832.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 111–203, §373(1), added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "if the mortgagee is a national bank, or a subsidiary or affiliate of such a bank, the Comptroller of the Currency;".

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 111–203, §373(2), inserted "and" at end.

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 111–203, §373(3), inserted "or State savings association" after "State bank" and substituted period for "; and" at end.

Subsec. (f)(8). Pub. L. 111–203, §373(4), struck out par. (8) which read as follows: "if the mortgagee is a Federal or State savings association or a subsidiary or affiliate of a savings association, the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision."

2009—Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(a)(1)(A), inserted "and" after semicolon at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(F). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(a)(1)(B), substituted "or their designees." for "; and".

Subsec. (c)(2)(G). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(a)(1)(C), struck out subpar. (G), which read as follows: "the Director of the Enforcement Center; or their designees."

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(a)(2), added par. (9).

Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(b)(1), (2), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsecs. (d) to (f) as (e) to (g), respectively.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(b)(3), added subsec. (h).

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–289, §2118(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There is created a Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund (hereinafter referred to as the 'Fund'), which shall be used by the Secretary as a revolving fund for carrying out the provisions of this subchapter with respect to mortgages insured under section 1709 of this title as hereinafter provided, and there shall be allocated immediately to such Fund the sum of $10,000,000 out of funds made available to the Secretary for the purposes of this subchapter."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–289, §2116(3), transferred subsec. (s) of section 1709 of this title and redesignated it as subsec. (e) of this section. See Codification note above. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (e)(3)(B). Pub. L. 110–289, §2116(1)(A), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to "this subsection".

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 110–289, §1404, added par. (5).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–289, §2116(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f).

2000—Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(c)(1)], struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(F). Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(c)(2)], which directed substitution of "and" for "or their designees.", was executed by inserting "and" after semicolon to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because the phrase "or their designees." appeared at end of par. (2) and did not appear in subpar. (F).

Subsec. (c)(2)(G). Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(c)(3)], added subpar. (G).

1997—Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 105–65 inserted after first sentence "Notwithstanding paragraph (4)(A), a suspension shall be effective upon issuance by the Board if the Board determines that there exists adequate evidence that immediate action is required to protect the financial interests of the Department or the public."

1992—Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 102–550, §502, added par. (11).

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 102–550, §518, inserted "temporarily" after "order", "(i)" after "Administration if", "(ii)" after "violations and", and ", and for not longer than 1 year. The Board may extend the suspension for an additional 6 months if it determines the extension is in the public interest. If the Board and the mortgagee agree, these time limits may be extended" after "6 months".

Subsec. (c)(6)(D). Pub. L. 102–550, §519(1), struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: "For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'mortgagee' means a mortgagee, a branch office or subsidiary of a mortgagee, or a director, officer, employee, agent, or other person participating in the conduct of the affairs of such mortgagee."

Subsec. (c)(7), (8). Pub. L. 102–550, §519(2), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

1990—Subsec. (e)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–625 added pars. (3) and (4).

1989Pub. L. 101–235 substituted "Federal Housing Administration operations" for "Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund" in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted heading, and added subsecs. (b) to (e).

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing.

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator" wherever appearing.

1939—Act June 3, 1939, substituted "created" for "create".

1938—Act Feb. 3, 1938, inserted "with respect to mortgages insured under section 1709 of this title".

Change of Name

Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Banking and Financial Services of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Banking and Financial Services of House of Representatives abolished and replaced by Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred from Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the transfer date, see section 351 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 906 of Title 2, The Congress.

Expanded Review of FHA Mortgagee Applicants and Newly Approved Mortgagees

Pub. L. 111–22, div. A, title II, §203(g), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1648, provided that: "Not later than the expiration of the 3-month period beginning upon the date of the enactment of this Act [May 20, 2009], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall—

"(1) expand the existing process for reviewing new applicants for approval for participation in the mortgage insurance programs of the Secretary for mortgages on 1- to 4-family residences for the purpose of identifying applicants who represent a high risk to the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund; and

"(2) implement procedures that, for mortgagees approved during the 12-month period ending upon such date of enactment—

"(A) expand the number of mortgages originated by such mortgagees that are reviewed for compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and policies; and

"(B) include a process for random reviews of such mortgagees and a process for reviews that is based on volume of mortgages originated by such mortgagees."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "subparagraph".

3 So in original. Probably should be "contendere".

4 So in original. Probably should be "paragraph".

5 So in original. Probably should be "and".

§1709. Insurance of mortgages

(a) Authorization

The Secretary is authorized, upon application by the mortgagee, to insure as hereinafter provided any mortgage offered to him which is eligible for insurance as hereinafter provided, and, upon such terms as the Secretary may prescribe, to make commitments for the insuring of such mortgages prior to the date of their execution or disbursement thereon.

(b) Eligibility for insurance; mortgage limits

To be eligible for insurance under this section a mortgage shall comply with the following:

(1) Have been made to, and be held by, a mortgagee approved by the Secretary as responsible and able to service the mortgage properly.

(2) Involve a principal obligation (including such initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees as the Secretary shall approve) in an amount—

(A) not to exceed the lesser of—

(i) in the case of a 1-family residence, 115 percent of the median 1-family house price in the area, as determined by the Secretary; and in the case of a 2-, 3-, or 4-family residence, the percentage of such median price that bears the same ratio to such median price as the dollar amount limitation determined under the sixth sentence of section 1454(a)(2) of this title for a 2-, 3-, or 4-family residence, respectively, bears to the dollar amount limitation determined under such section for a 1-family residence; or

(ii) 150 percent of the dollar amount limitation determined under the sixth sentence of such section 1454(a)(2) for a residence of applicable size;


except that the dollar amount limitation in effect under this subparagraph for any size residence for any area may not be less than the greater of: (I) the dollar amount limitation in effect under this section for the area on October 21, 1998; or (II) 65 percent of the dollar amount limitation determined under the sixth sentence of such section 1454(a)(2) for a residence of the applicable size; and

(B) not to exceed 100 percent of the appraised value of the property.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "area" means a metropolitan statistical area as established by the Office of Management and Budget; and the median 1-family house price for an area shall be equal to the median 1-family house price of the county within the area that has the highest such median price. Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the amount which may be insured under this section may be increased by up to 20 percent if such increase is necessary to account for the increased cost of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system (as defined in subparagraph (3) of the last paragraph of section 1703(a) of this title) therein.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the Secretary may not insure, or enter into a commitment to insure, a mortgage under this section that is executed by a first-time homebuyer and that involves a principal obligation (including such initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees as the Secretary shall approve) in excess of 97 percent of the appraised value of the property unless the mortgagor has completed a program of counseling with respect to the responsibilities and financial management involved in homeownership that is approved by the Secretary; except that the Secretary may, in the discretion of the Secretary, waive the applicability of this requirement.

(3) Have a maturity satisfactory to the Secretary, but not to exceed, in any event, thirty-five years (or thirty years if such mortgage is not approved for insurance prior to construction) from the date of the beginning of amortization of the mortgage.

(4) Contain complete amortization provisions satisfactory to the Secretary requiring periodic payments by the mortgagor not in excess of his reasonable ability to pay as determined by the Secretary.

(5) Bear interest at such rate as may be agreed upon by the mortgagor and the mortgagee.

(6) Provide, in a manner satisfactory to the Secretary, for the application of the mortgagor's periodic payments (exclusive of the amount allocated to interest and to the premium charge which is required for mortgage insurance as hereinafter provided) to amortization of the principal of the mortgage.

(7) Contain such terms and provisions with respect to insurance, repairs, alterations, payment of taxes, default, reserves, delinquency charges, foreclosure proceedings, anticipation of maturity, additional and secondary liens, and other matters as the Secretary may in his discretion prescribe.

(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §406(b)(2), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1900.

(9) Cash investment requirement.—

(A) In general.—A mortgage insured under this section shall be executed by a mortgagor who shall have paid, in cash or its equivalent, on account of the property an amount equal to not less than 3.5 percent of the appraised value of the property or such larger amount as the Secretary may determine.

(B) Family members.—For purposes of this paragraph, the Secretary shall consider as cash or its equivalent any amounts borrowed from a family member (as such term is defined in section 1707 of this title), subject only to the requirements that, in any case in which the repayment of such borrowed amounts is secured by a lien against the property, that—

(i) such lien shall be subordinate to the mortgage; and

(ii) the sum of the principal obligation of the mortgage and the obligation secured by such lien may not exceed 100 percent of the appraised value of the property plus any initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees in connection with the mortgage.


(C) Prohibited sources.—In no case shall the funds required by subparagraph (A) consist, in whole or in part, of funds provided by any of the following parties before, during, or after closing of the property sale:

(i) The seller or any other person or entity that financially benefits from the transaction.

(ii) Any third party or entity that is reimbursed, directly or indirectly, by any of the parties described in clause (i).


This subparagraph shall apply only to mortgages for which the mortgagee has issued credit approval for the borrower on or after October 1, 2008.

(c) Premium charges

(1) The Secretary is authorized to fix premium charges for the insurance of mortgages under the separate sections of this subchapter but in the case of any mortgage such charge shall be not less than an amount equivalent to one-fourth of 1 per centum per annum nor more than an amount equivalent to 1 per centum per annum of the amount of the principal obligation of the mortgage outstanding at any time, without taking into account delinquent payments or prepayments: Provided, That premium charges fixed for insurance (1) under section 1715z–10,1 1715z–12, 1715z–16, 1715z–17, or 1715z–18 of this title, or any other financing mechanism providing alternative methods for repayment of a mortgage that is determined by the Secretary to involve additional risk, or (2) under subsection (n) are not required to be the same as the premium charges for mortgages insured under the other provisions of this section, but in no case shall premium charges under subsection (n) exceed 1 per centum per annum: Provided, That any reduced premium charge so fixed and computed may, in the discretion of the Secretary, also be made applicable in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe to each insured mortgage outstanding under the section or sections involved at the time the reduced premium charge is fixed. Such premium charges shall be payable by the mortgagee, either in cash, or in debentures issued by the Secretary under this subchapter at par plus accrued interest, in such manner as may be prescribed by the Secretary: Provided, That debentures presented in payment of premium charges shall represent obligations of the particular insurance fund or account to which such premium charges are to be credited: Provided further, That the Secretary may require the payment of one or more such premium charges at the time the mortgage is insured, at such discount rate as he may prescribe not in excess of the interest rate specified in the mortgage. If the Secretary finds upon the presentation of a mortgage for insurance and the tender of the initial premium charge or charges so required that the mortgage complies with the provisions of this section, such mortgage may be accepted for insurance by endorsement or otherwise as the Secretary may prescribe; but no mortgage shall be accepted for insurance under this section unless the Secretary finds that the project with respect to which the mortgage is executed is economically sound. In the event that the principal obligation of any mortgage accepted for insurance is paid in full prior to the maturity date, the Secretary is further authorized in his discretion to require the payment by the mortgagee of an adjusted premium charge in such amount as the Secretary determines to be equitable, but not in excess of the aggregate amount of the premium charges that the mortgagee would otherwise have been required to pay if the mortgage had continued to be insured under this section until such maturity date; and in the event that the principal obligation is paid in full as herein set forth the Secretary is authorized to refund to the mortgagee for the account of the mortgagor all, or such portion as he shall determine to be equitable, of the current unearned premium charges theretofore paid: Provided, That with respect to mortgages (1) for which the Secretary requires, at the time the mortgage is insured, the payment of a single premium charge to cover the total premium obligation for the insurance of the mortgage, and (2) on which the principal obligation is paid before the number of years on which the premium with respect to a particular mortgage was based, or the property is sold subject to the mortgage or is sold and the mortgage is assumed prior to such time, the Secretary shall provide for refunds, where appropriate, of a portion of the premium paid and shall provide for appropriate allocation of the premium cost among the mortgagors over the term of the mortgage, in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary which take into account sound financial and actuarial considerations.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, each mortgage secured by a 1- to 4-family dwelling that is an obligation of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund shall be subject to the following requirements:

(A) The Secretary shall establish and collect, at the time of insurance, a single premium payment in an amount not exceeding 3 percent of the amount of the original insured principal obligation of the mortgage. In the case of a mortgage for which the mortgagor is a first-time homebuyer who completes a program of counseling with respect to the responsibilities and financial management involved in homeownership that is approved by the Secretary, the premium payment under this subparagraph shall not exceed 2.75 percent of the amount of the original insured principal obligation of the mortgage. Upon payment in full of the principal obligation of a mortgage prior to the maturity date of the mortgage, the Secretary shall refund all of the unearned premium charges paid on the mortgage pursuant to this subparagraph, provided that the mortgagor refinances the unpaid principal obligation under this subchapter.

(B) In addition to the premium under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may establish and collect annual premium payments in an amount not exceeding 1.5 percent of the remaining insured principal balance (excluding the portion of the remaining balance attributable to the premium collected under subparagraph (A) and without taking into account delinquent payments or prepayments) for the following periods:

(i) For any mortgage involving an original principal obligation (excluding any premium collected under subparagraph (A)) that is less than 90 percent of the appraised value of the property (as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance), for the first 11 years of the mortgage term.

(ii) For any mortgage involving an original principal obligation (excluding any premium collected under subparagraph (A)) that is greater than or equal to 90 percent of such value, for the first 30 years of the mortgage term; except that notwithstanding the matter preceding clause (i), for any mortgage involving an original principal obligation (excluding any premium collected under subparagraph (A)) that is greater than 95 percent of such value, the annual premium collected during the 30-year period under this clause may be in an amount not exceeding 1.55 percent of the remaining insured principal balance (excluding the portion of the remaining balance attributable to the premium collected under subparagraph (A) and without taking into account delinquent payments or prepayments).


(C)(i) In addition to the premiums under subparagraphs (A) and (B), the Secretary shall establish and collect annual premium payments for any mortgage for which the Secretary collects an annual premium payment under subparagraph (B), in an amount described in clause (ii).

(ii)(I) Subject to subclause (II), with respect to a mortgage, the amount described in this clause is 10 basis points of the remaining insured principal balance (excluding the portion of the remaining balance attributable to the premium collected under subparagraph (A) and without taking into account delinquent payments or prepayments).

(II) During the 2-year period beginning on December 23, 2011, the Secretary shall increase the number of basis points of the annual premium payment collected under this subparagraph incrementally, as determined appropriate by the Secretary, until the number of basis points of the annual premium payment collected under this subparagraph is equal to the number described in subclause (I).

(d) Increase in maximum amount of mortgage

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, notwithstanding 2 provision of this subchapter governing maximum mortgage amounts for insuring a mortgage secured by a one- to four-family dwelling, the maximum amount of the mortgage determined under any such provision may be increased by the amount of the mortgage insurance premium paid at the time the mortgage is insured.

(2) The maximum amount of a mortgage determined under subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section may not be increased as provided in paragraph (1).

(e) Contract of insurance as evidence of eligibility

Any contract of insurance heretofore or hereafter executed by the Secretary under this subchapter shall be conclusive evidence of the eligibility of the loan or mortgage for insurance, and the validity of any contract of insurance so executed shall be incontestable in the hands of an approved financial institution or approved mortgagee from the date of the execution of such contract, except for fraud or misrepresentation on the part of such approved financial institution or approved mortgagee.

(f) Disclosure of other mortgage products

(1) In general

In conjunction with any loan insured under this section, an original lender shall provide to each prospective borrower a disclosure notice that provides a 1-page analysis of mortgage products offered by that lender and for which the borrower would qualify.

(2) Notice

The notice required under paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) a generic analysis comparing the note rate (and associated interest payments), insurance premiums, and other costs and fees that would be due over the life of the loan for a loan insured by the Secretary under subsection (b) with the note rates, insurance premiums (if applicable), and other costs and fees that would be expected to be due if the mortgagor obtained instead other mortgage products offered by the lender and for which the borrower would qualify with a similar loan-to-value ratio in connection with a conventional mortgage (as that term is used in section 1454(a)(2) of this title or section 1717(b)(2) of this title, as applicable), assuming prevailing interest rates; and

(B) a statement regarding when the requirement of the mortgagor to pay the mortgage insurance premiums for a mortgage insured under this section would terminate, or a statement that the requirement shall terminate only if the mortgage is refinanced, paid off, or otherwise terminated.

(g) Limitation on use of single family mortgage insurance by investors

(1) The Secretary may insure a mortgage under this subchapter that is secured by a 1- to 4-family dwelling, or approve a substitute mortgagor with respect to any such mortgage, only if the mortgagor is to occupy the dwelling as his or her principal residence or as a secondary residence, as determined by the Secretary. In making this determination with respect to the occupancy of secondary residences, the Secretary may not insure mortgages with respect to such residences unless the Secretary determines that it is necessary to avoid undue hardship to the mortgagor. In no event may a secondary residence under this subsection include a vacation home, as determined by the Secretary.

(2) The occupancy requirement established in paragraph (1) shall not apply to any mortgagor (or co-mortgagor, as appropriate) that is—

(A) a public entity, as provided in section 1715d or 1715z–12 of this title, or any other State or local government or an agency thereof;

(B) a private nonprofit or public entity, as provided in section 1715l(h) or 1715z(j) of this title, or other private nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and intends to sell or lease the mortgaged property to low or moderate-income persons, as determined by the Secretary;

(C) an Indian tribe, as provided in section 1715z–13 of this title;

(D) a serviceperson who is unable to meet such requirement because of his or her duty assignment, as provided in section 1715g of this title or subsection (b)(4) or (f) of section 1715m 1 of this title;

(E) a mortgagor or co-mortgagor under subsection (k); or

(F) a mortgagor that, pursuant to section 1715n(a)(7) of this title, is refinancing an existing mortgage insured under this chapter for not more than the outstanding balance of the existing mortgage, if the amount of the monthly payment due under the refinancing mortgage is less than the amount due under the existing mortgage for the month in which the refinancing mortgage is executed.


(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term "substitute mortgagor" means a person who, upon the release by a mortgagee of a previous mortgagor from personal liability on the mortgage note, assumes such liability and agrees to pay the mortgage debt.

(h) Disaster housing

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Secretary is authorized to insure any mortgage which involves a principal obligation not in excess of the applicable maximum dollar limit under subsection (b) and not in excess of 100 per centum of the appraised value of a property upon which there is located a dwelling designed principally for a single-family residence, where the mortgagor establishes (to the satisfaction of the Secretary) that his home which he occupied as an owner or as a tenant was destroyed or damaged to such an extent that reconstruction is required as a result of a flood, fire, hurricane, earthquake, storm, or other catastrophe which the President, pursuant to sections 5122(2) and 5170 of title 42, has determined to be a major disaster.

(i) Repealed. Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(1), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835

(j) Real estate loans by national banks

Loans secured by mortgages insured under this section shall not be taken into account in determining the amount of real estate loans which a national bank may make in relation to its capital and surplus or its time and savings deposits.

(k) Rehabilitation of one- to four-family structures; definitions; eligibility; refinancing and extension; General Insurance Fund

(1) The Secretary may, in order to assist in the rehabilitation of one- to four-family structures used primarily for residential purposes, insure and make commitments to insure rehabilitation loans (including advances made during rehabilitation) made by financial institutions. Such commitments to insure and such insurance shall be made upon such terms and conditions which the Secretary may prescribe and which are consistent with the provisions of subsections (b), (c), (e), (i),1 and (j) of this section, except as modified by the provisions of this subsection.

(2) For the purpose of this subsection—

(A) the term "rehabilitation loan" means a loan, advance of credit, or purchase of an obligation representing a loan or advance of credit, made for the purpose of financing—

(i) the rehabilitation of an existing one- to four-unit structure which will be used primarily for residential purposes;

(ii) the rehabilitation of such a structure and the refinancing of the outstanding indebtedness on such structure and the real property on which the structure is located; or

(iii) the rehabilitation of such a structure and the purchase of the structure and the real property on which it is located; and


(B) the term "rehabilitation" means the improvement (including improvements designed to meet cost-effective energy conservation standards prescribed by the Secretary) or repair of a structure, or facilities in connection with a structure, and may include the provision of such sanitary or other facilities as are required by applicable codes, a community development plan, or a statewide property insurance plan to be provided by the owner or tenant of the project. The term "rehabilitation" may also include measures to evaluate and reduce lead-based paint hazards, as such terms are defined in section 4851b of title 42.


(3) To be eligible for insurance under this subsection, a rehabilitation loan shall—

(A) involve a principal obligation (including such initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees as the Secretary shall approve) in an amount which does not exceed, when added to any outstanding indebtedness of the borrower which is secured by the structure and the property on which it is located, the amount specified in subsection (b)(2); except that, in determining the amount of the principal obligation for purposes of this subsection, the Secretary shall establish as the appraised value of the property an amount not to exceed the sum of the estimated cost of rehabilitation and the Secretary's estimate of the value of the property before rehabilitation;

(B) bear interest at such rate as may be agreed upon by the borrower and the financial institution;

(C) be an acceptable risk, as determined by the Secretary; and

(D) comply with such other terms, conditions, and restrictions as the Secretary may prescribe.


(4) Any rehabilitation loan insured under this subsection may be refinanced and extended in accordance with such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, but in no event for an additional amount or term which exceeds the maximum provided for in this subsection.

(5) All funds received and all disbursements made pursuant to the authority established by this subsection shall be credited or charged, as appropriate, to the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, and insurance benefits shall be paid in cash out of such Fund or in debentures executed in the name of such Fund. Insurance benefits paid with respect to loans secured by a first mortgage and insured under this subsection shall be paid in accordance with section 1710 of this title. Insurance benefits paid with respect to loans secured by a mortgage other than a first mortgage and insured under this subsection shall be paid in accordance with paragraphs (6) and (7) of section 1715k(h) of this title, except that reference to "this subsection" in such paragraphs shall be construed as referring to this subsection.

(l) Repealed. Pub. L. 90–448, title I, §103(b), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 486

(m) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §406(c), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1902

(n) Cooperative housing projects; definitions

(1) The Secretary is authorized to insure under this section any mortgage meeting the requirements of subsection (b) of this section, except as modified by this subsection. To be eligible, the mortgage shall involve a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing project which is covered by a blanket mortgage insured under this chapter or the construction of which was completed more than a year prior to the application for the mortgage insurance. The mortgage amount as determined under the other provisions of subsection (b) of this section shall be reduced by an amount equal to the portion of the unpaid balance of the blanket mortgage covering the project which is attributable (as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance) to such unit.

(2) For the purposes of this subsection—

(A) The terms "home mortgage" and "mortgage" include a first or subordinate mortgage or lien given (in accordance with the laws of the State where the property is located and accompanied by such security and other undertakings as may be required under regulations of the Secretary) to secure a loan made to finance the purchase of stock or membership in a cooperative ownership housing corporation the permanent occupancy of the dwelling units of which is restricted to members of such corporation, where the purchase of such stock or membership will entitle the purchaser to the permanent occupancy of one of such units.

(B) The terms "appraised value of the property", "value of the property", and "value" include the appraised value of a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing project of the type described in subparagraph (A) where the purchase of the stock or membership involved will entitle the purchaser to the permanent occupancy of that unit; and the term "property" includes a dwelling unit in such a cooperative project.

(C) The term "mortgagor" includes a person or persons giving a first or subordinate mortgage or lien (of the type described in subparagraph (A)) to secure a loan to finance the purchase of stock or membership in a cooperative housing corporation.

(o) Repealed. Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(2), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835

(p) Repealed. Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(3), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835

(q) Repealed. Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(4), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835

(r) Actions to reduce losses under single family mortgage insurance program

The Secretary shall take appropriate actions to reduce losses under the single-family mortgage insurance programs carried out under this subchapter. Such actions shall include—

(1) an annual review by the Secretary of the rate of early serious defaults and claims, in accordance with section 1735f–11 of this title;

(2) requiring that at least one person acquiring ownership of a one- to four-family residential property encumbered by a mortgage insured under this subchapter be determined to be creditworthy under standards prescribed by the Secretary, whether or not such person assumes personal liability under the mortgage (except that acquisitions by devise or descent shall not be subject to this requirement);

(3) in any case where personal liability under a mortgage is assumed, requiring that the original mortgagor be advised of the procedures by which he or she may be released from liability; and

(4) providing counseling, either directly or through third parties, to delinquent mortgagors whose mortgages are insured under this section, using the Fund to pay for such counseling.


In any case where the homeowner does not request a release from liability, the purchaser and the homeowner shall have joint and several liability for any default for a period of 5 years following the date of the assumption. After the close of such 5-year period, only the purchaser shall be liable for any default on the mortgage unless the mortgage is in default at the time of the expiration of the 5-year period.

(s) Transferred

(t) Disclosure regarding interest due upon mortgage prepayment

(1) Each mortgagee (or servicer) with respect to a mortgage under this section shall provide each mortgagor of such mortgagee (or servicer) written notice, not less than annually, containing a statement of the amount outstanding for prepayment of the principal amount of the mortgage and describing any requirements the mortgagor must fulfill to prevent the accrual of any interest on such principal amount after the date of any prepayment. This paragraph shall apply to any insured mortgage outstanding on or after the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of effectiveness of final regulations implementing this paragraph.

(2) Each mortgagee (or servicer) with respect to a mortgage under this section shall, at or before closing with respect to any such mortgage, provide the mortgagor with written notice (in such form as the Secretary shall prescribe, by regulation, before the expiration of the 90-day period beginning upon November 28, 1990) describing any requirements the mortgagor must fulfill upon prepayment of the principal amount of the mortgage to prevent the accrual of any interest on the principal amount after the date of such prepayment. This paragraph shall apply to any mortgage executed after the expiration of the period under paragraph (1).

(u) Accountability of mortgage lenders

(1) No mortgagee may make or hold mortgages insured under this section if the customary lending practices of the mortgagee, as determined by the Secretary pursuant to section 1735f–17 of this title, provide for a variation in mortgage charge rates that exceeds 2 percent for insured mortgages made by the mortgagee on dwellings located within an area. The Secretary shall ensure that any permissible variations in the mortgage charge rates of any mortgagee are based only on actual variations in fees or costs to the mortgagee to make the loan.

(2) For purposes of this subsection—

(A) the term "area" means a metropolitan statistical area as established by the Office of Management and Budget;

(B) the term "mortgage charges" includes the interest rate, discount points, loan origination fee, and any other amount charged to a mortgagor with respect to an insured mortgage; and

(C) the term "mortgage charge rate" means the amount of mortgage charges for an insured mortgage expressed as a percentage of the initial principal amount of the mortgage.

(v) Use of FHA insurance with assistance under 42 U.S.C. 1437f

The insurance of a mortgage under this section in connection with the assistance provided under section 1437f(y) of title 42 shall be the obligation of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

(w) Annual report

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall submit to the Congress an annual report on the single family mortgage insurance program under this section. Each report shall set forth—

(1) an analysis of the income groups served by the single family insurance program, including—

(A) the percentage of borrowers whose incomes do not exceed 100 percent of the median income for the area;

(B) the percentage of borrowers whose incomes do not exceed 80 percent of the median income for the area; and

(C) the percentage of borrowers whose incomes do not exceed 60 percent of the median income for the area;


(2) an analysis of the percentage of minority borrowers annually assisted by the program; the percentage of central city borrowers assisted and the percentage of rural borrowers assisted by the program;

(3) the extent to which the Secretary in carrying out the program has employed methods to ensure that needs of low and moderate income families, underserved areas, and historically disadvantaged groups are served by the program; and

(4) the current impediments to having the program serve low and moderate income borrowers; borrowers from central city areas; borrowers from rural areas; and minority borrowers.


The report required under this subsection shall include the report required under section 1735f–18(c) of this title and the report required under section 1711(g) 1 of this title.

(x) Management deficiencies report

(1) In general

Not later than 60 days after October 21, 1998, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the plan of the Secretary to address each material weakness, reportable condition, and noncompliance with an applicable law or regulation (as defined by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget) identified in the most recent audited financial statement of the Federal Housing Administration submitted under section 3515 of title 31.

(2) Contents of annual report

Each report submitted under paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) an estimate of the resources, including staff, information systems, and contract assistance, required to address each material weakness, reportable condition, and noncompliance with an applicable law or regulation described in paragraph (1), and the costs associated with those resources;

(B) an estimated timetable for addressing each material weakness, reportable condition, and noncompliance with an applicable law or regulation described in paragraph (1); and

(C) the progress of the Secretary in implementing the plan of the Secretary included in the report submitted under paragraph (1) for the preceding year, except that this subparagraph does not apply to the initial report submitted under paragraph (1).

(y) Requirements for mortgages for condominiums

(1) Project recertification requirements

Notwithstanding any other law, regulation, or guideline of the Secretary, including chapter 2.4 of the Condominium Project Approval and Processing Guide of the FHA, the Secretary shall streamline the project certification requirements that are applicable to the insurance under this section for mortgages for condominium projects so that recertifications are substantially less burdensome than certifications. The Secretary shall consider lengthening the time between certifications for approved properties, and allowing updating of information rather than resubmission.

(2) Commercial space requirements

Notwithstanding any other law, regulation, or guideline of the Secretary, including chapter 2.1.3 of the Condominium Project Approval and Processing Guide of the FHA, in providing for exceptions to the requirement for the insurance of a mortgage on a condominium property under this section regarding the percentage of the floor space of a condominium property that may be used for nonresidential or commercial purposes, the Secretary shall provide that—

(A) any request for such an exception and the determination of the disposition of such request may be made, at the option of the requester, under the direct endorsement lender review and approval process or under the HUD review and approval process through the applicable field office of the Department; and

(B) in determining whether to allow such an exception for a condominium property, factors relating to the economy for the locality in which such project is located or specific to project,2 including the total number of family units in the project, shall be considered.


Not later than the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on July 29, 2016, the Secretary shall issue regulations to implement this paragraph, which shall include any standards, training requirements, and remedies and penalties that the Secretary considers appropriate.

(3) Transfer fees

Notwithstanding any other law, regulation, or guideline of the Secretary, including chapter 1.8.8 of the Condominium Project Approval and Processing Guide of the FHA and section 203.41 of the Secretary's regulations (24 CFR 203.41), existing standards of the Federal Housing Finance Agency relating to encumbrances under private transfer fee covenants shall apply to the insurance of mortgages by the Secretary under this section to the same extent and in the same manner that such standards apply to the purchasing, investing in, and otherwise dealing in mortgages by the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation. If the provisions of part 1228 of the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency's regulations (12 CFR part 1228) are amended or otherwise changed after July 29, 2016, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall adopt any such amendments or changes for purposes of this paragraph, unless the Secretary causes to be published in the Federal Register a notice explaining why the Secretary will disregard such amendments or changes within 90 days after the effective date of such amendments or changes.

(4) Owner-occupancy requirement

(A) Establishment of percentage requirement

Not later than the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on July 29, 2016, the Secretary shall, by rule, notice, or mortgagee letter, issue guidance regarding the percentage of units that must be occupied by the owners as a principal residence or a secondary residence (as such terms are defined by the Secretary), or must have been sold to owners who intend to meet such occupancy requirements, including justifications for the percentage requirements, in order for a condominium project to be acceptable to the Secretary for insurance under this section of a mortgage within such condominium property.

(B) Failure to act

If the Secretary fails to issue the guidance required under subparagraph (A) before the expiration of the 90-day period specified in such clause, the following provisions shall apply:

(i) 35 percent requirement

In order for a condominium project to be acceptable to the Secretary for insurance under this section, at least 35 percent of all family units (including units not covered by FHA-insured mortgages) must be occupied by the owners as a principal residence or a secondary residence (as such terms are defined by the Secretary), or must have been sold to owners who intend to meet such occupancy requirement.

(ii) Other considerations

The Secretary may increase the percentage applicable pursuant to clause (i) to a condominium project on a project-by-project or regional basis, and in determining such percentage for a project shall consider factors relating to the economy for the locality in which such project is located or specific to project,2 including the total number of family units in the project.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §203, 48 Stat. 1248; May 28, 1935, ch. 150, §29(a), 49 Stat. 299; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §344(c), 49 Stat. 722; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 10; June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §§6–8, 53 Stat. 805, 806; June 28, 1941, ch. 261, §8, 55 Stat. 365; Oct. 15, 1943, ch. 259, §2, 57 Stat. 571; July 1, 1946, ch. 531, 60 Stat. 408; Aug. 10, 1948, ch. 832, title I, §101(g)–(k), 62 Stat. 1272; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title II, §201(2), 63 Stat. 421; Aug. 30, 1949, ch. 524, 63 Stat. 681; Oct. 25, 1949, ch. 729, §1(2), 63 Stat. 905; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §§103, 104(a), 122, 64 Stat. 51, 59; June 30, 1953, ch. 170, §3, 67 Stat. 121; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title I, §§104–110, 68 Stat. 591, 592; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title I, §§102, 104(a), 70 Stat. 1091, 1092; Pub. L. 85–104, title I, §§101, 106, July 12, 1957, 71 Stat. 294, 297; Pub. L. 85–364, §1(a), Apr. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 73; Pub. L. 86–372, title I, §§102, 103, title VIII, §809, Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 654, 688; Pub. L. 87–70, title I, §102(b), title VI, §§604(b), 605, 606, 612(a), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 157, 177, 178, 180; Pub. L. 88–560, title I, §§102, 103, 105(c)(1), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 769, 772; Pub. L. 89–117, title II, §§203–206, title XI, §1108(c), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 466, 504; Pub. L. 89–754, title III, §§301, 302, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1266; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), (4), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 90–448, title I, §103(b), title III, §§317, 318, title XI, §1106(d), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 486, 512, 567; Pub. L. 91–152, title I, §§102(a), 113(a), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 379, 383; Pub. L. 91–606, title III, §301(c), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1758; Pub. L. 93–288, title VII, §702(c), formerly title VI, §602(c), May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 163, renumbered title VII, §702(c), Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIV, §3411(a)(1), (2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3100; Pub. L. 93–383, title III, §§302(a), 310(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 676, 682; Pub. L. 93–449, §4(b), Oct. 18, 1974, 88 Stat. 1367; Pub. L. 95–128, title III, §§303(a), (g), 304(a), 305, 307, Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1132, 1133, 1134; Pub. L. 95–557, title I, §101(c)(1), (2), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2082, 2083; Pub. L. 95–619, title II, §248(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3235; Pub. L. 96–153, title III, §§310, 312(a), 318, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1114, 1116, 1119; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §§321, 328, 333(a), 336(a), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1646, 1651, 1653, 1654; Pub. L. 97–253, title II, §201(a), (b), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 789; Pub. L. 98–63, title I, July 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 321; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §§404(b)(2), (3), 419, 423(a), (b)(1), 424(a), 425, 447], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1209, 1212, 1216-1218, 1228; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(2), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2232; Pub. L. 99–601, Nov. 5, 1986, 100 Stat. 3357; Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §§403–405(1), 406(a)–(b)(6), (c), 407(a)(1), 422(b), 423, 429(c), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1899–1902, 1914, 1918; Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §§1061–1063(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3274; Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §109(e)(2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4708; Pub. L. 101–144, title II, Nov. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §§132(a), 135, 143(a), (b), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2026, 2028, 2036; Pub. L. 101–402, §3, Oct. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 866; Pub. L. 101–507, title II, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1369; Pub. L. 101–508, title II, §§2101–2103(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–17; Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §§326(a), 327, 329, 330(a), title IV, §429, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4137, 4138, 4171; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §402(d)(2), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 102–389, title II, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1591, 1593; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §185(c)(1), title V, §§503(a), 504–506(a), 507(a), title X, §1012(k)(2), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3747, 3779-3782, 3907; Pub. L. 103–211, title I, Feb. 12, 1994, 108 Stat. 12; Pub. L. 103–327, title II, Sept. 28, 1994, 108 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 104–204, title IV, §§424, 425(a), 426, Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2927, 2928; Pub. L. 105–65, title II, §211, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1366; Pub. L. 105–276, title II, §§212, 224, 225(a), 228, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2486, 2489-2491; Pub. L. 106–74, title II, §207, Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1072; Pub. L. 106–281, §2, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 865; Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §§209(a), 225], Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1441, 1441A-25, 1441A-30; Pub. L. 106–569, title XI, §1103(f), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3031; Pub. L. 107–73, title II, §207(a), Nov. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 674; Pub. L. 107–326, §2, Dec. 4, 2002, 116 Stat. 2792; Pub. L. 108–386, §8(b), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2231; Pub. L. 108–447, div. I, title II, §§222, 223, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3321; Pub. L. 109–13, div. A, title VI, §6073, May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 300; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §§2112(a), (b), 2113–2115, 2116(2), (3), 2118(b)(1), 2120(a)(1)–(4), (b), 2121, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2830–2832, 2834, 2835; Pub. L. 111–229, §1(a), Aug. 11, 2010, 124 Stat. 2483; Pub. L. 112–78, title IV, §402(a), (b), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 114–201, title III, §301, July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 806.)

Amendment of Subsection (c)(2)

Pub. L. 112–78, §402(b), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1289, provided that, effective Oct. 1, 2021, subsection (c)(2) of this section is amended by striking subparagraph (C). See 2011 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Section 1715z–10 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(7), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835.

Section 1715m of this title, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(D), was repealed by Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(5), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (g)(2)(F) and (n)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1701 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Subsection (i) of this section, referred to in subsec. (k)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(1), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835.

Section 1711(g) of this title, referred to in subsec. (w), was repealed by Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2118(c)(1), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (y). Pub. L. 114–201 added subsec. (y).

2011—Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 112–78, §402(b), struck out subpar. (C) which related to requirement that the Secretary, in addition to the premiums under subpars. (A) and (B), establish and collect annual premium payments of up to 10 basis points of the remaining insured principal balance for any mortgage for which the Secretary collects an annual premium under subpar.(B). See Effective Date of 2011 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 112–78, §402(a), added subpar. (C).

2010—Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 111–229, §1(a)(1), in introductory provisions, substituted "may" for "shall" and "1.5 percent" for "0.50 percent".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 111–229, §1(a)(2), substituted "may be in an amount not exceeding 1.55 percent" for "shall be in an amount not exceeding 0.55 percent".

2008—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–289, §2112(a)(2), which directed striking out second sentence in matter following subpar. (B) and all that followed through "section 3103A(d) of title 38", was executed in first undesignated par. after subpar. (B) by striking out "For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'average closing cost' means, with respect to a State, the average, for mortgages executed for properties that are located within the State, of the total amounts (as determined by the Secretary) of initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees (as the Secretary shall approve) that are paid in connection with such mortgages. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, in any case where the dwelling is not approved for mortgage insurance prior to the beginning of construction, such mortgage shall not exceed 90 per centum of the entire appraised value of the property as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance, unless (i) the dwelling was completed more than one year prior to the application for mortgage insurance, or (ii) the dwelling was approved for guaranty, insurance, or a direct loan under chapter 37 of title 38 prior to the beginning of construction, or (iii) the dwelling is covered by a consumer protection or warranty plan acceptable to the Secretary and satisfies all requirements which would have been applicable if such dwelling had been approved for mortgage insurance prior to the beginning of construction. As used herein, the term 'veteran' means any person who served on active duty in the armed forces of the United States for a period of not less than ninety days (or is certified by the Secretary of Defense as having performed extra-hazardous service), and who was discharged or released therefrom under conditions other than dishonorable, except that persons enlisting in the armed forces after September 7, 1980, or entering active duty after October 16, 1981, shall have their eligibility determined in accordance with section 5303A(d) of title 38.", to reflect the probable intent of Congress and amendment by Pub. L. 102–40. See 1991 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A), (B). Pub. L. 110–289, §2112(a)(1), added subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which related to maximum limits for principal loan obligation.

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 110–289, §2113, amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (9) related to requirement that mortgagors other than veterans pay on account of the property at least 3 per centum, or such larger amount as the Secretary may determine, of the Secretary's estimate of the cost of acquisition, excluding the mortgage insurance premium paid at the time the mortgage is insured, in cash or its equivalent.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 110–289, §2114(1), in introductory provisions, struck out "or of the General Insurance Fund pursuant to subsection (v) of this section and each mortgage that is insured under subsection (k) of this section or section 1715y(c) of this title,," after "Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–289, §2114(2), substituted "3 percent" for "2.25 percent" and "2.75 percent" for "2.0 percent".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–289, §2112(b), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, notwithstanding" for "Notwithstanding any", designated existing provisions as par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 110–289, §2120(a)(1), struck out subsec. (i) which related to Secretary's authority to insure mortgages for single-family residences in suburban and outlying areas or small communities and certain farm homes.

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 110–289, §2115(1), struck out "on and after 180 days following October 31, 1978" after "financial institutions".

Subsec. (k)(5). Pub. L. 110–289, §2115(2), substituted "Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund" for "General Insurance Fund" and struck out ", except that all references in section 1710 of this title to the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund shall be construed as referring to the General Insurance Fund" after "section 1710 of this title".

Subsec. (n)(2)(A), (C). Pub. L. 110–289, §2121, inserted "or subordinate mortgage or" before "lien".

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 110–289, §2120(a)(2), struck out subsec. (o) which related to insurance of mortgages on owner occupied homes in communities subject to adverse economic conditions resulting from Indian claims to ownership of land and obligation of Special Risk Insurance Fund.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 110–289, §2120(a)(3), struck out subsec. (p) which related to insurance of mortgages in communities subject to temporary adverse economic conditions as a result of claims to ownership of land in the community by an American Indian Tribe, band, or nation.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 110–289, §2120(a)(4), struck out subsec. (q) which related to insurance of mortgages secured by property on certain lands leased by Seneca Nation of New York Indians.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 110–289, §2116(3), redesignated and transferred subsec. (s) of this section to subsec. (e) of section 1708 of this title.

Subsec. (s)(4). Pub. L. 110–289, §2116(2), added par. (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: "the Administrator of the Farmers Home Administration;".

Subsec. (u)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–289, §2120(b), substituted "means a metropolitan statistical area as established by the Office of Management and Budget;" for "shall have the meaning given the term under subsection (b)(2) of this section;".

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 110–289, §2118(b)(1), substituted "The" for "Notwithstanding section 1708 of this title, the" and "Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund." for "General Insurance Fund created pursuant to section 1735c of this title. The provisions of subsections (a) through (h), (j), and (k) of section 1710 of this title shall apply to such mortgages, except that (1) all references in section 1710 of this title to the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund or the Fund shall be construed to refer to the General Insurance Fund, and (2) any excess amounts described in section 1710(f)(1) of this title shall be retained by the Secretary and credited to the General Insurance Fund."

2005—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–13, §6073(b)(2), struck out "or (k)" after "(2) under subsection (n)" and "charges under subsection (n)".

Pub. L. 109–13, §6073(b)(1), substituted "(2) under subsection (n)" for "(2) under subsections (n)".

Pub. L. 109–13, §6073(a), repealed Pub. L. 108–447, §222. See note below.

2004–Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–447, §222, which directed the substitution of "subsection (n)" for "subsections (n) and (k)" and the striking out of "or (k)", was repealed by Pub. L. 109–13, §6073(a).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–447, §223, inserted ", provided that the mortgagor refinances the unpaid principal obligation under this subchapter" before period at end.

Subsec. (s)(5). Pub. L. 108–386 struck out "or District bank" after "national bank".

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–326, §2(1)(A), substituted "shall comply with the following:" for "shall—" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–326, §2(1)(C), transferred text of subsec. (b)(10)(B) so as to appear as second sentence of concluding provisions in par. (2).

Pub. L. 107–326, §2(1)(B)(ii)(III), in concluding provisions, struck out the eleventh sentence through the end which read as follows: "In conjunction with any loan insured under this section, an original lender shall provide to each prospective borrower a disclosure notice that provides a one page analysis of mortgage products offered by that lender and for which the borrower would qualify. This notice shall include: (i) a generic analysis comparing the note rate (and associated interest payments), insurance premiums, and other costs and fees that would be due over the life of the loan for a loan insured by the Secretary under this subsection with the note rates, insurance premiums (if applicable), and other costs and fees that would be expected to be due if the mortgagor obtained instead other mortgage products offered by the lender and for which the borrower would qualify with a similar loan-to-value ratio in connection with a conventional mortgage (as that term is used in section 1454(a)(2) of this title or section 1717(b)(2) of this title, as applicable), assuming prevailing interest rates; and (ii) a statement regarding when the mortgagor's requirement to pay the mortgage insurance premiums for a mortgage insured under this section would terminate or a statement that the requirement will terminate only if the mortgage is refinanced, paid off, or otherwise terminated."

Pub. L. 107–326, §2(1)(B)(ii)(II), in concluding provisions, struck out seventh through ninth sentences which read as follows: "Except with respect to mortgages executed by mortgagors who are veterans, a mortgage may not involve a principal obligation (including such initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees as the Secretary shall approve) in excess of 98.75 percent of the appraised value of the property (97.75 percent, in the case of a mortgage with an appraised value in excess of $50,000), plus the amount of the mortgage insurance premium paid at the time the mortgage is insured. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term 'appraised value' means the amount set forth in the written statement required under section 1715q of this title, or a similar amount determined by the Secretary if section 1715q of this title does not apply. Notwithstanding the authority of the Secretary to establish the terms of insurance under this section and approve the initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees (and subject to any other limitations under this section on the amount of a principal obligation), the Secretary may not (by regulation or otherwise) limit the percentage or amount of any such approved charges and fees that may be included in the principal obligation of a mortgage."

Pub. L. 107–326, §2(1)(B)(ii)(I), in concluding provisions, struck out second and third sentences which read as follows: "If the mortgage to be insured under this section covers property on which there is located a one- to four-family residence, and the appraised value of the property, as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance, does not exceed $50,000, the principal obligation may be in an amount not to exceed 97 percent of such appraised value. If the mortgagor is a veteran, and the mortgage to be insured under this section covers property upon which there is located a dwelling designed principally for a one-family residence, the principal obligation may be in an amount equal to the sum of (i) 100 per centum of $25,000 of the appraised value of the property as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance, and (ii) 95 per centum of such value in excess of $25,000."

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–326, §2(1)(B)(i), realigned margins of matter that precedes cl. (ii).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–326, §2(1)(B)(iii), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (2), not to exceed an amount equal to the sum of—

"(i) 97 percent of $25,000 of the appraised value of the property, as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance;

"(ii) 95 percent of such value in excess of $25,000 but not in excess of $125,000; and

"(iii) 90 percent of such value in excess of $125,000."

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 107–326, §2(1)(C), (D), transferred text of subpar. (B) so as to appear as second sentence of concluding provisions in subsec. (b)(2) and struck out headings and text of remainder of par. (10) which related to calculation of downpayment.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–326, §2(2), added subsec. (f).

2001—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–73, §207(a)(1), substituted "subsections (n) or (k)" for "subsections (n) and (k)" in cl. (2) of first proviso.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–73, §207(a)(2), in introductory provisions, struck out "and executed on or after October 1, 1994," after "1- to 4-family dwelling" and inserted "and each mortgage that is insured under subsection (k) of this section or section 1715y(c) of this title," after "subsection (v) of this section".

2000—Subsec. (b)(10)(A). Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §225], substituted "mortgage closed on or before December 31, 2002, involving" for "mortgage closed on or before October 30, 2000 involving" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 106–281 substituted "closed on or before October 30, 2000" for "executed for insurance in fiscal years 1998, 1999, and 2000" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(a)(2)], redesignated subsec. (s), relating to disclosure regarding interest due upon mortgage prepayment, as (t).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(a)(2)], redesignated subsec. (s), relating to disclosure regarding interest due upon mortgage prepayment, as (t).

Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(a)(1)], redesignated subsec. (t) as (u).

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(a)(1)], redesignated subsec. (t) as (u).

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(a)(3)], redesignated subsec. (v), relating to annual report, as (w).

Subsec. (w). Pub. L. 106–569, which directed the amendment of subsec. (v) relating to annual report by inserting concluding provisions, was executed by making the insertion in subsec. (w) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening redesignation of that subsec. (v) as (w) by Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(a)(3)]. See below.

Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(a)(3)], redesignated subsec. (v), relating to annual report, as (w).

1999—Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 106–74 inserted "the greater of the dollar amount limitation in effect under this section for the area on October 21, 1998, or" before "48 percent".

1998—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §225(a), inserted at end undesignated par. relating to disclosure notice furnished by original lender.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §228(a), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) and concluding provisions which read as follows:

"(ii) 75 percent of the dollar amount limitation determined under section 1454(a)(2) of this title for a residence of the applicable size;

except that the applicable dollar amount limitation in effect for any area under this subparagraph may not be less than the greater of the dollar amount limitation in effect under this section for the area on September 28, 1994, or 38 percent of the dollar amount limitation determined under section 1454(a)(2) of this title for a residence of the applicable size; and".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, §228(b), amended first sentence of concluding provisions generally. Prior to amendment, sentence read as follows: "For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term 'area' means a county, or a metropolitan statistical area as established by the Office of Management and Budget, whichever results in the higher dollar amount."

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 105–276, §212(1), substituted "Calculation of Downpayment" for "Alaska and hawaii" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(10)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §212(2), substituted "executed for insurance in fiscal years 1998, 1999, and 2000" for "originated in the State of Alaska or the State of Hawaii and endorsed for insurance in fiscal years 1997 and 1998,".

Subsec. (x). Pub. L. 105–276, §224, added subsec. (x).

1997—Subsec. (b)(10)(A). Pub. L. 105–65 substituted "fiscal years 1997 and 1998" for "fiscal year 1997".

1996—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 104–204, §425(a), inserted before period at end ": Provided further, That for purposes of this paragraph, the Secretary shall consider as cash or its equivalent any amounts borrowed from a family member (as such term is defined in section 1707 of this title), subject only to the requirements that, in any case in which the repayment of such borrowed amounts is secured by a lien against the property, such lien shall be subordinate to the mortgage and the sum of the principal obligation of the mortgage and the obligation secured by such lien may not exceed 100 percent of the appraised value of the property plus any initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees in connection with the mortgage".

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 104–204, §426, added par. (10).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–204, §424, inserted after first sentence "In the case of a mortgage for which the mortgagor is a first-time homebuyer who completes a program of counseling with respect to the responsibilities and financial management involved in homeownership that is approved by the Secretary, the premium payment under this subparagraph shall not exceed 2.0 percent of the amount of the original insured principal obligation of the mortgage."

1994—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–327 substituted cl. (ii) and concluding provisions for former cl. (ii) and concluding provisions which read as follows:

"(ii) 75 percent of the dollar amount limitation determined under section 1454(a)(2) of this title (as in effect on September 30, 1992) for a residence of the applicable size;

except that the applicable dollar amount limitation in effect for any area under this subparagraph (A) may not be less than the dollar amount limitation in effect under this section for the area on May 12, 1992;".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–211, effective for 18-month period following Feb. 12, 1994, for eligible persons, substituted "Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act" for "section 5122(2) and 5170 of title 42" and inserted at end "In any case in which the single family residence to be insured under this subsection is within a jurisdiction in which the President has declared a major disaster to have occurred, the Secretary is authorized, for a temporary period not to exceed 18 months from the date of such Presidential declaration, to enter into agreements to insure a mortgage which involves a principal obligation of up to 100 percent of the dollar limitation determined under section 1454(a)(2) of this title for single family residence, and not in excess of 100 percent of the appraised value." See Applicability of 1994 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (k)(6). Pub. L. 103–211, effective for 18-month period following Feb. 12, 1994, for eligible persons, added par. (6) which read as follows: "The Secretary is authorized, for a temporary period not to exceed 18 months from the date on which the President has declared a major disaster to have occurred, to enter into agreements to insure a rehabilitation loan under this subsection which involves a principal obligation of up to 100 percent of the dollar limitation determined under section 1454(a)(2) of this title for a residence of the applicable size, if such loan is secured by a structure and property that are within a jurisdiction in which the President has declared such disaster, pursuant to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.], and if such loan otherwise conforms to the loan-to-value ratio and other requirements of this subsection." See Applicability of 1994 Amendment note below.

1992—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–550, §506(a), added undesignated par. prohibiting Secretary from insuring mortgage executed by first-time homebuyer involving principal obligation in excess of 97 percent of value of property, unless mortgagor completes approved counseling program or Secretary waives requirement.

Pub. L. 102–550, §505(a), substituted "Except with respect to mortgages executed by mortgagors who are veterans" for "Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph" in second undesignated par.

Pub. L. 102–550, §503(a), amended first sentence generally. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: "Involve a principal obligation (including such initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees as the Secretary shall approve) in an amount—

"(A) not to exceed the lesser of—

"(i) in the case of the 1-family residence, 95 percent of the median 1-family house price in the area (as determined by the Secretary); in the case of a 2-family residence, 107 percent of such median price; in the case of a 3-family residence, 130 percent of such median price; or in the case of a 4-family residence, 150 percent of such median price; or

"(ii) 75 percent of the dollar amount limitation determined under section 1454(a)(2) of this title (as adjusted annually under such section) for a residence of the applicable size;

except that the applicable dollar amount limitation in effect for any area under this subparagraph (A) may not be less than the dollar amount limitation in effect under this section for the area on May 12, 1992; and

"(B) except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (2), not to exceed an amount equal to the sum of—

"(i) 97 percent of $25,000 of the appraised value of the property, as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance;

"(ii) 95 percent of such value in excess of $25,000 but not in excess of $125,000; and

"(iii) 90 percent of such value in excess of $125,000."

Pub. L. 102–389 amended first sentence generally. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: "Involve a principal obligation (including such initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees as the Secretary shall approve) in an amount not to exceed $67,500 in the case of property upon which there is located a dwelling designed principally for a one-family residence; or $76,000 in the case of a two-family residence; or $92,000 in the case of a three-family residence, or $107,000 in the case of a four-family residence; except that the Secretary may increase the preceding maximum dollar amounts on an area-by-area basis to the extent the Secretary deems necessary, after taking into consideration the extent to which moderate and middle income persons have limited housing opportunities in the area due to high prevailing housing sales prices, but in no case may such limits, as so increased, exceed the lesser of (A) 185 percent of the dollar amount specified, or (B) in the case of a one-family residence, 95 per centum of the median one-family house price in the area, as determined by the Secretary; in the case of a two-family residence, 107 per centum of such median price; in the case of a three-family residence, 130 per centum of such median price; or in the case of a four-family residence, 150 per centum of such median price; and (except as otherwise provided in this paragraph) not to exceed an amount equal to the sum of (i) 97 per centum of $25,000 of the appraised value of the property, as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance, and (ii) 95 per centum of such value in excess of $25,000."

Pub. L. 102–389 inserted at end of second undesignated par. "Notwithstanding the authority of the Secretary to establish the terms of insurance under this section and approve the initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees (and subject to any other limitations under this section on the amount of a principal obligation), the Secretary may not (by regulation or otherwise) limit the percentage or amount of any such approved charges and fees that may be included in the principal obligation of a mortgage."

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 102–550, §505(b), substituted "(except with respect to a mortgage executed by a mortgagor who is a veteran)" for "(except in a case to which the next to the last sentence of paragraph (2) applies)".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 102–550, §185(c)(1)(A), inserted "or of the General Insurance Fund pursuant to subsection (v) of this section" after "Fund" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A), (B). Pub. L. 102–550, §507(a)(1), (2)(A), substituted "not exceeding" for "equal to".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 102–550, §507(a)(2)(B), substituted "not exceeding 0.55 percent" for "equal to 0.55 percent".

Subsec. (k)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–550, §1012(k)(2), inserted at end "The term 'rehabilitation' may also include measures to evaluate and reduce lead-based paint hazards, as such terms are defined in section 4851b of title 42."

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 102–550, §504, added subsec. (v) relating to annual reports.

Pub. L. 102–550, §185(c)(1)(B), added subsec. (v) relating to use of FHA insurance with assistance under 42 U.S.C. 1437f.

1991—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–40 substituted "section 5303A(d) of title 38" for "section 3103A(d) of title 38".

1990—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, §2102, inserted at end "Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, a mortgage may not involve a principal obligation (including such initial service charges, appraisal, inspection, and other fees as the Secretary shall approve) in excess of 98.75 percent of the appraised value of the property (97.75 percent, in the case of a mortgage with an appraised value in excess of $50,000), plus the amount of the mortgage insurance premium paid at the time the mortgage is insured. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term 'appraised value' means the amount set forth in the written statement required under section 1715q of this title, or a similar amount determined by the Secretary if section 1715q of this title does not apply."

Pub. L. 101–508, §2101, substituted "185 percent of the dollar amount specified" for "150 percent (185 percent until October 31, 1990) of the dollar amount specified" after "exceed the lesser of (A)".

Pub. L. 101–507 which directed the substitution of "(185 percent during fiscal year 1991)" for "(185 percent during fiscal year 1990)" could not be executed because "during fiscal year 1990" did not appear in text after amendment by Pub. L. 101–402. See below.

Pub. L. 101–402 substituted "until October 31, 1990" for "during fiscal year 1990".

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 101–625, §429, inserted "or with respect to a mortgage covering a housing unit in connection with a homeownership program under the Homeownership and Opportunity Through HOPE Act," before "the mortgagor's payment".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–508, §2103(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), added par. (2), and struck out at end of par. (1) "In the case of any mortgage secured by a 1- to 4-family dwelling, the total premium charge shall not exceed an amount equal to 3.8 percent of the original principal obligation of the mortgage if the Secretary requires (1) a single premium charge to cover the total premium obligation of the insurance of the mortgage; or (2) a periodic premium charge over less than the term of the mortgage."

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, §326(a), inserted at end "In making this determination with respect to the occupancy of secondary residences, the Secretary may not insure mortgages with respect to such residences unless the Secretary determines that it is necessary to avoid undue hardship to the mortgagor. In no event may a secondary residence under this subsection include a vacation home, as determined by the Secretary."

Subsec. (r)(4). Pub. L. 101–625, §327, added par. (4).

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 101–625, §329, added subsec. (s) relating to disclosure regarding interest due upon mortgage prepayment.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 101–625, §330, added subsec. (t).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–144 inserted "(185 percent during fiscal year 1990)" after "(A) 150 percent".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 101–235, §143(b), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "The occupancy requirement established in paragraph (1) shall apply only if the mortgage involves a principal obligation that exceeds, as appropriate, 75 percent of—

"(A) the appraised value of the dwelling;

"(B) the estimate of the Secretary of the replacement cost of the property;

"(C) the sum of the estimates of the Secretary of the cost of repair and rehabilitation and the value of the property before repair and rehabilitation; or

"(D) the sum of the estimates of the Secretary of the cost of repair and rehabilitation and the amount (as determined by the Secretary) required to refinance existing indebtedness secured by the property, and, in the case of a property refinanced under section 1715k(d)(3)(A) of this title, any existing indebtedness incurred in connection with improving, repairing, or rehabilitating the property."

Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–235, §143(a)(1), inserted ", or any other State or local government or an agency thereof" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (g)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–235, §143(a)(2), inserted ", or other private nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and intends to sell or lease the mortgaged property to low or moderate-income persons, as determined by the Secretary" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (g)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–235, §143(b)(2), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 101–235, §132(a)(1), amended first sentence generally, substituting "the single-family mortgage insurance programs carried out under this subchapter" for "the mortgage insurance program carried out under this section".

Subsec. (r)(2), (3). Pub. L. 101–235, §132(a)(2), amended pars. (2) and (3) generally. Prior to amendment, pars. (2) and (3) read as follows:

"(2) requiring reviews of the credit standing of each person seeking to assume a mortgage insured under this section (A) during the 12-month period following the date on which the mortgage is executed, or (B) during the 24-month period following the date on which the mortgage is executed in the case of an investor originated mortgage; and

"(3) in any case where a mortgage is assumed after the period specified in paragraph (2), requiring that the original mortgagor be advised of the procedures by which he or she may be released from liability."

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 101–235, §135, added subsec. (s).

1988—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–628, §§1061, 1062(b), clarified amendments by Pub. L. 100–242, §§405(1), 406(b)(1)(B).

Pub. L. 100–242, §406(b)(1)(A), struck out "(whether or not such one- or two-family residence may be intended to be rented temporarily for school purposes)" after "in the case of a two-family residence" in first sentence.

Pub. L. 100–242, §404, substituted "150 percent" for "1331/3 per centum" in cl. (A) of first sentence.

Pub. L. 100–242, §423, inserted definition of "area".

Pub. L. 100–242, §406(b)(1)(B), struck out "to be occupied as the principal residence of the owner" after "residence".

Pub. L. 100–242, §405(1), which directed insertion of ", except that persons enlisting in the armed forces after September 7, 1980, or entering active duty after October 16, 1981, shall have their eligibility determined in accordance with section 3103A(d) of title 38" before period at end of first undesignated paragraph, was executed by making the insertion after "other than dishonorable" at end of sentence defining "veteran", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 100–242, §406(b)(2), struck out par. (8) which related to eligibility for insurance of a mortgage in the case of a mortgagor who is not occupant of the property.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–242, §403, inserted provisions at end relating to total premium charge to be fixed by Secretary in case of any mortgage secured by 1- to 4-family dwelling.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–242, §406(a), added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (g)(3)(F). Pub. L. 100–628, §1062(a), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–707, §109(e)(2), struck out "riot or civil disorder" after "hurricane, earthquake, storm," and substituted "5170" for "5141".

Pub. L. 100–242, §406(b)(3), struck out "is the owner and occupant and" after "where the mortgagor".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–242, §406(b)(4), struck out "Provided, That if the mortgagor is not the occupant of the property at the time of insurance, the principal obligation of the mortgage shall not exceed 85 per centum of the appraised value of the property:" after "for a single-family residence:" and substituted "Provided, That the Secretary" for "Provided further, That the Secretary".

Subsec. (k)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–242, §429(c), substituted "borrower and the financial institution" for "mortgagor and the mortgagee".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 100–242, §406(c), struck out subsec. (m) which related to insurance of mortgages on dwellings that need not be designed for year-round occupancy.

Subsec. (o)(2). Pub. L. 100–242, §406(b)(5), substituted "owner" for "owner occupant" in first sentence.

Subsec. (p)(2). Pub. L. 100–242, §406(b)(6), substituted "owner" for "owner-occupant" in first sentence.

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 100–242, §422(b), substituted "Secretary shall" for "Secretary may".

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 100–242, §407(a)(1), added subsec. (r).

Subsec. (r)(2)(A), (B). Pub. L. 100–628, §1063(a), substituted "date on which the mortgage is executed" for "date on which the mortgage is endorsed for insurance".

1986—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 99–601 added subsec. (q).

1984—Subsec. (n)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–479 substituted "a" for "an" before "cooperative ownership".

1983—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–181, §424(a), struck out "(except as provided in the next to the last sentence of this paragraph)" and inserted "(except as otherwise provided in this paragraph)" and inserted after first sentence "If the mortgage to be insured under this section covers property on which there is located a one- to four-family residence to be occupied as the principal residence of the owner, and the appraised value of the property, as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance, does not exceed $50,000, the principal obligation may be in an amount not to exceed 97 percent of such appraised value."

Pub. L. 98–181, §423(b)(1), struck out ": Provided, That the foregoing maximum mortgage amounts may be increased by the amount of the mortgage insurance premium paid at the time the mortgage is insured" after "150 per centum of such median price".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–181, §404(b)(2), substituted provision that the interest rate be at such rate as agreed upon by the mortgagor and the mortgagee for provision that the interest rate, exclusive of premium charges for insurance and service charges if any, not exceed 5 per centum per annum on the amount of the principal obligation outstanding at any time, or not exceed such per centum per annum not in excess of 6 per centum as the Secretary finds necessary to meet the mortgage market.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 98–181, §425, substituted "the lesser of (A) the otherwise applicable maximum dollar amount prescribed under paragraph (2), or (B) 85 percent of the appraised value of the property as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance" for "85 per centum of the amount computed under the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–181, §447, inserted "(1) under section 1715z–10, 1715z–12, 1715z–16, 1715z–17, or 1715z–18 of this title, or any other financing mechanism providing alternative methods for repayment of a mortgage that is determined by the Secretary to involve additional risk, or (2)" after "fixed for insurance".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–181, §423(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–63 substituted "the applicable maximum dollar limit under subsection (b)" for "$14,400".

Subsec. (k)(3)(B). Pub. L. 98–181, §404(b)(3), substituted provision that interest be at such a rate as agreed upon by the mortgagor and mortgagee for provision that interest be at a rate permitted by the Secretary for mortgages insured under this section, except that the Secretary could permit a higher rate with respect to the period beginning with the making of the loan and ending with the completion of the rehabilitation or such earlier time as determined by the Secretary.

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 98–181, §419(1), inserted "or the construction of which was completed more than a year prior to the application for the mortgage insurance" after "under this chapter".

Subsec. (n)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–181, §419(2), struck out "nonprofit" before "cooperative".

1982—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–253, §201(a)(1), inserted provision that the foregoing maximum mortgage amounts may be increased by the amount of the mortgage insurance premium paid at the time the mortgage is insured.

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 97–253, §201(a)(2), inserted "(excluding the mortgage insurance premium paid at the time the mortgage is insured)" after "cost of acquisition".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–253, §201(b), inserted provision that with respect to mortgages for which the Secretary requires, at the time the mortgage is insured, the payment of a single premium charge to cover the total premium obligation for the insurance of the mortgage, and on which the principal obligation is paid before the number of years on which the premium with respect to a particular mortgage was based, or the property is sold subject to the mortgage or is sold and the mortgage is assumed prior to such time, the Secretary shall provide for refunds, where appropriate, of a portion of the premium paid and shall provide for appropriate allocation of the premium cost among the mortgagors over the term of the mortgage, in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary which take into account sound financial and actuarial considerations.

1980—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–399, §336(a), inserted provisions authorizing the Secretary to increase maximum dollar amounts with respect to four-family residences.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 96–399, §333(a), struck out provisions relating to applicability to criteria of three-quarters of the Secretary's estimate of the remaining economic life of the building improvements.

Subsec. (k)(5). Pub. L. 96–399, §321, substituted provisions relating to insurance benefits paid with respect to loans secured by a first mortgage, and insured under this subsection, and those secured by a mortgage other than a first mortgage, and insured under this subsection, for provisions relating to insurance benefits paid with respect to loans insured under this subsection.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 96–399, §328, added subsec. (p).

1979—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–153, §§310, 312(a), excepted dwellings covered by a consumer protection or warranty plan acceptable to the Secretary and satisfying all requirements which would have been applicable if such dwellings had been approved for mortgage insurance prior to the beginning of construction from the limit on the maximum amount of mortgage on dwellings not approved for mortgage insurance prior to the beginning of construction, and substituted "$67,500" for "$60,000", "$76,000" for "$65,000" where it first appeared, "$92,000" for "$65,000" where it appeared the second time, and "$107,000" for "$75,000".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 96–153, §318, substituted "two and one-half or more acres in size adjacent to an all-weather public road" for "five or more acres in size adjacent to a public highway" in last proviso.

1978—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95–619 inserted provision that the amount insurable under this section could be increased by up to 20 per centum if such increase were necessary to account for the increased cost of a residence due to the installation of a solar energy system.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–557, §101(c)(2), substituted "subsections (n) and (k) are not required" for "subsection (n) is not required" and "subsection (n) or (k) exceed 1 per centum" for "subsection (n) exceed 1 per centum".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 95–557, §101(c)(1), generally revised subsec. (k) to meet the credit needs of owners of from one-to-four family properties who can afford market rate borrowing by insuring one hundred percent of the loan amount and covering the cost of rehabilitation, rehabilitation and refinancing existing debt, or the purchase and rehabilitation of properties.

1977—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95–128, §§303(a), 304(a), substituted "$60,000" for "$45,000", "$65,000" for "$48,750" wherever appearing, and "$75,000" for "$56,000" in provisions preceding cl. (i); struck out in cl. (i) following "97 per centum" parenthetical text "(but, in any case where the dwelling is not approved for mortgage insurance prior to the beginning of construction, unless the construction of the dwelling was completed more than one year prior to the application for mortgage insurance, or the dwelling was approved for guaranty, insurance, or direct loan under chapter 37 of title 38 prior to the beginning of construction, 90 per centum)"; substituted in first sentence "and (ii) 95 per centum of such value in excess of $25,000" for "(ii) 90 per centum of such value in excess of $25,000 but not in excess of $35,000, and (iii) 80 per centum of such value in excess of $35,000" and in second sentence "and (ii) 95 per centum of such value in excess of $25,000" for "(ii) 90 per centum of such value in excess of $25,000 but not in excess of $35,000, and (iii) 85 per centum of such value in excess of $35,000"; and inserted following the second sentence provision limiting the mortgage to 90 per centum of the entire appraised value of the property as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance where the dwelling is not approved for mortgage insurance prior to the beginning of construction.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–128, §305, inserted proviso respecting premium charges for insurance under subsec. (n) of this section.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 95–128, §303(g), substituted provision which authorizes the Secretary to insure a mortgage hereunder which involves a principal obligation not in excess of 75 per centum of the limit on the principal obligation applicable to a one-family residence under subsec. (b) of this section for prior limitation of such insurance on a mortgage which involved a principal obligation not in excess of $16,200.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 95–128, §307, added subsec. (o).

1974—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 93–383, §302(a), substituted "$45,000" for "$33,000", "$48,750" for "$35,750" wherever appearing therein, and "$56,000" for "$41,250" in provisions preceding cl. (i).

Subsec. (b)(2)(i). Pub. L. 93–383, §310(a)(1), substituted "$25,000" for "$15,000" in first and second sentences.

Subsec. (b)(2)(ii). Pub. L. 93–383, §310(a)(2), substituted "$25,000" for "$15,000" and "$35,000" for "$25,000" in first and second sentences.

Subsec. (b)(2)(iii). Pub. L. 93–383, §310(a)(3), substituted "$35,000" for "$25,000" in first and second sentences.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 93–288 substituted "sections 5122(2) and 5141 of title 42" for "section 4402(1) of title 42".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 93–449 added subsec. (n).

1970—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 91–606 substituted reference to section "4402(1)" for "1855a(a)" of title 42.

1969—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–152, §§102(a), 113(a)(1), substituted "$25,000" for "$20,000" wherever appearing, "$33,000" for "$30,000", "$35,750" for "$32,500" wherever appearing, and "$41,250" for "$37,500".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 91–152, §113(a)(2), substituted "$14,400" for "$12,000".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 91–152, §113(a)(3), substituted "$16,200" for "$13,500".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 91–152, §113(a)(4), substituted "$18,000" for "$15,000".

1968—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 90–448, §1106(d), authorized insurance of mortgages for reconstruction of homes destroyed or damaged as a result of riot or civil disorder.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 90–448, §317, substituted "$13,500" for "$12,500".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 90–448, §103(b), repealed subsec. (l) which authorized insurance of mortgages in areas affected by civil disorders. See section 1715n(e) of this title.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 90–448, §318, added subsec. (m).

1967—Pub. L. 90—19, §1(a)(3), substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing in subsecs. (a), (b)(1) to (9), (c), (e), (h), (i), and (k).

Subsec. (b)(3), (9). Pub. L. 90—19, §1(a)(4), substituted "Secretary's" for "Commissioner's".

1966—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 89–754, §301, substituted "If the mortgagor is a veteran," for "If the mortgagor is a veteran who has not received any direct, guaranteed, or insured loan under laws administered by the Veterans' Administration for the purchase, construction, or repair of a dwelling (including a farm dwelling) which was to be owned and occupied by him as his home,".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 89–754, §302, added subsec. (l).

1965—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 89–117, §§203, 206(a), substituted "and (except as provided in the next to the last sentence of this paragraph) not to exceed" for "and not to exceed", and "80 per centum" for "75 per centum", and inserted provisions prescribing the amount of the principal obligation for veterans and defining "veteran".

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 89–117, §§204, 206(b), inserted "(except in a case to which the next to the last sentence of paragraph (2) applies)" and "or with respect to a mortgage covering a single-family home being purchased under the low-income housing demonstration project assisted pursuant to section 1436 of title 42".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 89–117, §205, substituted "$12,500" for "$11,000".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(c), substituted "the General Insurance Fund" for "a separate section 203 Home Improvement Account to be maintained as hereinafter provided under the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund" in cl. (3) of the first sentence and "the General Insurance Fund or in debentures executed in the name of such Fund" for "the section 203 Home Improvement Account or in debentures executed in the name of such Account" in cl. (4), and removed references to section 220 Housing Insurance Fund and section 203 Home Improvement Account elsewhere in the subsec., including provisions for the funding of a special revolving fund for carrying out the provisions of the subsec.

1964—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 88–560, §102(a), increased maximum amount of the principal obligation for one-family residences from $25,000 to $30,000, for two-family residences from $27,500 to $32,500, for three-family residences from $27,500 to $32,500, and for four-family residences from $35,000 to $37,500.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 88–560, §102(b), increased maximum amount of the principal obligation from $9,000 to $11,000.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 88–560, §§103, 105(c)(1), substituted in cl. (2) "an acceptable risk" for "economically sound", in cl. (4) provision for payment of insurance benefits "in cash out of the Section 203 Home Improvement Account or in debentures executed in the name of such Account" for provision for such payment "in debentures executed in the name of the Section 203 Home Improvement Account", and in the third sentence "Insurance benefits paid with respect to loans insured under this subsection shall be paid" for "Debentures issued with respect to loans insured under this subsection shall be issued"; and inserted the provision that "If the insurance payment is made in cash, there shall be added to such payment an amount equivalent to the interest which the debentures would have earned, computed to a date to be established pursuant to regulations issued by the Commissioner.", respectively.

1961—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–70, §604(b), struck out proviso which limited the aggregate amount of principal obligations of all mortgages insured under this chapter to not more than $7,750,000,000, and which permitted additional increases in such sum by not more than $1,250,000,000 in the aggregate.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 87–70, §605(a), (b), increased maximum amount of the principal obligation for one-family residences from $22,500 to $25,000, and for two-family residences from $25,000 to $27,500, and substituted "$15,000" for "$13,500" in two places, "$20,000" for "$18,000" in two places, and "75 per centum" for "70 per centum".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 87–70, §§605(c), 612(a)(1), substituted "thirty-five years (or thirty years if such mortgage is not approved for insurance prior to construction) from the date of the beginning of amortization of the mortgage" for "thirty years from the date of the insurance of the mortgage".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–70, §§606, 612(a)(2), reduced minimum premium charge from an amount equivalent to one-half of 1 per centum per annum to an amount equivalent to one-fourth of 1 per centum per annum, permitted the Commissioner to make the reduced premium charge applicable to each insured mortgage outstanding under the section or sections involved at the time the reduced charge is fixed, struck out provisos which related to premium charges for mortgages insured prior to Feb. 3, 1938, and for mortgages described in section 203(b)(2)(B) of the National Housing Act accepted for insurance prior to July 1, 1939, and substituted "particular insurance fund or account" for "particular insurance fund" in the first proviso of the second sentence.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 87–70, §102(b)(1), (2), substituted "eligibility of the loan or mortgage" for "eligibility of the mortgage", and "approved financial institution or approved mortgagee" for "approved mortgagee" in two places.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 87–70 §102(b)(3), added subsec. (k).

1959—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 86–372, §102(a), increased maximum amount of the principal obligation for one-family residences from $20,000 to $22,500, and for two-family residences from $20,000 to $25,000, increased the maximum amount of loans over $13,500 from 85 per centum of the value in excess of $13,500 but not in excess of $16,000 to 90 per centum of the value in excess of $13,500 but not in excess of $18,000, and inserted provisions relating to dwellings approved for guaranty, insurance, or direct loan under chapter 37 of title 38 prior to the beginning of construction.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 86–372, §102(b), inserted proviso making the 85 per centum limitation inapplicable if the mortgagor and mortgagee assume responsibility for the reduction of the mortgage by an amount not less than 15 per centum of the outstanding principal amount thereof in the event the mortgaged property is not, prior to the due date of the 18th amortization payment of the mortgage, sold to a purchaser acceptable to the Commissioner who is the occupant of the property and who assumes and agrees to pay the mortgage indebtedness.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 86–372, §103, increased maximum amount of the principal obligation from $8,000 to $9,000, inserted parenthetical clause, and struck out provisions that limited the total amount of insurance outstanding at any one time for farm homes to not more than $100,000,000.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 86–372, §809, added subsec. (j).

1958—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 85–364 substituted "$13,500" for "$10,000" in two places.

1957—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 85–104, §101(a), increased maximum amount of loan from 95 per centum of the first $9,000 plus 75 per centum of excess above $9,000, to 97 per centum of the first $10,000 plus 85 per centum of the next $6,000 and 70 per centum of the remainder, and struck out provisions authorizing President to increase former $9,000 figure to $10,000, eliminated provision that principal of mortgage shall not exceed 85 per centum if mortgagor is not occupant of property, and eliminated provision that mortgagor shall have paid at least 5 per centum cash payment. See subsec. (b)(8), (9).

Subsec. (b)(8), (9). Pub. L. 85–104, §101(b), added pars. (8) and (9).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85–104, §106, repealed provisions which related to insurance of mortgages on farm properties.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 85–104, §101(c), amended provisions generally, and, among other changes, increased maximum loan from $6,650 to $8,000, and from 95 per centum to 97 per centum of value, and substituted provisions that mortgage obligation shall not exceed 85 per centum of value if mortgagor is not occupant, for provisions that (1) mortgagor be the owner and occupant and had paid at least 5 per centum cash, or (2) mortgagor be owner and occupant with whom a person or corporation having satisfactory credit standing had contracted to pay on his behalf all or part of downpayment, taking as security a note at not more than 4 per centum interest, and to guarantee payment of insured mortgage, or (3) to be the builder constructing the dwelling in which case principal should not exceed 85 per centum of value or $5,950.

1956—Subsec. (b)(2). Act Aug. 7, 1956, §§102(a), 104(a), inserted "unless the construction of the dwelling was completed more than one year prior to the application for mortgage insurance" before "90 per centum" in parenthetical clause, and inserted provision that in cases where mortgagor is a person 60 years of age or older, the downpayment required could be paid by a person other than the mortgagor under conditions prescribed by the Commissioner.

Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 7, 1956, §102(b), substituted "$12,000" for "$7,000".

1954—Subsec. (b)(2). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §104, generally amended provisions to provide, among others, for an increase in, and equalization of, maximum mortgage amounts, with respect to new housing, substitution of a loan to value ratio of 95 per centum of the $9,000 of value plus 75 per centum of the balance in excess of $9,000, with Presidential authority to increase the $9,000 figure to $10,000 under certain conditions, and with respect to existing housing, substitution of a loan to value ratio of 90 per centum of the first $9,000 of value plus 75 per centum of the balance in excess of $9,000, with Presidential authority to increase the $9,000 figure to $10,000, and inserted a provision limiting the maximum loan to value ratio where the builder becomes the mortgagor, not to exceed 85 per centum of the mortgage loan which an owner-occupant could obtain.

Subsec. (b)(3). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §105, substituted a provision for a maximum maturity of 30 years or three-quarters of the Commissioner's estimate of the remaining economic life of the building improvements, whichever is the lesser, for former provision carrying varying limits ranging from twenty to thirty years.

Subsec. (b)(5). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §106, fixed maximum statutory interest rate on mortgages at 5 per centum with authority in the Commissioner to increase the rate to not to exceed 6 per centum as he finds it necessary to meet the mortgage market; and permitted the allowance of service charges.

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §107, provided that debentures presented in payment of premium charges shall represent obligations of the particular insurance fund to which such premium charges are to be credited.

Subsec. (d). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §108, prohibited insurance of mortgages pursuant to this subsection after Aug. 2, 1954, except pursuant to commitments to insure issued on or before such date.

Subsecs. (f), (g). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §109, repealed subsec. (f) which related to refinance mortgages and subsec. (g) which related to higher loan to value ratio and longer maturity for single-family residences. See subsecs. (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §110, added subsecs. (h) and (i).

1953—Subsec. (g). Act June 30, 1953, added subsec. (g).

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, §122, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §103, increased statutory amount of insurance authority from $6,750,000,000 to $7,500,000,000 and provided that an additional $1,250,000,000 in insurance authority could be made available with the authority of the President.

Subsec. (b)(2). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §104(a), inserted proviso to clause (A) to allow the Commissioner to increase the dollar limitation by not exceeding $4,500 for each additional family dwelling unit, in excess of two located on such property, repealed clause (B), changed "$9,500" to read "$9,450", "90" to "95" in clause (C), and changed clause (D) to provide that an insured mortgage could not exceed $6,650 in amount and not exceed 95 per centum of the appraised value, except that the Commissioner is given discretionary authority to increase such dollar amount limitation by not exceeding $950 for each additional bedroom in excess of two, and also to give Commissioner authority to increase the insurance limitation in any geographical area where he finds that cost levels so require.

1949—Subsec. (a). Joint Res. Oct. 25, 1949, substituted "$6,000,000,000" for "$5,500,000,000", and "$6,750,000,000" for "$6,000,000,000".

Act Aug. 30, 1949 substituted "$5,500,000,000" for "$5,300,000,000" and "$6,000,000,000" for "$5,500,000,000".

Act July 15, 1949, substituted "$5,300,000,000" for "$4,000,000,000" and "$5,500,000,000" for "$5,000,000,000".

1948—Subsec. (b)(2). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(g), (h)(1)–(3), (j)(1), substituted "$6,300" for "$5,400" in subpar. (B), substituted "$9,500" for "$8,600", "$7,000" for "$6,000", and "$11,000" for "$10,000" in subpar. (C), and added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b)(3). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(i), (j)(2), substituted "on property approved for insurance prior to the beginning of construction" for "of the character described in paragraph (2)(B) of this subsection" and inserted "or not to exceed thirty years in the case of a mortgage insured under paragraph (2)(D) of this subsection", at the end thereof.

Subsec. (b)(5). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(j)(3), inserted "or not to exceed 4 per centum per annum in the case of a mortgage insured under paragraph (2)(D) of this subsection, or not to exceed such percentum per annum, not in excess of 5 per centum, as the Administrator finds necessary to meet the mortgage market" at the end thereof.

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(k)(1), (2), struck out of last sentence "under this section or section 1715a of this title" after "accepted for insurance" and "and a mortgage on the same property is accepted for insurance at the time of such payment" after "herein set forth".

1946—Subsec. (a). Act July 1, 1946, struck out second and third provisos providing for a limitation on the aggregate amount of mortgages outstanding, and limiting insuring of mortgages after July 1, 1946, respectively.

1943—Subsec. (a). Act Oct. 15, 1943, substituted "1946" for "1944" in third proviso.

1941—Subsec. (a). Act June 28, 1941, substituted "$4,000,000,000" for "$3,000,000,000", "$5,000,000,000" for "$4,000,000,000"; and affected second and third provisos.

1939—Subsec. (a). Act June 3, 1939, §6, substituted "$3,000,000" for "$2,000,000", "$4,000,000" for "$3,000,000", generally revised second proviso and inserted third proviso.

Subsec. (b)(3). Act June 3, 1939, §7, struck out "until July 1, 1939".

Subsecs. (e), (f). Act June 3, 1939, §8, added subsecs. (e) and (f).

1938—Subsecs. (a) to (d). Act Feb. 3, 1938, amended provisions generally.

1935—Subsec. (a)(1). Act Aug. 23, 1935, inserted "property and" before "project".

Subsec. (c). Act May 28, 1935, inserted part of last sentence before the semicolon.

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–78, title IV, §402(b), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1289, provided that the amendment made by section 402(b) is effective Oct. 1, 2021.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2112(c), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2831, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect upon the expiration of the date described in section 202(a) of the Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 (Public Law 110–185; 122 Stat. 620) [Dec. 31, 2008]."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–447, div. I, title II, §223, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3321, provided in part that: "This provision [amending this section] shall apply to loans that become insured on or after date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 2004]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–386 effective Oct. 30, 2004, and, except as otherwise provided, applicable with respect to fiscal year 2005 and each succeeding fiscal year, see sections 8(i) and 9 of Pub. L. 108–386, set out as notes under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–73, title II, §207(b), Nov. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 675, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall—

"(1) apply only to mortgages that are executed on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 26, 2001]; and

"(2) be implemented in advance of any necessary conforming changes to regulations."

Applicability of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–211, title I, Feb. 12, 1994, 108 Stat. 12, provided in part that: "For higher mortgage limits and improved access to mortgage insurance for victims of the January 1994 earthquake in Southern California, title II of the National Housing Act, as amended [12 U.S.C. 1707 et seq.], is further amended, as follows:

"(1) [Amended this section.]

"(2) [Amended this section.]

"(3) [Amended section 1715y of this title.]

"Eligibility for loans made under the authority granted by the preceding paragraph [amending this section and section 1715y of this title] shall be limited to persons whose principal residence was damaged or destroyed as a result of the January 1994 earthquake in Southern California: Provided, That the provisions under this heading [amending this section and section 1715y of this title] shall be effective only for the 18-month period following the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 12, 1994]."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §503(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3779, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only to mortgages executed on or after January 1, 1993."

Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §506(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3781, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to mortgages for which commitments for insurance are issued after the expiration of the 12-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992]."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendments

Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §326(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4137, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to—

"(1) mortgages insured—

"(A) pursuant to a conditional commitment issued after the expiration of the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990]; or

"(B) in accordance with the direct endorsement program, if the approved underwriter of the mortgages signs the appraisal report for the property after the expiration of the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act; and

"(2) the approval of substitute mortgagors, if the original mortgagor was subject to such amendments."

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–402 deemed to have taken effect as if enacted September 29, 1990, see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 101–494, set out as an Effective Date of Temporary Extension of Emergency Low Income Housing Preservation Act of 1987 and Correction of Any Repeal note under section 1715l of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §132(b), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2027, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to—

"(1) mortgages insured—

"(A) pursuant to a conditional commitment issued on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 15, 1989]; or

"(B) in accordance with the direct endorsement program (24 C.F.R. 200.163), if the approved underwriter of the mortgage signs the appraisal report for the property on or after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

"(2) the approval of substitute mortgagors, if the original mortgagor was subject to such amendments."

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §143(c), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2036, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to—

"(1) mortgages insured—

"(A) pursuant to a conditional commitment issued on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 15, 1989]; or

"(B) in accordance with the direct endorsement program, if the approved underwriter of the mortgagee signs the appraisal report for the property on or after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

"(2) the approval of substitute mortgagors, if the original mortgagor was subject to such amendments."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §406(d), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1902, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1715d, 1715g, 1715k, 1715l, 1715m, 1715n, 1715y, and 1715z of this title] shall apply only with respect to—

"(1) mortgages insured—

"(A) pursuant to a conditional commitment issued on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 5, 1988]; or

"(B) in accordance with the direct endorsement program (24 CFR 200.163), if the approved underwriter of the mortgagee signs the appraisal report for the property on or after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

"(2) the approval of substitute mortgagors, referred to in the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section], if the original mortgagor was subject to such amendment."

Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §407(a)(2), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1902, as amended by Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §1063(b), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3274, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to each mortgage originated pursuant to an application for commitment for insurance signed by the applicant on or after December 1, 1986."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §424(b)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1217, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect only if the Secretary finds and reports to the Congress that such amendment, taking into account the higher loan-to-value ratio resulting from the advance payment of mortgage insurance premiums, will not adversely affect the actuarial soundness of the Federal Housing Administration mortgage insurance program." [For finding and report by Secretary and rule implementing the amendments effective June 24, 1985, see 49 F.R. 39686 and 50 F.R. 19924.]

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §423(c)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1217, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1715e, 1715l, 1715y, and 1715z of this title] shall take effect only if the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determines that the program of advance payment of insurance premiums, with specific regard to the effect of the provisions authorized by the amendments made by such sections, is actuarially sound." [For determination by Secretary and rule implementing the amendments effective May 10, 1984, see 49 F.R. 12693.]

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–557, title I, §104, Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2084, provided that: "The amendments made by this title [enacting section 5319 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending this section, sections 1706e and 1717 of this title, and sections 1452b, 5304, 5305, 5307, and 5318 of Title 42] shall become effective October 1, 1978."

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–288 effective Apr. 1, 1974, see section 605 of Pub. L. 93–288, formerly set out as an Effective Date note under section 5121 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–606 effective Dec. 31, 1970, see section 304 of Pub. L. 91–606, set out as a note under section 165 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1949 Amendment

Amendment by act July 15, 1949, effective June 30, 1949, see section 202 of that act, set out as a note under section 1703 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 105–276, title II, §225(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2490, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall develop the disclosure notice under subsection (a) [amending this section] within 150 days of the enactment [Oct. 21, 1998] through notice and comment rulemaking."

Implementation

Pub. L. 111–229, §1(b), Aug. 11, 2010, 124 Stat. 2483, provided that: "The Secretary may adjust the amount of any initial or annual premium charged pursuant to subsection (a) [amending this section] through notice published in the Federal Register or mortgagee letter. Such notice or mortgagee letter shall establish the effective date of any premium adjustment therein."

Temporary Extension of FHA Mortgage Limit

Pub. L. 101–494, §4, Oct. 31, 1990, 104 Stat. 1185, provided that:

"(a) Extension.—If upon enactment of this Act [see Effective Date of 1990 Amendments note above], section 203(b)(2) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1709(b)(2)) provides for an increase in the maximum dollar amount limitations on the principal obligations of mortgages insured under such section until October 31, 1990, then notwithstanding such section, such maximum dollar amount limitations may be increased (to the percent specified in such section) until November 30, 1990.

"(b) Limitations.—If upon enactment of this Act such section 203(b)(2) [12 U.S.C. 1709(b)(2)] provides for an increase in the maximum dollar amount limitations (referred to in subsection (a)) until a date other than October 31, 1990, this section shall not apply. This section shall not apply with respect to any amendment to section 203(b)(2) of the National Housing Act made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 31, 1990]."

Transition Provisions of 1990 Amendments

Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §326(c), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4137, provided that: "Any mortgage insurance provided under title II of the National Housing Act [this subchapter] before the expiration of the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990], shall continue to be governed (to the extent applicable) by the provisions of section 203(g)(1) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1709(g)(1)], as such provisions existed before the date of the enactment of this Act."

Pub. L. 101–508, title II, §2103(b), (c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–18, 1388-19, as amended by Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §185(c)(3), title V, §507(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3748, 3782, provided that:

"(b) Transition Provisions.—Notwithstanding section 203(c) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1709(c)] (as amended by subsection (a)), mortgage insurance premiums on mortgages executed during fiscal years 1991 through 1994 and that are obligations of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund or of the General Insurance Fund pursuant to section 203(v) of the National Housing Act shall be subject to the following requirements:

"(1) 1991 and 1992.—For mortgages executed during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 (but after the date of the effectiveness of regulations issued under subsection (c)), the Secretary shall establish and collect the following premiums:

"(A) Up-front.—At the time of insurance, a single premium payment in an amount not exceeding 3.80 percent of the amount of the original insured principal obligation of the mortgage.

"(B) Annual.—In addition to the premium under subparagraph (A), annual premium payments in an amount not exceeding 0.50 percent of the remaining insured principal balance (excluding the portion of the remaining balance attributable to the premium collected under subparagraph (A) and without taking into account delinquent payments or prepayments), for any mortgage involving an original principal obligation (excluding any premium collected under subparagraph (A)) that is—

"(i) less than 90 percent of the appraised value of the property (as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance), for the first 5 years of the mortgage term;

"(ii) greater than or equal to 90 percent of such value but equal to or less than 95 percent of such value, for the first 8 years of the mortgage term; and

"(iii) greater than 95 percent of such value, for the first 10 years of the mortgage term.

"(2) 1993 and 1994.—For mortgages executed during fiscal years 1993 and 1994, the Secretary shall establish and collect the following premiums:

"(A) Up-front.—At the time of insurance, a single premium payment in an amount not exceeding 3.00 percent of the amount of the original insured principal obligation of the mortgage.

"(B) Annual.—In addition to the premium under subparagraph (A), annual premium payments in an amount not exceeding 0.50 percent of the remaining insured principal balance (excluding the portion of the remaining balance attributable to the premium collected under subparagraph (A) and without taking into account delinquent payments or prepayments), for any mortgage involving an original principal obligation (excluding any premium collected under subparagraph (A)) that is—

"(i) less than 90 percent of the appraised value of the property (as of the date the mortgage is accepted for insurance), for the first 7 years of the mortgage term;

"(ii) greater than or equal to 90 percent of such value but equal to or less than 95 percent of such value, for the first 12 years of the mortgage term; and

"(iii) greater than 95 percent of such value, for the first 30 years of the mortgage term.

"(3) Refunds.—With respect to any mortgage subject to premiums under this subsection, the Secretary shall refund all of the unearned premium charges paid on a mortgage pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) or (2)(A) upon payment in full of the principal obligation of the mortgage prior to the maturity date.

"(c) Regulations.—The Secretary shall issue regulations to carry out this section and the amendments made by this section [amending this section] not later than the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990]."

Transition Provisions of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §132(c), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2027, provided that: "Any mortgage insurance provided under title II of the National Housing Act [this subchapter] as it existed immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 15, 1989], shall continue to be governed (to the extent applicable) by the provisions of section 203(r) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1709(r)], as such section existed immediately before such date."

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §143(d), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2036, provided that: "Any mortgage insurance provided under title II of the National Housing Act [this subchapter], as it existed immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 15, 1989], shall continue to be governed (to the extent applicable) by the provisions amended by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] as such provisions existed immediately before such date."

Transition Provisions of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §406(e), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1902, provided that: "Any mortgage insurance provided under title II of the National Housing Act [this subchapter], as it existed immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 5, 1988], shall continue to be governed (to the extent applicable) by the provisions specified in subsections (a) through (c) [this section and sections 1715d, 1715g, 1715k, 1715l, 1715m, 1715n, 1715y, 1715z of this title], as such provisions existed immediately before such date."

Implementation of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–253, title II, §201(g), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 790, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1715e, 1715l, 1715y, and 1715z of this title], other than by subsection (b) [amending subsec. (c) of this section], may be implemented only if the Secretary determines that the program of advance payment of insurance premiums, with specific regard to the effect of the provisions authorized by the amendments made by this section, is actuarially sound."

Effect of Repeal of Subsec. (b)(2)(B) of This Section

Act Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §104(b), 64 Stat. 52, provided that: "The repeal of section 203(b)(2)(B) of said Act [former subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section], as provided by subsection (a) of this section, shall not affect the right of the Commissioner to insure under said section any mortgage (1) for the insurance of which application has been filed prior to the effective date of this Act [Apr. 20, 1950], or (2) with respect to a property covered by a mortgage insured under any section of the National Housing Act, as amended [this chapter]."

Limitation on Mortgage Insurance Premium Increases

Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2130, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2842, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, including any provision of this title [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 1701 of this title] and any amendment made by this title—

"(1) for the period beginning on the date of the enactment of this title [July 30, 2008] and ending on October 1, 2009, the premiums charged for mortgage insurance under multifamily housing programs under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.] may not be increased above the premium amounts in effect under such program on October 1, 2006, unless the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determines that, absent such increase, insurance of additional mortgages under such program would, under the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 [2 U.S.C. 661 et seq.], require the appropriation of new budget authority to cover the costs (as such term is defined in section 502 of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (2 U.S.C. 661a)[)] of such insurance; and

"(2) a premium increase pursuant to paragraph (1) may be made only if not less than 30 days prior to such increase taking effect, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development—

"(A) notifies the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives of such increase; and

"(B) publishes notice of such increase in the Federal Register.

"(b) Waiver.—The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may waive the 30-day notice requirement under subsection (a)(2), if the Secretary determines that waiting 30-days before increasing premiums would cause substantial damage to the solvency of multifamily housing programs under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.]."

Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund Premiums

Pub. L. 103–66, title III, §3005, Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 340, provided that: "To improve the actuarial soundness of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall increase the rate at which the Secretary earns the single premium payment collected at the time of insurance of a mortgage that is an obligation of such Fund (with respect to the rate in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 1993]). In establishing such increased rate, the Secretary shall consider any current audit findings and reserve analyses and information regarding the expected average duration of mortgages that are obligations of such Fund and may consider any other information that the Secretary determines to be appropriate."

Report on Home Equity Conversion Mortgages for the Elderly

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §448], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1228, directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to evaluate existing use of home equity conversion mortgages for the elderly and, not later than the expiration of the 1-year period following Nov. 30, 1983, submit to Congress a report setting forth the results of such evaluation. Such report to include an evaluation of whether use of such mortgages improves financial situation, or otherwise meets special needs, of elderly homeowners; an evaluation of any risks incurred by mortgagors as a result of use of such mortgages, and any recommendations of Secretary for appropriate safeguards to be included in such mortgages to minimize such risks; an evaluation of the potential for acceptance of such mortgages in the private market; and any recommendations of Secretary for establishment of a Federal program of insuring such mortgages.

Studies of Mortgage Insurance Premiums and Alternatives to Statutory Mortgage Amounts

Pub. L. 96–153, title III, §309, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1114, directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to (a) conduct a study of the relative risks of loss for various classes of mortgages which may be insured under sections 1709(b) and 213 of this title, for the purpose of making recommendations on the advisability of reducing mortgage insurance premiums, and transmit the recommendations to Congress within 18 months from Dec. 21, 1979, and (b) conduct a study of alternatives to the present system of fixed statutory maximum amounts for mortgages insured under subchapters I and II of this chapter and report to Congress on the results of the study together with recommendations for legislative, by Mar. 1, 1980.

Insurance Program or Homeowners To Meet Mortgage Payments in Times of Personal Economic Adversity

Pub. L. 90–448, §109, authorized Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to develop a plan of insurance to help homeowners meet mortgage payments in times of personal economic adversity, i.e., death, disability, illness, and unemployment; required the program to be actuarially sound through the use of premiums, fees, extended or increased payment schedules, or other similar methods in conjunction with federal participation as necessary; directed the Secretary to report to Congress within 6 months of Aug. 1, 1968 and to recommend legislation, authorizing him to contract with companies, corporations, or joint enterprises formed to provide home mortgage insurance protection for the purpose of reinsuring insurance reserve funds, subsidizing premium payments for lower income mortgagors, or otherwise making possible insurance protection of homeowners; and authorized the Secretary, in preparing his recommendations, to consult with other agencies or instrumentalities of the United States which insure or guarantee home mortgages in order that any recommended legislation afford equal benefits to mortgagors participating in their programs.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original.

§1709–1. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §404(a)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1208

Section, Pub. L. 90–301, §3(a), May 7, 1968, 82 Stat. 113; Pub. L. 90–448, title III, §315, Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 91–78, §3, Sept. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 125; Pub. L. 91–152, title IV, §401, Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 394; Pub. L. 91–351, title VI, §601, July 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 461; Pub. L. 92–213, §1, Dec. 22, 1971, 85 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 92–335, §1, July 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 93–85, §2, Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 220; Pub. L. 93–117, §3, Oct. 2, 1973, 87 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 93–234, title II, §208, Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 93–383, title III, §§309(e), 317, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 682, 685; Pub. L. 95–60, §2, June 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 257; Pub. L. 95–80, §2, July 31, 1977, 91 Stat. 339; Pub. L. 95–128, title III, §302, Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1131; Pub. L. 95–406, §2, Sept. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 880; Pub. L. 95–557, title III, §302, Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2096; Pub. L. 96–71, §2, Sept. 28, 1979, 93 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 96–105, §2, Nov. 8, 1979, 93 Stat. 794; Pub. L. 96–153, title III, §302, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1112; Pub. L. 96–372, §3, Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1364; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §§302, 332, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1639, 1652; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §332, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 413; Pub. L. 97–289, §2, Oct. 6, 1982, 96 Stat. 1231; Pub. L. 98–35, §2, May 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 98–109, §2, Oct. 1, 1983, 97 Stat. 746, authorized the Secretary, until Dec. 1, 1983, to set the maximum interest rates for certain mortgage insurance programs, notwithstanding the authority of the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to establish such rates, specified the criteria to be considered in establishing such rates, authorized the Secretary to provide that the interest rate applicable under section 1709(b) of this title be the negotiated interest rate specified in the commitment agreement, limited the amount of mortgages with such negotiated interest rates which may be insured and prohibited such negotiated interest rates with respect to mortgages subject to section 1715z–10 of this title.

Mortgage Credit Interest Rates

Pub. L. 90–301, §4, May 7, 1968, 82 Stat. 114, as amended by Pub. L. 90–565, Oct. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 1001; Pub. L. 91–9, Apr. 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 7; Pub. L. 91–38, July 1, 1969, 83 Stat. 43, which established a Commission to study mortgage interest rates and to make recommendations to assure the availability of an adequate supply of mortgage credit at a reasonable cost to the consumer, directed the Commission to make an interim report not later than July 1, 1969, and a final report of its study and recommendations not later than August 1, 1969, to enable the President, Congress, and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to take necessary action before October 1, 1969, when the authorization for the increase in interest rates above present statutory ceilings will expire, and provided that the Commission cease to exist sixty days after the submission of its final report, was repealed by Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §404(a)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1208.

§1709–1a. State constitutional and legal limits upon interest chargeable on loans, mortgages, or other interim financing arrangements; applicability; covered arrangements

(a) The provisions of the constitution of any State expressly limiting the amount of interest which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved by certain classes of lenders and the provisions of any law of that State expressly limiting the amount of interest which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved shall not apply to—

(1) any loan or mortgage which is secured by a one- to four-family dwelling and which is (A) insured under title I or II [12 U.S.C. 1702 et seq. or 1707 et seq.] of the National Housing Act, or (B) insured, guaranteed, or made under chapter 37 of title 38; or

(2) any temporary construction loan or other interim financing if at the time such loan is made or financing is arranged, the intention to obtain permanent financing substantially by means of loans or mortgages so insured, guaranteed, or made is declared.


(b) The provisions of this section shall apply to such loans, mortgages, or other interim financing made or executed in any State until the effective date (after June 30, 1976) of a provision of law of that State limiting the amount of interest which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved on such loans, mortgages, or financing.

(Pub. L. 94–324, §8, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 722.)

References in Text

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, as amended. Titles I and II of the National Housing Act are classified generally to subchapters I (§1702 et seq.) and II (§1707 et seq.), respectively, of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Veterans Housing Amendments Act of 1976, and not as part of the National Housing Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective June 30, 1976, see section 9(a) of Pub. L. 94–324, set out as a note under section 3701 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

§1709–2. Equity skimming; penalty; persons liable; one dwelling exemption

Whoever, with intent to defraud, willfully engages in a pattern or practice of—

(1) purchasing one- to four-family dwellings (including condominiums and cooperatives) which are subject to a loan in default at time of purchase or in default within one year subsequent to the purchase and the loan is secured by a mortgage or deed of trust insured or held by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, or the loan is made by the Department of Veterans Affairs,

(2) failing to make payments under the mortgage or deed of trust as the payments become due, regardless of whether the purchaser is obligated on the loan, and

(3) applying or authorizing the application of rents from such dwellings for his own use,


shall be fined not more than $250,000 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both. This section shall apply to a purchaser of such a dwelling, or a beneficial owner under any business organization or trust purchasing such dwelling, or to an officer, director, or agent of any such purchaser. Nothing in this section shall apply to the purchaser of only one such dwelling.

(Pub. L. 91–609, title IX, §912, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1814; Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §416(a), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1907; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(d)(1), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 274.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970, and not as part of the National Housing Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1991—Par. (1). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted "Department of Veterans Affairs" for "Veterans' Administration" in two places.

1988Pub. L. 100–242 inserted parenthetical reference to condominiums and cooperatives in par. (1), substituted "due, regardless of whether the purchaser is obligated on the loan" for "due" in par. (2), and substituted "$250,000" for "$5,000" and "5" for "three" in closing provisions.

§1709a. Determination of loan-to-value ratios

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, in establishing maximum loan-to-value ratios for mortgages insured by him under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], as amended by sections 101, 102, and 103 of this Act, shall determine that such ratios are in the public interest after taking into consideration (1) the effect of such ratios on the national economy and on conditions in the building industry, and (2) the availability or unavailability of residential mortgage credit assisted under the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended.

(Pub. L. 85–104, title I, §104, July 12, 1957, 71 Stat. 296; Pub. L. 90–19, §14(a), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 24.)

References in Text

The National Housing Act, referred to in text, is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1701 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of this title and Tables.

Amendments by sections 101, 102, and 103 of this act, referred to in text, refers to amendment of sections 1709(b), (i), 1715k(d)(3), and 1715m(b) of this title by Pub. L. 85–104. Section 1709(i) of this title was repealed by Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(1), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835. Section 1715m of this title was repealed by Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(5), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835.

The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended, referred to in text, is act June 22, 1944, ch. 268, 58 Stat. 284, as amended, which was classified generally to chapter 11C (§§693 to 697g) of former Title 38, Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief, and which was repealed by section 14(87) of Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1273, the first section of which enacted Title 38, Veterans' Benefits. For distribution of sections 693 to 697g of former Title 38 to Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, see Table preceding section 101 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing Act of 1957, and not as part of the National Housing Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "Federal Housing Commissioner".

§1709b. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–364, §6, Apr. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 77

Section, Pub. L. 85–104, title VI, §605, July 12, 1957, 71 Stat. 305, authorized Federal Housing Commissioner and Administrator of Veterans' Affairs to fix reasonable limits on charges, fees, and discounts imposed upon builders, sellers, or purchasers.

§1710. Payment of insurance

(a) In general

(1) Authorized claims procedures

The Secretary may, in accordance with this subsection and terms and conditions prescribed by the Secretary, pay insurance benefits to a mortgagee for any mortgage insured under section 1709 of this title through any of the following methods:

(A) Assignment of mortgage

The Secretary may pay insurance benefits whenever a mortgage has been in a monetary default for not less than 3 full monthly installments or whenever the mortgagee is entitled to foreclosure for a nonmonetary default. Insurance benefits shall be paid pursuant to this subparagraph only upon the assignment, transfer, and delivery to the Secretary of—

(i) all rights and interests arising under the mortgage;

(ii) all claims of the mortgagee against the mortgagor or others arising out of the mortgage transaction;

(iii) title evidence satisfactory to the Secretary; and

(iv) such records relating to the mortgage transaction as the Secretary may require.

(B) Conveyance of title to property

The Secretary may pay insurance benefits if the mortgagee has acquired title to the mortgaged property through foreclosure or has otherwise acquired such property from the mortgagor after a default upon—

(i) the prompt conveyance to the Secretary of title to the property which meets the standards of the Secretary in force at the time the mortgage was insured and which is evidenced in the manner provided by such standards; and

(ii) the assignment to the Secretary of all claims of the mortgagee against the mortgagor or others, arising out of mortgage transaction or foreclosure proceedings, except such claims as may have been released with the consent of the Secretary.


The Secretary may permit the mortgagee to tender to the Secretary a satisfactory conveyance of title and transfer of possession directly from the mortgagor or other appropriate grantor, and may pay to the mortgagee the insurance benefits to which it would otherwise be entitled if such conveyance had been made to the mortgagee and from the mortgagee to the Secretary.

(C) Claim without conveyance of title

The Secretary may pay insurance benefits upon sale of the mortgaged property at foreclosure where such sale is for at least the fair market value of the property (with appropriate adjustments), as determined by the Secretary, and upon assignment to the Secretary of all claims referred to in clause (ii) of subparagraph (B).

(D) Preforeclosure sale

The Secretary may pay insurance benefits upon the sale of the mortgaged property by the mortgagor after default and the assignment to the Secretary of all claims referred to in clause (ii) of subparagraph (B), if—

(i) the sale of the mortgaged property has been approved by the Secretary;

(ii) the mortgagee receives an amount at least equal to the fair market value of the property (with appropriate adjustments), as determined by the Secretary; and

(iii) the mortgagor has received an appropriate disclosure, as determined by the Secretary.

(2) Payment for loss mitigation

The Secretary may pay insurance benefits to the mortgagee to recompense the mortgagee for all or part of any costs of the mortgagee for taking loss mitigation actions that provide an alternative to foreclosure of a mortgage that is in default or faces imminent default, as defined by the Secretary (including but not limited to actions such as special forbearance, loan modification, support for borrower housing counseling, partial claims, borrower incentives, preforeclosure sale, and deeds in lieu of foreclosure, but not including assignment of mortgages to the Secretary under section subsection 1 (a)(1)(A) or section 1715u(c) of this title). No actions taken under this paragraph, nor any failure to act under this paragraph, by the Secretary or by a mortgagee shall be subject to judicial review.

(3) Determination of claims procedure

The Secretary shall publish guidelines for determining which of the procedures for payment of insurance under paragraph (1) are available to a mortgagee when it claims insurance benefits. At least one of the procedures for payment of insurance benefits specified in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) shall be available to a mortgagee with respect to a mortgage, but the same procedure shall not be required to be available for all of the mortgages held by a mortgagee.

(4) Servicing of assigned mortgages

If a mortgage is assigned to the Secretary under paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary may permit the assigning mortgagee or its servicer to continue to service the mortgage for reasonable compensation and on terms and conditions determined by the Secretary. Neither the Secretary nor any servicer of the mortgage shall be required to forbear from collection of amounts due under the mortgage or otherwise pursue loss mitigation measures.

(5) Calculation of insurance benefits

Insurance benefits shall be paid in accordance with section 1735d of this title and shall be equal to the original principal obligation of the mortgage (with such additions and deductions as the Secretary determines are appropriate) which was unpaid upon the date of—

(A) assignment of the mortgage to the Secretary;

(B) the institution of foreclosure proceedings;

(C) the acquisition of the property after default other than by foreclosure; or

(D) sale of the mortgaged property by the mortgagor.

(6) Forbearance and recasting after default

The mortgagee may, upon such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe—

(A) extend the time for the curing of the default and the time for commencing foreclosure proceedings or for otherwise acquiring title to the mortgaged property, to such time as the mortgagee determines is necessary and desirable to enable the mortgagor to complete the mortgage payments, including an extension of time beyond the stated maturity of the mortgage, and in the event of a subsequent foreclosure or acquisition of the property by other means the Secretary may include in the amount of insurance benefits an amount equal to any unpaid mortgage interest; or

(B) provide for a modification of the terms of the mortgage for the purpose of recasting, over the remaining term of the mortgage or over such longer period pursuant to guidelines as may be prescribed by the Secretary, the total unpaid amount then due, with the modification to become effective currently or to become effective upon the termination of an agreed-upon extension of the period for curing the default; and the principal amount of the mortgage, as modified, shall be considered the "original principal obligation of the mortgage" for purposes of paragraph (5).

(7) Termination of premium obligation

The obligation of the mortgagee to pay the premium charges for insurance shall cease upon fulfillment of the appropriate requirements under which the Secretary may pay insurance benefits, as described in paragraph (1). The Secretary may also terminate the mortgagee's obligation to pay mortgage insurance premiums upon receipt of an application filed by the mortgagee for insurance benefits under paragraph (1), or in the event the contract of insurance is terminated pursuant to section 1715t of this title.

(8) Effect on payment of insurance benefits under section 1715u

Nothing in this section shall limit the authority of the Secretary to pay insurance benefits under section 1715u of this title.

(9) Treatment of mortgage assignment program

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, or the Amended Stipulation entered as a consent decree on November 8, 1979, in Ferrell v. Cuomo, No. 73 C 334 (N.D. Ill.), or any other order intended to require the Secretary to operate the program of mortgage assignment and forbearance that was operated by the Secretary pursuant to the Amended Stipulation and under the authority of section 1715u of this title, prior to its amendment by section 407(b) of The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I (Public Law 104–99; 110 Stat. 45), no mortgage assigned under this section may be included in any mortgage foreclosure avoidance program that is the same or substantially equivalent to such a program of mortgage assignment and forbearance.

(b) Consent to release of mortgagor or property

The Secretary may at any time, under such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, consent to the release of the mortgagor from his liability under the mortgage or the credit instrument secured thereby, or consent to the release of parts of the mortgaged property from the lien of the mortgage.

(c) Debentures; form and amounts

Debentures issued under this section—

(1) shall be in such form and amounts;

(2) shall be subject to such terms and conditions;

(3) shall include such provisions for redemption, if any, as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury; and

(4) may be in book entry or certificated registered form, or such other form as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may prescribe in regulations.

(d) Debentures; issuance; negotiability; terms; tax exemptions

The debentures issued under this section to any mortagee 2 with respect to mortgages insured under section 1709 of this title shall be issued in the name of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund as obligor and shall be negotiable, and, if in book entry form, transferable, in the manner described by the Secretary in regulations. All such debentures shall be dated as of the date foreclosure proceedings were instituted, or the property was otherwise acquired by the mortgagee after default: Provided, That debentures issued pursuant to claims for insurance filed on or after September 2, 1964 shall be dated as of the date of default or as of such later date as the Secretary, in his discretion, may establish by regulation. The debentures shall bear interest from such date at a rate established by the Secretary pursuant to section 1715o of this title, payable semiannually on the 1st day of January and the 1st day of July of each year, and shall mature twenty years after the date thereof. Such debentures as are issued in exchange for property covered by mortgages insured under section 1709 or section 1713 of this title prior to February 3, 1938 shall be subject only to such Federal, State, and local taxes as the mortgages in exchange for which they are issued would be subject to in the hands of the holder of the debentures and shall be a liability of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, but such debentures shall be fully and unconditionally guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States; but any mortgagee entitled to receive any such debentures may elect to receive in lieu thereof a cash adjustment and debentures issued as hereinafter provided and bearing the current rate of interest. Such debentures as are issued in exchange for property covered by the mortgages insured after February 3, 1938, shall be exempt, both as to principal and interest, from all taxation (except surtaxes, estate, inheritance, and gift taxes) now or hereafter imposed by the United States, by any Territory, dependency, or possession thereof, or by any State, county, municipality, or local taxing authority; and such debentures shall be paid out of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, which shall be primarily liable therefor, and they shall be fully and unconditionally guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, and, in the case of debentures issued in certificated registered form, such guaranty shall be expressed on the face of the debentures. In the event that the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund fails to pay upon demand, when due, the principal of or interest on any debentures issued under this section, the Secretary of the Treasury shall pay to the holders the amount thereof which is authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and thereupon to the extent of the amount so paid the Secretary of the Treasury shall succeed to all the rights of the holders of such debentures.

(e) Certificate of claim

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the certificate of claim issued by the Secretary to any mortgagee shall be for an amount which the Secretary determines to be sufficient, when added to the face value of the debentures issued and the cash adjustment paid to the mortgagee, to equal the amount which the mortgagee would have received if, at the time of the conveyance to the Secretary of the property covered by the mortgage, the mortgagor had redeemed the property and paid in full all obligations under the mortgage and a reasonable amount for necessary expenses incurred by the mortgagee in connection with the foreclosure proceedings, or the acquisition of the mortgaged property otherwise, and the conveyance thereof to the Secretary. Each such certificate of claim shall provide that there shall accrue to the holder of such certificate with respect to the face amount of such certificate, an increment at the rate of 3 per centum per annum which shall not be compounded. The amount to which the holder of any such certificate shall be entitled shall be determined as provided in subsection (f).

(2) A certificate of claim shall not be issued and the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not be applicable in the case of a mortgage accepted for insurance pursuant to a commitment issued on or after September 2, 1964.

(f) Division of excess proceeds; settlement of certificates of claims and refunds to mortgagors

(1) If, after deducting (in such manner and amount as the Secretary shall determine to be equitable and in accordance with sound accounting practice) the expenses incurred by the Secretary, the net amount realized from any property conveyed to the Secretary under this section and the claims assigned therewith exceed the face value of the debentures issued and the cash paid in exchange for such property plus all interest paid on such debentures, such excess shall be divided as follows:

(i) If such excess is greater than the total amount payable under the certificate of claim issued in connection with such property, the Secretary shall pay to the holder of such certificate the full amount so payable, and any excess remaining thereafter shall be paid to the mortgagor of such property if the mortgage was insured under section 1709 of this title: Provided, That on and after September 2, 1964, any excess remaining after payment to the holder of the full amount of the certificate of claim, together with the accrued interest increment thereon, shall be retained by the Secretary and credited to the applicable insurance fund; and

(ii) If such excess is equal to or less than the total amount payable under such certificate of claim, the Secretary shall pay to the holder of such certificate the full amount of such excess.


(2) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, the Secretary is authorized, with respect to mortgages insured pursuant to commitments for insurance issued after August 11, 1955, and, with the consent of the mortgagee or mortgagor, as the case may be, with respect to mortgages insured pursuant to commitments issued prior to such date, to effect the settlement of certificates of claim and refunds to mortgagors at any time after the sale or transfer of title to the property conveyed to the Secretary under this section and without awaiting the final liquidation of such property for the purpose of determining the net amount to be realized therefrom: Provided, That the settlement authority created by the Housing Amendments of 1955 shall be terminated with respect to any certificates of claim outstanding as of September 2, 1964.

(3) With the consent of the holder thereof, the Secretary is authorized, without awaiting the final liquidation of the Secretary's interest in the property, to settle any certificate of claim issued pursuant to subsection (e), with respect to which settlement had not been effected prior to September 2, 1964, by making payment in cash to the holder thereof of such amount not exceeding the face amount of the certificate of claim, together with the accrued interest thereon, as the Secretary may consider appropriate: Provided, That in any case where the certificate of claim is settled in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, any amounts realized after September 2, 1964, in the liquidation of the Secretary's interest in the property, shall be retained by the Secretary and credited to the applicable insurance fund.

(g) Handling and disposal of property; settlement of claims

Notwithstanding any other provision of law relating to the acquisition, handling, or disposal of real property by the United States, the Secretary shall have power to deal with, complete, rent, renovate, modernize, insure, or sell for cash or credit, in his discretion, any properties conveyed to him in exchange for debentures and certificates of claim as provided in this section; and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall also have power to pursue to final collection, by way of compromise or otherwise, all claims against mortgagors assigned by mortgagees to the Secretary as provided in this section: Provided, That section 6101 of title 41 shall not be construed to apply to any contract for hazard insurance, or to any purchase or contract for services or supplies on account of such property if the amount thereof does not exceed $1,000. The Secretary shall, by regulation, carry out a program of sales of such properties and shall develop and implement appropriate credit terms and standards to be used in carrying out the program. The power to convey and to execute in the name of the Secretary deeds of conveyance, deeds of release, assignments and satisfactions of mortgages, and any other written instrument relating to real or personal property or any interest therein heretofore or hereafter acquired by the Secretary pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, may be exercised by an officer appointed by him, without the execution of any express delegation of power or power of attorney: Provided, That nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent the Secretary from delegating such power by order or by power of attorney, in his discretion, to any officer, agent, or employee he may appoint: And provided further, That a conveyance or transfer of title to real or personal property or an interest therein to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, his successors and assigns, without identifying the Secretary therein, shall be deemed a proper conveyance or transfer to the same extent and of like effect as if the Secretary were personally named in such conveyance or transfer. The Secretary may sell real and personal property acquired by the Secretary pursuant to the provisions of this chapter on such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe.

(h) Disposition of assets in revitalization areas

(1) In general

The purpose of this subsection is to require the Secretary to carry out a program under which eligible assets (as such term is defined in paragraph (2)) shall be made available for sale in a manner that promotes the revitalization, through expanded homeownership opportunities, of revitalization areas. Notwithstanding the authority under the last sentence of subsection (g), the Secretary shall dispose of all eligible assets under the program and shall establish the program in accordance with the requirements under this subsection.

(2) Eligible assets

For purposes of this subsection, the term "eligible asset" means any of the following categories of assets of the Secretary, unless the Secretary determines at any time that the asset property is economically or otherwise infeasible to rehabilitate or that the best use of the asset property is as open space (including park land):

(A) Properties

Any property that—

(i) is designed as a dwelling for occupancy by 1 to 4 families;

(ii) is located in a revitalization area;

(iii) was previously subject to a mortgage insured under the provisions of this chapter; and

(iv) is owned by the Secretary pursuant to the payment of insurance benefits under this chapter.

(B) Mortgages

Any mortgage that—

(i) is an interest in a property that meets the requirements of clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A);

(ii) was previously insured under the provisions of this chapter except for mortgages insured under or made pursuant to sections 1715z, 1715z–12, or 1715z–20 of this title; and

(iii) is held by the Secretary pursuant to the payment of insurance benefits under this chapter.


For purposes of this subsection, an asset under this subparagraph shall be considered to be located in a revitalization area, or in the asset control area of a preferred purchaser, if the property described in clause (i) is located in such area.

(3) Revitalization areas

The Secretary shall designate areas as revitalization areas for purposes of this subsection. Before designation of an area as a revitalization area, the Secretary shall consult with affected units of general local government, States, and Indian tribes and interested nonprofit organizations. The Secretary may designate as revitalization areas only areas that meet one of the following requirements:

(A) Very-low income area

The median household income for the area is less than 60 percent of the median household income for—

(i) in the case of any area located within a metropolitan area, such metropolitan area; or

(ii) in the case of any area not located within a metropolitan area, the State in which the area is located.

(B) High concentration of eligible assets

A high rate of default or foreclosure for single family mortgages insured under this chapter has resulted, or may result, in the area—

(i) having a disproportionately high concentration of eligible assets, in comparison with the concentration of such assets in surrounding areas; or

(ii) being detrimentally impacted by eligible assets in the vicinity of the area.

(C) Low home ownership rate

The rate for home ownership of single family homes in the area is substantially below the rate for homeownership in the metropolitan area.

(4) Preference for sale to preferred purchasers

The Secretary shall provide a preference, among prospective purchasers of eligible assets, for sale of such assets to any purchaser who—

(A) is—

(i) the unit of general local government, State, or Indian tribe having jurisdiction with respect to the area in which are located the eligible assets to be sold; or

(ii) a nonprofit organization;


(B) in making a purchase under the program under this subsection—

(i) establishes an asset control area, which shall be an area that consists of part or all of a revitalization area; and

(ii) purchases all assets of the Secretary in the category or categories of eligible assets set forth in the sale agreement required under paragraph (7) that, at any time during the period which shall be set forth in the sale agreement—

(I) are or become eligible for purchase under this subsection; and

(II) are located in the asset control area of the purchaser; and


(C) has the capacity to carry out the purchase of the category or categories of eligible assets set forth in the sale agreement under the program under this subsection and under the provisions of this paragraph.

(5) Agreements required for purchase

(A) Preferred purchasers

Under the program under this subsection, the Secretary may sell an eligible asset as provided in paragraph (4) to a preferred purchaser only pursuant to a binding agreement by the preferred purchaser that the eligible asset will be used in conjunction with a home ownership plan that provides as follows:

(i) The plan has as its primary purpose the expansion of home ownership in, and the revitalization of, the asset control area, established pursuant to paragraph (4)(B)(i) by the purchaser, in which the eligible asset is located.

(ii) Under the plan, the preferred purchaser has established, and agreed to meet, specific performance goals for increasing the rate of home ownership for eligible assets in the asset control area that are under the purchaser's control. The plan shall provide that the Secretary may waive or modify such goals or deadlines only upon a determination by the Secretary that a good faith effort has been made in complying with the goals through the homeownership plan and that exceptional neighborhood conditions prevented attainment of the goal.

(iii) Under the plan, the preferred purchaser has established rehabilitation standards that meet or exceed the standards for housing quality established under subparagraph (B)(iii) by the Secretary, and has agreed that each asset property for an eligible asset purchased will be rehabilitated in accordance with such standards.

(B) Non-preferred purchasers

Under the program under this subsection, the Secretary may sell an eligible asset to a purchaser who is not a preferred purchaser only pursuant to a binding agreement by the purchaser that complies with the following requirements:

(i) The purchaser has agreed to meet specific performance goals established by the Secretary for home ownership of the asset properties for the eligible assets purchased by the purchaser, except that the Secretary may, by including a provision in the sale agreement required under paragraph (7), provide for a lower rate of home ownership in sales involving exceptional circumstances.

(ii) The purchaser has agreed that each asset property for an eligible asset purchased will be rehabilitated to comply with minimum standards for housing quality established by the Secretary for purposes of the program under this subsection.

(6) Discount for preferred purchasers

(A) In general

For the purpose of providing a public purpose discount for the bulk sales of eligible assets made under the program under this subsection by preferred purchasers, each eligible asset sold through the program under this subsection to a preferred purchaser shall be sold at a price that is discounted from the value of the asset, as based on the appraised value of the asset property (as such term is defined in paragraph (8)).

(B) Appraisals

The Secretary shall require that each appraisal of an eligible asset under this paragraph is based upon—

(i) the market value of the asset property in its "as is" physical condition, which shall take into consideration age and condition of major mechanical and structural systems; and

(ii) the value of the property appraised for home ownership.

(C) Discounts

The Secretary, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, shall establish the discount under this paragraph for an eligible asset. In determining the discount, the Secretary may consider the condition of the asset property, the extent of resources available to the preferred purchaser, the comprehensive revitalization plan undertaken by such purchaser, the financial safety and soundness of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, and any other circumstances the Secretary considers appropriate 3

(7) Sale agreement

The Secretary may sell an eligible asset under this subsection only pursuant to a sale agreement entered into under this paragraph with the purchaser, which shall include the following provisions:

(A) Assets

The sale agreement shall identify the category or categories of eligible assets to be purchased and, based on the purchaser's capacity to manage and dispose of assets, the maximum number of assets owned by the Secretary at the time the sale agreement is executed that shall be sold to the purchaser.

(B) Revitalization area and asset control area

The sale agreement shall identify—

(i) the boundaries of the specific revitalization areas (or portions thereof) in which are located the eligible assets that are covered by the agreement; and

(ii) in the case of a preferred purchaser, the asset control area established pursuant to paragraph (4)(B)(i) that is covered by the agreement.

(C) Financing

The sale agreement shall identify the sources of financing for the purchase of the eligible assets.

(D) Binding agreements

The sale agreement shall contain binding agreements by the purchaser sufficient to comply with—

(i) in the case of a preferred purchaser, the requirements under paragraph (5)(A), which agreements shall provide that the eligible assets purchased will be used in conjunction with a home ownership plan meeting the requirements of such paragraph, and shall set forth the terms of the homeownership plan, including—

(I) the goals of the plan for the eligible assets purchased and for the asset control area subject to the plan;

(II) the revitalization areas (or portions thereof) in which the homeownership plan is operating or will operate;

(III) the specific use or disposition of the eligible assets under the plan; and

(IV) any activities to be conducted and services to be provided under the plan; or


(ii) in the case of a purchaser who is not a preferred purchaser, the requirements under paragraph (5)(B).

(E) Purchase price and discount

The sale agreement shall establish the purchase price of the eligible assets, which in the case of a preferred purchaser shall provide for a discount in accordance with paragraph (6).

(F) Housing quality

The sale agreement shall provide for compliance of the eligible assets purchased with the rehabilitation standards established under paragraph (5)(A)(iii) or the minimum standards for housing quality established under paragraph (5)(B)(ii), as applicable, and shall specify such standards.

(G) Performance goals and sanctions

The sale agreement shall set forth the specific performance goals applicable to the purchaser, in accordance with paragraph (5), shall set forth any sanctions for failure to meet such goals and deadlines, and shall require the purchaser to certify compliance with such goals.

(H) Period covered

The sale agreement shall establish—

(i) in the case of a preferred purchaser, the time period referred to in paragraph (4)(B)(ii); and

(ii) in the case of a purchaser who is not a preferred purchaser, the time period for purchase of eligible assets that may be covered by the purchase.

(I) Other terms

The agreement shall contain such other terms and conditions as may be necessary to require that eligible assets purchased under the agreement are used in accordance with the program under this subsection.

(8) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:

(A) Asset control area

The term "asset control area" means the area established by a preferred purchaser pursuant to paragraph (4)(B)(i).

(B) Asset property

The term "asset property" means—

(i) with respect to an eligible asset that is a property, such property; and

(ii) with respect to an eligible asset that is a mortgage, the property that is subject to the mortgage.

(C) Eligible asset

The term "eligible asset" means an asset described in paragraph (2).

(D) Nonprofit organization

The term "nonprofit organization" means a private organization that—

(i) is organized under State or local laws;

(ii) has no part of its net earnings inuring to the benefit of any member, shareholder, founder, contributor, or individual; and

(iii) complies with standards of financial responsibility that the Secretary may require.

(E) Preferred purchaser

The term "preferred purchaser" means a purchaser described in paragraph (4).

(F) Unit of general local government

The term "unit of general local government" means any city, town, township, county, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State, and any agency or instrumentality thereof that is established pursuant to legislation and designated by the chief executive officer to act on behalf of the jurisdiction with regard to the provisions of this subsection.

(G) State

The term "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, or any agency or instrumentality thereof that is established pursuant to legislation and designated by the chief executive officer to act on behalf of the State with regard to provisions of this subjection.4

(H) Indian tribe

The term "Indian tribe" has the same meaning as in section 1715z–13(i)(I) 5 of this title.

(9) Secretary's discretion

The Secretary shall have the authority to implement and administer the program under this subsection in such manner as the Secretary may determine. The Secretary may, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, enter into contracts to provide for the proper administration of the program with such public or nonprofit entities as the Secretary determines are qualified.

(10) Regulations

The Secretary shall issue regulations to implement the program under this subsection through rulemaking in accordance with the procedures established under section 553 of title 5 regarding substantive rules. Such regulations shall take effect not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on October 21, 1998.

(i) Mortgagor's or mortgagee's interest in property or claim conveyed

No mortgagee or mortgagor shall have, and no certificate of claim shall be construed to give to any mortgagee or mortgagor, any right or interest in any property conveyed to the Secretary or in any claim assigned to him; nor shall the Secretary owe any duty to any mortgagee or mortgagor with respect to the handling or disposal of any such property or the collection of any such claim.

(j) Foreclosure; payment and cessation of obligation

In the event that any mortgagee under a mortgage insured under section 1709 of this title (other than a mortgagee receiving insurance benefits under clause (1)(A) of the second sentence of subsection (a)) forecloses on the mortgaged property but does not convey such property to the Secretary in accordance with this section, and the Secretary is given written notice thereof, or in the event that the mortgagor pays the obligation under the mortgage in full prior to the maturity thereof, and the mortgagee pays any adjusted premium charge required under the provisions of section 1709(c) of this title, and the Secretary is given written notice by the mortgagee of the payment of such obligation, the obligation to pay any subsequent premium charge for insurance shall cease, and all rights of the mortgagee and the mortgagor under this section shall terminate as of the date of such notice.

(k) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title VI, §601(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2673

(l) Nullification of right of redemption of single family mortgagors

(1) Whenever the Secretary or a contract mortgagee (pursuant to its contract with the Secretary) forecloses on a Secretary-held single family mortgage in any Federal or State court or pursuant to a power of sale in a mortgage, the purchaser at the foreclosure sale shall be entitled to receive a conveyance of title to, and possession of, the property, subject to the interests senior to the interests of the Secretary or the contract mortgagee, as the case may be. Notwithstanding any State law to the contrary, there shall be no right of redemption (including in all instances any right to possession based upon any right of redemption) in the mortgagor or any other person subsequent to the foreclosure sale in connection with a Secretary-held single family mortgage. The appropriate State official or the trustee, as the case may be, shall execute and deliver a deed or other appropriate instrument conveying title to the purchaser at the foreclosure sale, consistent with applicable procedures in the jurisdiction and without regard to any such right of redemption.

(2) The following actions shall be taken in order to verify title in the purchaser at the foreclosure sale:

(A) In the case of a judicial foreclosure in any Federal or State court, there shall be included in the petition and in the judgment of foreclosure a statement that the foreclosure is in accordance with this subsection and that there is no right of redemption in the mortgagor or any other person.

(B) In the case of a foreclosure pursuant to a power of sale provision in the mortgage, the statement required in subparagraph (A) shall be included in the advertisement of the sale and either in the recitals of the deed or other appropriate instrument conveying title to the purchaser at the foreclosure sale or in an affidavit or addendum to the deed.


(3) For purposes of this subsection:

(A) The term "contract mortgagee" means a person or entity under a contract with the Secretary that provides for the assignment of a single-family mortgage from the Secretary to the person or entity for the purpose of pursuing foreclosure.

(B) the 6 term "mortgage" means a deed of trust, mortgage, deed to secure debt, security agreement, or any other form of instrument under which any interest in property, real, personal, or mixed, or any interest in property, including leaseholds, life estates, reversionary interests, and any other estates under applicable State law, is conveyed in trust, mortgaged, encumbered, pledged, or otherwise rendered subject to a lien, for the purpose of securing the payment of money or the performance of an obligation.

(C) The term "Secretary-held single family mortgage" means a single-family mortgage held by the Secretary or by a contract mortgagee at the time of initiation of foreclosure that—

(i) was formerly insured by the Secretary under any section of this subchapter; or

(ii) was taken by the Secretary as a purchase money mortgage in connection with the sale or other transfer of Secretary-owned property under any section of this subchapter.


(D) the term "single-family mortgage" means a mortgage that covers property on which is located a 1-to-4 family residence.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §204, 48 Stat. 1249; May 28, 1935, ch. 150, §29(c), 49 Stat. 300; Feb. 19, 1937, ch. 12, 50 Stat. 20; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 12; June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §§9, 10, 53 Stat. 806; June 28, 1941, ch. 261, §9, 55 Stat. 365; Oct. 14, 1943, ch. 258, §1, 57 Stat. 570; Aug. 10, 1948, ch. 832, title I, §101(l), (q), 62 Stat. 1273, 1274; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §§105, 122, 64 Stat. 52, 59; Sept. 1, 1951, ch. 378, title VI, §604(a), 65 Stat. 314; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title I, §§111, 112(a), 113, 68 Stat. 593, 594; Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 783, title I, §102(a), 69 Stat. 635; Pub. L. 85–104, title I, §§107, 108(a), July 12, 1957, 71 Stat. 297; Pub. L. 86–372, title I, §§114(b), 117, Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 662, 664; Pub. L. 87–70, title VI, §612(b), (c), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 180; Pub. L. 88–560, title I, §§104(a), 105(a), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 769, 770; Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, §1108(d), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 504; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(2), (3), (4), (d), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17, 18; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §426], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1218; Pub. L. 100–242, title V, §569, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §1064(a), (b), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3275; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §136, Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2028; Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §516(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3790; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §407(a), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 45; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §221(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321-290; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 105–276, title VI, §§601(a), (c), (d), 602, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2670, 2673, 2674; Pub. L. 108–447, div. I, title II, §221, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3320; Pub. L. 111–22, div. A, title II, §203(c), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1644.)

References in Text

The Housing Amendments of 1955, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), is act Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 783, 69 Stat. 635, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1955 Amendments note set out under section 1701 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (g) and (h), was in the original "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1701 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (g), "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(c)(3), substituted "subsection (a)(1)(A) or section 1715u(c) of this title" for "paragraph (1)(A)".

Pub. L. 111–22, §203(c)(1), (2), inserted "or faces imminent default, as defined by the Secretary" after "default" and "support for borrower housing counseling, partial claims, borrower incentives, preforeclosure sale," after "loan modification,".

2004—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(1)(A), substituted "following categories of assets of the Secretary, unless the Secretary determines at any time that the asset property is economically or otherwise infeasible to rehabilitate or that the best use of the asset property is as open space (including park land)" for "following assets of the Secretary" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(1)(B), inserted "except for mortgages insured under or made pursuant to sections 1715z, 1715z–12, or 1715z–20 of this title" after "chapter".

Subsec. (h)(2)(C). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(1)(C), struck out heading and text of subpar. (C). Text read as follows: "Any contingent future interest of the Secretary in an asset described in subparagraph (A) or (B)."

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(2), inserted ", States, and Indian tribes" after "government" in second sentence.

Subsec. (h)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(3)(A), inserted ", State, or Indian tribe" after "government".

Subsec. (h)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(3)(B), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "purchases all interests of the Secretary in all assets of the Secretary that, at any time during the period which shall be set forth in the sale agreement required under paragraph (7)—

"(I) are or become eligible assets; and

"(II) are located in the asset control area of the purchaser; and".

Subsec. (h)(4)(C). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(3)(C), substituted "purchase of the category or categories of eligible assets set forth in the sale agreement under" for "purchase of eligible assets under".

Subsec. (h)(6)(C). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(4)(A), amended heading and text of subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) set out discount classes, including standard, deep, and minimal discounts.

Subsec. (h)(6)(D). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(4)(B), struck out heading and text of subpar. (D). Text read as follows: "The Secretary shall, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, establish a method for determining which discount under clause (i) or (ii) subparagraph (C) shall be provided for an eligible asset that is described in such clause (i) and sold to a preferred purchaser. The method may result in the assignment of discounts on any basis consistent with subparagraph (C) that the Secretary considers appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection."

Subsec. (h)(7)(A). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(5), substituted "category or categories of eligible assets to be purchased and, based on the purchaser's capacity to manage and dispose of assets, the maximum number of assets owned by the Secretary at the time the sale agreement is executed that shall be sold to the purchaser" for "eligible assets to be purchased and the interests sold".

Subsec. (h)(8)(F). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(6)(A), inserted ", and any agency or instrumentality thereof that is established pursuant to legislation and designated by the chief executive officer to act on behalf of the jurisdiction with regard to the provisions of this subsection" after "State".

Subsec. (h)(8)(G), (H). Pub. L. 108–447, §221(6)(B), added subpars. (G) and (H).

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–276, §601(a), inserted heading and amended text generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which authorized mortgagee of foreclosed property to receive insurance benefit upon conveyance to Secretary of title and assignment of claims, or upon foreclosure sale or approved sale after default where at least fair market value was received, set maintenance of property as condition of receipt of benefit, provided that obligation to pay premium would cease upon conveyance and assignment and debentures would issue having par value equal to value of mortgage, and set forth provisions detailing amounts to be included in debentures or cash payment and provisions authorizing extension or modification of mortgage where default was due to circumstances beyond control of mortgagor.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–276, §601(d), inserted at end "The Secretary may sell real and personal property acquired by the Secretary pursuant to the provisions of this chapter on such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe."

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 105–276, §602, added subsec. (h) and redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–276, §601(c), struck out subsec. (k) which read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or of section 1739 or 1750c of this title and with respect to any debentures issued in exchange for properties conveyed to and accepted by the Secretary after September 23, 1959 in accordance with such sections, the Secretary may (1) include in debentures reasonable payments made by the mortgagee with the approval of the Secretary for the purpose of protecting, operating, or preserving the property, and taxes imposed upon any deed or any other instrument by which the property was acquired by the mortgagee and transferred or conveyed to the Secretary; (2) include in debentures as a portion of foreclosure costs (to the extent that foreclosure costs may be included in such debentures by any other provision of this chapter) payments made by the mortgagee for the cost of acquiring the property and conveying and evidencing title to the property to the Secretary; and (3) terminate the mortgagee's obligation to pay mortgage insurance premiums upon receipt of an application for debentures filed by the mortgagee, or in the event the contract of insurance is terminated pursuant to section 1715t of this title."

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–134, in penultimate proviso of last sentence, substituted "special forebearance" for "special foreclosure".

Pub. L. 104–99 inserted ": And provided further, That the Secretary may pay insurance benefits to the mortgagee to recompense the mortgagee for its actions to provide an alternative to the foreclosure of a mortgage that is in default, which actions may include special foreclosure, loan modification, and deeds in lieu of foreclosure, all upon terms and conditions as the mortgagee shall determine in the mortgagee's sole discretion, within guidelines provided by the Secretary, but which may not include assignment of a mortgage to the Secretary: And provided further, That for purposes of the preceding proviso, no action authorized by the Secretary and no action taken, nor any failure to act, by the Secretary or the mortgagee shall be subject to judicial review." before period at end of last sentence.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–550, §516(a)(1), in fifth sentence, substituted "issue to the mortgagee debentures having a par value" for ", subject to the cash adjustment hereinafter provided, issue to the mortgagee debentures having a total face value".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–550, §516(a)(2), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "Debentures issued under this section shall be in such form and denominations in multiples of $50, shall be subject to such terms and conditions, and shall include such provisions for redemption, if any, as may be prescribed by the Secretary with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, and may be in coupon or registered form. Any difference between the value of the mortgage determined as herein provided and the aggregate face value of the debentures issued, not to exceed $350, shall be adjusted by the payment of cash by the Secretary to the mortgagee from the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–550, §516(a)(3), (4), in first sentence, substituted "issued in the name of" for "executed in the name of" and "and shall be negotiable, and, if in book entry form, transferable, in the manner described by the Secretary in regulations" for ", shall be signed by the Secretary by either his written or engraved signature, and shall be negotiable" and in fifth sentence, substituted "and, in the case of debentures issued in certificated registered form, such guaranty" for "and such guaranty".

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–235, §136(a), inserted after third sentence "As a condition of the receipt of such benefits, the mortgagee shall maintain or assure the maintenance of the mortgaged property (in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulation provide) during the period beginning on the taking of the possession or other acquisition of the mortgaged property by the mortgagee and ending on conveyance to the Secretary or other disposition of the mortgaged property in accordance with this section, and funds expended by the mortgagee in meeting such obligation shall be included, to the extent provided in this subsection or in subsection (k) of this section, in debentures or other insurance payment pursuant to this section."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–235, §136(b), inserted after first sentence "The Secretary shall, by regulation, carry out a program of sales of such properties and shall develop and implement appropriate credit terms and standards to be used in carrying out the program."

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–628, §1064(a)(1), (2), in second sentence, substituted "(1)(A) upon sale" for "(1) upon sale", inserted cl. (B), and substituted "; and (2)" for ", and (2)".

Pub. L. 100–628, §1064(b)(1), in third sentence, substituted "November 30, 1983 (on or after November 7, 1988, with respect to the payment of benefits under clause (1)(B) of the preceding sentence)," for "the effective date of this sentence".

Pub. L. 100–628, §1064(b)(2)(A), in fifth sentence, struck out "foreclosure" before "sale of the property: Provided".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–628, §1064(b)(2)(B), inserted "clause (1)(A) of" before "the second sentence".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–242 added subsec. (l).

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–181, §426(a), inserted provision authorizing the Secretary to make the benefit of the insurance available to the mortgagee upon sale of the insured property at foreclosure and assignment of all claims to the Secretary and provision relating to payment of benefits pursuant to a commitment to insure issued on or after the effective date of this sentence [Nov. 30, 1983], and substituted "any amount received as rent or other income from the property, less reasonable expenses incurred in handling the property, after either of such dates, and, in the case of insurance benefits paid in accordance with the second sentence of this section, any amount received upon the foreclosure sale of the property" for "and any amount received as rent or other income from the property, less reasonable expenses incurred in handling the property, after either of such dates".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 98–181, §426(b), inserted "(other than a mortgagee receiving insurance benefits under the second sentence of subsection (a))" after "section 1709 of this title".

1967Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(2), substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "Federal Housing Commissioner" in subsec. (g).

Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing in subsecs. (a) to (d), (e)(1), (f)(1), (f)(1)(i), (ii), (f)(2), (3), (g), (h), (j), and (k).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(4), substituted "Secretary's" for "Commissioner's" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 90–19, §1(d), substituted "an officer" for "the Commissioner or by any Assistant Commissioner".

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(d)(1), struck out reference to section 1715a of this title after reference to section 1709 of this title in first sentence.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(d)(2), substituted "Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund" for "Fund as to mortgages insured under section 1709 of this title and from the Housing Fund as to mortgages insured under section 1715a of this title".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(d)(3)–(6), removed all references to debentures issued with respect to mortgages insured under section 1715a of this title and to the Housing Insurance Fund and substituted Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund for Fund wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(d)(7), struck out provision of subpar. (1)(i) calling for retention of excess by Commissioner and credit to the Housing Insurance Fund in the case of mortgages insured under section 1713 of this title.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–560, §§104(a), 105(a)(1)–(3), (6)(B), amended provisions as follows; section 104(a), in proviso reading "And provided further, That with respect to any mortgage covering a one-, two-, three-, or four-family residence", struck out "and it is probable that the mortgage will be restored to good standing within a reasonable period of time" after "control of the mortgagor", substituted "upon such terms and conditions" for "under such regulations and conditions", incorporated authority of Commissioner to "extend the time for curing default and enter into an agreement with the mortgage providing that if the mortgage is subsequently foreclosed, any interest accruing after the date of the agreement which is not paid by the mortgagor may be included in the debentures" in cl. (1), and provided for remainder of cl. (1), cl. (2) and consideration of the principal amount of the mortgage, as modified, as the "original principal obligation of the mortgage" for purpose of computing total face value of debentures to be issued or cash payment to be made by Commissioner to a mortgagee; section 105(a)(1) substituted in third sentence "charges for the administration, operation, maintenance and repair of community-owned property or the maintenance and repair of the mortgaged property, the obligation for which arises out of a covenant filed for record and approved by the Commissioner prior to the insurance of the mortgage, insurance on the mortgaged property, and any mortgage insurance premiums" for "insurance on the mortgaged property, and any mortgage insurance premiums paid after either of such dates"; section 105(a)(2) inserted provisos reading "And provided further, That with respect to a mortgage accepted for insurance pursuant to a commitment issued on or after September 2, 1964, the Commissioner may include in debentures or in the cash payment on amount not to exceed the foreclosure, acquisition, and conveyance costs actually paid by the mortgagee and approved by the Commissioner" and "And provided further, That with respect to a mortgage accepted for insurance pursuant to a commitment issued prior to September 2, 1964, the Commissioner may, with the consent of the mortgagee (in lieu of issuing a certificate of claim as provided in subsection (e)), included in debentures or in the cash payment, in addition to amounts otherwise allowed for such costs, an amount not to exceed one-third of the total foreclosure, acquisition, and conveyance costs actually paid by the mortgagee and approved by the Commissioner, but in no event may the total allowance for such costs exceed the amount actually paid by the mortgagee:"; section 105(a)(3) struck out from proviso reading "And provided further, That with respect to mortgages to which the provisions of sections 532 and 536 of Appendix To Title 50 apply" the words "and the payment of insurance premiums" after "on account of interest on debentures" and inserted after such proviso "And provided further, That where the claim is paid in cash there shall be included in the cash payment an amount equivalent to the compensation for loss of debenture interest that would be included in computing debentures if such claim were being paid in debentures"; and section 105(a)(6)(B) substituted "and (subject to subsection (e)(2) of this section) a certificate of claim" for "and a certificate of claim" in second sentence.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–560, §105(a)(4), increased limitation on the difference between the value of the mortgage and the aggregate face value of the debentures issued from $50 to $350.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–560, §105(a)(5), substituted ": Provided, That debentures issued pursuant to claims for insurance filed on or after September 2, 1964 shall be dated as of the date of default or as of such later date as the Commissioner, in his discretion, may establish by regulation. The debentures" for ", except that debentures issued pursuant to the provisions of section 1715k(f), 1715l(g), and 1715x of this title may be dated as of the date the mortgage is assigned (or the property is conveyed) to the Commissioner, and" in second sentence.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 88–560, §105(a)(6)(A), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Subject to paragraph (2), the certificate" for "The certificate", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 88–560, §105(a)(7)–(11), designated introductory par. as par. (1) and substituted "If, after deducting (in such manner and amount as the Commissioner shall determine to be equitable and in accordance with sound accounting practice) the expenses incurred by the Commissioner, the net amount realized from any property conveyed to the Commissioner under this section and the claims assigned therewith exceed the face value" for "If the net amount realized from any property conveyed to the Commissioner under this section and the claims assigned therewith, after deducting all expenses incurred by the Commissioner in handling, dealing with, and disposing of such property and in collecting such claims, exceeds the face value"; redesignated former par. (1) as (i) and inserted proviso; redesignated former par. (2) as (ii); designated concluding par. as par. (2) and inserted proviso; and added par. (3), respectively.

1961—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–70, §612(b), permitted debentures issued pursuant to provisions of section 1715k(f), 1715l(g), and 1715x of this title to be dated as of the date the mortgage is assigned (or the property is conveyed) to the Commissioner.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 87–70, §612(c), included instruments relating to personal property, and inserted proviso requiring that a conveyance or transfer of title to real or personal property or an interest therein to the Federal Housing Commissioner, his successors and assigns, without identifying the Commissioner therein, shall be deemed a proper conveyance or transfer.

1959—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–372, §114(b), authorized the Commissioner, with respect to any mortgage covering a one-, two-, three-, or four-family residence insured under this chapter, if he finds after notice of default, that the default was due to circumstances beyond the control of the mortgagor and it is probable that the mortgage will be restored to good standing within a reasonable period of time, to extend the time for curing default and to enter into an agreement with the mortgagee providing that if the mortgage is subsequently foreclosed, any interest accruing after the date of the agreement which is not paid by the mortgagor may be included in the debentures.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 86–372, §117, substituted "and with respect to any debentures issued in exchange for properties conveyed to and accepted by the Commissioner after September 23, 1959 in accordance with such section" for "with respect to any debentures issued pursuant to this section or section 1739 or 1750c of this title", and inserted provisions authorizing inclusion as a portion of the foreclosure costs payments made by the mortgagee for the cost of acquiring the property and conveying the evidencing title to the property to the Commissioner, and permitting the termination of the mortgagee's obligation to pay mortgage insurance premiums in the event the contract of insurance is terminated pursuant to section 1715t of this title.

1957—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85–104, §108(a), substituted "established by the Commissioner pursuant to section 1715o of this title" for "determined by the Commissioner, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, at the time the mortgage was offered for insurance, but not to exceed 3 per centum per annum" in second sentence.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 85–104, §107, added subsec. (k).

1955—Subsec. (f). Act Aug. 11, 1955, authorized the Commissioner to effect the settlement of certificates of claim and refunds to mortgagors.

1954—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §111(l), permitted a mortgagee to receive in debentures amounts paid by it for Federal taxes imposed on a deed to it and on a deed to the Commissioner; (2) substituted, in second proviso, "or under section 1715e of this title, or with respect to any mortgage accepted for insurance under section 1709 of this title on or after August 2, 1954," for "or under section 1715e of this title"; and (3) inserted proviso permitting direct conveyances to the Commissioner.

Subsec. (d). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §112(a), substituted provision for a straight 20-year maturity on debentures for former provision that the debentures should mature "three years after the 1st day of July following the maturity date of the mortgage on the property in exchange for which the debentures were issued, except that debentures issued with respect to mortgages insured under section 1715e of this title shall mature twenty years after the date of such debentures" in second sentence.

Subsec. (j). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §113, added subsec. (j).

1951—Subsec. (d). Sept. 1, 1951, inserted in second sentence the provision that debentures issued with respect to mortgages insured under section 1715e of this title shall mature twenty years after the date of such debentures.

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, §122, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §105, inserted "or under section 1715e of this title" in second proviso.

1948—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(l)(1), (2), struck out "prior to July 1, 1944" in first proviso and inserted second proviso.

Subsec. (f). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(q), inserted "if the mortgage was insured under section 1709 of this title and shall be retained by the Administrator and credited to the Housing Insurance Fund if the mortgage was insured under section 1713 of this title" before the colon in par. (1).

1943—Subsec. (a). Act Oct. 14, 1943, inserted proviso.

1941—Subsec. (a). Act June 28, 1941, substituted "July 1, 1944" for "July 1, 1941" in last sentence.

1939—Subsec. (a). Act June 3, 1939, §9, amended last sentence generally.

Subsec. (g). Act June 3, 1939, §10, inserted last sentence.

1938—Subsecs. (a) to (f). Act Feb. 3, 1938, amended provisions generally.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Act Feb. 3, 1938, added subsecs. (g) and (h).

1937—Subsec. (b). Act Joint Res. Feb. 19, 1937, substituted "July 1, 1939" for "July 1, 1937".

1935—Subsec. (a). Act May 28, 1935, amended last sentence generally.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title VI, §601(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2673, provided that: "The Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register stating the effective date of the terms and conditions prescribed by the Secretary under section 204(a)(1) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1710(a)(1)], as amended by subsection (a) of this section. Subsections (a) and (k) of section 204 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1710(a), (k)], as in effect immediately before such effective date, shall continue to apply to any mortgage insured under section 203 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1709] before such effective date, except that the Secretary may, at the request of the mortgagee, pay insurance benefits as provided in subparagraphs (A) and (D) of section 204(a)(1) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 1710(a)(1)(A), (D)] to calculate insurance benefits in accordance with section 204(a)(5) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 1710(a)(5)]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §407(c), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 46, as amended by Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §221(d)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321-291; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 104–204, title II, §203, Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2894; Pub. L. 105–33, title II, §2002(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 257, provided that: "Except as provided in subsection (e) [110 Stat. 46, repealed by Pub. L. 105–33, §2002(2)], the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 1715u of this title] shall apply with respect to mortgages insured under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.] that are executed before, on, or after October 1, 1997."

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Act Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title I, §112(e), 68 Stat. 593, provided that: "This section [amending this section and sections 1713, 1748b, and 1750c of this title] shall not apply in any case where the mortgage involved was insured or the commitment for such insurance was issued prior to the effective date of the Housing Act of 1954 [Aug. 2, 1954]."

Regulations

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §221(c)(1)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–291, provided that: "Not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 26, 1996], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue interim regulations to implement section 407 of the Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99, amending this section and section 1715u of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note above], and the amendments to the National Housing Act made by that section."

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §407(d), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 46, which directed the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to issue interim regulations to implement section 407 of Pub. L. 104–99 and amendments made by that section (amending this section and section 1715u of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note above) not later than 60 days after Jan. 26, 1996, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §221(c)(2)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321-291; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.

Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §1064(c), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3275, provided that: "In developing regulations to carry out the amendments made by this section [amending this section], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may delegate to mortgagees the authority to make determinations on behalf of the Secretary, and the Secretary shall rely on certifications and post audit reviews to the greatest extent possible."

Homeownership Preservation

Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2125, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2840, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Commissioner of the Federal Housing Administration, in consultation with industry, the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation, and other entities involved in foreclosure prevention activities, shall—

"(1) develop and implement a plan to improve the Federal Housing Administration's loss mitigation process; and

"(2) report such plan to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives."

Asset Control Area Demonstration Program Agreements, Contracts, and Regulations

Pub. L. 107–206, title I, §1303, Aug. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 897, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall begin to enter into new agreements and contracts pursuant to the Asset Control Area Demonstration Program as provided in section 602 of Public Law 105–276 [amending this section] not later than September 15, 2002: Provided, That any agreement or contract entered into pursuant to such program shall be consistent with the requirements of such section 602: Provided further, That the Department shall develop proposed regulations for this program not later than September 15, 2002."

Transfer of HUD Assets in Revitalization Areas

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title I, §142], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-618, provided that: "In carrying out the program under section 204(h) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1710(h)), upon the request of the chief executive officer of a county or the government of appropriate jurisdiction and not later than 60 days after such request is made, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall designate as a revitalization area all portions of such county that meet the criteria for such designation under paragraph (3) of such section."

Settlement Costs in the Financing of Federal Housing Administration and Veterans' Administration Assisted Housing; Study and Recommendations to Congress on Reduction and Standardization of Costs

Pub. L. 91–351, title VII, §701, July 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 461, provided that:

"(a) With respect to housing built, rehabilitated, or sold with assistance provided under the National Housing Act [this chapter] or under chapter 37 of title 38, United States Code, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs are respectively authorized and directed to prescribe standards governing the amounts of settlement costs allowable in connection with the financing of such housing in any such area. Such standards shall—

"(1) be established after consultation between the Secretary and the Administrator;

"(2) be consistent in any area for housing assisted under the National Housing Act and housing assisted under chapter 37 of title 38, United States Code; and

"(3) be based on the Secretary's and the Administrator's estimates of the reasonable charge for necessary services involved in settlements for particular classes of mortgages and loans.

"(b) The Secretary and the Administrator shall undertake a joint study and make recommendations to the Congress not later than one year after the date of enactment of this Act [July 24, 1970] with respect to legislative and administrative actions which should be taken to reduce mortgage settlement costs and to standardize these costs for all geographic areas."

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be "mortgagee".

3 So in original. There probably should be a period.

4 So in original. Probably should be "subsection."

5 So in original. Probably should be section "1715z–13(i)(1)".

6 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§1711. General Surplus and Participating Reserve Accounts

(a) Establishment; abolishment of General Reinsurance Account

The Secretary shall establish as of July 1, 1954, in the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund a General Surplus Account and a Participating Reserve Account. All of the assets of the General Reinsurance Account shall be transferred to the General Surplus Account whereupon the General Reinsurance Account shall be abolished. There shall be transferred from the various group accounts to the Participating Reserve Account as of July 1, 1954, an amount equal to the aggregate amount which would have been distributed under the provisions of this section in effect on June 30, 1954, if all outstanding mortgages in such group accounts had been paid in full on said date. All of the remaining balances of said group accounts shall as of said date be transferred to the General Surplus Account whereupon all of said group accounts shall be abolished.

(b) Credits and charges

The aggregate net income thereafter received or any net loss thereafter sustained by the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund in any semiannual period shall be credited or charged to the General Surplus Account and/or the Participating Reserve Account in such manner and amounts as the Secretary may determine to be in accord with sound actuarial and accounting practice.

(c) Distribution of funds to terminating mortgagors

Upon termination of the insurance obligation of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund by payment of any mortgage insured thereunder, the Secretary is authorized to distribute to the mortgagor a share of the Participating Reserve Account in such manner and amount as the Secretary shall determine to be equitable and in accordance with sound actuarial and accounting practice: Provided, That, in no event, shall any such distributable share exceed the aggregate scheduled annual premiums of the mortgagor to the year of termination of the insurance. The Secretary shall not distribute any share to an eligible mortgagor under this subsection beginning on the date which is 6 years after the date the Secretary first transmitted written notification of eligibility to the last known address of the mortgagor, unless the mortgagor has applied in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Secretary for payment of the share within the 6-year period. The Secretary shall transfer any amounts no longer eligible for distribution under the previous sentence from the Participating Reserve Account to the General Surplus Account.

(d) Rights and liabilities

No mortgagor or mortgagee of any mortgage insured under section 1709 of this title shall have any vested right in a credit balance in any such account or be subject to any liability arising out of the mutuality of the Fund and the determination of the Secretary as to the amount to be paid by him to any mortgagor shall be final and conclusive.

(e) Actuarial status of entire Fund

In determining whether there is a surplus for distribution to mortgagors under this section, the Secretary shall take into account the actuarial status of the entire Fund.

(f) Capital ratio for Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund

(1) The Secretary shall ensure that the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund attains a capital ratio of not less than 1.25 percent within 24 months after November 5, 1990, and maintains such ratio thereafter, subject to paragraph (2).

(2) The Secretary shall endeavor to ensure that the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund attains a capital ratio of not less than 2.0 percent within 10 years after November 5, 1990, and shall ensure that the Fund maintains at least such capital ratio at all times thereafter.

(3) Upon the expiration of the 24-month period beginning on November 5, 1990, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a report describing the actions the Secretary will take to ensure that the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund attains the capital ratio required under paragraph (2).

(4) For purposes of this subsection:

(A) The term "capital" means the economic net worth of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, as determined by the Secretary under the annual audit required under section 1735f–16 of this title.

(B) The term "capital ratio" means the ratio of capital to unamortized insurance-in-force.

(C) The term "economic net worth" means the current cash available to the Fund, plus the net present value of all future cash inflows and outflows expected to result from the outstanding mortgages in the Fund.

(D) The term "unamortized insurance-in-force" means the remaining obligation on outstanding mortgages which are obligations of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, as estimated by the Secretary.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §205, 48 Stat. 1250; May 28, 1935, ch. 150, §29(b), 49 Stat. 300; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 15; June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §11, 53 Stat. 807; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §122, 64 Stat. 59; June 30, 1953, ch. 170, §4, 67 Stat. 122; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title I, §114, 68 Stat. 594; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 101–508, title II, §§2104, 2105, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–19; Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §508(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3782; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2118(c)(1), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835.)

Amendments

2008—Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 110–289 struck out subsecs. (g) and (h) which related to annual independent audit of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund and adjustment of premiums, respectively.

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–550 inserted at end "The Secretary shall not distribute any share to an eligible mortgagor under this subsection beginning on the date which is 6 years after the date the Secretary first transmitted written notification of eligibility to the last known address of the mortgagor, unless the mortgagor has applied in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Secretary for payment of the share within the 6-year period. The Secretary shall transfer any amounts no longer eligible for distribution under the previous sentence from the Participating Reserve Account to the General Surplus Account."

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–508, §2104, added subsec. (e).

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 101–508, §2105, added subsecs. (f) to (h).

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing in subsecs. (a) to (d) of this section.

1954—Act Aug. 2, 1954, amended section generally to eliminate the former group accounts and substitute therefor a general surplus account and participating reserve account.

1953—Subsec. (c). Act June 30, 1953, inserted sentence relating to semi-annual transfer of group accounts, and, in remainder of section, changed the provisions relating to settlement of accounts.

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator" wherever appearing.

1939—Subsec. (b). Act June 3, 1939, inserted "prior to July 1, 1939".

1938—Subsecs. (a) to (f). Act Feb. 3, 1938, amended provisions generally, and among other changes, struck out subsec. (f).

1935—Subsec. (f). Act May 28, 1935, substituted "annual premium charge" for "premium charge" in first sentence.

Exception to Statute of Limitations

Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §508(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3782, provided that: "Notwithstanding the 6-year limitation on distribution of shares of the Participating Reserve Account under section 205(c) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1711(c)], the Secretary shall distribute a share to an otherwise eligible mortgagor in accordance with section 205(c), if the mortgagor applies for payment of the share within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992] in accordance with procedures in effect on such date."

§1712. Investment of funds

Moneys in the Fund not needed for the current operations of the Department of Housing and Urban Development related to insurance under section 1709 of this title shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit of the Fund, or invested in bonds or other obligations of, or in bonds or other obligations guaranteed as to principal and interest by, the United States or any agency of the United States: Provided, That such moneys shall to the maximum extent feasible be invested in such bonds or other obligations the proceeds of which will be used to directly support the residential mortgage market. The Secretary may, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, purchase in the open market debentures issued under the provisions of section 1710 of this title. Such purchases shall be made at a price which will provide an investment yield of not less than the yield obtainable from other investments authorized by this section. Debentures so purchased shall be canceled and not reissued, and the several group accounts to which such debentures have been charged shall be charged with the amounts used in making such purchases.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §206, 48 Stat. 1252; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 16; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §122, 64 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(1), (3), (e), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17, 18; Pub. L. 91–609, title I, §117(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1774.)

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–609 provided for guarantee as to principal and interest by any agency of the United States and for investment of monies in bonds or other obligations the proceeds of which will be used to directly support the residential mortgage market.

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Department of Housing and Urban Development" and "Secretary" for "Federal Housing Administration" and "Commissioner", respectively, and inserted "related to insurance under section 1709 of this title" before "shall be deposited".

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator".

1938—Act Feb. 3, 1938, among other changes, inserted "or in bonds or other obligations guaranteed as to principal and interest by" in first sentence, and inserted third sentence.

§1712a. Indexing of FHA multifamily housing loan limits

(a) Method of indexing

The dollar amounts set forth in—

(1) section 1713(c)(3)(A) of this title;

(2) section 1715e(b)(2)(A) of this title;

(3) section 1715k(d)(3)(B)(iii)(I) of this title;

(4) section 1715l(d)(3)(ii)(I) of this title;

(5) section 1715l(d)(4)(ii)(I) of this title;

(6) section 1715v(c)(2)(A) of this title; and

(7) section 1715y(e)(3)(A) of this title;


(collectively hereinafter referred to as the "Dollar Amounts") shall be adjusted annually (commencing in 2004) on the effective date of the Federal Reserve Board's adjustment of the $400 figure in the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994 (HOEPA). The adjustment of the Dollar Amounts shall be calculated using the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI–U) as applied by the Federal Reserve Board for purposes of the above-described HOEPA adjustment.

(b) Notification

The Federal Reserve Board on a timely basis shall notify the Secretary, or his designee, in writing of the adjustment described in subsection (a) and of the effective date of such adjustment in order to permit the Secretary to undertake publication in the Federal Register of corresponding adjustments to the Dollar Amounts. The dollar amount of any adjustment shall be rounded to the next lower dollar.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §206A, as added Pub. L. 107–326, §5(a), Dec. 4, 2002, 116 Stat. 2794.)

References in Text

The Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (a), is subtitle B (§§151–158) of title I of Pub. L. 103–325, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2190, which enacted sections 1639 and 1648 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, amended sections 1602, 1604, 1610, 1640, 1641, and 1647 of Title 15, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1601 and 1602 of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 1601 of Title 15 and Tables.

§1713. Rental housing insurance

(a) Definitions

As used in this section—

(1) The term "mortgage" means a first mortgage on real estate in fee simple, or on the interest of either the lessor or lessee thereof (A) under a lease for not less than ninety-nine years which is renewable or (B) under a lease having a period of not less than fifty years to run from the date the mortgage was executed, upon which there is located or upon which there is to be constructed a building or buildings designed principally for residential use, or upon which there is located or to be constructed facilities for manufactured homes, and the term "first mortgage" means such classes of first liens as are commonly given to secure advances (including but not being limited to advances during construction) on, or the unpaid purchase price of, real estate under the laws of the State, in which the real estate is located, together with the credit instrument or instruments, if any, secured thereby, and may be in the form of trust mortgages or mortgage indentures or deeds of trust securing notes, bonds, or other credit instruments.

(2) The term "mortgagee" means the original lender under a mortgage, and its successors and assigns, and includes the holders of credit instruments issued under a trust mortgage or deed of trust pursuant to which such holders act by and through a trustee therein named.

(3) The term "mortgagor" means the original borrower under a mortgage and its successors and assigns.

(4) The term "maturity date" means the date on which the mortgage indebtedness would be extinguished if paid in accordance with the periodic payments provided for in the mortgage.

(5) The term "slum or blighted area" means any area where dwellings predominate which, by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement or design, lack of ventilation, light or sanitation facilities, or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health, or morals.

(6) The term "rental housing" means housing, the occupancy of which is permitted by the owner thereof in consideration of the payment of agreed charges, whether or not, by the terms of the agreement, such payment over a period of time will entitle the occupant to the ownership of the premises or space in a manufactured home court or park properly arranged and equipped to accommodate manufactured homes.

(7) The term "State" includes the several States, and Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.

(b) Insurance of additional mortgages

In addition to mortgages insured under section 1709 of this title, the Secretary is authorized to insure mortgages as defined in this section (including advances on such mortgages during construction) which cover property held by—

(1) Federal or State instrumentalities, municipal corporate instrumentalities of one or more States, or limited dividend or redevelopment or housing corporations restricted by Federal or State laws or regulations of State banking or insurance departments as to rents, charges, capital structure, rate of return, or methods of operation; or

(2) any other mortgagor approved by the Secretary. The Secretary may, in the Secretary's discretion, require any such mortgagor to be regulated or restricted as to rents or sales, charges, capital structure, rate of return, and methods of operation so as to provide reasonable rentals to tenants and a reasonable return on the investment. Any such regulations or restrictions shall continue for such period or periods as the Secretary, in the Secretary's discretion, may require, including until the termination of all obligations of the Secretary under the insurance and during such further period of time as the Secretary shall be the owner, holder, or reinsurer of the mortgage. The Secretary may make such contracts with and acquire, for not to exceed $100, such stock or interest in the mortgagor as he may deem necessary to render effective any such regulations or restrictions. The stock or interest acquired by the Secretary shall be paid for out of the General Insurance Fund, and shall be redeemed by the mortgagor at par upon the termination of all obligations of the Secretary under the insurance.


The insurance of mortgages under this section is intended to facilitate particularly the production of rental accommodations, at reasonable rents, of design and size suitable for family living. The Secretary is, therefore, authorized in the administration of this section to take action, by regulation or otherwise, which will direct the benefits of mortgage insurance hereunder primarily to those projects which make adequate provision for families with children, and in which every effort has been made to achieve moderate rental charges.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, the Secretary may not insure any mortgage under this section (except a mortgage with respect to a manufactured home park designed exclusively for occupancy by elderly persons) unless the mortgagor certifies under oath that in selecting tenants for the property covered by the mortgage he will not discriminate against any family by reason of the fact that there are children in the family, and that he will not sell the property while the insurance is in effect unless the purchaser so certifies, such certification to be filed with the Secretary. Violation of any such certification shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not to exceed $500.

(c) Eligibility for insurance; mortgage limits

To be eligible for insurance under this section a mortgage on any property or project shall involve a principal obligation in an amount—

(1) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–383, title III, §304(a)(1), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 677.

(2) Not to exceed 90 per centum of the estimated value of the property or project (when the proposed improvements are completed): Provided, That this limitation shall not apply to mortgages on housing in Alaska or in Guam, but such a mortgage may involve a principal obligation in an amount not to exceed 90 per centum of the amount which the Secretary estimates will be the replacement cost of the property or project when the proposed improvements are completed (the value of the property or project as such term is used in this paragraph may include the land, the proposed physical improvements, utilities within the boundaries of the property or project, architect's fees, taxes, and interest accruing during construction, and other miscellaneous charges incident to construction and approved by the Secretary): And provided further, That nothing contained in this section shall preclude the insurance of mortgages covering existing construction located in slum or blighted areas, as defined in paragraph (5) of subsection (a) of this section, and the Secretary may require such repair or rehabilitation work to be completed as is, in his discretion, necessary to remove conditions detrimental to safety, health, or morals; and

(3)(A) Not to exceed, for such part of the property or project as may be attributable to dwelling use (excluding exterior land improvements as defined by the Secretary), $38,025 per family unit without a bedroom, $42,120 per family unit with one bedroom, $50,310 per family unit with two bedrooms, $62,010 per family unit with three bedrooms, and $70,200 per family unit with four or more bedrooms, or not to exceed $17,460 per space; except that as to projects to consist of elevator type structures the Secretary may in his discretion, increase the dollar amount limitations per family unit to not to exceed $43,875 per family unit without a bedroom, $49,140 per family unit with one bedroom, $60,255 per family unit with two bedrooms, $75,465 per family unit with three bedrooms, and $85,328 per family unit with four or more bedrooms, as the case may be, to compensate for the higher costs incident to the construction of elevator-type structures of sound standards of construction and design;

(B) the Secretary may, by regulation, increase any of the dollar amount limitations in subparagraph (A) (as such limitations may have been adjusted in accordance with section 1712a of this title) by not to exceed 170 percent in any geographical area where the Secretary finds that cost levels so require and by not to exceed 170 percent, or 215 percent in high cost areas, where the Secretary determines it necessary on a project-by-project basis, but in no case may any such increase exceed 90 percent where the Secretary determines that a mortgage purchased or to be purchased by the Government National Mortgage Association in implementing its special assistance functions under section 1720 1 of this title (as such section existed immediately before November 30, 1983) is involved. Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the amount which may be insured under this section may be increased by up to 20 percent if such increase is necessary to account for the increased cost of the project due to the installation therein of a solar energy system (as defined in subparagraph (3) of the last paragraph of section 1703(a) of this title) or residential energy conservation measures (as defined in section 8211(11)(A) through (G) and (I) of title 42) 1 in cases where the Secretary determines that such measures are in addition to those required under the minimum property standards and will be cost-effective over the life of the measure.


The mortgage shall provide for complete amortization by periodic payments (unless otherwise approved by the Secretary) within such term as the Secretary shall prescribe, and shall bear interest at such rate as may be agreed upon by the mortgagor and the mortgagee. The Secretary may consent to the release of a part or parts of the mortgaged property from the lien of the mortgage upon such terms and conditions as he may prescribe and the mortgage may provide for such release. No mortgage shall be accepted for insurance under this section or section 1715a 1 of this title unless the Secretary finds that the property or project, with respect to which the mortgage is executed, is economically sound. Such property or project may include five or more family units and may include such commercial and community facilities as the Secretary deems adequate to serve the occupants.

(d) Premium, appraisal, and inspection charges

The Secretary shall collect a premium charge for the insurance of mortgages under this section which shall be payable annually in advance by the mortgagee, either in cash or in debentures issued by the Secretary under any subchapter and section of this chapter, except debentures of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, or of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund at par plus accrued interest. In addition to the premium charge herein provided for the Secretary is authorized to charge and collect such amounts as he may deem reasonable for the appraisal of a property or project offered for insurance and for the inspection of such property or project during construction: Provided, That such charges for appraisal and inspection shall not aggregate more than 1 per centum of the original principal face amount of the mortgage.

(e) Adjusted premium charge on payment of mortgage

In the event that the principal obligation of any mortgage accepted for insurance under this section is paid in full prior to the maturity date, the Secretary is authorized in his discretion to require the payment by the mortgagee of an adjusted premium charge in such amount as the Secretary determines to be equitable, but not in excess of the aggregate amount of the premium charges that the mortgagee would otherwise have been required to pay if the mortgage had continued to be insured until such maturity date.

(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, §1108(e)(3), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 504

(g) Payment of insurance after default

The failure of the mortgagor to make any payment due under or provided to be paid by the terms of a mortgage insured under this section shall be considered a default under such mortgage and, if such default continues for a period of thirty days, the mortgagee shall be entitled to receive the benefits of the insurance as hereinafter provided, upon assignment, transfer, and delivery to the Secretary, within a period and in accordance with rules and regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of (1) all rights and interests arising under the mortgage so in default; (2) all claims of the mortgagee against the mortgagor or others, arising out of the mortgage transactions; (3) all policies of title or other insurance or surety bonds or other guaranties and any and all claims thereunder; (4) any balance of the mortgage loans not advanced to the mortgagor; (5) any cash or property held by the mortgagee, or to which it is entitled, as deposits made for the account of the mortgagor and which have not been applied in reduction of the principal of the mortgage indebtedness; and (6) all records, documents, books, papers, and accounts relating to the mortgage transactions. Upon such assignment, transfer, and delivery the obligation of the mortgagee to pay the premium charges for mortgage insurance shall cease, and the Secretary shall issue to the mortgagee a certificate of claim as provided in subsection (h), and debentures having a par value equal to the original principal face amount of the mortgage plus such amount as the mortgagee may have paid for (A) taxes, special assessments, and water rates, which are liens prior to the mortgage; (B) insurance on the property; and (C) reasonable expenses for the completion and preservation of the property and any mortgage insurance premiums paid after default, less the sum of (i) that part of the amount of the principal obligation that has been repaid by the mortgagor, (ii) an amount equivalent to 1 per centum of the unpaid amount of such principal obligation, and (iii) any net income received by the mortgagee from the property: Provided, That the mortgagee in the event of a default under the mortgage may, at its option and in accordance with regulations of, and in a period to be determined by, the Secretary, proceed to foreclose on and obtain possession of or otherwise acquire such property from the mortgagor after default, and receive the benefits of the insurance as herein provided, upon (1) the prompt conveyance to the Secretary of title to the property which meets the requirements of the rules and regulations of the Secretary in force at the time the mortgage was insured and which is evidenced in the manner prescribed by such rules and regulations, and (2) the assignment to him of all claims of the mortgagee against the mortgagor or others, arising out of the mortgage transaction or foreclosure proceedings, except such claims that may have been released with the consent of the Secretary. Upon such conveyance and assignment, the obligation of the mortgagee to pay the premium charges for insurance shall cease and the mortgagee shall be entitled to receive the benefits of the insurance as provided in this subsection, except that in such event the 1 per centum deduction, set out in (ii) hereof, shall not apply. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, upon receipt, after September 2, 1964, of an application for insurance benefits on a mortgage insured under this chapter, the Secretary may terminate the mortgagee's obligation to pay premium charges on the mortgage.

(h) Certificate of claim; division of excess proceeds

The certificate of claim issued under this section shall be for an amount which the Secretary determines to be sufficient, when added to the face value of the debentures issued and the cash adjustment paid to the mortgagee, to equal the amount which the mortgagee would have received if, on the date of the assignment, transfer and delivery to the Secretary provided for in subsection (g), the mortgagor had extinguished the mortgage indebtedness by payment in full of all obligations under the mortgage and a reasonable amount for necessary expenses incurred by the mortgagee in connection with the foreclosure proceedings, or the acquisition of the mortgaged property otherwise, and the conveyance thereof to the Secretary. Each such certificate of claim shall provide that there shall accrue to the holder of such certificate with respect to the face amount of such certificate, an increment at the rate of 3 per centum per annum which shall not be compounded. If the net amount realized from the mortgage, and all claims in connection therewith, so assigned, transferred, and delivered, and from the property covered by such mortgage and all claims in connection with such property, after deducting all expenses incurred by the Secretary in handling, dealing with, acquiring title to, and disposing of such mortgage and property and in collecting such claims, exceeds the face value of the debentures issued and the cash adjustment paid to the mortgagee plus all interest paid on such debentures, such excess shall be divided as follows:

(1) If such excess is greater than the total amount payable under the certificate of claim issued in connection with such property, the Secretary shall pay to the holder of such certificate the full amount so payable, and any excess remaining thereafter shall be retained by the Secretary and credited to the General Insurance Fund; and

(2) If such excess is equal to or less than the total amount payable under such certificate of claim, the Secretary shall pay to the holder of such certificate the full amount of such excess.

(i) Debentures; execution; negotiability; terms; tax exemptions

Debentures issued under this section shall be executed in the name of the General Insurance Fund as obligor, shall be negotiable, and, if in book entry form, transferable, in the manner described by the Secretary in regulations, and shall be dated as of the date of default as determined in subsection (g) of this section, except that debentures issued pursuant to the provisions of section 1715k(f), section 1715l(g), and section 1715x of this title may be dated as of the date the mortgage is assigned (or the property is conveyed) to the Secretary and shall bear interest from such date. They shall bear interest at a rate established by the Secretary pursuant to section 1715o of this title payable semiannually on the 1st day of January and the 1st day of July of each year, and shall mature twenty years after the date thereof. Such debentures as are issued in exchange for mortgages insured after February 3, 1938, shall be exempt, both as to principal and interest, from all taxation (except surtaxes, estate, inheritance, and gift taxes) now or hereafter imposed by the United States, by any Territory, dependency, or possession thereof, or by any State, county, municipality, or local taxing authority. They shall be paid out of the General Insurance Fund which shall be primarily liable therefor, and they shall be fully and unconditionally guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, and, in the case of debentures issued in certificated registered form, such guaranty shall be expressed on the face of the debentures. In the event the General Insurance Fund fails to pay upon demand, when due, the principal of or interest on any debentures so guaranteed, the Secretary of the Treasury shall pay to the holders the amount thereof which is authorized to be appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and thereupon, to the extent of the amount so paid, the Secretary of the Treasury shall succeed to all the rights of the holders of such debentures.

(j) Debentures; form and amounts

Debentures issued under this section—

(1) shall be in such form and amounts;

(2) shall be subject to such terms and conditions;

(3) shall include such provisions for redemption, if any, as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury; and

(4) may be in book entry or certificated registered form, or such other form as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may prescribe in regulations.

(k) Acquisition of property by conveyance or foreclosure

The Secretary is authorized either to (1) acquire possession of and title to any property, covered by a mortgage insured under this section and assigned to him, by voluntary conveyance in extinguishment of the mortgage indebtedness, or (2) institute proceedings for foreclosure on the property covered by any such insured mortgage and prosecute such proceedings to conclusion. The Secretary at any sale under foreclosure may, in his discretion, for the protection of the General Insurance Fund, bid any sum up to but not in excess of the total unpaid indebtedness secured by the mortgage, plus taxes, insurance, foreclosure costs, fees, and other expenses, and may become the purchaser of the property at such sale. In determining the amount to be bid, the Secretary shall act consistently with the goal established in section 1701z–11(a)(1) of this title. The Secretary is authorized to pay from the General Insurance Fund such sums as may be necessary to defray such taxes, insurance, costs, fees, and other expenses in connection with the acquisition or foreclosure of property under this section. Pending such acquisition by voluntary conveyance or by foreclosure, the Secretary is authorized, with respect to any mortgage assigned to him under the provisions of subsection (g), to exercise all the rights of a mortgagee under such mortgage, including the right to sell such mortgage, and to take such action and advance such sums as may be necessary to preserve or protect the lien of such mortgage.

(l) Handling and disposal of property; settlement of claims

Notwithstanding any other provisions of law relating to the acquisition, handling, or disposal of real and other property by the United States, the Secretary shall also have power, for the protection of the interests of the General Insurance Fund, to pay out of the General Insurance Fund all expenses or charges in connection with, and to deal with, complete, reconstruct, rent, renovate, modernize, insure, make contracts for the management of, or establish suitable agencies for the management of, or sell for cash or credit or lease in his discretion, any property acquired by him under this section, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall also have power to pursue to final collection by way of compromise or otherwise all claims assigned and transferred to him in connection with the assignment, transfer, and delivery provided for in this section, and at any time, upon default, to foreclose on any property secured by any mortgage assigned and transferred to or held by him: Provided, That section 6101 of title 41 shall not be construed to apply to any contract for hazard insurance, or to any purchase or contract for services or supplies on account of such property if the amount thereof does not exceed $1,000.

(m) Repealed. Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, §1108(e)(3), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 504

(n) Default or payment; rights of parties

In the event that a mortgage insured under this section becomes in default through failure of the mortgagor to make any payment due under or provided to be paid by the terms of the mortgage and such mortgage continues in default for a period of thirty days, but the mortgagee does not foreclose on or otherwise acquire the property, or does not assign and transfer such mortgage and the credit instrument secured thereby to the Secretary, in accordance with subsection (g), and the Secretary is given written notice thereof, or in the event that the mortgagor pays the obligation under the mortgage in full prior to the maturity thereof, and the mortgagee pays any adjusted premium charge required under the provisions of subsection (e), and the Secretary is given written notice by the mortgagee of the payment of such obligation, the obligation to pay the annual premium charge for insurance shall cease, and all rights of the mortgagee and the mortgagor under this section shall terminate as of the date of such notice.

(o) Reissue of prior insurance

The Secretary, with the consent of the mortgagee and the mortgagor of a mortgage insured under this section prior to February 3, 1938, shall be empowered to reissue such mortgage insurance in accordance with the provisions of this section as amended by the National Housing Act Amendments of 1938, and any such insurance not so reissued shall not be affected by the enactment of such Act.

(p) Repealed. Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, §1108(e)(3), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 504

(q) Repealed. Pub. L. 85–104, title I, §111, July 12, 1957, 71 Stat. 297

(r) Service charge for mortgages assigned to and held by the Secretary

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary is authorized to include in any mortgage insured under any subchapter of this chapter after September 23, 1959, a provision requiring the mortgagor to pay a service charge to the Secretary in the event such mortgage is assigned to and held by the Secretary. Such service charge shall not exceed the amount prescribed by the Secretary for mortgage insurance premiums applicable to such mortgage.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §207, 48 Stat. 1252; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §344(d), 49 Stat. 722; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 16; June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §12, 53 Stat. 807; Mar. 28, 1941, ch. 31, §4(b), 55 Stat. 62; July 1, 1948, ch. 784, §6, 62 Stat. 1209; Aug. 10, 1948, ch. 832, title I, §101 (m–p, r), 62 Stat. 1273, 1274; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §§106–112, 122, 64 Stat. 52–54, 59; Sept. 1, 1951, ch. 378, title VI, §§604(b), 605, 65 Stat. 314; July 14, 1952, ch. 723, §10(a)(2), 66 Stat. 603; June 30, 1953, ch. 170, §5, 67 Stat. 122; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title I, §§112(b), 115–117, 68 Stat. 593–595; Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 783, title I, §102(b), (c), 69 Stat. 635; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title I, §§103, 104(b), (c), 70 Stat. 1092; Pub. L. 85–104, title I, §§108(b), 109–111, July 12, 1957, 71 Stat. 297; Pub. L. 86–70, §10(a), (b), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 142; Pub. L. 86–372, title I, §104, Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 655; Pub. L. 86–624, §6, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 87–70, title VI, §607, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 178; Pub. L. 88–560, title I, §§105(b), 106, 107(a), 108, Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 772, 774, 776; Pub. L. 89–117, title II, §207(a), title XI, §1108(e), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 467, 504; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 90–301, §3(b), May 7, 1968, 82 Stat. 114; Pub. L. 91–152, title I, §§103(a), (b), 113(b), title IV, §403(c)(2), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 380, 383, 395; Pub. L. 93–383, title III, §§303(a), 304(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 676, 677; Pub. L. 94–173, §3, Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 1027; Pub. L. 94–375, §8(a), (b)(1), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1071; Pub. L. 95–557, title III, §311(a), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2098; Pub. L. 95–619, title II, §248(b), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3235; Pub. L. 96–153, title III, §§313(b), 314, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1117; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §§308(c)(1), 310(a), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1640, 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §§338(b), 339B(a), (c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 416, 417; Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(g), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1908; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §§404(b)(4), 407(c), 431(a), 435, 446(a)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1209, 1211, 1220, 1222, 1228; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2232; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §182, title IV, §426(a), (h), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1871, 1915, 1916; Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §§509(a), 516(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3782, 3790; Pub. L. 103–233, title III, §306, Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 373; Pub. L. 107–73, title II, §213(a), Nov. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 676; Pub. L. 107–326, §5(b)(1), Dec. 4, 2002, 116 Stat. 2794; Pub. L. 108–186, title III, §302(b),(c)(1), Dec. 16, 2003, 117 Stat. 2692; Pub. L. 110–161, div. K, title II, §221(1), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2436.)

References in Text

Section 1715a of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), which related to additional housing insurance, was repealed by act June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §13, 53 Stat. 807.

Section 1720 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(B), was repealed by Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §483(a)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1240.

Section 8211 of title 42, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(B), was omitted from the Code pursuant to section 8229 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, which terminated authority under that section on June 30, 1989.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (d), (g) and (r), was in the original "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1701 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The National Housing Act Amendments of 1938, referred to in subsec. (o), is act Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, 42 Stat. 8, as amended, section 3 of which amended this section generally. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701a of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (l), "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 110–161 substituted "170 percent" for "140 percent" after "not to exceed" in two places and "215 percent in high cost areas" for "170 percent in high cost areas".

2003—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 108–186, §302(c)(1), substituted "$17,460" for "$11,250".

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 108–186, §302(b), substituted "140 percent in" for "110 percent in" and inserted ", or 170 percent in high cost areas," after "and by not to exceed 140 percent".

2002—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 107–326, §5(b)(1)(B), which directed substitution of "(B) the Secretary may, by regulation, increase any of the dollar amount limitations in subparagraph (A) (as such limitations may have been adjusted in accordance with section 1712a of this title)" for "and accept that the Secretary" through "in this paragraph", was executed by making the substitution for "and except that the Secretary may, by regulation, increase any of the foregoing dollar amount limitations contained in this paragraph", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 107–326, §5(b)(1)(A), inserted subpar. (A) designation after "(3)".

2001—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 107–73 substituted "$38,025", "$42,120", "$50,310", "$62,010", and "$70,200" for "$30,420", "$33,696", "$40,248", "$49,608", and "$56,160", respectively, "$11,250" for "$9,000", and "$43,875", "$49,140", "$60,255", "$75,465", and "$85,328" for "$35,100", "$39,312", "$48,204", "$60,372", and "$68,262", respectively.

1994—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–233 substituted "$56,160" for "$59,160".

1992—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–550, §509(a), substituted "$30,420", "$33,696", "$40,248", "$49,608", and "$59,160" for "$25,350", "$28,080", "$33,540", "$41,340", and "$46,800", respectively, and "$35,100", "$39,312", "$48,204", "$60,372", and "$68,262" for "$29,250", "$32,760", "$40,170", "$50,310", and "$56,885", respectively.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–550, §516(b)(1), in second sentence, substituted "issue to the mortgagee a certificate of claim as provided in subsection (h), and debentures having a par value" for ", subject to the cash adjustment provided for in subsection (j), issue to the mortgagee a certificate of claim as provided in subsection (h), and debentures having a total face value".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–550, §516(b)(2), (3), in first sentence, substituted "shall be negotiable, and, if in book entry form, transferable, in the manner described by the Secretary in regulations" for "shall be signed by the Secretary, by either his written or engraved signature, shall be negotiable", and in fourth sentence substituted "and, in the case of debentures issued in certificated registered form, such guaranty" for "and such guaranty".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–550, §516(b)(4), added subsec. (j) and struck out former subsec. (j) which read as follows: "Debentures issued under this section shall be in such form and denominations in multiples of $50, shall be subject to such terms and conditions, and shall include such provision for redemption, if any, as may be prescribed by the Secretary with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, and may be in coupon or registered form. Any difference between the amount of debentures to which the mortgagee is entitled under this section, and the aggregate face value of the debentures issued, not to exceed $50, shall be adjusted by the payment of cash by the Secretary to the mortgagee from the General Insurance Fund."

1988—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–242, §426(a), (h), substituted "$25,350", "$28,080", "$33,540", "$41,340", and "$46,800" for "$19,500", "$21,600", "$25,800", "$31,800", and "$36,000", respectively, and "$29,250", "$32,760", "$40,170", "$50,310", and "$56,885" for "$22,500", "$25,200", "$30,900", "$38,700", and "$43,758", respectively, and substituted "not to exceed 110 percent in any geographical area where the Secretary finds that cost levels so require and by not to exceed 140 percent where the Secretary determines it necessary on a project-by-project basis, but in no case may any such increase exceed 90 percent where the Secretary determines that a mortgage purchased or to be purchased by the Government National Mortgage Association in implementing its special assistance functions under section 1720 of this title (as such section existed immediately before November 30, 1983) is involved" for "not to exceed 75 per centum in any geographical area where he finds that cost levels so require, except that, where the Secretary determines it necessary on a project by project basis, the foregoing dollar amount limitations contained in this paragraph may be exceeded by not to exceed 90 per centum (by not to exceed 140 per centum where the Secretary determines that a mortgage other than one purchased or to be purchased under section 1720 of this title by the Government National Mortgage Association in implementing its special assistance functions is involved) in such an area."

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 100–242, §182, inserted provisions after second sentence directing the Secretary to act consistently with the goal established in section 1701z–11(a)(1) of this title in determining the amount to be bid.

1984—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–479 substituted "section 1715k(f), section 1715l(g), and section 1715x of this title" for "section 1715k(f), 1715l(g), and section 1715x of this title".

1983—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 98–181, §407(c), inserted "American Samoa," after "Pacific Islands,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–181, §431(a)(3), in first undesignated par. following par. (2) struck out "and directed" after "therefore, authorized".

Pub. L. 98–181, §435, in second undesignated par. following par. (2) substituted "the Secretary may not insure any mortgage under this section (except a mortgage with respect to a manufactured home park designed exclusively for occupancy by elderly persons)" for "no mortgage shall be insured hereunder".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–181, §431(a)(1), (2), substituted provision permitting the Secretary discretionary authority to regulate rents and other charges for such period or periods as the Secretary, in his discretion, may require for provision which required the Secretary to regulate rents and other charges until the termination of all obligations of the Secretary under the insurance and during such further time as the Secretary was owner, holder, or reinsurer of the mortgage, and substituted "any such regulations and restrictions" for "the regulations and restrictions".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–181, §446(a), which directed that "(unless otherwise approved by the Secretary)" be inserted after "periodic payments" in first undesignated par. of par. (3), was executed to the undesignated par. following par. (3) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 98–181, §404(b)(4), which directed the substitution of provision that the interest rate for the mortgage be such a rate as agreed upon by the mortgagor and mortgagee for provision that the rate of interest, exclusive of premium charges for insurance, not exceed 5¼ per centum per annum on the amount of the principal obligation outstanding at any time, or not exceed such per centum per annum not in excess of 6 per centum per annum as the Secretary finds necessary to meet the mortgage market in first undesignated par. of par. (3), was executed to the undesignated par. following par. (3) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1982—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–377 inserted "(by not to exceed 140 per centum where the Secretary determines that a mortgage other than one purchased or to be purchased under section 1720 of this title by the Government National Mortgage Association in implementing its special assistance functions is involved)" after "90 per centum".

1981—Subsec. (a)(1), (6). Pub. L. 97–35, §339B(c), provided that for purposes of section 308(c)(1) of Pub. L. 96–399, the terms "mobile home" and "manufactured home" shall be deemed to include the terms "mobile homes" and "manufactured homes", respectively. See 1980 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–35, §§338(b), 339B(a), substituted "$9,000" for "$8,000" and made minor changes in nomenclature.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1), (6). Pub. L. 96–399, §308(c)(1), which directed substitution of "manufactured home" for "mobile home" wherever appearing, was executed by substituting "manufactured home" for "mobile home" and "manufactured homes" for "mobile homes" wherever appearing pursuant to Pub. L. 97–35, §339B(c). See 1981 Amendment note above.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 96–399, §310(a), inserted provisions relating to residential energy conservation measures.

1979—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 96–153, §§313(b), 314, in first sentence of first unnumbered par. substituted "$8,000" for "$3,900", "75 per centum" for "50 per centum" and inserted exception that where the Secretary determines it necessary on a project by project basis, the dollar amount limitations may be exceeded by not to exceed 90 per centum in such an area.

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–557 substituted "may include five" for "may include eight" in concluding par.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 95–619 provided that the amount insurable under this section could be increased by up to 20 per centum if such increase were necessary to account for the increased cost of a residence due to the installation of a solar energy system.

1976—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 94–375 substituted "50 per centum in any geographical area" for "75 per centum in any geographical area", "$19,500" for "$13,000", "$21,600" for "$18,000", "$25,800" for "$21,500", "$31,800" for "$26,500", "$36,000" for "$30,000", "$3,900" for "$3,250", "$22,500" for "$15,000", "$25,200" for "$21,000", "$30,900" for "$25,750", "$38,700" for "$32,250", and "$43,758" for "$36,465".

1975—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 94–173 raised from 45 per centum to 75 per centum the amount by which any dollar limitation may, by regulation, be increased.

1974—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 93–383, §304(a)(1), struck out par. (1) which set forth limits on principal obligation of not to exceed $20,000,000, or not to exceed $50,000,000 if executed by a mortgagor under subsec. (b)(1) of this section.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 93–383, §§303(a), 304(a)(2), substituted "$3,250" for "$2,500", "$13,000" for "$9,900", "$15,000" for "$11,550", "$18,000" for "$13,750", "$21,000" for "$16,500", "$21,500" for "$16,500", "$25,750" for "$19,800", "$26,500" for "$20,350", "$30,000" for "$23,100", "$32,250" for "$24,750", and "$36,465" for "$28,050", and struck out limitation of $1,000,000 per mortgage for trailer courts or parks.

1969—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–152, §103(a)(1)(A), substituted "mobile homes" for "trailer coach mobile dwellings".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 91–152, §103(a)(1)(B), (C), substituted "mobile home court" for "trailer court" and "mobile homes" for "trailer coach mobile dwellings".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 91–152, §403(c)(2), inserted "the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands," after "Guam,".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 91–152, §§103(a)(2), (b), 113(b)(1), (2), substituted "$2,500 per space or $1,000,000 per mortgage for mobile home courts or parks" for "$1,800 per space or $500,000 per mortgage for trailer courts or parks", "$9,900" for "$9,000", "$11,550" for "$10,500", "$13,750" for "$12,500," "$16,500" from "$15,000" wherever appearing therein, "$19,800" for "$18,000", "$20,350" for "$18,500", "$23,100" for "$21,000", "$24,750" for "$22,500", and "$28,050" for "$25,500".

1968—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 90–301 limited interest rate on mortgages to such per centum per annum not in excess of 6 per centum as the Secretary finds necessary to meet the mortgage market.

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing in subsecs. (b), (b)(2), (c)(2), (3), (d), (e), (g), (h), (h)(1), (h)(2), (h)(2)(i), (j) to (l), (n), (o), and (r).

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(e)(4), substituted "General Insurance Fund" for "Housing Fund".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 89–117, §207(a), substituted "$18,500 per family unit with three bedrooms, and $21,000 per family unit with four or more bedrooms" for "and $18,500 per family unit with three or more bedrooms" and "$22,500 per family unit with three bedrooms, and $25,000 per family unit with four or more bedrooms" for "and $22,500 per family unit with three or more bedrooms".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(e)(1), (2), removed reference to collection of premium charges for the insurance of mortgages under section 1715a of this title and substituted "debentures issued by the Commissioner under any subchapter and section of this chapter, except debentures of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, or of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund" for "debentures of the Housing Insurance Fund issued by the Commissioner under this subchapter".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(e)(3), repealed subsec. (f) which created the Housing Insurance Fund.

Subsecs. (h) to (l). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(e)(4), substituted "General Insurance Fund" for "Housing Insurance Fund" and "Housing Fund" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(e)(3), repealed subsec. (m) which provided for credits and charges in the Housing Insurance Fund.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 89–117, §1108(e)(3), repealed subsec. (p) which provided for the disposition of surplus moneys in the Housing Insurance Fund and the investment of such moneys.

1964—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 88–560, §106, substituted "Provided, That this limitation shall not apply" for "Provided, That except with respect to a mortgage executed by a mortgagor coming within the provisions of subsection (b)(1) of this section or a mortgage on a trailer court or park, such mortgage shall not exceed the amount which the Commissioner estimates will be the cost of the completed physical improvements on the property or project exclusive of public utilities and streets and organization and legal expenses: Provided, further, That this limitation shall not apply" before "to mortgages on housing in Alaska."

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 88–560, §107(a), changed limits on mortgages for property or project attributable to dwelling use from "$2,500 per room (or $9,000 per family unit if the number of rooms in such property or project is less than four per family unit)" to "$9,000 per family unit without a bedroom, $12,500 per family unit with one bedroom, $15,000 per family unit with two bedrooms, and $18,500 per family unit with three or more bedrooms", changed such mortgage limits on project consisting of elevator-type structures from a sum "of $2,500 per room to not exceed $3,000 per room and the dollar amount limitation of $9,000 per family unit to not exceed $9,400 per family unit" to dollar amount limitations "per family unit to not to exceed $10,500 per family unit without a bedroom, $15,000 per family unit with one bedroom, $18,000 per family unit with two bedrooms, and $22,500 per family unit with three or more bedrooms", and substituted provision authorizing an increase "by not to exceed 45 per centum" of any of such limits because of cost levels for former provision authorizing such an increase "by not to exceed $1,250 per room without regard to the number of rooms being less than four, or four or more".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 88–560, §105(b), inserted provision for termination of mortgagee's obligation to pay premium charges on the mortgage.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 88–560, §108, struck out second sentence providing for mandatory acquisition or foreclosure within one year of multifamily project in default.

1961—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 87–70, §607(1), struck out provisions from first paragraph which limited the Commissioner's authority to insure mortgages to property held by private corporations, associations, cooperative societies which are legal agents of owner-occupants, or trusts formed or created for the purpose of rehabilitating slum or blighted areas, or providing housing for rent or sale.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 87–70, §607(2), (3), inserted "(excluding exterior land improvements as defined by the Commissioner)" and substituted "$1,800 per space" for "$1,500 per space".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 87–70, §607(4), permitted debentures issued pursuant to the provisions of section 1715k(f), 1715l(g), and 1715x of this title to be dated as of the date the mortgage is assigned (or the property is conveyed) to the Commissioner.

1960—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 86–624 struck out "Hawaii," before "Puerto Rico".

1959—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 86–70, §10(a), struck out "Alaska," before "Hawaii".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–372, §104(e)(1), struck out exceptions that related to housing for elderly persons from the two unnumbered paragraphs following par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–372, §104(c), (e)(2), struck out provisions that authorized insurance of mortgages not more than $8,100 if the entire property or project was specially designed for the use and occupancy of elderly persons and the mortgagor is a financially qualified nonprofit organization, and substituted in the unnumbered paragraph following par. (3) "5¼ per centum per annum" for "4½ per centum per annum".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 86–372, §104(a), substituted "$20,000,000" for "$12,500,000".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 86–70, §10(b), substituted "Alaska" for "the Territory of Alaska".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 86–372, §104(b), substituted "$2,500" for "$2,250" in two places, "$9,000" for "$8,100" in two places, "$3,000" for "$2,700", "$9,400" for "$8,400", "$1,250 per room" for "$1,000 per room", "$1,500 per space" for "$1,000 per space", and "$500,000" for "$300,000".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 86–372, §104(e)(3), substituted "sections 1715a, 1715e, 1715v, and 1715w of this title" for "sections 1715a and 1715e of this title" in two places.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 86–372, §104(d), added subsec. (r).

1957—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–104, §110, inserted in unnumbered paragraph following par. (3), "(or $8,400 per family unit in the case of projects to consist of elevator-type structures)" and "and may permit single elderly persons to use and occupy such units".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 85–104, §109, struck out "per room" after "limitations", and inserted "without regard to the number of rooms being less than four, or four or more,".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 85–104, §108(b), substituted in second sentence, "established by the Commissioner pursuant to section 1715o of this title" for "determined by the Commissioner, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, at the time the mortgage was insured, but not to exceed 3 per centum per annum".

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 85–104, §111, repealed provisions which related to insurance of mortgages by Federal National Mortgage Association. See section 1715e of this title.

1956—Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 7, 1956, §104(b), inserted "(except provisions relating to housing for elderly persons)" before "to take" in paragraph following par. (2), and inserted "(except with respect to housing designed for elderly persons, with occupancy preference therefor, as provided in the paragraph following paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of this section)" after "hereunder" in second unnumbered par. following par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 7, 1956, §104(c), substituted provisions of unnumbered par. following par. (3) that in certain housing for elderly persons, the mortgage may involve a principal obligation of $8,100 per family unit and 90 percent of the replacement cost, for former provisions that if the number of bedrooms is equal or exceeds two per family unit, and the principal obligation does not exceed $7,200 per family unit, the mortgage may involve a principal obligation not in excess of 90 percent of the value of the property.

Subsec. (c)(2). Act Aug. 7, 1956, §103(a), substituted "90 per centum" for "80 per centum".

Subsec. (c)(3). Act Aug. 7, 1956, §103(b), increased limits on mortgages from $2,000 per room to $2,250 per room, from $7,200 to $8,100 where the number of rooms in the project is less than 4 per family unit, from $2,400 to $2,700 per room and $7,500 to $8,400 per family unit for elevator type structures, and inserted provision allowing Commissioner to increase dollar amount limitations by not to exceed $1,000 per room.

1955—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 11, 1955, §102(b)(1), (2), inserted provisions relating to trailer coach mobile dwellings in par. (1)(B), and included space in a trailer court or park in the definition of "rental housing" in par. (6).

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 11, 1955, §102(b)(5), amended last paragraph to authorize insurance of mortgages on rental properties having eight or more family units.

Subsec. (c)(1). Act Aug. 11, 1955, §102(c), increased from $5,000,000 to $12,500,000 the limitation on the maximum amount of a mortgage.

Subsec. (c)(2). Act Aug. 11, 1955, §102(b)(3), inserted "or mortgage on a trailer court or park".

Subsec. (c)(3). Act Aug. 11, 1955, §102(b)(4), inserted "or not to exceed $1,000 per space or $300,000 per mortgage for trailer courts or parks".

1954—Subsec. (c)(2). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §115(1), (2), inserted the proviso relating to mortgage insurance with respect to construction in slum or blighted areas, and inserted the reference to Guam.

Subsec. (c)(3). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §115(3), struck out the $10,000 per family-unit limitation, and inserted provisions permitting an increase in the limitations of $2,000 per room and $7,200 per family unit (less than four rooms) to $2,400, and $7,500, respectively, for elevator-type structures.

Subsec. (d). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §116, inserted in first sentence "of the Housing Insurance Fund" after "debentures".

Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §117, at end of first sentence, inserted provision relating to inclusion of foreclosure costs, costs of acquisition, and costs of conveyance to the Commissioner.

Subsec. (i). Act Aug. 2, 1954, §112(b), substituted in second sentence a twenty-year period for the ten-year period, with respect to the maturity of debentures.

1953—Subsec. (c). Act June 30, 1953, §5(a), added par. following par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(2). Act June 30, 1953, §5(a), substituted "80 per centum of the estimated value of the property or project (when the proposed improvements are completed)" for limitation of 90 per centum of value attributable to dwelling use up to $7,000 per family unit, 60 per centum of such value over $7,000 and up to $10,000, and 90 per centum of value attributable to non-dwelling use.

Subsec. (c)(3). Act June 30, 1953, §5(a), substituted provisions for maximum mortgage amount of $2,000 per room (or $7,200 per family unit if the number of rooms does not equal or exceed four per family unit), up to $10,000 per family unit, for provisions which fixed a limitation of $8,100 per family unit (or $7,200 if the number of rooms was less than four per family unit), provided for amortization of the mortgage and rate of interest, provided for consent to release of part of mortgaged property, prohibited acceptance of mortgages on properties not economically sound, and provided for inclusion with mortgaged properties adequate commercial and community facilities.

Subsec. (i). Act June 30, 1953, §5(b), substituted in second sentence, "ten" years for "twenty" years.

1952—Subsec. (a)(7). Act July 14, 1952, inserted "Guam," after "District of Columbia,".

1951—Subsec. (c)(2). Act Sept. 1, 1951, §605, in cl. (i), substituted "of the property or project attributable to dwelling use" for "of the property or project"; in cl. (ii), inserted "and" after "unit"; and added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (c)(3). Act Sept. 1, 1951, §605, substituted "four per family unit" for "four and one-half per family unit".

Subsec. (i). Act Sept. 1, 1951, §604(b), substituted in second sentence the provision that such debentures shall mature twenty years after the date thereof, for the provision that they should mature three years after the first day of July following the maturity date of the mortgage in exchange for which the debentures were issued.

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, §122, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §106, added last two unnumbered pars.

Subsec. (c)(2). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §107(1), provided that the mortgage would not exceed 90% of the first $7,000 estimated value of the property and 60% of such estimated value in excess of $7,000 and not in excess of $10,000.

Subsec. (c)(3). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §107(2), (3), provided a dollar mortgage limitation of $8,100 per family unit or $7,200 per family unit if the number of rooms did not equal or exceed four and one-half per family unit, and struck out ", except that with respect to mortgages insured under the provisions of the second proviso of paragraph (2) of this subsection, which mortgages are authorized to have a maturity of not exceeding forty years from the date of insurance of the mortgage, such interest rate shall not exceed 4 per centum per annum" in first sentence of last par.

Subsec. (d). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §108, struck out "one-half of" before "1 per centum" in proviso.

Subsec. (f). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §109, inserted "and section 1715e" before "of this title" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §110, inserted "and any mortgage insurance premiums paid after default" after "preservation of the property" in cl. (C) of last sentence, and substituted proviso of last sentence for the one reading "That the mortgagee in event of a default under the mortgage, may, at its option and in accordance with rules and regulations to be prescribed by the Commissioner, proceed to foreclose on or otherwise acquire the property as provided in the case of a mortgage which is in default under section 1715a of this title and receive the benefits of the insurance as provided in such section".

Subsec. (h). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §111, substituted "under this section" after "claim issued" in first sentence for "by the Commissioner to any mortgagee upon the assignment of the mortgage to the Commissioner".

Subsec. (i). Act Apr. 20, 1950, §112, struck out first sentence and substituted "Debentures issued under this section shall be executed in the name of the Housing Insurance Fund as obligor, shall be signed by the Commissioner by either his written or engraved signature, shall be negotiable, and shall be dated as of the date of default as determined in subsection (g) of this section and shall bear interest from such date".

1948—Subsec. (b)(1) Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(m), substituted "restricted by Federal or State laws or regulations of State banking or insurance departments" for "formed under and restricted by Federal or State housing laws".

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(n)(1)–(3), amended first sentence generally, inserted "except that with respect to mortgages insured under the provisions of the second proviso of paragraph numbered (2) of this subsection, which mortgages are hereby authorized to have a maturity of not exceeding forty years from the date of the insurance of the mortgage, such interest rate shall not exceed 4 per centum per annum" at end of second sentence, and inserted last sentence.

Act July 1, 1948, inserted proviso.

Subsec. (g). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(o), substituted, in cl. (ii), "(1)" for "(2)".

Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(p), substituted "retained by the Housing Administrator and credited to the Housing Insurance Fund" for "paid to the mortgagor of such property".

Subsec. (q). Act Aug. 10, 1948, §101(r), added subsec. (q).

1941—Subsec. (a)(1). Act Mar. 28, 1941, §4(b)(1), struck out "district or territory".

Subsec. (a)(7). Act Mar. 28, 1941, §4(b)(2), added par. (7).

1939—Subsec. (c). Act June 3, 1939, amended first sentence generally.

1938—Act of Feb. 3, 1938, amended section generally.

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, inserted "property" before "project" in last sentence.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §431(c)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1220, provided that: "The amendments made in this section [amending this section and section 1715y of this title] shall not apply with respect to mortgages insured by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1983]."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by section 112(b) of act Aug. 2, 1954, as not applicable in any case where the mortgage involved was insured or the commitment for the insurance was issued prior to Aug. 2, 1954, see section 112(e) of that act, set out as a note under section 1710 of this title.

Repeals

The directory language of, but not the amendment made by, Pub. L. 90–301, §3(b), May 7, 1968, 82 Stat. 114, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §404(a)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1208.

Regulations

Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §509(h), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3783, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue regulations necessary to carry out the amendments made by subsections (a) through (g) [amending this section and sections 1715e, 1715k, 1715l, 1715v, and 1715y of this title], which shall take effect not later than the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992]."

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Delegation of Processing of Mortgage Insurance

Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §328, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4138, as amended by Pub. L. 102–242, title II, §226, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2307, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—Not later than the expiration of the 60-day period beginning on the date of enactment this Act [Nov. 28, 1990], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall implement a system of mortgage insurance for mortgages insured under section 207, 221, 223, 232, or 241 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1713, 1715l, 1715n, 1715w, 1715z–6] that delegates processing functions to selected approved mortgagees or other individuals and entities expressly approved by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Under such system, the Secretary shall retain the authority to approve rents, expenses, property appraisals, and mortgage amounts and to execute a firm commitment.

"(b) Full Insurance Program.—Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Secretary shall maintain a viable system for full insurance programs under such Act [this chapter] under which all processing functions are performed by officers and employees of the Department of Housing and Urban Development."

Limitation on Number of Dwelling Units With Mortgages Not Providing for Complete Amortization

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §446(f)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1228, provided that: "The aggregate number of dwelling units included in properties covered by mortgages insured pursuant to the authority granted in the amendments made by this section [amending sections 1713, 1715k, 1715l, and 1715v of this title] in any fiscal year may not exceed 10,000."

Amendments to Provisions for Family Unit Limits on Rental Housing; Equitable Application of Such Amendments or Pre-Amendment Provisions to Projects Submitted for Consideration Prior to September 2, 1964

Pub. L. 88–560, title I, §107(g), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 776, as amended by Pub. L. 90–19, §21(a), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 25, provided that if the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determined that it would be inequitable to apply the provisions of the National Housing Act as amended by section 107 [amending sections 1713, 1715e, 1715k, 1715l, 1715v, and 1748h–2 of this title] to a project which had been submitted for his consideration prior to Sept. 2, 1964, such provisions could be applied to such project without regard to the amendments made by section 107.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1714. Taxation

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to exempt any real property acquired and held by the Secretary under this subchapter from taxation by any State or political subdivision thereof, to the same extent, according to its value, as other real property is taxed.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §208, 48 Stat. 1252; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 22; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §122, 64 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17.)

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner".

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator".

1938—Act Feb. 3, 1938, corrected error in spelling of "subdivision".

§1715. Statistical and economic surveys

The Secretary shall cause to be made in connection with the insurance programs such statistical surveys and legal and economic studies as he shall deem useful to guide the development of housing and the creation of a sound mortgage market in the United States, and shall publish from time to time the results of such surveys and studies. Expenses of such studies and surveys, and expenses of publication and distribution of the results of such studies and surveys, shall be charged as a general expense of such insurance fund or funds, as the Secretary shall determine.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §209, 48 Stat. 1252; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 22; Mar. 28, 1941, ch. 31, §4(c), 55 Stat. 62; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §122, 64 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–70, title VI, §612(d), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 181; Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, §1108(f), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 504; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), (f), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17, 18.)

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing and inserted "in connection with the insurance programs" after "made".

1965Pub. L. 89–117 struck out "or account or accounts," after "fund or funds,".

1961Pub. L. 87–70 substituted "shall be charged as a general expense of such insurance fund or funds, or account or accounts, as the Commissioner shall determine" for "shall be charged as a general expense of the Fund, the Housing Fund, and the Defense Housing Insurance Fund in such proportion as the Commissioner shall determine".

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator" wherever appearing.

1941—Act Mar. 28, 1941, substituted "Fund, the Housing Fund, and the Defense Housing Insurance Fund" for "Fund and the Housing Fund".

1938—Act Feb. 3, 1938, inserted "and the Housing Fund in such proportion as the Administrator shall determine" after "Fund".

§1715a. Repealed. June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §13, 53 Stat. 807

Section, act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §210, as added by act Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 22, related to additional housing insurance.

Applications Prior to Repeal

Act June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §13, 53 Stat. 807, which repealed this section, also provided: "That the Administrator is authorized to insure under said section [this section] any mortgage for the insurance of which an application has been filed with him prior to the effective date of this act [June 3, 1939]."

§1715b. Rules and regulations

The Secretary is authorized and directed to make such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §211, as added Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 23; amended Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §122, 64 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17.)

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner".

1950—Act Apr. 20, 1950, substituted "Commissioner" for "Administrator".

Regulations

Pub. L. 98–479, title I, §104(f), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2226, required Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, not later than Oct. 31, 1984, to issue regulations to carry out amendments made to section 1715z–7 of this title by section 436 of Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act of 1983, Pub. L. 98–181, title I [titles I–V].

§1715c. Labor standards

(a) The Secretary shall not insure under section 1713 or section 1715a of this title or under section 1743 of this title pursuant to any application for insurance filed subsequent to the effective date of this section, or under section 1715e of this title, or under subchapter VII pursuant to any application filed subsequent to sixty days after April 20, 1950, or under section 1748b or 1748h–2 of this title, or under section 1750g of this title, a mortgage or investment which covers property on which there is or is to be located a dwelling or dwellings, or a housing project, the construction of which was or is to be commenced subsequent to such date, unless the principal contractor files a certificate or certificates (at such times, in course of construction or otherwise, as the Secretary may prescribe) certifying that the laborers and mechanics employed in the construction of the dwelling or dwellings or the housing project involved have been paid not less than the wages prevailing in the locality in which the work was performed for the corresponding classes of laborers and mechanics employed on construction of a similar character, as determined by the Secretary of Labor, in accordance with sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40, prior to the beginning of construction and after the date of the filing of the application for insurance. The provisions of this section shall also apply to the insurance of any loan or mortgage under section 1715k or section 1715x of this title which covers property on which there is located a dwelling or dwellings designed principally for residential use for twelve or more families. The provisions of this section shall apply to the insurance under section 1715l of this title of any mortgage described in subsection (d)(3) or (d)(4) and (deeming the term "construction" as used in the first sentence of this subsection to mean rehabilitation) of any mortgage described in subsection (h)(1) or section 1715z(j)(1) of this title which covers property on which there is located a dwelling or dwellings designed principally for residential use for more than eight families; except that compliance with such provisions may be waived by the Secretary—

(1) with respect to mortgages described in such subsection (d)(3) or (d)(4), in cases or classes of cases where laborers or mechanics (not otherwise employed at any time in the construction of the project) voluntarily donate their services without compensation for the purpose of lowering their housing costs in a cooperative housing project and the Secretary determines that any amounts saved thereby are fully credited to the cooperative undertaking the construction, and

(2) with respect to mortgages described in such subsection (h)(1) or section 1715z(j)(1) of this title, in cases or classes of cases where prospective owners of such dwellings, voluntarily donate their services without compensation, or other persons (not otherwise employed at any time in the rehabilitation of the property) voluntarily donate their services without compensation, and the Secretary determines that any amounts saved thereby are fully credited to the nonprofit organization undertaking the rehabilitation.


The provisions of this section shall also apply to the insurance of any mortgage under sections 1715v, 1715w, or 1715z–1 of this title except that compliance with such provisions may be waived by the Secretary in cases or classes of cases where laborers or mechanics, not otherwise employed at any time on the project, voluntarily donate their services without full compensation for the purpose of lowering the costs of construction and the Secretary determines that any amounts thereby saved are fully credited to the nonprofit corporation, association, or other organization undertaking the construction. The provisions of this section shall also apply to the insurance of any mortgage under section 1715y(d) of this title. The provisions of this section shall also apply to the insurance of any mortgage under section 1715z–7 of this title, except that compliance with such provisions may be waived by the Secretary in cases or classes of cases where laborers or mechanics, not otherwise employed at any time on the project, voluntarily donate their services without compensation for the purpose of lowering the costs of construction and the Secretary determines that any amounts thereby saved are fully credited to the nonprofit corporation, association, or other organization undertaking the construction; and each laborer or mechanic employed on any facility covered by a mortgage insured under section 1715z–7 of this title shall receive compensation at a rate not less than one and one-half times his basic rate of pay for all hours worked in any workweek in excess of eight hours in any workday or forty hours in the workweek, as the case may be. The provisions of this section shall also apply to the insurance of any mortgage under subchapter IX–B; and each laborer or mechanic employed on any facility covered by a mortgage insured under such subchapter IX–B shall receive compensation at a rate not less than one and one-half times his basic rate of pay for all hours worked in any workweek in excess of eight hours in any workday or forty hours in the workweek, as the case may be.

(b) The Secretary is authorized to make such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(c) There is authorized to be appropriated for the remainder of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939, and for each fiscal year thereafter, a sum sufficient to meet all necessary expenses of the Department of Labor in making the determinations provided for in subsection (a).

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title II, §212, as added June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §14, 53 Stat. 807; amended May 26, 1942, ch. 319, §10, 56 Stat. 303; Aug. 8, 1949, ch. 403, §3, 63 Stat. 576; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title I, §§113, 122, 64 Stat. 54, 59; Sept. 1, 1951, ch. 378, title II, §203, 65 Stat. 303; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title I, §118, 68 Stat. 595; Pub. L. 86–372, title I, §110(f), title II, §201(b), title VII, §704(c), Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 661, 667, 686; Pub. L. 87–70, title VI, §612(e), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 181; Pub. L. 88–349, §3, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 88–560, title I, §119(b), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 782; Pub. L. 89–117, title I, §102(c), title II, §201(b)(4), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 454, 465; Pub. L. 89–754, title III, §311, title V, §503, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1270, 1277; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a) (3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 90–448, title I, §101(d), title II, §201(b)(1), title XV, §1502, Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 484, 501, 600; Pub. L. 91–609, title I, §110(c), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1772; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §133(d)(2), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2027.)

References in Text

Section 1715a of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), which related to additional housing insurance, was repealed by section 13 of act June 3, 1939, ch. 175, 53 Stat. 807.

Effective date of this section, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means June 3, 1939, the date of enactment of act June 3, 1939.

Subsections (d)(3), (d)(4), and (h)(1), referred to in subsec. (a), are references to such subsections in section 1715l of this title.

Codification

"Sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40" substituted in subsec. (a) for "the Davis-Bacon Act, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–235 struck out seventh sentence which read as follows: "The provisions of this section shall also apply to insurance under subchapter IX–A of this chapter with respect to laborers and mechanics employed in land development financed with the proceeds of any mortgage insured under that subchapter."

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–609 inserted reference to other organization in sixth sentence.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–448 inserted references to sections 1715z(j)(1) and 1715z–1 of this title, and made provisions of this section applicable to the insurance of mortgages under section 1715z–7 of this title, permitted waiver of compliance in cases or classes of cases where laborers or mechanics, not otherwise employed on the project, voluntarily donate their services without compensation for the purpose of lowering costs and savings are fully credited to the nonprofit corporation or association, and required payment of overtime to laborers or mechanics employed on facilities covered by a mortgage insured under section 1715z–7 of this title.

1967—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–754 defined "construction" in third sentence, made provisions of this section applicable to mortgage described in subsec. (h)(1) covering property improved with residential dwellings for use by more than eight families, provided for waiver of requirement of compliance with respect to mortgages described in subsec. (d)(3) or (d)(4) and subsec. (h)(1), made the provisions of this section applicable to insurance of mortgage under subchapter IX–B of this chapter, and provided for overtime compensation for work on group practice facilities covered by mortgage insurance under such subchapter IX–B.

1965—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–117 substituted "described in subsection (d)(3) or (d)(4)" for "described in subsection (d)(3) in the case of a cooperative or a limited profit mortgagor, or in subsection (d)(4) thereof", and applied provisions of this section to insurance under subchapter IX–A of this chapter with respect to laborers and mechanics employe